Sample records for azeotropic distillation columns

  1. Homogeneous azeotropic distillation in an energy- and mass-integrated pressure swing column system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein; Florian Forner

    2004-01-01

    The separation of a homogeneous azeotropic mixture using the pressure swing distillation process is insufficient researched and therefore industrial applications are limited. The process performance of a heat- and mass-integrated pressure swing distillation column system to separate an acetonitril\\/water mixture is analysed in the scope of this paper. Different control structures are developed and compared by using a rigorous dynamic

  2. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiyang Cheong; Paul I. Barton

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux\\/reboil ratios, under

  3. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 2: Nonlinear separation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    On the basis of the analytical tools developed for the middle vessel column (MVC) operated under limiting conditions, analysis of the qualitative dynamics of the MVC in separating an azeotropic mixture is extended to the more realistic case in which the separation boundaries are nonlinear. The differences between batch stripper pot composition boundaries and batch rectifier pot composition being able to cross these pot composition boundaries. On the basis of these insights, operating procedures are developed in which ternary azeotropic mixtures of acetone, benzene, and chloroform can be separated into their constituent pure components, a separation not achievable with either the batch stripper or the batch rectifier. The operating procedures suggested for separating the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform in the MVC are then shown to be the time analogues of sequences of continuous distillation columns that achieve the same separation. On the basis of this space-time analogy, further analogies are developed between the MVC and a continuous column, and it is postulated that many complex separations currently achieved with sequences of continuous columns can also be achieved with a single MVC. Thus, the MVC represents the ultimate multipurpose solvent recovery technology, as it can handle, in a batch multipurpose mode. separations that will otherwise require a dedicated continuous distillation sequence. Finally, the characteristics of perfect MVC batch entrainers, which allow the complete separation of any azeotrope into its constituent pure components in a single MVC, are discussed.

  4. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 3: Model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A dimensional time model of the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed in the ABACUSS process modeling environment, and simulations are conducted to validate the theoretical insights developed for the operation of the MVC based on a warped time model of the MVC. The qualitative dynamics of the MVC operated in the presence of linear separation boundaries are validated via simulations conducted on the ternary azeotropic mixture of acetone, chloroform, and methanol. It is also shown via simulation that the separation results obtained from a column with significant but reasonable amounts of holdup on the trays are not significantly different from a column in which holdup in the trays is assumed to be negligible. Theoretical operating policies for separating the azeotrope of acetone and chloroform using benzene as a batch entrainer are also validated using the ABACUSS model. Finally, the authors explore the advantages and disadvantages of different feasible operating policies for separating a mixture of acetone, benzene, and chloroform completely into its constituent pure components.

  5. Azeotropic distillation in a middle vessel batch column. 1: Model formulation and linear separation boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Cheong, W.; Barton, P.I. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    A mathematical model for the middle vessel batch distillation column (MVC) is developed using the concept of warped time analysis and used to study the qualitative dynamics of the MVC when it is used to separate multicomponent azeotropic mixtures. A limiting analysis is then developed for a MVC with an infinite number of trays, operated under infinite reflux/reboil ratios, under the assumption of linear separation boundaries. It is determined that, under limiting conditions, the distillate product drawn from the MVC is given by the {alpha} limit set of the MVC still pot composition, while the bottoms product drawn from the MVC is given by the {omega} limit set of the MVC still pot composition. The net product composition is determined by taking a convex combination of the two products. The notions of steering the still pot composition, the vector cone of possible motion for the still pot composition, and the equivalency of the MVC to the combined operation of a batch rectifier and a stripper are also explored. The definition of batch distillation regions for the MVC operated at a given value of the middle vessel parameter {lambda}, and the bifurcation of these regions with the variation of {lambda}, are investigated. Lastly, a mathematical model incorporating the concept of warped time is developed for a multivessel column. The MVC can be viewed as a specific case of the multivessel column.

  6. Pressure swing distillation for separation of homogeneous azeotropic mixtures in a mass- and heat- integrated column system: operation performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein; F. Forner; Gunter Wozny

    2004-01-01

    The separation of a homogeneous azeotropic mixture using pressure swing distillation process is deficient investigated, therefore industrial applications are limited. The dynamic behaviour of a heat- and mass-integrated pressure swing distillation column system to separate an acetonitrile\\/water mixture is analysed. Different control structures are developed and compared by using a rigorous dynamic model written in gProms®. A first validation of

  7. azeotropic batch distillation with heterogeneous en trainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rodriguez-Donis; J. Acosta-Esquijarosa; V. Gerbaud; E. Pardillo-Fondevila

    In this article, a systematic study of the separati on of the n-hexane - ethyl acetate mixture with an entrainer by heterogeneous azeotropic batch distillation is performed. Based upon the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary mixtures, potential entrainers partially miscible with one or two original azeotropic compon ents are chosen. In all cases, the entrainer adds a heterogeneous binary or

  8. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    : A solvent with HA Boiling point with water Heptane or Hexane Low vapor pressure viscosifying oil Distillation setup/ process -Found the Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Boiling points for Water% Solvent Initial Size(µm) Size after one hour(µm) Boiling point Range (°C) 25% PB320 Span 80 75% hex. 28

  9. Homogeneous azeotropic pressure swing distillation: Continuous and batch process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein

    2005-01-01

    The separation of a binary homogeneous azeotropic mixture using pressure swing distillation will be analysed on the example of acetonitrile\\/water. Two different processes are considered: the continuous heat- and mass-integrated process and the inverted batch process. For both processes a model is developed and experimental data are given. In the paper the potential of the pressure swing distillation for the

  10. Pressure Swing Batch Distillation for Homogeneous Azeotropic Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-U. Repke; A. Klein; D. Bogle; G. Wozny

    2007-01-01

    The separation of the homogeneous azeotropic mixture acetonitrile\\/water by pressure swing distillation (PSD) is considered. In this work, the PSD is operated as a discontinuous (batch) process and two basic batch modes, regular and inverted, are investigated. The processes are analysed and a rigorous dynamic model for both batch PSD processes is formulated. The model takes a cold and empty

  11. Separation of n-hexane–ethyl acetate mixtures by azeotropic batch distillation with heterogeneous entrainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rodriguez-Donis; J. Acosta-Esquijarosa; V. Gerbaud; E. Pardillo-Fondevila; X. Joulia

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a systematic study of the separation of the n-hexane–ethyl acetate mixture with an entrainer by heterogeneous azeotropic batch distillation is performed. Based upon the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary mixtures, potential entrainers partially miscible with one or two original azeotropic components are chosen. In all cases, the entrainer adds a heterogeneous binary or ternary azeotrope that is

  12. Time requirements for heteroazeotropic distillation in batch columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Skouras; Sigurd Skogestad

    2004-01-01

    Batch time requirements are provided for the separation of ternary heterogeneous azeotropic mixtures into three pure products in closed batch column configurations. The separations are performed in hybrid processes where distillation is combined with decantation for completing the separation task. Two multivessel column configurations, with and without vapour bypass, and a rectifier column, are compared in terms of time requirements.

  13. Preparation and characterization of nanoscale Y-TZP powder by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibo Qiu; Lian Gao; Chude Feng; Jingkun Guo; Dongsheng Yan

    1995-01-01

    A heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process was effectively used to dehydrate hydrous zirconia and therefore prevent the formation of hard agglomerates in the preparation of nanoscale zirconia powder. The mechanism of azeotropic distillation to prevent hard agglomerate from forming was studied by investigating the interaction of hydrous zirconia with n-butanol. The prepared powder was sintered to 99.5% of theoretical density by

  14. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  15. Fabrication of alumina nanofibers by precipitation reaction combined with heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xun Liu; Zhiguo Wu; Tianyou Peng; Ping Cai; Hongjin Lv; Wenlong Lian

    2009-01-01

    ?-Alumina nanofibers have been prepared from a precipitation reaction between aluminum ammonium sulfate and Baker's salt solutions followed by a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process with N-butanol and calcination at 1173K. Experimental results indicate that the terminal pH value of the reaction mixture should be kept at 7.00–8.00 in order to obtain ?-Al2O3 nanofibers. The resulting spherical aluminum hydrate precipitates are

  16. Control of an azeotropic distillation process to acetonitrile production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiz Andrea Ruiz; Beltrán Nelson Borda; Leguizamón R. Alexander; R. Javier; L. Guevara; D. Ivan; C. Gil

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate and to simulate an alternative way to produce acetonitrile by means of extractive distillation. This chemical substance is used in pharmaceutics, solvents, antibiotics, vitamin and insulin production, among others. The high demand of this product during several years ago has created the necessity of increasing 5% the industrial production. Therefore, it is

  17. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    component rather than the mixture bubble point (assumed with the 'integral' assumption) (Figure 2). ITvapoUT I [./"-------' Where separation occurs, part of the bundle is 'submerged' in condensate. This 'subennergence' can give rise to significant... should be given a downward incline of 3-SO. Intermediate Condensers The extraction of heat from an intermediate point in a distillation column as heat source for a heat pump or for use in an integration scheme can result in significant energy...

  18. Heterogeneous Batch Distillation Processes for Waste Solvent Recovery in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodriguez-Donis; Vincent Gerbaud; Alien Arias-Barreto; Xavier Joulia

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile — water, n hexane — ethyl acetate and

  19. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns Ketan Samant, Aspen Technology Ian Sinclair, Aspen Technology Ginger Keady, Aspen Technology This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a...

  20. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high. PMID:12659179

  1. Recovery of dilute acetic acid through esterification in a reactive distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Saha; S. P. Chopade; S. M. Mahajani

    2000-01-01

    The recovery of acetic acid from its dilute aqueous solutions is a major problem in both petrochemical and fine chemical industries. The conventional methods of recovery are azeotropic distillation, simple distillation and liquid–liquid extraction. Physical separations such as distillation and extraction suffer from several drawbacks. The esterification of an aqueous solution (30%) of acetic acid with n-butanol\\/iso-amyl alcohol is a

  2. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of multicomponent distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.; Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II

    1999-10-01

    Distillation columns with sharp separations exhibit severely nonlinear behavior, which has been known to cause difficulties in column control and design. Such a column is characterized by sharp composition and temperature variations in the column. Previously, the binary distillation case was thoroughly analyzed using a nonlinear wave theory and such an analysis was experimentally validated. For multicomponent distillation, the complicated nonlinear dynamics of the movement and interference of multiple sharp composition variations can be elucidated with a coherent-wave theory developed earlier for general countercurrent separation processes. With a ternary alcohol mixture, the present study has experimentally verified the theory by demonstrating the existence and propagation of constant-pattern coherent waves in a 50-tray stripping column in response to a step disturbance of feed composition, feed flow rate, or reboiler heat supply. The study has also tested the theory's predictions of composition profile, wave velocities, and asymmetric dynamics.

  3. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte- grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  4. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte­ grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  5. Temperature–enthalpy curve for energy targeting of distillation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Ranjan K. Malik; Uday V. Shenoy

    1998-01-01

    The temperature–enthalpy (T–H) diagram of a distillation column at practical near-minimum thermodynamic condition (PNMTC) or the column grand composite curve (CGCC) is a useful representation for energy targeting studies and may be generated from a converged simulation of a base-case column design. The calculation procedure for the CGCC involves determination of the net enthalpy deficit at each stage by generating

  6. CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL Erik A. Wol#11; and Sigurd Skogestad #3; University of Trondheim N-7034 Trondheim, NORWAY Keywords: process control, cascade control, distilla- tion, control structure, relative gain array 1 Introduction In most process control

  7. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States)] [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States); Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-10-01

    High-purity distillation columns are typically difficult to control because of their severely nonlinear behavior reflected by their sharp composition and temperature profiles. The dynamic behavior of such a column, as characterized by the movement of its sharp profile, was elucidated by a nonlinear wave theory established previously. With binary alcohol mixtures, this study provides an experimental observation of such wave-propagation dynamics of a 40-tray stripping column and a 50-tray fractionation column in response to step disturbances of feed composition, feed flow rate, and reboiler heat supply. These experimental results have verified that the sharp profile in a high-purity column moves as a constant-pattern wave and that the nonlinear wave theory predicts its velocity satisfactorily with very simple mathematics. Results also demonstrate the asymmetric dynamics of the transitions between two steady states.

  8. Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco

    2013-05-22

    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used. PMID:23531091

  10. A GENERALIZED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS-III. STUDY OF STARTUP OPERATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Rurz; I. T. CAMERON; R. GANI

    The dynamic behavior of distillation columns during startup operations have been studied and analyzed. A procedure is proposed for determining appropriate startup policies for distillation column operations based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior. The final startup policy consists of three strategies corresponding to the three characteristic stages of the startup operation. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied

  11. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

  12. Effects of helium on separation characteristics of cryogenic distillation column cascade for fusion reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinoshita

    1984-01-01

    By choosing the cryogenic distillation column cascade developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the effects of helium on separation characteristics of the columns are analyzed in a probable case of input and output specifications. Column (2) is mainly affected by the presence of helium. If the helium percentage in the raw fuel input is 1%, the column performance can be

  13. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

  14. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

  15. Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control 

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Arnab

    2005-02-17

    Dynamic models of a reactive distillation column have been developed and implemented in this work. A model describing the steady state behavior of the system has been built in a first step. The results from this steady ...

  16. State Space Modeling and Predictive Control of a Binary Batch Distillation Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyun Zou; Dehong Yu; Zhen Hu; Ning Guo; Luping Yu; Wenqiang Feng

    2006-01-01

    A linear discrete state-space model of a methanol\\/water binary batch distillation column is developed based on theoretical analysis of dynamic mass balance and vapor-liquid phase balance, and this state-space model is used to design a model predictive control (MPC) strategy. The composition of methanol inside the distillation column is estimated using an empirical temperature-composition relationship model. The state space model

  17. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment. The methodology is described using a separations example. Column Thermal Analysis has been discussed in the literature extensively...

  18. A modified model of computational mass transfer for distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. M. Sun; K. T. Yu; X. G. Yuan; C. J. Liu

    2007-01-01

    The computational mass transfer (CMT) model is composed of the basic differential mass transfer equation, closing with auxiliary equations, and the appropriate accompanying CFD formulation. In the present modified CMT model, the closing auxiliary equations c2¯–?c [Liu, B.T., 2003. Study of a new mass transfer model of CFD and its application on distillation tray. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China;

  19. Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas Raymond

    1962-01-01

    in the oalculational procedures are also discussed. This calculational method employs the equations of Thiele and Qeddes (61) with modifications by Hummel (&1) and Donnel and Turbin (21). Certain notational conventions proposed by Lyster et al. (b0) are used... OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1. Convsntional Distillation Coleman . ~ ~ ~ 57 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Specifications for Examples 1, 2, and 4 . . . ~ . . 58 Values oi Ei, Gi, and $ Obtained After the 50'th Trial in the Soluticn of Examples 1 and 2 . 60 1110...

  20. Adding rectifying\\/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kejin Huang; Lan Shan; Qunxiong Zhu; Jixin Qian

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying\\/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design

  1. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part II: Performance Analysis of a Distillation Column Using Exergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Douani; Sabria, Terkhi; Fatima, Ouadjenia

    2007-09-01

    To analyze the performance of the separation process, we have introduced thethermodynamic concept of exergy through the exergetic efficiency of the column. Thesimulation results show that the exergetic output is relatively low and that the producedirreversibility fluxes are distributed throughout the whole column in a non-uniform manner.They are particularly significant in the condenser, boiler and tray feed. The influence of thevarious operating parameters (temperature, concentration and irreversibility in both sectionsof the column) is also established. To emphasize the results, the relation in equation 17, ispresented graphically to evaluate the cumulative irreversibilities from the overhead to thebottom. This presentation is equivalent to the Grassmann diagram.

  2. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part I: High Pressure Distillation Column Analysis: Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, Douani; Fatima, Ouadjenia; Sabria, Terkhi

    2007-06-01

    In this analysis, based on the bubble point method, a physical model wasestablished clarifying the interactions (mass and heat) between the species present in thestreams in circulation in the column. In order to identify the externally controlled operatingparameters, the degree of freedom of the column was determined by using Gibbs phase rule.The mathematical model converted to Fortran code and based on the principles of: 1) Globaland local mass conservation balance, 2) Enthalpy balance, and 3) Vapour-liquid equilibriumat each tray, was used to simulate the behavior of the column, concentration distributions,temperature and streams for each phase along the column at high pressure in each tray. Theenergy consumption at the condenser and the boiler was also evaluated using the Starlingequation of state.

  3. Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks Eric modeled using a neural network. The database developed by Garcia and Fair (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, 1809) was utilized to train and validate the neural network model. The results indicate that

  4. A nonlinear profile observer using tray temperatures for high-purity binary distillation column control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joonho Shin; Hodong Seo; Myungwan Han

    2000-01-01

    A new, concise nonlinear profile position observer using tray temperatures instead of tray compositions is proposed. Composition measurement has been one of the major difficulties associated with the composition control of distillation columns because the on-line analyzers still suffer from large measurement delays, high investment\\/maintenance costs and low reliability. One of common alternatives to the analyzers is to use the

  5. Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns. PMID:15868863

  6. Electroosmotic Membrane Pump for the separation of water from azeotropic mixtures. Technical progress report, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, J.E.

    1986-03-01

    The Electroosmotic Membrane (EOM) Pump is proposed as a process for saving energy during the separation of azeotropes of alcohol and water. The process is electrically driven and removes water from the process stream through ion-selective membranes by electroosmosis. A laboratory-scale Model Cell was constructed to test the EOM pump concept using commercially available ion exchange membranes. Tests were performed with the Model Cell at various (1) alcohol-water compositions, (2) feed molalities of lithium chloride and lithium bromide in water, (3) stack temperatures, and (4) other operating conditions, such as stack configuration and membrane thickness. As part of the integration of the EOM pump and distillation processes, the effect of salt injection into the reflux line of the distillation column was studied. A conclusion of the study is that the overhead composition can be substantially enriched in alcohol to essentially anhydrous alcohol with salt addition.

  7. Soft sensor based composition estimation and controller design for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Raghavan, S R; Radhakrishnan, T K; Srinivasan, K

    2011-01-01

    In this research work, the authors have presented the design and implementation of a recurrent neural network (RNN) based inferential state estimation scheme for an ideal reactive distillation column. Decentralized PI controllers are designed and implemented. The reactive distillation process is controlled by controlling the composition which has been estimated from the available temperature measurements using a type of RNN called Time Delayed Neural Network (TDNN). The performance of the RNN based state estimation scheme under both open loop and closed loop have been compared with a standard Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a Feed forward Neural Network (FNN). The online training/correction has been done for both RNN and FNN schemes for every ten minutes whenever new un-trained measurements are available from a conventional composition analyzer. The performance of RNN shows better state estimation capability as compared to other state estimation schemes in terms of qualitative and quantitative performance indices. PMID:20887987

  8. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  9. Penetration of different human pathogenic viruses into sand columns percolated with distilled water, groundwater, or wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Dizer, H; Nasser, A; Lopez, J M

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of several enteroviruses and rotavirus SA11 to sand from an aquifer in the Federal Republic of Germany was estimated in sand-filled columns loaded with ca. 10(7) PFU and run at a velocity of 2.5 m/day for 12 h. After either distilled water, groundwater, secondary effluent, or tertiary effluent was percolated, the sand core was slowly extruded out of the column and cut in 1-cm slices. The slices were eluted with nutrient broth, and the amount of viruses in the broth was estimated. The best adsorption was promoted by groundwater and tertiary effluent, followed by distilled water and secondary effluent. Similar experiments, carried out at different percolation rates, indicated that a 50-day underground stay of recharged water probably suffices to eliminate viruses in the groundwater-recharged tertiary effluent. However, when viruses and sand were incubated in the presence of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, nonyl phenol, dodigen 226, or alkylbenzylsulfonate, the adsorption of the viruses was substantially diminished. Experiments in the presence of nonyl phenol seem to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the adsorption of viruses to sand. PMID:6324676

  10. Distillation control: For productivity and energy conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skinskey

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of new types of distillation control equipment has necessitated the publication of this second edition. Thermodynamic principles, flow ratios, composition control, and azeotropic distillation are among the topics covered. It includes bibliographies, computer programs suitable for distillation calculations, and a subject index. Contents Distillation fundamentals. Control system structure. Complex processes. Optimization. Appendices. Index.

