Sample records for azeotropic distillation columns

  1. Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Dividing wall columns for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation Quang-Khoa Le1 , Ivar J. Halvorsen2 of this work is to implement heterogeneous azeotropic distillation schemes in a dividing wall column (DWC distillation, Petlyuk arrangement, energy saving. 1. Introduction Distillation is one of the most energy

  2. Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures using Elementary) diagrams like distillation lines and isotherms maps may be used in analysis of the closed (total reflux) multivessel batch distillation column. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates

  3. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction Taylor Emanuelle Sweet 2013 Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation microns in size and use Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to shrink droplets to 5-10 microns

  4. Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT ·How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch distillation-up period is required, followed by a heteroazeotropic distillation step (Figure 3) Modified: The separation

  5. Azeotropic distillation assisted fabrication of silver nanocages and their catalytic property for reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Min, Jianzhong; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yunliang; Liang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenwei; Jiang, Xingmao

    2015-01-14

    Monodisperse silver nanocages (AgNCs) with specific interiors were successfully synthesized by an azeotropic distillation (AD) assisted method and exhibited excellent catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) due to the unique hollow morphology and small thickness of the silver shell. PMID:25421649

  6. Synthesis and characteristics of nanocrystalline YSZ powder by polyethylene glycol assisted coprecipitation combined with azeotropic-distillation process and its electrical conductivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Chang Yao; Xian-Wei Wang; Hao Dong; Rui-Rui Pei; Jian-She Wang; Zhong-Jun Li

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale 8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders were prepared by polyethylene glycol (PEG-1540) assisted coprecipitation coupling with azeotropic distillation drying process. The role of PEG and azeotropic-distillation on the morphology and particle size of YSZ was studied. Thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction results showed that azeotropic-distillation could reduce the formation temperature of YSZ phase. X-ray patterns of the YSZ powders

  7. Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1

    E-print Network

    Dundee, University of

    Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Roger Fletcher \\Lambda with the optimisation of distillation column models by non­ linear programming are considered. The paper presents of the distillation column model. A certain limiting case of the column model is examined, that of infinite reflux

  8. Process Svstems Enaineerina Instability of Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Process Svstems Enaineerina , Instability of Distillation Columns Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd recognized, distillation columns, operating with reflux and boilup as independent inputs, may have The dynamic behavior of distillation columns has been stud- ied quite extensively over the past decades

  9. Optimization of Cryogenic Air Separation Distillation Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhu; Xinggao Liu; Zhiyong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic air separation distillation columns are widely used in industry, which consume a large energy and need to produce a huge amount of need of nitrogen, oxygen and argon products with high purity. Of pervious optimal researches on cryogenic distillation column, few considers argon column due to the complex degree of process. In this work, rigorous optimization model of cryogenic

  10. Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

  11. Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation S. Skouras and S. Skogestad Dept.interscience.wiley.com). The separation of close-boiling and azeotropic mixtures by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is addressed. The results show that heteroazeotropic batch distillation exhibits substantial flexibility. The column profile

  12. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Polley, G. T.

    Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimised if the temperature driving force is maximised. The design should therefore seek to minimise the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    , Johannesburg, in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Johannesburg, 2007 #12 for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. It has not been used to predict the composition changes in the distillation column but also to determine

  14. Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd (e-mail: skoge@ntnu.no) Abstract: This is a simulation study on controlling a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared

  15. Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns Magnus G. Jacobsen the control structure of distillation columns, with optimal operation in mind, it is important to know how for distillation columns change with variations in energy cost and feed flow rate. The production of the most

  16. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

  17. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ­ A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177­217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed these, the feasibility of using the distillate­bottom structure for control (which was believed

  18. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottomstructure for control which was believed to be impossible

  19. Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.

    PubMed

    Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

    2003-03-15

    The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high. PMID:12659179

  20. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  1. Application of the Firefly and Luus-Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

    2014-01-01

    The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor-liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung-Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems.

  2. Internally Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; A. Endo; T. Ohmori; T. Akiya; T. Takamatsu

    2003-01-01

    The heat-integrated distillation column to be addressed in this paper is a special distillation column that involves internal heat integration between the whole rectifying and the whole stripping sections. An overview of the research on this process is presented in this work. It covers from the thermodynamic development and evaluations to the practical design and operation investigations for the process.

  3. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns

    E-print Network

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01

    Distillation as a separation technique is widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. With the growth of these industries and the availability of cheap process computing, the interest in more accurate control of the distillation units has...

  4. Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

    2005-07-15

    In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

  5. Efficiencies of trays in cryogenic distillation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Biddulph

    1986-01-01

    This Paper considers the behaviour of the distillation trays in conventional use in cryogenic air separation plants. An earlier study showed that the trays should operate at higher efficiencies than plant experience would indicate. This conclusion was based on the assumption of uniform liquid flow across the trays. In practice, stagnant zones can occur which reduce the efficiency. A study

  6. Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozzi, Jay C.

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column, respectively. Because distillation is a mass-transfer process, the purity of the product(s) can be increased by increasing the effectiveness of the mass-transfer process (increasing the mass-transfer coefficient) and/or by increasing the available surface area for mass transfer through increased column height. The diameter of a distillation column is fixed by pressure-drop and mass-flow requirements. The approach taken in designing the present distillation column to be short yet capable of yielding a product of acceptably high purity was to pay careful attention to design details that affect mass-transfer processes.

  7. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad ÝDepartment of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH column

  8. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Truls Larsson Sigurd Skogestad y Department of Chemical. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H column

  9. Computer Aided Design Module for a Binary Distillation Column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Onifade

    A Computer Aided Design (CAD) module was developed for determining some design parameters for a binary distillation column using the Lewis-Sorrel method and Visual Basic. The module made use of a data bank containing physical and thermodynamic properties of 18 substances. A sample design problem was solved using the module. Results from the module and manual calculations were very close.

  10. Energy saving and capital cost evaluation in distillation column sequences with a divided wall column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimiliano Errico; Giuseppe Tola; Ben-Guang Rong; Daniele Demurtas; Ilkka Turunen

    2009-01-01

    The divided wall column (DWC) to separate three components in a single distillation tower is receiving increasing interest in industrial applications due to the potentiality in energy and capital cost savings. In this work, the DWC configurations for the separation of a four components mixture was considered, and 5 different composition cases were analyzed. After selecting the best simple column

  11. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    for heat integrated distillation columns. This work we will look at control of two industrially heat- grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column on a controllability analysis. Finally nonlinear simulation with a rigorous model confirms our findings. 1 Introduction

  12. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    for heat integrated distillation columns. This work we will look at control of two industrially heat­ grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column on a controllability analysis. Finally nonlinear simulation with a rigorous model confirms our findings. 1 Introduction

  13. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is in uenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  14. A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    A globally convergent method for finding all steady-state solutions of distillation columns Ali distillation column with 7 steady-states show the robustness of the method. No published software known to the steady-state model of distillation columns as it returns the original system as a single large block

  15. The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    The dos and don'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical discusses distillation column control within the general framework of plantwide control. In addition for distillation columns. The standard LV-configuration combined with a fast temperature loop is recommended

  16. THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    THE DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF CASCADE PROCESSES --WITH APPLICATION TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS John Morud that a subsystem is influenced only by its nabor subsystems. An example of such a process is a distillation column in high purity distillation columns; in fact, the magnitude of these time constants may increase

  17. Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Comparison of Alternative Control Structures for an Ideal Two-Product Reactive Distillation Column distillation columns have been explored in many papers, very few papers have dealt with closed-loop control. Most of these control papers consider reactive distillation columns in which there is only one product

  18. Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Application of optimal adaptive generalized predictive control to a packed distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Karacan; H Hapo?lu; M Alpbaz

    2001-01-01

    In this work, optimal operating conditions for a packed distillation column and optimal adaptive generalized predictive control (OA-GPC) were investigated. Thus, the dynamic and steady-state properties of the packed distillation column distilling methanol–water mixture were observed experimentally and theoretically. Mathematical models for the packed distillation column were solved with orthogonal collocation on finite elements. Optimal operating conditions of the system

  20. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  1. A cryogenic distillation column for the XENON1T experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, S.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.

    2014-11-01

    The XENON collaboration aims for the direct detection of cold dark matter in form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A dual phase time projection chamber filled with liquid xenon is used to detect the WIMP-nucleon interaction. For the next generation experiment XENON1T with an active target mass of 1 ton of xenon, a new distillation column to remove krypton out of xenon to a concentration of < 5 × 10?13 (0.5 ppt) natural krypton in xenon is designed and tested at the Institut für Kernphysik, Universitat Munster. The experimental setup together with two diagnostic tools is presented, as well as one stability test of a 11 hour distillation run at the designed flowrate of 3 kg per hour.

  2. Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar Trondheim, Norway Keywords: Distillation, Petlyuk, Divided-wall, Minimum energy Abstract This paper shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may

  3. Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations

    E-print Network

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

  4. Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon*

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Exchangers Edward Steven of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred is enormous because distillation is the single largest energy degrading unit operation worldwide. Introduction

  5. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001 Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation Ivar J

  6. Generalized predictive control to a packed distillation column for regulatory problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Karacan; H. Hapo?lu; M. Alpbaz

    1998-01-01

    In this work, adaptive Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) was investigated at the optimal operating conditions for a pilot plant binary packed distillation column. The studieswere made experimentally and theoretically. The dynamic behavior of the distillation column has been simulated using backmixing model and solved by utilizing Hermite Polynomials within the finite element procedure.The control of the overhead product temperature was

  7. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of High Purity Distillation Columns for Cryogenic Air Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhongzhou Chen; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

    2010-01-01

    High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants that supply purified gases to a number of industries. We have developed a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on the assumption of full-state feedback for a prototypical cryogenic distillation column to allow effective operation over a wide range of plant production rates. The controller design

  8. Dynamic process simulation of a distillation column on a shared memory parallel processor computer

    SciTech Connect

    Cera, G.D. (Central Research and Development Dept., E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (US))

    1988-01-01

    In this study, results of an investigation into applying parallel computing on a shared memory multiprocessor computer to the dynamic process simulation of a distillation column with use of a sequential modular simulator are reported. Two DYFLO process simulation models of distillation columns were parallelized and ported to a BBN Butterfly Parallel Processor computer. Computations were performed with up to 14 concurrently operating processors. General performance aspects of simulation on parallel computers are discussed and speedup as a function of humber of concurrently operating processors is reported for the two distillation column simulations.

  9. Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation by Efstathios Skouras and distillation is the dominating unit operation for such separations. However, the presence of azeotropes and non distillation as the best suited process. Among, various techniques to enhance distillation, heterogeneous

  10. Startup of distillation columns using profile position control based on nonlinear wave model

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.; Park, S. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.; [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-04-01

    Startup of distillation columns is a very challenging control problem because of its strong nonlinearity and a wide operating range during the transient period. A nonlinear wave model captures the essential dynamic behavior of the distillation process so that it is possible to deal with the difficulties encountered during startup operation. This paper is concerned with the startup of distillation systems using nonlinear wave model based control developed by Han and Park. This control scheme uses profile positions as controlled variables and is based on the nonlinear wave model by Hwang and generic model control scheme by Lee and Sullivan. It can be applied to a binary or a multicomponent distillation system that can be represented as a pseudobinary. The proposed control scheme is shown by simulation studies to provide a safe and economic startup operation not only for dual composition control of a simple distillation column but also for a complex distillation configuration.

  11. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor recompression of distillation columns overheads, followed by subsequent condensation in the reboiler results in substantial operating cost savings compared to conventional steam driven reboiler systems. The use of high performance heat...

  12. MODELING, IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL, 2000, VOL. 21, NO. 2, 83103 Evaluation of Dynamic Models of Distillation Columns with Emphasis

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of Distillation Columns with Emphasis on the Initial Response BERND WITTGENS and SIGURD SKOGESTAD* Keywords: Distillation dynamics, tray hydraulics, experimental response The flow dynamics (tray hydraulics) are of key importance for the initial dynamic response of distillation columns. The most important parameters

  13. Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela Tapp, Diane Hildebrandt,* and David Glasser

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Expanded? Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela to determine the operation leaves and hence the feasible region for distillation columns operating at a specific distillate and bottoms composition for all possible constant reflux and reboil ratios

  14. Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Arnab

    2005-02-17

    to the high octane number of the stream. This gives rise to a challenging problem as the hydrogenation of benzene can also lead to hydrogenation of toluene which is undesirable. The objective of this work is to study a reactive distillation 6 column.................................................................................1 Benzene Hydrogenetation ..............................................................................................5 Description of the Column Under Study........................................................................6 Objective...

  15. Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

  16. First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon

    E-print Network

    Back, Henning O; Alton, Andrew; Condon, Christopher; de Haas, Ernst; Galbiati, Cristiano; Goretti, Augusto; Hohmann, Tristan; Ianni, Andrea; Kendziora, Cary; Loer, Ben; Montanari, David; Mosteiro, Pablo; Pordes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

  17. First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon

    E-print Network

    H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

    2012-05-01

    We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

  18. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns

    E-print Network

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    by assuming that the equilibrium and operating lines coincide at this stage. This approximation takes into account the losses or inefficiencies introduced through practicalities of column design (such as pressure drops, multiple side-products, side strippers... (heating or cooling) ? Side condensing or reboiling An additional capability is provided through exergy analysis. The exergy profiles are plotted by calculating the exergy loss at each stage of the column, and then taking into account all entering...

  19. APPLICATION OF MULTIVARIABLE GENERALIZED PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO A PACKED DISTILLATION COLUMN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. KARACAN; Y. CABBAR; C. E. BALAS; M. ALPBAZ

    1999-01-01

    The present work deals with the application of Multivariate Generalized Predictive Control (MGPC) systems to a packed distillation column. The steady-state and dynamic behaviour of the system have been simulated using two film plug flow model. The model solutions have been obtained employing orthogonal collocation on finite element. The Jacobi polynomials within the finite element procedure was tested to determine

  20. Counter-current operation of structured catalytically packed distillation columns: pressure drop, holdup and mixing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ellenberger; R. Krishna

    1999-01-01

    Structured packed columns, in which the catalyst particles are enclosed within wire gauze envelopes (“sandwiches”) are promising reactor configurations for reactive distillation and hydroconversions. By allowing preferential channels for the gas and liquid phases, counter-current operation is achieved even for millimeter sized catalyst particles without the problem of flooding. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive experimental study of

  1. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia Abstract This paper studies the synthesis and the design of methanol recovery that methanol could be recovered completely from the hydrocarbon when 5 equilibrium trays in the extraction

  2. Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks

    E-print Network

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks Eric modeled using a neural network. The database developed by Garcia and Fair (Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2000, 39, 1809) was utilized to train and validate the neural network model. The results indicate that

  3. Distillation columns containing structured packings: A comprehensive model for their performance. 2: Mass-transfer model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Antonio Rocha; Jose L. Bravo; James R. Fair

    1996-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper dealing with the fluid mechanics and mass transfer in structured packings for distillation column service. The first part elucidated pressure drop, flooding, and liquid holdup. The second part covers the generation of effective interfacial area and provides a general correlation for predicting the mass-transfer efficiency as a function of surface type,

  4. Distillation columns containing structured packings: A comprehensive model for their performance. 1. Hydraulic models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Antonio Rocha; Jose L. Bravo; James R. Fair

    1993-01-01

    A mechanistically-based model has been developed to aid the analysis and design of distillation columns containing structured packings of the corrugated plate type. The model encompasses the important, and related, parameters of liquid holdup, pressure drop, flooding, and mass-transfer efficiency. Since it deals with the countercurrent contacting of liquid with gas or vapor, the model may also be applied to

  5. Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

  6. The setup of an extraction system coupled to a hydrogen isotopes distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Zamfirache, M.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I.; Bidica, N.; Balteanu, O.; Bucur, C. [INC-DTCI, ICSIRm. Valcea, Uzinei Street 4, Rm. Valcea (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Among the most difficult problems of cryogenic distillation one stands apart: the extraction of the heavy fraction. By an optimal design of the cycle scheme, this problem could be avoided. A 'worst case scenario' is usually occurring when the extracted fraction consists of one prevalent isotope such as hydrogen and small amounts of the other two hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). This situation is further complicated by two parameters of the distillation column: the extraction flow rate and the hold-up. The present work proposes the conceptual design of an extraction system associated to the cryogenic distillation column used in hydrogen separation processes. During this process, the heavy fraction (DT, T{sub 2}) is separated, its concentration being the highest at the bottom of the distillation column. From this place the extraction of the gaseous phase can now begin. Being filled with adsorbent, the extraction system is used to temporarily store the heavy fraction. Also the extraction system provides samples for the gas Chromatograph. The research work is focused on the existent pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation from our institute to validate the experiments carried out until now. (authors)

  7. Submitted to special issue ChERD. This version revised 22 Nov. 2006 The dos and don'ts of distillation column control

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    'ts of distillation column control Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical Engineering Norwegian University of Science and Technology N-7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The paper discusses distillation column control recommendations to assist the engineer in designing control systems for distillation columns. The standard LV

  8. Estimating vent emissions from a distillation column: An alternative to stack testing

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, D.L. Jr. [ERM-Southeast, Charleston, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This technical paper points out the cost-effectiveness and data manageability of material balance over the epidemic use of stack testing in the chemical industry. An example is drawn from a Title V emissions inventory prepared for an international manufacturer of pharmaceuticals and fuel additives. This example case focuses on the use of mass balance to estimate noncondensibles generated by a typical large-scale distillation column. Distillation fundamentals are reviewed, including discussion of relative volatility, x-y and McCabe-Thiele diagrams, and basic sieve tray mechanics. A seemingly complex set of energy and material balance equations is simplified by the application of constant molar overflow. The example case concludes with a calculation of column noncondensibles, and the paper closes with a review of the material balance approach, including its strengths, limitations, and applicability to other unit operations.

