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1

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux\\/reboil ratios, under

Weiyang Cheong; Paul I. Barton

1999-01-01

2

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 2: Nonlinear separation boundaries  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the analytical tools developed for the middle vessel column (MVC) operated under limiting conditions, analysis of the qualitative dynamics of the MVC in separating an azeotropic mixture is extended to the more realistic case in which the separation boundaries are nonlinear. The differences between batch stripper pot composition boundaries and batch rectifier pot composition being able to cross these pot composition boundaries. On the basis of these insights, operating procedures are developed in which ternary azeotropic mixtures of acetone, benzene, and chloroform can be separated into their constituent pure components, a separation not achievable with either the batch stripper or the batch rectifier. The operating procedures suggested for separating the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform in the MVC are then shown to be the time analogues of sequences of continuous distillation columns that achieve the same separation. On the basis of this space-time analogy, further analogies are developed between the MVC and a continuous column, and it is postulated that many complex separations currently achieved with sequences of continuous columns can also be achieved with a single MVC. Thus, the MVC represents the ultimate multipurpose solvent recovery technology, as it can handle, in a batch multipurpose mode. separations that will otherwise require a dedicated continuous distillation sequence. Finally, the characteristics of perfect MVC batch entrainers, which allow the complete separation of any azeotrope into its constituent pure components in a single MVC, are discussed.

Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-04-01

3

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 3: Model validation  

SciTech Connect

A dimensional time model of the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed in the ABACUSS process modeling environment, and simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical insights developed for the operation of the MVC based on a warped time model of the MVC. The qualitative dynamics of the MVC operated in the presence of linear separation boundaries are validated via simulations conducted on the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, chloroform, and methanol. It is also shown via simulation that the separation results obtained from a column with significant but reasonable amounts of holdup on the trays are not significantly different from a column in which holdup in the trays is assumed to be negligible. Theoretical operating policies for separating the azeotrope of acetone and chloroform using benzene as a batch entrainer are also validated using the ABACUSS model. Finally, the authors explore the advantages and disadvantages of different feasible operating policies for separating a mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform completely into its constituent pure components.

Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-04-01

4

Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux/reboil ratios, under the assumption of linear separation boundaries. It is determined that, under limiting conditions, the distillate product drawn from the MVC is given by the {alpha} limit set of the MVC still pot composition, while the bottoms product drawn from the MVC is given by the {omega} limit set of the MVC still pot composition. The net product composition is determined by taking a convex combination of the two products. The notions of steering the still pot composition, the vector cone of possible motion for the still pot composition, and the equivalency of the MVC to the combined operation of a batch rectifier and a stripper are also explored. The definition of batch distillation regions for the MVC operated at a given value of the middle vessel parameter {lambda}, and the bifurcation of these regions with the variation of {lambda}, are investigated. Lastly, a mathematical model incorporating the concept of warped time is developed for a multivessel column. The MVC can be viewed as a specific case of the multivessel column.

Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1999-04-01

5

Simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations  

SciTech Connect

The computational tools needed for simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations are described. These tools include simple methods to identify the existence of binary and ternary azeotropes and to classify ternary mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. The tools also include more complex methods to compute the phase diagram (or a heterogeneous liquid boiling surface), predict liquid-vapor phase equilibrium, and/or predict liquid-liquid-vapor phase equilibrium for simulations of batch and continuous distillation column operations. Important new features of these tools are the incorporation of a fast and efficient method for test of phase stability in simulation of distillation operations, the ability to handle a large range of mixtures (including mixtures with supercritical compounds), and the ability for computations covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure. On the basis of these tools, simple and consistent design algorithms are developed. The applicability of the design algorithms is verified through process simulation and analysis of the predicted behavior and data from the open literature. Conditions are given for examples illustrating (when and how possible distillation boundaries can be crossed) how multiple steady states can be obtained. Finally, the effect of changes in operating on the dynamic behavior of the azeotropic distillation columns and the sensitivity of design to the prediction of phase equilibria are presented.

Bossen, B.S.; Joergensen, S.B.; Gani, R. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark))

1993-04-01

6

Simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational tools needed for simulation, design, and analysis of azeotropic distillation operations are described. These tools include simple methods to identify the existence of binary and ternary azeotropes and to classify ternary mixtures as homogeneous or heterogeneous. The tools also include more complex methods to compute the phase diagram (or a heterogeneous liquid boiling surface), predict liquid-vapor phase equilibrium,

Bjarne S. Bossen; Sten Bay Joergensen; Rafiqul Gani

1993-01-01

7

Determination of benzene and toluene in soils and plant material by azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

The suspected dumping of gasoline near a garden resulted in the need for a method that would measure trace amounts of benzene and toluene in both soil and plant samples. In this report the authors show that a method involving methanolic extraction and azeotropic distillation is a highly sensitive technique that eliminated the contamination of the GC column by non-volatile material.

Kozloski, R.P.

1985-01-01

8

Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

9

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... condensate sub-cooling. So, if this condensate subsequently requires re-heating both energy and capital have been wasted. If the condensate forms a feed to another distillation column it results in increased energy consumption if that separation...

Polley, G. T.

10

A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less variable. The data also suggest that each extraction method samples a separate component of soil-pore water. Consequently, centrifugation can be used with good success, particularly for efficient sampling of large areas. Azeotropic distillation is more appropriate when strict qualitative and quantitative data for desorption, desorption, and various types of kinetic studies are needed.

Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

2005-12-01

11

A new fully thermally coupled distillation column with postfractionator  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the improvement of distillation column efficiency, a new system of a fully thermally coupled distillation column is proposed and its performance is examined with two industrial processes. The system has an extra column called postfractionator and attached to the main column of an original fully thermally coupled distillation column.The outcome of performance investigation indicates that a 29% energy saving

Young Han Kim

2006-01-01

12

Using thermally coupled reactive distillation columns in biodiesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of methyl dodecanoate (biodiesel) using lauric acid and methanol with a solid acid catalyst of sulfated zirconia is studied by using two distillation sequences. In the first sequence, the methanol recovery column follows the reactive distillation column. In the second sequence, the reactive distillation and methanol recovery columns are thermally coupled. Thermally coupled distillation sequences may consume less energy

Nghi Nguyen; Ya?ar Demirel

2011-01-01

13

Semicontinuous, pressure-swing distillation  

SciTech Connect

The merits of semicontinuous, pressure-swing, azeotropic distillation are examined. In continuous operation, two columns at different pressures are fed streams having compositions on opposite sides of the azeotropic compositions. The distillates, which approach the azeotropic compositions at high and low pressure, are cycled between the columns. In contrast, semicontinuous operation involves only a single distillation column, which has lower investment costs and, when the mixture to be separated is changed, shorter downtimes. An optimal-control algorithm is employed to determine desirable campaigns, and to schedule pressure switch-over policies. Simulation results for the dehydration of tetrahydrofuran, involving a pressure-sensitive azeotrope, indicate that switch-over between steady states occurs quickly with on-spec product removed during 93% of the campaign. The column achieves production rates near 89% of the maximum throughput of a single column in the continuous process and shows superior performance when compared to reverse-batch operation.

Phimister, J.R.; Seider, W.D.

2000-01-01

14

Analysis of finishing reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a novel method to deal with the design and the synthesis of finishing reactive distillation columns with one reactive core, two rectifying sections, and one stripping section is presented. The attention of the work is concentrated on three subjects: (1) the feasibility of a given separation at both finite and total reflux operation; (2) the minimum energy demand operation; (3) the distribution of the reaction between the reactor and the finishing reactive column. The design problem presents the same grade of difficulty as that found in the design of conventional extractive columns. A geometric based method is used to explain key features of reactive distillation. Here, the relation between the reaction yield and the distillate flow rate plays a role similar to that of the entrainer flow in extractive distillation. Hence, special attention is given to the behavior of the profiles inside the rectifying section below the reactive core. The methodology is illustrated using the well-known MTBE case study.

Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Frey, T.; Stichlmair, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik] [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik

1999-01-01

15

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

16

Application of the Firefly and Luus-Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor-liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung-Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems.

Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

2014-01-01

17

COLLOCATION METHODS FOR DISTILLATION DESIGN III: FLEXIBLE COLUMN DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this third paper on collocation methods for distillation design, we explore the use of the collocation models for design of simple distillation columns as well as flexible columns. Solvent recovery plants must deal with a wide range of feeds and still return pure solvents. The design problem we address is a single flexible column within the overall solvent recovery

Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

18

ITER relevant testing of a cryogenic distillation column system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new experimental system has been constructed to test ITER relevant distillation columns and related cryogenic distillation (CD) hardware and control systems. These columns are used to purify tritium in the ITER fuel cycle. The ITER test column reported here has a diameter of about 30 mm and a packed length of approximately 150 cm. It can operate with a

D. G. Bellamy; J. R. Robins; K. B. Woodall; S. K. Sood; P. Gierszewski

1995-01-01

19

Research on Configurations of Thermally Integrated Distillation Column(TIDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Taking a C3 distillation column as the base case, possible configurations for Thermally Integrated Distillation Columns (TIDC)\\u000a are proposed and compared to a conventional column and a column with a vapor recompression system (VRC). Thermal efficiency\\u000a of the TIDC appears to be strongly sensitive to column configuration and a highly efficient asymmetrical configuration with\\u000a stripping section stages thermally interconnected with

Lanyi Sun; Jun Li; Xuenuan Liu; Qingsong Li

2011-01-01

20

Are thermally coupled distillation columns always thermodynamically more efficient for ternary distillations?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic efficiency of five ternary distillation configurations to distill ideal saturated liquids into pour product streams are calculated and compared. A striking result of this study is that for the fully coupled column (Petlyuk) configuration, which is known to have the lowest heat demand for ternary distillation, the range of values of feed composition and relative volatilities for which

Rakesh Agrawal; Zbigniew T. Fidkowski

1998-01-01

21

Energy savings in heat-integrated distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) provides one of the most effective applications of heat-pump technologies to industrial processes. It reinforces a separation process and yields larger energy savings than other methods such as overhead-to-reboiler heat pumps, which involve moving heat between the hottest and coldest points in the distillation column. A simulation study of this column has been applied to

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; M. Owa; T. Akiya; T. Nakane; M. Sato; T. Takamatsu

1997-01-01

22

Fraction Collector for Distillation Columns Operating at Reduced Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fraction collector for distillation columns operating at reduced pressure is described. With the apparatus, fractions of known volume can be automatically collected in collecting vessels closed with serum caps under controlled atmosphere or under vacuum. The collecting vessels are accessible at all times for further analysis of the distillate. The design is based on the use of a piston

M. Van Swaay

1964-01-01

23

Operation behaviors of ideal internal thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lack of experience in operation is one of the major difficulties associated with the use of advanced energy saving distillation\\u000a methods. The detailed operational studies of an ideal internal thermally coupled distillation column (ITCDIC) were carried\\u000a out in this work paved the way for further control and design studies and its practical application.

Liu Xin-gao; Qian Ji-xin; Xu Yong-mao

2000-01-01

24

Optimal energy cost in ideal internal thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal thermally coupled distillation column (ITCDIC) is the frontier of energy saving distillation research. In the paper, an evaluation method on operating cost and its saving in the ITCDIC processes of ideal mixtures is presented. A mathematical model for optimization is first derived. The benzene-toluene system is studied as an illustrative example. The optimization results show that the energy cost

Xinggao Liu; Yongmao Xu; Jie Zhang; Jixin Qian

2002-01-01

25

Application of a thermally coupled distillation column with separated main columns to gas concentration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC) for operability improvement is utilized in a gas concentration\\u000a process. The column consists of a prefractionator and two separated main columns having high distillation efficiency and flexible\\u000a control structure. The operability of the proposed column is evaluated by examining the open-loop dynamic responses of step\\u000a input variations with the HYSYS simulation. The

Moon Yong Lee; Su Yeung Jeong; Young Han Kim

2008-01-01

26

Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns  

E-print Network

DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COIUMNS A Thesis By Thomas Raymond Harris Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Ma)or Sub)ect t Chemical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COLUMNS A Thesis Thomas Raymond Harris Approred as to style and content bye Chairman of ommittee Head...

Harris, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07

27

Kinetic azeotropy and design of reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

The reactive fixed points in the distillation maps of a reactive distillation column (RDC) with kinetically controlled reactions are identified and their role in deciding the design feasibility has been elucidated. The fixed points at which both reaction and distillation vectors have zero magnitudes correspond to the equilibrium fixed point. It is known that the relative positions of these points for the rectifying and stripping sections determine the value of the minimum reflux ratio. However, apart from these fixed points, there are certain fixed points in the distillation map at which, though the reaction and distillation vectors have nonzero magnitudes, they nullify the effects of each other. These points correspond to the kinetic fixed points and have a special significance. Their positions have direct influence on the feasible product composition. A simple example of an ideal ternary system undergoing a reaction 2B {longleftrightarrow} A + c has been illustrated to show the importance of kinetic azeotropy in the design aspects of RDC.

Mahajani, S.M. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-01-01

28

Approximate design of fully thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate design procedure for fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDCs) is proposed and applied to example\\u000a ternary systems. The procedure gives a fast solution of structural and operation design for a preliminary study of the FTCDC.\\u000a The structural information resolves the design difficulty, caused from the interlinking streams of the column, which is encountered\\u000a when a conventional design procedure

Young Han Kim; Masaru Nakaiwa; Kyu Suk Hwang

2002-01-01

29

CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL  

E-print Network

CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL Erik A. Wol#11; and Sigurd Skogestad #3; University of Trondheim N-7034 Trondheim, NORWAY Keywords: process control, cascade control, distilla- tion, control structure, relative gain array 1 Introduction In most process control

Skogestad, Sigurd

30

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Temperature Cascade Control of Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

main objectives for the regulatory control system are as follows: 1. Take care of control tasks where control. This is because the main control objective at this level is to facilitate good operation, that isPROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Temperature Cascade Control of Distillation Columns Erik A. Wolff

Skogestad, Sigurd

31

Rigorous design of extended fully thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate design procedure of extended fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDCs) is refined for the design of real system having non-ideal equilibrium relation. For high thermodynamic efficiency and reduced computational load, a structural design utilizing the minimum tray structure is implemented, and the design procedure to find operational variables for a given specification of products is explained in detail.

Young Han Kim

2002-01-01

32

Logic-based methods for generating and optimizing thermally coupled distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation of a non-azeotropic mixture of N components in their pure components can be performed using from conventional to fully thermally coupled distillation sequences, while for conventional columns there is a one to one match between columns and separations tasks this is not true for (partially or fully) thermally coupled distillation systems where it is possible to find a

José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2002-01-01

33

Distillation column revamp eliminates jet flooding; increases efficiency  

SciTech Connect

UOP's McCook, IL, plant produces a great variety of chemicals, among them many antioxidants and antiozonants which are used by gasoline producers, rubber processors and other industrial customers. Low boiling oxygenated aliphatics are stripped from high boiling nitrogenous compounds in a distillation column. In order to achieve the necessary separation, very high column reflux rates were required. This sometimes caused jet flooding which led to entrainment and contamination of the overhead streams. When the overhead streams did not meet purity specs, they had to be inventoried and later recycled. The result was unacceptably high costs and low overall unit efficiency. To correct the problem, UOP decided to revamp the column in question. The 28 original sieve trays were removed from the 28' tall, 19 1/4'' ID column, and 27 SS304 cartridge-type fabricated screen trays were installed don 12'' spacing. The closely spaced wires from which the decks of the trays are fabricated form venturi-shaped slots that allow operation in the froth regime over a wide range of conditions. Reduced entrainment and low pressure drop combine to permit use of very high vapor and liquid rates without flooding. After the revamp, UOP found that flooding problems were eliminated in the column. Pressure drop was considerably reduced, too. An increase in separation efficiency was also noticed which permitted reboiler temperatures to be lowered by 20-50/sup 0/F, and lower reflux rates to be employed. Energy requirements of the reboiler were cut by 400,000 Btu/hr at 80% of maximum column feed rate. This represented a savings of more that $16,000/yr in fuel costs on an annualized basis, calculated on 80% efficiency in the natural gas-fired furnace.

Arneson, A.D.; Boike, J.

1986-10-01

34

A SIMPLE ALGORITHM FOR THE DESIGN OF FULLY THERMALLY COUPLED DISTILLATION COLUMNS (FTCDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although material and thermal coupling between the prefractionator and main distillation column renders the fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC) a frequently favorable design option, it also complicates considerably process synthesis and design. In this contribution, a simple algorithm for the synthesis and design of the FTCDC is derived with the optimization of an economical objective function. In terms of

Peng Wang; Haisheng Chen; Yufeng Wang; Liang Zhang; Kejin Huang; San-Jang Wang

2012-01-01

35

A GENERALIZED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS-III. STUDY OF STARTUP OPERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic behavior of distillation columns during startup operations have been studied and analyzed. A procedure is proposed for determining appropriate startup policies for distillation column operations based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior. The final startup policy consists of three strategies corresponding to the three characteristic stages of the startup operation. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied

C. A. Rurz; I. T. CAMERON; R. GANI

36

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

Skogestad, Sigurd

37

Application of a fully thermally coupled distillation column for fractionation process in naphtha reforming plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naphtha reformate is extracted for aromatic compounds and the aromatics are separated into benzene, toluene and xylene in sequence. This separation is conducted using a series of binary-like columns.In this study, the first two columns of the separation process are replaced with a fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC) also known as the Petlyuk column. Though feed of the process

Ju Yeong Lee; Young Han Kim; Kyu Suk Hwang

2004-01-01

38

The steady-state and dynamic analysis of packed distillation column based on partial differential approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady-state and dynamic behavior of a binary packed distillation column has been simulated using the two film back-mixing model. The model solution has been obtained employing orthogonal collocation on finite elements. The approach using the Legendre or Jacobi polynomial has been tested on the solution of related models. A pilot plant scaled packed distillation column distilling methanol-water mixture was

S. Karacan; Y. Cabbar; M. Alpbaz; H. Hapo?lu

1998-01-01

39

High-purity control of internal thermally coupled distillation columns based on nonlinear wave model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal thermally coupled distillation column (ITCDIC) is a frontier of energy saving distillation researches, which is a great improvement on conventional distillation column (CDIC). However its high degree thermal coupling makes the control design a bottleneck problem, where data-driven model leads to obvious mismatch with the real plant in the high-purity control processes, and a first-principle model which is comprised

Xinggao Liu; Yexiang Zhou; Lin Cong; Feng Ding

2011-01-01

40

Design of extraction column methanol recovery system for the TAME reactive distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the synthesis and the design of methanol recovery system for TAME reactive distillation process using extraction column with water as a solvent. The design of the extraction column system has not been studied in the literature. The effect of operating conditions such as solvent flowrate, extraction column temperature, and number of equilibrium trays are studied. It is

Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

2004-01-01

41

High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

1981-01-01

42

Reactive distillation–pervaporation hybrid column for tert-amyl alcohol etherification with ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etherification of tert-amyl alcohol with ethanol was carried out in a reactive distillation column inserted by a zeolite NaA membrane tube. Experimental tests were carried out in both of a pervaporation module and a reactive distillation column. Under suitable conditions, the pervaporation tests have shown higher than 99.9% H2O mole fraction in the permeate. The design by the residue

Farid Aiouache; Shigeo Goto

2003-01-01

43

Application of the theta method to distillation columns where one or more reactions occur per stage  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Approved as to style and content by: cubi...