  11. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  12. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns 

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    of structured packing make it an effective choice for relieving overloaded conditions in key column zones. Sulzer and Koch Engineering can cite over 35 different installations of this nature, including a crude column in Koch's Rosemount, Minnesota refi nery...

  13. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  14. Continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by solid heteropolyacid: Optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Noshadi; N. A. S. Amin; Richard S. Parnas

    This study aims to develop an optimal continuous process to produce fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by a heteropolyacid, H3PW12O40·6H2O. The conventional production of biodiesel in the batch reactor has some disadvantage such as excessive alcohol demand, short catalyst life and high production cost. Reactive distillation combines reaction and separation

  15. Practical residue curve map analysis applied to solvent recovery in non-ideal binary mixtures by batch distillation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Gerbaud; Joulia Xavier; Rodriguez-Donis Ivonne; Baudouin Olivier; Rosemain Olivier; Vacher Alain; Castelain Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Batch distillation inherent advantages have initiated recent search for process feasibility rules enabling the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic binary mixtures thanks to the addition of an entrainer. A systematic procedure enabling to find suitable process and eventually suitable entrainer for the separation of zeotropic or azeotropic binary mixture is described. It brings together into practical use batch distillation

  16. An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem

    E-print Network

    Gallun, Steven Eugene

    1975-01-01

    AN EXTENSION OF THE MULTI-THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS AND AN ALMOST BAND SOLUTION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM STAGE PROBLEM A Thesis by STEVEN EUGENE GALLUN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in pa rtia I fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1975 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering AN EXTENSION OF THE MULTI-THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS AND AN ALMOST BAND SOLUTION OF THE EQUILIBRIUM STAGE PROBLEM A Thesis STEVEN EUGENE GALLUN...

  17. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Robert, B.

    2005-10-13

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

  18. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  19. Feasibility study of heterogeneous batch extractive distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Viktória Varga; Vincent Gerbaud; Zoltán Lelkes; Endre Rév; Zsolt Fonyó; Xavier Joulia

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility of batch hetero geneous extractive distillation is studied in the case where the heterogeneous azeotrope formed with the entrainer is not the most volatile point in the system. The composition profile maps based feasibility methodology is extended to this case, and demonstrated on the test problem of separating water from acetonitrile with butyl acetate as entrainer.Whether the process is

  20. Feasibility Study of Heterogeneous Batch Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Viktória Varga; Vincent Gerbaud; Zoltán Lelkes

    Feasibility of batch heterogeneous extractive distillation is studied in the case where the heterogeneous azeotrope formed with the entrainer is not the most volatile point in the system. The composition profile maps based feasibility methodology is extended to this case, and demonstrated on the test problem of separating water from acetonitrile with butyl acetate as entrainer. Whether the process is

  1. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-print Network

    Steinmeyer, D.

    ? Is the purity necessary? If steam is used as a way to drop partial pressure, why can't straight vacuum be used? If the distillation is batch, why? Would lowering column pressure ease the separation? (Often the impact on Y, in Eqn. 1, is very helpfu... DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium...

  2. Regions of continuous rectification in systems divided into distillation regions

    SciTech Connect

    Balashov, M.I.; Grishunin, A.V.; Serafimov, L.A.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the mechanisms of formation of regions of continuous clear rectification in three-component azeotropic systems of any complexity divided into distillation regions. The limitations of the process for all types of clear rectification have been determined. They have noted the phenomena of intersection of sets in which the rectification process develops as a function of the type of the specified separation. The phenomenon of transfer through the separating manifold of distillation has been pointed out.

  3. The amplified distillation of methyl esters of fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Weitkamp

    1947-01-01

    Summary  Amplified distillation is a useful technique for the quantitative analysis of mixtures of fatty acid esters, especially for\\u000a the detection and estimation of minor components and for the analysis of small samples. The amplified distillation of free\\u000a fatty acids is largely limited to qualitative work on account of the formation of azeotropes with mineral oils.

  4. The Desulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gasoline by Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shen; Z. Mei; B. Shen; H. Ling

    2011-01-01

    Desulfurization of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was investigated in a lab scale extractive distillation column. Before the extractive distillation, fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was distillated into light and heavy fractions. Then, the light fraction was desulfurized by extractive distillation using dimethylformamide as the solvent. Factors impacting the desulfurization efficiency of the extractive distillation were studied. Under optimal desulfurization conditions, distillate

  5. From batch to continuous extractive distillation using thermodynamic insight: Class 1.0–2 with a heavy entrainer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weifeng Shen; Hassiba Benyounes; Vincent Gerbaud

    2011-01-01

    A systematic feasibility analysis is presented for the separation azeotropic mixtures by batch and continuous extractive distillation. Based on batch feasibility knowledge, batch and continuous separation feasibility is studied under reflux ratio and entrainer flow-rate for the ternary system chloroform-vinyl acetate-butyl acetate, which belongs to the class 1.0-2 separating maximum boiling temperature azeotropes using a heavy entrainer. How information on

  6. OPTIMAL STARTUP PROCEDURES FOR BATCH DISTILLATION E. SRENSEN 2 AND S. SKOGESTAD 1

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    OPTIMAL STARTUP PROCEDURES FOR BATCH DISTILLATION E. SØRENSEN 2 AND S. SKOGESTAD 1 (1) Department parts: 1) startup period, 2) production period and 3) shutdown period. For standard separation processes or azeotropic separations, the startup time may also be significant. In this paper, we present results

  7. OPTIMAL STARTUP PROCEDURES FOR BATCH DISTILLATION E. S RENSEN2 AND S. SKOGESTAD1

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    OPTIMAL STARTUP PROCEDURES FOR BATCH DISTILLATION E. S RENSEN2 AND S. SKOGESTAD1 1 Department parts: 1 startup period, 2 production period and 3 shutdown period. For standard separation processes or azeotropic separations, the startup time may also be signi cant. In this paper, we present results

  8. Recovery of acetonitrile from aqueous waste by a combined process: Solvent extraction and batch distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jhoany Acosta-Esquijarosa; Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Ulises Jáuregui-Haza; Lauro Nuevas-Paz; Eladio Pardillo-Fontdevila

    2006-01-01

    Separation of azeotropic mixtures is a task usually encountered in the fine chemicals industry. Solvent extraction can be an attractive alternative when distillation is not a cost-effective option. In this paper, a systematic study for the separation of the acetonitrile–water mixture by using a combined process is performed. First, separation of acetonitrile from the binary original mixture is carry out

  9. Development of a process for PCB removal from triaryl phosphate hydraulic fluids by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Longanbach; W. H. Mink

    1983-01-01

    A method of separating PCBs (Aroclor 1242) from a triaryl phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid that yields a fluid suitable for reuse in an aluminum die casting foundry was identified in a laboratory study. Experiments were done to determine the separation efficiency and product qualities resulting from the use of vacuum, steam, and azeotropic distillation, solvent extraction, foam fractionation, filtration,

  10. Activity coefficient at infinite dilution, azeotropic data, excess enthalpies and solid–liquid-equilibria for binary systems of alkanes and aromatics with esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen Collinet; Jürgen Gmehling

    2005-01-01

    Binary azeotropic data have been measured at different pressures for ethyl acetate+heptane, methyl acetate+heptane, isopropyl acetate+hexane and isopropyl acetate+heptane by means of a wire band column. Additionally activity coefficients at infinite dilution have been determined for ethyl acetate and isopropyl acetate in decane and dodecane in the temperature range between 303.15 and 333.15K with the help of the dilutor technique.

  11. Vapour–liquid equilibria, azeotropic data, excess enthalpies, activity coefficients at infinite dilution and solid–liquid equilibria for binary alcohol–ketone systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rima Abbas; Jürgen Gmehling

    2008-01-01

    Isothermal vapour–liquid equilibria (VLE), solid–liquid equilibria and excess enthalpies have been measured for the systems cyclohexanone+cyclohexanol and 2-octanone+1-hexanol. Additionally in this paper binary azeotropic data at different pressures for 1-pentanol+2-heptanone and 1-hexanol+2-octanone have been determined with the help of a wire band column. Furthermore activity coefficients at infinite dilution for methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-propanol in 2-octanone at different temperatures

  12. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  13. Column test-rig facility for column scanning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, Rasif M.; Roslan, Y.

    2010-03-01

    Distillation columns are considered as one of the most critical components in oil and gas plants. The plant performance depends on the ability of these columns to function as intended. Defective columns may lead to serious consequences to the plant operation, and hence the quality of product. In order to perform any inspection techniques to distillation column for NDT practitioner, the best facility was designed when the adjustable defeats of distillation column test rig has been developed. The paper discussed the development and the function of this facility.

  14. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bessling; G. Schembecker; K. H. Simmrock

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of

  15. An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem 

    E-print Network

    Gallun, Steven Eugene

    1975-01-01

    in the modern Chemical Industry. Iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The financial support provided by Texas Eastman Company, Dow Chemica 1 USA, Exxon USA Foundation, Alcoa Foundation, and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station is greatly appreciated, TABLE OF CONTENTS...) and Lewis (1909) were among the first to analyze distillation processes with any degree of mathematical rigor. By the middle 1930's methods proposed by Lewis and Matheson (1932) and Thiele and Geddes (1933) were being used to attempt the design...

  16. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  17. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non...

  18. Solar Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

    \\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

  19. Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Magnus G. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Magnus G. Jacobsen, NTNU, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT: When designing the control structure of distillation columns presented in an earlier paper, to find how the active constraints for distillation columns change

  20. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    and venting the reject heat to ambient. When efficiency is defined as the ratio of two work terms, more representative efficiencies in the 10 to 45% range are usually obtair.ecJ. Figure 1 is a plot of the ideal separation work for a binary mixture (King..., 1981) and the corresponding separation work required by a simple distillation column at minimum reflux (Benedict, 1947), all as a IDEAL SIMPLE DISTILLATION l.~--------- --J O. 0.8 IDEAL SEPARATION 0.7 : 0.5 ll.-i 0.3 n.:! 0.1 o 0.1 O...

  1. SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION COLUMN Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred inside the column as opposed to classical of this technology on the chemical and process industry is enormous since distillation is the single largest energy

  2. Catalytic Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    is continously removed by distillation as it is formed, thus substantially negating the reverse reaction. Also HeOR can be added directly to the reaction zone at a point where the isobutylene concentration is the lowest which also helps drive... the equilibrium forward toward HTBE formation. The net effect is equivalent to "multiple equilibrium stages" and almost total conversion of isobutylene to HTBE. Another possibili ty is to hold the IB in molar excess of HeOH and react HeOH to near extinction...

  3. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character

    PubMed Central

    Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure. PMID:21116474

  4. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns 

    E-print Network

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01

    for dynamically adapting the models to achieve tight composition control. Simple control techniques do not exist for model adaptation in MIMO systems. This thesis will outline a fuzzy supervisory controller based on fuzzy logic and show that control performance...

  5. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE 

    E-print Network

    Aluko, Obanifemi

    2010-01-16

    This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. The most important aspects...

  6. Computational performance of aggregated distillation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Linhart; Sigurd Skogestad

    2009-01-01

    Compartmental and aggregated modeling is used to derive low-order (reduced) dynamic models from detailed models of staged processes. In this study, the aggregated modeling method of (Lévine, J., & Rou- chon, P. (1991). Quality control of binary distillation columns via nonlinear aggregated models. Automatica, 27, 463) is revised with the objective of deriving computationally efficient models for real-time control and

  7. Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Non-Azeotropic Mixtures Inside a Horizontal Grooved Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, Satoru; Ayukawa, Kyozo; Sogo, Motosuke; Okita, Yuji

    The evaporation of HCFC141b, HFC152a and HFC23, and non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture used at the very low temperature refrigeration system is experimentally studied in a horizontal spirally grooved tube with corrugation. The experiments were conducted at 0.03 to 0.47MPa of boiling pressure, 100 kg/(m2s) of mass flux, 1 to 15 kW/ m2 of heat flux, -26 to 21 °C of refrigerant temperature and 11.4 mm of average inner diameter. It is concluded that boiling heat transfer coefficients of single-refrigerant are higher than these of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture. And dimensionless correlation of the heat transfer coefficirnts, i.e. Lockhart-Martinelli parameters agreed with equation (10) within the limit of ±40 percent. Pressure drops of these refrigerant mixture depend on its liquid density and flow pattern.

  8. (CH3)3SiCl/SiCl4 azeotrope grows superhydrophobic nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2008-01-15

    We describe the vapor-phase reaction (at room temperature and 40-45% relative humidity) of silicon wafers with the azeotropic mixture of trimethylchlorosilane and tetrachlorosilane. Water contact angle analysis indicates that surfaces become nearly perfectly hydrophobic (thetaA/thetaR > or =176 degrees/> or =176 degrees) after 2 min of reaction. SEM analysis at various reaction times shows the growth of nanofilaments with diameters of approximately 30 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of oxidized titanium surfaces that were exposed to the azeotrope vapor indicates that the product is derived from a approximately 10:1 ratio of SiCl4 and (CH3)3SiCl. A mechanism for filament growth is proposed. PMID:18088148

  9. Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF\\/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Hong; Ravindra K. Mariwala; Michael S. Kane; Henry C. Foley

    1995-01-01

    Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more

  10. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  11. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  12. Distill, Distill_human Distill: protein structure prediction by Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    Distill, Distill_human Distill: protein structure prediction by Machine Learning C. Mirabello1, G.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has two main components: a set of predictors of protein features based on machine learning" of PDB structures suggested by our fold recognition algorithm. The only difference between Distill

  13. Heat pumps in distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The methods used and results obtained in evaluating the economics of substituting heat pumps for conventional distillation process design are presented. From this study it was concluded that: heat pumps have extensive applicability to distillation whenever direct refrigeration or chilled water are required for condensation; heat pumps have limited, but very real ranges of applicability when reboiler temperatures are above

  14. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes 

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    on of ~ seven-stage horizontally split centrifugal compressor manufactured by General Electric Company*. Pressure ratios greater than 10:1 ar~ possible with this design. Each compression stage of the mUltistag~ centri fugal compressor consi sts of a shaft.... Figure 4 shows the distillation column employing multi stage vapor recompression. The centrifugal compressor is a five stage General Electric Company design employing a horizontally split casing. Compression of the 163,000 lb/hr inlet from 18 psia...

  15. Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giane R. Stuart; Daíse Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

  16. Neither azeotropic drying, nor base nor other additives: a minimalist approach to (18)F-labeling.

    PubMed

    Richarz, R; Krapf, P; Zarrad, F; Urusova, E A; Neumaier, B; Zlatopolskiy, B D

    2014-10-28

    A novel, efficient, time-saving and reliable radiolabeling procedure via nucleophilic substitution with [(18)F]fluoride is described. Different radiolabeled aliphatic and aromatic compounds were prepared in high radiochemical yields simply by heating of quaternary anilinium, diaryliodonium and triarylsulfonium [(18)F]fluorides in suitable solvents. The latter were obtained via direct elution of (18)F(-) from an anion exchange resin with alcoholic solutions of onium precursors. Neither azeotropic evaporation of water, nor a base, nor any other additives like cryptands or crown ethers were necessary. Due to its simplicity this method should be highly suitable for automated radiosyntheses, especially in microfluidic devices. PMID:25190038

  17. Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C. [Univ. of Delaware, Nework, DE (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

  18. Development of a process for PCB removal from triaryl phosphate hydraulic fluids by vacuum distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J.R.; Mink, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method of separating PCBs (Aroclor 1242) from a triaryl phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid that yields a fluid suitable for reuse in an aluminum die casting foundry was identified in a laboratory study. Experiments were done to determine the separation efficiency and product qualities resulting from the use of vacuum, steam, and azeotropic distillation, solvent extraction, foam fractionation, filtration, and adsorption techniques. Vacuum distillation was found to remove over 98% of the PCBs with recoveries of fluid, containing less than 50 ppm PCBs, of 90% at 5 mmHg vacuum, and 85% at 30 mmHg vacuum. The PCBs (bp 225-365/sup 0/C) were distilled from the hydraulic fluid (bp>400/sup 0/C). The product met industry standards for acid number and viscosity required for reuse. The data needed to design a 5 gallon/min pilot plant for the vacuum distillation of PCBs from hydraulic fluid in storage at an aluminum die casting foundry were also obtained.

  19. Winogradsky Columns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Lennox

    This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

  20. Survey of Binary Azeotropes as Physical Chemistry Lab Experiments with Attention to Cost, Safety, and the Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Glinski; Christopher W. Smith; Jason B. Cooke

    1999-01-01

    A survey is presented of possible binary azeotropic systems suitable for study in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. From a range of sources, a list has been compiled of the most acceptable systems on the basis of health, safety, waste disposal, and practicability concerns. More than 80 systems were reviewed. For comparison purposes, the list was reduced to a table

  1. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  2. Influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of cider brandy.

    PubMed

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Gomis, Domingo Blanco; Alonso, Juan J Mangas

    2003-09-10

    A study of the influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of cider brandy was carried out. Acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde diethyl acetal were influenced by distillation technology, oak wood type, and maturation time. The majority ester, ethyl ethanoate, increased during aging, the highest level of this ester being detected in spirits distilled by double distillation. The alcohols of higher molecular weight were better recovered in the rectification column than in the double distillation system. Ethanoate esters decreased throughout aging of the spirits, and their degradation velocity was lower in distillates obtained from double distillation. Fatty acids and their ethyl esters presented the opposite evolution during aging, detecting an increase in ethyl esters and a decrease in their corresponding fatty acids. An increase of 1,1,3-triethoxypropane was detected during aging. French oak contributes the trans isomer of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and American oak contributes the cis isomer. PMID:12952423

  3. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

  4. Energy efficient distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, J.D.

    1982-08-17

    An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

  5. Efficient distillation beyond qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institute for Mathematical Physics, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    We provide generalizations of known two-qubit entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions. The protocols, which are analogs of the hashing and breeding procedures, are adapted to bipartite quantum states that are diagonal in a basis of maximally entangled states. We show that the obtained rates are optimal, and thus equal to the distillable entanglement, for a (d-1)-parameter family of rank deficient states. Methods to improve the rates for other states are discussed. In particular, for isotropic states it is shown that the rate can be improved such that it approaches the relative entropy of entanglement in the limit of large dimensions.

  6. Solution of systems of columns with energy exchange between recycle streams 

    E-print Network

    Haas, Joe Ray

    1980-01-01

    ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FOR THE SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS INVOLVING SINGLE COLUMNS 1QS Distillation Columns Absorbers 108 125 Application of the Capital Theta Such that Each Stage is Treated as a Column 147 CONCLUSIONS 154 Systems of Columns with Energy... Recycle Between Columns Single Column Convergence Methods NOTATIONS LITERAlURE CITED 154 155 156 160 Page APPENDIX 166 VITA 178 LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Specifications for Examples 1 and 2 2. Initial Values of Variables for Examples 1...