  9. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  10. Vacuum distillation of ethanol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether distillation at or below a pressure of 70 mm of Hg would produce ethanol sufficiently anhydrous to permit mixing with gasoline without separation. The reason for this is that below 70 mm of Hg, the azeotrope does not form and, theoretically, 100% ethanol can be achieved by fractional distillation. There was insufficient information available to determine this by calculation. With the available experimental equipment, there were several problems (such as air leaks into the system, the vacuum pump was too small, temperature gradients in the column, condenser cooling water, etc.), but they did achieve reasonably anhydrous alcohol (99%). The distillation would require a heat source of about 140/sup 0/F (with a combination of simple and fractional distillation, a heat source of about 120/sup 0/F would suffice). These temperatures could be attained from a solar energy source for probably six months of the year. (LTN)

  11. Distillation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2005-12-24

    Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

  12. Experimental results of hydrogen distillation at the low power cryogenic column for the production of deuterium depleted hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Fedorchenko, O.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15

    The Deuterium Removal Unit (DRU) has been designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (PNPI) to produce isotopically pure hydrogen with deuterium content less than 1 ppm. The cryogenic distillation column of 2.2 cm inner diameter and 155 cm packing height is the main element of the DRU. Column performances at different hydrogen distillation operating modes have been measured. The height equivalent to theoretical plate (HETP) for the column is 2.2 cm and almost constant over a wide range of vapour flow rates. Deuterium depleted hydrogen with a deuterium content of less than 0.1 ppm was produced in required quantity. (authors)

  13. Penetration of different human pathogenic viruses into sand columns percolated with distilled water, groundwater, or wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Dizer, H; Nasser, A; Lopez, J M

    1984-01-01

    The adsorption of several enteroviruses and rotavirus SA11 to sand from an aquifer in the Federal Republic of Germany was estimated in sand-filled columns loaded with ca. 10(7) PFU and run at a velocity of 2.5 m/day for 12 h. After either distilled water, groundwater, secondary effluent, or tertiary effluent was percolated, the sand core was slowly extruded out of the column and cut in 1-cm slices. The slices were eluted with nutrient broth, and the amount of viruses in the broth was estimated. The best adsorption was promoted by groundwater and tertiary effluent, followed by distilled water and secondary effluent. Similar experiments, carried out at different percolation rates, indicated that a 50-day underground stay of recharged water probably suffices to eliminate viruses in the groundwater-recharged tertiary effluent. However, when viruses and sand were incubated in the presence of the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, nonyl phenol, dodigen 226, or alkylbenzylsulfonate, the adsorption of the viruses was substantially diminished. Experiments in the presence of nonyl phenol seem to indicate that hydrophobic interactions are involved in the adsorption of viruses to sand. PMID:6324676

  14. We study the continuous extractive distillation of minimum and maximum boiling azeotropic mixtures A-B with a heavy or a light entrainer E, intending to assess its feasibility based on thermodynamic insights.

    E-print Network

    Mailhes, Corinne

    #12;#12;Abstract We study the continuous extractive distillation of minimum and maximum boiling on operating parameters: distillate product purity and recovery, reflux ratio R and entrainer ­ feed flow rate. For the 1.0-2 class both A and B can be distillated. For one of them there exists a maximum entrainer - feed

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch Distillation Column

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Experimental and Theoretical Studies on the Start-Up Operation of a Multivessel Batch DistillationVersity of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Multivessel batch distillation is a promising alternative to conventional batch distillation. Earlier studies proved the feasibility of temperature control in a closed

  16. Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

  17. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

  18. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  19. Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation

    E-print Network

    Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

    1966-01-01

    ) = $ (u . ) ? V, (0. -'. j'-N) -1' 0' 1' ' ' ' N ji co j' i=1 The quantities D and U. (0 = j =i N) are fixed quantities. This step J becomes very time consuming when a column with several plates is being considered. In the interest of reducing... are specified for a conventional column with a partial con- 0 denser, Waggoner's defining equations for the 9 multipliers are a. s folio~a: (bi/di) = 1(b, /di) (u. . /d. ) = 6. (u. . /d, ), (O=j=N) ji ico j ji ica' (3- g) In the modified procedure...

  20. Application of the theta method to distillation columns where one or more reactions occur per stage

    E-print Network

    Izarraraz, Alicia

    1979-01-01

    to the Problem by the 2N-Newtor Raphson Method 71 N-Newton Rapshon Solution for Column. at Total Reflux without Reaction 72 Calculational Procedure for Solution of Columns at Total Reflux by Theta Method. 73 Calculational Procedure for the 2N-Newton Raph or... the inadequacies of the various methods and concluded that no single technique is applicable to all of these problems. Following the analysis of Friday and Smith, Tierney and Bruno (1967) developed a Newton-Raphson procedure using only material balance...

  1. Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, Robert, B.

    2005-10-13

    The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

  2. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  3. Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers

    E-print Network

    Dickey, Billy Ray

    1962-01-01

    ( d (yg) ) (B (x ) h ) j+1- (aw) where c-1 B (x ) e~ & x, 2=j=g 1 * j j+1 Q j+l, i ji ia2 (&3b) 9 j+1 y J&lpi Di & 2= j= g 1 &or the side stripper, the corresponding equations are as follovs I V H e~ H' (1 + V? H ) 0~ j+1 j+1 + jel?i ji Ntl 1... substitution of this x ression i: to "n ento il y !;~1 nce st(oh i iclule. +he to, . o!' t 'e ~istill, . t'on column nd ny '1 te j (' -'I(y &. ) 7 ('I(-. ' -H ) J+1 x ' ~ j+1 1 C F-I= j=~ (4ga) j j+1 j where' . I(y ). j+1 c-( I C i=2 (49h) In a sx...

  4. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION ­ EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1 The experimental verification of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  5. Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multivessel Batch Distillation ­ Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  6. Distillation technology increases propane recovery in carbon-dioxide floods

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.M.; O'Brien, J.V.

    1986-10-01

    Carbon-dioxide-rich separator gas streams from CO/sub 2/ floods can be processed by the Ryan/Holmes propane-recovery method to obtain propane recoveries of 85-95%. The Ryan/Holmes processes are a family of distillations which use recycle additive to make possible or aid separation of certain components. Recycle additive, derived from NGL present in the feed, is a C/sub 4/ + stream. It is introduced to the Ryan/Holmes columns at or near the top of the fractionators. Previously presented was the separation of methane and CO/sub 2/, in which additive operates to prevent freezing and to raise the temperatures required for the separation. Indeed, even at propane-refrigeration temperatures, a perfect separation between methane and CO/sub 2/ can be accomplished. The second separation is carbon dioxide and ethane. These two compounds form an azeotrope; additive breaks the azeotrope and permits ethane recovery. The third separation is CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S. In the absence of additive, their separability is weak; separation is greatly enhanced by the presence of additive.

  7. Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum­boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent and a control structure for the batch extractive middle vessel distillation is proposed. In extractive

  8. Manifold-based starting point generation and its application to distillation

    E-print Network

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Manifold-based starting point generation and its application to distillation Ali Baharev*, Ferenc-states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2 Multiple steady-states in ideal two-product distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6 Conclusion 13 A Ordering sparse matrices 14 A.1 Ordering to block

  9. Calculation of a double reactive azeotrope using stochastic optimization approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

    2013-02-01

    An homogeneous reactive azeotrope is a thermodynamic coexistence condition of two phases under chemical and phase equilibrium, where compositions of both phases (in the Ung-Doherty sense) are equal. This kind of nonlinear phenomenon arises from real world situations and has applications in chemical and petrochemical industries. The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. The robust calculation of reactive azeotropes can be conducted by several approaches, such as interval-Newton/generalized bisection algorithms and hybrid stochastic-deterministic frameworks. In this paper, we investigate the numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Moreover, we present results for a system (with industrial interest) with more than one azeotrope, the system isobutene/methanol/methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). We present convergence patterns for both algorithms, illustrating - in a bidimensional subdomain - the identification of reactive azeotropes. A strategy for calculation of multiple roots in nonlinear systems is also applied. The results indicate that both algorithms are suitable and robust when applied to reactive azeotrope calculations for this "challenging" nonlinear system.

  10. Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks

    E-print Network

    Linninger, Andreas A.

    Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks Gerardo J. Ruiz, Seon B. Kim energy-efficient distillation net- works. Complex column networks have substantial potential for energy column, networks, temperature collocation, inverse design, Aspen validation Introduction Distillation

  11. Distillation pressure control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hofferber

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus comprising: a fractional distillation column; means for providing a feed mixture to be fractionated to the column; means for withdrawing an overhead vapor stream from the column; means for condensing at least a portion of the overhead vapor stream; an accumulator; means for passing the resulting at least partially condensed overhead stream into the accumulator;

  12. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  13. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  14. PREDICTIONS OF AZEOTROPES FORMED FROM FLUORINATED ETHERS, ETHANES, AND PROPANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an evaluation of the potential for azeotrope formation and performance for fluorinated ethers, ethanes, and propanes. (NOTE: The synthesis of new non-chlorinated refrigerants expands the base of alternatives for replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (O...

  15. Design, optimization and performance of source and detector collimators for gamma-ray scanning of a lab-scale distillation column.

    PubMed

    Shahabinejad, H; Feghhi, S A H

    2015-05-01

    When using source and detector collimators for gamma ray column scanning, it is important to obtain an acceptable density profile quality. This paper consists of two main works. The first is devoted to describing the designs used to optimize the source and detector collimators for a lab-scale distillation column, and the second is devoted to investigating the effect of designed collimators on the quality of the density profiles obtained using the gamma scanning technique. Simulations using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code were performed to model the collimators and obtain the density profiles. The source and detector collimator designs were developed for a cylindrical volume source with the energy of 0.662MeV and 1in.×1in. NaI, respectively. The pinhole and panoramic collimator designs and the pinhole and quartic collimator designs were considered for the source and the detector, respectively. The source container, with an opening angle of 60°, has the capability of substituting the collimator for high resolution, general and high sensitivity purposes. The pinhole collimator parameters for the source that were obtained were generally quite coarse and were 1.2cm in diameter and 4cm in length. Additionally, the detector pinhole collimator thickness and length obtained were 4cm and 5cm, respectively. Using the semi-quartic collimator for the detector, the weight of required lead was reduced by over 33% compared with the pinhole collimator. The simulation results of the column scanning in abnormal operation condition have been validated by experimental measurement results. The obtained results from scans demonstrated that the optimized panoramic source collimator and semi-quartic detector collimator in this study could help us to obtain an acceptable density profile quality in total count approach. PMID:25699665

  16. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT ­ A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

  17. Catalytic distillation extends its reach

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

  18. Modelling reactive distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Taylor; R. Krishna

    2000-01-01

    The design and operation issues for reactive distillation systems are considerably more complex than those involved for either conventional reactors or conventional distillation columns. The introduction of an in situ separation function within the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor–liquid equilibrium, vapor–liquid mass transfer, intra-catalyst diffusion (for heterogeneously catalysed processes) and chemical kinetics. Such interactions have been shown

  19. CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Submitted to AICheÆcient operation, multicomponent distillation, batch distillation, total re ux operation ABSTRACT. The multivessel batch distillation column, as well as conven- tional batch distillation, may be operated in a closed

  20. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total re ux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  1. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total reflux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

  2. Air separation process using packed columns for oxygen and argon recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Thorogood; D. L. Bennett; R. J. Allam; A. L. Prentice; B. K. Dawson

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for the separation of mixtures, which comprise oxygen, nitrogen, and argon, by cryogenic distillation in an integrated multi-column distillation system of at least three distillation columns, having a higher pressure column, low pressure column and an argon sidearm column. Wherein the argon sidearm column integrally communicates with the low pressure column. Wherein

  3. Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ørsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler (temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2

  4. Direct determination of Benzo[a]pyrene in oil distillates by on-line two-dimensional HPLC with column switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lamprecht; J. F. K. Huber

    1992-01-01

    A selective and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]p) in oil fractions by means of column switching is described. The diluted oil samples were injected directly onto a silica column with isooctane as eluent. After fast elution of the main part of the sample matrix, the B[a]p containing fraction was transferred on-line to a dinitro-aryl-modified silica column

  5. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development] [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-08-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

  6. Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

    2015-05-01

    The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. PMID:25432400

  7. The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

    2014-04-30

    The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30 cm × 30 cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel. PMID:24632362

  8. Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

  9. Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Trondheim-NTH, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Simple distillation and compositions in the column. Introduction Multiple steady states (multiplicity) in distillation columns have

  10. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total re ux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy e cient than continuous distillation, it has received increased attention

  11. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total reflux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy efficient than continuous distillation, it has received increased

  12. Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3

    E-print Network

    O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Müller,1 of separation, particularly distillation. The 40,000 commercial distillation columns in use in the U. S. consume or product purity. Distillation is the critical energy-consuming step accounting for 70-85% of the energy

  13. An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem

    E-print Network

    Gallun, Steven Eugene

    1975-01-01

    application of the Newton-Raphson procedure for such thermodynamic functions, and thus convergence properties typical of this method were obtained. The extended multiple theta method was then applied to a distillation problem involving thermodynamic... problem consists of N(2C + 3) equations in N(2C + 3) unknowns where C is the number of components and N the number of stages. Newman (1963) demonstrated a Newton-Raphson technique to converge the material balances based on choosing N stage temperatures...

