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1

Experimental investigation of conventional control strategies for a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a laboratory scale sieve plate distillation column was constructed to investigate the conventional control strategies of an isopropyl alcohol (IPA), cyclohexane (CyH) and water (H2O) heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column. Steady state process analysis showed that the optimal operation point should be located at a critical reflux, a transition point at which the distillation path switches from a

I-L Chien; C. J Wang; D. S. H Wong; C.-H Lee; S.-H Cheng; R. F Shih; W. T Liu; C. S Tsai

2000-01-01

2

Experimental investigation of optimal conventional control strategy for a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a laboratory scale sieve plate distillation column was constructed to investigate the optimum conventional control strategy of an isopropyl alcohol(IPA), cyclohexane(CyH) and water(H20) heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column. Steady state process analysis showed that the optimal operation point should be located at a critical reflux, a transition point at which the distillation path switches from a route that

R. F. Shih; W. T. Liu; C. S. Tsai; C.-H. Lee; S.-H. Cheng

1999-01-01

3

Implementation of Ethanol Dehydration Using Dividing-Wall Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the design and optimization procedures of a dividing-wall column for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation (DWC-A) using cyclohexane as an entrainer for ethanol dehydration are investigated. The proposed procedures can detect the optimal values of the design variables and thereby guarantee the minimum energy requirements, which is related to the minimum CO2 emissions and the lowest total annual cost

Lan-Yi Sun; Xing-Wu Chang; Cai-Xia Qi; Qing-Song Li

2011-01-01

4

Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems  

SciTech Connect

The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

Safrit, B.T. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)] [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-05-01

5

Determination of benzene and toluene in soils and plant material by azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

The suspected dumping of gasoline near a garden resulted in the need for a method that would measure trace amounts of benzene and toluene in both soil and plant samples. In this report the authors show that a method involving methanolic extraction and azeotropic distillation is a highly sensitive technique that eliminated the contamination of the GC column by non-volatile material.

Kozloski, R.P.

1985-01-01

6

Design and Synthesis Procedure for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillations: Annual Report for Period March 1, 1986 to February 29, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The column sequencing problem for heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is investigated. It is shown that residue curve maps play an important role in interpreting the behavior of these systems. Classes of residue curve maps which give rise to feasible co...

M. F. Doherty

1986-01-01

7

Coupling reaction and azeotropic distillation for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate from glycerol and dimethyl carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process, coupling reaction and azeotropic distillation was proposed for the synthesis of glycerol carbonate (GC) from glycerol (G) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The bench scale experimental investigation was systematically conducted for this new process. With calcium oxide (CaO) as the solid catalyst, the high yield of glycerol carbonate can be obtained at a low molar ratio of dimethyl

Jiabo Li; Tao Wang

2010-01-01

8

Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

9

A Comparison of delO18 Composition of Water Extracted from Suction Lysimeters, Centrifugation, and Azeotropic Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration of delO18 in water samples extracted by suction lysimeters is compared to samples obtained by methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Intact soil cores (30 cm diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites. Site 1 was rapid infiltration basin number 50, near Altamonte Springs in Seminole County, Florida on properties belonging to the Walt Disney World Resort Complex. Site 2 was the Missouri Management System Evaluation Area (MSEA) near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. The delO18 water was analyzed on a mass spectrophotometer. Potassium Bromide (KBr) was also used as a tracer and analyzed by ion chromatography. A portion of the data obtained was modeled using CXTFIT. Water collected by centrifugation and azeotropic distillation data were about 2-5% more negative than that collected by suction lysimeter values from the Florida (sandy) soil and about 5-7 % more negative from the Missouri (well structured clay) soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. Also, it is plausible that evaporation caused some delO18 enrichment in the suction lysimeters. Suction lysimeters preferentially sampled water held at lower matric potentials, which may not represent total soil water. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced all previous pore water, suction lysimeters will however collect a representative sample of all the water at that depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeters be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The CXTFIT program worked well for Florida soils (a more homogeneous sand), but gave poor performance for Missouri soils (well structured clays) except for deeper depths where clay structure was less variable. The data also suggest that each extraction method samples a separate component of soil-pore water. Consequently, centrifugation can be used with good success, particularly for efficient sampling of large areas. Azeotropic distillation is more appropriate when strict qualitative and quantitative data for desorption, desorption, and various types of kinetic studies are needed.

Figueroa, A.; Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

2005-12-01

10

Analysis of finishing reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a novel method to deal with the design and the synthesis of finishing reactive distillation columns with one reactive core, two rectifying sections, and one stripping section is presented. The attention of the work is concentrated on three subjects: (1) the feasibility of a given separation at both finite and total reflux operation; (2) the minimum energy demand operation; (3) the distribution of the reaction between the reactor and the finishing reactive column. The design problem presents the same grade of difficulty as that found in the design of conventional extractive columns. A geometric based method is used to explain key features of reactive distillation. Here, the relation between the reaction yield and the distillate flow rate plays a role similar to that of the entrainer flow in extractive distillation. Hence, special attention is given to the behavior of the profiles inside the rectifying section below the reactive core. The methodology is illustrated using the well-known MTBE case study.

Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Frey, T.; Stichlmair, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik] [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik

1999-01-01

11

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

12

Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

13

Fuzzy rule-based controller for binary distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a fuzzy logic based control scheme has been proposed for distillation column. Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) is proposed to adjust the manipulated variables to get the desired composition of products for a binary distillation column. To control the top and bottom product composition two separate fuzzy inference systems has been designed. The scheme uses fuzzy rules and

Amit Kumar Singh; Barjeev Tyagi; Vishal kumar

2011-01-01

14

Internally Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column to be addressed in this paper is a special distillation column that involves internal heat integration between the whole rectifying and the whole stripping sections. An overview of the research on this process is presented in this work. It covers from the thermodynamic development and evaluations to the practical design and operation investigations for the process.

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; A. Endo; T. Ohmori; T. Akiya; T. Takamatsu

2003-01-01

15

Application of the Firefly and Luus-Jaakola algorithms in the calculation of a double reactive azeotrope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of reactive azeotropes is an important task in the preliminary design and simulation of reactive distillation columns. Classically, homogeneous nonreactive azeotropes are vapor-liquid coexistence conditions where phase compositions are equal. For homogeneous reactive azeotropes, simultaneous phase and chemical equilibria occur concomitantly with equality of compositions (in the Ung-Doherty transformed space). The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. In a previous paper (Platt et al 2013 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 410 012020), we investigated some numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes in the isobutene + methanol + methyl-tert-butyl-ether (with two reactive azeotropes) system using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Here, we use a hybrid structure (stochastic + deterministic) in order to produce accurate results for both azeotropes. After identifying the neighborhood of the reactive azeotrope, the nonlinear algebraic system is solved using Newton's method. The results indicate that using metaheuristics and some techniques devoted to the calculation of multiple minima allows both azeotropic coordinates in this reactive system to be obtains. In this sense, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a useful framework devoted to solving nonlinear systems, particularly in phase equilibrium problems.

Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

2014-01-01

16

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

SciTech Connect

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15

17

Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column, respectively. Because distillation is a mass-transfer process, the purity of the product(s) can be increased by increasing the effectiveness of the mass-transfer process (increasing the mass-transfer coefficient) and/or by increasing the available surface area for mass transfer through increased column height. The diameter of a distillation column is fixed by pressure-drop and mass-flow requirements. The approach taken in designing the present distillation column to be short yet capable of yielding a product of acceptably high purity was to pay careful attention to design details that affect mass-transfer processes.

Rozzi, Jay C.

2006-01-01

18

Resilient and Robust Control of an Energy Integrated Distillation Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation column equipped with an intermediate condenser for energy conservation was studied using advanced multivariable control techniques. The intermediate condenser heat duty was successfully used as an extra manipulated variable, giving rise to non-square three input-two output control system designs. The material balance control structure had much better performance than the energy balance structure. The primary advantage of the

B. Wayne Bequette; Robert R. Horton; Thomas F. Edgar

1987-01-01

19

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

20

Development of a scintillator detector system for ?-ray scan measurements of industrial distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CsI(Tl) scintillator detector set was developed for ?-ray scan measurements aiming to identify process failures in distillation columns of an industrial petrochemical plant. A system with a 60Co sealed source as a ?-ray emitter and the developed CsI(Tl) detector were applied to evaluate the performances in a simulated model of a tray-type distillation column.

Pablo A. Vásquez S; Fabio E. Costa; Wilson A. P. Calvo; Margarida M. Hamada

2005-01-01

21

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of High Purity Distillation Columns for Cryogenic Air Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants that supply purified gases to a number of industries. We have developed a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on the assumption of full-state feedback for a prototypical cryogenic distillation column to allow effective operation over a wide range of plant production rates. The controller design

Zhongzhou Chen; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

2010-01-01

22

Startup of distillation columns using profile position control based on nonlinear wave model  

SciTech Connect

Startup of distillation columns is a very challenging control problem because of its strong nonlinearity and a wide operating range during the transient period. A nonlinear wave model captures the essential dynamic behavior of the distillation process so that it is possible to deal with the difficulties encountered during startup operation. This paper is concerned with the startup of distillation systems using nonlinear wave model based control developed by Han and Park. This control scheme uses profile positions as controlled variables and is based on the nonlinear wave model by Hwang and generic model control scheme by Lee and Sullivan. It can be applied to a binary or a multicomponent distillation system that can be represented as a pseudobinary. The proposed control scheme is shown by simulation studies to provide a safe and economic startup operation not only for dual composition control of a simple distillation column but also for a complex distillation configuration.