  7. Distilling Abstract Machines Beniamino Accattoli

    E-print Network

    Mazza, Damiano

    Distilling Abstract Machines Beniamino Accattoli Carnegie Mellon University & Universit`a di rather distills them: some transitions are simulated while others vanish, as they map to a notion of structural congruence. The distillation process unveils that abstract machines in fact implement weak linear

  8. A startup model for simulation of batch distillation starting from a cold state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wang; Pu Li; Günter Wozny; Shuqing Wang

    2003-01-01

    Batch distillation columns are frequently started up with a different initial reboiler charge. A proper initial state is required for simulation and optimization of such processes, but it has been a non-trivial task to obtain it. In this work, a model to express startup behaviors of batch columns starting from an empty cold state is proposed to address this issue.

  9. An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukesh, Doble

    2001-02-01

    Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

  10. Trajan's Column

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website, from McMaster University, uses the combined skills of artists, writers, programmers, and Web designers to create a resource for the study of Trajan's column, a Roman architectural monument. This 100-foot marble column, built during the reign of Emperor Trajan, 98-117 AD, is topped with a gilded statue of Trajan and decorated with carvings recounting Trajan's rule, primarily the Dacian Wars and his building projects. The heart of the Website is the database of 500 slides of the carvings; indexes allow users to view the slides in thematic groupings such as images of sides of the column, groups organized by subject keywords, or carvings made with specific tools. Cartoons or drawings of the column help to contextualize the details found in the slides, and essays provide more information on its design, construction, and preservation.

  11. Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas Raymond

    1962-01-01

    IV. Values of Ei, Qi, P , and Vapor Rates Obtained in the Solution of Example 2 Values of Ei, Vapor Rates, Temperatures and 61 bi/di Specifications for Example 3 . . . . . . . 62 Values of Ei and Vapor Rates Obtained in the Solution of Example... 3 . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 64 VI. Values of Ei, bi/di, p , and Vapor Rates Obtained in the Solution of Example 4 . . . ~ . . 65 VI I. VIII. Values of P and V for Examples 5-10 Equilibrium Data 66 67 IX. EnthalpF Data 68 IBTRODUCTIOH The term most...

  12. Column Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

  13. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

  14. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  15. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  16. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  17. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  18. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  19. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  20. Evaluation of non-azeotropic mixtures containing HFOs as potential refrigerants in refrigeration and high-temperature heat pump systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ShengJun Zhang; HuaiXin Wang; Tao Guo

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing environmental concern on global warming, hydrofluoro-olefin (HFOs), possessing low GWP, has attracted\\u000a great attention of many researchers recently. In this study, non-azeotropic mixtures composed of HFOs (HFO-1234yf, HFO-1234ze(z),\\u000a HFO-1234ze(e) and HFO-1234zf) are developed to substitute for HFC-134a and CFC-114 in air-conditioning and high-temperature\\u000a heat pump systems, respectively. The cycle performances were evaluated by an improved theoretical cycle

  1. Selective Retention of Explosives and Related Compounds on Gas-Chromatographic Capillary Columns Coated with Lanthanide(III) ß-diketonate Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2009-09-04

    The purpose of this research was to investigate coating capillary columns with lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymers to provide gas-chromatographic columns with selectivity toward explosives and related compounds. Capillary columns were statically coated with a combination of a lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymer, which utilized p-di(4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1,3-hexanedionyl)benzene (dihed) as a ligand, and SE-30. A novel coating technique was developed that used a methanol-containing azeotrope to provide solubility for both polymers while maintaining a low boiling point compatible with static coating. As based on temperature-programmed retention indices, the custom experimental columns displayed selective retention of nitroaromatic, nitroalkane, and nitrate ester test probes relative to an appropriate SE-30 control column. Selective retention was more pronounced for strong Lewis base analytes (i.e., cyclohexanone). Relative analyte retention on the La(dihed), Tb(dihed) and Eu(dihed) columns are discussed relative to Lewis acidity and solubility of the polymer in the azeotrope coating solution.

  2. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  3. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  4. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, ?ahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by ?/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task. PMID:26191854

  5. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  6. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  7. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny...

  8. Design and optimization of a dividing wall column for debottlenecking of the acetic acid purification process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nguyen Van Duc Long; Seunghyun Lee; Moonyong Lee

    2010-01-01

    The dividing wall column (DWC) has gained increasing application in a variety of chemical processes because of its potentiality in energy and capital cost savings in multicomponent separations. The main objective in this work is investigation of its use for removing the bottleneck phenomenon within the column when increasing the throughput of an existing distillation process, particularly, the acetic acid

  9. OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

  10. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates were removed....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  14. Mechanisms of recirculating liquid flow on distillation sieve plates

    SciTech Connect

    Biddulph, M.W. (Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Burton, A.C. (BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the phenomenon of flow recirculation on distillation sieve trays. A novel dye injection technique has been applied to a 1.81 m air-water simulation column and has yielded new information concerning the nature of the boundary layer of gas-liquid biphase as it detaches from the column wall. The study has shown that recirculation is strongly influenced by inlet conditions. A critical factor is the underflow clearance between the inlet downcomer apron and the tray floor. As this clearance is increased, the size of the recirculating zones passes through a minimum, indicating the existence of two different mechanisms responsible for the nonuniform flow patterns. A significant implication of this work is that tray designers may minimize the impact of recirculating on mass transfer efficiency by appropriate choice of underflow clearance.

  15. Distillate Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

  16. Concentration of light organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions by adsorption on bound silicalite

    E-print Network

    Flores, Kathryn Louise

    1989-01-01

    . 6 '7o ethanol at atmospheric pressure. Azeotropic, extractive and vacuum distillation techniques have been developed to purify mixtures beyond the azeotropic concentration. 2. 1. 1 Azeotropic Distillation Azeotropic distillation uses a, solvent... for several entrainers. Benzene, pentane and diethyl ether were the entrainers considered. s Pentane was found to consume less energy in the dehydration of azeotropic ethanol than either benzene or diethyl ether. 2. 1. 2 Extractive Distillation A solvent...

  17. Method of soil column preparation for the evaluation of viral transport.

    PubMed Central

    Funderburg, S W; Moore, B E; Sorber, C A; Sagik, B P

    1979-01-01

    A method for packing soil columns to investigate viral transport phenomena is described. The columns were 10 cm in diameter and ranged from 33 to 100 cm in length. Field conditions of the soil, including bulk density and profile, were reproduced in columns. Ionic gradients resulting from sequential applications of wastewater and distilled water affected the movement of poliovirus I (Chat) through soil. Compared with 33-cm- and 66-cm-length columns, lower concentrations of infectious virions were observed in the percolates from 100-cm soil columns. These results may be attributed to the greater pore volume in the longer columns (the greater volume of soil contained in these columns), whereas the volume of liquid applied was constant for all columns. PMID:225992

  18. Five points on columns

    E-print Network

    Rockland, Kathleen

    Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

  19. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    PubMed

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC). PMID:21334616

  20. Improving the Performance of a Two-Shell Column with Advanced Control

    E-print Network

    Morrison, T. A.; Laflamme, D.

    ~e~s of the steam flow and the top composltlon would stay below setpoint unless reflux was run extremely low. The soft target composition is the C4 content of the distillate. The value for the composition target is either set by the operator or by an energy... Balancing Shells Approximates Single Distillation Column The original column controls included a stripping temperature controller setting the steam flow. This was never reliable and thestea~flow was set manually. It would be desIrable to use a composition...

  1. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish [Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 (United Kingdom); Joag, Pramod [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Roy, Anirban [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  2. Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, S; Kar, G; Kunkri, S; Roy, A; Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2004-01-01

    A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  3. Experience with distillation unit computer control

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.; Sunell, H.; Latour, P.R.; Paynter, K.K.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper, control improvements, operating experience and operator acceptance are presented for a computer control and optimization project on a 140 Mbpd crude distillation unit. The process description is followed by a presentation of control objectives and functions (atmospheric residue, distillate yields, energy conservation, product quality); operator tasks; results; operators acceptance; system availability and operating experience. 5 refs.

  4. Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Gryta

    2006-01-01

    The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

  5. Key Blog Distillation: Ranking Aggregates Craig Macdonald

    E-print Network

    Jose, Joemon M.

    Key Blog Distillation: Ranking Aggregates Craig Macdonald University of Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland interests to their own. How- ever, a main difference of this blog distillation task from normal adhoc or Web document retrieval is that each blog can be seen as an aggregate of its constituent posts. On the other

  6. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  7. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  8. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  11. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  12. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  13. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  15. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  16. Optimal steady-state design of reactive distillation processes using simulated annealing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Kai Cheng; Hao-Yeh Lee; Hsiao-Ping Huang; Cheng-Ching Yu

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate on a derivative-free optimization approach, simulated annealing (SA), for the optimization of the reactive distillation (RD) column design. Because RD systems exhibit non-monotonic behavior for key design variables, flowsheet optimization using simulator is difficult when derivative-based approach is employed. The SA-based optimization procedure gives an equally good or better design than the optimal flowsheet obtained

  17. Application of high vacuum fractional distillation to complex mixtures of methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Privett; J. D. Nadenicek; F. J. Pusch; E. C. Nickell

    1969-01-01

    A technique for the high vacuum fractional distillation, with a spinning band column, of methyl esters of polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids employing a carrier of long chain acetates is described. The carrier is used to facilitate the fractionation of\\u000a minor components and minimize artifact formation in mixtures of methyl esters containing up to six double bonds. The technique\\u000a is demonstrated on

  18. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates. PMID:22321168

  19. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  20. The book review column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William I. Gasarch

    2004-01-01

    Welcome to the Book Reviews Column. We hope to bring you at least two reviews of books every month. In this column four books are reviewed. 1. Stable Marriage and its Relation to Other Combinatorial Problems: An Intro- duction to Algorithm Analysis by Donald Knuth. Reviewed by Tim McNichol. This book uses the stable marriage problem as motivation to look

  1. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  2. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  3. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be delivered at suitably high...

  4. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  5. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

  6. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  7. Modeling of column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Yoon, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Many investigators believe that column flotation cells offer significant advantages over standard mechanical machines for the flotation of fine particles. However, because of their unique design and operation, conventional techniques for flotation cell scale-up and design cannot be applied to columns. In an attempt to help alleviate this problem, a population balance model based on first principles has been developed for fine particle flotation in a column. Two different terms have been considered in the model, i.e., transport and rate. Transport terms, incorporating fluid flow and buoyancy, are used to describe the movement of air bubbles, unattached particles and bubble-particle aggregates along the length of the column. Rate terms, which describe the bubble-particle attachment process, have been derived from first principle considerations. Because the model is based on first principles, it can be useful for the design, control, optimization and scale-up of column flotation cells. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  8. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

  9. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  10. Tritum recovery system from waste water of fusion reactor using CECE and cryogenic-wall thermal diffusion column

    SciTech Connect

    Arita, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, N.; Yamamoto, I. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    A system for recovery of tritium in water has been proposed. The system is composed of CECE (Combined Electrolysis Chemical Exchange) and CTD (Cryogenic-wall Thermal Diffusion) columns. A design study was carried out for the two cases: the waste water processing in fusion facilities; and the tritium recovery from heavy water in a fission reactor in Japan. The size and power consumption of the system can greatly be reduced by using the CECE column than the system of WD (Water Distillation) columns. The operation and maintenance of the CTD column are quite easier than the CD (Cryogenic Distillation) column. The proposed system would be applicable for some cases such as the waste water processing in tritium facilities, where the processing flow rate is relatively small. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Nuclear reactor control column

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

  12. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  13. Composite Column Design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Craig

    This module, created by Craig Johnson of Central Washington University, "incorporates engineering design (using smart spreadsheets) into a laboratory activity focusing on columns made of composite materials." In this lab, students will simulate the use of composite columns and use spreadsheets to optimize design for engineering performance. The module features an abstract, objective, curriculum overview, procedures, mathematical calculations and references. The objectives of the module are to design appropriate composite column structures, fabricate composite using appropriate methods and critically evaluate composite's performance referencing predications. This is a great resource to either enhance or create new curriculum for instructors.

  14. Two-Phase Flow and Energy Transfer of a Non-Azeotropic Mixture, R-407c, in a Micro-Fin Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin

    1996-11-01

    This study is to determine experimentally the two-phase flow and energy transfer characteristics of a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture, R-407c (nominal composition: 23% R-32, 25% R-125, and 52% R-134a). R-407c is a fluid with zero ozone depletion potential and one of several alternatives to currently widely used pure refrigerant HCFC-22. As a non-azeotrope, R-407c has distinctly different characteristics from pure fluids. The phase change of a non-azeotrope under constant pressure does not proceed at a constant temperature but rather over a range of temperature. In addition, the momentum, energy transfer, and mass transfer processes are closely linked. The vapor-liquid interfacial mass transfer rate limits the evaporation or condensation rate, and in turns limits the energy transfer rate. The experiments are conducted in a test apparatus with a fluid sampling port to monitor the composition change of the mixture. The test section consists of six horizontal identical passes, constructed as double tube heat exchangers. Each pass is about 2.2 m long and are connected in order by 7.6 cm radius U-bends. The heated or cooled section of each pass is shorter than the pass length and is 1.8 meter long. The inner (mixture) tube of the test section is a nominal 3/8" inch (9.5 mm) copper tube of 0.348 mm wall thickness with 72 axial fins of 0.185 mm height on its inner surface. The apex angle of the fins is 15 deg. and the helix angle is 0. The annulus-side water, serving as heat source (evaporating mode) or heat sink (condensing mode), flows through the annular space between inner and outer tubes. The tests are conducted at 100 deg F dew point temperature and mass flux from 192,000 to 818,000 lb/hr-ft^2 for condensing, and 50 deg F dew point and mass flux from 70,000 to 394,000 lb/hr-ft^2 for evaporating. The experimental results show that, compared to R-22, two-phase flow frictional pressure gradients of R-407c are about 10% less than R-22. Due to the mass transfer resistance, its condensing coefficients are 15% to 30% lower and its evaporating coefficients are about 20% lower, relative to R-22.

  15. Effect of feeding distiller’s grains on reduced sulfur emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous reduced sulfur compounds are produced during manure decomposition and emitted from confined animal feeding operations. Feeding high-sulfur distiller’s byproducts may increase the emission of these compounds. The objectives of a series of feedlot pen studies was to (i) determine if emission...

  16. Near azeotropic mixture substitute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention comprises a refrigerant mixture consisting of a first mole fraction of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and a second mole fraction of a component selected from the group consisting of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124) and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b); a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a) and CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124); a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a) and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b); and a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124), CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b) and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a).

  17. Limits and Consequences of Nonlocality Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Jibran

    Only in the last few decades have we realized how to view quantum nonlocal correlations as possible information theoretic resources rather than as apparent paradoxes. Unfortunately, the past perspective in terms of paradoxes still persists in our considerations of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) that offer stronger than quantum nonlocal correlations. We argue that a more pragmatic approach is to consider the physical framework under which such correlations may be realized. Our consideration immediately yields fruit by allowing us to identify limitations of the NLB model and develop the generalized notion of a quantum nonlocal box ( qNLB). We analyze the NLB and qNLB models within the framework of nonlocality distillation protocols. The ability to concentrate the correlations of many identical noisy copies of a nonlocal correlation source is known as nonlocality distillation. The idea is still in its early stages of development and and we pursue it in this thesis. We develop multiple new nonlocality distillation protocols and prove the optimality of non-adaptive distillation protocols for both NLBs and qNLBs. We show that qNLBs offer stronger non-adaptive distillation protocols than NLBs. At the same time, the understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal adaptive protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB. Through our investigation of nonlocality distillation protocols we conclude that the qNLB model is a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs. As a first step towards the re-examination of such principles, we provide numerical evidence that the distillability of nonlocal correlations depends on properties that are local. We claim that the differing strength of distillation protocols for NLBs and qNLBs can be interpreted as a separation between classical and quantum predictions at the macroscopic level. This implies that there exist quantum correlations that can be observed in principle, at the macroscopic level or that the principle of macroscopic locality identifies exactly the set of quantum correlations.

  18. Towards Atomic Column-by-Column Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.; Rafferty, B.

    1998-09-06

    The optical arrangement of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is ideally suited for performing analysis of individual atomic columns in materials. Using the incoherent Z-contrast image as a reference, and arranging incoherent conditions also for the spectroscopy, a precise correspondence is ensured between features in the inelastic image and elastic signals. In this way the exact probe position needed to maximise the inelastic signal from a selected column can be located and monitored during the analysis using the much higher intensity elastic signal. Although object functions for EELS are typically less than 1 {Angstrom} full width at half maximum, this is still an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding object functions for elastic (or diffuse) scattering used to form the Z-contrast image. Therefore the analysis is performed with an effective probe that is significantly broader than that used for the reference Z-contrast image. For a 2.2 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is of the order of 2.5 {Angstrom}, while for a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is 1.6 {Angstrom}. Such increases in effective probe size can significantly reduce or even eliminate contrast between atomic columns that are visible in the image. However, this is only true if we consider circular collector apertures. Calculations based upon the theory of Maslen and Rossouw (Maslen and Rossouw 1984; Rossouw and Maslen 1984) show that employing an annular aperture can reduce the FWHM of the inelastic object function down to values close 0.1 {Angstrom}. With practical aperture sizes it should be possible to achieve this increased spatial resolution without loosing too much signal.

  19. Understanding the azeotropic diethyl carbonate-water mixture by structural and energetic characterization of DEC(H2O)(n) heteroclusters.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Juan D; Mejía, Sol M; Mills, Matthew J L; Villa, Aída L

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an oxygenated fuel additive. During its synthesis through a promising green process, a DEC-water azeotrope is formed, which decreases DEC production efficiency in the gas phase. Molecular information about this system is scarce but could be of benefit in understanding (and potentially improving) the synthetic process. Therefore, we report a detailed computational study of the conformers of DEC, and their microsolvation with up to four water molecules, with the goal of understanding the observed 1:3 DEC:H2O molar ratio. The most stable DEC conformers (with mutual energy differences < 1.5 kcal mol(-1)) contribute to the energetic and structural properties of the complexes. An exhaustive stochastic exploration of each potential energy surface of DEC-(H2O)n, (where n?=?1, 2, 3, 4) heteroclusters discovered 3, 8, 7, and 4 heterodimers, heterotrimers, heterotetramers, and heteropentamers, respectively, at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. DEC conformers and energies of the most stable structures at each heterocluster size were refined using CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p). Energy decomposition, electron density topology, and cooperative effects analyses were carried out to determine the relationship between the geometrical features of the heteroclusters and the non-covalent interaction types responsible for their stabilization. Our findings show that electrostatic and exchange energies are responsible for heterocluster stabilization, and also suggest a mutual weakening among hydrogen bonds when more than three water molecules are present. All described results are complementary and suggest a structural and energetic explanation at the molecular level for the experimental molar ratio of 1:3 (DEC:H2O) for the DEC-water azeotrope. PMID:25786831

  20. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  1. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE 

    E-print Network

    Woinsky, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    revolutionary changes rather than sm(lll evolutionary changes in the way distillation is practiced in the US chemical industry, and olller U.S industries that lise distillation. sllch as petroleum refining. All approach called Heal Integrated Distributed.../Yr Petroleum Fuel Fractions 0.493 0,082 Crude Oil 0.423 Water -lnoHmnics 0,057 Liauefied Petroleum Gas 0,217 Air 0,017 Oletins 0.118 Water - HCs 0,007 Miscellaneous Hydrocarbons (HCs) 0.101 Other 0,302 Water - Oxygenated HCs 0.100 Total Reboiler Ener!!v 1...