Izarraraz, Alicia

2012-06-07

44

A generalized model for distillation columns—I Model description and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

AM-A generalized model for the dynamic simulation of distillation columns is presented. The model allows the solution of a wide variety of problems, from open- and closed-loop responses of single (and multiple) columns to operability studies (of feed changeover and start-up operations) and column instability studies (effect of plate hydraulics during transient operations). Results are given for single columns (including

R. GANI; I. T. CAMERONS

1986-01-01

45

Assessing Safety in Distillation Column Using Dynamic Simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment becomes an important activity in chemical industries since the need to comply with general legal requirements in addition to meet safer plant and profit. This paper reviews some most frequently causes of distillation column malfunction. First, analysis of case histories will be discussed for providing guidelines in identifying potential trouble spots in distillation column. A dynamic simulation for operational failure is simulated as the basis for assessing the consequences. A case study will be used from a side stream distillation column to show the implementation of the concept. A framework for assessing safety in the column is proposed using Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Further, trouble-free operation in order to reduce the risk associated with column malfunction is described.

Werner, Suhendra; Fred, Witt; Compart

46

Structural design and operation of a fully thermally coupled distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous structural design procedure for fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDC) is applied to the example system of butanol isomers in order to show the design performance. The procedure gives structural information of the column, and therefore iterative computation encountered in the design using conventional procedure and commercial packages can be eliminated.Using the outcome of the structural design, other

Young Han Kim

2002-01-01

47

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column  

E-print Network

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

Salamon, Peter

48

Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems  

E-print Network

Closed loop computer control of an ethylene column has been shown to save $350/day in improved ethylene recovery and $150/day in reduced energy consumption. These savings are achieved through material balance optimization and energy balance...

Matthews, S. A.

1980-01-01

49

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

by assuming that the equilibrium and operating lines coincide at this stage. This approximation takes into account the losses or inefficiencies introduced through practicalities of column design (such as pressure drops, multiple side-products, side strippers... (heating or cooling) ? Side condensing or reboiling An additional capability is provided through exergy analysis. The exergy profiles are plotted by calculating the exergy loss at each stage of the column, and then taking into account all entering...

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

50

Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers  

E-print Network

to be uved only where the oorrect values of V and I crc not known in advance. Again for tbe case under consideration, v -" 0 for all plates in ths $1 distillation column below and including the side-stream withdrawal plate, Also, 1 = 0 for all the plates... to be uved only where the oorrect values of V and I crc not known in advance. Again for tbe case under consideration, v -" 0 for all plates in ths $1 distillation column below and including the side-stream withdrawal plate, Also, 1 = 0 for all the plates...

Dickey, Billy Ray

2012-06-07

51

Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part II: Performance Analysis of a Distillation Column Using Exergy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the performance of the separation process, we have introduced thethermodynamic concept of exergy through the exergetic efficiency of the column. Thesimulation results show that the exergetic output is relatively low and that the producedirreversibility fluxes are distributed throughout the whole column in a non-uniform manner.They are particularly significant in the condenser, boiler and tray feed. The influence of thevarious operating parameters (temperature, concentration and irreversibility in both sectionsof the column) is also established. To emphasize the results, the relation in equation 17, ispresented graphically to evaluate the cumulative irreversibilities from the overhead to thebottom. This presentation is equivalent to the Grassmann diagram.

Mustapha, Douani; Sabria, Terkhi; Fatima, Ouadjenia

2007-09-01

52

Design of a fully thermally coupled distillation column based on dynamic simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic simulation of a fully thermally coupled distillation column is conducted for the design of a possible operation\\u000a scheme, and its performance is examined with an example process of butanol isomer ternary system. The outcome of the dynamic\\u000a simulation indicates that the column can be operated by using a 3 ? 3 control structure. The structure consists of three

Young Han Kim

2000-01-01

53

Development of gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns which is based on the attenuation of gamma radiation was developed at the Unit Tenaga Nuklear. The system utilised Co-60 or Cs-137 as a gamma-ray emitter and NaI(Tl) detector ...

Mohd Azmi bin Ismail Jaafar bin Abdullah Jamaludin bin Omar

1994-01-01

54

Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns  

PubMed Central

Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

2014-01-01

55

Improving dual composition control in continuous distillation by a novel column design  

SciTech Connect

How a novel design of continuous distillation columns may impact the performance of conventional controllers when it is required to accurately control the purity of both products in a binary separation is analyzed. The proposed column layout is characterized by the presence of a middle vessel, to which two streams are fed: the liquid flow coming from the rectifying section and the feed to be separated. The actual liquid flow to the column is determined by the middle-vessel level controller. For different control configurations and conventional proportional-integral control, it is shown that using a middle-vessel column provides a way to reduce the interaction between the composition loops, in such a way that the control performance of middle-vessel columns may be made remarkably superior to that of the conventional columns. The results obtained are supported by a theoretical analysis based on the frequency-dependent relative gain array tool.

Barolo, M.; Papini, C.A.

2000-01-01

56

Characteristics of energy savings in an ideal heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC)  

SciTech Connect

Distillation columns are major energy consumers in the chemical and petrochemical industries. In order to reduce energy consumption, considerable studies have been carried out and many distillation columns have been proposed. A Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) is constructed in such a manner that its rectifying and stripping sections are separated, while connected through a compressor and a throttling valve. Separation is benefited by heat integration between the two sections. To provide the driving forces for heat transfers from the rectifying to the stripping sections, the former must be operated at higher pressure than the latter. The HIDiC is expected to be more energy efficient than conventional columns, while at the expenses of some energy to raise up the pressure of the rectifying section. In this paper, it is shown by thermodynamical consideration that the HIDiC has high potential of exergy loss reduction compared with conventional columns. The effects of pressure difference on energy saving are analyzed, and possibility of energy saving is found in some case studies.

Nakaiwa, Masaru; Huang, Kejin; Owa, Masaru; Akiya, Takaji; Nakane, Takashi; Sato, Masahito [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Systems; Takamatsu, Takeichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1997-12-31

57

Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

2013-04-01

58

Industrial application of an extended fully thermally coupled distillation column to BTX separation in a naphtha reforming plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic compounds are yielded from naphtha reforming in a petrochemical plant, and the products are separated with binary\\u000a distillation columns for benzene, toluene, xylene and heavy components in sequence. In this study, the first three columns\\u000a of the fractionation process in the naphtha reforming unit are replaced with an extended fully thermally coupled distillation\\u000a column (EFTCDC) also known as the

Young Han Kim; Dae Woong Choi; Kyu-Suk Hwang

2003-01-01

59

Structural design of fully thermally coupled distillation columns using a semi-rigorous model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new structural design procedure for fully thermally coupled distillation columns (FTCDC) utilizing semi-rigorous material balances is proposed and applied to the design of example systems of butanol, BTX and hexane–heptane mixtures. The structural design can be directly incorporated in the design of commercial design software, giving basic information which is required at the beginning of simulation.The performance of the

Young Han Kim

2005-01-01

60

On the use of intermediate reboilers in the rectifying section and condensers in the stripping section of a distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Advantages of an intermediate reboiler in the stripping section of a distillation column and an intermediate condenser in the rectifying section are well-known. For highly nonideal mixtures the distillation process can be improved by placing an intermediate reboiler in the rectifying section of the column or an intermediate condenser in the stripping section, which is counterintuitive. In consequence the more expensive heating utility used in the bottom reboiler can be partially replaced with a less expensive heating medium (at a lower temperature) used in the intermediate reboiler. Similarly, a portion of the condensing duty from the top condenser can be replaced with the less expensive condensing duty (at a higher temperature) in the intermediate condenser. This placement of reboilers (condensers) can be used to reduce the total number of stages in the distillation column with a lower (higher) level of utility. Operating and capital costs of the distillation process with an intermediate heat exchanger can be lower than those for a classic column. A simple method providing valuable insights on the possible placement of intermediate heat exchangers along the column is proposed. It is based on calculations of the vapor flow along the height of a reversible, binary distillation column performing the equivalent separation task.

Agrawal, R.; Fidkowski, Z.T. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1996-08-01

61

Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

2014-10-01

62

Design of a fully thermally coupled distillation column for hexane process using a semi-rigorous model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An industrial scale hexane process is designed for the implementation of a fully thermally coupled distillation column (FTCDC).\\u000a A semi-rigorous material balance and Peng-Robinson equilibrium relation are utilized in the structural design. The operational\\u000a design is conducted with a commercial design program, the HYSYS. The design outcome of the structural design indicates it\\u000a to be comparable with the practical system

Young Han Kim; Kyu Suk Hwang; Masaru Nakaiwa

2004-01-01

63

Design concept of a cryogenic distillation column cascade for a ITER scale fusion reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A column cascade has been proposed for the fuel cycle of a ITER scale fusion reactor. The proposed cascade consists of three columns and has significant features: either top or bottom product is prior to the other for each column; it is avoided to withdraw side streams as products or feeds of down stream columns; and there is no recycle steam between the columns. In addition, the product purity of the cascade can be maintained against the changes of flow rates and compositions of feed streams just by adjusting the top and bottom flow rates. The control system has been designed for each column in the cascade. A key component in the prior product stream was selected, and the analysis method of this key component was proposed. The designed control system never brings instability as long as the concentration of the key component is measured with negligible time lag. The time lag for the measurement considerably affects the stability of the control system. A significant conclusion by the simulation in this work is that permissible time for the measurement is about 0.5 hour to obtain stable control. Hence, the analysis system using the gas chromatography is valid for control of the columns.

Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

1994-07-01

64

Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control  

E-print Network

controllers of PID type were designed between the paired variables found from RGA and the controllers were implemented on the column model. Both servo and regulatory problems have been considered and tested....

Chakrabarty, Arnab

2005-02-17

65

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-print Network

gauze structured packings and the F1exipac@ or Me11apak sheetmeta1 structured packings have been widely applied in literally thousands of fractionation columns in the general chemical and specialty chemical areas, particularly for vacuum... gauze structured packings and the F1exipac@ or Me11apak sheetmeta1 structured packings have been widely applied in literally thousands of fractionation columns in the general chemical and specialty chemical areas, particularly for vacuum...

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

66

Thermally Coupled Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief overview in the design of mixed thermally coupled-heat integrated distillation sequences. The approach considers from conventional columns (each distillation column with a condenser and a reboiler) to fully thermally coupled systems (only one reboiler and one condenser in the entire system). The advantages and disadvantages of thermally coupled distillation in comparison with conventional columns are

José A. Caballero

2009-01-01

67

Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design  

SciTech Connect

The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

Eldridge, Robert, B.

2005-10-13

68

Energy-saving distillation in fuel ethanol production: steady-state and dynamic analysis  

SciTech Connect

This work is a thorough study of distillation designs and operating conditions to produce a fuel-grade ethanol product from a typical grain fermentation broth. Two characteristic features of this system are the dilute feed concentration and the highly non-ideal vapor-liquid equilibrium. A feed concentration of 2.9 mol%, a plant size of 20 million gallons per year of ethanol product and a minimum of 15% return on incremental investments (after tax) are used throughout the study. For production of 83 mole% product, a design featuring mechanical vapor recompression for both distillation and evaporation has the lowest operating cost ($0.135/gallon of ethanol product). The same evaporator with a multi-column distillation design (split-feed flow pattern) and integration of a standard distillation column with a multi-effect evaporator have slightly higher costs ($0.15 and $0.16, respectively). The costs given reflect the operating cost (including depreciation, maintenance, etc.) for both the distillation and evaporation sections of the plant. Comparative costs are very sensitive to the costs used for utilities (steam cost is $5.00/1000 lbs.; electricity cost is $0.07/KWH). Other design variables, such as feed temperature, feed concentration and production rate effect significant changes in costs per gallon, but do not change the order of preference of design configurations. For the production of higher purity distillates without the use of azeotropic or extractive distillation techniques, several vacuum distillation designs are considered. The change in costs with distillate concentration is very significant above 85 mole%. The vapor recompression design and a multi-effect distillation with heavy-split are the best candidates for a 90 mole% product.

Collura, M.A.

1985-01-01

69

Separation of high-boiling petroleum distillates using gradient elution through dual-packed (silica gel-alumina gel) adsorption columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Mines has developed a chromatographic separation procedure using a single dual-packed adsorption column containing silica gel and alumina that will separate high-boiling petroleum distillates into four concentrates: saturates, monoaromatics, diaromatics, and polyaromatics-polar. Spectral, adsorption, and radiotracer data indicate that the concentrates produced are predominantly as labeled. Subdividing the aromatics into major aromatic types greatly simplifies subsequent separation

D. E. Hirsch; R. L. Hopkins; H. J. Coleman; F. O. Cotton; C. J. Thompson

1972-01-01

70

Calculation of a double reactive azeotrope using stochastic optimization approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An homogeneous reactive azeotrope is a thermodynamic coexistence condition of two phases under chemical and phase equilibrium, where compositions of both phases (in the Ung-Doherty sense) are equal. This kind of nonlinear phenomenon arises from real world situations and has applications in chemical and petrochemical industries. The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. The robust calculation of reactive azeotropes can be conducted by several approaches, such as interval-Newton/generalized bisection algorithms and hybrid stochastic-deterministic frameworks. In this paper, we investigate the numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Moreover, we present results for a system (with industrial interest) with more than one azeotrope, the system isobutene/methanol/methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). We present convergence patterns for both algorithms, illustrating - in a bidimensional subdomain - the identification of reactive azeotropes. A strategy for calculation of multiple roots in nonlinear systems is also applied. The results indicate that both algorithms are suitable and robust when applied to reactive azeotrope calculations for this "challenging" nonlinear system.

Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

2013-02-01

71

PREDICTIONS OF AZEOTROPES FORMED FROM FLUORINATED ETHERS, ETHANES, AND PROPANES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an evaluation of the potential for azeotrope formation and performance for fluorinated ethers, ethanes, and propanes. (NOTE: The synthesis of new non-chlorinated refrigerants expands the base of alternatives for replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (O...

72

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17

73

Preparation of tertiary amyl alcohol in a reactive distillation column. 1: Reaction kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and mass-transfer issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydration of isoamylenes to produce 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol, or TAA) is strongly limited by chemical equilibrium to olefin conversions of less than 50%. The general goal of this work was to determine whether reactive distillation would be a valid method to enhance the yield of TAA. The first step was to study the reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium, using

J. Castor González; James R. Fair

1997-01-01

74

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01

75

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22

76

Preparation of tertiary amyl alcohol in a reactive distillation column. 1: Reaction kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and mass-transfer issues  

SciTech Connect

The hydration of isoamylenes to produce 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol, or TAA) is strongly limited by chemical equilibrium to olefin conversions of less than 50%. The general goal of this work was to determine whether reactive distillation would be a valid method to enhance the yield of TAA. The first step was to study the reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium, using a polymeric acid catalyst (Amberlyst-15). Acetone was identified as a suitable medium to enable single liquid phase operation and also to enhance the reaction rate. It was found that the intraparticle mass-transfer resistance is negligible at temperatures below 70 C. A kinetic expression, based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism, is proposed. The forward and reverse reactions show first-order dependence on isoamylenes and TAA, respectively, while water is essentially an inhibitor of the reaction in both directions. The temperature effect on the forward reaction is quantified with an activation energy of 69.5 kJ/mol.

Gonzalez, J.C.; Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Separations Research Program] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Separations Research Program

1997-09-01

77

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-print Network

Benedict. Manson. 1947. "Multistage Separation Processes". Transactions American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Vol. 43, No.2. Kayihan, Ferhan. 1980. "Optimum Distribution of Heat Load in Distillation Columns Using Intermediate Condensers... Benedict. Manson. 1947. "Multistage Separation Processes". Transactions American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Vol. 43, No.2. Kayihan, Ferhan. 1980. "Optimum Distribution of Heat Load in Distillation Columns Using Intermediate Condensers...

Erickson, D. C.

78

THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF PREDICTED FLUORINATED ETHER, ETHANE, AND PROPANE AZEOTROPES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of thermodynamic analyses, using basic thermophysical property data, to evaluate seven predicted fluorinated ether, ethane, and propane azeotropes: E125/RC270, E125/R134a, E143a/R134, R134a/E143a, E143a/ R152a, R134/R245cb, and R245cb/R227ea. he performanc...

79

The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.  

PubMed

The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30 cm × 30 cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel. PMID:24632362

Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

2014-04-30

80

Catalytic Distillation  

E-print Network

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01

81

An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem  

E-print Network

application of the Newton-Raphson procedure for such thermodynamic functions, and thus convergence properties typical of this method were obtained. The extended multiple theta method was then applied to a distillation problem involving thermodynamic... of the Newton-Raphson method even when composition dependent thermodynamic functions are used. The particular set of variables and functions chosen in this work leads to a large Jacobian matrix that is easily solved due to its special structure, Several...

Gallun, Steven Eugene

2012-06-07

82

Petroleum distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides data for the evaluation of the safety of certain petroleum distillate fractions used in commercial products to which consumers may be exposed. Chemical information and data on the toxicology, pharmacology and relevent biology are compiled on mixtures under the headings petroleum naphthas, distillate fuels, and mineral oils. Petroleum products find wide use in products available to the

J. Villaume; P. Walter; R. Levine; A. Craigmill; H. Schwartz

1976-01-01

83

Design of distillation sequences: from conventional to fully thermally coupled distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a novel superstructure optimization approach for the design of distillation sequences of zeotropic mixtures. The approach considers as alternatives from conventional sequences in which each final distillation column has a condenser and a reboiler, to fully thermally coupled distillation sequences going through all possible intermediate combinations. A two-stage procedure is proposed. In the first one, a sequence

José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2004-01-01

84

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

Hill, J.H.

85

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

86

Control properties of thermally coupled distillation sequences for different operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The understanding of the dynamic behavior of distillation columns has received considerable attention due to the fact that distillation is one of the most widely used unit operations in chemical process industries. Thermally coupled distillation sequences (TCDS) can provide significant energy savings with respect to the operation of sequences based on conventional distillation columns. TCDS exhibit a complex structure, with

Juan Gabriel Segovia-hernández; Esteban Abelardo Hernández-vargas; Jorge Alberto Márquez-muñoz

2007-01-01

87

A simple method for systematic synthesis of thermally integrated distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic approach to heat integration of processes involving separation of multicomponent mixtures is described. An integrability criterion based on geometrical presentation of distillation columns in temperature–enthalpy flow rate diagram was tested by rigorous simulation of distillation columns. The integrability criterion for distillation columns sequence was defined as the minimum sum of products of intracolumn temperatures and their heat flow rates

Gorazd Sobo?an; Peter Glavi?

2002-01-01

88

Distillations Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the folks at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Distillations is an award-winning podcast that offers commentary and perspective on the past, present, and future of chemistry. The program is hosted by Meir Rinde and new episodes are issued every other Friday. The archive here contains over 150 podcasts with titles such as "Shipwrecks," "Sweat," and "Something in the Air." Visitors can also sort through the documents by category and learn about the Distillations staff. The archives date back to 2007, so there's plenty to explore and visitors are free to use the materials as they see fit. An episode or two might be the perfect way to keep a group of students intrigued by the world of chemistry.