Han, M.; Park, S. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.; [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1999-04-01

23

Assessing Safety in Distillation Column Using Dynamic Simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment becomes an important activity in chemical industries since the need to comply with general legal requirements in addition to meet safer plant and profit. This paper reviews some most frequently causes of distillation column malfunction. First, analysis of case histories will be discussed for providing guidelines in identifying potential trouble spots in distillation column. A dynamic simulation for operational failure is simulated as the basis for assessing the consequences. A case study will be used from a side stream distillation column to show the implementation of the concept. A framework for assessing safety in the column is proposed using Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Further, trouble-free operation in order to reduce the risk associated with column malfunction is described.

Werner, Suhendra; Fred, Witt; Compart

24

A numerical method for predicting the performance of a randomly packed distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical method is proposed for modeling the distillation process in a randomly packed column. The proposed model is able to predict the axial and radial concentration distributions along the column without introducing the empirical turbulent Schmidt number or the experimentally measured turbulent mass transfer diffusivity. The present model involves the differential mass transfer equation set and the accompanied computational

Guo Biao Liu; K. T. Yu; X. G. Yuan; C. J. Liu

2009-01-01

25

Low-order dynamic modeling of cryogenic distillation columns based on nonlinear wave phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-order dynamic model based on nonlinear wave theory is developed for a cryogenic distillation column used for nitrogen purification. By tracking the wave front propagating through the column, a simple mathematical model capable of describing the essential column dynamics is derived. The combined reboiler\\/condenser system is modeled using rigorous mass and energy balances. The low-order model is compared with

Guang-Yan Zhu; Michel A. Henson; Lawrence Megan

2001-01-01

26

A modified model of computational mass transfer for distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational mass transfer (CMT) model is composed of the basic differential mass transfer equation, closing with auxiliary equations, and the appropriate accompanying CFD formulation. In the present modified CMT model, the closing auxiliary equations c2¯–?c [Liu, B.T., 2003. Study of a new mass transfer model of CFD and its application on distillation tray. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China;

Z. M. Sun; K. T. Yu; X. G. Yuan; C. J. Liu

2007-01-01

27

Study of arrangements for distillation of quaternary mixtures using less than N-1 columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and dynamic properties of distillation sequences using side-stream columns with less than N-1 columns for separations of four-component mixtures are studied. Total annual cost and dynamic properties (using singular value decomposition) are used to compare the proposed arrangements with conventional cases. Quaternary feeds containing hydrocarbons were analyzed. For systems with low concentrations of one component in the feed,

Dulce María Méndez-Valencia; María Vázquez-Ojeda; Juan Gabriel Segovia-Hernández; Héctor Hernández; Adrián Bonilla-Petriciolet

2008-01-01

28

Development of gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns which is based on the attenuation of gamma radiation was developed at the Unit Tenaga Nuklear. The system utilised Co-60 or Cs-137 as a gamma-ray emitter and NaI(Tl) detector ...

Mohd Azmi bin Ismail Jaafar bin Abdullah Jamaludin bin Omar

1994-01-01

29

Experiments with a TAME Catalytic Distillation Column Using a Pellet Type Catalyst.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the experiments made with pellet type ion exchange resin catalyst in a reactive distillation column. The catalyst used was standard ion-exchange resin Amberlyst 15 H sieved so that maximum particle diameter was 0.71 mm and catalyst w...

K. Klemola A. Pyhaelahti

1994-01-01

30

Parametric study of an ethanol–water distillation column with direct vapour recompression heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat pumps have been used to reduce energy consumption in distillation columns. However, the effects of some parameters have not been taken into consideration in the determination of energy consumption in such systems. Perhaps this is one of the reasons for little or no application of the system in ethanol which is fast becoming a competitive fuel to petrol. The

Christopher Enweremadu; Adekojo Waheed; Jeremiah Ojediran

2009-01-01

31

Distillation columns containing structured packings: A comprehensive model for their performance. 2: Mass-transfer model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second part of a two-part paper dealing with the fluid mechanics and mass transfer in structured packings for distillation column service. The first part elucidated pressure drop, flooding, and liquid holdup. The second part covers the generation of effective interfacial area and provides a general correlation for predicting the mass-transfer efficiency as a function of surface type,

J. Antonio Rocha; Jose L. Bravo; James R. Fair

1996-01-01

32

Distillation columns containing structured packings: A comprehensive model for their performance. 1. Hydraulic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanistically-based model has been developed to aid the analysis and design of distillation columns containing structured packings of the corrugated plate type. The model encompasses the important, and related, parameters of liquid holdup, pressure drop, flooding, and mass-transfer efficiency. Since it deals with the countercurrent contacting of liquid with gas or vapor, the model may also be applied to

J. Antonio Rocha; Jose L. Bravo; James R. Fair

1993-01-01

33

Counter-current operation of structured catalytically packed distillation columns: pressure drop, holdup and mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured packed columns, in which the catalyst particles are enclosed within wire gauze envelopes (“sandwiches”) are promising reactor configurations for reactive distillation and hydroconversions. By allowing preferential channels for the gas and liquid phases, counter-current operation is achieved even for millimeter sized catalyst particles without the problem of flooding. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive experimental study of

J. Ellenberger; R. Krishna

1999-01-01

34

Using a distributed control system (DCS) for distillation column control in an undergraduate unit operations laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main advantages of using an industrial distributed control system (DCS) in the operation of a distillation column which is used in an undergraduate unit operations laboratory course at the University of Texas at Austin. Taking advantage of the resources of an industrial DCS (friendly display options, an alarm management system, historical databases and advanced control tools),

Ivan Castillo; Thomas F. Edgar

2009-01-01

35

Design and Operation of Cryogenic Distillation Research Column for Ultra-Low Background Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by isotopically enriched germanium (76Ge and 73Ge) for monocrystalline crystal growth for neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter experiments, a cryogenic distillation research column was developed. Without market availability of distillation columns in the temperature range of interest with capabilities necessary for our purposes, we designed, fabricated, tested, refined and operated a two-meter research column for purifying and separating gases in the temperature range from 100-200K. Due to interest in defining stratification, purity and throughput optimization, capillary lines were integrated at four equidistant points along the length of the column such that real-time residual gas analysis could guide the investigation. Interior gas column temperatures were monitored and controlled within 0.1oK accuracy at the top and bottom. Pressures were monitored at the top of the column to four significant figures. Subsequent impurities were measured at partial pressures below 2E-8torr. We report the performance of the column in this paper.

Chiller, Christopher; Alanson Chiller, Angela; Jasinski, Benjamin; Snyder, Nathan; Mei, Dongming

2013-04-01

36

The setup of an extraction system coupled to a hydrogen isotopes distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Among the most difficult problems of cryogenic distillation one stands apart: the extraction of the heavy fraction. By an optimal design of the cycle scheme, this problem could be avoided. A 'worst case scenario' is usually occurring when the extracted fraction consists of one prevalent isotope such as hydrogen and small amounts of the other two hydrogen isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). This situation is further complicated by two parameters of the distillation column: the extraction flow rate and the hold-up. The present work proposes the conceptual design of an extraction system associated to the cryogenic distillation column used in hydrogen separation processes. During this process, the heavy fraction (DT, T{sub 2}) is separated, its concentration being the highest at the bottom of the distillation column. From this place the extraction of the gaseous phase can now begin. Being filled with adsorbent, the extraction system is used to temporarily store the heavy fraction. Also the extraction system provides samples for the gas Chromatograph. The research work is focused on the existent pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation from our institute to validate the experiments carried out until now. (authors)

Zamfirache, M.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I.; Bidica, N.; Balteanu, O.; Bucur, C. [INC-DTCI, ICSIRm. Valcea, Uzinei Street 4, Rm. Valcea (Romania)

2008-07-15

37

Soft sensor based composition estimation and controller design for an ideal reactive distillation column.  

PubMed

In this research work, the authors have presented the design and implementation of a recurrent neural network (RNN) based inferential state estimation scheme for an ideal reactive distillation column. Decentralized PI controllers are designed and implemented. The reactive distillation process is controlled by controlling the composition which has been estimated from the available temperature measurements using a type of RNN called Time Delayed Neural Network (TDNN). The performance of the RNN based state estimation scheme under both open loop and closed loop have been compared with a standard Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and a Feed forward Neural Network (FNN). The online training/correction has been done for both RNN and FNN schemes for every ten minutes whenever new un-trained measurements are available from a conventional composition analyzer. The performance of RNN shows better state estimation capability as compared to other state estimation schemes in terms of qualitative and quantitative performance indices. PMID:20887987

Vijaya Raghavan, S R; Radhakrishnan, T K; Srinivasan, K

2011-01-01

38

Distillation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-24

39

Flooding characteristics of packed columns with high efficiency. [SDC protruded distillation, Podbielniak bronze Helipak, Norton pall ring, Goodloe mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooding characteristics of four high efficiency column packings, including Scientific Development Co. (SDC) protruded stainless distillation packing, Norton stainless pall rings, Podbielniak bronze Helipak, and Goodloe stainless wire mesh packing were determined experimentally. Two Plexiglas columns (6.35 cm ID and 15.2 cm ID) filled with these packings were operated with countercurrent air and water streams. Pressure drop data were recorded

W. M. Choi; R. C. Michel; J. L. P. Varlet

1976-01-01

40

Simultaneous heat and mass transfer of a packed distillation column for ammonia–water absorption refrigeration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study on the NH3–H2O distillation process using a packed column with liquid reflux from the condenser in an absorption refrigeration system. A differential mathematical model has been developed on the basis of mass and energy balances and the heat and mass transfer equations. A net molar flux between the liquid and vapour phases has been considered

José Fernández-Seara; Jaime Sieres; Manuel Vázquez

2002-01-01

41

Dynamics and control of a packed distillation column for the isotopic enrichment of plasma exhausts from controlled thermonuclear reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control scheme is proposed based on our analysis of the disturbances expected during normal operation of the lead column in the fuel enrichment distillation cascade for a near-term tokamak fusion reactor fuel cycle. The primary objective of this control scheme is to minimize both the time and the amount that the atom percent protium in the bottoms product is

J. F. Davis; R. S. H. Mah; W. F. Stevens; B. Misra; V. A. Maroni

1979-01-01

42

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

43

Design Data, Liquid Distributors and Condenser for a Distillation Column to Enrich Tritium in Metallic Lithium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tritium, one fuel component of the fusion reactor is bred from the reactors blanket material lithium. Before extracting the tritium from, for instance, metallic lithium by permeation it has to be enriched in the lithium by high temperature distillation. I...