  2. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

  3. Cytokine adsorbing columns.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Takumi

    2010-01-01

    Sepsis induces the activation of complement and the release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. The inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide induced by sepsis can decrease systemic vascular resistance, resulting in profound hypotension. The combination of hypotension and microvascular occlusion results in tissue ischemia and ultimately leads to multiple organ failure. Recently, several experimental and clinical studies have reported that treatment for adsorption of cytokines is beneficial during endotoxemia and sepsis. Therefore, the present article discusses cytokine adsorbing columns. These columns, such as CytoSorb, CYT-860-DHP, Lixelle, CTR-001 and MPCF-X, the structures of which vary significantly, have excellent adsorption rates for inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL8. Many studies have demonstrated that treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns has beneficial effects on the survival rate and inflammatory responses in animal septic models. Moreover, several cases have been reported in which treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns is very effective in hemodynamics and organ failures in critically ill patients. Although further investigations and clinical trials are needed, in the future treatment with cytokine adsorbing columns may play a major role in the treatment of hypercytokinemia such as multiple organ failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:20473001

  4. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize...

  5. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...incorporates plain language principles in order to improve the clarity...General Distilled spirits taxation is a specialized area of Federal...internal revenue or customs taxation of spirits, wines...This subpart covers the taxation of distilled spirits and...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  10. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  11. Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units

    SciTech Connect

    Piehl, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

  12. STEAM DISTILLATION OF POLONIUM COMPOUND WITH DIPHENYLCARBAZIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mabuchi

    1963-01-01

    Trace amounts of polonium can readily be steam distilled from 0.1 to 0.5 ; N nitric acid as the diphenylcarbazide complex. Chloride ion lowers the ; efficiency of the process. The separation is suitable for isoiating Po from ; radium-D-E-F mixtures. (auth);

  13. PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

  14. Membrane-distillation desalination: Status and potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Alklaibi; Noam Lior

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of membrane distillation (MD) based on the available state of the art and on ourpreliminary analysis. The process has many desirable properties such as low energy consumption, ability to use low temperature heat, compactness, and perceivably more immunity to fouling than other membrane processes. Within the tested range, the operating parameters of conventional MD configurations

  15. Desalination by Membrane Distillation: A Parametric Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawzi A. Banat; Jana Simandl

    1998-01-01

    Membrane distillation was investigated as a possible technique for desalination. An air-gap module with built-in Condensing surface was used for conducting experiments on polyvinylidene fluoride flat membrane sheets. The feed stream tested was artificial seawater. The quality of the permeate, quantified by conductivity measurements, and the permeate flux were monitored as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, cooling temperature, and

  16. Seawater desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Hsu; K. T. Cheng; J. S. Chiou

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fouling still posts as one of the major obstacles in membrane distillation (MD). This is why the MD approach still cannot successfully compete with other conventional seawater desalination methods. In this study, both the NaCl solution and real seawater are used as the feed of MD processes to investigate the differences in permeate flux, product water quality and membrane

  17. Abstracts -1 Distill for CASP11

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    that everything in our pipeline (except BLAST and the software to blow C traces into full-atom models) is in house in the first stage. Methods Distill runs 3 rounds of PSI-BLAST against a 90% redundancy reduced Uni category. Inputs for map prediction are: the sequence; MSA; PSI-BLAST, SAMD and SAMD templates. That is

  18. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan H. Mistry; Mohamed A. Antar; John H. Lienhard V

    2012-01-01

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple to implement, and suitable for use in optimization of water and power cogeneration systems. The MED system is modeled in a modular method in which each of the

  19. Multieffect distillation plants: state of the art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Shammiri; M. Safar

    1999-01-01

    The multi-effect distillation (MED) process is the oldest process in desalination. References and patents have existed since 1840, more than 150 years ago. Vertical tubes, horizontal tubes and different types of submerged tubes have been commercialized and were used until 1960 when multi-stage flash (MSF) dominated the desalination market. MSF plants are presently the most widely used and are considered

  20. Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus

    E-print Network

    Knezevich, Milan

    1940-01-01

    , Calibration Data of Orifioe ~, i, . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ 13 III. Equilibrium Data of Ethanol-Eater Mixtures . ~ * ~ ~ , 17 IV, . Flash Vaporieation Data of Ethanol Hater hIlxtures& + , 18 VI ~ Hempel Distillation of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . . . Flash... Vaporiration of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . ~ 21 22 VII' Hempel Distillations of Flash Distillates of Oklahoma City Crude . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 VIII+ Hompel Distillations of Flash Residuums of Oklahoma City Crude ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ o...

  1. Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2014-07-01

    This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

  2. Columns in Clay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  3. Nuclear fuel column retainer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. F. MacMillan; B. A. Smith; R. P. Dubrule

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a barrier member fixed in the end of a fuel column retaining spring to prevent contact between the retaining spring and the adjacent end plug of the fuel element whereby contamination of the weld between the cladding tube and end plug with retaining spring material is avoided. 12 claims, 5 drawing figures.

  4. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    to measure the volume of distillate, set up test tubes in a test tube rack. Record the vapor temperature when the distillation pot to dryness. Seal the vials tightly to prevent evaporation before you run your GC's. #12;Dispose of your three fractions and the residue from your distillation pot in the appropriate waste

  5. Engineering-scale distillation of cadmium for actinide recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Westphal; J. C. Price; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict

    2007-01-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate

  6. Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data Michael Schmidt1 and Hod Lipson2 precise and powerful, but automated processes for distilling this data into knowledge in the form relations, thus helping distill data into scientific knowledge. Symbolic regression (10) is an established

  7. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits and wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol...Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at...

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.) studies of alkyl formates and of alcohol-water azeotropes

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, Patrick William

    1966-01-01

    of the ester. In view of the above studies, it appeared to be of interest to study the chemical shifts of the formyl proton in a series of formate eaters (HCOOR ) relative to methyl formate. Since in the above studies, the protons studied were several atoms... to the formyl proton of methyl formate were calculated and are shown in the third column of Table I. Chemical shifts of the formyl proton of the formate esters with respect to the formyl proton of isopropyl formate as internal standard, of the esters...

  9. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eldridge

    2005-01-01

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow

  11. Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers

    E-print Network

    Dickey, Billy Ray

    1962-01-01

    ' rapo 's mt' +' s? h?: djq?4 p?r og ~ . t + ~u o~ 'ys w, uinyd ' tg a oq dr-, g b* trente! &- "h a'. qw e. v ' s '' 0 ths dis", " l'::t a~mar tiana. ol! ct. ua?storm, ri . rc "c 1";is eau given r . +hs . a':1st" cn a~ the ~rotated Wth'. mes" ra+e frw...CALG!fLATI )MAL Pf';)GP&P 'f', !G?, , C, L'IG1VPGf F, "fT fu. ;TrLLAII f GGLffMMS , 'r i RII!E ~&?PAP 8?~?P';ff" A Tfiesis Billy ffay Diczey '. hai+ted . o th ~ f:raduate Bc!" ool o" the Agricultural and Mechanical College oT Texas...

  12. Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers 

    E-print Network

    Dickey, Billy Ray

    1962-01-01

    , nificant, a co, , lets set of p . rtial . . iolar ent. ial . ics may . e calcula=edi 'cy "'qu tions (1), ind (la), ?nii anth:il y biil, inca - usec t'iroughout thc dictil'ation co i uun to establis!i corr ected vai?r and liquid rates. The cor. ected va d...

  13. Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation

    E-print Network

    Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

    1966-01-01

    that represents a component-material balance is t +At t n (v. . t t, - v?- t, . )dt = u . j+l, i j-1 ji ji ji u t t6t tn J1 n (4- 2) By use of the mean value theorem of integral calculus (5), the integral that appears in Equation (4-2) may be stated... exactly in terms of its mean value as follows: 21 t +At n t t v. . +R. , -v. . t. . dt= v, . +t, , -v. , R. . gt j+l, i j-l, i ji ji j L jul, i j-l, i ji jiJ m n or in terms of functional notation, r t +Et udt = v 11t t n (4 4) If the mean...

  14. Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation 

    E-print Network

    Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

    1966-01-01

    . Storey, and J. A. Challis, Proc. of the First International Congress of the I. F. A. C, , Vol. IV, 303 (London, England: Butte rworths, 1961). 17. dt t, R. G. , N tMtdd 1 Et* d~E (Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall, Inc. , 1961). 18. Thiele, E... gratitude is extended to his parents, Mr. and Mrs. David Pendon, to whom this work is dedicated. 111 TABZ E OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES . Page V1 CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION II. SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE III. MODIFIED e...

  15. Microcosm and Column Studies on the Biodegradation of Methyl TertButyl Ether (MTBE) in Soil-Water Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia Morales; Marc A. Deshusses; Sergio Revah

    Microcosms and column experiments were carried out using soil and groundwater from a MTBE contaminated site or using distilled water amended with mineral salts. The biodegradation of MTBE was tested under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with an initial MTBE concentration of 25 mg\\/L. The water to soil ratio in the microcosm experiments was 1:2 by mass and the inoculum size

  16. Ammonia removal from coal dry distillation wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanghua Wang; Fanjie Gong; Wenbing Li; Yunzhou Lu; Mingdong Sun; Tiejun Liu; Yuhe Liang; Xiaoyuan Li; Zengqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    the article used coke oven gas as desorption agent, pilot-scale packed tower as desorption equipment, removed ammonia from wastewater produced by coal dry distillation process. Gas stripping method is a new technology for ammonia removal. Through experiments conducted in the coking plant, when the temperature of wastewater T=85°C, pH=1l.5, the ratio of liquid and gas volume n=550:1 and the addition

  17. Enzymatic methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Ramamurthi; Prakash R. Bhirud; Alan R. McCurdy

    1991-01-01

    Methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by a nonspecific lipase was investigated. The conversion of fatty\\u000a acids to methyl esters has been optimized by using a statistical design. Up to 96.5% conversion of fatty acids to their methyl\\u000a esters has been achieved without the aid of vacuum or any water-removing agent. The effects of temperature, ratio of the reactants

  18. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  19. Steady-state simulation of a TSTA column by means of a mass-transfer model

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C. [French Atomic Energy Commission, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sherman, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sere-Peyrigain, P. [PROSIM S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1995-10-01

    The simulation of the units for hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation with packed columns can be carried out with a very efficient tool, based on a non equilibrium model [1]. This new approach enables a better representation of the physical phenomena involved in the columns to be obtained and consequently, better accuracy for the tritium inventory in the whole process. At the TSTA facility, one of main systems is the Isotope Separation System (ISS), fitted with an on-line laser Raman spectroscopy system: it allows to obtain very accurate composition profiles in the columns, rapidly and safely. Using experimental data, provided by TSTA, CEA, associated with PROSIM S.A., have carried out calculations on column 1. This study clearly demonstrates: the high efficiency of the experimental device; the good accuracy of the results in comparison with experimental data (composition profiles); and the efficacy of the method for design activities. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  1. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  2. Distillation of cadmium from uranium–plutonium–cadmium alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Kato; Masatoshi Iizuka; Tadashi Inoue; Takashi Iwai; Yasuo Arai

    2005-01-01

    Uranium–plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U–Pu–Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9wt% U and 8.7wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser

  3. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples-Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%-109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%-12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  4. Simultaneous Distillation Extraction of Some Volatile Flavor Components from Pu-erh Tea Samples—Comparison with Steam Distillation-Liquid/Liquid Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xungang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Wan, Xiaochun; Ning, Jingming; Yao, Chengcheng; Shao, Wanfang

    2009-01-01

    A simutaneous distillation extraction (SDE) combined GC method was constructed for determination of volatile flavor components in Pu-erh tea samples. Dichloromethane and ethyl decylate was employed as organic phase in SDE and internal standard in determination, respectively. Weakly polar DB-5 column was used to separate the volatile flavor components in GC, 10 of the components were quantitatively analyzed, and further confirmed by GC-MS. The recovery covered from 66.4%–109%, and repeatability expressed as RSD was in range of 1.44%–12.6%. SDE was most suitable for the extraction of the anlytes by comparing with steam distillation-liquid/liquid extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Commercially available Pu-erh tea samples, including Pu-erh raw tea and ripe tea, were analyzed by the constructed method. the high-volatile components, such as benzyl alcohol, linalool oxide, and linalool, were greatly rich in Pu-erh raw teas, while the contents of 1,2,3-Trimethoxylbenzene and 1,2,4-Trimethoxylbenzene were much high in Pu-erh ripe teas. PMID:20169174

  5. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  6. Parametric studies in industrial distillation. Part II. Heuristic optimization. [Industrial distillation trains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Tedder; D. F. Rudd

    1978-01-01

    The venture cost of operating a single distillation tower is examined as a function of the overhead operating pressure, the feed fractional vaporization, and the vapor to minimum vapor rate ratio. One variable is changed parametrically, while the two remaining are fixed at their optimal values. The percentage increase in cost above the minimum is shown. The relative significance of

  7. Kinetics of distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe juniper ( Juniperus communis L.) berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetomir Ž. Milojevi?; Tamara D. Stojanovi?; Radosav Pali?; Miodrag L. Lazi?; Vlada B. Veljkovi?

    2008-01-01

    The distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe berries of Juniperus communis L. (juniper oil) was studied at different hydrodistillation rates. The distillation of juniper consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on this mechanism, the kinetics of juniper oil distillation were described using a two-parameter model of unsteady-state diffusion through the plant

  8. Concentration and Drying of Tea Polyphenols Extracted from Green Tea Using Molecular Distillation and Spray Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Qiang Tang; Di-Cai Li; Yang-Xiao Lv; Jian-Guo Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of combining molecular distillation and spray drying to concentrate and dry tea polyphenols extracts. Molecular distillation and spray drying of tea phenols extracts were performed using an orthogonal array design. The order of importance that influenced molecular distillation was distillation temperature > flux > rotational speed. The optimal conditions for concentration by molecular distillation

  9. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  10. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  11. Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

    1996-01-01

    In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

  12. Catalytic oxidation of mercaptan in sour petroleum distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.

    1981-04-07

    A process for treating a mercaptan-containing sour petroleum distillate is disclosed. The process comprises contacting said distillate with a supported mercaptan oxidation catalyst at oxidation conditions, said catalyst comprising a metal chelate and a quaternary ammonium hydroxide disposed on an adsorbent support.

  13. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  14. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  15. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  16. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  17. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  18. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  19. Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setiyo Gunawan

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

  20. Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols with Incomplete Information

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols. Entanglement distil­ lation extracts nearly­perfect entanglement from imperfect entangled state. The classical­ nication complexity of entanglement distillation protocols for this model. Our result also suggests

  1. Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols with Incomplete Information

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols. Entanglement distil- lation extracts nearly-perfect entanglement from imperfect entangled state. The classical- nication complexity of entanglement distillation protocols for this model. Our result also suggests

  2. 77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional...TTB proposes to amend the standards of identity regulations for distilled spirits...

  3. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single...

  4. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

  5. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  6. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  7. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  8. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  9. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  10. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  11. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  12. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  13. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  14. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  15. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  16. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco E. Lübbecke; Jacques Desrosiers

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and column generation, devised for linear programs, is a success story in large scale integer programming. We outline and relate the approaches, and survey mainly recent contributions, not found in textbooks, yet. We emphasize on the growing understanding of the dual point of view, which brought considerable progress to the column generation theory and practice. It stimulated

  17. Simulated distillation of petroleum and coal-derived products by packed capillary supercritical fluid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, M.; Johnson, B.R.; Mitchell, S.C. [Univ. of Leeds (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The advantages of simulated distillation (SD) of petroleum compounds by super-critical fluid chromatography (SFC) over high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC) are well recognised. Most of the research performed using this technique has employed conventional open tubular columns but the use of packed capillary columns which offer high sample capacities, greater efficiency of separation and a shorter analysis time has recently received much attention. Previous work at Leeds using a variety of column packings (C{sub 1}-C{sub 18} alkyl groups bonded to silica) has demonstrated that high molecular weight hydrocarbons with boiling points up to 800{degrees}C can be successfully eluted with pure CO{sub 2} as a mobile phase. However, the high compositional variability of coal-derived samples increases the difficulty of SD-SFC of coal fractions as compared to petroleum derived fractions. In this study, a number of coal samples have been investigated to determine the suitability of packed capillary SD-SFC for heavy coal products.

  18. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions 

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    -ambitious listing project, covered in a single volume, is that of Hirata, Ohe, and Naghama [17]. In summary, current work is concentrated on the compilation of VLE and the development of estimating parameters for the UNIFAC predictive method. Both... idea. *Sulzer packing, formed from wire mesh in a special corrugated arrangement (Figure 4), has been tested hy FRI in a 40-inch column in Switzerland. The results are available from the vendor [34J. To summarize the needs for research...

  19. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    E-print Network

    Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

    2009-08-01

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  20. Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations 

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Samuel Lane

    1959-01-01

    for Total Reflux in One Section of a Column Restrictions. Calculational Procedure Illustrative Examples Conclusions 33 35 38 45 Table of Notation Bibliography. Appendix. 46 49 52 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1. Diagram of a... of 8 at the Operating Reflux 59 ' 6O LIST OF TABLES Table Page I-a Equilibrium Data for Example Equi. librium Data for Examples 1~ 2~ 4-7. 61 62 Enthalpy Data. 63 III-a Statement of Examples ? Composition of Feeds III-b Statement of Examples...

  1. Stripper column of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy is inert to ammonia at 270°F

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hunt; A. Gaines

    1987-01-01

    The Eastern Steel Division of Armco, Inc., in Ashland, Kentucky performs on-site carbonization of coal to produce coke. The coke oven gas is processed into an acceptable fuel. The final step in the processing of this gas is the stripping of ammonia from methylethylamine by steam distillation at about 270°F. The original ammonia stripping column was fabricated in 1978 with

  2. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, E? = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) ? Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (<1 day). This allows multiple measurements to be made on the same column and thus the sediment biology to be monitored non-invasively over time (i.e. after an augmentation has been introduced) and minimizes long-lived radioactive waste. Different parameters can be measured, depending on the tracer type and delivery. A constant infusion of a conservative tracer, such as the positron emitter Br-76 (T1/2= 16.2 hr), measures the exclusion fraction (as a function of position in the column), while a bolus maps the flow velocity as a function of position. A tracer that interacts chemically with the contents of the column (e.g., [99m-Tc(VII)O4]- reduced to 99m-TcO2 by Fe(II) ) yields a map of the chemical environment (e.g., the distribution of Fe(II)). Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  3. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  4. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-print Network

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal ...

  5. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  6. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  7. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  8. Entanglement distillation by means of k-extendible maps

    E-print Network

    Pankowski, L; Horodecki, M; Smith, G

    2011-01-01

    It is known that from entangled states which have positve partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled state by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing problem is whether all states with non-positive partial transpose can be distilled. In this paper we attack this question using a larger class of operations than LOCC operations. Namely, we consider k-extendible operations - those, whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We obtain, in particular, that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. capable of distilling even completely product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which imply, that if we raise the extension index k in parallel with raising the numebr of copies, they are not that powerful anymore.

  9. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    consumed by the chemical and petro chemical industries is used in separation pro cesses. (1) Distillation is one process area where large energy reductions often can be achieved. (2) Numerous studies have identified a number of al ternatives...

  10. Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation

    E-print Network

    Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

    The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

  11. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  12. DISTILL: Learning Domain-Specific Planners by Example Elly Winner ELLY@CS.CMU.EDU

    E-print Network

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    DISTILL: Learning Domain-Specific Planners by Example Elly Winner ELLY@CS.CMU.EDU Manuela Veloso present the DISTILL algorithm for learning dsPlanners automatically from example plans. DISTILL converts that the dsPlan- ners automatically learned by DISTILL com- pactly represent its domain-specific planning ex

  13. Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval Erika R. Fritsa,b*

    E-print Network

    Csendes, Tibor

    1/25 Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval arithmetic Erika R@inf.u-szeged.hu Abstract Feasibility study on batch extractive distillation is based on analyzing profile maps distillation, feasibility, bifurcation, profile map Introduction Batch extractive distillation (BED) is a unit

  14. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding permits as...