  14. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  15. Solar Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

    \\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

  16. Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10 C. Mirabello1, G. Tradigo1,2 , P.Veltri2, and G. Pollastri1 1 ­ UCD Dublin, Ireland, 2 ­ Università di Cosenza, Italy gianluca.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has to the distance maps of templates rather than to predicted contact maps. The difference between Distill

  17. On applying model predictive control for distillation system of linear alkylbenzene (LAB) complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Jin; Gang Rong; Shuqing Wang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces industrial application via a commercial software of model predictive control (MPC) for distillation columns in a LAB plant, which consists of four distillation columns, HF acid stripper, benzene column, paraffin column, and LAB column in series. A MPC system in which is constructed of 12 controlled variables, 12 manipulated variables and 8 disturbance variables is developed to

  18. Two stage carbon dioxide and methane (ethane) separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Styring; R. E. Jr

    1982-01-01

    A mixture of carbon dioxide (COâ) and ethane derived from a prior separation stage or recovery process is separated in 2 distillation columns. A first distillation of a COâ-ethane mixture forms an ethane-COâ azeotrope at a first pressure. The azeotropic mixture then is transferred to a second distillation column operated at a different pressure. The pressure difference between the 2

  19. Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Harris, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. A computerized evaluation...

  20. POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Department of Chemical Engineering, 7034 Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying that an increase in production rate up to 50 is possible by using multivessel batch distillation instead

  1. Multivessel Batch Distillation -Potential Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Department of Chemical Engineering, 7034 Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying that an increase in production rate up to 50 is possible by using multivessel batch distillation instead

  2. Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION

    E-print Network

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION Background Distillation is a widely used technique for purifying liquids. The basic distillation process involves heating a liquid such that liquid molecules that is condensed and collected must be more pure than the original liquid mix. Distillation can be used to remove

  3. Membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the separation process known as membrane distillation, MD. An introduction to the terminology and fundamental concepts associated with MD as well as a historical review of the developments in MD are presented. Membrane properties, transport phenomena, and module design are discussed in detail. A critical evaluation of the MD literature is incorporated throughout

  4. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b a SINTEF ICT, Applied Keywords: Distillation Minimum energy Energy saving Dividing wall column Petlyuk arrangement Vmin-diagram a b s t r a c t Distillation is responsible for a significant amount of the energy consumption

  5. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character

    PubMed Central

    Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure. PMID:21116474

  6. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  7. Distillations Podcast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-09-14

    Created by the folks at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Distillations is an award-winning podcast that offers commentary and perspective on the past, present, and future of chemistry. The program is hosted by Meir Rinde and new episodes are issued every other Friday. The archive here contains over 150 podcasts with titles such as "Shipwrecks," "Sweat," and "Something in the Air." Visitors can also sort through the documents by category and learn about the Distillations staff. The archives date back to 2007, so there's plenty to explore and visitors are free to use the materials as they see fit. An episode or two might be the perfect way to keep a group of students intrigued by the world of chemistry.

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of distiller’s grains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Heilmann; Lindsey R. Jader; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

    2011-01-01

    Wet distiller’s grains are intermediate byproducts of ethanol manufacture that have high moisture contents and require significant energy for drying and conversion into dry distiller’s grains. Hydrothermal carbonization was investigated as a wet process to provide alternative products, and chars were obtained in moderate yield that possessed high heats of combustion. The mechanism of char formation was also investigated employing

  9. Catalytic Distillation

    E-print Network

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    is continously removed by distillation as it is formed, thus substantially negating the reverse reaction. Also HeOR can be added directly to the reaction zone at a point where the isobutylene concentration is the lowest which also helps drive... the equilibrium forward toward HTBE formation. The net effect is equivalent to "multiple equilibrium stages" and almost total conversion of isobutylene to HTBE. Another possibili ty is to hold the IB in molar excess of HeOH and react HeOH to near extinction...

  10. Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Optimization of Distillation Processes. José A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann** *Dept and a single condenser in the entire sequence. We also review the rigorous design of distillation columns, or column sequences. In all the cases we focus on mathematical programming approaches. Keywords Distillation

  11. Two stage carbon dioxide and methane (ethane) separation

    SciTech Connect

    Styring, R.E.Jr

    1982-09-28

    A mixture of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and ethane derived from a prior separation stage or recovery process is separated in 2 distillation columns. A first distillation of a CO/sub 2/-ethane mixture forms an ethane-CO/sub 2/ azeotrope at a first pressure. The azeotropic mixture then is transferred to a second distillation column operated at a different pressure. The pressure difference between the 2 columns is at least 150 psi and is sufficient to allow further distillation of the azeotrope so that additional separation is obtained. The relative concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and ethane in an azeotropic mixture depend on the pressure at which the azeotrope was formed. Increasing the distillation pressure causes the azeotrope point to move toward the right side of a phase diagram. Decreasing the distillation pressure causes the azeotrope point to move to the left. When the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the original ethane-CO/sub 2/ mixture is less than the concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the azeotropic mixture formed in the first distillation column, preferably the pressure in the second stage distillation column will be at least 150 psi less than the pressure in the first stage distillation column and vice versa. 3 claims. (Also related to U.S. 12/28/79 (Appl. 108,204))

  12. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  13. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  14. Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler Active Constraint Regions for Economically Optimal Operation of Distillation

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Scheduler Active Constraint Regions for Economically Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Tuesday and operation of distillation columns has been widely studied, as illustrated by for example Skogestad (1993 operation of distillation columns has been studied relatively little. The issue of active constraints

  15. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation. Implications

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation-7034 Trondheim, Norway The fact that distillation columns, even in the ideal binary case, may display addresses some implications of these phenomena for the operation and control of distillation columns. Under

  16. Complementarity, distillable secret key, and distillable entanglement

    E-print Network

    Masato Koashi

    2007-04-27

    We consider controllability of two conjugate observables Z and X by two parties with classical communication. The ability is specified by two alternative tasks, (i) agreement on Z and (ii) preparation of an eigenstate of X with use of an extra communication channel. We prove that their feasibility is equivalent to that of key distillation if the extra channel is quantum, and to that of entanglement distillation if it is classical. This clarifies the distinction between two entanglement measures, distillable key and distillable entanglement.

  17. Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barduhn, Allen J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

  18. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

  19. DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory.

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    1 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway #12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Material Balance on a Distillation Stage

  20. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns distillation processes. By considering the e ect of small changes in the operating parameters, e.g., initial-mail: jacobsen@elixir.e.kth.se 1 #12;1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance

  1. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj Department structures for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) reactive distillation columns are studied. Two process The use of reactive distillation has grown in recent years because it results in less expensive and more

  2. On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Dynamics of Batch Distillation : A Study of Parametric Sensitivity in Ideal Binary Columns sensitivity in batch distillation processes. By considering the effect of small changes in the operating #12; 1 Introduction Batch distillation has become of increasing importance in industry during the last

  3. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SRENSEN 2

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SØRENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total reflux is demon­ strated

  4. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION SIGURD SKOGESTAD 1 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 2 and RAJAB LITTO column presented in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The economic potential of the multivessel batch distillation under total re ux is demon- strated

  5. MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad1 The experimental veri cation of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total re vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

  6. Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-15

    Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

  7. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  8. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-print Network

    Steinmeyer, D.

    DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... is closely approached on each stage Given the right perspective; the right application; and the right design - distillation is difficult to beat from an efficiency standpoint. ? The right perspective is that efficiency is the ratio of the work...

  9. Generalized entanglement distillation

    E-print Network

    Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

    2014-04-14

    We present a way for the entanglement distillation of genuine mixed state. Different from the conventional mixed state in entanglement purification protocol, each components of the mixed state in our protocol is a less-entangled state, while it is always a maximally entangled state. With the help of the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, this entanglement distillation protocol does not require the sophisticated single-photon detectors. Moreover, the distilled high quality entangled state can be retained to perform the further distillation. These properties make it more convenient in practical applications.

  10. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  11. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  12. Design of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Membrane Separation Systems. Jose A. Caballero*; Ignacio E. Grossmann **; Majid Keyvani+

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Design of Hybrid Distillation-Vapor Membrane Separation Systems. Jose A. Caballero*; Ignacio E (ethane, propane) on a commercial scale is performed almost exclusively by cryogenic distillation to optimize and retrofit a hybrid separation system consisting of a distillation column and a parallel

  13. Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giane R. Stuart; Daíse Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

  14. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  15. Pervaporative dehydration characteristics of an ethanol/water azeotrope through various chitosan membranes.

    PubMed

    Uragami, Tadashi; Saito, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-04-20

    The permeation and separation characteristics of an ethanol/water azeotrope through chitosan membranes of different molecular weights and degrees of deacetylation during pervaporation were investigated. The normalized permeation rate decreased with increasing molecular weight up to 90 kDa, but at over 90 kDa, the rate increased. On the other hand, the water/ethanol selectivity increased with increasing molecular weight up to 90 kDa but decreased at over 90 kDa. With increasing degree of deacetylation, the water/ethanol permselectivity increased significantly, but the normalized permeation rate decreased. The characteristics of chitosan membranes are discussed based on their chemical and physical structures such as the contact angle, density, degree of swelling, and glass transition temperature. PMID:25662680

  16. Non-distillable entanglement guarantees distillable entanglement

    E-print Network

    Lin Chen; Masahito Hayashi

    2012-09-19

    The monogamy of entanglement is one of the basic quantum mechanical features, which says that when two partners Alice and Bob are more entangled then either of them has to be less entangled with the third party. Here we qualitatively present the converse monogamy of entanglement: given a tripartite pure system and when Alice and Bob are entangled and non-distillable, then either of them is distillable with the third party. Our result leads to the classification of tripartite pure states based on bipartite reduced density operators, which is a novel and effective way to this long-standing problem compared to the means by stochastic local operations and classical communications. Furthermore we systematically indicate the structure of the classified states and generate them. We also extend our results to multipartite states.

  17. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  18. High-Purity Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL E. RIVERA; Hyunjin Lee; HANS D. MITTELMANN; MARTIN W. BRAUN

    2007-01-01

    Distillation is one of the most common separation techniques in chemical manufacturing. This multi-input, multi-output staged separation process is strongly interactive, as determined by the singular value decomposition of a linear dynamic model of the system. Process dynamics associated with the low-gain direction are critical to the design of high-performance controllers for high-purity distillation but are difficult to estimate from

  19. Random multiparty entanglement distillation

    E-print Network

    Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2008-01-15

    We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

  20. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

  5. Winogradsky Columns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Lennox

    This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

  6. Recovery of organic carbon from atmospheric particulate matter using soxhlet extraction with the benzene/methanol azeotrope

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, B.D.; Griest, W.H.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Heyerdahl, E.K.; MacDougall, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    The extraction efficiency of the benzene/methanol azeotrope for organic carbon in atmospheric particulate matter was determined using a carbon types analyzer and also radio-labeled tracers and liquid scintillation spectroscopy. A twenty-four hour Soxhlet extraction with the azeotrope extracts 76 percent of the organic carbon, 15 percent of the elemental carbon, and 61 percent of the total carbon. Nonpolar and moderately polar organic compounds such as dotriacontane, benzo(a)pyrene, and stearic acid are extracted with 95 percent recovery. Highly polar oxygenated species such as succinic acid are extracted with an efficiency of 82 percent. The Soxhlet extractor was more efficient than ultrasonication for the extraction of highly polar species.

  7. APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE ANALYSIS OF A MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the application of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of a middle distillate fuel. Small diameter (50 micrometer i.d.) fused silica capillary columns coated with crosslinked 50% phenyl polymethylsiloxane provided high separation...

  8. Performance evaluation of two azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of HFC134a with R-290 (propane) and R-600a (isobutane)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Kim; W. J. Mulroy; D. A. Didion

    1994-01-01

    The reduction in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) production and the scheduled phase-out of these ozone-depleting refrigerants require the development and determination of environmentally safe refrigerants for use in heat pumps, water chillers, air conditioners, and refrigerators. This paper presents a performance evaluation of a generic heat pump with two azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane) with R-290 (propane) and

  9. Qutrit Magic State Distillation

    E-print Network

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

  10. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  11. Performance evaluation of two azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of HFC-134a with R-290 (propane) and R-600a (isobutane)

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.S.; Mulroy, W.J.; Didion, D.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.)

    1994-06-01

    The reduction in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) production and the scheduled phase-out of these ozone-depleting refrigerants require the development and determination of environmentally safe refrigerants for use in heat pumps, water chillers, air conditioners, and refrigerators. This paper presents a performance evaluation of a generic heat pump with two azeotropic refrigerant mixtures of HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane) with R-290 (propane) and R-600a (isobutane); R-290/134a (45/55 by mass percentage) and R-134a/600a (80/20 by mass percentage). The performance characteristics of the azeotropes were compared with pure CFC-12, HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and R-290 at the high temperature cooling and heating conditions including those using liquid-line/suction-line heat exchange. The coefficient of performance of R-290/134a is lower than that of HCFC-22 and R-290, and R-134a/600a shows higher coefficient of performance than CFC-12 and HFC-134a. The capacity for R-290/134a is higher than that for HCFC-22 and R-290, and R-134a/600a exhibits higher system capacity than CFC-12 and HFC-134a. Experimental results show that the discharge temperatures of the studied azeotropic mixtures are lower than those of the pure refrigerants, CFC-12 and HCFC-22.

  12. Efficient distillation beyond qubits

    E-print Network

    K. G. H. Vollbrecht; M. M. Wolf

    2002-08-26

    We provide generalizations of known two-qubit entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions. The protocols, which are analogues of the hashing and breeding procedures, are adapted to bipartite quantum states which are diagonal in a basis of maximally entangled states. We show that the obtained rates are optimal, and thus equal to the distillable entanglement, for a (d-1) parameter family of rank deficient states. Methods to improve the rates for other states are discussed. In particular, for isotropic states it is shown that the rate can be improved such that it approaches the relative entropy of entanglement in the limit of large dimensions.

  13. Low Energy Distillation Schemes

    E-print Network

    Polley, G. T.

    of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps...

  14. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  15. Topological Quantum Distillation

    E-print Network

    H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2007-03-29

    We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

  16. The distillability problem revisited

    E-print Network

    Lieven Clarisse

    2006-07-19

    An important open problem in quantum information theory is the question of the existence of NPT bound entanglement. In the past years, little progress has been made, mainly because of the lack of mathematical tools to address the problem. (i) In an attempt to overcome this, we show how the distillability problem can be reformulated as a special instance of the separability problem, for which a large number of tools and techniques are available. (ii) Building up to this we also show how the problem can be formulated as a Schmidt number problem. (iii) A numerical method for detecting distillability is presented and strong evidence is given that all 1-copy undistillable Werner states are also 4-copy undistillable. (iv) The same method is used to estimate the volume of distillable states, and the results suggest that bound entanglement is primarily a phenomenon found in low dimensional quantum systems. (v) Finally, a set of one parameter states is presented which we conjecture to exhibit all forms of distillability.

  17. On bound entanglement assisted distillation

    E-print Network

    V. Vedral

    1999-11-17

    We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

  18. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  19. Effect of Recycle Streams on Energy Performance and Closed Loop Dynamics of Distillation Sequences

    E-print Network

    S. Hernández A; J. G. Segovia-hernández A; J. Carlos Cárdenas A; V. Rico-ramírez B

    This paper presents the retrofit of five conventional distillation trains for the separation of quaternary mixtures of hydrocarbons for feed compositions with high or low content of intermediate components. The retrofit implies the incorporation of liquid or vapour recycle streams among the conventional distillation columns. Each recycle stream removes one condenser or one reboiler. The introduction of thermal links can lower the energy consumption up to 40 % in contrast to conventional distillation trains widely used in the industry. This efficiency in the use of energy is achieved because the recycle streams, introduced in the conventional distillation trains, reduce the remixing associated with higher energy consumption. Also, the introduction of recycle streams can improve the dynamic responses in contrast to those obtained in the conventional distillation sequences. Hence, the introduction of recycle streams in the conventional distillation sequences can improve both the energy consumption and the control properties.