2012-09-14

89

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22

90

Hydrothermal carbonization of distiller’s grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet distiller’s grains are intermediate byproducts of ethanol manufacture that have high moisture contents and require significant energy for drying and conversion into dry distiller’s grains. Hydrothermal carbonization was investigated as a wet process to provide alternative products, and chars were obtained in moderate yield that possessed high heats of combustion. The mechanism of char formation was also investigated employing

Steven M. Heilmann; Lindsey R. Jader; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

2011-01-01

91

Isocriterial manifolds during extractive distillation of a mixture of methanol- n -propyl acetate-toluene with aniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is devoted to the arrangement of isocriterial manifolds and regions of energetic optimality of extractive\\u000a distillation complexes within the simplex of the initial feed composition during the separation of methanol, n-propyl acetate,\\u000a and toluene mixture. The mixture being separated comprises one binary azeotrope with a boiling temperature being minimal (in\\u000a the binary pair of methanol-toluene), and one

B. B. Dolmatov; E. A. Anokhina; A. V. Timoshenko

2009-01-01

92

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns  

E-print Network

for dynamically adapting the models to achieve tight composition control. Simple control techniques do not exist for model adaptation in MIMO systems. This thesis will outline a fuzzy supervisory controller based on fuzzy logic and show that control performance...

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-06-07

93

ROBUST CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS Sigurd Skogestad  

E-print Network

of Technology Chemical Engineering, 206-41 Pasadena, CA 91125 Abstract. Ill-conditioned plants are generally in the directions where the plant gain is low, that is, a controller similar to G,1 in di- rectionality is desirable

Skogestad, Sigurd

94

ROBUST CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS Sigurd Skogestad  

E-print Network

of Technology Chemical Engineering, 206­41 Pasadena, CA 91125 Abstract. Ill­conditioned plants are generally \\Gamma1 in di­ rectionality is desirable. However, because of uncertainty, the direction of the large

Skogestad, Sigurd

95

Azeotropic line determination from the caloric data on binary stratifying systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental isochoric heat capacity values of stratifying n-hexane-water mixtures of the compositions 0.120, 0.166, 0.200, and 0.256 H2O mole fractions were obtained using a high-temperature adiabatic calorimeter over the density ranges 244.74 498.25, 121.06 438.21, 252.02 500.00, and 208.11 398.88 kg/m3, respectively. The C V, x heat capacities were tabulated for the mixture with 0.120 H2O mole fractions. Liquid-liquid and liquid-gas phase equilibrium curves were plotted. The suggestion was made that the intersection point between these curves characterized the state of an azeotrope. The azeotropic line with the critical point at its end was constructed.

Bezgomonova, E. I.; Orakova, S. M.; Stepanov, G. V.; Shakhbanov, K. A.

2007-12-01

96

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-print Network

), as well as benefiting the public. The first proposal for petroleum refineries didll't receive an award. but that work put us in all excellent position relative to a later Chemical llldustry solicitation. The proposed program is il imed at making... increases are easily achievable due to the reduced reboiler duty, and resulting substantial reduction in column internal vapor/liquid mlffic. Since 40% of refinery energy usc is for distillation, Advanced Distillation has the potential to eventually...

Woinsky, S. G.

97

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

98

A Rigorous Minimum Energy Calculation Method for a Fully Thermally Coupled Distillation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, Tanskanen and Pohjola (2000) and Tanskanen and Malinen (2005) have presented a method of rigorous minimum energy calculation for non-ideal multicomponent distillation. The method is based on column simulation with a large number of equilibrium stages to mimic infinitely high columns, and it has been successfully tested with simple distillation column systems. In this paper the rigorous minimum energy

I. Malinen; J. Tanskanen

2007-01-01

99

Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve  

SciTech Connect

Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C. [Univ. of Delaware, Nework, DE (United States)

1995-03-01

100

Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

Barduhn, Allen J.

1984-01-01

101

Strategies for the robust simulation of thermally coupled distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel strategy for the simulation of thermally coupled distillation sequences using process simulators. First, we show that the two side stream connections involved in a ‘thermal couple’ can be accurately substituted by a combination of a material stream and heat flow; enabling a sequence of thermally coupled distillation columns to be simulated without recycle streams, similar

Miguel A. Navarro; Juan Javaloyes; José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

102

Effect of kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation  

SciTech Connect

A class of models is derived for studying the effects of chemical kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation. Activity-based rate and phase equilibrium expressions provide an accurate and thermodynamically consistent description of composition changes in nonideal, reacting vapor-liquid mixtures. For certain strategies of operation, which dictate the rate of product removal, the model equations are nonautonomous, leading to unusual dynamic behavior. However, for a certain special product removal policy, the effects of kinetics can be described by a single parameter, the Damkoehler number, which measures the rate of reaction relative to product removal. For small values of the Damkoehler number, the nonreactive simple distillation residue curve map is recovered and the singular points are the pure components and azeotropes in the nonreactive mixture. A bifurcation analysis shows the deformation and, in some cases, the disappearance of these singular points as the Damkoehler number is increased until the equilibrium reactive residue curve map is recovered at large values. A model problem for the reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether from isobutene and methanol is solved.

Venimadhavan, G.; Buzad, G.; Doherty, M.F.; Malone, M.F. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-11-01

103

Heat transfer in pool boiling of binary and ternary non-azeotropic mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer coefficients in nucleate pool boiling of binary and ternary non-azeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures were obtained experimentally using a vertical electrically heated cylindrical carbon steel surface at atmospheric pressure with several surface roughness. The fluids used were Methanol/1-Pentanol and Methanol/1-Pentanol/1,2-Propandiol at constant 1,2-Propandiol mole fraction of 30%. Heat fluxes were varied in the range 25-235 kW/m2. The cylindrical heater surface was polished to an average surface roughness of 0.2 ?m, and sandblasted yielding surface roughness of 2.98 and 4.35 ?m, respectively. The experimental results were compared to available prediction correlations, indicating that the correlations based on the boiling range are in better qualitative agreement than correlations based on the phase envelope. Increasing surface roughness resulted in an increase in the heat transfer coefficient, and the effect was observed to be dependent on the heat flux and fluid composition.

Nahra, Ziad; Næss, Erling

2009-05-01

104

Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

for purifying liquids. The basic distillation process involves heating a liquid such that liquid molecules vaporize. The vapors produced are subsequently passed through a water-cooled condenser. Upon cooling

Jasperse, Craig P.

105

Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

Caballero, J.A. [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grossmann, I.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

106

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

107

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24

108

Synthesis of partially thermally coupled distillation flowsheets: Zeotropic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a detailed description of algorithms for generating the complete set of n-component zeotropic distillation flowsheets for sequences of simple two-section columns and for sequences including partially\\u000a thermally coupled complexes. The description of the algorithms is oriented toward writing of implementing computer programs.\\u000a The distillation flowsheets have been generated using their matrix representations equivalent to their graphical representations.

M. I. Skvortsova; A. V. Timoshenko; D. G. Rudakov

2011-01-01

109

DESIGN STUDY OF THE CONTROL OF A REACTIVE THERMALLY COUPLED DISTILLATION SEQUENCE FOR THE ESTERIFICATION OF FATTY ORGANIC ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the esterification of lauric acid and methanol studied using a thermally coupled distillation sequence with a side rectifier and the Petlyuk distillation column. The product of the esterification can be used as biodiesel. It was found that the thermally coupled distillation sequence with a side rectifier can produce ester with a high purity (around 0.999) and also

Salvador Hernández; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Lorena Juárez-Trujillo; Juan Ernesto Estrada-Pacheco; Rafael Maya-Yescas

2010-01-01

110

APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE ANALYSIS OF A MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the application of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of a middle distillate fuel. Small diameter (50 micrometer i.d.) fused silica capillary columns coated with crosslinked 50% phenyl polymethylsiloxane provided high separation...

111

Identification of petroleum distillates from fire debris using multidimensional gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for identifying petroleum distillates (accelerants) in fire debris samples by dynamic headspace analysis and multidimensional gas chromatography is described. The method relies on the separation of target compounds characteristic of different petroleum distillate classes from interfering co-eluting and matrix components. A relatively nonpolar column is used to characterize the volatility distribution of the sample and heartcutting to a

A. Jayatilaka; C. F. Poole

1994-01-01

112

Dynamic Behaviour of Thermally Coupled Distillation Arrangements: Effect of the Interconnection Flowrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally coupled distillation sequences can provide significant energy savings with respect to the operation of conventional distillation columns. Coupled sequences exhibit a complex struc- ture, with recycle streams, that appear to affect their controllability properties. One potential solution to this problem has been suggested through the operation of complex schemes under con- ditions that do not provide minimum energy consumption.

Erick Yair Miranda-Galindo; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández

2008-01-01

113

Logic based algorithms for the rigorous design of thermally coupled distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an algorithm for the rigorous design of thermally coupled distillation sequences using process simulators. First we show that the two side streams connections that produce a thermal ‘couple’ can be substituted by a combination of a material stream and a heat flow. In this way, the sequence of thermally coupled distillation columns can be simulated without recycle

José A. Caballero; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2007-01-01

114

Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

115

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-print Network

of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps...

Polley, G. T.

116

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

117

Distillation under electric fields  

SciTech Connect

Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

Shah, V.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-11-01

118

Design and synthesis of multicomponent thermally coupled distillation flowsheets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and synthesis of thermally coupled distillation flowsheets for separations of five-component mixtures are studied. Four types of possible configurations are identified when simple and complex columns are both considered in a flowsheet. A universal design procedure is developed for design of any types of the identified configurations based on the abstraction of the three basic units in the

Ben-Guang Rong; Andrzej Kraslawski; Lars Nyström

2001-01-01

119

Effects of Distillation System and Yeast Strain on the Aroma Profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape Pomace Spirits.  

PubMed

Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

120

Polyhydroxy glucose functionalized silica for the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate.  

PubMed

Although most of the water in a bio-ethanol fermentation broth can be removed by distillation, a small amount of water remains in the bio-ethanol distillate as the water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, glucose-modified silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a facile method and applied to the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate. The factors affecting the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, such as the particle size, initial concentration of water in the samples, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dose, were examined by measuring the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. Of these, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms showed a good correlation with the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm showed some deviation from the experimental results, and indicated that adsorption in this case was not a simple monolayer adsorption. The property of the adsorbent was attributed to functionalized silica with many hydroxyl groups on its surface. An examination of the separation factors of water/ethanol revealed the modified silica to have preferential selectivity for water. Compared to activated carbon and silica, glucose-modified silica exhibited higher adsorption capacity for water under the same adsorption conditions. In addition, the glucose-modified silica adsorbent exhibited a relatively constant adsorption capacity for five adsorption/desorption cycles. PMID:24366162

Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

2014-07-01

121

Trajan's Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, from McMaster University, uses the combined skills of artists, writers, programmers, and Web designers to create a resource for the study of Trajan's column, a Roman architectural monument. This 100-foot marble column, built during the reign of Emperor Trajan, 98-117 AD, is topped with a gilded statue of Trajan and decorated with carvings recounting Trajan's rule, primarily the Dacian Wars and his building projects. The heart of the Website is the database of 500 slides of the carvings; indexes allow users to view the slides in thematic groupings such as images of sides of the column, groups organized by subject keywords, or carvings made with specific tools. Cartoons or drawings of the column help to contextualize the details found in the slides, and essays provide more information on its design, construction, and preservation.

122

SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

123

Porosity distribution in random packed columns by gamma ray tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma ray tomography experiments have been carried out to detect any spatial patterns in the porosity in a 0.6 m diameter packed column. Three different sizes of stainless steel Pall rings (16, 25 and 38 mm) have been examined. The primary objective is to detect spatial patterns and statistical information on porosity variation in packed distillation columns. Such data are

Zhongcheng Wang; Artin Afacan; K. Nandakumar; Karl T. Chuang

2001-01-01

124

Column Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

125

An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

Mukesh, Doble

2001-02-01

126

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-print Network

the relation for minimum reflux Q ? A [1 +( (a-l)xll (5 ) a-I where A is the heat, of vaporization and a is the relative volatility of the components; and if, we further eliminate 6T's in the reboiler and condenser and 6P in the column, then Maximum [1 1... losses are in ? pressure drop and temperature difference. This is a characteristic of towers with low relative volatilities. ***In this tower the losses are unusually high because the column operated between two refrigeration levels which were fixed...

Steinmeyer, D.

127

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26

128

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1998-11-30

129

Qutrit magic state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation.

Anwar, Hussain; Campbell, Earl T.; Browne, Dan E.

2012-06-01

130

Selective Retention of Explosives and Related Compounds on Gas-Chromatographic Capillary Columns Coated with Lanthanide(III) ß-diketonate Polymers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to investigate coating capillary columns with lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymers to provide gas-chromatographic columns with selectivity toward explosives and related compounds. Capillary columns were statically coated with a combination of a lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymer, which utilized p-di(4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1,3-hexanedionyl)benzene (dihed) as a ligand, and SE-30. A novel coating technique was developed that used a methanol-containing azeotrope to provide solubility for both polymers while maintaining a low boiling point compatible with static coating. As based on temperature-programmed retention indices, the custom experimental columns displayed selective retention of nitroaromatic, nitroalkane, and nitrate ester test probes relative to an appropriate SE-30 control column. Selective retention was more pronounced for strong Lewis base analytes (i.e., cyclohexanone). Relative analyte retention on the La(dihed), Tb(dihed) and Eu(dihed) columns are discussed relative to Lewis acidity and solubility of the polymer in the azeotrope coating solution.

Harvey, Scott D.; Wenzel, Thomas J.

2009-09-04

131

ESTUDIO DE SISTEMAS DE DESTILACIÓN TÉRMICAMENTE ACOPLADOS CON REACCIÓN QUÍMICA STUDY OF THERMALLY COUPLED DISTILLATION SYSTEMS WITH CHEMICAL REACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally coupled distillation systems have been excellent options to save energy and capital investment for the separation of multicomponent mixtures. Latest information about design, operation and control of these systems has been published and it has allowed a practical implementation in the chemical industry. In this paper the ethyl acetate process is studied, using distillation systems with side columns (either

F. O. Barroso-Muñoz; S. Hernández; J. G. Segovia-Hernández; A. F. Aguilera-Alvarado

2006-01-01

132

Distilling entanglement from Fermions  

E-print Network

Since Fermions are based on anti-commutation relations, their entanglement can not be studied in the usual way, such that the available theory has to be modified appropriately. Recent publications consider in particular the structure of separable and of maximally entangled states. In this talk we want to discuss local operations and entanglement distillation from bipartite, Fermionic systems. To this end we apply an algebraic point of view where algebras of local observables, rather than tensor product Hilbert spaces play the central role. We apply our scheme in particular to Fermionic Gaussian states where the whole discussion can be reduced to properties of the covariance matrix. Finally the results are demonstrated with free Fermions on an infinite, one-dimensional lattice.

M. Keyl

2008-12-03

133

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2012-04-01

134

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2014-04-01

135

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2013-04-01

136

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric...

2011-04-01

137

Aroma Recovery in Wine Dealcoholization by SCC Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aroma recovery in wine dealcoholization by spinning cone column (SCC) distillation technique has been studied, with the\\u000a analysis of the influence of the process factors: raw wine flow rate and aromatic extraction percentage. This aroma recovery\\u000a has been measured in terms of aromatic richness (number of peaks obtained in the chromatogram) and aromatic intensity (total\\u000a peaks area of the

Yulissa Y. Belisario-Sánchez; Amaury Taboada-Rodríguez; Fulgencio Marín-Iniesta; Asunción Iguaz-Gainza; Antonio López-Gómez

138

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-print Network

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01

139

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

140

DNA Spin Columns Regular Spin Columns  

E-print Network

or bubbles. 1. Remove tip of Bio-Rad column. Place column in 13 X 100 mm glass tube in rack. Fill column centrifuge with swing-out rotor. Plastic Syringes Prepare syringes as follows. Cut circles of GF/C (glass

Aris, John P.

141

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

142

Plant transpiration distillation of water  

SciTech Connect

A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

1986-01-01

143

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium/benzophenone under argon  

E-print Network

SYNTHESIS OF HYDROCARBON STANDARDS Tetrahydrofuran (THF) was distilled from sodium was equipped with a DB5-MS column (25 m Ã? 0.20 mm ID Ã? 0.33 2m film). Products were purified by flash or vacuum over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated by rotary evaporation under partial vacuum. (n

Hanks, Lawrence M.

144

The interactions of design control and operability in reactive distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the design and control of a reactive distillation column, described by a rigorous dynamic model, is tackled via two different optimization approaches. In the first, the steady-state process design and the control system are optimized sequentially. It is shown that operability is a strong function of the process design and potential operability bottlenecks are identified. In the

Michael C Georgiadis; Myrian Schenk; Efstratios N Pistikopoulos; Rafiqul Gani

2002-01-01

145

Computer simulation of the water and hydrogen distillation and CECE process and its experimental verification  

SciTech Connect

Mathematical simulation procedures have been developed for three processes of hydrogen isotopes separation: (1) a non steady-state water distillation; (2) a cryogenic distillation; and (3) a combined electrolysis and multistage water/hydrogen catalytic exchange (CECE) process. The simulation procedures possess some special features. Thus, the comparatively large step of integration and as a result of this high fast-acting is the peculiarity of the model for the dynamic behaviour of water distillation column operating at total reflux. The simulation procedure for CECE process considers six components and three phases (liquid water, water vapour, and hydrogen gas) and allows one to carry out computations for any mole fraction stock. This procedure, as the one for cryogenic distillation process, is not based on the Newton-Raphson method, and, in spite of this, convergence is reached by a small number of iterations (4 - 11). 8 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Fedorchenko, O.A.; Alekseev, I.A.; Trenin, V.D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad (Russian Federation); Uborski, V.V. [JVS DOL, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-10-01

146

Green chemical engineering aspects of reactive distillation.  

PubMed

Reactive or catalytic distillation technology combines chemical synthesis steps with separations by distillation. This combination can lead to intensified, high-efficiency process systems with significant green engineering attributes. New applications and understanding have prompted growth in the use of reactive distillation for a variety of chemical syntheses, especially esterifications and etherifications involving oxygenated hydrocarbons. We describe several applications and the potential and tradeoffs for reactive distillation technology in the context of green engineering principles. PMID:14700316

Malone, Michael F; Huss, Robert S; Doherty, Michael F

2003-12-01

147

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

148

27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk. 1.90 Section 1.90 Alcohol, Tobacco...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

149

Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

1 Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies and 3 m. They are compatible with most aqueous buffers, such as ammonium acetate, phosphate, tris, etc. When 150 mM phosphate phase: 150 mM Sodium Phosphate Buffer, pH 7 Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min Temperature: Ambient (~23° C

Lebendiker, Mario

150

Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3  

E-print Network

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineer, 3 Laboratory for Nanophotonics, Rice University 6100 Main,3 Christyn Thibodeaux,1,3 and Naomi J. Halas1,3 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2 of the liquids in the feed mixture. To overcome the azeotrope we repeat the experiments in a controlled N2

151

Five points on columns  

E-print Network

Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

Rockland, Kathleen

152

PULSE COLUMN DESIGN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stagewise approach was used in a theoretical analysis of pulse columns. ;\\u000a In the analysis the column was arbitrarily divided into discrete stages ;\\u000a comprising that part of the column between two adjacent perforated plates. The ;\\u000a operation of the pulse column was described mathematically using material balance ;\\u000a equations, and a design method was derived which used two

L. E. Burkhart; R. W. Fahien

1958-01-01

153

JCE Feature Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using

Jon L. Holmes

1999-01-01

154

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

155

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.  