  15. Activating NPPT distillation with an infinitesimal amount of bound entanglement

    E-print Network

    Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Michael M. Wolf

    2002-01-23

    We show that bipartite quantum states of any dimension, which do not have a positive partial transpose, become 1-distillable when one adds an infinitesimal amount of bound entanglement. To this end we investigate the activation properties of a new class of symmetric bound entangled states of full rank. It is shown that in this set there exist universal activator states capable of activating the distillation of any NPPT state.

  16. Real option theory from finance to batch distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Rico-ramírez; Urmila M. Diwekar; Benoit Morel

    2003-01-01

    Batch distillation processes have gained renewed interest because of the recent development in small-scale industries producing high-value-added, low-volume specialty chemicals. The flexibility and unsteady state nature of batch distillation constitute a challenge for the designer. A particularly difficult problem is the optimal control problem involving open loop solution for the reflux ratio profile. This is because of the complexity of

  17. Process for removing naphthenic acids from petroleum distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Danzik, M.

    1987-01-06

    A liquid extraction process is described for removing naphthenic acids from naphthenic acid containing petroleum distillates boiling within the range of about 180/sup 0/-600/sup 0/C. and having an acid number of at least about 0.2 which process comprises the steps of: (a) intimately contacting the petroleum distillates with a solvent consisting essentially of methanol, water, and about from 2-20 wt. % ammonia and having a methanol: water ratio in the range of about from 0.2 to 3 parts by weight of methanol per part by weight of water and using an ammonia to petroleum distillate ratio of about 0.1-1 part by weight of ammonia per 100 parts by weight of the petroleum distillate. This selectively extracts the naphthenic acids into the solvent and yielding an immiscible two-phase liquid mixture, one of which is naphthenic acid-rich solvent phase and the other of which is a substantially napthenic acid-free petroleum distillate phase; and (b) separating and respectively recovering the naphtenic acid-rich solvent phase and petroleum distillate phase.

  18. Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

  19. Integrated column arithmetic according to progressive schematisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Treffers

    1987-01-01

    Following an introduction on the relation between column arithmetic and mental arithmetic in connection with the development of pocket calculators and computers, the characteristics of progressive schematisation are described with regard to column multiplication and column division. In this way, an image is formed of the specific characteristics of this approach to column arithmetic set against the background of traditional

  20. Comparison of a Multipore Column with a Mixed-Bed Column for Size Exclusion Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nagata; T. Kato; H. Furutani

    1998-01-01

    A new type of column packed with polystyrene gels which have a broad pore size distribution in a particle (henceforth referred to as the multipore column) was developed, and its performance was compared with the so-called linear column (henceforth referred to as the mixed-bed column). The chromatogram of the epoxy resin (Epikote 1009) on the multipore column showed a monomodal

  1. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    E-print Network

    2002-12-02

    Dec 2, 2002 ... efficient heuristic algorithm for solving the cutting stock problem. ... of linear programming column generation, expanding respectively on the strategies developed for get- ... multiple traveling salesman problem with time windows .... as convex combination of extreme points {pq}q?Q plus non-negative ...

  2. Editorial: Research and Teaching Column

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marcy Towns

    2008-03-01

    The JCST Research and Teaching column will feature sound research on curriculum, pedagogy, and student learning at the college level. Topics of interest include all fields of science: chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, physics, geography, mathematics, environmental science, and computer science. Studies that are interdisciplinary or are readily applicable to several disciplines in the sciences are also of interest.

  3. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS Domestic wastewater treatment by infiltration-percolation is a process that becomming common in France, a greater depth for desinfection purposes. KEYWORDS Wastewater treatment, Infiltration-percolation. Sand

  4. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

  5. Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

    2002-10-01

    The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

  6. A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

  7. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  8. Noisy Processing and Distillation of Private Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renes, Joseph M.; Smith, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    We provide a simple security proof for prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally entangled states, a more general private state is distilled. In addition to a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

  9. A New Protocol of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Distillation

    E-print Network

    Shi Jin; Xian-Min Jin; Joshua Nunn; Animesh Datta; Ian Walmsley

    2012-10-16

    We introduce a new protocol in continuous variable entanglement distillation that requires only linear temporal and constant physical or spatial resources.Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol uses atom-photon entanglement to substitute for atom-atom entanglement in existing protol, which will not only save the number of quantum memories, but also has the advantages in operation efficiency and temporal saving. The distillation can be realized by a fixed model of iterations, in which only three quantum memories and photon detectors are required.

  10. Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.

  11. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2009-07-15

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  12. Isoprene is the monomer pre-cursor to the synthetic equivalent of natural rubber. It is recovered from the C5 cut in ethylene

    E-print Network

    Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

    .g. acetonitrile, dimethylformamide or N-methylpyrrolidone ~ can effect the separation. Despite the enhancement--pentane azeotrope conditions, CPD andpentane azeotrope conditions, CPD and isoprene have a relative volatility an azeotrope at ~75%. Isoprene-CPD phase equilibria showing a low relative volatility. EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION

  13. Water Column Methylation in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartup, A. T.; Calder, R.; Soerensen, A. L.; Mason, R. P.; Balcom, P. H.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs and affects humans and wildlife through fish consumption. Many studies have measured active methylation/demethylation in ocean margin sediments but few have reported similar rates for the marine water column. This presentation will review available evidence for water column methylation in estuaries, including new experimental measurements of methylation/demethylation rates from a deep subarctic fjord in Labrador Canada collected in Spring and Fall of 2012-2013. We used these and other data to construct a mass budget for MeHg in the estuary and show that water column methylation (with rates ranging from 1.5 to 2.8 % day-1), is the largest contributor, followed by inputs from rivers (4.9 mol year-1), to the in situ pool of MeHg available for uptake by biota. By contrast, the sediment in this system is a net sink for MeHg (-1.5 mol year-1). We discuss the relationship between observed MeHg and other ancillary environmental factors (organic carbon, sulfur and nutrients) as well as implications for the response time of fish to future changes in mercury inputs.

  14. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base...field modification of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts)...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base...field modification of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts)...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base...field modification of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts)...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base...field modification of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts)...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base...field modification of anchor rods (anchor bolts). (1) Anchor rods (anchor bolts)...

  19. FRP rupture strains in FRP wrapped columns 

    E-print Network

    Li, Shiqing

    2012-06-25

    Applying lateral confinement to concrete columns using fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is a very promising technique. FRP rupture is the typical failure mode of FRP wrapped columns under axial compression. numerous ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  4. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205...Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes,...

  5. 27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. 31.45 Section 31.45 Alcohol...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. (a) General. Compliance with...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer, unless those compounds,...

  6. 27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. 31.45 Section 31.45 Alcohol...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. (a) General. Compliance with...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer, unless those compounds,...

  7. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205...Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes,...

  8. SIGACT news complexity theory column 34

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    This issue's guest columnists are angels. The column was faced with a last-minute cancellation, and they prepared on very short notice a wonderful column. And I'm sure that many readers of the column will want to learn even more by, for example, reading their monograph Complexity Classifications of Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems [7].Future complexity columns include Holzer\\/McKenzie on a familiar

  9. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  10. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  11. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  12. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  13. 27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584 Section...SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

  14. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material...TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.248 Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling...

  15. ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

  16. Best Entry Pages for the Topic Distillation Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodora Tsikrika; Mounia Lalmas

    In a typical web search, users consider entry pages to rele- vant sites as more valuable than isolated pieces of relevant text. The Topic Distillation Task aims at identifying the page at the right level of site hierarchy considered to pro- vide optimal access, by browsing, to relevant pages within the site, i.e. its Best Entry Page. Our aim is

  17. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  18. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  19. A solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  20. Bloggers as experts: feed distillation using expert retrieval models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krisztian Balog; Maarten De Rijke; Wouter Weerkamp

    2008-01-01

    We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs that are principally devoted to a given topic. The task may be viewed as an association finding task, between topics and bloggers. Under this view, it resembles the expert finding task, for which a range of models have been proposed. We adopt two language modeling- based approaches to expert

  1. New Russian distillation installations equipped with horizontal tube sprayed bunches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. V. Kartovsky; V. A. Kopyrin; V. B. Chernozubov; K. V. Glushko

    2001-01-01

    Represented here is information about new Russian designs of the distillation freshening units (DFU) developed by the specialists of SverdNIIchimmash. Given here is a brief review of three versions of DFU furnished with film evaporators with horizontal tube bundles and brief descriptions and specifications. The review is made on the basis of the designs of the freshening complex operating in

  2. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation... Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86-07a. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238...

  3. Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

  4. Aerobic stability of distillers’ wet grains as influenced by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximizing the storability of distillers’ wet grains (DWG) has great influence on the economic, energetic, and carbon balances of fuel ethanol production, yet there is little published data from controlled studies on the deterioration of DWG following its production. Under laboratory conditions, we...

  5. RESEARCH Open Access Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , with possible impacts on scientific workflows reuse. In this work, we propose effective methods for workflow Scientific workflows management systems [1-5] are increasingly used to specify and manage bioinformaticsRESEARCH Open Access Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows: a refactoring approach

  6. Process control interface system for a distillation plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Téllez-anguiano; F. Rivas-cruz; C.-M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-garcía; David Juárez-romero

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because it allows an efficient, flexible, and reliable system. The interface system is presented in an operator-friendly application, which has the capability

  7. WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

  8. Environmental impacts of seawater distillation and reverse osmosis processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Morton; I. K. Callister; N. M. Wade

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents and compares the marine and atmospheric discharges of typical large MSF and RO plants. Distillation plants require an inlet seawater flow around 8 to 10 times the fresh water production rate, for cooling and feed make-up. The discharge is raised in salinity and in temperature, due to heat rejection from the process. A seawater RO plant generally

  9. Investigation on drying of middle distillate by Pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Heinz Reichmann; Ninja Hildebrand; Jürgen Freitag; Rainer Kossol; Helmut Schiml

    2010-01-01

    The drying of middle distillate (MD), from which diesel fuel is made, by Pervaporation (PV) was experimentally investigated in a laboratory plant applying organic membranes. The work was conducted in cooperation with a refinery in which MD is catalytically desulphurized by hydrogenation. The H2S formed is separated by steam stripping. The resulting water content in the MD is removed by

  10. FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES TO CONCENTRATE NUTRIENT STREAMS IN DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as li...

  11. Distilling Information with Super-Resolution for Video Surveillance

    E-print Network

    Cristani, Marco

    Distilling Information with Super-Resolution for Video Surveillance Marco Cristani Dipartimento di A video surveillance sequence generally contains a lot of scattered information regarding several objects of a person in motion, a typical setting of video surveillance applications. Permission to make digital

  12. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  13. Thermoeconomic analysis of a solar parabolic trough collector distillation plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. García-Rodríguez; C. Gómez-Camacho

    1999-01-01

    Thermoeconomy, which is based on the Systems Theory and the Second Law of Thermodynamic, gives strategies for diagnoses and control of energetic systems (these are systems which consume great amounts of energy). In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis of a multi-stage flash and a multi-effect distillation plant coupled to a solar parabolic trough collector field have been made. The analysis

  14. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, Ali [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

  15. Membrane Distillation and Related Operations—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efrem Curcio; Enrico Drioli

    2005-01-01

    Membrane contactors represent an emerging technology in which the membrane is used as a tool for inter phase mass transfer operations: the membrane does not act as a selective barrier, but the separation is based on the phase equilibrium. In principle, all traditional stripping, scrubbing, absorption, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, emulsification, liquid?liquid extraction, and mass transfer catalysis processes can be carried

  16. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Burgess; K. Lovegrove

    Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal collectors on a medium to large scale. However the cost and energy requirement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) have fallen significantly in recent years, so that solar thermal powered RO deserves consideration. We compare commercial desalination processes on the basis of

  17. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (? 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (? 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (? 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  18. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  19. INTRODUCTION Weiwei-isms distills Ai Weiwei's thinking on the

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    INTRODUCTION Weiwei-isms distills Ai Weiwei's thinking on the topics of individual rights. Excerpted from Ai's own newspa- per articles, Twitter posts, media interviews, and other sources, Weiwei't conversant with Ai Wei- wei's background, a chronology takes readers through his biographical details. Like

  20. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  1. Effects of distillers grains on feedlot performance of crossbred steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to determine effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of finishing steers when fed at 0, 20, 40, or 60% of diet DM. Crossbred, fall-born steers (304) were weaned, moved to the feedlot, and fed a corn silage based diet. Stee...

  2. Process for fatty acid methyl esters by dual reactive distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre C. Dimian; Florin Omota; Anton A. Kiss

    2007-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) , valuable oleo-chemicals and main constituent of biodiesel, can be manufactured in a continuous process based on reactive distillation and solid catalyst. A central problem is the effective water removal. In this work we propose a novel approach, namely dual esterification with a mixture of methanol and long-chain alcohol, as 2-ethylhexanol, which plays the role

  3. Measurement Reconciliation and Interpretation in Packed Distillation Column Operation Teck C. Lee and Colin S. Howat, Ph.D.

    E-print Network

    Howat, Colin S. "Chip"

    industrial scale operation, with the important exception that atypical, additional measurements can be made the tower operation and to compare the interpretation against that operation. These procedures can method applied to this tower with the vapor mass transfer coefficient being the primary adjustable

  4. hal-00177059,version2-6Oct2007 Semantic distillation: a method for clustering objects

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00177059,version2-6Oct2007 Semantic distillation: a method for clustering objects clustering, termed semantic distillation -- strongly in- spired from the theory of quantum measurement --, we to their specificity. Keywords: Quantum information retrieval, semantic distillation, DNA microarray, quan- tum

  5. On the (Im)possibility of Noninteractive Correlation Distillation Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University,

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    On the (Im)possibility of Non­interactive Correlation Distillation Ke Yang Computer Science@cs.cmu.edu December 8, 2003 Abstract We study the problem of non­interactive correlation distillation (NICD). Suppose a distribution N , known as the ``noise mode''. Alice and Bob wish to ``distill'' the correlation non

  6. Performance Assessment of Different Control Structures for Generic Reactive Distillation Using Linear and Nonlinear Process Models

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Performance Assessment of Different Control Structures for Generic Reactive Distillation Using to that when a rigorous nonlinear process model is used for a generic reactive distillation. It is shown The combination of reaction and distillation in a single vessel is an old idea that has attracted renewed

  7. Hashing protocol for multipartite entanglement distillation Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene, Bart De Moor

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;Hashing protocol for multipartite entanglement distillation Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene for distilling multipartite CSS states by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements and classical decoherence. Both quantum error correcting codes and entanglement distillation were introduced to this purpose

  8. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  9. Dry-Column Flash Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

    1997-10-01

    Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

  10. Reactive distillation for synthesizing ethyl tert-butyl ether from low-grade alcohol catalyzed by potassium hydrogen sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Matouq, M.; Quitain, A.T.; Takahashi, Katsuroku; Goto, Shigeo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-03-01

    Synthesis of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) from the reaction between ethanol (EtOH) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in the presence of different acid catalysts (KHSO{sub 4}, NaHSO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and Amberlyst 15) was investigated at low alcohol grade (mixture of 80 mol % water). Potassium hydrogen sulfate (KHSO{sub 4}) showed the highest selectivity among the tested catalysts. Other catalysts caused the dehydration of TBA into water (H{sub 2}O) and isobutene (IB). In the top of the reactive distillation column with total reflux, the condensate was split into two layers. The upper layer contained ETBE with a more than 60 mole fraction.

  11. Determination of trace amounts of nitrogen in uranium based samples by ion chromatography (IC) without Kjeldahl distillation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Poonam; Rastogi, Ramakant K; Ramakumar, Karanam L

    2007-07-23

    A simple, sensitive and fast ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection is described for the determination of traces of nitrogen in uranium based fuel materials. Initially a method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH4(+) using cation exchange column after matrix separation by Kjeldahl distillation. The method was then improved by eliminating this distillation. Matrix separation after sample dissolution was done by hydrolyzing and filtering off the polyvalent cations. This had helped in reducing both the sample size and analysis time. Optimization of dissolution conditions for various kinds of uranium based samples was done to keep acid content minimum; a prerequisite chromatographic condition. The calibration plot for nitrogen was linear in the concentration range of 0.02-1 mg L(-1) with regression coefficient of 0.9999. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained in this method (100 microL injected) was 3% and 2% in 9 replicates at nitrogen level of 28 and 55 ng g(-1), respectively. Detection limit based on S/N=3 (100 microL injected) as well as three times of variation in blank value was 4 ng g(-1). The developed method was authenticated by comparison with certified uranium-alloy standard as well as with independent indophenol photometry method. The developed method was applied to uranium-alloy, uranium-metal, sintered UO2 pellets and sintered UO2 microspheres samples. PMID:17631107

  12. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

  13. Rearing of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, embryos in distilled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.

    1969-01-01

    Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.

  14. Biocomposites from co-polypropylene and distillers' grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinbakhsh, Nima; Mohanty, Amar K.; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, we have explored the polymeric composites of distillers' grains with co-polypropylene (co-PP). The effect of maleated-PP compatibilizer on mechanical, thermomechanical and physical properties was evaluated. The composite materials were produced by melt extrusion in a micro-compounder followed by injection molding in a micro-injection machine. The composites were characterized for their tensile, flexural and impact properties. Also, melt flow index and heat deflection temperature were measured. The results showed more than 30 % improvement in modulus when comparing the compatibilized biocomposite with neat co-PP. Also, the strength of the compatibilized biocomposite measured in tensile and flexural tests was comparable to or even better than that of the neat matrix. On the other hand, the reduced flexibility and toughness as a result of compatibilization were in an acceptable range. The biocomposites showed more rigidity at elevated temperatures. The produced distillers' grain biocomposites showed promises for industrial applications.

  15. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop for Flow Boiling of Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a and HFC-32/HFC-134a in Horizontal Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Ohishi, Katsumi

    Experiments were performed on heat transfer and pressure drop for flow boiling of two non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-134a and HFC-32/HFC-134a at respectively certain compositions,which are expected to be alternatives to HCFC-22,in horizontal smooth and internally,spirally grooved tubes. Almost the same local heat transfer coefficients were obtained for both the mixtures in each tube. In the smooth tube,in the region where nucleate boiling contributes substantially to the heat transfer,the heat transfer coefficients for the mixtures were reduced down to about two-thirds of the value for HCFC-22,due to the effect of a mass transfer resistance on the heat transfer,while they were approximately equal to those for HCFC-22 in the forced convection dominated region. With the grooved tube,the heat transfer was enhanced over the smooth tube,but the enhancement was smaller than that for HCFC-22. In both the tubes,frictional pressure drops for the binary mixture were generally a few to 20 percent higher than those for the ternary mixture and the pure refrigerant,corresponding to the difference in the vapor density.

  16. Water desalination using carbon-nanotube-enhanced membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Gethard, Ken; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced membrane distillation is presented for water desalination. It is demonstrated that the immobilization of the CNTs in the pores of a hydrophobic membrane favorably alters the water-membrane interactions to promote vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores. For a salt concentration of 34?000 mg L(-1) and at 80 °C, the nanotube incorporation led to 1.85 and 15 times increase in flux and salt reduction, respectively. PMID:21188976

  17. Hashing protocol for distilling multipartite Calderbank-Shor-Steane states

    SciTech Connect

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; Moor, Bart de [ESAT-SCD, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-04-15

    We present a hashing protocol for distilling multipartite Calderbank-Shor-Steane states by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication. It is shown that this hashing protocol outperforms previous versions by exploiting information theory to a full extent and not only applying controlled-NOT gates as local Clifford operations. Using the information-theoretical notion of a strongly typical set, we calculate the asymptotic yield of the protocol as the solution of a linear programming problem.