  20. Trajan's Column

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website, from McMaster University, uses the combined skills of artists, writers, programmers, and Web designers to create a resource for the study of Trajan's column, a Roman architectural monument. This 100-foot marble column, built during the reign of Emperor Trajan, 98-117 AD, is topped with a gilded statue of Trajan and decorated with carvings recounting Trajan's rule, primarily the Dacian Wars and his building projects. The heart of the Website is the database of 500 slides of the carvings; indexes allow users to view the slides in thematic groupings such as images of sides of the column, groups organized by subject keywords, or carvings made with specific tools. Cartoons or drawings of the column help to contextualize the details found in the slides, and essays provide more information on its design, construction, and preservation.

  1. Graphically find theoretical trays and minimum reflux for Complex multicomponent distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kister

    1985-01-01

    The article describes a procedure which provides the means for making the preliminary design of a distillation column and for analyzing column design and performance. Its development follows the steps of Hengstebeck's derivation for a simple, single-feed fractionator. For each feed, all the light nonkeys introduced end up in the rising vapor, and all the heavy nonkeys in the descending

  2. Thermomechanically integrated distillation of ethylene from ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.G.; Haddad, H.; Manley, D.B. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The separation of ethylene from ethane by distillation is normally the final step in the production of ethylene. The critical temperature of ethylene is about 50 F, therefore moderately low temperatures and moderately high pressures are typically used to provide optimum economic conditions. The optimum design can require thick walled and heavy pressure vessels which may be constructed of expensive alloy steels depending on the specific operating conditions. The required purity of ethylene usually exceeds 99.9%, and the economic level of recovery is approximately 99%. In addition, the relative volatility of ethylene to ethane is moderately small ranging from about 1.13 for high pressure mixtures rich in ethylene to 2.34 for low pressure mixtures rich in ethane. The relatively high purity and recovery and relatively low relative volatility dictate a large distillation column with more than 100 trays and a large diameter for world scale production levels of over a billion pounds per year of ethylene. The installed capital cost for a unit of this type and size can exceed twenty million dollars, and utility costs can exceed one million dollars per year. Consequently, there is a strong economic incentive to reduce costs through improved process designs for the distillation of ethylene from ethane, and the process is well studied in the literature. Thermomechanically integrated distillation provides an improved design which can reduce both capital and operating costs as compared to the best conventional designs. In this paper, the conventional designs for both vapor and liquid feeds are reviewed, the underlying thermodynamics characterizing the process is discussed, alternative thermomechanically integrated designs are presented, and utility and purchased equipment costs are compared.

  3. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOEpatents

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  4. Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas Raymond

    1962-01-01

    8 Convergence Method ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~ 29 Treatment of Systems Containing Relatively Light and Heavy Components . Illustrative Examples Conclusions 58 40 45 Table of Notation ~ ~ ~ I 0 t 0 0 ~ 46 Bibliography . 52 Appendiz 56 LIST... efficiency for bensene in a bensene-toluene system decreased. For aqueous and 11 hydrocarbon solutions, Gunnes and Baker (26), Nord (47), and Wi)k and Thyssen (66) noted sharp decreases in plate efficiency for a component when it was present in small...

  5. Optimization approach to entanglement distillation

    E-print Network

    T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

    1999-04-09

    We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

  6. Heavy oil distillation system

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, W.F.; Nitsch, A.R.

    1988-04-12

    A method for increasing the amount of volatiles produced and decreasing the amount of coke produced from a fixed amount of a vacuum reduced crude from a vacuum distillation tower is described comprising: (a) feeding the vacuum reduced crude from the vacuum distillation tower directly into a coker combination tower; (b) coking a residuum stripped of volatiles generating coke drum vapor; (c) feeding the coke drum vapor into the coker combination tower in contact with and in direct countercurrent heat exchange relationship with the vacuum reduced crude in the coker combination tower whereby some of the coke drum vapor is absorbed by the vacuum-reduced crude generating a coker combination tower residuum; (d) feeding the coker combination tower residuum into a resid flash down tower maintained at a pressure below the pressure in the coker combination tower; (e) fractionating the coker combination tower residuum in flash down tower into a vapor stream and a liquid stream comprising a residuum stripped of volatiles; (f) feeding the residuum stripped of volatiles to a delayed coke drum and coking the resdiuum stripped of volatiles as provided in step (b); condensing the fractionated vapor stream.

  7. Application of sidestream recycle to the separation of hydrogen isotopes by cryogenic distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Sherman; D. J. Taylor; J. W. Barnes; T. Yamanishi; M. Enoeda; S. Konishi; K. Okuno

    1993-01-01

    Withdrawal of a sidestream from an isotopic separation distillation column followed by equilibration of species and reinjection is a technique for reducing the required number of columns and hence reducing tritium inventories in fusion-energy fuel processing systems. Measurements have been made with a single column and the three-component H2-HD-D2 system withdrawing streams of essentially pure H2 and D2. This was

  8. Present status of solar distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Tiwari; H. N. Singh; Rajesh Tripathi

    2003-01-01

    In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the

  9. Column Chromatography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julie Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

  10. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  11. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  12. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  13. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  14. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  15. Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

  16. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA SØRENSEN in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback been built and the experiments verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation

  17. Distilling entanglement from Fermions

    E-print Network

    M. Keyl

    2008-12-03

    Since Fermions are based on anti-commutation relations, their entanglement can not be studied in the usual way, such that the available theory has to be modified appropriately. Recent publications consider in particular the structure of separable and of maximally entangled states. In this talk we want to discuss local operations and entanglement distillation from bipartite, Fermionic systems. To this end we apply an algebraic point of view where algebras of local observables, rather than tensor product Hilbert spaces play the central role. We apply our scheme in particular to Fermionic Gaussian states where the whole discussion can be reduced to properties of the covariance matrix. Finally the results are demonstrated with free Fermions on an infinite, one-dimensional lattice.

  18. ETBE via catalytic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, K.L. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recent political developments have altered the focus of refiners and blenders concerning oxygenates for reformulated gasoline. Ethanol and ethyl ethers (ETBE and TAEE) will receive preferential treatment under proposed legislation. Operations of existing and future ether plants are interested in flexibility to produce whatever ether has legislative or economic preference in the future. The use of DCTECH`s catalytic distillation technology offers advantages for alcohol flexibility, capital cost and operating cost. Additional features include high product purity, high isobutylene conversion and long catalyst life. Further cost reductions are available through the use of wet ethanol feed. The paper will address the technology features and benefits as well as economics. The results of recent commercial demonstration of the process will also be reviewed.

  19. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  20. SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

  1. Rigorous distillation dynamics simulations using a computer algebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakia Nasri; Housam Binous

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, Mathematica1, the famous computer algebra, is used to perform steady- state and dynamic simulations of a multi-component distillation column. In order to describe the vaporliquid equilibrium (VLE) relationships and to compute the vapor- and liquid-phase enthalpies, the Soave? RedlichKwong equation of state (SRK EOS) is chosen. Rigorous modeling is performed where both mass and energy balance

  2. Characterization of down-flowing steam distillation system using step test analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakiah Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Noor Nasriq Nordin; Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Ramli Adnan; Mohd Nasir Taib

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of step test in analysing the characterization and to observe the dynamics of new system which is down-flowing steam distillation system. Steam temperature data were collected in two condition: (a) without sample in the steam tray, (b) with sample in the steam tray-Cymbopogon Nardus (serai wangi ).The down-flowing steam distillation column developed in this work

  3. Hybrid Membrane-Cryogenic Distillation Air Separation Process for Oxygen Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip C. Wankat; Kyle P. Kostroski

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid air separation process for oxygen production uses a membrane gas permeator with bypass to increase the oxygen concentration of the feed to 23.5% before the cryogenic distillation plant. A 23.5% limit on oxygen is required to avoid use of more expensive construction materials. By pre-concentrating the oxygen, the feed flowrate to the compressor, heat exchangers and distillation column

  4. The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

    The Scaleup of Structured Packing From Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application O. Jeffrey'Berven and Michael A. Ulowetz Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wichita, Kansas Structured packing is being utilized more and more... in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot...

  5. Selective Retention of Explosives and Related Compounds on Gas-Chromatographic Capillary Columns Coated with Lanthanide(III) ß-diketonate Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Scott D.; Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2009-09-04

    The purpose of this research was to investigate coating capillary columns with lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymers to provide gas-chromatographic columns with selectivity toward explosives and related compounds. Capillary columns were statically coated with a combination of a lanthanide(III) beta-diketonate polymer, which utilized p-di(4,4,5,5,6,6,6-heptafluoro-1,3-hexanedionyl)benzene (dihed) as a ligand, and SE-30. A novel coating technique was developed that used a methanol-containing azeotrope to provide solubility for both polymers while maintaining a low boiling point compatible with static coating. As based on temperature-programmed retention indices, the custom experimental columns displayed selective retention of nitroaromatic, nitroalkane, and nitrate ester test probes relative to an appropriate SE-30 control column. Selective retention was more pronounced for strong Lewis base analytes (i.e., cyclohexanone). Relative analyte retention on the La(dihed), Tb(dihed) and Eu(dihed) columns are discussed relative to Lewis acidity and solubility of the polymer in the azeotrope coating solution.

  6. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  7. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  8. Isotropic non-locality cannot be distilled

    E-print Network

    Dejan D. Dukaric

    2011-09-20

    We investigate non-locality distillation protocols for isotropic correlations. These correlations are the hardest instances which respect to distillability and only partial results are known about their behaviour under non-locality distillation protocols. We completely resolve this issue by proving that non-locality distillation is impossible for all non-local isotropic correlations.

  9. Quantum universality by state distillation

    E-print Network

    Ben W. Reichardt

    2009-07-13

    Quantum universality can be achieved using classically controlled stabilizer operations and repeated preparation of certain ancilla states. Which ancilla states suffice for universality? This "magic states distillation" question is closely related to quantum fault tolerance. Lower bounds on the noise tolerable on the ancilla help give lower bounds on the tolerable noise rate threshold for fault-tolerant computation. Upper bounds show the limits of threshold upper-bound arguments based on the Gottesman-Knill theorem. We extend the range of single-qubit mixed states that are known to give universality, by using a simple parity-checking operation. For applications to proving threshold lower bounds, certain practical stability characteristics are often required, and we also show a stable distillation procedure. No distillation upper bounds are known beyond those given by the Gottesman-Knill theorem. One might ask whether distillation upper bounds reduce to upper bounds for single-qubit ancilla states. For multi-qubit pure states and previously considered two-qubit ancilla states, the answer is yes. However, we exhibit two-qubit mixed states that are not mixtures of stabilizer states, but for which every postselected stabilizer reduction from two qubits to one outputs a mixture of stabilizer states. Distilling such states would require true multi-qubit state distillation methods.

  10. Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [INC-DTCI-ICSI Rm. Valcea, str.Uzinei, Nr.4, 240050 (Romania)

    2008-07-15

    Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

  11. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

  12. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  13. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.

    ----------------, .. 134 ESL-IE-86-06-25 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 ~ A. Cascades 1. Cryogenic Distillation Since most cryogenic distillations, are inherently driven by work (Le... kPa 95.6 K AIR 117 kPa --. 138kPa NESTED CASCADE AIR AIR COMPRESSOR CONVENTIONAL Conv'l CASCADE NEC Pre kPa ssure asia Energy 579 84 1.0 441 64 .844 Figure 4. Energy Effect of Nested Cascade Distilla tion on Cryogenic Air...

  14. Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

  16. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  17. Compartmental modeling of high purity air separation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoujun Bian; Suabtragool Khowinij; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

    2005-01-01

    High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants. The development of nonlinear control technology is motivated by the need to frequently change production rates in response to time varying utility costs. Detailed column models based on stage-by-stage balance equations are too complex to be incorporated directly into optimization-based strategies such as nonlinear model predictive control.

  18. Compartmental modeling of high purity air separation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoujun Biana; Suabtragool Khowinij; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

    High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants. The development of nonlinear control technology is motivated by the need to frequently change production rates in response to time varying utility costs. Detailed column models based on stage-by-stage balance equations are too complex to be incorporated directly into optimization-based strategies such as nonlinear model predictive control.

  19. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  20. Entanglement distillation using particle statistics

    E-print Network

    H. L. Huang; L. H. Cheng; X. X. Yi

    2005-10-25

    We extend the idea of entanglement concentration for pure states(Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 187903) to the case of mixed states. The scheme works only with particle statistics and local operations, without the need of any other interactions. We show that the maximally entangled state can be distilled out when the initial state is pure, otherwise the entanglement of the final state is less than one. The distillation efficiency is a product of the diagonal elements of the initial state, it takes the maximum 50%, the same as the case for pure states.

  1. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  2. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  3. Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources

    E-print Network

    Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

    2010-10-15

    We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource, by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter, in the special case of an i.i.d. resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called "hashing bound," which in turn provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

  4. Heat Integrated Ethanol Dehydration Flowsheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Hutahaean; W. H. Shen; V. Van Brunt

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical evaluation of heat-integrated heterogeneous-azeotropic ethanol-water distillation flowsheets is presented. Simulations of two column flowsheets using several different hydrocarbon entrainers reveal a region of potential heat integration and substantial reduction in operating energy. In this paper, methods for comparing hydrocarbon entrainers are shown.Two aspects of entrainers are related to operating and capital costs. The binary azeotropic composition of the

  5. Two stage carbon dioxide and methane separation

    SciTech Connect

    Styring, R.E. Jr.

    1982-09-28

    Arco's process separates and recovers ethane from a carbon dioxide-ethane stream produced during natural gas processing. After methane separation, some of the ethane follows the carbon dioxide stream because the two compounds form an azeotrope. The process separates the two by means of two distillation columns operated at pressures that differ by at least 150 psia. This pressure difference shifts the azeotropic point enough to allow the separation.

  6. Control strategies for reactive batch distillation Eva Swensen and Sigurd Skogestad"

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    the reactor temperature (one-point bottom control) is difficult since the set-point has to be specified below reactor temperature and distillate composition (two-point control) is also found to be difficult due to large interactions in the column. As with one-point bottom control, the reactor temperature has

  7. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny...

  8. Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Sterile distilled water

    E-print Network

    Auble, David

    Auble Lab Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Reagents: Sterile distilled water -mercaptoethanol Sorbitol Buffer conical tube at 3,000 rpms for 5 minutes. 3. Resuspend in 10 ml of sterile distilled (SD) water, then spin

  9. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  10. Properties of Distillers Grains Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable biofuel sources has intensified in recent years, leading to greatly increased production of ethanol and its primary coproduct, Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS). Consequently, the development of new outlets for DDGS has become crucial to maintaining the economic viab...

  11. OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

  12. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  13. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  14. Entanglement distillation by extendible maps

    E-print Network

    Lukasz Pankowski; Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki; Graeme Smith

    2013-08-25

    It is known that from entangled states that have positive partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing open question is whether maximally entangled states can be distilled from every state with a non-positive partial transpose. In this paper we study a possible approach to the question consisting of enlarging the class of operations allowed. Namely, instead of LOCC operations we consider k-extendible operations, defined as maps whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We find that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. it is capable of distilling EPR pairs even from product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which show that if we raise the extension index k simultaneously with the number of copies of the state, then the class of k-extendible operations is not that powerful anymore and provide a better approximation to the set of LOCC operations.

  15. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  16. Predictive control of distillation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    In this study, predictive control is applied to two fundamental control problems found in most distillation processes: averaging level control and product quality control. An optimal averaging level control problem is defined and solved for a surge tank system. Two averaging level controllers, the ramp controller and the optimal predictive controller, are developed utilizing the optimal control policy. The ramp

  17. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates were removed....