E. Barnert

1984-01-01

44

Design of a thermally integrated bioethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system integrated with a distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid oxide fuel cell systems integrated with a distillation column (SOFC-DIS) have been investigated in this study. The MER (maximum energy recovery) network for SOFC-DIS system under the base conditions (CEtOH=25%, EtOH recovery=80%, V=0.7V, fuel utilization=80%, TSOFC=1200K) yields QCmin=73.4 and QHmin=0kW. To enhance the performance of SOFC-DIS, utilization of internal useful heat sources from within the system (e.g. condenser duty

W. Jamsak; P. L. Douglas; E. Croiset; R. Suwanwarangkul; N. Laosiripojana; S. Charojrochkul; S. Assabumrungrat

2009-01-01

45

Production of isopropyl palmitate in a catalytic distillation column: Experimental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid esters produced using monohydric alcohols have a wide range of applications in the cosmetic and personal care products. The conventional method for the production of esters has several drawbacks such as product quality degradation due to relatively long exposure to heat, necessity of catalyst neutralization and relative high alcohol demand. The reactive distillation (RD) process for the

S. Bhatia; A. L. Ahmad; A. R. Mohamed; S. Y. Chin

2006-01-01

46

Design and simulation of a distillation column for separation of dichloropropane from a multicomponent mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper is presented the design of a separation column for recovery of 1,2-dichloropropane (DCP) from the off-gas released during propylenechlorhydrine (PCH) synthesis. The aim of this separation is to recover DCP with a purity of 99.99 mass%. The simulation of the separation column is performed by means of the professional simulation program HYSYS. The design of the rectification

M Šoóš; E Graczová; J Markoš; A Molnár; P Steltenpohl

2003-01-01

47

Vacuum distillation of ethanol. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine whether distillation at or below a pressure of 70 mm of Hg would produce ethanol sufficiently anhydrous to permit mixing with gasoline without separation. The reason for this is that below 70 mm of Hg, the azeotrope does not form and, theoretically, 100% ethanol can be achieved by fractional distillation. There was insufficient information available

1982-01-01

48

ANN controller for binary distillation column — A Marquardt-Levenberg approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks can provide good empirical controllers for complex nonlinear processes, because they are nets of basis functions that are useful for many purposes including process control. It is shown here that how artificial neural networks can design the column controller and demonstrate that the network controller is as good as or better than a fuzzy rule based controller.

Amit Kumar Singh; Barjeev Tyagi; Vishal Kumar

2011-01-01

49

Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design  

SciTech Connect

The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

Eldridge, Robert, B.

2005-10-13

50

A simplified mathematical model of the cryogenic distillation with application to the (13C) isotope separation column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotope (13C) has a widespread application in many fields such as chemistry, physics, medicine, etc. To obtain a high concentration in isotope of interest, in our case (13C), it is used the method of cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide (CO) which is based on the difference between the vapor pressure of (12C16O) and (13C16O) at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. Isotopic separation plant, used to obtain the isotope (13C), is a complex installation, with many inputs and outputs, rather difficult to control. Due to this reason, from the point of view of automation, it is needed a simplified mathematical model. This model can be determined only with some presumption and simplification assumptions. Using the physical laws, the hydrodynamic part of the process and the mass balance will be described by partial differential equations. In order to design a controller for the column, it is needed a transfer function or a statespace realization of the plant, which is the main contribution of the present work. Implementing this mathematical model will be the key element for describing and understanding the operation of the plant and for future development of process control strategies.

Neaga, A. O.; Festila, C.; Dulf, E. H.; Both, R.; Szelitzky, T.; Gligan, M.

2012-02-01

51

Simultaneous micro steam distillation\\/solvent extraction for the isolation of semivolatile flavor compounds from cinnamon and their separation by series coupled-column gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous micro steam distillation\\/solvent extraction is an efficient method of extracting semivolatile flavor and fragrance compounds from cinnamon for subsequent separation by series coupled-column gas chromatography. With pentane as the extraction solvent and an extraction time of 1.5 h clean extracts requiring no further sample preparation prior to gas Chromatographic analysis are obtained. It is shown that adulteration of cinnamon

Arya Jayatilaka; Salwa K. Poole; Colin F. Poole; Tina M. P. Chichila

1995-01-01

52

RELIABLE COMPUTATION OF HOMOGENEOUS AZEOTROPES. (R824731)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract It is important to determine the existence and composition of homogeneous azeotropes in the analysis of phase behavior and in the synthesis and design of separation systems, from both theoretical and practical standpoints. A new method for reliably locating an...

53

Nearly Azeotropic Mixtures To Replace Refrigerant 12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Number of nearly azeotropic fluid mixtures have saturation pressures similar to Refrigerant 12 while being about 2 percent as damaging to ozone layer. Five mixtures of R134a, R152a, R124, and R142b have low boiling-point spreads, low toxicity, and low ozone-damaging capability, are nonflammable, and more compatible with conventional oils than R134a. Pressure of combinations nearly equal to R12, and mixtures may be good "drop-in substitutes". Overall composition not altered by leakage. Usable in commercial, automotive, and household refrigerators and air conditioners.

Jones, Jack A.

1992-01-01

54

Calculation of a double reactive azeotrope using stochastic optimization approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An homogeneous reactive azeotrope is a thermodynamic coexistence condition of two phases under chemical and phase equilibrium, where compositions of both phases (in the Ung-Doherty sense) are equal. This kind of nonlinear phenomenon arises from real world situations and has applications in chemical and petrochemical industries. The modeling of reactive azeotrope calculation is represented by a nonlinear algebraic system with phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium and azeotropy equations. This nonlinear system can exhibit more than one solution, corresponding to a double reactive azeotrope. The robust calculation of reactive azeotropes can be conducted by several approaches, such as interval-Newton/generalized bisection algorithms and hybrid stochastic-deterministic frameworks. In this paper, we investigate the numerical aspects of the calculation of reactive azeotropes using two metaheuristics: the Luus-Jaakola adaptive random search and the Firefly algorithm. Moreover, we present results for a system (with industrial interest) with more than one azeotrope, the system isobutene/methanol/methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE). We present convergence patterns for both algorithms, illustrating - in a bidimensional subdomain - the identification of reactive azeotropes. A strategy for calculation of multiple roots in nonlinear systems is also applied. The results indicate that both algorithms are suitable and robust when applied to reactive azeotrope calculations for this "challenging" nonlinear system.

Mendes Platt, Gustavo; Pinheiro Domingos, Roberto; Oliveira de Andrade, Matheus

2013-02-01

55

Variation of Azeotropic Composition and Temperature with Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which an azeotropic mixture is studied using the vapor pressures of the components as functions of temperature and the azeotropic composition and temperature at one pressure. Discusses in detail the mathematical treatment of obtained thermodynamic data. (MLH)

Gibbard, H. Frank; Emptage, Michael R.

1975-01-01

56

Dealcoholized wines by spinning cone column distillation: phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.  

PubMed

Spinning cone column (SCC) distillation has been shown to be a commercially suitable technique for dealcoholized wine (DW) manufacturing, but there are not enough studies about its influence on the DW quality. So, the effect of this technique on the antioxidant activity (% of remaining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and the phenolic compound composition of red, rose, and white DW, obtained at pilot plant scale, has been analyzed. Nineteen raw wines (RWs) from different grape varieties and five different Spanish viticultural regions have been studied before and after dealcoholization. The total phenolic content, flavonols, tartaric esters, and anthocyanins, was determined by spectrophotometry, while the content of phenolic compounds such as stilbenes (trans- and cis-resveratrol), flavonols (rutin, quercetin, and myricetin), flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin], anthocyanins (malvidin 3-glucoside), and non-flavonoids (gallic, caffeic, and p-coumaric acids) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The resveratrol contents in red wines were between 1.81 and 34.01 mg/L in RWs and between 2.12 and 39.57 mg/L in DWs, Merlot being the grape producing the RWs and DWs with higher resveratrol content. In general, the percent of remaining DPPH(*) was similar or slightly higher (until 5 units of % of remaining DPPH(*)) in DWs versus RWs. This small difference may be due to removal of SO2 (that is an antioxidant) from RWs during distillation. DWs and RWs show similar contents of the studied phenolic compounds, with a tendency, in some cases, to exhibit increases after dealcoholization, caused by the concentration effect via removal of the ethanol. From this work, we can deduce that SCC distillation is a dealcoholization technique minimally destructive with the wine phenolic compounds. PMID:19588980

Belisario-Sánchez, Yulissa Y; Taboada-Rodríguez, Amaury; Marín-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio

2009-08-12

57

Preparation of tertiary amyl alcohol in a reactive distillation column. 1: Reaction kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and mass-transfer issues  

SciTech Connect

The hydration of isoamylenes to produce 2-methyl-2-butanol (tert-amyl alcohol, or TAA) is strongly limited by chemical equilibrium to olefin conversions of less than 50%. The general goal of this work was to determine whether reactive distillation would be a valid method to enhance the yield of TAA. The first step was to study the reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium, using a polymeric acid catalyst (Amberlyst-15). Acetone was identified as a suitable medium to enable single liquid phase operation and also to enhance the reaction rate. It was found that the intraparticle mass-transfer resistance is negligible at temperatures below 70 C. A kinetic expression, based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism, is proposed. The forward and reverse reactions show first-order dependence on isoamylenes and TAA, respectively, while water is essentially an inhibitor of the reaction in both directions. The temperature effect on the forward reaction is quantified with an activation energy of 69.5 kJ/mol.