  18. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  19. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

  20. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

  1. Process for producing cracked distillate and hydrogen from heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, S.; Fujimori, K.; Satomi, Y.; Suzuka, T.

    1980-09-23

    A process is disclosed for producing a cracked distillate and hydrogen from a heavy oil which comprises cracking the heavy oil in the presence of laterite or a laterite-containing catalyst while simultaneously depositing coke on said laterite or laterite-containing catalysts, reducing the laterite or laterote-containing catalyst on which the coke is deposited, and forming a hydrogen-rich gas by contacting the reduced laterite or laterite-containing catalyst with steam.

  2. Fractional vacuum distillation of herring oil methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Ackman; P. J. Ke; P. M. Jangaard

    1973-01-01

    Methyl esters of a Canadian Atlantic herring oil containing 62% monoethylenic fatty acids were subjected to batch fractional\\u000a distillation under vacuum on a pilot plant scale, to study the feasibility of fractionating fatty acid esters of marine oils\\u000a of low iodine value into monounsaturated fractions with increased commercial value for industrial chemical uses. A total of\\u000a 64 methyl ester fractions

  3. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-print Network

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

  4. SEISMIC REHABILITATION OF SHORT RECTANGULAR RC COLUMNS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. GHOBARAH; K. ELMANDOOH GALAL

    2004-01-01

    Non-ductile response of structural elements, particularly columns, has been the cause of numerous documented failures during earthquakes. The objective of this experimental study was to evaluate the non-linear behaviour of non-ductile reinforced concrete short columns under lateral cyclic deformations and to evaluate rehabilitation schemes. Three reinforced concrete short columns were tested under cyclic lateral loads and constant axial load. The

  5. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial §...

  6. Table I. Column 4, labelled f, lists isotopic abundance fractions from Anders and Grevesse [11]. Columns 5 through 7 are from Table of Isotopes [12]. Column

    E-print Network

    Kurucz, Robert L.

    Table I. Column 4, labelled f, lists isotopic abundance fractions from Anders and Grevesse [11]. Columns 5 through 7 are from Table of Isotopes [12]. Column 5, labelled I, is the nuclear spin. Column 6, labelled ¯, is the magnetic dipole moment in nuclear magnetons. Column 7, labelled Q, is the electric

  7. Growth Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  8. Precise laboratory fractional distillation of fatty acid esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Norris; David E. Terry

    1945-01-01

    Summary  Important factors in the construction and operation of laboratory fractionating columns are discussed. These include column\\u000a diameter and insulation, packing, pressure drop, effect of reflux and molecular weight on fractionating efficiency, reflux\\u000a regulation, choice of operating pressure, constant pressure maintenance, and accurate measurement of pressure. Accurate boiling\\u000a points in the 1–20 mm. range are reported for the first time for

  9. The development of HPLC columns: Packing structure, column efficiency, stability and standardization

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, K.K.; Hallman, M.; Ranis-Jansen, R. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat, Mainz (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Packing procedures for HPLC columns, such as the slurry technique (analytical columns) and the axial compression technique (preparative columns) have been widely established. However, there is still a lack of fundamental knowledge concerning the actual packing structure of a column and its impact on efficiency and stability. Recently, attempts have been made to model the packing procedure as well as the column bed structure and to apply experimental methods to characterize the assembly of microparticles in a column and the elution profiles in situ. The high reproducibility of commercial HPLC columns with respect to efficiency is mainly due to the substantial improvements made in particle technology, column hardware and optimized column packing procedures. The stability of commercial columns is acceptable but very much dependent on the extent of sample clean-up and the column handling and operation by the user. To validate HPLC methods, a project is planned to establish a C18 reversed phase reference column for standardization and certification in the frame of the EC Programme on {open_quotes}Measurements and Testing{open_quotes}.

  10. Chart 1 (350 characters) (1) c 2008729 : column 1 = simplified character, column 2 = traditional character

    E-print Network

    Roegel, Denis

    2008729 #12;2 #12;Chart 1 (350 characters) (1) c 2008729 : column 1 = simplified character will hopefully be resolved in the future) 3 #12;4 #12;Chart 1 (350 characters) (2) 5 #12;6 #12;Chart 1 (350 characters) (3) c 2008729 : column 1 = simplified character, column 2

  11. Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

    1990-08-15

    Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Modelling failures in existing reinforced concrete columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Elwood

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research and post-earthquake reconnaissance have demonstrated that reinforced concrete col- umns with light or widely spaced transverse reinforcement are vulnerable to shear failure, and in turn, axial failure dur- ing earthquakes. Based on experimental data, failure surfaces have been used to define the onset of shear and axial failure for such columns. After the response of the column intersects

  13. LRCLaboratoryColumns New York -USA

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    . Air in the column 3. Abnormal pressure increase during operation Possible cause 1. Dead volume at the column inlet. 2. Inlet frit partially clogged. 3. Outlet frit partially clogged. 4. Separation efficiency during the conditioning phase (see Section 2 for elimination of dead volume). PPrrootteecctt

  14. Structural response of pyramidal core sandwich columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francois Cote; Russell Biagi; Hilary Bart-Smith; Vikram S. Deshpande

    2007-01-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation is carried out to examine the in-plane compressive response of pyramidal truss core sandwich columns. The identified failure mechanisms include Euler buckling, shear buckling and face wrinkling. The operative mechanism is dependent on the properties of the bulk material and geometry of the sandwich columns and analytical formulae are derived for each of these modes.

  15. Results from the Winogradsky Column Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Semester in Environmental Science

    This web page features research results from a student project involving Winogradsky Columns constructed using sandy sediment and water collected from an estuary in Massachusetts. The page includes high-resolution images of the columns and profiles of hydrogen sulfide and methane versus depth.

  16. Modeling of column apparatuses: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Doichinova, M., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com; Popova-Krumova, P., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. St.Angelov str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper presents a review of the modeling method on the base of the physical approximations of the mechanics of continua, which have been developed for processes in column apparatuses. This method includes diffusion type of model for modeling of mass transfer with chemical reaction in column apparatuses with and without circulation zones. The diffusion type of model is used for modeling of scale effect in column apparatuses too. The study concluded that the proposal method is possibility for investigation the influence of radial non uniformity of the velocity distribution on the process efficiency, influence of zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column. The method of the column apparatuses modeling can be used for modeling of physical and chemical absorption, chemical adsorption, homogeneous and heterogeneous (catalytic) chemical reactions, airlift reactors for chemical and photochemical reactions.

  17. Composite Column Design/Test Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Craig

    Effective engineered composite design activities require predictive and quantitative methodology. This research incorporates engineering design, using smart spreadsheets, into a laboratory activity focusing on columns made of composite materials. In a previous work, a laboratory activity was developed supporting composite design of polymer matrix composite beams. The present work applies a similar approach expanded to ceramic composites in the form of columns. In the lab, students simulate composite columns and use a smart spreadsheet to help optimize their design for engineering performance, including specific properties. Parameters are discussed and evaluated before the column is made. The composite is then fabricated. Finally, the composite is tested and the experimental data (critical load for columns) is compared to predictions.

  18. The effect of re-dissolution solvents and HPLC columns on the analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in the eulittoral macroalgae Prasiola crispa and Porphyra umbilicalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, Ulf; Escoubeyrou, Karine; Charles, François

    2009-09-01

    Many macroalgal species that are regularly exposed to high solar radiation such as the eulittoral green alga Prasiola crispa and the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as UV-sunscreen compounds. These substances are typically extracted with a widely used standard protocol following quantification by various high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. However, further preparation steps prior to HPLC analysis as well as different HPLC column types have not been systematically checked regarding separation quality and reproducibility. Therefore pure methanol, distilled water and HPLC eluent were evaluated as re-dissolution solvent for dried Prasiola and Porphyra extracts, which were subsequently analyzed on three reversed-phase C8 and C18 HPLC columns. The data indicate that distilled water and the HPLC eluent gave almost identical peak patterns and MAA contents on the C8 and C18 columns. In contrast, the application of the widely used methanol led to double peaks or even the loss of specific peaks as well as to a strong decline in total MAA amounts ranging from about 35% of the maximum in P. crispa to 80% of the maximum in P. umbilicalis. Consequently, methanol should be avoided as re-dissolution solvent for the HPLC sample preparation. An improved protocol for the MAA analysis in macroalgae in combination with a reliable C18 column is suggested.

  19. Characterization of corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure for thermochemical conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wang; Abolghasem Shahbazi; Milford A. Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure were characterized to evaluate their acceptability for thermochemical conversion. The energy densities of ground corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure after totally drying were 3402, 11,813 and 10,374 MJ\\/m3, compared to 37,125 MJ\\/m3 for coal. The contents of volatiles in corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure were 77.4, 82.6 and 82.8%, respectively, on

  20. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks

    E-print Network

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    prevention. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 48 (7), 616-626. 33 deZarate, J.M.O., Pena, L., Mengual, J.I., 1995. Characterization of membrane distillation membranes prepared by phase inversion. Desalination 100 (1-3), 139...; zfeed= .001; ! Feed Cp in kJ/ kg C; cp=4.186; 39 !overall recovery is alpha; alpha=.98; permeate_total=alpha*feed; ! defining the nominal flux(lb/ ft^2 h ) and temperature(F); temp_nom=124; flux_nom=80; psat_nom=97...

  1. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

  2. Many-region vacuum entanglement: Distilling a W state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silman, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the correlations between any number of arbitrarily far-apart regions of the vacuum of the free Klein-Gordon field by means of its finite duration coupling to an equal number of localized detectors. We show that the correlations between any N such regions enable us to distill an N -partite W state, and therefore exhibit true N -fold entanglement. Furthermore, we show that for N=3 , the correlations cannot be reproduced by a hybrid local-nonlocal hidden-variable model. For N?4 the issue remains open.

  3. Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

  4. Distillation protocols for Fourier states in quantum computing

    E-print Network

    Cody Jones

    2013-03-13

    Fourier states are multi-qubit registers that facilitate phase rotations in fault-tolerant quantum computing. We propose distillation protocols for constructing the fundamental, $n$-qubit Fourier state with error $O(2^{-n})$ at a cost of $O(n \\log n)$ Toffoli gates and Clifford gates, or any arbitrary Fourier state using $O(n^2)$ gates. We analyze these protocols with methods from digital signal processing. These results suggest that phase kickback, which uses Fourier states, could be the current lowest-overhead method for generating arbitrary phase rotations.

  5. How to Calculate Molecular Column Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2015-03-01

    The calculation of the molecular column density from molecular spectral (rotational or ro-vibrational) transition measurements is one of the most basic quantities derived from molecular spectroscopy. Starting from first principles where we describe the basic physics behind the radiative and collisional excitation of molecules and the radiative transfer of their emission, we derive a general expression for the molecular column density. As the calculation of the molecular column density involves a knowledge of the molecular energy level degeneracies, rotational partition functions, dipole moment matrix elements, and line strengths, we include generalized derivations of these molecule-specific quantities. Given that approximations to the column density equation are often useful, we explore the optically thin, optically thick, and low-frequency limits to our derived general molecular column density relation. We also evaluate the limitations of the common assumption that the molecular excitation temperature is constant and address the distinction between beam-averaged and source-averaged column densities. As non-LTE approaches to the calculation of molecular spectral line column density have become quite common, we summarize non-LTE models that calculate molecular cloud volume densities, kinetic temperatures, and molecular column densities. We conclude our discussion of the molecular column density with worked examples for C18O, C17O, N2H+, NH3, and H2CO. Ancillary information on some subtleties involving line profile functions, conversion between integrated flux and brightness temperature, the calculation of the uncertainty associated with an integrated intensity measurement, the calculation of spectral line optical depth using hyperfine or isotopologue measurements, the calculation of the kinetic temperature from a symmetric molecule excitation temperature measurement, and relative hyperfine intensity calculations for NH3 are presented in appendices. The intent of this document is to provide a reference for researchers studying astrophysical molecular spectroscopic measurements.

  6. Flutter of cantilevered column under rocket thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Katayama, Kazuo; Kinoi, Sigeru

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation on the flutter of visco-elastic cantilevers subjected to a tangential follower force. The force was produced by the direct installation of a real solid rocket motor to the tip end of the cantilevered columns. The columns lost their stability by flutter. The results were compared with theoretical flutter predictions made by accounting for an internal damping of the test columns, as well as the mass and size of the installed rocket motor. The introduction of the concept of instability in a finite time interval is of vital importance in predicting the experimental flutter force.

  7. Investigating Bacteria with the Winogradsky Column

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rogan, Brian

    This is an instructor's guide to teaching about biodiversity in the microbial world. This activity encourages students to investigate bacteria using a Winogradsky Column. Students can create a unique environment with slight variations on the recipe; and soon have an inquiry project that could easily occupy the entire year. With the simple extensions given, teachers can isolate and grow a number of the species found in the column and extend this column to a number of examples in the real world showing the relevance of this complex yet deceptively simple lab.

  8. Compaction force in a confined granular column.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Cetto, D; Pulos, G; Zenit, R; Jiménez-Zapata, M A; Wassgren, C R

    2003-11-01

    Experiments to determine the force required to push a granular column confined within a cylinder were performed. The experimental apparatus was mounted on a material testing system machine in order to obtain force and displacement measurements simultaneously. Experiments were performed for two different sphere diameters, two different cylinder diameters and for a range of piston displacement velocities. The force necessary to displace the column increases rapidly with the column height, in accordance with Janssen's theory. More importantly, we found that this force also increases with the displacement velocity. This unexpected behavior is an indication of the transition to rate-dependent behavior in dense granular flows. PMID:14682792

  9. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.H.; Amoruso, M.A.; Freeman, J.J.; Przygoda, R.T. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences, East Millstone, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum middle distillate (PMD) fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that distill between {approximately} 170-370{degrees}C. Commercial products that fall into this category include kerosine, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and home heating oil. These products contain both saturated (paraffins and cycloparaffins) and aromatic species, but because of the boiling range normally contain very small amounts of the 3-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents, which are considered to be carcinogenic. Nevertheless, there is evidence of weak tumorigenic activity when these materials are repeatedly applied to mouse skin. In the current studies representative products were tested in two commonly used, short-term assays for genetic toxicity, the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. All samples were inactive in the micronucleus assay, and three were clearly inactive in the Salmonella test. Of the remaining two, one was marginally active in the Salmonella assay, and one was equivocal. The marginally active sample contained detectable levels of PAH due to the use of catalytically cracked materials as blending stocks. The results indicated that PMDs that do not contain cracked material were not mutagenic. Thus they may produce tumors via nongenotoxic processes. Those products that do contain cracked stocks may have sufficient PAH to be mutagenic in the Salmonella assay, and in those cases the PAH might also contribute to tumor formation. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Distillation of entanglement by projection on permutationally invariant subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechlewski, Miko?aj; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Micha?; Mozrzymas, Marek; Studzi?ski, Micha?

    2012-03-01

    We consider distillation of entanglement from two-qubit states which are mixtures of two pure entangled states and one pure product state, which is orthogonal to them. We distill entanglement from such states by projecting n copies of the state on a permutationally invariant subspace and then applying one-way hashing protocol. We find analytical expressions for the rate of the protocol and show that for wide range of parameters, this protocol achieves higher rates than previous ones. We also generalize this method to higher-dimensional systems. To get analytical expression for two-qubit case, we faced a mathematical problem of diagonalizing a family of matrices enjoying some symmetries w.r.t. the symmetric group. We have solved this problem in two ways: (i) directly by the use of Schur-Weyl decomposition and Young symmetrizers and (ii) showing that the problem is equivalent to a problem of diagonalizing adjacency matrices in a particular instance of a so-called algebraic association scheme.

  11. Assessment of some diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Aumatell, Montserrat Riu; Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2008-11-01

    In the present study the qualitative and quantitative determination of diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin was carried out. This widely consumed juniper-based spirit is aromatized using Juniper (Juniperus communis) berries. Although juniper reportedly contains several diterpenic compounds, no studies have addressed the diterpenic composition of juniper-based spirits or beverages. With this objective, here we followed a multilevel factorial experimental design to optimize a direct immersion-solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and analyzed eight commercial brands of gin. With total concentrations ranging from 10 to 190 microg L(-1), manool, manoyl oxide and trans-totarol were the most abundant diterpenoids of the 10 identified or tentatively identified at variable but not negligible concentrations in the distilled gin samples. The diterpenic composition allowed the brands to be differentiated. This indicates that these compounds contribute to the sensory characteristics of the distinct commercial brands, thus guaranteeing the authenticity and consequently the quality of the product. PMID:18929011

  12. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  13. Secure entanglement distillation for double-server blind quantum computation

    E-print Network

    Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii

    2013-07-13

    Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully-fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about client's input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this paper, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of the blind quantum computing.

  14. Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2013-07-01

    Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

  15. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-03-14

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal.

  16. Tests on duralumin columns for aircraft construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John G

    1924-01-01

    The following paper is based on the results of tests, upon duralumin columns, contained in two theses presented to the Department of Civil and Sanitary Engineering of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  17. Axisymmetric Column Collapse in a Rotating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnett, Jay; Thomas, Peter; Dennisenko, Petr

    2012-11-01

    We discuss experimental and computational results of a study investigating the collapse of an initially axisymmetric cylindrical column of granular material within a rotating environment of air or liquids. In industry this type of granular column collapse that is subject to background rotation is encountered, for instance, in the context of the spreading of powders and fertilizers. In comparison to its non-rotating counterpart the physical characteristics of the column collapse in a rotating system are expected to be modified by effects arising from centrifugal forces and Coriolis forces. We compare our new results for the rotating flow to data available in the literature for the collapse of granular columns in non-rotating systems to highlight the differences observed.

  18. Reconstruction of the Column Shaft* Jari Pakkanen

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Reconstruction of the Column Shaft* Jari Pakkanen This document is author's final English version shafts is soft brown sandstone: since it is very easy to carve, it is an economical and quick building

  19. Commander prepares glass columns for electrophoresis experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Commander Jack Lousma prepares on of the glass columns for the electrophoresis test in the middeck area of the Columbia. The experiment, deployed in an L-shaped mode in upper right corner, consists of the processing unit with glass columns in which the separation takes place; a camera (partially obscurred by Lousma's face) to document the process; and a cryogenic freezer to freeze and store the samples after separation.

  20. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better detection via good peak separation with a longer run time is a better asset than moderate peak separation with a shorter run time. Even given that RESOLVE is highly interested in water and that mission timeline is of significant importance given the short seven-to-ten-day mission timeline, worse detection with an 8m column may lead to overlooking other substances existing on the moon that could advance planetary science. Thus, I recommend the 20m column. However, if mission timeline and water separation are deemed the highest priority, the 8m column should be selected due to its ability to separate water within a shorter run time than the 20m column.

  1. Experimental and numerical performance of a multi-effect condensation–evaporation solar water distillation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel M. Abdel Dayem

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to demonstrate experimentally and numerically the performance of a simple solar distillation unit that is based on the multiple condensation–evaporation cycle. The pilot plant was designed, fabricated, tested and simulated at the solar energy laboratory, Mattarria Faculty of Engineering, Cairo, Egypt. The distillation chamber consists of a humidifier (evaporator) and a dehumidifier (condenser)

  2. Effect of compositional variability of Distillers' Grains on cellulosic ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84 kg of dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers’ grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable b...

  3. Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle

    E-print Network

    Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol production from cereal grains can generate a variety of potential cattle feeds, de production in the southern High Plains. Wet distillers grains represent a unique feed ingredient for cattle

  4. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation

    E-print Network

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30

    /min, with steam injection rate kept at 0.5 g/min. The distillation temperatures ranged from 115°C to 300°C and were increased in steps of 10°C. The cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) for 30 minutes. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig for dry...