  18. DNA Spin Columns Regular Spin Columns

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    or bubbles. 1. Remove tip of Bio-Rad column. Place column in 13 X 100 mm glass tube in rack. Fill column tube in 50 ml plastic centrifuge tube. Spin 10 minutes at 1000 rpm (~250 g) in IEC centrifuge. After centrifuge with swing-out rotor. Plastic Syringes Prepare syringes as follows. Cut circles of GF/C (glass

  19. Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    LETTERS Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states RUIFANG DONG1 , MIKAEL, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less entangled states, can be used4­14 . Here we report on the distillation of deterministically

  20. TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA S RENSEN a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for total re verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation generally is less energy e cient than

  1. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  3. Simulated distillation of high-boiling petroleum fractions by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert E. Schwartz; Robert G. Brownlee; Mieczyslaw M. Boduszynski; Fu. Su

    1987-01-01

    Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis (VTGA) were utilized for simulated distillation (SIMDIS) of high-boiling petroleum fractions obtained by short-path vacuum distillation. The SFC method covers the approximate boiling range of 250-1400°F. Under the present conditions, even 42% of a nondistillable, nondeasphalted residue was recovered from the column at a calculated 1426°F atmospheric equivalent boiling point.

  4. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  5. Distillate Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

  6. Selective hydrocracking of middle distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Konoval'chikov, L.D.; Konoval'chikov, O.D.; Kruglikov, V.Y.; Nefedov, B.K.

    1984-09-01

    This article presents selective hydrocracking test results on the SGK-1 catalyst with various distillate feedstocks (both straight-run and stocks from secondary processes). The tests were performed in single-pass laboratory flow units (catalyst charge 20 cm/sup 3/) and in pilot-plant units (catalyst charge 100-500 cm/sup 3/). Data are presented on the composition and properties of the liquid product obtained by selective hydrogenation, in the pilot unit, of a straight-run hydrotreated kerosine cut from Romashkino-type crude. The results indicate that the SGK-1 catalyst, which was developed on the basis of the USSR high-silica zeolites TsVK and TsVM, has a high and stable catalytic activity and a high selectivity in cracking the n-alkanes present in middle distillates.

  7. Experimental Distillation of Quantum Nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, C.; Deng, D.-L.; Hou, P.-Y.; Chang, X.-Y.; Wang, F.; Duan, L.-M.

    2013-08-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of distillation of quantum nonlocality, confirming the recent theoretical protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)]. Quantum nonlocality is described by a correlation box with binary inputs and outputs, and the nonlocal boxes are realized through appropriate measurements on polarization entangled photon pairs. We demonstrate that nonlocality is amplified by connecting two nonlocal boxes into a composite one through local operations and four-photon measurements.

  8. Selective hydrocracking of middle distillates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. D. Konovalchikov; O. D. Konovalchikov; V. Y. Kruglikov; B. K. Nefedov

    1984-01-01

    This article presents selective hydrocracking test results on the SGK-1 catalyst with various distillate feedstocks (both straight-run and stocks from secondary processes). The tests were performed in single-pass laboratory flow units (catalyst charge 20 cm³) and in pilot-plant units (catalyst charge 100-500 cm³). Data are presented on the composition and properties of the liquid product obtained by selective hydrogenation, in

  9. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two procedures were compared. Finally, the agreement between boiling points of polar compounds determined from their retention times and actual boiling points was investigated. PMID:21153592

  10. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  11. Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions

    E-print Network

    Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

    2011-03-24

    We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

  12. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    E-print Network

    E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

    2009-08-14

    In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  13. Temperature, pressure measurements solve column operating problems

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, S.W. [Process Consulting Services Inc., Grapevine, TX (United States)

    1995-12-25

    Refinery process engineers use computer modeling to design, monitor, operate, and troubleshoot refinery units. Basic chemical engineering principles, coupled with these high-technology tools, offer the engineer opportunities to identify and fix process unit problems. Pressure, temperature, and composition profiles are fundamental process measurements. But these simple tools that identify system design and operating problems are often lost among the more sophisticated high-tech tools. The details of three operations will show how these basic chemical engineering tools can be used to identify and solve operating problems in refinery distillation columns. Case 1 is an overhead crude unit; the second is a deethanizer reboiler; and the third is a crude atmospheric column.

  14. Five points on columns

    E-print Network

    Rockland, Kathleen

    Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

  15. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using different types of electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gebicki, Jacek; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation on quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using a prototype of electronic nose instrument and a commercial electronic nose of Fast/Flash GC type- HERACLES II. The prototype was equipped with TGS type semiconductor sensors. HERACLES II included two chromatographic columns with different polarity of stationary phase and two FID detectors. In case of the prototype volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate was prepared via barbotage process, whereas HERACLES II analysed the headspace fraction. Classification of the samples into three quality classes was performed using: quadratic discriminant function (QDA), supported with cross-validation method. Over 95% correct classification of the agricultural distillates into particular quality classes was observed for the analyses with HERACLES II. The prototype of electronic nose provided correct classification at the level of 70%.

  16. Starch columns: Analog model for basalt columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Gerhard

    1998-07-01

    Desiccation of starch-water mixtures produces tensile-crack patterns which appear to be interesting, but largely unknown study objects for fracture mechanics, structural geology, and volcanology. This paper concentrates on columnar jointing and on columns in starch. Starch columns have polygonal cross sections and are very similar to basalt columns. They are produced by lamp drying starch specimens with dimensions of several centimeters and have diameters in the millimeter range. The columns develop behind a crack front which propagates from the surface into the interior. The experiments, supported by X ray tomograms, show that polygonal regularity of the crack pattern is not present at the surface but develops during penetration. This transition is steered by a minimum-fracture-energy principle. The analogy between basalt cooling and starch desiccation is far reaching: water concentration in starch is analogous to temperature in basalt, both quantities obey diffusion equations, water loss is equivalent to heat loss, the resulting contraction stresses have similar dependences on depth and time, and in both cases the material strength is exceeded. The starch experiments show that column diameters are controlled by the depth gradient of water concentration at the crack front. High (low) gradients are connected with thin (thick) columns. By analogy, a similar relation with the temperature gradient exists for basalt columns. The (normalized) starch gradients are about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the (normalized) gradients in basalt. This explains why starch columns are much thinner than basalt columns. The gradients are so different, because the crack front speeds differ by a factor of about 10: after 3 days the speed is about 10 mm/d in starch but about 100 mm/d in basalt [Peck, 1978]. The speed difference, in turn, results from the difference of the diffusion constants: the hydraulic diffusivity of starch is 2 orders of magnitude lower than the thermal diffusivity of basalt.

  17. JCE Feature Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon L. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using

  18. Imaging of liquid distribution in reactive distillation packings with a new high-energy x-ray tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toye, D.; Crine, M.; Marchot, P.

    2005-11-01

    We describe a new, high-energy (420 kV), large-scale (0.45 m in diameter, 4 m in height) x-ray tomograph developed to investigate gas and liquid flow through fixed bed like absorption, distillation and reactive distillation columns. The first results obtained with this set-up on test objects (physical phantoms), such as a cylindrical container filled with water or a large diameter structured metallic packing, validate the technique as a quantitative tool for geometrical measurements. Very detailed two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of a 0.09 m diameter KATAPAK-SP 12, a reactive distillation packing, are presented. Quantitative information relative to liquid hold-up distribution may be obtained from tomographic imaging performed on an irrigated column packed with this element.

  19. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  20. The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martyn J. Earle; José M. S. S. Esperança; Manuela A. Gilea; José N. Canongia Lopes; Luís P. N. Rebelo; Joseph W. Magee; Kenneth R. Seddon; Jason A. Widegren

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived

  1. Distillability Criterion for all Bipartite Gaussian States

    E-print Network

    G. Giedke; L. -M. Duan; J. I. Cirac; P. Zoller

    2001-10-09

    We prove that all inseparable Gaussian states of two modes can be distilled into maximally entangled pure states by local operations. Using this result we show that a bipartite Gaussian state of arbitrarily many modes can be distilled if and only if its partial transpose is not positive.

  2. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  3. Membrane distillation. II. Direct contact MD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

    1996-01-01

    Pure water direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) experiments were used to measure the permeability parameter associated with the molecular diffusion in membrane distillation (MD). The fluxes given by a recently reported MD model, which is based on the dusty-gas model of gas transport through porous media, showed good agreement with the experimental results over the entire range of feed temperatures

  4. Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable

    E-print Network

    Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

    2008-03-07

    We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

  5. Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

    2004-03-18

    A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  6. Relativity and Lorentz Invariance of Entanglement Distillability

    E-print Network

    L. Lamata; M. A. Martin-Delgado; E. Solano

    2007-01-04

    We study entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed spin states under Wigner rotations induced by Lorentz transformations. We define weak and strong criteria for relativistic isoentangled and isodistillable states to characterize relative and invariant behavior of entanglement and distillability. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states, where fully analytical methods can be achieved and all relevant cases presented.

  7. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  8. Distillability of entanglement in accelerated frames

    E-print Network

    Moradi, Shahpoor

    2012-01-01

    We study the entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed states of two modes of a free Dirac field as seen by two relatively accelerated parties. It is shown that there are states that will change from distillable into separable for a certain value of acceleration. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states.

  9. Heat transport in the membrane distillation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Gryta; Maria Tomaszewska

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of membrane distillation (MD) with a laminar flow of the streams in a module has been performed. The equations describing the heat transfer in MD capillary modules were presented and verified experimentally. The equations were derived for the calculation of the feed and distillate temperature at a layer adjacent to the membrane. The heat transfer correlations were implemented in

  10. Distillability of entanglement in accelerated frames

    E-print Network

    Shahpoor Moradi

    2012-01-06

    We study the entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed states of two modes of a free Dirac field as seen by two relatively accelerated parties. It is shown that there are states that will change from distillable into separable for a certain value of acceleration. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states.

  11. Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Gryta

    2006-01-01

    The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

  12. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, J.B.

    1996-11-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

  13. Two-Phase Flow and Energy Transfer of a Non-Azeotropic Mixture, R-407c, in a Micro-Fin Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin

    1996-11-01

    This study is to determine experimentally the two-phase flow and energy transfer characteristics of a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture, R-407c (nominal composition: 23% R-32, 25% R-125, and 52% R-134a). R-407c is a fluid with zero ozone depletion potential and one of several alternatives to currently widely used pure refrigerant HCFC-22. As a non-azeotrope, R-407c has distinctly different characteristics from pure fluids. The phase change of a non-azeotrope under constant pressure does not proceed at a constant temperature but rather over a range of temperature. In addition, the momentum, energy transfer, and mass transfer processes are closely linked. The vapor-liquid interfacial mass transfer rate limits the evaporation or condensation rate, and in turns limits the energy transfer rate. The experiments are conducted in a test apparatus with a fluid sampling port to monitor the composition change of the mixture. The test section consists of six horizontal identical passes, constructed as double tube heat exchangers. Each pass is about 2.2 m long and are connected in order by 7.6 cm radius U-bends. The heated or cooled section of each pass is shorter than the pass length and is 1.8 meter long. The inner (mixture) tube of the test section is a nominal 3/8" inch (9.5 mm) copper tube of 0.348 mm wall thickness with 72 axial fins of 0.185 mm height on its inner surface. The apex angle of the fins is 15 deg. and the helix angle is 0. The annulus-side water, serving as heat source (evaporating mode) or heat sink (condensing mode), flows through the annular space between inner and outer tubes. The tests are conducted at 100 deg F dew point temperature and mass flux from 192,000 to 818,000 lb/hr-ft^2 for condensing, and 50 deg F dew point and mass flux from 70,000 to 394,000 lb/hr-ft^2 for evaporating. The experimental results show that, compared to R-22, two-phase flow frictional pressure gradients of R-407c are about 10% less than R-22. Due to the mass transfer resistance, its condensing coefficients are 15% to 30% lower and its evaporating coefficients are about 20% lower, relative to R-22.

  14. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  15. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  16. Hysteresis in column systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanyi, P.; Ivanyi, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper one column of a telescopic construction of a bell tower is investigated. The hinges at the support of the column and at the connecting joint between the upper and lower columns are modelled with rotational springs. The characteristics of the springs are assumed to be non-linear and the hysteresis property of them is represented with the Preisach hysteresis model. The mass of the columns and the bell with the fly are concentrated to the top of the column. The tolling process is simulated with a cycling load. The elements of the column are considered completely rigid. The time iteration of the non-linear equations of the motion is evaluated by the Crank-Nicolson schema and the implemented non-linear hysteresis is handled by the fix-point technique. The numerical simulation of the dynamic system is carried out under different combination of soft, medium and hard hysteresis properties of hinges.

  17. On two-distillable Werner states

    E-print Network

    Dragomir Z. Djokovic

    2010-03-23

    We consider bipartite mixed states in a d x d quantum system with d at least 3. We say that such a state is PPT if its partial transpose is positive semidefinite, and otherwise that it is NPT. The well-known Werner states are partitioned into three types: a) the separable states (same as the PPT states), b) the 1-distillable states (necessarily NPT), and c) the NPT states which are not 1-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the type c) Werner states are not 2-distillable.

  18. New catalysts for hydrotreating heavy distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Chagovets, A.N.; Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, B.L.; Osipov, L.N.; Perezhigina, I.Ya.

    1982-11-01

    Compares the activity of experimental-commercial batches of type GO catalysts with the activity of alumina-cobaltmolybdenum (ACM) and alumina-nickel-molybdenum silicate (ANMS) catalysts in the hydrodesulfurization of a 350-500C vacuum distillate from Romashkino crude containing 2% sulfur and 0.1% nitrogen by weight. Finds that the GO-115, GO-116, and GO-117 catalysts are promising materials for use in hydrotreating vacuum distillates because their activities are higher than those of the commercial ACM and ANMS catalysts. Notes that the GO catalysts will give effective processing of vacuum distillates down to residual sulfur contents below 0.3% by weight.

  19. Understanding the azeotropic diethyl carbonate-water mixture by structural and energetic characterization of DEC(H2O) n heteroclusters.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Juan D; Mejía, Sol M; Mills, Matthew J L; Villa, Aída L

    2015-04-01

    Diethyl carbonate (DEC) is an oxygenated fuel additive. During its synthesis through a promising green process, a DEC-water azeotrope is formed, which decreases DEC production efficiency in the gas phase. Molecular information about this system is scarce but could be of benefit in understanding (and potentially improving) the synthetic process. Therefore, we report a detailed computational study of the conformers of DEC, and their microsolvation with up to four water molecules, with the goal of understanding the observed 1:3 DEC:H2O molar ratio. The most stable DEC conformers (with mutual energy differences < 1.5 kcal mol(-1)) contribute to the energetic and structural properties of the complexes. An exhaustive stochastic exploration of each potential energy surface of DEC-(H2O) n , (where n?=?1, 2, 3, 4) heteroclusters discovered 3, 8, 7, and 4 heterodimers, heterotrimers, heterotetramers, and heteropentamers, respectively, at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. DEC conformers and energies of the most stable structures at each heterocluster size were refined using CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p). Energy decomposition, electron density topology, and cooperative effects analyses were carried out to determine the relationship between the geometrical features of the heteroclusters and the non-covalent interaction types responsible for their stabilization. Our findings show that electrostatic and exchange energies are responsible for heterocluster stabilization, and also suggest a mutual weakening among hydrogen bonds when more than three water molecules are present. All described results are complementary and suggest a structural and energetic explanation at the molecular level for the experimental molar ratio of 1:3 (DEC:H2O) for the DEC-water azeotrope. PMID:25786831

  20. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed....