Gonzalez, J.C.; Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Separations Research Program] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Separations Research Program

1997-09-01

58

Catalytic distillation extends its reach  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

59

Modelling reactive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation issues for reactive distillation systems are considerably more complex than those involved for either conventional reactors or conventional distillation columns. The introduction of an in situ separation function within the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor–liquid equilibrium, vapor–liquid mass transfer, intra-catalyst diffusion (for heterogeneously catalysed processes) and chemical kinetics. Such interactions have been shown

R. Taylor; R. Krishna

2000-01-01

60

Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether Catalytic Distillation Experiments and Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work the catalytic section of a reactive distillation column is studied. Experimental studies with a laboratory catalytic distillation column were carried out for the decomposition and production of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The purpose of th...

K. Klemola A. Pyhaelahti

1996-01-01

61

Sulfur-isotope separation by distillation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-isotope separation by low-temperature distillation of hydrogen sulfide was studied in an 8-m, 25-mm diameter distillation column. Column temperature was controlled by a propane-propylene heat pipe. Column packing HETP was measured using nitric oxide in the column. The column was operated at pressures from 45 to 125 kPa. The relative volatility of S-32 vs. S-34 varied from 1.0008 to 1.0014.

Mills, T.R.

1982-01-01

62

THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF PREDICTED FLUORINATED ETHER, ETHANE, AND PROPANE AZEOTROPES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of thermodynamic analyses, using basic thermophysical property data, to evaluate seven predicted fluorinated ether, ethane, and propane azeotropes: E125/RC270, E125/R134a, E143a/R134, R134a/E143a, E143a/ R152a, R134/R245cb, and R245cb/R227ea. he performanc...

63

Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development] [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

64

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a

Rian Reyneke; Michael Foral; Christos G. Papadopoulos; Jeffrey S. Logsdon; Wayne W. Y. Eng; Guang-Chung Lee; Ian Sinclair

2007-01-01

65

The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire.  

PubMed

The effect of azeotropism on combustion characteristics of blended fuel pool fire was experimentally studied in an open fire test space of State Key Laboratory of Fire Science. A 30cm×30cm square pool filled with n-heptane and ethanol blended fuel was employed. Flame images, burning rate and temperature distribution were collected and recorded in the whole combustion process. Results show that azeotropism obviously dominates the combustion behavior of n-heptane/ethanol blended fuel pool fire. The combustion process after ignition exhibits four typical stages: initial development, azeotropic burning, single-component burning and decay stage. Azeotropism appears when temperature of fuel surface reaches azeotropic point and blended fuel burns at azeotropic ratio. Compared with individual pure fuel, the effect of azeotropism on main fire parameters, such as flame height, burning rate, flame puffing frequency and centerline temperature were analyzed. Burning rate and centerline temperature of blended fuel are higher than that of individual pure fuel respectively at azeotropic burning stage, and flame puffing frequency follows the empirical formula between Strouhal and Froude number for pure fuel. PMID:24632362

Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Lu, Shouxiang

2014-04-30

66

Petroleum Distillates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides data for the evaluation of the safety of certain petroleum distillate fractions used in commercial products to which consumers may be exposed. Chemical information and data on the toxicology, pharmacology and relevent biology are comp...

J. Villaume P. Walter R. Levine A. Craigmill H. Schwartz

1976-01-01

67

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

68

Membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the separation process known as membrane distillation, MD. An introduction to the terminology and fundamental concepts associated with MD as well as a historical review of the developments in MD are presented. Membrane properties, transport phenomena, and module design are discussed in detail. A critical evaluation of the MD literature is incorporated throughout

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1997-01-01

69

Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.  

PubMed

Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation. PMID:12862234

Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

2003-01-01

70

Study to determine the existence of an azeotropic R-22 `drop-in` substitute  

SciTech Connect

The reduction in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) production and the scheduled phase-out of these ozone depleting refrigerants requires the development and determination of environmentally safe refrigerants for use in heat pumps, water chillers, air conditioners, and refrigerators. Azeotropic mixtures are attractive as alternative refrigerants because they behave very nearly as pure materials. A simple correlative scheme that allows one to judge whether or not an azeotrope is likely in a binary refrigerant mixture is discussed. This paper presents laboratory and computer simulation model evaluation of two of the azeotropic refrigerant mixtures which are identified, HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) with R-C290 (Propane) and HFC-134a with R-600a (Isobutane), in a generic heat pump apparatus. A third azeotropes mixture, HFC-134a with R-C290 (Cyclopropane) is examined by computer simulation only.

Kim, M.S.; Morrison, G.; Mulroy, W.J.; Didion, D.A.

1996-03-01

71

Addition of an azeotropic ETBE\\/ethanol mixture in eurosuper-type gasolines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes an azeotropic ETBE\\/ethanol mixture as a possible oxygenated additive for the formulation of eurosuper-type gasolines. Two eurosuper gasolines with different chemical compositions and well defined characteristics of density, volatility and octane numbers are used. Gasoline formulations containing azeotropic mixtures display an intermediary behavior between that of ETBE (ethyl tert-butyl ether) and ethanol in gasoline blends. Formulations containing

Eliana Weber de Menezes; Renato Cataluña; Dimitrios Samios; Rosângela da Silva

2006-01-01

72

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22

73

Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character  

PubMed Central

To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x1 of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x1 = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x2 = 0.01 in the crystal structure.

Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

2010-01-01

74

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a

S. A. Nijhuis; F. P. J. M. Kerkhof; A. N. S. Mak

1993-01-01

75

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

76

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX) [Katy, TX; Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL) [Aurora, IL; Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX) [League City, TX; Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB) [Warrington, GB

2007-12-25

77

Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

Barduhn, Allen J.

1984-01-01

78

Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

Pritchard, Colin

1986-01-01

79

Multiplicity Analysis in Reactive Distillation Column Using ASPEN PLUS 1 1 Supported by the Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20436040) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.20176044, No.20476084)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive distillation processes for synthesis of ethylene glycol (EG) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) were modeled with the simulation package ASPEN PLUS. The input multiplicity and output multiplicity were discussed with the method of sensitivity analysis for both cases. In EG production process, steady state multiplicities were studied in terms of effective liquid holdup volume and boil-up ratio. In ETBE

Bolun YANG; Jiang WU; Guosheng ZHAO; Huajun WANG; Shiqing LU

2006-01-01

80

Efficiency of vapor compression heat pumps based on non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the results of cycle computation for vapor compression pumps based on ozone-safe mixed refrigerants. Non-azeotropic binary refrugerants R32/R152a (30/70) and R32/R134a (30/70) were considere as working substances. Properties of non-azeotropic refrigerants were calculated according to the additivity method of thermodynamic functions and method of Lemmon and Jacobsen. Deviations in the values of thermophysical properties obtained with two methods have been determined. It is shown that at the use of nonazeotropic mixture R32/R152a (30/70), energy conversion ratio increases by 2.2-3.6 % compared with the results for R32/R134a (30/70) at temperature difference between the processes of boiling and condensation from 28 to 53 °C.

Mezentseva, N. N.

2011-06-01

81

Boiling Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Non-Azeotropic Mixtures Inside a Horizontal Grooved Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaporation of HCFC141b, HFC152a and HFC23, and non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture used at the very low temperature refrigeration system is experimentally studied in a horizontal spirally grooved tube with corrugation. The experiments were conducted at 0.03 to 0.47MPa of boiling pressure, 100 kg/(m2s) of mass flux, 1 to 15 kW/ m2 of heat flux, -26 to 21 °C of refrigerant temperature and 11.4 mm of average inner diameter. It is concluded that boiling heat transfer coefficients of single-refrigerant are higher than these of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture. And dimensionless correlation of the heat transfer coefficirnts, i.e. Lockhart-Martinelli parameters agreed with equation (10) within the limit of ±40 percent. Pressure drops of these refrigerant mixture depend on its liquid density and flow pattern.

Kajikawa, Satoru; Ayukawa, Kyozo; Sogo, Motosuke; Okita, Yuji

82

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15

83

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

The most widely used separation technique in the petroleum industry and other liquid fuel production processes as well as in much of the chemical industry is distillation. To design and operate an appropriate commercial and laboratory distillation unit requires a knowledge of the boiling point distribution of the materials to be separated. In recognition of these needs, the ASTM developed the distillation procedures of D86, D216, D447, D850, and D1078. They are widely used in laboratories for the purposes of sample characterization, product and quality control, and distillation column design. However, the significant drawbacks of these ASTM methods include (1) close monitoring of the distillation is required. This is particularly difficult for those samples which are very toxic and/or cause any other safety problems; (2) the sample under test must be transparent and free of separated water; and (3) results obtained by these methods are not particularly precise. This motivated the development of a novel automatic distillation system based on the use of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

84

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15

85

Calculation of parametric sensitivity in binary batch distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of parametric sensitivity of batch distillation operations to perturbations in the feed composition. Three column arrangements are considered: batch rectifiers, batch strippers and total-reflux columns. The perturbation dynamics is parameterized in such a way as to allow the analytical calculation of the sensitivity function in the whole composition range, for both sharp and non-sharp

Massimiliano Barolo; Franco Botteon

1998-01-01

86

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

87

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

88

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01

89

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20

90

Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

Caballero, J.A. [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grossmann, I.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

91

Adsorbate shape selectivity: Separation of the HF/134a azeotrope over carbogenic molecular sieve  

SciTech Connect

Experimental evidence is provided for adsorptive shape selectivity in the separation of the azeotrope between HF and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a) over pyrolyzed poly(furfuryl alcohol)-derived carbogenic molecular sieve (PPFA-CMS). The separation can be accomplished over coconut charcoal or Carbosieve G on the basis of the differences in the extent of equilibrium adsorption of HF and 134a. On these adsorbents 134a is more strongly bound than HF, thus it elutes much more slowly from the bed. The heat of adsorption for 134a in the vicinity of 200 C on Carbosieve G is {approximately}8.8 kcal/mol. In contrast, when the same azeotropic mixture is separated over PPFA-CMS prepared at 500 C, 134a is not adsorbed. As a result 134a elutes from the bed first, followed by HF. The reversal is brought about by the narrower pore size and pore size distribution of the PPFA-CMS versus that for Carbosieve G. Thus the separation over PPFA-CMS is an example of adsorbate shape selectivity and represents a limiting case of kinetic separation.