  5. Microbial Development in Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production from Corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distill...

  6. Distilling Critical Attack Graph Surface iteratively through Minimum-Cost SAT Solving

    E-print Network

    Ou, Xinming "Simon"

    Distilling Critical Attack Graph Surface iteratively through Minimum-Cost SAT Solving Heqing Huang attack paths, forming a crit- ical attack graph surface. Our method can distill critical attack graph surfaces from the full attack graphs generated for moderate- sized enterprise networks in only several

  7. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  8. A modified steam distillation method for volatile acids determination in anaerobic digestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Tsonis

    1991-01-01

    A modified steam distillation method for the accurate determination of low levels of volatile acids found primarily in low rate anaerobic digestors has been developed. The interference of bicarbonate alkalinity is minimal with complete removal of carbon dioxide from the sample prior to distillation. This removal can be achieved by boiling the acidified sample for 30 min in an erlenmeyer

  9. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  10. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  11. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  12. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  13. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

  14. Experimental study of desalination using direct contact membrane distillation: a new approach to flux enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzahi Y. Cath; V. Dean Adams; Amy E. Childress

    2004-01-01

    New membrane distillation configurations and a new membrane module were investigated to improve water desalination. The performances of three hydrophobic microporous membranes were evaluated under vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) with a turbulent flow regime and with a feed water temperature of only 40°C. The new configurations provide reduced temperature polarization effects due to better mixing and increased

  15. Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task Elisabeth Lex,mgrani,ajuffinger}@know-center.at Abstract. In this paper, we outline our experiments carried out at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task. Our system is based on a plain text index extracted from the XML feeds of the TREC Blogs08 dataset

  16. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol. PMID:24397718

  17. Microwave accelerated steam distillation of essential oil from lavender: A rapid, clean and environmentally friendly approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Chemat; M. E. Lucchesi; J. Smadja; L. Favretto; G. Colnaghi; F. Visinoni

    2006-01-01

    A new process design and operation for microwave accelerated steam distillation (MASD) of essential oils was developed. A packed bed of lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae) sits above the steam source generated by microwave heating. Only steam passes through it without the boiling water mixing with vegetable raw material, as is the case in hydro-distillation. MASD has been compared

  18. Reduction in dietary wet distillers grains alters Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in feces of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fed finishing diets with distillers grains have been shown to more often have Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the feces and on the hides. The objectives of this study were to determine if pathogen levels and prevalence differ at higher level of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the d...

  19. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products-component feed into M products has been derived. Interestingly, the minimum-energy solution in a complex solution of minimum energy for distillation of a multicomponent feed into multiple products has not been

  20. Stripper column of Ni-Cr-Mo alloy is inert to ammonia at 270/sup 0/F

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.; Gaines, A.

    1987-07-01

    The Eastern Steel Division of Armco, Inc., in Ashland, Kentucky performs on-site carbonization of coal to produce coke. The coke oven gas is processed into an acceptable fuel. The final step in the processing of this gas is the stripping of ammonia from methylethylamine by steam distillation at about 270/sup 0/F. The original ammonia stripping column was fabricated in 1978 with the shell, bottom and internals of Type 316L stainless steel. The top portion was made of a high nickel (Ni) wrought alloy containing about 15.5% chromium (Cr), 16% molybdenum (Mo), 4% tungsten, 5.5 % iron and less than 0.01% carbon. The alloy offers outstanding resistance to localized corrosion by both oxidizing and reducing media including ferric and cupric chlorides, formic and acetic acids, acetic anhydride and brine solutions. It is also resistant to pitting and stress corrosion cracking by sulfur compounds and chloride ions, and to oxidizing atmospheres up to 1900/sup 0/F. Severe corrosion of the stainless steel components caused the stripper to fail after only 16 days of operation. The high nickel top of the column, however, was in excellent condition without any evidence of chemical attack. The new column was constructed entirely of the Ni-Cr-Mo alloy, based on the superior corrosion resistance exhibited in the original column. The shell of the 20'' diameter, 54' tall column was made from 1/4'' thick sheet. The ammonia stripping column of high nickel alloy has been operating since October 1984 and periodic inspection reveals no signs of pitting or other damage by the hot aggressive media. Consequently, the plant projects a long service life without any maintenance requirements.

  1. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

  2. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  3. Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-25

    Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0? and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity. PMID:21266968

  4. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  5. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  6. Counterflow isotachophoresis in a monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingwen; Cong, Yongzheng; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2014-09-01

    This study describes stationary counterflow isotachophoresis (ITP) in a poly(acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) monolithic column as a means for improving ITP processing capacity and reducing dispersion. The flow profile in the monolith was predicted using COMSOL's Brinkman Equation application mode, which revealed that the flow profile was mainly determined by monolith permeability. As monolith permeability decreases, the flow profile changes from a parabolic shape to a plug shape. An experimental monolithic column was prepared in a fused-silica capillary using an ultraviolet-initiated polymerization method. A monolithic column made from 8% (wt.) monomer was chosen for the stationary counterflow ITP experiments. Counterflow ITP in the monolithic column showed undistorted analyte zones with significantly reduced dispersion compared to the severe dispersion observed in an open capillary. Particularly, for r-phycoerythrin focused by counterflow ITP, its zone width in the monolithic column was only one-third that observed in an open capillary. These experiments demonstrate that stationary counterflow ITP in monoliths can be a robust and practical electrofocusing method. PMID:24935025

  7. Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation Jeroen Dehaene,* Maarten Van den Nest, and Bart De Moor

    E-print Network

    Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation Jeroen Dehaene entanglement distillation for pairs of qubits. Our algorithms perform significantly better than the best. INTRODUCTION We study mixed-state multicopy entanglement distillation protocols for pairs of qubits. We start

  8. DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for con-

    E-print Network

    Smaragdakis, Yannis

    Abstract DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for con- tainer data structures. DiSTiL is a representative of a new approach to domain-specific language implementa- tion. Instead of being the usual one-of-a-kind stand- alone compiler, DiSTiL is an extension

  9. On the (Im)possibility of Non-interactive Correlation Distillation Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University,

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    On the (Im)possibility of Non-interactive Correlation Distillation Ke Yang Computer Science@cs.cmu.edu December 8, 2003 Abstract We study the problem of non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD). Suppose, known as the "noise mode". Alice and Bob wish to "distill" the correlation non-interactively, i

  10. PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension A column experiment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension ­ A column experiment was systematically due to significant levels of PCB-DL and PCDD/F in fish tissue. New campaigns of characterization of cubic meters of contaminated sediments and to improve the understanding of the behavior of PCB

  11. Ionization instability in a turbulent plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Crispin, Y. (Florida, University, Gainesville (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The problem of the onset of ionization waves in a turbulent plasma column is studied using linear stability theory. A mathematical model of the mutual interactions between the gas flow turbulence, Joule heating, ionization and ambipolar diffusion in the cylindrical plasma column is developed. Axially homogeneous stationary solutions of the turbulent plasma column are presented. These solutions are then perturbed and their stability to longitudinal disturbances is investigated. The growth rate of the disturbances is calculated for argon at a pressure of 50 torr, a range of currents between 0.2 and 2 A and Reynolds number values of 0, 6000 and 10,000. It is found that the gas turbulence delays the onset of ionization waves for a wide range of discharge currents. 20 refs.

  12. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. PMID:20510431

  13. Mass transfer in a wetted wall column

    E-print Network

    Platt, Allison M

    1950-01-01

    MASS TRANSPER IM A WETTED WALL COLDMM A Thesis Allison M. Platt June, 1950 MASS TRANSFER IN A WETTED WALL COLUMN A Thesis Allison M. Platt June~ 1950 Approved as to st@i and content recommended: Head of the Department of C cal Engineering... MASS TRANSFER IN A WETTED WALL COLUMN A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural snd Mechanical College oi' Texas Partial FulfiUment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science ~or Sub)ect: Chemical Engineering Allison M...

  14. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  15. Experimental Entanglement Distillation of Two-Qubit Mixed States under Local Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Huang, Yun-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Ren, Xi-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2006-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate optimal entanglement distillation from two forms of two-qubit mixed states under local filtering operations according to the constructive method intruduced by [F. Verstraete , Phys. Rev. A 64, 010101(R) (2001)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.64.010101]. In principle, our setup can be easily applied to distilling entanglement from arbitrary two-qubit partially mixed states. We also test the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shinmony-Holt inequality for the distilled state from the first form of mixed state to show its “hidden nonlocality.”

  16. Comments on “Distillability sudden death in qutrit—qutrit systems under thermal reservoirs”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhar, Ali

    2014-09-01

    In a recent paper (2012 Chin. Phys. B 21 084205), the authors studied the problem of distillability sudden death. We find that their equation of motion is incorrect and consequently the rest of the paper is wrong. Even apart from starting with a wrong equation of motion, their description of the phenomenon of distillability sudden death is totally misleading and needs to be rectified. To this aim, we show that certain initially prepared free-entangled states become bound-entangled in a finite time under thermal reservoirs. Moreover, in contrast with zero-temperature reservoirs, simple local unitary transformations cannot completely avoid distillability sudden death.

  17. Study of the steam distillation of phenolic compounds using ultraviolet spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George. Norwitz; Nicole. Nataro; Peter N. Keliher

    1986-01-01

    The steam distillation of 42 phenolic compounds was studied by use of a semimicro steam distillation apparatus and ultraviolet spectrometry. In the distillation, the following gave recoveries greater than 95%: phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-bromophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2,3- and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, 2-, 3-, and 4-methylphenol, 4-chloro-2-methylphenol, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4-, and 3,5-dimethylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-amylpheno,, thymol, and carvacrol. The percent

  18. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  19. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. ?ench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80?C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt concentration. The quality of the permeate water remains constant at about 1 mg/L regardless of the changes in the influent salt concentration. A nine-month MD field trial, using hollow fiber membranes and completely off-the-shelf components demonstrated that a scaled-up solar-driven MD system was practical and economically viable. Based on these results, a pilot scale unit will be constructed and deployed on the tribal lands. PMID:24552961

  20. A comparison study of in-column and on-column detection for electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qier; Xu, Lingjia; Zhou, Zhuoheng; Yang, Lijun; Wang, Qiuquan; Zhang, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Duplex capillary columns, the standard for electrochromatography using optical detection, consist of a packed and an open section. Normally, optical detection is performed in an on-column manner, i.e. at a point right after the packed section. It was deemed that band broadening may take place when an analyte band travels from the packed bed, through the frit and down to the open section. In this study, without using any sintering steps for fritting or window creation, robust packed capillary columns were prepared using transparent capillaries based on single particle fritting technology. The detection point could be easily shifted by simply sliding the transparent column against the ultraviolet (UV) beam. In this way, the band broadening effect was directly evaluated as a function of the detection point, which was positioned before or after the end frit. The consistent van Deemter curves recorded indicate that there was no efficiency difference between the positions investigated. The result proved that the significant band broadening effect previously observed via on-column detection should be caused by the sintered frit used, while the single particle frit made through a purely physical process did not lead to efficiency degradation. The conservative separation performance recorded at different positions around the column's end also suggests the applicability of on-line tandem detection strategy, e.g. UV followed by mass spectrometry (MS), on the same capillary column, which should be a promising approach to mining multiplex detection information from a single microseparation process. PMID:25171946

  1. Extendible column can be stowed on drum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtz, G. M.; Howard, E. A.

    1965-01-01

    Column formed from a series of segments held together by an internal spring or cable can be coiled on a drum or extended into a rigid structure. This storable coil is useful in boring for soil samples and supporting electrical and optical sensors.

  2. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-06-16

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  3. Relationship Advice Columns from Two Popular Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori R. Kogan; Julie A. Kellaway

    2004-01-01

    The relationship advice columns for two popular magazines (one targeted to female and the other to male readers) were discussed within the conceptual frameworks of centerfold syndrome and appearance obsession. Centerfold syndrome is a theory that describes the way men view women and sexuality. The female counterpart is appearance obsession which theorizes that women are motivated to meet unrealistic beauty

  4. Nonmonotonic excitation rates in argon positive column

    SciTech Connect

    Arslanbekov, R.R.; Kolobov, V.I.; Bogdanov, E.A.; Kudryavtsev, A.A. [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama, 35805 (United States); St. Petersburg State University, 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2004-10-18

    Nonmonotonic radial distributions of electron excitation rates are obtained in simulations of positive column (PC) in argon for a wide range of gas pressures 5

  5. Hydrodynamics of Falling Mine in Water Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Chu; Anthony F. Gilles; Chenwu Fan; Peter Fleischer

    The hydrodynamic features of a falling mine into the water column is investigated experimentally. The experiment consisted of dropping three cylindrical model mines of various lengths into a pool where the trajectories were filmed from two angles. The controlled parameters were, mine parameters (length to diameter ratio, center of mass location), and initial conditions (initial velocity, and drop angle). Results

  6. The parallel complexity of minimizing column conflicts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Savage; Markus G. Wloka

    1992-01-01

    Two-layer channel routers typically require a post-processing phase to reduce or eliminate column conflicts. Attempts have been made to parallelize this problem using local search heuristics that swap horizontal channel wire segments. The authors show that all such heuristics for this problem are P-hard and unlikely to be efficiently parallelizable

  7. Alfven surface waves along cylindrical plasma columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Uberoi; K. Somasundaram

    1980-01-01

    The analysis deals with the properties of Alfven waves along a cylindrical plasma column situated in a vacuum or in another plasma medium. In the case of vacuum, the phase velocity of the surface waves is shown to be greater than the bulk Alfven velocity. The symmetric modes propagate as forward waves, but the asymmetric modes change from backward to

  8. Algorithmic Game Theory Column Mario Mavronicolas

    E-print Network

    Mavronicolas, Marios

    Algorithmic Game Theory Column by Mario Mavronicolas Department of Computer Science, University in Algorithmic Game Theory today. The complexity of this problem has been found to be very sensitive with problems of equilibrium computation. 1 Introduction Noncooperative Game Theory has been providing

  9. Desulfurization of coal by microbial column flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmura, Naoya; Saiki, Hiroshi (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology)

    1994-06-05

    Twenty-three strains capable of oxidizing iron were isolated from coal and ore storage sites as well as coal and ore mines, volcanic areas, and hot spring. Four strains were found to have high iron-oxidizing activity. One strain (T-4) was selected for this experiment since the strain showed the fastest leaching rate of iron and sulfate from pyrite among the four strains. The T-4 strain was assigned for Thiobacillus ferrooxidans from its cultural and morphological characteristics. Bacterial treatment was applied to column flotation. An increase of cell density in the microbial column flotation resulted in the increase of pyrite removal from a coal-pyrite mixture with corresponding decrease of coal recovery. The addition of kerosene into the microbial column flotation increased the recovery of the imitated coal from 55% (without kerosene) to 81% (with 50 [mu]L/L kerosene) with the reduction of pyrite sulfur content from11% (feed coal) to 3.9% (product coal). An excellent separation was obtained by the microbial flotation using a long column which had a length-diameter (L/D) ratio of 12.7.

  10. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  11. Water vapor column abundance retrievals during FIFE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Bruegge; J. E. Conel; R. O. Green; J. S. Margolis; R. G. Holm; G. Toon

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. The authors report on the use of a sunphotometer to extract column

  12. ACM SIGACT news distributed computing column 13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Rajsbaum

    2003-01-01

    The Distributed Computing Column covers the theory of systems that are composed of a number of interacting computing elements. These include problems of communication and networking, databases, distributed shared memory, multiprocessor architectures, operating systems, verification, Internet, and the Web.This issue describes the PODC 20th anniversary Special Issue published by Distributed Computing journal.

  13. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (??) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval ?? from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  14. Quantum distillation and confinement of vacancies in a doublon sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lin; Zundel, Laura A.; Carrasquilla, Juan; Reinhard, Aaron; Wilson, Joshua M.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.

    2015-04-01

    Ultracold atomic gases have revolutionized the study of non-equilibrium dynamics in quantum many-body systems. Many counterintuitive non-equilibrium effects have been observed, such as suppressed thermalization in a one-dimensional (1D) gas, the formation of repulsive self-bound dimers, and identical behaviours for attractive and repulsive interactions. Here, we observe the expansion of a bundle of ultracold 1D Bose gases in a flat-bottomed optical lattice potential. By combining in situ measurements with photoassociation, we follow the spatial dynamics of singly, doubly and triply occupied lattice sites. The system sheds interaction energy by dissolving some doublons and triplons. Some singlons quantum distil out of the doublon centre, whereas others remain confined. Our Gutzwiller mean-field model captures these experimental features in a physically clear way. These experiments might be used to study thermalization in systems with particle losses, the evolution of quantum entanglement or, if applied to fermions, to prepare very low entropy states.

  15. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  16. Biofouling and microbial communities in membrane distillation and reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zodrow, Katherine R; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Giannetto, Michael J; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-11-18

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology that uses low-grade heat to drive water vapor across a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Currently, little is known about the biofilms that grow on MD membranes. In this study, we use estuarine water collected from Long Island Sound in a bench-scale direct contact MD system to investigate the initial stages of biofilm formation. For comparison, we studied biofilm formation in a bench-scale reverse osmosis (RO) system using the same feedwater. These two membrane desalination systems expose the natural microbial community to vastly different environmental conditions: high temperatures with no hydraulic pressure in MD and low temperature with hydraulic pressure in RO. Over the course of 4 days, we observed a steady decline in bacteria concentration (nearly 2 orders of magnitude) in the MD feed reservoir. Even with this drop in planktonic bacteria, significant biofilm formation was observed. Biofilm morphologies on MD and RO membranes were markedly different. MD membrane biofilms were heterogeneous and contained several colonies, while RO membrane biofilms, although thicker, were a homogeneous mat. Phylogenetic analysis using next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA showed significant shifts in the microbial communities. Bacteria representing the orders Burkholderiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales were most abundant in the MD biofilms. On the basis of the results, we propose two different regimes for microbial community shifts and biofilm development in RO and MD systems. PMID:25295386

  17. Bi-column method for purification of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Gadgil, H; Taylor, W L; Jarrett, H W

    2001-01-01

    A novel bi-column method for purifying transcription factors, using two different columns and two different elution strategies is described. Lac repressor elutes at lower heparin concentrations from a lower affinity lactose operatorl (Op1)-Sepharose column than from a higher affinity column containing the same sequence with a T18:A18 tail (Op1T18). A bi-column method was developed in which lac repressor fusion protein is eluted from the Op1-Sepharose with a low heparin concentration and trapped on a Op1T18-Sepharose column because of its higher affinity for the lac repressor protein. Elution of the latter column with buffer containing a high salt concentration gives significantly purer transcription factor than the conventionally used single column methods and removes residual heparin. Highly pure CAAT enhancer binding protein and the B3 transcription factor are also obtained by using variants of this bi-column method. PMID:11206779

  18. Experimental Validation of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Permeation Process for Energy Efficient Ethanol-Water Separation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-based systems for ethanol recovery and dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative separation process integrating vapor stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step...

  19. Probing the entanglement distillability responses to the Unruh effect and prepared states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenchao; Xu, Shuai; He, Juan; Shi, Jiadong; Ye, Liu

    2015-04-01

    How the Unruh-Hawking effect and prepared states influence the entanglement distillability of a free Dirac field is investigated by using the Werner and Horodecki states. It is found that Werner and Horodecki states will be converted from distillable into the separate in the noninertial frame. The parameter of the generic entangled states has a different effect on Werner-like and Horodecki-like states. For the Werner-like states, although the parameter influences the entanglement, it does not change the range of the parameter where the entanglement distillability of the Werner-like states is possible. For the Horodecki-like states, the parameter not only influences the entanglement but also changes the range of the parameter where the entanglement distillability of Horodecki-like states can be achieved.