  1. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-print Network

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  2. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  3. On the irreversibility of entanglement distillation

    E-print Network

    K. G. H. Vollbrecht; R. F. Werner; M. M. Wolf

    2003-01-15

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric d-1 parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension d x d. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, such that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown, that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is quasi-pure in the sense that all its pure state entanglement can be revealed by a simple operation on a single copy. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations.

  4. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    E-print Network

    Mistry, Karan H.

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

  5. Nonlocality Distillation for High-Dimensional System

    E-print Network

    Pan, Guo-Zhu; Chen, Zheng-Gen; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The intriguing and powerful capability of nonlocality in communication field ignites the research of the nonlocality distillation. The first protocol presented in Ref[Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401] shows that the nonlocality of bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes could be amplified by 'wiring' two copies of weaker-nonlocality boxes. Several optimized distillation protocols were presented later for bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes. In this paper, we focus on the bipartite binary-input and multi-nary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes---high-dimensional boxes, and design comparators-based protocols to achieve the distillation of high-dimensional nonlocality. The results show that the high-dimensional nonlocality can be distilled in different ways, and we find that the efficiencies of the protocols are influenced not only by the wirings but also by the classes the initial nonlocality boxes belongs to. Here, the initial nonlcalities may hav...

  6. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

  7. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  8. Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Samuel Lane

    1959-01-01

    LIBRARY 4 A I4 COLLEGE QF TEXAS USE OF COMPUTERS FOB MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr, Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1959 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering USE OF COMPUTERS FOR NULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

  9. Steering Distillation by "Pulsed" and "Continuous" Measurements

    E-print Network

    B. Militello; H. Nakazato; A. Messina

    2004-05-14

    A new systematic strategy for steering the distillation process for a quantum system, that utilizes the so-called "pulsed" and "continuous" measurements on another quantum system in interaction with the former, is proposed. The distillation process characterized by the specific interaction between the two systems and the "pulsed" measurements is shown to be controllable through the "continuous" measurements, i.e., the quantum Zeno dynamics, providing an effective recipe to prefix the target.

  10. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    E-print Network

    Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

    2009-09-25

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted GHZ structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  11. New catalysts for hydrotreating heavy distillates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Chagovets; L. N. Osipov; B. L. Lebedev; I. Ya. Perezhigina; A. V. Agafonov

    1982-01-01

    Compares the activity of experimental-commercial batches of type GO catalysts with the activity of alumina-cobaltmolybdenum (ACM) and alumina-nickel-molybdenum silicate (ANMS) catalysts in the hydrodesulfurization of a 350-500C vacuum distillate from Romashkino crude containing 2% sulfur and 0.1% nitrogen by weight. Finds that the GO-115, GO-116, and GO-117 catalysts are promising materials for use in hydrotreating vacuum distillates because their activities

  12. On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation

    E-print Network

    On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation Ke Yang May 4th, 2004 distillation, entanglement distillation, communication complexity, EPR pairs, quantum key distribution #12) information, and then engage in a protocol to \\distill" the correlation/entanglement via communication. We

  13. Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach

    E-print Network

    Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott for measuring distillation curves reveals the physicochemical properties of complex fluids such as fuels distillation curves of complex fluids. The distillation curve provides the only practical avenue to assess

  14. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-print Network

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio blog distillation by adding a link analysis phase to the standard retrieval-by-topicality phase, where in blog distillation. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of blog search. It is defined

  15. Solution of systems of columns with energy exchange between recycle streams

    E-print Network

    Haas, Joe Ray

    1980-01-01

    relationships, the material balances and the energy balances of the streams that pass across the enclosures of each column or unit of the system. At the end of each trial through the system, the capital theta method is used to find a set or values... recycle streams. The convergence method for a conventional distillation column where the reflux ratio and the boilup ratio are specified is based on finding the variables which satisfy the material balances, energy balances and equilibrium...

  16. Resonant column test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Drnevich

    1978-01-01

    The resonant column test is used to determine by vibration the shear modulus, shear damping, rod modulus (Young's modulus) and rod damping of cylindrical specimens of soil in the undisturbed and remolded conditions. The vibration apparatus, apparatus calibration, and calculations are described. The reduction of all resonant column test data is presented in a computer program.

  17. Support Column of Bridge

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Support column of bridge across Struve Slough, Highway 1. Enlargement of hole where support enters the ground is an effect of lateral shaking, which caused the concrete to break up where the column joined the bridge and was instrumental in the roadbed collapse....

  18. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    E-print Network

    Høyer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (\\textsf{NLB}) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the \\textsf{NLB}. Motivated by the limited distillability of \\textsf{NLB}s, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (\\textsf{qNLB}s). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value $1/2 (3\\sqrt{3}+1) \\approx 3.098076$, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 \\textsf{qNLB} copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semid...

  19. JCE Feature Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum, and WWW Site Review. These columns differ from the print feature columns in that they use the Internet as the publication medium. Doing so allows these features to include continually updated information, digital components, and links to other online resources. The Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems feature of JCE Internet serves as a good example for the kinds of resources that you can expect to find in an online feature column. Like other columns it contains a mission statement that defines the role of the column. It includes a digital library of continually updated examples of conceptual questions and challenge problems. (As I write this we have just added several new questions to the library.) It also includes a list of links to related online resources, information for authors about how to write questions and problems, and information for teachers about how to use conceptual questions and challenge problems. Teaching with Technology home page at JCE Online. One-Stop Feature Shop The updated Feature area of JCE Online offers information about all JCE feature columns in one place. It gives you a quick and convenient way to access a group of articles in a particular subject area. It provides authors and readers with a good definition of the column and its mission. It complements the print feature columns with online resources. It provides up-to-date bibliographies for selected areas of interest. And last, but not least, it provides that email address you can use to send that message of appreciation to the feature editor for his or her contribution to JCE and the chemical education community.

  20. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  1. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  2. Effect of feeding distiller’s grains on reduced sulfur emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous reduced sulfur compounds are produced during manure decomposition and emitted from confined animal feeding operations. Feeding high-sulfur distiller’s byproducts may increase the emission of these compounds. The objectives of a series of feedlot pen studies was to (i) determine if emission...

  3. Optimal thermodynamic approximation to reversible distillation by means of interheaters and intercoolers

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, P.; Espinosa, J.; Tarifa, E.; Scenna, N. [CONICET, Santa Fe (Argentina)] [CONICET, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to deal with the problem of heat and power integration on one side and the problem of minimizing heat exchange areas on the other side, in both conventional and nonconventional distillation columns. The authors consider the limiting case of columns operating at minimum reflux. The appropriate objective functions that one must consider are the entropy production rate and the total heat exchange area, respectively. This is done by means of optimal placement of a given number of interheaters (IHs) and intercoolers (ICs) in stripping and rectifying sections, respectively. To solve these problems, an appropriate thermodynamic model for both conventional and nonconventional distillative columns is formally presented. This model allows one to formulate an optimization problem involving thermodynamically reversible profiles in stripping and rectifying sections of the columns. This approach differs from others previously reported in that multiple reversible profiles were identified for each section of the column which give rise to lower and upper bounds for the objective function of the minimization problem. In other words, the authors obtain two solutions for each column section: the first is a nonoptimal feasible one, and the second is an optimal but not necessarily feasible one. Finally, the comparison of this approach with a method based on pseudobinary reversible profiles is carried out. Optimizing with this curve, solutions will be generated with objective function values between the lower and upper bounds. Therefore, care would be taken in using a pseudobinary pinch point curve for the placement of intermediate heat-exchanger units especially when the difference between the upper and lower bounds for the objective function values is relatively great.

  4. Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication

    E-print Network

    Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

    2007-05-28

    Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

  5. Towards Atomic Column-by-Column Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, S.J.; Rafferty, B.

    1998-09-06

    The optical arrangement of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is ideally suited for performing analysis of individual atomic columns in materials. Using the incoherent Z-contrast image as a reference, and arranging incoherent conditions also for the spectroscopy, a precise correspondence is ensured between features in the inelastic image and elastic signals. In this way the exact probe position needed to maximise the inelastic signal from a selected column can be located and monitored during the analysis using the much higher intensity elastic signal. Although object functions for EELS are typically less than 1 {Angstrom} full width at half maximum, this is still an order of magnitude larger than the corresponding object functions for elastic (or diffuse) scattering used to form the Z-contrast image. Therefore the analysis is performed with an effective probe that is significantly broader than that used for the reference Z-contrast image. For a 2.2 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is of the order of 2.5 {Angstrom}, while for a 1.3 {Angstrom} probe the effective probe is 1.6 {Angstrom}. Such increases in effective probe size can significantly reduce or even eliminate contrast between atomic columns that are visible in the image. However, this is only true if we consider circular collector apertures. Calculations based upon the theory of Maslen and Rossouw (Maslen and Rossouw 1984; Rossouw and Maslen 1984) show that employing an annular aperture can reduce the FWHM of the inelastic object function down to values close 0.1 {Angstrom}. With practical aperture sizes it should be possible to achieve this increased spatial resolution without loosing too much signal.

  6. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-09-15

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  7. Distillation of local purity from quantum states

    E-print Network

    I. Devetak

    2004-06-30

    Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states, by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

  8. Entanglement Distillation Protocols and Number Theory

    E-print Network

    H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2005-03-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension $D$ benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set $\\zdn$ associated to Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of $\\zdn$ into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analitically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension $D$. When $D$ is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  9. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    E-print Network

    Peter Høyer; Jibran Rashid

    2012-04-20

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (\\textsf{NLB}) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the \\textsf{NLB}. Motivated by the limited distillability of \\textsf{NLB}s, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (\\textsf{qNLB}s). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value $1/2 (3\\sqrt{3}+1) \\approx 3.098076$, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 \\textsf{qNLB} copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that \\textsf{qNLB}s are a stronger resource for nonlocality than \\textsf{NLB}s. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the \\textsf{NLB} model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of \\textsf{qNLB}s rather than \\textsf{NLB}s.

  10. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  11. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  12. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

  13. Eruption column physics

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Condensation of Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Blends of R114 and R113 in a Horizontal Annulus with an Enhanced Inner Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Shigeru; Honda, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Tohru; Shibukuwa, Ken-Ichi

    Experiments were performed to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer during condensation of non-azeotropic refrigerant blends (NARBs) of R114 and R113 in the annulus of a horizontal double tube. The inner tube was a 19.1mm o.d. corrugated tube with soldered wire fins on the outer surface. The outer tube was a 29.9mm i.d. smooth tube. Experiments were performed at two vapor mass fractions of R114 at the test section inlet of 0.23 and 0.36. The mass velocity of the test fluids ranged from 50 to 200kg/m2·s. The frictional pressure gradient data were correlated fairly well by an empirical equation for condensation of pure R11 and R113 reported in a previous paper. The double tube showed a significant heat transfer enhancement over a smooth tube value. The heat transfer coefficient for NARBs was considerably smaller than that for pure R113. The decrease was more significant for a low mass velocity. A dimensionless correlation for the vapor phase mass transfer coefficient was derived, where the dimensionless parameters for forced convection condensation from a vapor-gas mixture flowing normal to a cylinder was extended to the case of NARBs.

  15. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

  19. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

  1. 27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this...

  2. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

  3. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

  4. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

  5. 27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

  6. PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

  7. Progressive separation scheme for crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, A.W. (American European Consulting Co. Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Gourlia, J.P.; Fromager, M. (Elf Aquitaine, Paris (FR))

    1989-01-01

    For many years now, crude distillation units have not been concerned with major technical improvements. Only the use of packing in the vacuum towers has allowed a greater efficiency for heavy products. The reduction of operating costs has been achieved by optimization of the heat exchanger network. The authors show the evolution of the ratio between the fuel consumption and the feed rate with the year of construction, for French refineries. The most efficient unit, the D.E.E. was built in 1980. The energy consumption is around 1.4% of the feedstock. The analysis of this recent unit shows that no significant improvement can be made without modifying the process itself. Therefore, the authors studied and designed a new process, called Progressive Crude Distillation. The first part of this paper is devoted to the analysis of conventional technology and the second part to their latest process. It demonstrates the economic interest of the Progressive Crude Distillation. The comparison is based on the study of a complex oil distillation scheme.

  8. Distillation plant development and cost update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil M. Wade

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in desalination technology have resulted in significant savings in cost compared with earlier plants. Both distillation and reverse osmosis processes are now viable means of water production from a seawater source in the developing countries of the MENA area as well as in the more traditional oil-producing Gulf States. Three processes are commercially available for large size plants

  9. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  10. Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization (Book)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book, Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization, brings together cutting edge information on many aspects of DDGS. It consists of six major sections, having 26 chapters in total. Section 1 has six chapters and covers introduction, perspectives, history, structure and compositio...

  11. Preparation of Tritiated Water Samples by Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Simpson; J. R. Greening

    1960-01-01

    IN many experiments using tritium as a tracer it is necessary to prepare a sample of pure water from organic material. During measurements of total body water using tritiated water in a dilution technique we have obtained pure water samples from urine by distillation. The urine is placed in a small vessel (Fig. 1) the bulb of which is put

  12. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan H. Mistry; Mohamed A. Antar; John H. Lienhard V

    2012-01-01

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple to implement, and suitable for use in optimization of water and power cogeneration systems. The MED system is modeled in a modular method in which each of the

  13. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  14. Vapour reactive distillation process for hydrogen production by HI decomposition from HI–I 2–H 2O solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Belaissaoui; R. Thery; X. M. Meyer; M. Meyer; V. Gerbaud; X. Joulia

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, a sequential and hierarchical approach for the feasibility analysis and the preliminary design of reactive distillation columns is extended to systems involving vapour phase chemical reaction and is successfully applied to the HI vapour phase decomposition to produce H2.The complex phase and physicochemical behaviour of the quaternary HI–H2–I2–H2O system is represented by the Neumann's thermodynamic model and

  15. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  16. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    E-print Network

    Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Frank Verstraete

    2004-05-12

    We construct new entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method how entanglement-assisted distillation protocols can be converted into non-entanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  17. Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states

    E-print Network

    Bryan Eastin

    2013-02-21

    For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

  18. Distinguishing locally of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement

    E-print Network

    ping-xing. chen; Cheng-zu Li

    2002-02-27

    This paper try to probe the relation of distinguishing locally and distillation of entanglement. The distinguishing information (DI) and the maximal distinguishing information (MDI) of a set of pure states are defined. The interpretation of distillation of entanglement in term of information is given. The relation between the maximal distinguishing information and distillable entanglement is gained. As a application of this relation the distillable entanglement of Bell-diagonal states is present.

  19. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

  20. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

  1. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

  2. Water distiller\\/condenser by radiative cooling of ambient air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Nimr; O. Haddad

    1998-01-01

    A water distiller\\/condenser system by radiative cooling of ambient air is designed. A mathematical model is proposed to describe the thermal performance of the radiative distiller. The results of the mathematical model predicts condensation rates within the range 3–7 litre\\/m2 night. Also, the effects of different design parameters on the distiller performance are investigated.