Hong, A.; Mariwala, R.K.; Kane, M.S.; Foley, H.C. [Univ. of Delaware, Nework, DE (United States)

1995-03-01

92

Datalogging the Distillation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

1995-01-01

93

Vapor Compression Distillation Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls ...

P. P. Nuccio

1975-01-01

94

Survey of Binary Azeotropes as Physical Chemistry Lab Experiments with Attention to Cost, Safety, and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is presented of possible binary azeotropic systems suitable for study in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. From a range of sources, a list has been compiled of the most acceptable systems on the basis of health, safety, waste disposal, and practicability concerns. More than 80 systems were reviewed. For comparison purposes, the list was reduced to a table

Robert J. Glinski; Christopher W. Smith; Jason B. Cooke

1999-01-01

95

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2013-07-01

96

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2009-07-01

97

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2010-07-01

98

Winogradsky Columns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

Lennox, John; State, Penn

99

Heat transfer in pool boiling of binary and ternary non-azeotropic mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat transfer coefficients in nucleate pool boiling of binary and ternary non-azeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures were obtained experimentally using a vertical electrically heated cylindrical carbon steel surface at atmospheric pressure with several surface roughness. The fluids used were Methanol/1-Pentanol and Methanol/1-Pentanol/1,2-Propandiol at constant 1,2-Propandiol mole fraction of 30%. Heat fluxes were varied in the range 25-235 kW/m2. The cylindrical heater surface was polished to an average surface roughness of 0.2 ?m, and sandblasted yielding surface roughness of 2.98 and 4.35 ?m, respectively. The experimental results were compared to available prediction correlations, indicating that the correlations based on the boiling range are in better qualitative agreement than correlations based on the phase envelope. Increasing surface roughness resulted in an increase in the heat transfer coefficient, and the effect was observed to be dependent on the heat flux and fluid composition.

Nahra, Ziad; Næss, Erling

2009-05-01

100

APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE ANALYSIS OF A MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the application of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of a middle distillate fuel. Small diameter (50 micrometer i.d.) fused silica capillary columns coated with crosslinked 50% phenyl polymethylsiloxane provided high separation...

101

Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

102

Flooding Characteristics of Packed Columns with High Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flooding characteristics of four high efficiency column packings, including Scientific Development Co. (SDC) protruded stainless distillation packing, Norton stainless pall rings, Podbielniak bronze Helipak, and Goodloe stainless wire mesh packing were de...

W. M. Choi R. C. Michel J. L. P. Varlet

1976-01-01

103

Oil distilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of distilling hydrocarbon oil is described which comprises burning a combustible mixture while submerged in the oil, effecting direct contact of the products of combustion with the oil, and controlling the temperature resulting from the combustion by diluting the combustible mixture with an inert gas prior to its introduction into the oil.

Hill

1932-01-01

104

Distilling entanglement from Fermions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Fermions are based on anti-commutation relations, their entanglement can not be studied in the usual way, such that the available theory has to be modified appropriately. Recent publications consider in particular the structure of separable and of maximally entangled states. In this talk we want to discuss local operations and entanglement distillation from bipartite, Fermionic systems. To this end

Michael Keyl

2008-01-01

105

Distill Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

106

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

107

Topological quantum distillation.  

PubMed

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding, and computation with magic states. PMID:17155532

Bombin, H; Martin-Delgado, M A

2006-11-01

108

Qutrit magic state distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced

Hussain Anwar; Earl T Campbell; Dan E Browne

2012-01-01

109

Two-Phase Flow and Energy Transfer of a Non-Azeotropic Mixture, R-407c, in a Micro-Fin Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is to determine experimentally the two-phase flow and energy transfer characteristics of a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture, R-407c (nominal composition: 23% R-32, 25% R-125, and 52% R-134a). R-407c is a fluid with zero ozone depletion potential and one of several alternatives to currently widely used pure refrigerant HCFC-22. As a non-azeotrope, R-407c has distinctly different characteristics from pure fluids.

Xin Liu

1996-01-01

110

The production of diacetone alcohol with catalytic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aldol condensation of acetone to diacetone alcohol (DAA) has been accomplished with catalytic distillation (CD). A steady-state, rate-based model for the reaction zone of the CD column is developed and fitted to the experimental data which were presented in Part I of this paper. This model is unique in that it considers external mass transfer between the liquid phase

G. G. Podrebarac; F. T. T. Ng; G. L. Rempel

1998-01-01

111

Feasibility studies for batch extractive distillation with a light entrainer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our former method for the assessment of the feasibility of batch extractive distillation (usually performed in a rectifier with a heavy entrainer) was extended to the case where a light entrainer is fed continuously into a rectifier or a stripper. The method is based on the calculation of the vessel path and possible composition profiles of the column sections. The

P. Lang; Z. Lelkes; M. Otterbein; B. Benadda; G. Modla

1999-01-01

112

Recovery of organic carbon from atmospheric particulate matter using soxhlet extraction with the benzene/methanol azeotrope  

SciTech Connect

The extraction efficiency of the benzene/methanol azeotrope for organic carbon in atmospheric particulate matter was determined using a carbon types analyzer and also radio-labeled tracers and liquid scintillation spectroscopy. A twenty-four hour Soxhlet extraction with the azeotrope extracts 76 percent of the organic carbon, 15 percent of the elemental carbon, and 61 percent of the total carbon. Nonpolar and moderately polar organic compounds such as dotriacontane, benzo(a)pyrene, and stearic acid are extracted with 95 percent recovery. Highly polar oxygenated species such as succinic acid are extracted with an efficiency of 82 percent. The Soxhlet extractor was more efficient than ultrasonication for the extraction of highly polar species.

Barkenbus, B.D.; Griest, W.H.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Heyerdahl, E.K.; MacDougall, C.S.

1983-01-01

113

Polyhydroxy glucose functionalized silica for the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate.  

PubMed

Although most of the water in a bio-ethanol fermentation broth can be removed by distillation, a small amount of water remains in the bio-ethanol distillate as the water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, glucose-modified silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a facile method and applied to the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate. The factors affecting the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, such as the particle size, initial concentration of water in the samples, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dose, were examined by measuring the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. Of these, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms showed a good correlation with the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm showed some deviation from the experimental results, and indicated that adsorption in this case was not a simple monolayer adsorption. The property of the adsorbent was attributed to functionalized silica with many hydroxyl groups on its surface. An examination of the separation factors of water/ethanol revealed the modified silica to have preferential selectivity for water. Compared to activated carbon and silica, glucose-modified silica exhibited higher adsorption capacity for water under the same adsorption conditions. In addition, the glucose-modified silica adsorbent exhibited a relatively constant adsorption capacity for five adsorption/desorption cycles. PMID:24366162

Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

2014-07-01

114

Distillation column configurations in ammonia–water absorption refrigeration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ammonia–water absorption refrigeration systems a purification process to reduce the water content in the vapour leaving the generator is required. During this process the water content in the vapour must be reduced to a minimum, otherwise it tends to accumulate in the evaporator and strongly deteriorates the efficiency of the system. The vapour purification can be carried out by

José Fernández-Seara; Jaime Sieres; Manuel Vázquez

2003-01-01

115

An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

Mukesh, Doble

2001-02-01

116

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX) [Nassau Bay, TX; Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26

117

Performance of Pentaborane, Pentaborane - JP-4 Fuel Mixtures, and Trimethylborate Azeotrope Fuel in a Full-Scale Turbojet Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the full-scale engine tests of pentaborane, pentaborane - JP-4 fuel mixtures, and trimethylborate azeotrope fuel. The tests were conducted in a full-scale turbojet engine at a simulated altitude of 50,000 feet and Mach number of 0.08. Engine speeds were 90 to 100 percent of rated speed. Pentaborane reduced the the specific fuel consumption to two-thirds that of JP-4 fuel. However, because boron oxide collected in the engine, the performance deteriorated with continued operation of pentaborane in each of the short-duration tests reported.

Breitwiesser, Roland; Useller, James W.