PubMed

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two procedures were compared. Finally, the agreement between boiling points of polar compounds determined from their retention times and actual boiling points was investigated. PMID:21153592

Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2011-03-01

156

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-print Network

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-08-14

157

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-print Network

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E

2009-01-01

158

Small scale ethanol production demonstration: comparison of packed versus plate rectifying column  

SciTech Connect

The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant in 1980 from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. In 1981, the Center received a second DOE grant to compare the economics of replacing the plate rectifying column in the initial unit with a packed rectifying column. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit with the packed rectifying column is capable of producing 14 gallons per hour of 170 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation was a positive 2:1. Cost of the packed column was considerably less than the plate column. 1 reference, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Adcock, II, L E; Eley, M H; Schroer, B J

1982-07-01

159

Inelastic column behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.

Duberg, John E; Wilder, Thomas W , III

1952-01-01

160

Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namie?nik, Jacek

2014-08-01

161

Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Sterile distilled water  

E-print Network

Auble Lab Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Reagents: Sterile distilled water -mercaptoethanol Sorbitol Buffer conical tube at 3,000 rpms for 5 minutes. 3. Resuspend in 10 ml of sterile distilled (SD) water, then spin for 5 minutes at 3,000 rpms and decant off water. 4. Resuspend in 5 ml of SD water and add 100 µl

Auble, David

162

Topic distillation via sub-site retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topic distillation is one of the main information needs when users search the Web. Previous approaches for topic dis- tillation treat single page as the basic searching unit, which has not fully utilized the structure information of the Web. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for topic distillation, named sub-site retrieval, in which the basic searching unit is

Tao Qin; Tie-yan Liu; Xu-dong Zhang; Guang Feng; De-sheng Wang; Wei-ying Ma

2007-01-01

163

Distillability Criterion for all Bipartite Gaussian States  

E-print Network

We prove that all inseparable Gaussian states of two modes can be distilled into maximally entangled pure states by local operations. Using this result we show that a bipartite Gaussian state of arbitrarily many modes can be distilled if and only if its partial transpose is not positive.

G. Giedke; L. -M. Duan; J. I. Cirac; P. Zoller

2001-04-13

164

Preparation of Highly Dispersed Antimony-doped Tin Oxide Nano-powder via Ion-exchange Hydrolysis of SnCl 4 and SbCl 3 and Azeotropic Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimony-doped tin hydroxide colloid precipitates have been synthesized by hydrolysis of SnCl4 and SbCl3 using: (1) an ion-exchange hydrolysis to remove chlorine ions, and (2) isoamyl acetate as an azeotropic solvent to obviate water. The obtained dried powder is of high dispersivity without any need for further grinding. The size and dispersivity of the final particles are investigated with the

Fen YANG; Xue-jun ZHANG; Fang TIAN; Xu WU; Fu-xing GAN

2007-01-01

165

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

NONE

1996-11-01

166

Si l ti f Eth l D h d ti 2013 9 23()  

E-print Network

Pervaporation Method: Proposed by SKEC Vacuum Distillation Azeotrope between ethanol and water disappears as an Entrainer () Limit of Distillation by Azeotrope 1.0 Distillation range is restricted by the azeotropic mixtures, such as ethanol/water and IPA/water, can be separated into their pure components by distillation

Hong, Deog Ki

167

27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The appropriate TTB officer may...

2010-04-01

168

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

169

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

170

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

171

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

172

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

...2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

173

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

... 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

174

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

175

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

176

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

177

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

178

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2014-04-01

179

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2011-04-01

180

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-print Network

in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot... pilot plant test in order to determine exactly how the process wi 11 respond to the use of hi gh efficiency, low pressure drop packings. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

181

Dynamic analysis of thermally coupled distillation sequences with undirectional flows for the separation of ternary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Petlyuk distillation system has been considered with special interest because of the high energy savings it can provide\\u000a with respect to the operation of sequences based on conventional columns. The original design of the Petlyuk structure, however,\\u000a shows two interconnections that seem to affect its operational and controllability properties. To overcome this problem, two\\u000a alternate structures have been suggested

Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet; Luis Ignacio Salcedo-Estrada

2006-01-01

182

The synthesis of thermally coupled distillation flowsheets for separations of five-component mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermally coupled distillation flowsheets for separation of five-component mixtures are studied based on the total annual costs. Fourteen simple column sequences and some feasible thermally coupled configurations with side strippers and\\/or side rectifiers are considered. The costs of the flowsheets are calculated and compared for several real five-component mixtures with various relative volatility distributions and a wide range of

Ben-Guang Rong; Andrzej Kraslawski; Lars Nyström

2000-01-01

183

The book review column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to the Book Reviews Column. We hope to bring you at least two reviews of books every month. In this column four books are reviewed. 1. Stable Marriage and its Relation to Other Combinatorial Problems: An Intro- duction to Algorithm Analysis by Donald Knuth. Reviewed by Tim McNichol. This book uses the stable marriage problem as motivation to look

William I. Gasarch

2004-01-01

184

Inflatable Column Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

Hedgepeth, J. M.

1985-01-01

185

Medial column stabilization.  

PubMed

This article presented a brief review of medial column stabilizing procedures. The various types of procedures that have been advocated for different deformities have been discussed. It is important to keep in mind that fusion of any of the medial column joints should not be performed as an isolated procedure in flexible flatfoot deformity. Medial column stabilization is only a component procedure when surgically managing a flexible flatfoot. When choosing procedures to correct a flexible flatfoot, thorough preoperative evaluation is important. It is also important to realize that conservative measures should be exhausted before attempting any type of stabilization of the medial column for flexible flatfoot deformity. Specific criteria for flexible flatfoot surgery should include severe uncontrollable deformity, an inability to wear standard foot gear, and persistent pain and disability despite exhaustive conservative therapy. A medial column stabilization is also an excellent procedure for those patients who have end-stage degenerative joint disease of the medial longitudinal arch. PMID:1893342

Catanzariti, A R

1991-07-01

186

JCE Feature Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

Holmes, Jon L.

1999-05-01

187

Separation characteristics of multistage water/hydrogen exchange column for water detritiation in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

A simulation code of multistage chemical exchange columns has been developed. The sieve trays for liquid-vapor scrubbing and the catalyst beds for vapor-hydrogen exchange reactions are alternately piled within the column. The code deals with all the twelve molecular species of hydrogen gas and water; and is based on the Newton-Raphson method. The characteristics of the column were discussed from the calculated results by this code such as effects of temperature and pressure. Similar to the distillation columns, the phase flow rates within the column (hydrogen gas and water vapor) and product flow rates have large effects on the separation performance of the column. A control method of the column was also proposed from these calculated results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-10-01

188

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

189

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

190

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...operations are continuous. The collection of unfinished spirits for the purpose of redistillation is not considered to be a break in the continuity of the distilling procedure. However, the quantity and proof of any unfinished spirits must be...

2011-04-01

191

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-print Network

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01

192

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed....

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01

193

Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

Westphal, B.R.

1996-03-01

194

7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.  

...Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related products. It shall be of food grade quality, free of extraneous material and prepared in accordance with...

2014-01-01

195

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-print Network

condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01

196

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2013-04-01

197

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2012-04-01

198

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2010-04-01

199

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU...water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No...

2011-04-01

200

Modeling and simulation of reactive distillation operations  

SciTech Connect

Important aspects related to modeling and simulation of reactive distillation processes are presented. Reactive distillation processes are system specific and are subject to the sensitivity of the model parameters. The sensitive model parameters have been identified as those belonging to the models describing the physical and/or chemical equilibrium of the reactive system. The influence of the sensitive model parameters on simulation/design is highlighted through a systematic analysis of the models typically employed for steady-state and dynamic simulation of reactive distillation operations. For reliable and consistent simulation and design of reactive distillation operations, a necessary first step is a systematic analysis of the model parameter and the design/operational variables. Validated numerical results from test problems involving two reactive systems are presented.

Pilavachi, P.A. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Faculty of Applied Sciences] [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Faculty of Applied Sciences; Schenk, M.; Perez-Cisneros, E.; Gani, R. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

201

Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations  

E-print Network

LIBRARY 4 A I4 COLLEGE QF TEXAS USE OF COMPUTERS FOB MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr, Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1959 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering USE OF COMPUTERS FOR NULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

Sullivan, Samuel Lane

2012-06-07

202

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

203

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-print Network

, .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower.... Prior to the development work to be described, the pressure in the extraction tower was controlled at a fixed value. The tower pressure-boilup control loop did not behave satisfactorily in the presence of non-condensables which entered with the feed...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

204

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— This paper considers the distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations, PABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. In the usual scenario the distillation procedure consists of joint operations on,an arbitrarily large number of copies of the distribution (PABE) 1\\/2 then PABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple express ion

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2008-01-01

205

EASY AND RAPID ESTIMATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL TRITIUM WITH EICHROM COLUMN AND LSC MEASUREMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the capabilities of tritium columns from Eichrom as an effective, easy, and less expensive method for tritium determination by liquid scintillation (LS) counter. The described procedure was compared with the one presented in ISO 9698 (International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 1989) for routine control purposes. The standard distillation method is time consuming and requires significant effort to eliminate

Z Tosheva; A Kies; P Letissier; M Langer

206

Liquid chromatographic determination of scopoletin in hydroalcoholic extract of oak wood and in matured distilled alcoholic beverages.  

PubMed

A liquid chromatographic (LC) method is described for determination of the coumarins esculin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, and 4-methyl umbelliferone in hydroalcoholic extracts of oak wood and in matured distilled alcoholic beverages. Samples were injected directly into the LC column (30 cm, 5 micron C18) and detected by fluorescence detector. Under these experimental conditions, only scopoletin (detection limit, 200 pg) was found in hydroalcoholic oak wood extracts and in spirits matured in oak wood. Applications of this method to spirits distilled from wine, grain, and sugar cane aged in oak barrels showed that amounts varied from 0.026 to 1.57 ppm. PMID:3391951

Puech, J L; Moutounet, M

1988-01-01

207

Eruption column physics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Valentine, G.A.

1997-03-01

208

Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures of Higher Aliphatic Acids in Thermally Coupled Distillation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is proposed to calculate the characteristics of distillation of multicomponent mixtures of higher aliphatic acids in distillation systems with reversible mixing of flows and coupled heat flows. The method is based on the use of the Underwood equations and the Thiele–Geddes method for independently determining the concentrations. Application of the method is illustrated by the example of calculating

V. A. Plesovskikh; A. A. Bezdenezhnykh

2003-01-01

209

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26

210

Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

Dr. James B. Riggs

2000-11-30

211

Optimal thermodynamic approximation to reversible distillation by means of interheaters and intercoolers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to deal with the problem of heat and power integration on one side and the problem of minimizing heat exchange areas on the other side, in both conventional and nonconventional distillation columns. The authors consider the limiting case of columns operating at minimum reflux. The appropriate objective functions that one must consider are the entropy production rate and the total heat exchange area, respectively. This is done by means of optimal placement of a given number of interheaters (IHs) and intercoolers (ICs) in stripping and rectifying sections, respectively. To solve these problems, an appropriate thermodynamic model for both conventional and nonconventional distillative columns is formally presented. This model allows one to formulate an optimization problem involving thermodynamically reversible profiles in stripping and rectifying sections of the columns. This approach differs from others previously reported in that multiple reversible profiles were identified for each section of the column which give rise to lower and upper bounds for the objective function of the minimization problem. In other words, the authors obtain two solutions for each column section: the first is a nonoptimal feasible one, and the second is an optimal but not necessarily feasible one. Finally, the comparison of this approach with a method based on pseudobinary reversible profiles is carried out. Optimizing with this curve, solutions will be generated with objective function values between the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, care would be taken in using a pseudobinary pinch point curve for the placement of intermediate heat-exchanger units especially when the difference between the upper and lower bounds for the objective function values is relatively great.

Aguirre, P.; Espinosa, J.; Tarifa, E.; Scenna, N. [CONICET, Santa Fe (Argentina)] [CONICET, Santa Fe (Argentina)

1997-11-01

212

Columns in Clay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

Leenhouts, Robin

2010-01-01

213

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

214

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

it could be useful, and this leads to a discussion of mechanical vapor r.ecompression as appl ied to distillation. Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) is not a new concept. It is not a product of the 1970s energy crisis. For many years its potential... it could be useful, and this leads to a discussion of mechanical vapor r.ecompression as appl ied to distillation. Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) is not a new concept. It is not a product of the 1970s energy crisis. For many years its potential...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01

215

[Determination of tetrodotoxin in fermentation broth of distiller's yeast by ion chromatography].  

PubMed

A method was developed for the quantitative analysis of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in fermentation broth of distiller's yeast by ion chromatography. After extraction with acetonitrile solution (containing 0.1% phosphoric acid) and purification with an ion-exchange column, the tetrodotoxin was separated by ion chromatography and detected by a ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) absorbance detector. The experimental results showed that the tetrodotoxin had a good linearity (r2 = 0.997) in the range of 10 - 100 mg/L and the detection limit (3 of signal-to-noise ratio) was 1.0 mg/L. The average recoveries were between 90% - 103% with a relative standard deviation lower than 4.9%. The analysis of real samples verified the reliability of this method and demonstrated that the ion chromatography can be used for the quantification detection of the tetrodotoxin. The degradation experiment results suggested that distiller's yeast had a remarkable effect on the tetrodotoxin degradation. PMID:21598524

Shu, Jing; Li, Bailin; Ou, Jie

2011-02-01

216

Computation of multicomponent distillation processes by the Newton-Raphson method using an implicit function  

SciTech Connect

A new iterative method is presented for the rigorous simulation of multicomponent distillation processes using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the simultaneous equations, which is characterized by the use of the liquid compositions as the independent variables and analytical equations for evaluating the partial derivatives, with the vapor compositions and temperatures as the dependent variables. The analytical equations for the partial derivatives of the vapor compositions with respect to the liquid compositions are derived, using the implicit-function theorem. The advantages of the method are that a numerical differentiation of the partial derivatives is unnecessary, as is normalization of the liquid compositions. The method has excellent convergence characteristics when applied to 10 typical distillation columns of complicated structure.

Shimizu, K. (Nippon Synthetic Chem. Ind. Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sayama, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Suzuki, K. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))

1993-01-01

217

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

218

Removal of water haze from distillate fuel  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

1989-04-04

219

Using Artificial Neural networks for the modelling of a distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this paper is to establish a reliable model both for the steady-state and unsteady-state regime s of a nonlinear process. The use of this model should reflect the true behavior of the process under its normal operating conditions and allow distinguishing a normal mode from an abnormal one. In order to obtain this reliable model for

Yahya Chetouani

2007-01-01

220

Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation  

E-print Network

of convergence (7). At the end of each trial, the system was placed in component-material balance subject to the restraints of the specifications by the use of the Newton-Raphson method (6). The implicit method (1, 2, 10) has been thoroughly investigated...-4)) is given by ? 1 N+1 FX. +( )(F X. -d. -b. )+ ? . ' u, . I-'u o o o o 1 ). o i '4 i i i nest =0 'i - D 10 1+ e (b, /d, ) 1+ + ? 3 (u. . /d. ) -I 1 t ca &at u8t . ji i ca j=0 (3-gb) Equations (3 4) may be solved by use of the Newton-Raphson method...

Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

2012-06-07

221

Optimal control of distillation column using Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many control problems involve simultaneous optimization of multiple performance measures that are often non-commensurable and competing with each other. The presence of multiple objectives in a problem usually gives rise to one set of optimal solutions, largely known as Pareto-optimal solutions. In this paper, the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) has been successfully applied to optimization of dynamic state of

Alireza Behroozsarand; Sirous Shafiei

2011-01-01

222

Modeling chromatographic columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a new mathematical model, based on non-equilibrium conditions, describing the dynamic adsorption of proteins in columns packed with spherical adsorbent particles is used to study the performance of chromatographic systems. Simulations of frontal chromatography, including axial dispersion, for non-equilibrium systems with non-linear adsorption isotherms are made and compared to those of the experimentally determined protein A affinity

Ahmet R Özdural; Asl? Alkan; Piet J. A. M Kerkhof

2004-01-01

223

Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

2014-07-01

224

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

2010-07-01

225

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

2011-07-01

226

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

2013-07-01

227

27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.  

... ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for Taxes § 19...free of tax from an alcohol fuel plant if the spirits are withdrawn exclusively for fuel use in accordance with this...

2014-04-01

228

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2013-04-01

229

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2011-04-01

230

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2014-04-01

231

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2012-04-01

232

Simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) method in the qualitative and quantitative GC analysis of cheese volatile components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus proposed by Godefroot has been used for the GC study of volatile components of cheese. 5–10 g of cheese provide a fraction that can be directly injected into a GC or a GC\\/MS. Two capillary columns (SE-30 and SP-1000) were evaluated, the second one being adequate for quantitative determinations. Camphor was used as internal standard. The

M. de Frutos; J. Sanz; I. Martínez-Castro

1988-01-01

233

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-print Network

of oil. An overview of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) reports the narrow range of applications of membrane distillation in the industry, such as desalination and water purification (Burgoyne and Vahdati, 2000; Cath et al., 2004). Gryta... crystalliser and air gap membrane distillation as a solution to geothermal water desalination. Desalination 152 (1-3), 237-244. Burgoyne, A, Vahdati, M.M. 2000. Direct contact membrane distillation.Separation Science and Technology 35 (8), 1257...

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2006-10-30

234

CFRP Prestressed Concrete Lighting Columns  

E-print Network

Aspects of the design and installation of a novel carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) prestressed high strength concrete lighting column (Carbolith®) are presented. The tapered cylindrical columns have a nominal height of 8 m and contain...

Terrasi, Giovanni P.; Lees, Janet M.

2003-08-01

235

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations , shared between two honest par- ties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution , assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2006-01-01

236

27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits and wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol...Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at...

2010-04-01

237

Effects of temperature and salt concentration on distilled water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper studies the influence of salt concentration and temperature on the distillation flow rate in a single effect multi-stage system for small water distillation units for low purchasing communities of 50 to 100 people. The distillation process has been evaporation–condensation under variable conditions: temperature of the evaporation and salt concentration. The results have shown there is a dependence of

C. Armenta-Deu

2002-01-01

238

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

239

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2012-04-01

240

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2014-04-01

241

27 CFR 1.84 - Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies. 1.84 Section...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

242

27 CFR 1.81 - Importation of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Importation of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.81 Section 1.81 Alcohol, Tobacco...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

243

27 CFR 27.120 - Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. 27.120 Section 27.120 Alcohol... Importation of Distilled Spirits In Bulk § 27.120 Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

244

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2011-04-01

245

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

Kvajic, G.