  20. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-print Network

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  1. VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

  2. 23. Public Works Department Drawing 461M10 (1931), 'Electrolyte and Distilled ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Public Works Department Drawing 461-M-10 (1931), 'Electrolyte and Distilled Water-Piping and Fittings' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. 27 CFR 24.290 - Removal of wine as distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of wine as distilling material. 24.290 Section...BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax §...

  4. 76 FR 75836 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...premises of a distilled spirits plant (DSP). However, section 5214(a) of the...conducted only on the bonded premises of a DSP by a person who is qualified under subchapter...subsection [[Page 75837

  5. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS) was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Method performance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  6. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01... 2010-04-01 false Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...

  7. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    EPA Science Inventory

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  8. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-print Network

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17

    Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil ...

  9. Near azeotropic mixture substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A refrigerant and a process of formulating thereof that consists of a mixture of a first mole fraction of CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3 and a second mole fraction of a component selected from the group consisting of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 ; a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 ; and a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3.

  10. Near azeotropic mixture substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention comprises a refrigerant mixture having two halocarbon components. The first component is present in a mole fraction of about 0.7 to less than 1.0 while the second component is present in a mole fraction of more than 0.0 to about 0.3. The first component is CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3. The second component can be CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CHClFCF.sub.3, a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, or a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3. The preferred embodiment of this invention comprises about 0.7 to less than 1.0 mole fraction CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3, and more than 0.0 to about 0.3 mole fraction of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2. The most preferred embodiment of this invention comprises about 0.7 to less than 1.0 mole fraction CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3 and more than 0.0 to about 0.3 mole fraction CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2. The resulting refrigerant has a vapor pressure close to-that of CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, a nearly constant vapor pressure with evaporation, and is substantially less damaging to the Earth's ozone layer than CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

  11. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology: Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rico Bagger-Jørgensen; Anne S. Meyer; Manuel Pinelo; Camilla Varming; Gunnar Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L\\/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3\\/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds

  12. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rico Bagger-Jørgensen; Anne S. Meyer; Camilla Varming; Gunnar Jonsson

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10–45 °C) and at varying feed flow rates (100–500 l\\/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l\\/h at 30 °C gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound

  13. Classification of aged wine distillates using fuzzy and neural network systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G Raptis; C. I Siettos; C. T Kiranoudis; G. V Bafas

    2000-01-01

    The classification of aged wine distillates is a non-linear, multi-criteria decision-making problem characterized by overwhelming complexity, non-linearity and lack of objective information regarding the desired final product qualitative characteristics. The most efficient solution for the evaluation of aged wine distillates estimations with emphasis on the properties of the aroma and the taste, when an appropriate mathematical model cannot be found,

  14. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation

    E-print Network

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17

    EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... ABSTRACT Experimental and Analytical Studies of Hydrocarbon Yields Under Dry-, Steam-, and Steam-with-Propane Distillation. (May 2007) Namit Jaiswal, B. Eng.., University of Mumbai M.S., University of Alaska Fairbanks; Chair of Advisory Committee...

  15. THE EFFECT OF ANTIOXIDANT ADDITIVE ON THE THERMOXIDATION STABILITY OF DISTILLATES FROM MEDIUM CRUDE OIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbas H-Sulaymon; Abdul-Halim A-K Mohammed; Yarub M-Al-Rawi

    1989-01-01

    Fractions 100-150, 150-200, 200-250°C were distilled from medium Iraqi crude oil. The thermo-oxidation stability experiments were carried out on original and inhibited (with Topanol 0) distillate fractions using the Alcor Jet Fuel Thermal Tester, over a temperature range 516-573 k. It was found that the antioxidant (Topanol 0) efficiency depends on the fractions composition and the oxidation temperature. Only 30

  16. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins for the recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater suggesting an industrial scalability of the process. PMID:25295672

  17. Enzymatic pretreatment of deodorizer distillate for concentration of sterols and tocopherols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Ramamurthi; Alan R. McCurdy

    1993-01-01

    Separation of sterols and tocopherols from fatty acids in deodorizer distillate was facilitated through lipase-catalyzed modification\\u000a of fatty acids in canola, mixed and soya deodorizer distillates. The fatty acid esterification with methanol catalyzed by\\u000a SP-382 (an immobilized nonspecific lipase) proceeded rapidly, with conversion of fatty acid to methyl ester in 5 h being 96.5,\\u000a 83.5 and 89.4%, respectively. A model

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE HIGH COLUMN DENSITY TURNOVER IN THE H I COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Erkal, Denis [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kravtsov, Andrey V. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, which is present at both z = 0 and z Almost-Equal-To 3, and a lack of systems above N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H{sub 2} transition does not cause the turnover at N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} but can plausibly explain the turnover at N{sub H{sub I}} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Ly{alpha} column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over {approx} kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  19. Composition of distilled Perique tobacco liqueur: a connoisseur's spirit or a health risk due to nicotine?

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Breaux, Theodore A; Kuballa, Thomas; Schlee, Claudia; Monakhova, Yulia B

    2014-09-15

    The use of tobacco leaves as a food ingredient has been controversially discussed, and alcoholic beverages containing distillates from fermented tobacco leaves can be found as niche products. Currently there is an absence of knowledge regarding the composition and toxicity of these products. One liqueur sample based on distilled Louisiana Perique tobacco was analysed using quantitative FTIR, GC-FID, LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS methodologies, and qualitatively using non-targeted NMR and GC/MS techniques. Quantitative NMR was used for nicotine analysis. Nicotine was not detectable (LOD=0.2 mg/l). Other compounds associated with toxicity of tobacco or alcoholic beverages were either not detectable, or were found below the toxicity thresholds. A model experiment using fractionised distillation of a nicotine solution has confirmed that the compound was predominantly found in the tailing fractions of the distillate, which are discarded. In conclusion, there was no additional health risk associated with beverages diligently distilled from tobacco leaves, beside the effects of ethanol. This judgment clearly does not apply to beverages where tobacco leaves have only been macerated (and not distilled) or foods where the whole tobacco leaves are incorporated. PMID:24767049

  20. Modeling of Steam Distillation Mechanism during Steam Injection Process Using Artificial Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulate the distillate recoveries of these sets of data. Thirteen sets of data were used to train the models and three sets were used to test the models. The developed models are highly compatible with respect to input oil properties and can predict the distillate yield with minimum entry. For showing the performance of the proposed models, simulation of steam distillation is also done using modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. Comparison between the calculated distillates by ANFIS and neural network models and also equation of state-based method indicates that the errors of the ANFIS model for training data and test data sets are lower than those of other methods. PMID:24883365

  1. Modeling of steam distillation mechanism during steam injection process using artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Daryasafar, Amin; Ahadi, Arash; Kharrat, Riyaz

    2014-01-01

    Steam distillation as one of the important mechanisms has a great role in oil recovery in thermal methods and so it is important to simulate this process experimentally and theoretically. In this work, the simulation of steam distillation is performed on sixteen sets of crude oil data found in the literature. Artificial intelligence (AI) tools such as artificial neural network (ANN) and also adaptive neurofuzzy interference system (ANFIS) are used in this study as effective methods to simulate the distillate recoveries of these sets of data. Thirteen sets of data were used to train the models and three sets were used to test the models. The developed models are highly compatible with respect to input oil properties and can predict the distillate yield with minimum entry. For showing the performance of the proposed models, simulation of steam distillation is also done using modified Peng-Robinson equation of state. Comparison between the calculated distillates by ANFIS and neural network models and also equation of state-based method indicates that the errors of the ANFIS model for training data and test data sets are lower than those of other methods. PMID:24883365

  2. Comparison of monolithic silica and polymethacrylate capillary columns for LC.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jiri; Planeta, Josef

    2004-07-01

    Organic polymer monolithic capillary columns were prepared in fused-silica capillaries by radical co-polymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate and butyl methacrylate monomers with azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator of the polymerization reaction in the presence of various amounts of porogenic solvent mixtures and different concentration ratios of monomers and 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The chromatographic properties of the organic polymer monolithic columns were compared with those of commercial silica-based particulate and monolithic capillary and analytical HPLC columns. The tests included the determination of H-u curves, column permeabilities, pore distribution by inversed-SEC measurements, methylene and polar selectivities, and polar interactions with naphthalenesulphonic acid test samples. Organic polymer monolithic capillary columns show similar retention behaviour to chemically bonded alkyl silica columns for compounds with different polarities characterized by interaction indices, Ix, but have lower methylene selectivities and do not show polar interactions with sulphonic acids. The commercial capillary and analytical silica gel-based monolithic columns showed similar selectivities and provided symmetrical peaks, indicating no significant surface heterogeneities. To allow accurate characterization of the properties of capillary monolithic columns, the experimental data should be corrected for extra-column contributions. With 0.3 mm ID capillary columns, corrections for extra-column volume contributions are sufficient, but to obtain true information on the efficiency of 0.1 mm ID capillary columns, the experimental bandwidths should be corrected for extra-column contributions to peak broadening. PMID:15354556

  3. Dispersion in retentive pillar array columns.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohong; Wang, Qiuwang; Bau, Haim H

    2010-02-19

    The method of volume averaging is applied to estimate the Taylor-Aris dispersion tensor of solute advected in columns consisting of ordered pillar arrays with wall retention of the type used in chromatographic separation. The appropriate closure equations are derived and solved in a unit cell with periodic boundary conditions to obtain the dispersion tensor (or the reduced plate height) as a function of the Peclet number (reduced velocity); pillar pattern, shape and size; partition coefficient; and resistance to mass transfer. The contributions of the velocity profile, the wall adsorption, and the mass transfer resistance to the dispersion tensor are identified and delineated. The model is verified by comparing its predictions and obtaining favorable agreement with results of direct numerical simulations and with experimental data for columns containing ordered pillars. The model is then used to study the effect of pillars' shape and pattern on the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (plate height). PMID:20079500

  4. W.P. Davies Newspaper Columns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Born on a farm in Ontario, William Preston Davies came to the plains of North Dakota at the age of 20. In his early 30s, he began a long career as a journalist, and worked as an editor and writer at the Northwest News, the Grand Forks Plaindealer, and the Grand Forks Herald. In 1930, Davies began writing a daily column called "That Reminds Me". This digital collection from the University of North Dakota's Chester Fritz Library gives users access to his daily insights and observations on North Dakota life. The first column available here dates from April 1930 and the last one is from September 1943. There is nary a subject that Davies doesn't cover, as he winds his way through topics like farm policy, local wit and lore, and Charlie Chaplin.

  5. Mechanical end joint for structural columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G.; Wallsom, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Connector for tubular struts permits construction of lightweight frames without tools or assembly equipment. Two main components are node fitting and strut element. Components are aleaned approximately and pushed together. Design accommodates reasonable axial and rotational misalignment of nodes and struts. Also, individual columns can be inserted into receptacle and given slight push by operator, trigger pins release ratchet, allowing energy stored in springs to rotate screw into nut in receptacle.

  6. Plastic disproportionate collapse at lost corner columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin GURLEY

    2009-01-01

    This paper deploys an existing method for the simple rigid-plastic hand calculation of slab yield- line mechanisms to address the wider problem of disproportionate collapse at lost columns in multi- storey buildings. Floor systems will be treated as grillages combining torsion-free (Hillerborg) slabs and torsion-free beams. The aim is to achieve an understanding that transcends reliance on non-linear finite element

  7. [Spectral investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma column].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Long-Fei

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma column has many important applications in plasma stealth for aircraft. In the present paper, a plasma column with a length of 65 cm was generated in argon at atmospheric pressure by using dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrodes in coaxial configurations. The discharge mechanism of the plasma column was studied by optical method and the result indicates that a moving layer of light emission propagates in the upstream region. The propagation velocity of the plasma bullet is about 0.6 x 10(5) m x s(-1) through optical measurement. Spectral intensity ratios as functions of the applied voltage and driving frequency were also investigated by spectroscopic method. The variation in spectral intensity ratio implies a change in the averaged electron energy. Results show that the averaged electron energy increases with the increase in the applied voltage and the driving frequency. These results have significant values for industrial applications of the atmospheric pressure discharge and have extensive application potentials in stealth for military aircraft. PMID:23016319

  8. Engineering Monosodium Titanate for Adsorption Column Processes

    SciTech Connect

    NASH, CHARLES

    2004-11-17

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic adsorbent powder that effectively removes strontium, plutonium, neptunium, and other trace elements from alkaline high-level waste (HLW) supernate. This work tested one commercial titanate and four general methods to engineer MST into particles large enough to use in adsorption columns. The most successful of the engineered products selected from batch contact and chemical stability testing succeeded in treating 2900 bed volumes (BV) of simulated salt waste containing dissolved plutonium and strontium. There was no detectable strontium breakthrough and only 6 per cent plutonium breakthrough--well within the processing goal--at the end of the demonstration which operated at 5.3 BV/hour. Additional column tests at nominally 15 BV/hr demonstrated similar removal performance. Batch testing of adsorbents used both actual Savannah River Site (SRS) tank supernate as well as simulated salt solutions spiked with strontium, neptunium, and plutonium. In tank waste tests, internal gelation beads produced by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) demonstrated a batch distribution coefficient of 35,000 +/- 4,000 mL/g for plutonium at a phase ratio of 1970 mL/g. In the same batch the sorbent demonstrated a batch distribution coefficient of 99,000 +/- 7,500 mL/g for strontium. These results indicate that this material should be able to process thousands of bed volumes of SRS salt waste before column breakthrough.

  9. Engineering Monosodium Titanate for Adsorption Column Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CHARLES, NASH

    2005-02-27

    Monosodium titanate is an inorganic adsorbent powder that effectively removes strontium, plutonium, neptunium, and other trace elements from alkaline high-level waste supernate. This work tested one commercial titanate and four general methods to engineer MST into particles large enough to use in adsorption columns. The most successful of the engineered products selected from batch contact and chemical stability testing succeeded in treating 2900 bed volumes of simulated salt waste containing dissolved plutonium and strontium. There was no detectable strontium breakthrough and only 6 percent plutonium breakthrough--well within the processing goal--at the end of the demonstration which operated at 5.3 BV/hour. Additional column tests at nominally 15 BV/hr demonstrated similar removal performance. Batch testing of adsorbents used both actual Savannah River Site tank supernate as well as simulated salt solutions spiked with strontium, neptunium, and plutonium. In tank waste tests, internal gelation beads produced by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory demonstrated a batch distribution coefficient of 35,000 +/- 4,000 mL/g for plutonium at a phase ratio of 1970 mL/g. In the same batch the sorbent demonstrated a batch distribution coefficient of 99,000 +/- 7,500 mL/g for strontium. These results indicate that this material should be able to process thousands of bed volumes of SRS salt waste before column breakthrough.

  10. Employing anatomical knowledge in vertebral column labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianhua; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    The spinal column constitutes the central axis of human torso and is often used by radiologists to reference the location of organs in the chest and abdomen. However, visually identifying and labeling vertebrae is not trivial and can be timeconsuming. This paper presents an approach to automatically label vertebrae based on two pieces of anatomical knowledge: one vertebra has at most two attached ribs, and ribs are attached only to thoracic vertebrae. The spinal column is first extracted by a hybrid method using the watershed algorithm, directed acyclic graph search and a four-part vertebra model. Then curved reformations in sagittal and coronal directions are computed and aggregated intensity profiles along the spinal cord are analyzed to partition the spinal column into vertebrae. After that, candidates for rib bones are detected using features such as location, orientation, shape, size and density. Then a correspondence matrix is established to match ribs and vertebrae. The last vertebra (from thoracic to lumbar) with attached ribs is identified and labeled as T12. The rest of vertebrae are labeled accordingly. The method was tested on 50 CT scans and successfully labeled 48 of them. The two failed cases were mainly due to rudimentary ribs.

  11. Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

  12. CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF WOOD COLUMN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CAR MACHINE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, DETAIL OF WOOD COLUMN AND INVERTED KING-POST TRUSS TO PROVIDE INCREASED SPAN BETWEEN COLUMNS, LOOKING SOUTH. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Car Machine Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. Materialization Strategies in a Column-Oriented DBMS

    E-print Network

    Abadi, Daniel J.

    2006-11-27

    There has been renewed interest in column-oriented database architectures in recent years. For read-mostly query workloads such as those found in data warehouse and decision support applications, ``column-stores'' have ...

  14. 29. View of paired concreteencased columns at joint between beams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of paired concrete-encased columns at joint between beams contrasted against wider single columns. Looking east. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. Query execution in column-oriented database systems

    E-print Network

    Abadi, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    There are two obvious ways to map a two-dimension relational database table onto a one-dimensional storage interface: store the table row-by-row, or store the table column-by-column. Historically, database system implementations ...

  16. 6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HISTORIC AMERICAN BUILDINGS SURVEY, INTERIOR SHOWING ORIGINAL GRANITE COLUMNS AND COLUMN BRICKFACED AFTER THE GREAT FIRE 1904 - Old U.S. Appraisers Stores, Gay & Lombard Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. [Scale-up of conical column with 10 degree opening angle as preparative liquid chromatographic column].

    PubMed

    Lu, Liejuan; Chen, Jie; Guan, Yafeng

    2009-05-01

    A preparative scale liquid chromatographic column with the conical shape of 10 degrees opening angle was constructed and evaluated. The column was designed with the inlet/outlet diameters of 54/27 mm, the column length of 150 mm and the column volume of 200 mL, and packed with the spherical C18 bonded silica with the particle size of 40-75 microm and the aperture of 11 nm. The mobile phase in the conical column showed a plug like flow profile and plug like chromatographic band shape. For naphthalene, the reduced plate height was about 2.11; the maximum sample load was 2.1 mg or 1.7 mL (10% reduction of plate number), which is 20%, 16% and 19% higher than that of cylindrical one of the same length and volume. As the injection mass increased from 2. 4 mg up to 12 mg, the resolution of ethyl paraben/butyl (R, ) reduced from 2. 14 down to 1.71, and the butyl paraben/naphthalene (Rs3) from 2.91 down to 2.52; the injection volume increased from 3 mL up to 19 mL, Rs2, reduced from 2.23 down to 1.28, and Rs3 from 2.95 down to 2.30, while the peaks were still in symmetric shape without tailing. This characteristic of the column shall benefit for the separation of trace components from matrix. This demonstrated the conical shaped preparative columns would have a broad practical applicability for obtaining pure compounds. PMID:19803133

  18. Development of PI diagrams for FRP strengthened RC columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azrul A. Mutalib; Hong Hao

    2011-01-01

    In this study, numerical simulations are performed to construct the Pressure-Impulse (P-I) diagrams for FRP strengthened RC columns to provide correlations between the damage levels of FRP strengthened RC columns and blast loadings. Numerical model of RC columns without or with FRP strengthening is developed using LS-DYNA. The accuracy of the model to simulate RC column responses to blast loads

  19. Cross flow cyclonic flotation column for coal and minerals beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Ralph W. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Patton, Robert A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the separation of coal from pyritic impurities using a modified froth flotation system. The froth flotation column incorporates a helical track about the inner wall of the column in a region intermediate between the top and base of the column. A standard impeller located about the central axis of the column is used to generate a centrifugal force thereby increasing the separation efficiency of coal from the pyritic particles and hydrophillic tailings.

  20. Investigation of FRP strengthened circular columns under biaxial bending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manal K. Zaki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis and design of cylindrical reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. The columns studied are under combined axial loads and biaxial bending moments. The fiber method modeling (FMM) together with finite element analysis (FEA) are adopted to investigate the behavior of such columns. The procedure finds the inclination and depth of