1956-01-01

118

Standards Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column we will review the status of the project to revise ISO 8423:1991 and the status of development of ISO 10019 on the use of consultants to help develop management systems. We will look at the ISO process for periodic systematic review of standards and look at the status of some of the recent and current reviews in

John West

2008-01-01

119

Column Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

120

Present status of solar distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the

G. N. Tiwari; H. N. Singh; Rajesh Tripathi

2003-01-01

121

Determination of trace amounts of nitrogen in uranium based samples by ion chromatography (IC) without Kjeldahl distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and fast ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection is described for the determination of traces of nitrogen in uranium based fuel materials. Initially a method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH4+ using cation exchange column after matrix separation by Kjeldahl distillation. The method was then improved by eliminating this distillation. Matrix separation after sample

Poonam Verma; Ramakant K. Rastogi; Karanam L. Ramakumar

2007-01-01

122

Standards Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column we will cover the Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) for ISO 9001:2008 and the rules for transition of accredited certifications to ISO 9001:2000 to the new edition. We will also review the status of the work of a new ISO\\/TC 69 Subcommittee developing ISO documents to support Six Sigma implementation. Finally we will look at the status

Jack E. West

2008-01-01

123

Standards Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this column we announce publication in November 2008 of ISO 9001:2008, the latest edition of the world's most popular standard. We will also discuss the introduction and support packages available from ISO\\/TC 176 for ISO 9001:2008. The forthcoming third edition of ISO\\/TS 16949, the automotive industry sector specific QMS document based on ISO 9001:2008, will be discussed. We will

Jack E. West

2009-01-01

124

Hybrid Membrane-Cryogenic Distillation Air Separation Process for Oxygen Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid air separation process for oxygen production uses a membrane gas permeator with bypass to increase the oxygen concentration of the feed to 23.5% before the cryogenic distillation plant. A 23.5% limit on oxygen is required to avoid use of more expensive construction materials. By pre-concentrating the oxygen, the feed flowrate to the compressor, heat exchangers and distillation column

Phillip C. Wankat; Kyle P. Kostroski

2011-01-01

125

SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

126

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

DOEpatents

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03

127

Separation of n-propanol from allyl alcohol by extractive distillation  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for recovering n-propanol from a mixture of n-propanol and allyl alcohol which comprises distilling a mixture of n-propanol and allyl alcohol in a rectification column in the presence of about one part of extractive agent per part of n-propanol-allyl alocohol mixture, recovering n-propanol as overhead product, obtaining the allyl alcohol and the extractive agent from the stillpot, separating the allyl alchohol from the extractive agent by distillation in another rectification column, wherein the extractive agent comprises at least one member of the group consisting of acetamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, adiponitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and sulfolane.

Berg, L.; Vosburgh, M.G.

1986-07-22

128

Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation  

SciTech Connect

Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [INC-DTCI-ICSI Rm. Valcea, str.Uzinei, Nr.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15

129

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

130

Phytosterol Distribution in Fractions Obtained from Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Using Sieving and Elutriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(6):626-630 In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation was effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the coproduct remaining after ethanol production from corn. To separate fiber, air was blown through sieve fractions in an elutriation column. Material carried by air to the top of the elutriation column was the lighter

Radhakrishnan Srinivasan; Robert A. Moreau; Kent D. Rausch; M. E. Tumbleson; Vijay Singh

2007-01-01

131

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

Riggs, J.B.

1997-07-01

132

Feasibility of application of Thayer method to crude oil distillation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of an evaluation of Victor R. Thayer's invention: ''Process and Apparatus for reducing the Energy Required to Separate Liquids by Distillation'', applied to crude oil distillation. In brief, Thayer claims that given a side draw-off pump-around on a distillation column for energy conservation, there would be a significant cost advantage by using on-tray heat exchange rather than external exchange. Preliminary cost estimates were made: external case, $1,091,000 +- 15%; on-tray case, $882,200 +- 20%; both values falling within the estimated uncertainity limits. Therefore, and coupled with much greated annual maintenance costs, a significant cost advantage of the on-tray system was not verified. The primary conclusion of the evaluation was that, in our opinion, the Thayer method will not be used for retrofit of crude oil distillation units, and probably will not be used in the design of new crude units. 12 refs.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Althaus, Y.E.

1987-07-31

133

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

134

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15

135

Solar power water distillation unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

2013-06-01

136

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

137

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15

138

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

139

Compartmental modeling of high purity air separation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants. The development of nonlinear control technology is motivated by the need to frequently change production rates in response to time varying utility costs. Detailed column models based on stage-by-stage balance equations are too complex to be incorporated directly into optimization-based strategies such as nonlinear model predictive control.

Shoujun Bian; Suabtragool Khowinij; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

2005-01-01

140

Compartmental modeling of high purity air separation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants. The development of nonlinear control technology is motivated by the need to frequently change production rates in response to time varying utility costs. Detailed column models based on stage-by-stage balance equations are too complex to be incorporated directly into optimization-based strategies such as nonlinear model predictive control.

Shoujun Biana; Suabtragool Khowinij; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

141

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

142

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

143

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

SciTech Connect

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15

144

Distillation pinch points and more  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising energy costs have spawned renewed interest in improving methodologies for the synthesis, design and\\/or retrofitting of separation processes. It is well known that energy use in many process industries is dominated by separation tasks—particularly distillation. In this work, the shortest stripping line approach recently proposed by Lucia, Amale, & Taylor (2006) is used to find minimum energy requirements in

Angelo Lucia; Amit Amale; Ross Taylor

2008-01-01

145

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which

Antal

1982-01-01

146

Prediction of Temperature and Concentration Distributions of Distillation Sieve Trays by CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional two-fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict concentration and temperature distributions on sieve trays of distillation columns and good simulation results are obtained. The dispersed gas phase and continuous liquid phase are modeled in the Eulerian framework as two interpenetrating phases with interphase momentum, heat and mass transfer. Closure models are developed for interphase transfer

Mahmood-Reza Rahimi; Rahbar Rahimi; Farhad Shahraki; Morteza Zivdar

2006-01-01

147

Design of a reactive distillation process for ultra-low sulfur diesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the applicability of the reactive separation concepts to the deep-hydrodesulfurization process has been performed. Through the computation of the reactive residue curve maps a basic conceptual design of a reactive distillation column was obtained. This preliminary design considers two reactive zones, each one packed with a different catalyst, a Ni?Mo based catalyst for the bottom reactive section

Eduardo S. Perez-Cisneros; Salvador A. Granados-Aguilar; Pedro Huitzil-Melendez; Tomas Viveros-Garcia

2002-01-01

148

Pervaporation and vapor permeation at the azeotropic point or in the vicinity of the LLE boundary phases of organic\\/aqueous mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervaporation and vapor permeation experiments have been performed in order to investigate separately the effect of feed density and concentration on the material transport from the bulk feed to the bulk permeate. Measurements have been carried out for the azeotropic mixtures ethanol\\/water, 1,4-dioxane\\/water and 2-propanol\\/water at 333 and 353 K using a hydrophilic PVA\\/PAN-composite-membrane. In particular the influence of the

M. S. Schehlmann; E. Wiedemann; R. N. Lichtenthaler

1995-01-01

149

Pervaporative separation of ethanol\\/water azeotrope using a novel chitosan-impregnated bacterial cellulose membrane and chitosan–poly(vinyl alcohol) blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervaporative (PV) performance with respect to the separation of ethanol\\/water (EtOH\\/H2O) azeotrope was assessed for a bacterial cellulose membrane (BCM) impregnated with chitosan (CTSN), designated as CTSN–BCM. The PV potential of CTSN–BCM was compared with that of parent polymers and also with the blends of CTSN with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). The blends and CTSN–BCM were characterized using spectroscopic and

Vinita Dubey; Lokesh Kumar Pandey; Chhaya Saxena

2005-01-01

150

Fractionation and characterization of sulfur compounds in petroleum distillates  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a procedure for the fractionation and the characterization of sulfur containing compounds in petroleum distillated is described. The method is based on a chromatographic separation using alumna columns coated with silver nitrate (Ligard Exchange Chromatography) which permits the separation of molecules containing aromatic sulfur (thiophenic compounds) from the sulfides. The subsequent gc analysis using selective atomic emission detector allows the quantification of the two types of compound s in each fraction. The results of the application of this procedure on an Egyptian gas-oil from Belaym crude are reported.

Del Bianco, A.; Anelli, M. (Eniricerche S.p.A., Via Maritano 26, 20097 S. Donato, Milano (IT)); Riva, A. (Agip S.p.A., Via Maritano 26, 20097 Milano (IT))

1992-01-01

151

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

152

Key distillation in quantum cryptography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

Slutsky, Boris Aron

1998-11-01

153

Feasible separation modes for various reactive distillation systems  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of steady states of continuous reactive distillation processes is discussed by applying the theory of static analysis (SA). The generality of this approach is proved by applying several industrial examples, all of which have different reaction schemes and thermodynamical properties. For each example process, the entire feed composition region is divided into several subregions, each of which has similar characteristics for the product composition and the column structure. The information derived by this analysis can be used effectively for the selection of the desirable feed composition and column configurations. The results of various examples indicate that the SA is a very convenient tool that provides an answer to the question of feasibility and provides hints for an early stage of design.

Giessler, S.; Danilov, R.Y.; Pisarenko, R.Y.; Serafimov, L.A.; Hasebe, S.; Hashimoto, I.

1999-10-01

154

Column oriented Database Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Column-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as opposed to traditional database systems that store entire records (rows) one after the other. Reading a subset of a table's

Daniel J. Abadi; Peter A. Boncz; Stavros Harizopoulos

2009-01-01

155

Irresolvable complex mixture of hydrocarbons in soybean oil deodorizer distillate.  