246

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-print Network

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Benni Reznik

2000-08-01

247

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-print Network

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Reznik, B

2000-01-01

248

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

249

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

250

Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Monticello, D.J. (Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

251

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-print Network

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03

252

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

253

Design and Optimization of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences for Purification of Bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in the bioethanol production process is the purification of ethanol from a dilute solution, i.e., approximately 10% ethanol in water. The key factor in the purification process is the formation of the ethanol-water binary homogeneous azeotrope, and an additional process is required to obtain high purity ethanol that can be used in motor vehicles. This study examines

Carlo Edgar Torres-Ortega; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernández; Héctor Hernández; Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet

2009-01-01

254

Design and Optimization of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences for Purification of Bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important problem in the bioethanol production process is the purification of ethan from a dilute solution, i.e., approximately 10% ethanol in water. The key factor in th purification process is the formation of the ethanol-water binary homogeneou azeotrope, and an additional process is required to obtain high purity ethanol that can b used in motor vehicles. This study examines

Carlo Edgar Torres-Ortega; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernández; Héctor Hernández; Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet; Rafael Maya-Yescas

2009-01-01

255

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

256

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01

257

Leaching potential of phenylurea herbicides in a calcareous soil: comparison of column elution and batch studies.  

PubMed

The transfer of eleven phenylurea herbicides through soil columns was investigated in laboratory conditions in order to determine leaching properties in a calcareous soil. Elution curves with distilled water were plotted after herbicide application on the soil column. Phenylurea retention by the soil indicating interactions with soil can be classified as follows: fenuron < fluometron ? isoproturon = monuron < metoxuron < monolinuron < metobromuron < chlorotoluron < linuron = diuron < chlorbromuron. The number and nature of halogen atoms on the phenyl ring had an important influence on leaching. Retention was higher for molecules with higher number of halogen, and it was also higher for bromine than chlorine. Column elution experiments were compared to batch experiments from which the distribution coefficients K d were determined. According to Kendall correlation coefficients, parameter m/m 0 max from column experiments was relatively well linked to K d. In case of phenylurea, a linear relationship between K d and m/m 0 max was established. PMID:23097070

Langeron, Julie; Sayen, Stéphanie; Couderchet, Michel; Guillon, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

258

Five-Layer Density Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners can create five-layer density columns by employing one of three (or all) methods. Method 1 gives the names of the liquids and the order for adding them, and its goal is to directly construct the density column without any experimentation. Method 2 assumes names and densities of the five materials to be unknown, and involves open-ended experimenting, with few instructions, to construct the column. Method 3 also assumes names and densities of the materials to be unknown, and outlines a systematic way to approach the experimentation involved in constructing the column. Learners complete data tables and analyze the densities of the substances.

Rathjen, Don

2005-01-01

259

Density Column Lab - Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concluding a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate densities of several household liquids and compare them to the densities of irregularly shaped objects (as determined in Part 1). Then they create density columns with the three liquids and four solid items to test their calculations and predictions of the different densities. Once their density columns are complete, students determine the effect of adding detergent to the columns. After this activity, present the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for a discussion about why the column layers do not mix.

GK-12 Program,

260

Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

1 Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies stability. They are compatible with most aqueous buffers, such as ammonium acetate, phosphate, tris, etc µm, 7.8x300 mm) Mobile phase: 150 mM Sodium Phosphate, pH 7.0 Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min Detection: UV214

Lebendiker, Mario

261

Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.  

PubMed

The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation. PMID:24627202

Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

2014-06-01

262

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01

263

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

264

Strategies of Successful Distillation Equipment Revamps Part 1: Determining Existing Distillation Equipment Capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful unit operation revamps are those, which have a high return on investment and low life cycle cost. Life cycle cost may include original capital, energy, operation, and maintenance cost over a typical life span of 10 years. For simplicity, some life cycle cost evaluations only include original capital and energy cost. Distillation equipment is typically greater than 25% of

Karl Kolmetz; Daniel R Summers; Wai Kiong Ng; Sulzer Chemtech; Ryan Pitt

265

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

HEAT RECOVERY IN DISTILLATION BY MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION Frederick E. Becker and Alexandra I. Zakak Tecogen, Inc., A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A significant reduction in distillation... tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed...

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

266

Desalination of Seawater by Thermal Distillation and Electrodialysis Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Freshwater is one of the scarce resources in the world. In many countries, due to freshwater shortages, searching for freshwater\\u000a resources has become extremely important and desalination is known to be an essential available solution for this. In this\\u000a chapter, the thermal distillation of multistage flash distillation, multieffect distillation and vapor compression and electrodialysis\\u000a processes for seawater desalination are presented.

Jiaping Paul Chen; Lawrence K. Wang; Lei Yang; Yu-Ming Zheng

267

This column will self destruct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This column aims to focus on the obsolescence of technology, and the problems associated with the archiving, storage and retrieval of data. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The column takes the form of a viewpoint paper. Findings – All technology is susceptible to obsolescence, meaning that information can be lost due to changes in hardware and software. A book or printed

John Maxymuk

2010-01-01

268

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following nonmetallic additives with distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust inhibitor. (5) Pour depressant. (6) Dye. (7) Dispersant. (8) Biocide....

2012-07-01

269

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

SciTech Connect

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01

270

Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples--Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction  

PubMed Central

A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

2009-01-01

271

EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH ALFALFA POWDERS AND DISTILLERS GRAINS ON NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF CANOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pot experiments were carried out under controlled environment conditions in the growth chamber to assess the potential use of alfalfa powders and distiller grains as organic fertilizers. Two types of dehydrated alfalfa powders (one with canola meal protein extraction by-product and one without) and two types of distiller grains (dried distillers grain with distillation solubles added and wet distillers

P. Qian; J. J. Schoenau; T. King; C. Fatteicher

2011-01-01

272

Kinetics of distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe juniper ( Juniperus communis L.) berries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe berries of Juniperus communis L. (juniper oil) was studied at different hydrodistillation rates. The distillation of juniper consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on this mechanism, the kinetics of juniper oil distillation were described using a two-parameter model of unsteady-state diffusion through the plant

Svetomir Ž. Milojevi?; Tamara D. Stojanovi?; Radosav Pali?; Miodrag L. Lazi?; Vlada B. Veljkovi?

2008-01-01

273

Chapter 24 Protein Chromatography on Hydroxyapatite Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of spherical forms of hydroxyapatite has enabled protein scientists to separate and purify proteins multiple times with the same packed column. Biopharmaceutical companies have driven single column applications of complex samples to simpler samples obtained from upstream column purification steps on affinity, ion exchange or hydrophobic interaction columns. Multiple column purification permits higher protein loads to spherical forms

Larry J. Cummings; Mark A. Snyder; Kimberly Brisack

2009-01-01

274

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

275

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-print Network

and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds! This week's experiment will show you how to use distillation to purify a compound as well as analyze your apparatus for proper connections and water flow before you begin heating (and don't forget a boiling chip

Taber, Douglass

276

Treating process wastewater employing vacuum distillation using mechanical vapor recompression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process wastewater has been successfully treated using an enhanced variable vacuum distillation system (VVDS). The removal of contaminants is achieved initially by degassing the liquid under an intense vacuum which removes the volatile organic compounds. The resulting liquid is then distilled under a vacuum using mechanical vapor recompression. The system was invented by Derald McCabe. This innovative treatment system removes

Derald L. McCabe

1999-01-01

277

Design and Optimization of Thermally Coupled Extractive Distillation Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design and optimization procedures are developed for a conventional extractive distillation sequence and a thermally coupled extractive distillation scheme. The proposed methodologies detect the optimal values of the design variables in order to guarantee the minimum energy consumption. It was found that the optimum energy consumption can be related to the minimum total annual operating cost, minimum

Roberto Gutierrez-Guerra; Juan-Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernandez; Adrian Bonilla-Petriciolet; Hector Hernández

2009-01-01

278

Solvent Distillation Studies for a Purex Reprocessing Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation system has been developed for regeneration of Purex solvent and will be implemented for the first time in a reprocessing plant. The results are described and analyzed, with emphasis on laboratory experiments which were made with a radioactive plant solvent. Particularly the distillation provides a good separation of solvent degradation products, which was verified by measurements of interfacial

C. Ginisty; B. Guillaume

1990-01-01

279

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

280

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2011-04-01

281

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2013-04-01

282

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2012-04-01

283

27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines...alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits,...

2010-04-01

284

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

, ! waste heat recovery by heat exchange, mechanical I I power recovery, heat exchanger upgrading, increas~ng insulation, heat pumping, vapor recompression, I Escalation of fllel and l':quipmenr costs. ",~==~.--------==---~------~--= 201 I I ESL... the heat rejected from the overhead is used to reboil the bottoms with the ! aid of added mechanical work by the compressor. There are two variations on the basic heat ~ump in which one of the column fluids acts as the ref~ig? erant. Vapor recompression...

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01

285

Selected Topics in Column Generation  

E-print Network

Dec 2, 2002 ... Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and column generation, devised for linear programs, is a success ... To appear in Operations Research. ... damental idea, developing a strategy to extend a linear program columnwise as needed ...

2002-12-02

286

Telescoping columns. [parabolic antenna support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extendable column is described which consists of several axially elongated rigid structural sections nested within one another. Each section includes a number of rotatably attached screws running along its length. The next inner section includes threaded lugs oriented to threadingly engage the screws. The column is extended or retracted upon rotation of the screws. The screws of each section are selectively rotated by a motor and an engagement mechanism.

Mazur, J. T. (inventor)

1980-01-01

287

27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety § 19.241 Operations bond—distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2010-04-01

288

27 CFR 19.133 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.133 Section 19.133...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Location and Use § 19.133 Use of distilled spirits plant premises. (a) General. No...

2010-04-01

289

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.204...

2010-04-01

290

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.203...

2010-04-01

291

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48...LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal...

2010-04-01

292

27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes...LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions...27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control...

2010-04-01

293

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

294

27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single...

2010-04-01

295

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2013-04-01

296

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2014-04-01

297

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2012-04-01

298

40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621...10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

2013-07-01

299

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear...

2013-04-01

300

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2011-04-01

301

Hybrid separation processes combining vacuum distillation with fractional crystallization, partial melting, and granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical fundamentals of the combined processes of distillative crystallization (also called distillation crystallization\\u000a or distillative freezing) and distillative sweating (also called distillation sweating or distillation melting) are considered.\\u000a Results of the experimental study of the kinetics of separation of binary and ternary organic mixtures of various forms (liquids,\\u000a powders, continuous layers, and granules) are presented. The high efficiency of

S. K. Myasnikov; A. D. Uteshinsky; N. N. Kulov

2009-01-01

302

Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, E? = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) ? Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (<1 day). This allows multiple measurements to be made on the same column and thus the sediment biology to be monitored non-invasively over time (i.e. after an augmentation has been introduced) and minimizes long-lived radioactive waste. Different parameters can be measured, depending on the tracer type and delivery. A constant infusion of a conservative tracer, such as the positron emitter Br-76 (T1/2= 16.2 hr), measures the exclusion fraction (as a function of position in the column), while a bolus maps the flow velocity as a function of position. A tracer that interacts chemically with the contents of the column (e.g., [99m-Tc(VII)O4]- reduced to 99m-TcO2 by Fe(II) ) yields a map of the chemical environment (e.g., the distribution of Fe(II)). Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

2010-12-01

303

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

A mixed quantum state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of that state into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with a maximally entangled state state. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of that state every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question.

John Watrous

2003-12-15

304

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

305

Computer-aided analysis of energy consumption in ethanol-water distillation operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing computer programs have been used to evaluate the effects of various process parameters on the energy consumption of an ethanol distillation step. A savings of 250 kJ/mol ethanol produced is possible if the ethanol feed concentration is increased from 4 wt % to 8 wt %; further increases, however, result in only marginal additional savings. Preheating the feed to its saturated liquid condition is more advantageous than distilling the cold feed directly; the reboiler requires substantially less energy if the waste heat in the bottom flow is used to preheat the feed. About $45,000/y could be saved by a 38 ML/y plant by decreasing the operating reflux from 1.5 to 1.3 times the minimum reflux ratio. At ethanol concentrations above 15 wt %, about 40 kJ/mol ethanol produced could be saved by reducing the concentration of the ethanol feed to the dehydrating column to 92 wt %. Operating at 10 kPa (0.1 atm) instead of 100 kPa (1 atm) could save 125 kJ/mol ethanol produced, but an increase in noncondensible gases could lead to increased steam usage.

Nguyen, X. N.; Heyman, E. C.

1982-02-01

306

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

2009-04-30

307

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

308

LRC Chromatography Columns for Laboratory Applications  

E-print Network

volumes up to 900 mL and bed heights up to 750 mm. Column tubes are made of borosilicate glass of Description Construction Column Tube [1] Borosilicate glass Pistons: 1 adjustable [2] and 1 fixed [3] EachLRC Chromatography Columns for Laboratory Applications Empty glass columns accommodate sorbent

Lebendiker, Mario

309

Toxicity of coal-distillates to Spirodela polyrrhiza  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth responses of an aquatic vascular plant, Spirodela polyrrhiza, to water-soluble fractions of raw and hydrotreated coal-distillates. S. polyrrhiza is easy to grow in laboratory culture and its growth responses are readily determined by macroscopic observation of changes in frond number. Raw and hydrotreated coal-distillates were chosen as test compounds because hydrotreatment of increasing severity reduced concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-distillates, thereby lessening their toxicity to algae. These distillates thus provide a means of determining the influence of sequential reductions in concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons on the growth of Spirodela polyrrhiza and for comparing the responses of this plant to those obtained with algae.

King, J.M.; Coley, K.S.

1984-08-01

310

Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings  

E-print Network

The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

1984-01-01

311

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

...307 Section 19.307 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used...

2014-04-01

312

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...307 Section 19.307 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...bonded wine cellar for use in fermentation of wine to be used...

2013-04-01

313

27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...industrial” and will be excluded from any application of the term “nonindustrial use.” The use of distilled spirits: (a) Free of tax by, and for the use of, the United States or any governmental agency thereof, any State, any political...

2013-04-01

314

27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...industrial” and will be excluded from any application of the term “nonindustrial use.” The use of distilled spirits: (a) Free of tax by, and for the use of, the United States or any governmental agency thereof, any State, any political...

2010-04-01

315

27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.  

...industrial” and will be excluded from any application of the term “nonindustrial use.” The use of distilled spirits: (a) Free of tax by, and for the use of, the United States or any governmental agency thereof, any State, any political...

2014-04-01

316

27 CFR 1.60 - Use of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...industrial” and will be excluded from any application of the term “nonindustrial use.” The use of distilled spirits: (a) Free of tax by, and for the use of, the United States or any governmental agency thereof, any State, any political...

2011-04-01

317

Toxicity of coal-distillates to Spirodela polyrrhiza  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth responses of an aquatic vascular plant, Spirodela polyrrhiza, to water-soluble fractions of raw and hydrotreated coal-distillates. S. polyrrhiza is easy to grow in laboratory culture and its growth responses are readily determined by macroscopic observation of changes in frond number. Raw and hydrotreated coal-distillates were chosen as test compounds because hydrotreatment

Joe M. King; Karen S. Coley

1984-01-01

318

Grey Correlation Analysis of Corrosion on Oil Atmospheric Distillation Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion exacerbated on atmospheric distillation unit when Shengli plant refined high-sulfur and high-acid crude oil imported from Middle-east. Measured the corrosion pate on the top of atmospheric distillation tower with electric resistance probe and monitored sulfur value, salt value, salt value after desalt, acid value in crude oil and iron ion in product container every month. Carried on grey correlation

Zhengfang Wang; Yong Wang; Jan Zhang; Dawei Qu; Xiuhua Liu

2008-01-01

319

Wine distillates: practical operating recipe formulation for stills.  

PubMed

Consumer perceptions of flavors are associated with the chemical composition of foods. However, consumer preferences change; therefore, it is necessary for food manufacturers to be able to adapt their products. Unlike in aged spirits, the chemical composition of young spirits is determined during distillation; therefore, this is where distillers must tailor their operating recipes to the new trends. Even for an experienced distiller, the complexity of the process makes adapting the operating recipe far from straightforward. In this study, we developed a methodology for generating practical recipes that makes use of computer simulations and optimization techniques. We used Pisco Brandy, a young Muscat wine distillate from Chile and Peru as our case study. Even so, because our methodology is independent of the chemical composition of the broth, it can be applied throughout the industry. Drawing on the experience and preferences of industry enologists, we designed a preferred distillate and used our methodology to obtain the appropriate recipe. This recipe was validated in lab scale experiments, and we obtained a much closer distillate to the desired prescription than commercial products. PMID:16076114

Osorio, Daniel; Pérez-Correa, J Ricardo; Biegler, Lorenz T; Agosin, Eduardo

2005-08-10

320

Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

2014-01-01

321

Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.  

PubMed

Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a?>?F3?>?F3b with invertebrates, and F3a?>?F3b?>?F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. PMID:20836068

Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

2010-12-01

322

WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS  

E-print Network

93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France, a greater depth for desinfection purposes. KEYWORDS Wastewater treatment, Infiltration-percolation. Sand

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Editorial: Research and Teaching Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The JCST Research and Teaching column will feature sound research on curriculum, pedagogy, and student learning at the college level. Topics of interest include all fields of science: chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, physics, geography, mathematics, environmental science, and computer science. Studies that are interdisciplinary or are readily applicable to several disciplines in the sciences are also of interest.

Towns, Marcy

2008-03-01

324

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2010-04-01

325

27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding permits as...

2010-04-01

326

27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.80 Section 1.80 Alcohol, Tobacco...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

327

Quantitative ester analysis in cachaca and distilled spirits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl octanoate, and ethyl laurate in cachaca, rum, and whisky by direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method is simple, selective, and appropriated for the determination of esters in distilled spirits. The limit of detection ranged from 29 (ethyl hexanoate) to 530 (ethyl acetate) microg L(-1), whereas the standard deviation for repeatability was between 0.774% (ethyl hexanoate) and 5.05% (isoamyl octanoate). Relative standard deviation values for accuracy vary from 90.3 to 98.5% for ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethyl acetate was shown to be the major ester in cachaca (median content of 22.6 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol), followed by ethyl lactate (median content of 8.32 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol). Cachaca produced in copper and hybrid alembic present a higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate than those produced in a stainless-steel column, whereas cachaca produced by distillation in a stainless-steel column present a higher content of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate. As expected, ethyl acetate is the major ester in whiskey and rum, followed by ethyl lactate for samples of rum. Nevertheless, whiskey samples exhibit ethyl lactate at contents lower or at the same order of magnitude of the fatty esters. PMID:18570431

Nascimento, Eduardo S P; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

2008-07-23

328

Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some activities concerning chemistry education, including a brief report of the 1973 conference on teaching of pre-university courses, a statement about using plastics containers, a survey of mathematical skills in chemistry, discussions about the Nuffield Foundation 27th Report and the report "Science for the 13-16 Age Group." (CC)

Education in Chemistry, 1974

1974-01-01

329

Gas chromatographic determination of water in organic compounds and of organic compounds in water after steam distillation  

SciTech Connect

A gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame ionization detector (FID) is shown to be effective in the determination of water in organic compounds. The ketal, 2,2-dimethoxypropane (DMP), reacts quantitatively with water to yield the products methanol and acetone when an acid catalyst is present. A solid acid catalyst, Nafion, has been effective and is easily separated before sample introduction into the GC. Several organic solvents were analyzed using this indirect method for determining water. The method is effective for determining water from 0.001-3.5% w/w. Solid samples were also analyzed and the water found in additional spikes agreed with the amount added. Simple steam distillation is used for the isolation and concentration of organic compounds from water matrices. Organic compounds are spiked into a flask containing water and the mixture is then boiled. Typical distillation times take less than 25 minutes. The condensate is collected in a small collection tube and a portion is injected into a GC containing a capillary column. The recovery of most compounds with boiling points from 77 to 238{degree}C is better than 90% and a concentration effect of ten is realized. Steam distillation combined with solid phase extraction is shown to be effective in isolating and concentrating compounds from water in the part-per-billion range. A simple interface between the boiling apparatus and resin collection column is presented. Once the organic analytes are boiled and collected on the resin, they are removed with a small amount of ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate solution is then injected into a GC. Compounds with boiling points above 400{degree}C can be determined by turning off the flow of cold water in the condenser. Recoveries are better than 80% for compounds with boiling points between 132 to 404{degree}C.