  3. Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states

    E-print Network

    Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

    2007-11-16

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

  4. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-print Network

    Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K Canberra ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA E-mail: greg.burgess@anu.edu.au Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally assisted) desalination has been conducted. Solar thermal driven Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) has been

  5. Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous

    E-print Network

    Watrous, John

    Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous Department of Computer state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only |+ = (|00 + |11 )/ 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable

  6. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-print Network

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio report a new approach to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system of the TREC Blog Track. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of the blog search task. It is defined

  7. Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models

    E-print Network

    de Rijke, Maarten

    Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models Krisztian Balog kbalog Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam ABSTRACT We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs- ness as feed distillation strategies. The two models capture the idea that a human will often search

  8. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    CHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds. Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wine

  9. Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints

    E-print Network

    Henrion, René

    Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints René Henrion1 Universität Berlin, Germany Abstract A continuous distillation process with random inflow rate is considered model including the dynamics of the distillation process and proba- bilistic constraints under different

  10. Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu

    E-print Network

    Wu, Mingfang

    Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu 1 , Gheorghe Muresan2 , Alistair Mc. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system

  11. Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

    1975-02-19

    A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied. PMID:1141407

  12. A Column Dispersion Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

    1982-01-01

    Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

  13. Control of Ethylene Glycol Reactive Distillation Column Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj and William L. Luyben

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    that a simple Z .single-temperature proportional integral PI structure pro- vides effective control. Only 905 #12;Figure 2. Temperature and composition profiles. Figure 3. Control structure. Figure 4. System to feed disturbances with ratio control and lags. change in the stripping section as the water

  14. Experimental study on pressure drops in a dividing wall distillation column

    E-print Network

    This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited. In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit:

  15. Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

    . As Figure No. 4 demonstrates, over 30% of the tray area is occupied by the bubbl e caps and downcomers, resulti ng ina much higher vapor or gas velocity at the deck of the tray. This, in turn, causes more entrainment, especially in those sections where... the ori9ina1 sieve trays. The revamped col umn can run as high as 210% of the Case 1 loads. Table No.8 summarizes the cost savings derived from this particular revamp when trays and structured packing are compa red at Case 1 rates. Based on $4. 00 per...

  16. Experimental simulation of basalt columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Gerhard

    1998-11-01

    Basalt columns can be simulated by the desiccation of mixtures of starch and water. This note presents photos of starch columns from laboratory experiments and summarizes results of an extended study ([Müller, G., 1998. Starch columns: analog model for basalt columns. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15239-15253.]). Basalt cooling and starch desiccation are diffusion processes, causing contraction and cracks. Column-related crack patterns in basalt and starch are largely similar. Differences in their spatial and time scales are due to the difference in the diffusion constants which is about two orders of magnitude. Starch experiments give a few new insights into basalt-column formation.

  17. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  18. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  19. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    E-print Network

    Joonwoo Bae

    2010-09-22

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  20. Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs

    E-print Network

    Benni Reznik

    2000-08-01

    It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

  1. Solar desalination by freezing and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kvajic, G.

    1981-01-01

    Among seawater desalination processes the absorption freezing based on the thermal heat pump, the AF-VC/sup t/, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low grade (exergy) solar heat. The novel feature in this system involves a use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydro-phobic intermediate heat transfer material. 13 refs.

  2. Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rados, Novica

    Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids shear stress radial profiles are correlated using several widely used empirical correlations that are modified and improved to better represent present data.

  3. The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

    2006-02-01

    It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

  4. The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    E-print Network

    Péter Lévay; Szilárd Szalay

    2010-04-14

    In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  5. Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-07-15

    In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

  6. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  7. Buckling of stepped composite columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lellep; E. Sakkov

    2006-01-01

    The stability of elastic columns subjected to axial pressure is studied. An elastic multistepped column with rectangular cross\\u000a sections are considered assuming that at the re-entrant corners of the column stable cracks are located. The influence of\\u000a a crack on the loss of stability of the column is described by means of local flexibility and the function of compliance coupled

  8. Microfabricated packed gas chromatographic column

    DOEpatents

    Kottenstette, Richard; Matzke, Carolyn M.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-12-16

    A new class of miniaturized gas chromatographic columns has been invented. These chromatographic columns are formed using conventional micromachining techniques, and allow packed columns having lengths on the order of a meter to be fabricated with a footprint on the order of a square centimeter.

  9. Tests on slender composite columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Wang

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes two series of load tests on slender composite columns: eight tests on concrete filled rectangular hollow steel section columns and seven tests on concrete encased rolled steel joist columns, both with end eccentricities producing moments other than single curvature bending. In all tests, normal strength concrete of grade C25\\/30 and low strength steel of grade S275 were

  10. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  11. Preparation of distilled and purified continuous variable entangled states

    E-print Network

    Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Alexander Franzen; Jaromir Fiurasek; Roman Schnabel

    2008-12-03

    The distribution of entangled states of light over long distances is a major challenge in the field of quantum information. Optical losses, phase diffusion and mixing with thermal states lead to decoherence and destroy the non-classical states after some finite transmission-line length. Quantum repeater protocols, which combine quantum memory, entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping, were proposed to overcome this problem. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of entanglement distillation in the continuous-variable regime. Entangled states were first disturbed by random phase fluctuations and then distilled and purified using interference on beam splitters and homodyne detection. Measurements of covariance matrices clearly indicate a regained strength of entanglement and purity of the distilled states. In contrast to previous demonstrations of entanglement distillation in the complementary discrete-variable regime, our scheme achieved the actual preparation of the distilled states, which might therefore be used to improve the quality of downstream applications such as quantum teleportation.

  12. Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence

    E-print Network

    Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromír Fiurášek; Roman Schnabel

    2010-07-09

    The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

  13. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    E-print Network

    Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

    2013-01-29

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

  14. Slurry bubble column dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    A novel approach utilizing an electrical conductivity twin-probe technique is described for obtaining important gas-phase characteristics such as: bubble size, velocity ad holdup fraction. A 10 cm internal diameter by 310 cm height glass column is employed to investigate the bubble dynamics measured with this probe. The liquid phase is composed of a mixture of ethanol and water that may have substantial ''surface activity'' which results in a dynamic surface tension effect on the rate of bubble coalescence. Measurements of gas holdup, bubble size,and velocity indicate the influence of surface activity onthe gas phase characteristics. Possible implications of these results on the hydrodynamics of Fischer-Tropsch reactors are given. An experimental technique and subsequent analysis have been developed to determine the bubble size and velocity distributions in a slurry bubble column cold model. Dynamic surface tension effects have been observed for a two component liquid mixture. The maximum frothing ability of a ''surface-active'' species qualitatively agrees with a dynamic surface tension model. Increased gas holdup and interfacial area are observed with the addition of a ''surface-active'' component. In addition, increased gas holdup and interfacial area are observed with a sintered plate distributor compared to a perforated plate. The presence of solids reduces the gas holdup and increases the bubble size. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Simulated distillation of high-boiling petroleum fractions by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.E.; Brownlee, R.G.; Boduszynski, M.M.; Su, F.

    1987-05-15

    Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis (VTGA) were utilized for simulated distillation (SIMDIS) of high-boiling petroleum fractions obtained by short-path vacuum distillation. The SFC method covers the approximate boiling range of 250-1400/sup 0/F. Under the present conditions, even 42% of a nondistillable, nondeasphalted residue was recovered from the column at a calculated 1426/sup 0/F atmospheric equivalent boiling point. The influence of temperature and pressure on resolution and retention was studied. SFC-SIMDIS was performed by using linear pressure programming at 100/sup 0/C, as compared to 400/sup 0/C+ temperatures required for comparable samples when capillary gas chromatography (GC) is employed. Polysiloxane-coated, 50-..mu..m-i.d. columns permitted fast analyses (30-min run time) yet maintained adequate resolution for SIMDIS analysis. VTGA-SIMDIS data of samples in the 500-1000/sup 0/F boiling range yielded excellent correlation with actual distillation data. However, thermal analysis revealed decomposition of samples at temperatures exceeding ca. 370/sup 0/C. The validity of the SFC method was demonstrated by comparing SFC-SIMDIS data with those obtained by GC and VTGA.

  16. Cryogenic distillation: a fuel enrichment system for near-term tokamak-type D-T fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, B.; Davis, J.F.

    1980-02-01

    The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.

  17. Distillation and the Role of Weak Forces

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will examine how distillation works and the roles of all components involved in the process. The site is filled with thorough diagrams accompanied by solid textual explanations. Aside from diagrams and text, students will engage in simple quizzes testing the concepts they have just learned. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

  18. Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case

    SciTech Connect

    Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  19. Distillation by repeated measurements: continuous spectrum case

    E-print Network

    Bruno Bellomo; Giuseppe Compagno; Hiromichi Nakazato; Kazuya Yuasa

    2010-10-25

    Repeated measurements on a part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part not measured, whose dynamics is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the latter system is driven into a pure state irrespective of the initial state, provided the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We here show that even in the case of continuous spectrum an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

  20. W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation

    E-print Network

    Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

    2009-09-09

    We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

  1. Characterization of distillability of entanglement in terms of positive maps

    E-print Network

    Lieven Clarisse

    2005-03-27

    A necessary and sufficient condition for 1-distillability is formulated in terms of decomposable positive maps. As an application we provide insight into why all states violating the reduction criterion map are distillable and demonstrate how to construct such maps in a systematic way. We establish a connection between a number of existing results, which leads to an elementary proof for the characterisation of distillability in terms of 2-positive maps.

  2. Key distillation from Gaussian states by Gaussian operations

    E-print Network

    M. Navascues; J. Bae; J. I. Cirac; M. Lewenstein; A. Sanpera; A. Acin

    2004-05-20

    We study the secrecy properties of Gaussian states under Gaussian operations. Although such operations are useless for quantum distillation, we prove that it is possible to distill a secret key secure against any attack from sufficiently entangled Gaussian states with non-positive partial transposition. Moreover, all such states allow for key distillation, when Eve is assumed to perform finite-size coherent attacks before the reconciliation process.

  3. Gaussian transformations and distillation of entangled Gaussian states

    E-print Network

    Jaromir Fiurasek

    2002-04-19

    We prove that it is impossible to distill more entanglement from a single copy of a two-mode bipartite entangled Gaussian state via LOCC Gaussian operations. More generally, we show that any hypothetical distillation protocol for Gaussian states involving only Gaussian operations would be a deterministic protocol. Finally, we argue that the protocol considered by Eisert et al. [quant-ph/0204052] is the optimum Gaussian distillation protocol for two copies of entangled Gaussian states.

  4. Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable

    E-print Network

    Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

    2007-11-06

    It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

  5. Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.

    PubMed

    Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

    2014-06-01

    The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation. PMID:24627202

  6. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  7. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  8. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    E-print Network

    ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

    2011-03-23

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  9. Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation

    E-print Network

    Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

    2003-03-31

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

  10. Distillation of GHZ states by selective information manipulation

    E-print Network

    Oliver Cohen; Todd A. Brun

    2000-02-02

    Methods for distilling maximally entangled tripartite (GHZ) states from arbitrary entangled tripartite pure states are described. These techniques work for virtually any input state. Each technique has two stages which we call primary and secondary distillation. Primary distillation produces a GHZ state with some probability, so that when applied to an ensemble of systems, a certain percentage is discarded. Secondary distillation produces further GHZs from the discarded systems. These protocols are developed with the help of an approach to quantum information theory based on absolutely selective information, which has other potential applications.

  11. Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

  12. Local distinguishability of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement

    E-print Network

    Ping-Xing Chen; Cheng-Zu Li

    2003-03-13

    This paper tries to probe the relation between the local distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states and the distillation of entanglement. An new interpretation for the distillation of entanglement and the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states in terms of information is given, respectively. By constraining our discussion on a special protocol we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the local distinguishability of the orthogonal pure states, and gain the maximal yield of the distillable entanglement. It is shown that the information entropy, the locally distinguishability of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement are closely related.

  13. Nonlocality distillation for high-dimensional correlated boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Guo-Zhu; Li, Chao; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Gang; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Most of the existing distillation protocols only work for binary-input binary-output nonlocal boxes (two-dimensional boxes), and they cannot be generalized to the binary-input multi-output nonlocal boxes (high-dimensional boxes) in a trivial way. We will design some comparator-based protocols to distill high-dimensional nonlocal boxes. Our protocols are more powerful and universal than the previous ones in the sense that they can distill the arbitrary-dimensional boxes rather than the limited two-dimensional ones. The initial nonlocalities and the wiring manners between the boxes are two main factors deciding the distillation efficiency.

  14. Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

    2007-10-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

  15. Pharmacia Spin Column Protocol Leslie Vosshall

    E-print Network

    at 3000 rpm for 1 min. 5. Discard lid, blot bottom of column with Kimwipe 6. Transfer column to a clean reaction. Discard column. Special instructions for ABI sequencing reactions: After step (5), wash column

  16. EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH ALFALFA POWDERS AND DISTILLERS GRAINS ON NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF CANOLA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Qian; J. J. Schoenau; T. King; C. Fatteicher

    2011-01-01

    Two pot experiments were carried out under controlled environment conditions in the growth chamber to assess the potential use of alfalfa powders and distiller grains as organic fertilizers. Two types of dehydrated alfalfa powders (one with canola meal protein extraction by-product and one without) and two types of distiller grains (dried distillers grain with distillation solubles added and wet distillers

  17. Concentration and Drying of Tea Polyphenols Extracted from Green Tea Using Molecular Distillation and Spray Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Qiang Tang; Di-Cai Li; Yang-Xiao Lv; Jian-Guo Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of combining molecular distillation and spray drying to concentrate and dry tea polyphenols extracts. Molecular distillation and spray drying of tea phenols extracts were performed using an orthogonal array design. The order of importance that influenced molecular distillation was distillation temperature > flux > rotational speed. The optimal conditions for concentration by molecular distillation

  18. Density Column Lab - Part 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program,

    Concluding a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate densities of several household liquids and compare them to the densities of irregularly shaped objects (as determined in Part 1). Then they create density columns with the three liquids and four solid items to test their calculations and predictions of the different densities. Once their density columns are complete, students determine the effect of adding detergent to the columns. After this activity, present the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for a discussion about why the column layers do not mix.

  19. Compact electron beam focusing column

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-07-13

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  20. Multiparty quantum protocols for assisted entanglement distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Nicolas

    Quantum information theory is a multidisciplinary field whose objective is to understand what happens when information is stored in the state of a quantum system. Quantum mechanics provides us with a new resource, called quantum entanglement, which can be exploited to achieve novel tasks such as teleportation and superdense coding. Current technologies allow the transmission of entangled photon pairs across distances up to roughly 100 kilometers. For longer distances, noise arising from various sources degrade the transmission of entanglement to the point that it becomes impossible to use the entanglement as a resource for future tasks. One strategy for dealing with this difficulty is to employ quantum repeaters, stations intermediate between the sender and receiver that can participate in the process of entanglement distillation, thereby improving on what the sender and receiver could do on their own. Motivated by the problem of designing quantum repeaters, we study entanglement distillation between two parties, Alice and Bob, starting from a mixed state and with the help of repeater stations. We extend the notion of entanglement of assistance to arbitrary tripartite states and exhibit a protocol, based on a random coding strategy, for extracting pure entanglement. We use these results to find achievable rates for the more general scenario, where many spatially separated repeaters help two recipients distill entanglement. We also study multiparty quantum communication protocols in a more general context. We give a new protocol for the task of multiparty state merging. The previous multiparty state merging protocol required the use of time-sharing, an impossible strategy when a single copy of the input state is available to the parties. Our protocol does not require time-sharing for distributed compression of two senders. In the one-shot regime, we can achieve multiparty state merging with entanglement costs not restricted to corner points of the entanglement cost region. Our analysis of the entanglement cost is performed using (smooth) min- and max-entropies. We illustrate the benefits of our approach by looking at different examples.

  1. Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setiyo Gunawan

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

  2. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  3. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  5. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  6. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  7. Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds ...

  8. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Meindersma; C. M. Guijt; Haan de A. B

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment, it is not yet applied in industry. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the

  9. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Meindersma; C. M. Guijt; A. B. de Haan

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are hydrophobic, which allows water vapour (but not liquid water) to pass. The vapour pressure gradient is created

  10. Microbial Characterization of Distillers Wet Grains: Results and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We have characterized the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG...