PubMed

Aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) can be used as a fingerprint of a given seed oil. Only by characterization of aliphatic HCs could contamination by mineral oil in that seed oil be confirmed. During the isolation of squalene from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, a significant amount of unknown HCs, ca. 44 wt%, was obtained. These seemingly-easy-to-identify HCs turned out to be much more difficult to elucidate due to the presence of an irresolvable complex mixture (ICM). The objective of this study was to purify and identify the unknown ICM of aliphatic HCs from soybean oil deodorizer distillate. Purification of the ICM was successfully achieved by using modified Soxhlet extraction, followed by modified preparative column chromatography, and finally by classical preparative column chromatography. FT-IR, TLC, elemental analysis, GC/FID, NMR and GC-MS analyses were then performed on the purified HCs. The GC chromatogram detected the presence of ICM peaks comprising two major peaks and a number of minor peaks. Validation methods such as IR and NMR justified that the unknowns are saturated HCs. This work succeeded in tentatively identifying the two major peaks in the ICM as cycloalkane derivatives. PMID:22162261

Ju, Yi-Hsu; Huynh, Lien-Huong; Gunawan, Setiyo; Chern, Yaw-Terng; Kasim, Novy S

2011-12-01

156

UTILIZATION OF ACTIVATED ZEOLITE AS MOLECULAR SIEVE IN CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMN FOR SEPARATION OF COAL TAR COMPOUNDS Pemanfaatan Zeolit Aktif sebagai Molecular Sieve untuk Pengisi Kolom Kromatografi pada Pemisahan Komponen Tar Batu Bara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of activated zeolite (ZAA) as molecular sieve to separate compounds of coal tar from vaccum fractional distillation, have been done. The size of zeolite was 10-20 mesh and used as solid phase in column chromatography with length of 30 cm. The first step of the research was coal pyrolisis and the product (tar) was distillated by fractional column and

Dwi Retno; Nurotul Wahidiyah; Bambang Setiaji; Iqmal Tahir

157

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

158

Fiber Separation from Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Using a Larger Elutriation Apparatus and Use of Fiber as a Feedstock for Corn Fiber Gum Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier study, a combination of sieving and elutriation (airflow) was found to be effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); the elutriation column diameter used was 63 mm. Larger quantities of fractions were needed for conducting studies on coproduct production from the fractions. In this study, an elutriation apparatus with a larger elutriation column

R. Srinivasan; M. P. Yadav; R. L. Belyea; K. D. Rausch; L. E. Pruiett; D. B. Johnston; M. E. Tumbleson; V. Singh

159

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.  

PubMed

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two procedures were compared. Finally, the agreement between boiling points of polar compounds determined from their retention times and actual boiling points was investigated. PMID:21153592

Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2011-03-01

160

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31

161

Single Column Pyrotechnic Delay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the past, rocket assisted artillery projectiles used dual column pyrotechnic delays as a mechanism for igniting the rocket motor. The development of a single column pyrotechnic delay is discussed. Design methodology and results of testing are also disc...

W. W. Smith

1996-01-01

162

Hydrotreating of Mixtures of Coal Derived Middle Distillate and Petroleum Middle Distillates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mixtures of 50 vol % Wandoan coal derived middle distillate (C) and 50 vol % petroleum middle distillate (Ta-Ching (T), Iranian heavy (I), Khafji (K) ) or middle distillate from Cold Lake oil sand bitumen (O) were hydrotreated using a Ni-Mo-Al2O3 cata...

T. Kondo K. Ukegawa A. Matsumura K. Koguchi

1984-01-01

163

Influence of type of distillation apparatus on chemical profiles of brazilian cachaças.  

PubMed

Brazilian cachaças (115 samples; 73 samples derived from distillation in copper pot stills, 42 samples derived from distillation in stainless steel columns), collected directly at the producers, were analyzed for the contents of 34 constituents by chromatography, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The PCA treatment led to discrimination of the two groups of cachaças, explaining 65.0% of the database variance. Using LDA and ethanal, ethyl carbamate, dimethyl sulfide, isobutyl alcohol, n-propanal, copper, ethyl acetate, and phenylmethanal as chemical descriptors, a model was developed that presented 95.1% accuracy in predicting the type of distillation apparatus. PMID:17629298

Reche, Roni Vicente; Neto, Alexandre Ferreira Leite; Silva, Alexandre Ataide Da; Galinaro, Carlos Alexandre; Osti, Renata Zachi De; Franco, Douglas Wagner

2007-08-01

164

Small scale ethanol production demonstration: comparison of packed versus plate rectifying column  

SciTech Connect

The Johnson Environmental and Energy Center with assistance from the Madison County Farm Bureau Association received a grant in 1980 from the US Department of Energy to design, fabricate, and evaluate a small scale continuous ethanol plant. In 1981, the Center received a second DOE grant to compare the economics of replacing the plate rectifying column in the initial unit with a packed rectifying column. The results of the study indicate that the distillation unit with the packed rectifying column is capable of producing 14 gallons per hour of 170 proof ethanol. The energy ratio for distillation was a positive 2:1. Cost of the packed column was considerably less than the plate column. 1 reference, 19 figures, 9 tables.

Adcock, II, L E; Eley, M H; Schroer, B J

1982-07-01

165

Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

Marek Gryta

2006-01-01

166

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived s...

H. Huang K. Wang S. Wang M. T. Klein W. H. Calkins

1996-01-01

167

Membrane distillation. II. Direct contact MD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure water direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) experiments were used to measure the permeability parameter associated with the molecular diffusion in membrane distillation (MD). The fluxes given by a recently reported MD model, which is based on the dusty-gas model of gas transport through porous media, showed good agreement with the experimental results over the entire range of feed temperatures

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1996-01-01

168

Heat transport in the membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of membrane distillation (MD) with a laminar flow of the streams in a module has been performed. The equations describing the heat transfer in MD capillary modules were presented and verified experimentally. The equations were derived for the calculation of the feed and distillate temperature at a layer adjacent to the membrane. The heat transfer correlations were implemented in

Marek Gryta; Maria Tomaszewska

1998-01-01

169

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15

170

DIFFUSIONAL DISTILLATION IN A GAS STREAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory plant is described where fractional water distillation for ; O¹⁸ concentration is performed by diffusional distillation into a carrier ; inert gas. The operating pressure is not less than atmospheric, while the ; operating temperature (20 to 30 deg C) allows a good separation factor to be ; achieved. The whole plant is an assembly of 100 vertical

M. Silvestri; S. Villani; N. Adorni; G. C. Angelino

1959-01-01

171

Nondistillable Entanglement Guarantees Distillable Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monogamy of entanglement is one of the basic quantum mechanical features, which says that when two partners Alice and Bob are more entangled then either of them has to be less entangled with the third party. Here we qualitatively present the converse monogamy of entanglement: given a tripartite pure system and when Alice and Bob are entangled and nondistillable, then either of them is distillable with the third party. Our result leads to the classification of tripartite pure states based on bipartite reduced density operators, which is a novel and effective way to this long-standing problem compared to the means by stochastic local operations and classical communications. Furthermore we systematically indicate the structure of the classified states and generate them. We also extend our results to multipartite states.

Chen, Lin; Hayashi, Masahito

2013-06-01

172

Closed-Loop Helical Distillation Apparatus. Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the project are to: design and construct a more efficient mash distillation unit; reduce physical size and material cost in distillation; use readily available material in the construction of distillation equipment; and improve the opera...

D. L. Gahimer

1981-01-01

173

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2013-04-01

174

Use of a Batch Reactive Distillation with Dynamic Optimization Strategy to Achieve Industrial Grade Ethyl Acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industrial grade ethyl acetate is available with minimum purity of 85.0%. It is mostly produced by an ethanol esterification in a distillation process on both batch and continuous modes. However, researches on high purity production with short operating time are rarely achieved. Therefore, the objective in this work is to study an approach to produce ethyl acetate of 90.0% by 8 hours using a batch reactive distillation column. Based on open-loop simulations, the distillation with constant reflux ratio cannot achieve the product specification. Thus, the dynamic optimization strategy is proposed to handle this problem. For the process safety--preventing the dried column and fractured, a minimum reflux ratio must be determined in advance and then an optimal reflux profile is calculated to achieve optimal product yield. Simulation results show that the industrial grade ethyl acetate can be produced by the dynamic optimization programming with two or more time intervals. Besides, the increasing of time intervals can produce more distillate product.

Konakom, Kwantip; Saengchan, Aritsara; Kittisupakorn, Paisan; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.

2011-08-01

175

RECOVERY OF URANIUM HEXAFLUORIDE FROM A PROCESS GAS STREAM BY ABSORPTION DISTILLATION TECHNIQUES EMPLOYING A LIQUID FLUOROCARBON MEDIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete recovery of uranium hexafluoride from a nitrogen-uranium ; hexafluoride mixture was accomplished with a packed column absorption-; distillation system employing perfluorodimethylcyclohexane, CâFââ, as ; the sorbent. The pilot plant operated well on a continuous basis, and the ; limiting gas and liquid rates agreed well with those predicted from standard ; correlations. For absorption, values of the height of

R. A. Ebel; C. C. Littlefield; D. C. Brater; S. H. Smiley

1959-01-01

176

Computer aided design of reactive distillation processes for the treatment of waste waters polluted with acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical study of reactive distillation processes to remove acetic acid from its 30wt% aqueous solution by esterification with n-butanol is presented. Two different column structures were identified rendering theoretically close to 100 percent conversion of acetic acid. A model capable of precisely predicting the potential phase split is used. Total costs for the new processes are estimated and compared

Jignesh Gangadwala; G. Radulescu; Achim Kienle; K. Sundmacher

2007-01-01

177

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

Riggs, J.B.