Dix, K.D.

1989-01-01

330

Density Column Lab - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this first part of a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate the densities of several common, irregularly shaped objects with the purpose to resolve confusion about mass and density. After this activity, conduct the associated Density Column Lab - Part 2 activity before presenting the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for discussion about concepts that explain what students have observed.

GK-12 Program,

331

Treating process wastewater employing vacuum distillation using mechanical vapor recompression  

SciTech Connect

Process wastewater has been successfully treated using an enhanced variable vacuum distillation system (VVDS). The removal of contaminants is achieved initially by degassing the liquid under an intense vacuum which removes the volatile organic compounds. The resulting liquid is then distilled under a vacuum using mechanical vapor recompression. The system was invented by Derald McCabe. This innovative treatment system removes virtually all of the contaminants, such as TSS, TDS, BOD{sub 5}, COD, heavy metals and mineral compounds. The resultant aqueous portion normally returns to a neutral pH. Due to the unique system operation, scaling problems (often encountered in conventional distillation) have not been detected in this system. The VVDS is extremely energy efficiency because the heat for distillation is generated and recycled mechanically. Using electricity as the energy source, the approximate operating cost, based on $0.05 KWH, may vary from $0.005 to $0.01 per gallon depending on the size and capacity of the equipment. Based on applications in waste streams performed to-date, the VVDS process has yielded a distilled water stream and the concentrated solids have been used as a byproduct or as a concentrated non-dischargeable waste for disposal.

McCabe, D.L. [Brandt, Houston, TX (United States)] [Brandt, Houston, TX (United States); Vivona, M.A. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Water and Wastewater Dept.] [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Water and Wastewater Dept.

1999-05-01

332

Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.  

PubMed

The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

2002-10-01

333

Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namiesnik, Jacek

2013-01-01

334

Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.  

PubMed

The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-01-01

335

29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.  

...anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base plate weld and the column foundation, shall be designed to resist a minimum eccentric gravity load of 300 pounds (136.2 kg)...

2014-07-01

336

LRCLaboratoryColumns New York -USA  

E-print Network

to a standard system. The column body is made of a borosilicate glass tube. The columns are equipped with one torsional load on the packed bed and assures true linear compression. - True frits pressed into the plunger at the column inlet. 2. Inlet frit partially clogged. 3. Outlet frit partially clogged. 4. Separation efficiency

Lebendiker, Mario

337

Esterification of fatty acids in a thermally coupled reactive distillation column by the two-step supercritical methanol method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiesel fuel has been shown as a clean energy alternative to petroleum diesel. Conventional biodiesel production involves the use of catalyst, which implies high energy consumptions for the separation of both the catalyst and the by-products of the reaction, including those of the undesirable reaction of saponification. Recently, a process involving the use of short-chain alcohols at supercritical conditions has

Fernando Israel Gómez-Castro; Vicente Rico-Ramírez; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernández-Castro

2011-01-01

338

Measurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee and Colin S. Howat, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

to be subsequently used as a test of the plant performance interpretation accuracy. In addition, a continuous, mass. Additionally, atypical measurements can be made to be subsequently used as a test of the plant performance, accuracy, and precision. Plant performance analysis, the primary steps of which are identification

Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

339

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2009-07-15

340

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-print Network

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

J. Bulava; K. J. Juge; C. J. Morningstar; M. J. Peardon; C. H. Wong

2009-11-11

341

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-print Network

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

Bulava, J; Morningstar, C J; Peardon, M J; Wong, C H

2009-01-01

342

Winogradsky Column Unit: Chemical and Physical Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part activity leads Physical Science students, grades 8-12, to explore chemical change using Winogradsky Columns. Part 1 constructs student concepts concerning chemical and physical changes. Part 2 asks students to compare physical versus chemical changes and observe chemical changes in a Winogradsky Column, and teaches them to build their own column. It includes the following student pages: introductory lesson, Winogradsky Column lesson, challenge your thinking activity sheet, how to make a Winogradsky Column, how to create an observation journal, and journal evaluation sheet.

Pevzner, Yevgeny; Shelton, Sharyn A.; Project, Westminster C.

343

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

344

Investigation on drying of middle distillate by Pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying of middle distillate (MD), from which diesel fuel is made, by Pervaporation (PV) was experimentally investigated in a laboratory plant applying organic membranes. The work was conducted in cooperation with a refinery in which MD is catalytically desulphurized by hydrogenation. The H2S formed is separated by steam stripping. The resulting water content in the MD is removed by

Karl-Heinz Reichmann; Ninja Hildebrand; Jürgen Freitag; Rainer Kossol; Helmut Schiml

2010-01-01

345

Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

2005-01-01

346

CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;  

E-print Network

CHEM­333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils; Experiments A, C, D and below research laboratory procedure, but it is invaluable when it is useful, as in extraction of essential oils the oils from either caraway, cinnamon, clove, or cumin (see below) and prepare a derivative of the main

Taber, Douglass

347

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

348

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal collectors on a medium to large scale. However the cost and energy requirement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) have fallen significantly in recent years, so that solar thermal powered RO deserves consideration. We compare commercial desalination processes on the basis of

G. Burgess; K. Lovegrove

349

Analysis of a solar-powered membrane distillation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, in dry and rural areas, solar-powered membrane distillation (SPMD) technology is considered a feasiblemeans for the production of pure water from brackish water. Prior to the design and construction of a SPMD pilot plant, there is a need to predict its performance theoretically by means of a computational simulation program. Unlike previous approaches followed by other investigators to develop

Zhongwei Ding; Liying Liu; Mohamed S. El-Bourawi; Runyu Ma

2005-01-01

350

Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1981-12-01

351

Preparation of distilled and purified continuous-variable entangled states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of entangled states of light over long distances is a major challenge in the field of quantum information. Optical losses, phase diffusion and mixing with thermal states lead to decoherence and destroy the non-classical states after some finite transmission-line length. Quantum repeater protocols, which combine quantum memory, entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping, were proposed to overcome this problem.

Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James Diguglielmo; Alexander Franzen; Jaromír Fiurásek; Roman Schnabel

2008-01-01

352

Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (? 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (? 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (? 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

2011-06-15

353

Air gap membrane distillation of sucrose aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper results obtained with air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) using sucrose aqueous solutions are shown. The role of the relevant process parameters has been investigated experimentally (the flow rate through the cell, the feed initial concentration, the type of membrane, the air gap thickness, etc.). Equations have been proposed to estimate the intermediate temperatures for the air gap

M. A. Izquierdo-Gil; M. C. Garc??a-Payo; C. Fernández-Pineda

1999-01-01

354

Concentration of sucrose solutions via vacuum membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential use of vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process for the concentration of sucrose solution was examined. The effect of several parameters, including feed temperature, flow rate, and initial sucrose concentration on the flux quality and quantity was studied. VMD process was found effective in concentrating aqueous sucrose solutions as the permeate was absolutely pure water. The feed temperature significantly

S. Al-Asheh; F. Banat; M. Qtaishat; M. Al-Khateeb

2006-01-01

355

Grey Predication of Corrosion on Oil Atmospheric Distillation Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shengli refinery plant process middle-east crude oil, the equipment is exposed to wash erosion seriously. The elbow on the entrance of the atmospheric distillation tower top exchangers always leak for eroding. Measured the thickness of elbow by ultrasonic thickness meter every month, established GM (1, 1) model with grey system theory, the average relative error is 1.8959%, model passed error

Zhengfang Wang; Yong Wang; Weiqiang Wang; Hui Qi; Jian Zhang; Qingkun He

2009-01-01

356

Research on the Distillation Process for Sea Water Desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water shortage is becoming a worldwide problem and a crisis for development and contradictory. A lot of sea side cities are in the shortage of fresh water. Sea water desalination is one of the solutions for solving the problem in the regions near sea. There are several methods for the desalination. The dominating methods include distillation, flash, and reverse osmosis

Shengqiang Shen

357

A new method for studying thermally integrated distillation sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short cut synthesis method was developed in order to find the best structure of heat integrated distillation system. It was applied to studying a process for recovery of six light products from multicomponent mixture. The method was demonstrated as a very effective one and led to the best heat integrated sequences. A computational simulation of the process and pinch analysis

Gorazd Sobo?an; Peter Glavi?

1999-01-01

358

Desalination of thermally softened water by membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water containing up to 12g\\/L of soluble salts was successfully desalinated in membrane distillation (MD) for 250h using polypropylene membranes. However, the MD process was affected by bicarbonates dissolved in water, which undergo a decomposition reaction when feed was heated, and the precipitation of carbonates on the membranes surface was observed. Scaling was responsible for a decrease in the

Marek Gryta

2010-01-01

359

INTRODUCTION Weiwei-isms distills Ai Weiwei's thinking on the  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Weiwei-isms distills Ai Weiwei's thinking on the topics of individual rights. Excerpted from Ai's own newspa- per articles, Twitter posts, media interviews, and other sources, Weiwei't conversant with Ai Wei- wei's background, a chronology takes readers through his biographical details. Like

Landweber, Laura

360

Operation of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation and design of an inductively heated, bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) are described. The furnace is used as part of a pyrochemical process for the electrometallurgical treatment of spent light water reactor fuel. The focus is on the components that contain the metal melts and vapors. The forerunner of this paper focuses on the design of the induction power

M. A. Vest; G. K. Johnson; R. D. Pierce; E. J. Wesolowski

1997-01-01

361

Development of bench-scale metal distillation furnace (retort)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Processes for the recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuels required the design of a high-temperature vacuum furnace. The furnace had to be able to melt actinides, distill volatile metals (zinc and magnesium), be able to operate in a nitrogen glove box with low head room, and heat resonably fast while being capable of holding temperature. Induction heating was chosen

M. A. Vest; L. Smith; R. D. Pierce

1995-01-01

362

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

363

27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.207...

2010-04-01

364

41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41...Handling Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?...

2010-07-01

365

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic...Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic...distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes...

2011-07-01

366

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic...Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic...distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes...

2010-07-01

367

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

2012-07-01

368

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

2013-07-01

369

27 CFR 27.56 - Distilled spirits containers of a capacity of not more than 1 gallon.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Packaging and Marking of Distilled Spirits § 27.56 Distilled spirits containers of a...

2011-04-01

370

27 CFR 26.36c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States...Puerto Rico § 26.36c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought...

2010-04-01

371

27 CFR 26.201c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States...Virgin Islands § 26.201c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought...

2010-04-01

372

27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of...

2010-04-01

373

27 CFR 17.163 - Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a distilled spirits plant). For spirits other than alcohol, grain spirits, neutral spirits, distilled gin, or straight whisky (as defined in the standards of identity prescribed by § 5.22 of this chapter), the manufacturer of nonbeverage...

2010-04-01

374

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...plants. Persons holding basic permits (issued under subpart B of this part) authorizing the distilling, processing, rectifying, or warehousing and bottling of distilled spirits, or operating permits (issued under § 19.157 and succeeding...

2010-04-01

375

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plants. Persons holding basic permits (issued under subpart B of this part) authorizing the distilling, processing, rectifying, or warehousing and bottling of distilled spirits, or operating permits (issued under § 19.91 and succeeding...

2013-04-01

376

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...plants. Persons holding basic permits (issued under subpart B of this part) authorizing the distilling, processing, rectifying, or warehousing and bottling of distilled spirits, or operating permits (issued under § 19.157 and succeeding...

2011-04-01

377

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

...plants. Persons holding basic permits (issued under subpart B of this part) authorizing the distilling, processing, rectifying, or warehousing and bottling of distilled spirits, or operating permits (issued under § 19.91 and succeeding...

2014-04-01

378

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plants. Persons holding basic permits (issued under subpart B of this part) authorizing the distilling, processing, rectifying, or warehousing and bottling of distilled spirits, or operating permits (issued under § 19.91 and succeeding...

2012-04-01

379

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2013-04-01

380

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

...2014-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2014-04-01

381

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2012-04-01

382

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production...spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise...by a distilled spirits plant registered with...

2012-04-01

383

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production...spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise...by a distilled spirits plant registered with...

2011-04-01

384

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production...spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise...by a distilled spirits plant registered with...

2014-04-01

385

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production...spirits at home for personal use. Except as otherwise...by a distilled spirits plant registered with...

2013-04-01

386

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2011-04-01

387

Comparative Chemical Composition of Steam-Distilled and Water-Soluble Essential Oils of South American Marigold (Tagetes minuta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering shoot biomass of feld-grown South American marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) was hydrodistilled in Clevenger-type apparatus, steam-distilled in a feld distillation unit and the distillation water was collected. Chemical profles of hydrodistilled, steam-distilled and water-soluble (recovered from the distillation water of feld distillation unit employing hexane as the solvent) essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. The solubility of

B. R. Rajeswara Rao; P. N. Kaul; A. K. Bhattacharya; D. K. Rajput; K. V. Syamasundar; S. Ramesh

2006-01-01

388

[Morphology and dynamics of the spinal column].  

PubMed

The function of the vertebral column--the supporting axial component of the body--can only be understood by detailed knowledge of its structure. For this reason the first part of the article gives a report of the latest findings on the ligaments and zygapophysial joints of the vertebral column. Particular emphasis has been laid on the functional cooperation of these ligaments and joints during movements of the segments of the column. The second part of the paper is concerned with the dynamic behaviour of the column in children and young people, and is described in terms of the anatomical information given before. The damping capacity of the spinal column and its rigidity depend on both the age of the subject and the position of the body. In the axial direction the damping effect of the column is relatively slight, but it becomes markedly increased during ventral flexion. PMID:6856812

Putz, R

1983-04-01

389

Seawater desalination by an innovative solar-powered membrane distillation system: the MEDESOL project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the MEDESOL (Seawater Desalination by Innovative Solar-Powered Membrane Distillation System) project, partially supported by the European Commission under the Horizontal Programme “Global Change and Ecosystems (Global 4)”. Despite the advantages of solar membrane distillation (MD) systems, very few experimental systems have been developed compared with the mature technologies of solar PV-driven reverse osmosis and solar distillation.

Julián Blanco Gálvez; Lourdes García-Rodríguez; Isabel Martín-Mateos

2009-01-01

390

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates*  

E-print Network

-950°F) was collected from the plant and subsequently vacuum distilled at the Pittsburgh EnergyUV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates used to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of a series of distillates of coal

Asher, Sanford A.

391

Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units  

E-print Network

-oil atmospheric and vacuum distillation units are essential to manage increased complexities and narrow margins1 Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units Brenno, Pennsylvania 15213, United States. Crude-oil assays, Distillation, Fractionation, Swing-cuts, Temperature cut

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

392

The impact of feeding condensed distillers byproducts on rumen microbiology and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro fermentation experiments and a feeding trial were conducted to determine how distillers byproducts impact rumen microbiology and metabolism. The in vitro rate of lactic acid disappearance was not stimulated by direct addition of distillers byproducts to mixed rumen contents collected from a steer adapted to a high concentrate diet. However, if animals were fed condensed distillers byproducts for

Melanie Fron; Humberto Madeira; Chris Richards; Mark Morrison

1996-01-01

393

Controllability analysis of thermally coupled distillation sequences for five—Component mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control properties of thermally coupled distillation sequences for the separation of feved—component mixtures of hydrocarbons were compared to those of conventional distillation sequences. Seven thermally coupled arrangements were investigated. The preliminary steady—state designs of complex schemes were obtained by starting from conventional distillation sequences and then optimizing for minimum energy consumption. The control properties of the sequences considered were

Marcelino Carrera Rodriguez; Minerva Ledezma Martinez; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernández

2006-01-01

394

AN EXHAUSTIVE STEAM-DISTILLATION AND SOLVENT-EXTRACTION UNIT FOR PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a modified Nielsen-Kryger steam-distillation apparatus that provides exhaustive distillation of pesticides and industrial chemicals from water, sediments, and tissue and the simultaneous extraction of the distillate by a small volume of organic solvent....

395

19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 ...Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director...imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C....

2011-04-01

396

19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 ...Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director...imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C....

2013-04-01

397

19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 ...Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director...imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C....

2012-04-01

398

19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 ...Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director...imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C....

2010-04-01

399

19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.  

... Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 ...Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a) The port director...imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C....

2014-04-01

400

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuOâ) and simulant PuOâ has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat

R. Pierce; D. Pak

2011-01-01

401

Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

2014-06-01

402

Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns.  

PubMed

Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times. PMID:25019768

Pastenes, Javier C; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

2014-06-01

403

A Final Column (Rainbow Teachers, Rainbow Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents, in a farewell column, some reflections on educational issues and movements concerning rainbow students, including self-esteem, story sharing, nonverbal differences, racial identification, and testing. (TB)

Brooks, Charlotte K.

1996-01-01

404

Determination of trace amounts of nitrogen in uranium based samples by ion chromatography (IC) without Kjeldahl distillation.  

PubMed

A simple, sensitive and fast ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection is described for the determination of traces of nitrogen in uranium based fuel materials. Initially a method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH4(+) using cation exchange column after matrix separation by Kjeldahl distillation. The method was then improved by eliminating this distillation. Matrix separation after sample dissolution was done by hydrolyzing and filtering off the polyvalent cations. This had helped in reducing both the sample size and analysis time. Optimization of dissolution conditions for various kinds of uranium based samples was done to keep acid content minimum; a prerequisite chromatographic condition. The calibration plot for nitrogen was linear in the concentration range of 0.02-1 mg L(-1) with regression coefficient of 0.9999. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained in this method (100 microL injected) was 3% and 2% in 9 replicates at nitrogen level of 28 and 55 ng g(-1), respectively. Detection limit based on S/N=3 (100 microL injected) as well as three times of variation in blank value was 4 ng g(-1). The developed method was authenticated by comparison with certified uranium-alloy standard as well as with independent indophenol photometry method. The developed method was applied to uranium-alloy, uranium-metal, sintered UO2 pellets and sintered UO2 microspheres samples. PMID:17631107

Verma, Poonam; Rastogi, Ramakant K; Ramakumar, Karanam L

2007-07-23

405

[Determination of naphthenic acids in distillates of crude oil by gas chromatography/chemical ionization-mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

The petroleum carboxylic acids in 200-420 degrees C distillate of crude oil were separated by the extraction with column chromatography on an anion exchange resin. The effect of the composition and structure of naphthenic acids on separation were studied by the infra-red (IR) spectroscopic techniques. Naphthenic acids and iso-butane reagent gas were introduced into the ion source for chemical ionization, in which the ions represented by [M + C4H9]+ were used to calculate the relative molecular mass for each acid. Based on the mass spectra of pure fatty and naphthenic acids, in combination with the z-series formula CnH(2n + z)O2, the naphthenic acids can be classified into fatty, mono-, bi- ... hexa-cyclic types. The results indicated that the relative molecular mass range of naphthenic acids in this distillates was 170-510, and the carbon number range was C10-C35. The contents of bi-cyclic and tri-cyclic naphthenic acids were higher than others. PMID:15712901

Lü, Zhenbo; Tian, Songbai; Zhai, Yuchun; Sun, Yanwei; Zhuang, Lihong

2004-05-01

406

Recovery of phytosterols from waste residue of soybean oil deodorizer distillate.  