  11. Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens,

    E-print Network

    in the same way. As a result, we have n copies of the same mixed two-qubit state . Protocols like hashing#12;#12;Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens, Jeroen: July 13, 2006) We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

  12. RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT

    E-print Network

    RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT J. R. Taylor**, 0. Hansen*, C. Jensen*, 0. F. A risk analysis of a batch distillation unit is de- scribed. The analysis has been carried out at several be regarded as an interim report. The success or otherwise of the risk analysis can only really be judged

  13. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  14. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

  15. Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2005-09-08

    We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

  16. Enhanced topic distillation using text, markup tags, and hyperlinks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soumen Chakrabarti; Mukul Joshi; Vivek Tawde

    2001-01-01

    Topic distillation is the analysis of hyperlink graph structure to identify mutually reinforcing authorities (popular pages) and hubs (comprehensive lists of links to authorities). Topic distillation is becoming common in Web search engines, but the best-known algorithms model the Web graph at a coarse grain, with whole pages as single nodes. Such models may lose vital details in the markup

  17. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

  18. Distillation protocols: Output entanglement and local mutual information

    E-print Network

    Michal Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2004-12-08

    A complementary behavior between local mutual information and average output entanglement is derived for arbitrary bipartite ensembles. This leads to bounds on the yield of entanglement in distillation protocols that involve disinguishing. This bound is saturated in the hashing protocol for distillation, for Bell-diagonal states.

  19. Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

    Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

  20. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  1. Surface Depletion in the Vacuum Distillation of Metals from Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.F.

    2001-08-29

    Surface depletion was investigated in laboratory- and plant-scale distillation units with mixing by natural convection or by mechanical surface agitation. A model was developed for predicting the degree of surface depletion during the distillation of metals from bismuth as a function of temperature, still pot dimensions, and degree of agitation. This paper discusses those findings.

  2. A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

  3. Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

    1996-01-01

    In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

  4. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621...10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621...10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

  6. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  7. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  8. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

  9. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

  10. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

  11. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

  12. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

  13. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

  14. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

  15. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

  16. 77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional...TTB proposes to amend the standards of identity regulations for distilled spirits...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). 721.10530...10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87) is...

  18. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture of...

  1. Author's personal copy A scaling mitigation approach during direct contact membrane distillation

    E-print Network

    Author's personal copy A scaling mitigation approach during direct contact membrane distillation 2011 Keywords: Direct contact membrane distillation Membrane scaling Gypsum Induction time Brine soluble salts by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated. The results reveal

  2. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). 721.10530...10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87) is...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture of...

  6. 40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

  7. A Decision Mechanism for the Selective Combination of Evidence in Topic Distillation

    E-print Network

    Jose, Joemon M.

    A Decision Mechanism for the Selective Combination of Evidence in Topic Distillation Vassilis combination of evidence for Web Information Retrieval and particularly for topic distillation. We introduce. Keywords Web information retrieval, Topic distillation, decision mechanism, selective combination

  8. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  9. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  10. Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables

    E-print Network

    Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki

    2009-07-13

    Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

  11. Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, M.H.

    1949-01-01

    A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

  12. Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

    2008-11-14

    Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD. PMID:18849039

  13. Automatic connector joins structural columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquemin, G. G.

    1980-01-01

    Connector snap-locks over toothed bolthead mounted on column end, forming rigid joint that will not bend or twist. Connector is used in conventional construction to install temporary structures or as mechanical coupler. Up to nine receptacles can be clustered in one node to join up to nine converging columns.

  14. Selected Topics in Column Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco E. Lübbecke; Jacques Desrosiers

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and column generation, devised for linear programs, is a success story in large scale integer programming. We outline and relate the approaches, and survey mainly recent contributions, not found in textbooks, yet. We emphasize on the growing understanding of the dual point of view, which brought considerable progress to the column generation theory and practice. It stimulated

  15. WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    93/0096 WASTEWATER TREATMENT OVER SAND COLUMNS TREATMENT YIELDS, LOCALISATION OF THE BIOMASS. The study using sand columns has allowed simultaneous comparison, on the same profile, of biomass content twice as long as the flooding period. The sand depth will depend on the plant's overall water quality

  16. On the performance of a cascade crossflow air stripping column

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Valsaraj, K.T.; Wetzel, D.M.; Harrison, D.P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The cascade crossflow packed column is an innovative design that offers the separation advantages of countercurrent flow while avoiding flooding limitations. Liquid and gas cross-sectional flow areas and path length in contact with packing may be controlled independently. These features are illustrated by studying the air stripping of methylene chloride (MeCl), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). Stripping efficiencies in the cascade crossflow column were generally slightly smaller than in countercurrent flow at equal liquid and gas flow rates. However larger gas-to-liquid ratios were possible in crossflow, permitting larger maximum stripping efficiencies to be attained. The experimental mass transfer coefficients were smaller than predicted by the Onda correlation. Modifications to the gas-phase Onda correlation are proposed that reduce the magnitude of the average deviation between experiment and prediction for 40 tests to about 12%. Experimental values of 38 of 40 tests were within {+-}30% of modified Onda correlation predictions. Additional applications for the cascade crossflow concept are suggested, such as vacuum distillation columns and trickle-bed reactors, which require low pressure drop and/or large gas-to-liquid ratios.

  17. An advanced solventless column test for capillary GC columns.

    PubMed

    Luong, Jim; Gras, Ronda; Jennings, Walter

    2007-10-01

    Manufacturing skills for capillary GC columns have improved to a point where the commonly used tests no longer distinguish between "adequate" and "excellent" columns. A more stringent test mixture, coupled with a more exacting procedure, was proposed for testing capillary columns in 2004. The solutes were less sterically hindered and less retained, permitting the test to be run isothermally at lower temperatures where sorptive forces are stronger. To avoid masking active sites by solvent flooding, the test used a higher boiling solvent that eluted last. This test mixture, used under the prescribed conditions, differentiated adequate from excellent columns, but removal of the late-eluting solvent prolonged run times to as long as 1 h. The new test uses the same probes proposed in 2004, but entirely eliminates the solvent. Injections utilize a plunger-in-needle microvolume syringe, and the "gas saver" feature of a contemporary gas chromatograph. The latter serves as a dynamic diluter to deliver nanogram quantities of undiluted solutes to the column. The test can be conducted isothermally at a lower temperature in less than 15 min for most of the columns. This paper summarizes the analytical approach used, and presents method performance data and test results obtained on contemporary capillary columns from leading manufacturers. PMID:17763521

  18. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior of the system, coupled with these processes, define the fundamental compositional and dynamic diversity of the Mush Column. In some ways it functions like a complex musical instrument. Entrainment, transport, and sorting of cumulate crystals as a function of repose time and the local flux intensity also contribute to the basic compositional diversity of the system. In the Ferrar dolerite system, about 104 km3 of dolerite is distributed throughout a fir-tree like stack of 4 or 5 extensive 300-750 m thick sills. The lowest sill contains a vast tongue of entrained orthopyroxene (opx) cumulates emplaced with the sill itself. The bulk sill composition varies from 20 pc MgO in the tongue center to 7 pc in the leading tip and margins of the sill, which itself defines the compositional spectrum of the whole complex and is remarkably similar to that exhibited by Hawaii. Relative sorting of large (1-50 mm) opx and small (1-3 mm) plagioclase due to kinetic sieving in the tongue produces pervasive anorthosite stringers. Through local ponding this has culminated in the formation of a small, well-formed layered intrusion consisting of alternating layers of orthopyroxenite and anorthosite. Upwards in the system the sills become progressively depleted in MgO and temporally and spatially contiguous flood basalts are low MgO tholeiites with no sign of opx cumulates. The size, extent, number of sills, and the internal structure of individual sills suggest a rhythm of injection similar to that of volcanic episodes. The continued horizontal stretching of a system of this type would lead to processes as recorded by ophiolites, and the repeated injection into a single reservoir would undoubtedly lead to a massive layered intrusion or to a series of high-level nested plutons.

  19. Seismic behavior of lightweight concrete columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbat, B. G.; Daniel, J. I.; Weinmann, T. L.; Hanson, N. W.

    1982-09-01

    Sixteen full-scale, column-beam assemblies, which represented a portion of a frame subjected to simulated seismic loading, were tested. Controlled test parameters included concrete type, column size, amount of main column steel, size and spacing of column confining hoops, and magnitude of column axial load. The columns were subjected to constant axial load and slow moment reversals at increasing inelastic deformations. Test data showed that properly designed lightweight concrete columns maintained ductility and strength when subjected to large inelastic deformations from load reversals. Confinement requirements for normal weight concrete columns were shown to be applicable to lightweight concrete columns up to thirty percent of the design strength.

  20. Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation

    E-print Network

    John Watrous

    2004-05-31

    A mixed quantum state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of that state into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with a maximally entangled state state. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of that state every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question.

  1. Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing

    E-print Network

    Cody Jones

    2013-03-27

    We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call "multilevel distillation." When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity $\\epsilon \\rightarrow 0$ for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity $O(\\epsilon^{2^r})$ approaches $2^r+1$, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052329]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{in}} = 0.01$ to $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}$ in the range $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-40}$ is about $14\\log_{10}(1/\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}) - 40$; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below $10^{-7}$. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing, and they provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

  2. Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar

    SciTech Connect

    Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

  3. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  4. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    E-print Network

    Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

    2009-08-01

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  5. Self-regenerating column chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Park, W.K.

    1995-05-30

    The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

  6. Vacuum membrane distillation: Experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, S.; Saavedra, A.; Sarti, G.C. [Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)] [Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)

    1997-02-01

    Vacuum membrane distillation is a membrane-based separation process considered here to remove volatile organic compounds from aqueous streams. Microporous hydrophobic membranes are used to separate the aqueous stream from a gas phase kept under vacuum. The evaporation of the liquid stream takes place on one side of the membrane, and mass transfer occurs through the vapor phase inside the membrane. The role of operative conditions on the process performance is widely investigated in the case of dilute binary aqueous mixtures containing acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylacetate, methylacetate, or methylterbutyl ether. Temperature, composition, flow rate of the liquid feed, and pressure downstream the membrane are the main operative variables. Among these, the vacuum-side pressure is the major design factor since it greatly affects the separation efficiency. A mathematical model description of the process is developed, and the results are compared with the experiments. The model is finally used to predict the best operative conditions in which the process can work for the case of benzene removal from waste waters.

  7. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    7 ? Agriculture ? 3 ? 2012-01-01 ? 2012-01-01 ? false ? Destructively distilled wood turpentine. ? 160.9 ? Section 160.9 ? Agriculture ? Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ? AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    consumed by the chemical and petro chemical industries is used in separation pro cesses. (1) Distillation is one process area where large energy reductions often can be achieved. (2) Numerous studies have identified a number of al ternatives...

  9. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

  10. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

  11. Explosion hazards in crude, distillate storage tanks assessed

    SciTech Connect

    Tamimi, A. (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (JO))

    1990-11-19

    Explosion and fire hazards in crude oil and light distillate storage tanks have been assessed by actual field temperature measurements at the Zarka refinery in Jordan. Results of the assessment are presented.

  12. Entanglement distillation for three-particle W class states

    E-print Network

    Zhuo-Liang Cao; Ming Yang

    2003-10-20

    In this paper, we propose two general entanglement distillation protocols, which can concentrate the non-maximally entangled pure W class state. The general protocols are mainly based on the unitary transformation on the auxiliary particle and one of the three entangled particles, and in the second protocol, the entanglement distillation includes two meanings, namely, extracting the concentrated tripartite entangled W state and obtaining the maximally entangled bipartite state from the garbage state, which gives no contribution to the distillation of non-maximally entangled pure W class state. We can make use of the garbage in the distillation process, and make the entanglement waste in quantum communication as small as possible. A feasible physical scheme is suggested based on the cavity QED.

  13. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-print Network

    Meier, Adam M; Knill, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  14. Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Reinhard F. [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations.

  15. Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter distillation process

    E-print Network

    D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stocker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshits; J. P. Coffin; C. Kuhn

    2002-03-14

    We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model.

  16. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  17. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  18. The essence of steam technology and its link to distillation

    E-print Network

    Dugan, David

    2004-08-17

    The essence of steam technology, as Simon Schaffer explains in Faraday’s laboratory, is to understand the behaviour of fire, water and steam. The role of glass in manipulating these is absolutely fundamental, as is the role of distilling....

  19. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-print Network

    Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

    2012-04-18

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  20. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks

    E-print Network

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about...

  1. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  2. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  3. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  4. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

  5. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation

    E-print Network

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01

    OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Sub?'ect: Petroleum Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL AND MATHEMATICAL INVESTIGATION OF HYDROCARBON STEAM DISTILLATION A Thesis by JOHN ALLAN LANGHOFF Approved as to style and content by: Dr. hing H. Wu (Chairman.... (December 1984) John Allan Langhoff, B. S. , Texas A8N University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ching H. Wu Steam distillation is a process frequently used for hydrocarbon-water-vapor separation. This separation process is a major recovery...

  6. A Method for Predicting Quality of the Crude Oil Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Macias; P. Angelov; Xiaowei Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of the properties of the crude oil distillation sidestreams based on statistical methods and laboratory-based analysis has been around for decades. However, there are still many problems with the existing estimators that require a development of new techniques especially for an on-line analysis of the quality of the distillation process. The nature of non-linear characteristics of the refinery process,

  7. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    E-print Network

    S. -S. B. Lee; H. -S. Sim

    2010-06-08

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved, by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  8. Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus

    E-print Network

    Knezevich, Milan

    1940-01-01

    CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF A FLASH DISTILLATION APPARATUS A Thosis Bilan Knesevich June 1940 Approval as to style and content rscommendods Head of' the Department o e stry an Che cal Engineer CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF A FLASH... DISTILLATION APPARATUS Milan Knesevioh June 1940. COHSTRUCTIOH AHD OPERATIOH OF A PLASH DISTILLATIOH APPARATUS A Thesis Sulznitted to the Baoulty of the Agrioultural and E'. eohanioal College of Texas in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements...

  9. Nondistillability of distillable qutrit-qutrit states under depolarizing noise

    E-print Network

    Salman Khan; M. K. Khan

    2011-08-20

    We study the effects of decoherence on some particular bipartite qutrit states under the influence of global, collective, local and multilocal depolarizing noise. We show that certain free entangled distillable qutrit density matrices become bound entangled or separable and hence convert into nondistillable density matrices in global noise. The collective noise increases the degree of entanglement of the qutrit bipartite states. Furthermore, we show that some particular local operation cannot avoid the Nondistillability of the distillable states.

  10. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  11. Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Younghun [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 425-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.

  12. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

  13. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

  14. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

  15. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

  16. 27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

  17. 27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.80 Section...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk...

  18. Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by RealTime Distillation

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Reducing WWW Latency and Bandwidth Requirements by Real­Time Distillation Armando Fox and Eric A Distillation and Refinement Can Help 1. The Concept of Datatype­Specific Distillation 2. Refinement 3. Trading. Optimizing for Rendering on Impoverished Devices 3. An Implemented HTTP Proxy Based on Real­Time Distillation

  19. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, E? = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) ? Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (<1 day). This allows multiple measurements to be made on the same column and thus the sediment biology to be monitored non-invasively over time (i.e. after an augmentation has been introduced) and minimizes long-lived radioactive waste. Different parameters can be measured, depending on the tracer type and delivery. A constant infusion of a conservative tracer, such as the positron emitter Br-76 (T1/2= 16.2 hr), measures the exclusion fraction (as a function of position in the column), while a bolus maps the flow velocity as a function of position. A tracer that interacts chemically with the contents of the column (e.g., [99m-Tc(VII)O4]- reduced to 99m-TcO2 by Fe(II) ) yields a map of the chemical environment (e.g., the distribution of Fe(II)). Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  20. Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

    2010-12-01

    Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a?>?F3?>?F3b with invertebrates, and F3a?>?F3b?>?F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. PMID:20836068