PubMed

This study describes a catalytic decomposition and crystallization process to recover phytosterols from the waste residue of soybean oil deodorizer distillate (WRSODD). Various solvents were used for the crystallization of phytosterols. The effect of different solvents on the purity and yield of recovered phytosterols was investigated. The composition of WRSODD was analyzed by silica gel column chromatography and FT-IR spectrum. Gas chromatography (GC), GC-MS, and FT-IR were adopted to determine the purity and structure of phytosterols. Results showed the total amount of phytosterols, in the form of fatty acid steryl esters, was up to 20 wt.% of WRSODD. Through orthogonal experiments, the optimized crystallization conditions were obtained. It's found the mixed solvent of acetone and ethanol (4/1, v/v) could generate good crystallization. The yield of recovered phytosterols was 22.95 wt.% after the 1st crystallization. The purity of phytosterols reached 91.82, 92.73, and 97.17 wt.% after the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd crystallization, respectively. PMID:19800221

Yang, Haojun; Yan, Feng; Wu, Daogeng; Huo, Ming; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Yuping; Jiang, Yiming

2010-03-01

407

Reducing the quantum computing overhead with complex gate distillation  

E-print Network

In leading fault-tolerant quantum computing schemes, accurate transformation are obtained by a two-stage process. In a first stage, a discrete, universal set of fault-tolerant operations is obtained by error-correcting noisy transformations and distilling resource states. In a second stage, arbitrary transformations are synthesized to desired accuracy by combining elements of this set into a circuit. Here, we present a scheme which merges these two stages into a single one, directly distilling complex transformations. We find that our scheme can reduce the total overhead to realize certain gates by up to a few orders of magnitude. In contrast to other schemes, this efficient gate synthesis does not require computationally intensive compilation algorithms, and a straightforward generalization of our scheme circumvents compilation and synthesis altogether.

Guillaume Duclos-Cianci; David Poulin

2014-03-20

408

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-print Network

% Closure 3. 4 mo1 HAc Figure 3-14. Closure for the reactive distillation of reagent-grade tri-n-octylamine acetate. 1200 'CS Q ec fJ 4i O 1000 800 600 400 200 0. 00 1. 00 2. 00 3. 00 4. 00 5. 00 Reflux Ratio Figure 3-15. Reflux ratio study...% Closure 3. 4 mo1 HAc Figure 3-14. Closure for the reactive distillation of reagent-grade tri-n-octylamine acetate. 1200 'CS Q ec fJ 4i O 1000 800 600 400 200 0. 00 1. 00 2. 00 3. 00 4. 00 5. 00 Reflux Ratio Figure 3-15. Reflux ratio study...

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2012-06-07

409

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-06-14

410

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

411

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-01-01

412

Influence of salt added to solvent on extractive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapor–liquid equilibria (VLE) of the systems, ethanol–water, ethanol–water–ethylene glycol and ethanol–water–ethylene glycol–CaCl2, at finite concentration and normal pressure were measured. The experimental results showed that ethylene glycol with added salt was more effective than ethylene glycol without salt for separating ethanol and water by extractive distillation. A set of experimental apparatus has been established to measure the relative volatilities

Zhigang Lei; Hongyou Wang; Rongqi Zhou; Zhanting Duan

2002-01-01

413

Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests. PMID:21327250

Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

2011-04-01

414

THE SEPARATION OF LOWER BOILING ALCOHOLS BY EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following pairs of close boiling alcohols were separated by means of extractive distillation. The pairs separated and an effective agent were: ethanol from isoprepanol with methyl benzoate; ethanol from t-butanol with methyl salicylate; allyl alcohol from n-propanol with dimethylsulfoxide; isopropanal from t-butanol with methyl benzoate; n-propanol from 2-butanol with methyl salicylate; n-propanol from t-amyl alcohol with methyl benzoate; 2-butanol

LLOYD BERG; M. G. VOSBURGH; R. W. CHRISTENSEN; M. J. SHANAHAN

1988-01-01

415

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23

416

An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation  

E-print Network

with the Holland and Welch method to analyze the basic steam distillation data and develop a set of vaporization efficiency coefficients for the hydrocarbons studied. The comparison between experimental separation data and predicted separation data using... the Holland and Welch method was very good. The agreement between experimental and predicted separation data indicated the Holland and Welch method could be extended to calculate crude oil-water -vapor separations. A practical procedure using the Holland...

Langhoff, John Allan

2012-06-07

417

Experimental study of arsenic removal by direct contact membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) removal by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) were investigated with self-made polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes in the present work. Permeability and ion rejection efficiency of the membrane were tested before the arsenic removal experiments. A maximum permeate flux 20.90kg\\/m2h was obtained, and due to the hydrophobic property, the PVDF membrane had high rejection of inorganic

Dan Qu; Jun Wang; Deyin Hou; Zhaokun Luan; Bin Fan; Changwei Zhao

2009-01-01

418

Automated synthesis of distillation sequences using fuzzy logic and simulation  

SciTech Connect

An automated distillation sequencing system (DSEQSYS) is presented, which consists of three components: a control program, a fuzzy heuristic synthesis program, and a process simulator. DSEQSYS, when applied to problems previously reported in the literature, overcomes some of the disadvantages of using heuristics or mathematical programming alone. DSEQSYS can address problems involving nonsharp separations, nonideal chemical behavior, and conflicting heuristics. A simple approach for converting the traditional separation heuristics into corresponding fuzzy heuristics is also demonstrated.

Flowers, T.L.; Harrison, B.K.; Niccolai, M.J. (Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States))

1994-08-01

419

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01

420

Modelling failures in existing reinforced concrete columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental research and post-earthquake reconnaissance have demonstrated that reinforced concrete col- umns with light or widely spaced transverse reinforcement are vulnerable to shear failure, and in turn, axial failure dur- ing earthquakes. Based on experimental data, failure surfaces have been used to define the onset of shear and axial failure for such columns. After the response of the column intersects

Kenneth J. Elwood

2004-01-01

421

Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

1990-08-15

422

Results from the Winogradsky Column Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features research results from a student project involving Winogradsky Columns constructed using sandy sediment and water collected from an estuary in Massachusetts. The page includes high-resolution images of the columns and profiles of hydrogen sulfide and methane versus depth.

Science, Semester I.; Laboratory, Marine B.

423

Chart 1 (350 characters) (1) c 2008729 : column 1 = simplified character, column 2 = traditional character  

E-print Network

2008729 #12;2 #12;Chart 1 (350 characters) (1) c 2008729 : column 1 = simplified character will hopefully be resolved in the future) 3 #12;4 #12;Chart 1 (350 characters) (2) 5 #12;6 #12;Chart 1 (350 characters) (3) c 2008729 : column 1 = simplified character, column 2

Roegel, Denis

424

Composite Column Design/Test Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Effective engineered composite design activities require predictive and quantitative methodology. This research incorporates engineering design, using smart spreadsheets, into a laboratory activity focusing on columns made of composite materials. In a previous work, a laboratory activity was developed supporting composite design of polymer matrix composite beams. The present work applies a similar approach expanded to ceramic composites in the form of columns. In the lab, students simulate composite columns and use a smart spreadsheet to help optimize their design for engineering performance, including specific properties. Parameters are discussed and evaluated before the column is made. The composite is then fabricated. Finally, the composite is tested and the experimental data (critical load for columns) is compared to predictions.

Johnson, Craig

2009-09-22

425

Column Studies on Reactive Mixing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive mixing of solutes in porous media has gained increasing interest since the beginning of the last decade. A better understanding of mixing in reactive transport is necessary to predict effectively groundwater remediation processes such as bioremediation and natural attenuation, as they may be controlled by mixing of the reacting compounds. It has been shown that classical macrodispersion concepts are not applicable to predict the actual mixing of compounds in heterogeneous media. Cirpka and Kitanidis (2000) suggested to quantify solute dilution by the second central moments of conservative breakthrough curves obtained at single points. From this quantity, it should be possible to predict reaction rates of non-sorbing reactants. The approach requires point measurements of a conservative tracer and reaction products. In the present study, we conduct experiments on mixing-controlled reactive transport in a one-dimensional water-saturated sand column. We use Fluorescein as tracer. Fluorescence intensity is measured directly within the sand filling by fiber-optic probes with a measurement volume of a few microliter. In the reactive tracer tests, an acidic solution containing the tracer is replaced by an alkaline solution without tracer. As fluorescence of Fluorescein is suppressed at low pH, fluorescence occurs only in the zone where the two solutions mix. To prevent sorption of Fluorescein at low pH, we add a non-ionic surfactant to both solutions. Conservative tracer experiments yield the mixing ratio of the two solutions at each point and time. With the mixing ratio, a titration curve of the two solutions and the relative fluorescence intensity as a function of pH, we can predict the reactive breakthrough curves for each probe. The zeroth moment of the predicted and measured reactive breakthrough curves differ by about 10%. The experimental method is also used in experiments in a large-scale sandbox with heterogeneous filling.

Jose, S. C.; Cirpka, O. A.

2003-04-01

426

Applicability of the perturbed hard chain equation of state for simulation of distillation processes in the oleochemical industry. Part II: Purification of glycerol  

SciTech Connect

Glycerol is a major by-product in the oleochemical industry with extensive end-use markets. Synthetic and natural glycerine fractions are currently purified using steam distillation at subatmospheric pressures. Due to the increasing interest the pharmaceutical industry in ultrapure glycerol, supercritical fluid extraction followed by appropriate fractionation steps are also employed. It would therefore be convenient to utilize a single thermodynamic model that is capable of predicting all thermodynamic properties needed, and that also covers the whole pressure range which is currently applied in both industries. Different equations of state and activity coefficient models were scanned, and the perturbed hard chain equation of state (PHC-EOS) provided better results than those obtained using activity coefficient models. Pure component parameters were computed using vapor pressure data for glycerol. The fitted parameters were incorporated in the PHC-EOS and resulted in good reproduction of binary-vapor-liquid equilibria. Calculations of multicomponent mixtures were performed using these binary parameters. A flow-sheeting program was utilized to simulate a steam distillation process consisting of two integrated columns, operated at subatmospheric pressures, for the purification of different glycerine feedstocks. The simulated flow rate, concentration, and temperature profiles were compared with some operating data obtained from a major oleochemical plant. Analysis of this comparison revealed that the PHC-EOS is very well suited for simulating different distillation processes for the purification of crude glycerine feedstocks.

Ashour, J.; Aly, G. (Lund Univ., (Sweden))

1992-07-01

427

27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial §...

2010-04-01

428

Numerical Simulation on Flow in Column Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monolithic columns have attracted much attention as a novel platform for high throughput analysis, but there is little information about the fluid profile in the flow channels. In this paper, we presented our approach for the fluid simulation in column chromatography by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). To simulate the monolithic column system, the calculation domain was modeled by the 3D channel flow through sphere obstacles. Several types of porous structure were used, with uniform and nonuniform pores. Based on the simulations results, we discussed fluid flow and pressure variation for the optimization of the suitable structure for HPLC system.

Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Komiyama, Ryo; Umemura, Tomonari

2013-12-01

429

Pressure drop effects in packed capillary column supercritical fluid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of column pressure drop has generated much controversy when using packed columns in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), since packed columns usually exhibit a ssignificant pressure drop along the column. In this paper, the effect of pressure drop on the chromatographic behavior of capillary columns packed with small spherical silica particles in SFC was studied using neat carbon dioxide

Wenbao Li; Abdul Malik; Milton L. Lee

1997-01-01

430

Breaking Row and Column Symmetries in Matrix Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify an important class of symmetries in constraint programming, arising from matrices of decision variables where rows and columns can be swapped. Whilst lexicographically ordering the rows (columns) breaks all the row (column) symmetries, lexicographically or- dering both the rows and the columns fails to break all the compositions of the row and column symmetries. Nevertheless, our experimental re-

Pierre Flener; Alan M. Frisch; Brahim Hnich; Zeynep Kiziltan; Ian Miguel; Justin Pearson; Toby Walsh

2002-01-01

431

Dynamic hydrocarbon separation in high-temperature, high-pressure, liquid n-alkane water vapor systems by steam distillation  

E-print Network

distillation yield of multicomponent separations. The results obtained were used in modifying the Holland and Welch approach to describe the distillation characteristics of the mixtures over the entire range of steam distillation parameter. The modification... included the effect of the injection rate and the effect of the base component composition at the start of the distillation. The modified Holland and Welch model can now more accurately describe the overall steam distillation yield for rates ranging from...

Vlierboom, Casper-Maarten

2012-06-07

432

Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2010-12-01

433

Many-region vacuum entanglement: Distilling a W state  

E-print Network

We investigate the correlations between any number of arbitrarily far-apart regions of the vacuum of the free Klein-Gordon field by means of its finite duration coupling to an equal number of localized detectors. We show that the correlations between any N such regions enable us to distill an N-partite W state, and therefore exhibit true $N$-fold entanglement. Furthermore, we show that for N=3, the correlations cannot be reproduced by a hybrid local-nonlocal hidden-variable model. For N >= 4 the issue remains open.

Silman, J

2005-01-01

434

Many-region vacuum entanglement: Distilling a W state  

E-print Network

We investigate the correlations between any number of arbitrarily far-apart regions of the vacuum of the free Klein-Gordon field by means of its finite duration coupling to an equal number of localized detectors. We show that the correlations between any N such regions enable us to distill an N-partite W state, and therefore exhibit true $N$-fold entanglement. Furthermore, we show that for N=3, the correlations cannot be reproduced by a hybrid local-nonlocal hidden-variable model. For N >= 4 the issue remains open.

J. Silman; B. Reznik

2005-08-10

435

Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.  

PubMed

A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD. PMID:22940345

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

2012-11-01

436

29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts) shall not be repaired, replaced or field-modified without the approval of the project structural engineer of record. (2) Prior to the erection of a column, the controlling contractor shall provide...

2013-07-01

437

29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts) shall not be repaired, replaced or field-modified without the approval of the project structural engineer of record. (2) Prior to the erection of a column, the controlling contractor shall provide...

2011-07-01

438

29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts) shall not be repaired, replaced or field-modified without the approval of the project structural engineer of record. (2) Prior to the erection of a column, the controlling contractor shall provide...

2012-07-01

439

AVIRIS Spectrometer Maps Total Water Vapor Column  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) processes maps of vertical-column abundances of water vapor in atmosphere with good precision and spatial resolution. Maps provide information for meteorology, climatology, and agriculture.

Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg A.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

1992-01-01

440

Column Generation for Extended Formulations - Optimization Online  

E-print Network

Jul 8, 2011 ... Then, one can implement column generation for this extended formula- ... and rows of a full-blown extended formulation, one prices over the whole ...... nation property holds: when the reformulation stems from a network flow ...

2011-07-08

441

A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

1977-01-01

442

Analytical Modeling of a Bubble Column Dehumidifier  

E-print Network

Bubble column dehumidifiers are a compact, inexpensive alternative to conventional fin-tube dehumidifiers for humidification-dehumidification (HDH) desalination, a technology that has promising applications in small-scale ...

Tow, Emily W.

443

The effect of re-dissolution solvents and HPLC columns on the analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in the eulittoral macroalgae Prasiola crispa and Porphyra umbilicalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many macroalgal species that are regularly exposed to high solar radiation such as the eulittoral green alga Prasiola crispa and the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as UV-sunscreen compounds. These substances are typically extracted with a widely used standard protocol following quantification by various high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. However, further preparation steps prior to HPLC analysis as well as different HPLC column types have not been systematically checked regarding separation quality and reproducibility. Therefore pure methanol, distilled water and HPLC eluent were evaluated as re-dissolution solvent for dried Prasiola and Porphyra extracts, which were subsequently analyzed on three reversed-phase C8 and C18 HPLC columns. The data indicate that distilled water and the HPLC eluent gave almost identical peak patterns and MAA contents on the C8 and C18 columns. In contrast, the application of the widely used methanol led to double peaks or even the loss of specific peaks as well as to a strong decline in total MAA amounts ranging from about 35% of the maximum in P. crispa to 80% of the maximum in P. umbilicalis. Consequently, methanol should be avoided as re-dissolution solvent for the HPLC sample preparation. An improved protocol for the MAA analysis in macroalgae in combination with a reliable C18 column is suggested.

Karsten, Ulf; Escoubeyrou, Karine; Charles, François

2009-09-01

444

Potential Energy Savings by Using Alternative Technologies for the Separation of Fluid Mixtures  

E-print Network

Presents solids handling problems Distillation/ 16,000 Same Currently used azeotropic process distillation Energy integrated Note: MVR = mechanical vapor recompression Fi gure 2. consumption (more so if the waste heat use is considered... Presents solids handling problems Distillation/ 16,000 Same Currently used azeotropic process distillation Energy integrated Note: MVR = mechanical vapor recompression Fi gure 2. consumption (more so if the waste heat use is considered...

Bravo, J. L.

445

CMOS \\/ CMOL architectures for spiking cortical column  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a spiking cortical column model based on neural associative memory, and demonstrate architectures for emulating the cortical column model with nanogrid molecular circuitry. We investigate a number of options for cost-effective hardware with digital CMOS and mixed-signal CMOL, a hybrid CMOS\\/nanogrid technology. We also give an example of a dynamic learning algorithm that is a suitable match to

Changjian Gao; Mazad S. Zaveri; Dan W. Hammerstrom

2008-01-01

446

Divided Wall Column Without the Wall  

E-print Network

the partitions. Consequently, operating range is very limited. An additional thermodynamic deficiency inherent in the PETLYUK system lies within the vapor mixing and liquid mixing zones as further explained below. Let us focus on the vapor... Balanced Fully Thermally Coupled system (HBFTC system), is a column equipped with one reboiler 100 and one condenser 200. Further, the column is divided into four operating zones, in ascending elevation as follows: ?? A stripping zone, zone B, 1...

Tung, P.

2004-01-01

447

Packed capillary columns for liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fused silica capillaries, ? 130 ? 0.32mm have been packed with small reversed phase spherical silica particles, 3 or 2?m,\\u000a in order to achieve LC-systems giving high plate numbers at relatively low pressure drop in short analysis times. At optimal\\u000a conditions, columns packed with 3?m particles showed reduced plate heights, h, around 2.5, and the column flow resistance,\\u000a ?, was

S. Hoffmann; L. Blomberg

1987-01-01

448

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-print Network

: Dr. Daulat Mamora Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12... % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase in distillation yields. The results indicate that propane has minimal distillation effect on the heavy oil. This occurs possibly because of lesser amount of light fractions in the heavy oil...

Jaiswal, Namit

2007-09-17

449

Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.  

PubMed

A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products. PMID:22688247

Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

2012-01-01

450

Facile purification of tocopherols from soybean oil deodorizer distillate in high yield using lipase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tocopherols have been purified from deodorizer distillate produced in the final deodorization step of vegetable oil refining\\u000a by a process including molecular distillation. Deodorizer distillate contains mainly tocopherols, sterols, and free fatty\\u000a acids (FFA); the presence of sterols hinders tocopherol purification in good yield. We found that Candida rugosa lipase recognized sterols as substrates but not tocopherols, and that esterification

Yuji Shimada; Seiichi Nakai; Masaharu Suenaga; Akio Sugihara; Motohiro Kitano; Yoshio Tominaga

2000-01-01

451

Spectrophotometric determination of urea in sugar cane distilled spirits.  

PubMed

Urea is an important precursor in the formation of ethyl carbamate, a known carcinogen in alcoholic beverages. Ethyl carbamate has recently been detected at high concentrations in sugar cane distilled spirits, but little is known about the concentration of urea in these beverages. The objectives of this study were to validate methodology for the determination of urea in sugar cane distilled spirits, to determine the levels in 68 samples from different regions within the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to examine the relationship between the concentrations of urea and ethyl carbamate. The method, based on the reaction of urea with 1-phenyl-1,2-propanodione-2-oxime and spectrophotometric quantification at 540 nm, provided linear response from 0.5 to 15.0 mg/L. No purification of the sample was required. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Urea was detected in 69% of the samples at levels varying from 0.50 to 5.10 mg/L. There was no significant difference on the levels of urea in samples from different regions of the state. No significant correlation between the levels of urea and ethyl carbamate was observed for the samples analyzed. PMID:18553892

Labanca, Renata A; Glória, M Beatriz A

2008-07-01

452

Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

2013-07-01

453

Assessment of some diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin.  

PubMed

In the present study the qualitative and quantitative determination of diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin was carried out. This widely consumed juniper-based spirit is aromatized using Juniper (Juniperus communis) berries. Although juniper reportedly contains several diterpenic compounds, no studies have addressed the diterpenic composition of juniper-based spirits or beverages. With this objective, here we followed a multilevel factorial experimental design to optimize a direct immersion-solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and analyzed eight commercial brands of gin. With total concentrations ranging from 10 to 190 microg L(-1), manool, manoyl oxide and trans-totarol were the most abundant diterpenoids of the 10 identified or tentatively identified at variable but not negligible concentrations in the distilled gin samples. The diterpenic composition allowed the brands to be differentiated. This indicates that these compounds contribute to the sensory characteristics of the distinct commercial brands, thus guaranteeing the authenticity and consequently the quality of the product. PMID:18929011

Vichi, Stefania; Aumatell, Montserrat Riu; Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

2008-11-01

454

Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus  

PubMed Central

Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

2013-01-01

455

Characterisation of chamomile volatiles by simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction in comparison to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction.  

PubMed

A new method for complete separation of steam-volatile organic compounds is described using the example of chamomile flowers. This method is based on the direct combination of hydrodistillation and solid-phase extraction in a circulation apparatus. In contrast to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), an RP-18 solid phase as adsorptive material is used rather than a water-insoluble solvent. Therefore, a prompt and complete fixation of all volatiles takes place, and the circulation of water-soluble bisabololoxides as well as water-soluble and thermolabile en-yne-spiroethers is inhibited. This so-called simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction (SD-SPE) provides extracts that better characterise the real composition of the vapour phase, as well as the composition of inhalation vapours, than do SDE extracts or essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The data indicate that during inhalation therapy with chamomile, the bisabololoxides and spiroethers are more strongly involved in the inhaling activity than so far assumed. PMID:20033869

Krüger, Hans

2010-05-01

456

Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column  

DOEpatents

A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-25

457

Cadmium removal in a biosorption column  

SciTech Connect

New biosorbent material derived from a ubiquitous brown marine alga Ascophyllum nodosum has been examined in packed-bed flow-through sorption columns. It effectively removed 10 mg/L of cadmium down to 1.5 ppb levels in the effluent, representing 99.985% removal. The experimental methodology used was based on the early Bohart and Adams sorption model, resulting in quantitative determination of the characteristic process parameters which can be used for performance comparison and process design. An average metal loading of the biosorbent (N[sub 0]) determined was 30 mg Cd/g, corresponding closely to that observed for the batch equilibrium metal concentration of 10 mg Cd/L. The critical bed depth (D[sub min]) for the potable water effluent quality standard varied with the column feed flow rate from 20 to 50 cm. The sorption column mass transfer and dispersion coefficients were determined, which are also required for solving the sorption model equations.

Volesky, B.; Prasetyo, I. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-05-01

458

CUB DI (Deionization) column control system  

SciTech Connect

For the old MR (Main Ring), deionization was done with two columns in CUB, using an ion exchange process. Typically 65 GPM of LCW flew through a column, and the resistivity was raised from 3 Mohm-cm to over 12 Mohm-cm. After a few weeks, columns lost their effectiveness and had to be regenerated in a process involving backwashing and adding hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. For normal MR operations, LCW returned from the ring and passed through the two columns in parallel for deionization, although the system could have been operated satisfactorily with only one in use. A 3000 gallon reservoir (the Spheres) provided a reserve of LCW for allowing water leaks and expansions in the MR. During the MI (Main Injector) construction period, the third DI column was added to satisfy requirements for the MI. When the third column was added, the old regeneration controller was replaced with a new controller based on an Allen-Bradley PLC (i.e., SLC-5/04). The PLC is widely used and well documented, and therefore it may allow us to modify the regeneration programs in the future. In addition to the above regeneration controller, the old control panels (which were used to manipulate pumps and valves to supply LCW in Normal mode and to do Int. Recir. (Internal Recirculation) and Makeup) were replaced with a new control system based on Sixtrak Gateway and I/O modules. For simplicity, the new regeneration controller is called as the US Filter system, and the new control system is called as the Fermilab system in this writing.

K. C. Seino

1999-07-02

459

Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams  

PubMed Central

Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

2011-01-01

460

Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process  

PubMed Central

The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

Gryta, Marek

2012-01-01

461

Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation.  

PubMed

Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs(+), Sr(2+) and Co(2+) from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment. PMID:23959250

Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

2013-10-15

462

Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.  

PubMed

Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0? and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity. PMID:21266968

Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

2011-01-25

463

Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing  

E-print Network

Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error correcting or error avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states such as |0> and the Magic State. Here we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.

Alexandre M. Souza; Jingfu Zhang; Colm A. Ryan; Raymond Laflamme

2011-03-11

464

Microwave accelerated steam distillation of essential oil from lavender: A rapid, clean and environmentally friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process design and operation for microwave accelerated steam distillation (MASD) of essential oils was developed. A packed bed of lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae) sits above the steam source generated by microwave heating. Only steam passes through it without the boiling water mixing with vegetable raw material, as is the case in hydro-distillation. MASD has been compared

F. Chemat; M. E. Lucchesi; J. Smadja; L. Favretto; G. Colnaghi; F. Visinoni

2006-01-01

465

A review on minimum energy calculations for ideal and nonideal distillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum energy requirement of a distillation sets a lower, thermodynamically defined operating limit, which is increasingly important in practice due to growing interest in saving energy. During the conceptual design phase this energy information can also be used to quickly compare distillation configurations. This paper gives a summary of the most important methods published to date for the calculation

Juergen Koehler; Peter Poellmann; Eckhart Blass

1995-01-01

466

A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates

Netzel

1991-01-01

467

Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

2011-01-01

468

Polyphosphates used for membrane scaling inhibition during water desalination by membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desalination of surface water (lake) was performed using direct contact membrane distillation. The membrane distillation process was carried out at 358K. As a consequence of water heating the CaCO3 deposit formed on the membrane surfaces, which resulted in a decrease in module efficiency. The polyphosphate antiscalant was used for restriction of carbonate deposition. In order to increase the scaling

Marek Gryta

469

Author's personal copy A scaling mitigation approach during direct contact membrane distillation  

E-print Network

2011 Keywords: Direct contact membrane distillation Membrane scaling Gypsum Induction time Brine the experimental con- dition used in this study and at feed and distillate temperature of 20 °C and 40 °C, respectively, CaSO4 scaling occurred only after a sufficiently long induction time of up to 25 h (corresponding

470

A Short Note About Energy-Efficiency Performance of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we present a comparative study of the energy-efficiency performance between conventional distillation sequences and thermally coupled distillation arrangements (TCDS) for the separation of ternary mixtures of hydrocarbons under the action of feedback control loops. The influence of the relative ease of separation of the feed mixture and its composition was analyzed. The feedback analysis was conducted through

Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Salvador Hernández; Arturo Jiménez

2008-01-01

471

TEN YEARS OF SOLAR DISTILLATION APPLICATION ALONG THE U.S.MEXICO BORDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decade, solar distillation has been introduced and applied as an option for household drinking water for several colonias communities along both sides of the U.S.- Mexico border. Purifying water through distillation is a simple yet effective means of providing drinking water in

Robert E. Foster; William Amos

472

Model Reference Adaptive Controller to regulate steam temperature in distillation process for essential oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simulated Model Reference Adaptive Controller (MRAC) and its application to regulate steam temperature in distillation process for essential oil extraction system. Steam temperature is one of the most significant parameters that can influence the composition of essential oil yield in terms of quality and quantity. Due to parameter variations and changes in operation conditions during distillation,

Nurhani Kasuan; Mohd Nasir Taib; Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman

2011-01-01

473

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products-component feed into M products has been derived. Interestingly, the minimum-energy solution in a complex solution of minimum energy for distillation of a multicomponent feed into multiple products has not been

Skogestad, Sigurd

474

Optical Measurement Technique for Space Column Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple optical technique for the structural characterization of lightweight space columns is presented. The technique is useful for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion during cool down as well as the induced strain during tension and compression testing. The technique is based upon object-to-image plane scaling and does not require any photogrammetric calibrations or computations. Examples of the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion are presented for several lightweight space columns. Examples of strain measured during tension and compression testing are presented along with comparisons to results obtained with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) position transducers.

Barrows, Danny A.; Watson, Judith J.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Phelps, James E.

2004-01-01

475

Mass transfer in a wetted wall column  

E-print Network

MASS TRANSPER IM A WETTED WALL COLDMM A Thesis Allison M. Platt June, 1950 MASS TRANSFER IN A WETTED WALL COLUMN A Thesis Allison M. Platt June~ 1950 Approved as to st@i and content recommended: Head of the Department of C cal Engineering... MASS TRANSFER IN A WETTED WALL COLUMN A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural snd Mechanical College oi' Texas Partial FulfiUment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ~or Sub)ect: Chemical Engineering Allison M...

Platt, Allison M

2012-06-07

476

Laboratory studies of water column separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental studies of water column separation following an upstream valve closure are presented. Different geometrical arrangements with transparent PVC pipes are installed immediately downstream of the closing valve, namely, horizontal pipes, vertical pipes flowing down, and humpback profile pipes, the last two being used in order to obtain full pipe section vapor cavities. Maximum over pressures at water column rejoining, and maximum cavity lengths and duration, are compared with theoretical values and with previous experiments with horizontal pipes. Good agreement is found between theory and experiments, and interesting visual material is obtained.

Autrique, R.; Rodal, E.

2013-12-01

477

Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.  

PubMed

Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate. PMID:20707339

López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

2010-09-01

478

Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components.  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

Egorov, Oleg B. (Richland, WA); O'Hara, Matthew J. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

2004-08-24

479

Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

Egorov, Oleg B. (Richland, WA); O'Hara, Matthew J. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

2006-02-21

480

Pilot scale benzene stripping column testing: Review of test data and application to the ITP columns  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive cesium will be removed from aqueous high level waste (HLW) solutions by precipitation with sodium tetraphenyl borate (TPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Benzene is generated due to the radiolysis of TPB, and dissolves into the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) and into the water used to wash (WW) the precipitate. These solutions will be processed through stripping columns to reduce the benzene concentration to satisfy limits for disposal of the DSS and for temporary storage of the WW. A pilot scale testing program to evaluate the stripping column operation in support of ITP startup activities has been completed. Equipment and test plans were developed so that data obtained from the pilot scale testing would be directly applicable to full scale column operation and could be used to project hydraulic performance and stripping efficiency of both columns. A review of the test data indicate that the ITP stripping columns will be capable of reducing benzene concentrations in salt solutions to satisfy Saltstone and Tank 22 acceptance limits. An antifoam (AF) will be required to maintain the column differential pressure below the vendor recommendation of 40 inches wc so that design feed rates can be achieved. Additionally, the testing program indicated that the nitrogen rate can be decreased from the ITP column design rates and still satisfy benzene concentration requirements in the product.

Georgeton, G.K.; Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

1993-09-10

481

ACM SIGACT news distributed computing column 13  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Distributed Computing Column covers the theory of systems that are composed of a number of interacting computing elements. These include problems of communication and networking, databases, distributed shared memory, multiprocessor architectures, operating systems, verification, Internet, and the Web.This issue describes the PODC 20th anniversary Special Issue published by Distributed Computing journal.

Sergio Rajsbaum

2003-01-01

482

Solutions diversification in a column generation algorithm  

E-print Network

and the one-dimensional cutting stock problem. Key words: column generation; diversification; stabilization; cutting stock problem, vehicle routing problem with time windows. 1 Introduction During the past few the Restricted Master Problem (RMP) description; in dual space, the oracle produces a cutting plane that refines

Létocart, Lucas

483

Visualization of viscous fingering in chromatographic columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 17 mm I.D. glass column, packed with YMC-15 (spherical C18 silica, 30 ?m particles) as the stationary phase and used with carbon tetrachloride as the mobile phase provided a suitable system for the visual observation of viscous fingering inside the packed bed, after the cylindrical lens effect had been canceled. Such a system appears nearly transparent due to the

B. Scott Broyles; R. Andrew Shalliker; Djamel E Cherrak; Georges Guiochon

1998-01-01

484

Water vapor column abundance retrievals during FIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. The authors report on the use of a sunphotometer to extract column

C. J. Bruegge; J. E. Conel; R. O. Green; J. S. Margolis; R. G. Holm; G. Toon

1992-01-01

485

Density Gradient Columns for Chemical Displays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for preparing density gradient columns for chemical displays are presented. They include displays illustrating acid-base reactions, metal ion equilibria, and liquid density. The lifetime of these metastable displays is surprising, some lasting for months in display cabinets. (JN)

Guenther, William B.

1986-01-01

486

Inklings: Collected Columns on Leadership and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together 35 of David P. Campbell's essays originally published as a regular column in a quarterly publication called "Issues and Observations." The articles deal with topics ranging from leadership issues such as risk-taking, executive motivation, decision making, and corporate taboos, to more general concerns such as father-son…

Campbell, David P.

487

On Row Rank Equal Column Rank  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We will prove a well-known theorem in Linear Algebra, that is, for any "m x n" matrix the dimension of row space and column space are the same. The proof is based on the subject of "elementary matrices" and "reduced row-echelon" form of a matrix.

Khalili, Parviz

2009-01-01

488

Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by designing…

Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

2011-01-01

489

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2012-04-01

490

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2013-04-01

491

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

...2014-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2014-04-01

492

27 CFR 19.58 - Use of taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... (1) Medicines, medicinal preparations, food...purposes. (3) Toilet, medicinal, and antiseptic preparations...out as having certain medicinal properties, are also...a distilled spirits plant, and are subject...

2010-04-01

493

27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous distilled spirits plant may alternate the use of such premises between the two...

2010-04-01

494

27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous distilled spirits plant may alternate the use of such premises between the two...

2013-04-01

495

27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous distilled spirits plant may alternate the use of such premises between the two...

2011-04-01

496

27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.  

...concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous distilled spirits plant may alternate the use of such premises between the two...

2014-04-01

497

27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A proprietor of a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant operating a contiguous distilled spirits plant may alternate the use of such premises between the two...

2012-04-01

498

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2011-04-01

499

Development of an on-column affinity smart polymer gel glucose sensor.  

PubMed

An on-column affinity smart polymer gel glucose sensor was developed as a non-enzymatic glucose sensor. A copolymer of 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid and acrylamide, the so called "smart polymer", was synthesized in situ in a 5 cm long capillary tube with a detection window to provide the on-column detection. The optical density of this semitransparent affinity smart polymer gel, coated inside the tube, decreased with increasing glucose concentration and was detected using a UV-vis detector at 500 nm. The capillary tube was incorporated into a flow injection system. Under optimum conditions, a linear dynamic range of 0.5-16.0mM with a limit of detection of 0.5mM (S/N ? 3) was obtained. A single coated affinity smart polymer gel had good stability for up to 250 consecutive injections with relative standard deviation of less than 5%. The analysis time for each injection was 6 min. Ten glucose samples prepared in distilled water were analyzed by the developed method and the results compared well with those obtained from the conventional dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method (P>0.05). Real urine samples with known glucose levels were analyzed and the developed sensor provided comparable results to those from the normal strip test technique. Acceptable percentage recoveries, ranging from 88 ± 2% to 103 ± 4% from the spiked urine sample, were obtained. PMID:21601037

Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

2011-06-10

500

DNAPL transport through macroporous, clayey till columns  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides the first experimental determination of the rates and distribution of transport of a dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) through a naturally bioporous and fractured clayey till deposit. Until now, assessment of DNAPL behavior in this type of deposit has relied on theoretical studies. Predictions of DNAPL transport have proven to be uncertain as a result of difficulties in measuring critical parameters such as DNAPL entry pressure and flow behavior in response to natural fracture/biopore apertures and the degree of interconnection of these structures. In the present investigation, the migration of free product trichloroethylene (TCE) was studied by means of two undisturbed clayey till columns under in situ effective soil stress conditions. The experiments revealed that transport of TCE was restricted to biopores in one column and fractures in another column, bypassing the low-permeability clayey matrix. Effective porosities of the columns, i.e., biopores and fractures, were two to three orders of magnitude lower than total porosities, i.e., macropores and matrix. Single phase water flow rates through the columns at water-saturated conditions followed a linear relationship with hydraulic gradient. TCE flow could not be predicted from the single-phase calculations because of nonlinearity observed between applied TCE injection heads and resulting TCE flow. TCE flow rates were 24 and 10.3 m/day at TCE gradients of 1.18 and 0.91, respectively. The observed flow rates indicate that in cases where vertical biopores or fractures fully penetrate clayey till aquitards, a low-viscosity DNAPL may quickly enter underlying aquifers. The experiments further indicate that 100 liters of a low-viscosity DNAPL are sufficient to contaminate approximately 25 to 100 m{sup 3} of till material because of the small effective porosity constituted by the biopores and fractures.

Joergensen, P.R. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Geological Inst.]|[Danish Geotechnical Inst., Lyngby (Denmark); Broholm, K.; Sonnenborg, T.O.; Arvin, E. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1998-07-01