1996-11-01

178

Separation of butanol from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by a hybrid extraction-distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative fuel butanol can be produced via acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation from biomass. The high costs for the separation of ABE from the dilute fermentation broth have so far prohibited the industrial-scale production of bio-butanol. In order to facilitate an effective and energy-efficient product removal, we suggest a hybrid extraction–distillation downstream process with ABE extraction in an external column. By

Korbinian Kraemer; Andreas Harwardt; Rob Bronneberg; Wolfgang Marquardt

2011-01-01

179

Conceptual design of a reactive distillation process for ultra-low sulfur diesel production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a thermodynamic analysis in terms of reaction-separation feasibility, a conceptual design of a reactive distillation column for ultra-low sulfur diesel production has been developed. The thermodynamic analysis considers the computation of reactive and non-reactive residue curve maps for a mixture that models the sulfured diesel fuel. The visualization of the reactive residue curves is posed in terms of

Tomás Viveros-García; J. Alberto Ochoa-Tapia; Ricardo Lobo-Oehmichen; J. Antonio de los Reyes-Heredia; Eduardo S. Pérez-Cisneros

2005-01-01

180

Analytical Investigation of the Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons of Distilled Lime Oil (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of distilled lime oils of different geographic origin was analyzed in detail. Gas chromatography on capillary columns of varied polarity was employed for the optimal separation of the components in GC\\/MS. This led to the unambiguous identification of a number of sesquiterpenes. ?-Santalene, ?-amorphene, epi-?-santalene, ?-sesquiphellandrene, 4(14),7(11)-selinadiene and (E)-?-bisabolene were confirmed as so far unknown

Wolfgang Feger; Herbert Brandauer; Manfred Ziegler

1999-01-01

181

Mass transfer efficiency of randomly-packed column: modeling considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the performance of a randomly packed distillation column depending on the effective vapor–liquid interfacial area (ae) and the flood ratio (%Fl). An approach to design with respect to the derivatives of the function ae=f(%Fl) has been evaluated using %Fl due to the Eckert flooding model. The proposed log–basis equation for ae of random packings is expected

Aynur Senol

2001-01-01

182

Correlate the flooding of packed columns a new way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Packed-column pressure-drop and flooding-point prediction has received new attention recently. These publications, like most earlier ones, focus on gas-flow-induced pressure drop, and flooding due to liquid entrainment in the packing. A few years ago, some problems occurred when packing was applied in high-pressure distillation service, such as ethylene and propylene superfractionators. Apparently, the maximum liquid-through-put capacity was lower than predicted

1994-01-01

183

Effects of water on steam rectification in a packed column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of water on steam rectification, i.e., multi-stage saturated steam distillation, were investigated in a packed column. N-octane–p-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene–1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were used as test systems. Both binary systems are nearly ideal systems and insoluble in water, thus the effects of water in steam rectification can be clearly and definitely revealed. Such unpolar organic liquid is named as “oil”. The

Qingli Qian; Hongxing Wang; Peng BAI; Guoqing Yuan

2011-01-01

184

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

185

Five Points on Columns  

PubMed Central

“Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five points, in no way comprehensive or canonical, but which may nevertheless serve as a prompt and aid for further discussions and re-evaluation. These are: that anatomical columns are not solid structures, that they are part of locally interdigitating systems, that any delimited column also participates in a widely distributed network, that columns are not an obligatory cortical feature, and that columns (as “modules”) occur widely in the brain in non-cortical structures. I focus on the larger scale macrocolumns, mainly from an anatomical perspective. My position is that cortical organization is inherently dynamic and likely to incorporate multiple processing styles. One can speculate that the distributed mappings within areas like piriform cortex may resemble at least one mode of neocortical processing strategy.

Rockland, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

186

Near azeotropic mixture substitute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention comprises a refrigerant mixture consisting of a first mole fraction of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and a second mole fraction of a component selected from the group consisting of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124) and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b); a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a) and CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124); a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a) and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b); and a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124), CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b) and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a).

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

187

Economic Distribution of Distilled Spirits Within DOD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective was to determine whether the military exchange systems provided the most economical method of distributing distilled spirits. The audit also evaluated whether using commercial distributors rather than military exchange distribution c...

S. R. Young R. D. Kidd M. A. Joseph T. J. Tonkovis S. M. Hutcherson

1998-01-01

188

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

189

Two-Phase Flow and Energy Transfer of a Non-Azeotropic Mixture, R-407c, in a Micro-Fin Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is to determine experimentally the two-phase flow and energy transfer characteristics of a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture, R-407c (nominal composition: 23% R-32, 25% R-125, and 52% R-134a). R-407c is a fluid with zero ozone depletion potential and one of several alternatives to currently widely used pure refrigerant HCFC-22. As a non-azeotrope, R-407c has distinctly different characteristics from pure fluids. The phase change of a non-azeotrope under constant pressure does not proceed at a constant temperature but rather over a range of temperature. In addition, the momentum, energy transfer, and mass transfer processes are closely linked. The vapor-liquid interfacial mass transfer rate limits the evaporation or condensation rate, and in turns limits the energy transfer rate. The experiments are conducted in a test apparatus with a fluid sampling port to monitor the composition change of the mixture. The test section consists of six horizontal identical passes, constructed as double tube heat exchangers. Each pass is about 2.2 m long and are connected in order by 7.6 cm radius U-bends. The heated or cooled section of each pass is shorter than the pass length and is 1.8 meter long. The inner (mixture) tube of the test section is a nominal 3/8" inch (9.5 mm) copper tube of 0.348 mm wall thickness with 72 axial fins of 0.185 mm height on its inner surface. The apex angle of the fins is 15 deg. and the helix angle is 0. The annulus-side water, serving as heat source (evaporating mode) or heat sink (condensing mode), flows through the annular space between inner and outer tubes. The tests are conducted at 100 deg F dew point temperature and mass flux from 192,000 to 818,000 lb/hr-ft^2 for condensing, and 50 deg F dew point and mass flux from 70,000 to 394,000 lb/hr-ft^2 for evaporating. The experimental results show that, compared to R-22, two-phase flow frictional pressure gradients of R-407c are about 10% less than R-22. Due to the mass transfer resistance, its condensing coefficients are 15% to 30% lower and its evaporating coefficients are about 20% lower, relative to R-22.

Liu, Xin

1996-11-01

190

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

191

Inflatable Column Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight structural member easy to store. Billowing between circumferential loops of fiber inflated column becomes series of cells. Each fiber subjected to same tension along entire length (though tension is different in different fibers). Member is called "isotensoid" column. Serves as jack for automobiles or structures during repairs. Also used as support for temporary bleachers or swimming pools.

Hedgepeth, J. M.

1985-01-01

192

The book review column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to the Book Reviews Column. We hope to bring you at least two reviews of books every month. In this column four books are reviewed. 1. Stable Marriage and its Relation to Other Combinatorial Problems: An Intro- duction to Algorithm Analysis by Donald Knuth. Reviewed by Tim McNichol. This book uses the stable marriage problem as motivation to look

William I. Gasarch

2004-01-01

193

Support Column of Bridge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Support column of bridge across Struve Slough, Highway 1. Enlargement of hole where support enters the ground is an effect of lateral shaking, which caused the concrete to break up where the column joined the bridge and was instrumental in the roadbed collapse....

2009-01-26

194

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3? {3}+1) ? 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

2013-06-01

195

27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled spirits. 17.162 Section 17.162 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS...Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

196

Substituting Wet Distillers Grains or Condensed Distillers Solubles for Corn Grain in Finishing Diets for Yearling Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was conducted with 790-lb yearling heifers fed an average of 121 days to evaluate replacing cracked corn and supplemental urea with wet distillers grains or condensed distillers solubles. Wet distillers grains were evaluated at 16%, 28% and 40% of diet dry matter. Condensed distillers solubles were added at 6.5% of diet dry matter. Control diets were supplemented

Allen Trenkle

1997-01-01

197

Design and construction of a packed column simulator operating under atmospheric and reduced pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation under reduced pressure for the separation of constituants is considered. To avoid thermic damage in columns, the most important parameters are pressure loss and resistance time. The development of a simulator, enabling the determination of the hydrodynamic parameters with the mixture air-water under different pressures for any given mixture, is carried out. A bibliographic study and a reference study,

Abdelhamid Messaoudene

1989-01-01

198

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

SciTech Connect

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Krovi, Hari; Devetak, Igor [Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2007-07-15

199

Tritum recovery system from waste water of fusion reactor using CECE and cryogenic-wall thermal diffusion column  

SciTech Connect

A system for recovery of tritium in water has been proposed. The system is composed of CECE (Combined Electrolysis Chemical Exchange) and CTD (Cryogenic-wall Thermal Diffusion) columns. A design study was carried out for the two cases: the waste water processing in fusion facilities; and the tritium recovery from heavy water in a fission reactor in Japan. The size and power consumption of the system can greatly be reduced by using the CECE column than the system of WD (Water Distillation) columns. The operation and maintenance of the CTD column are quite easier than the CD (Cryogenic Distillation) column. The proposed system would be applicable for some cases such as the waste water processing in tritium facilities, where the processing flow rate is relatively small. 11 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Arita, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Iwai, Y.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Kobayashi, N.; Yamamoto, I. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31

200

Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

Dr. James B. Riggs

2000-11-30

201

Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory  

SciTech Connect

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2005-09-15

202

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

203

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

204

Conception et Realisation d'UN Simulateur de Colonne Garnie Fonctionnant Sous Pression Atmospherique et Sous Pression Reduite (Design and Construction of a Packed Column Simulator Operating under Atmospheric and Reduced Pressure).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distillation under reduced pressure for the separation of constituants is considered. To avoid thermic damage in columns, the most important parameters are pressure loss and resistance time. The development of a simulator, enabling the determination of th...

A. Messaoudene

1989-01-01

205

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

206

USING DISTILLERS GRAINS IN DAIRY CATTLE RATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillers grains are co-products produced from the fermentation of grains for alcohol. Traditionally, alcohol was produced mainly for the beverage liquor industry, but in the last 20 years its use as an alternative fuel has increased significantly. This increased demand has led to the development of several ethanol production plants in Minnesota and the surrounding area. In 1996, it is

James G. Linn; Larry Chase

207

MODELLING OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION - PROPYLENE OXIDE PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectivity and equilibrium of chemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the distillation of one or more products from the reaction mixture. Simultaneous reaction and separation of the desired product is very important in the case of consecutive reactions. Simulation of the reactor for propylene oxide (POX) synthesis from propylenechlorohydrine (PCH) and calcium hydroxide is presented in the paper. The

M. Kotora; Z. Švandová

2005-01-01

208

Distillation plant development and cost update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in desalination technology have resulted in significant savings in cost compared with earlier plants. Both distillation and reverse osmosis processes are now viable means of water production from a seawater source in the developing countries of the MENA area as well as in the more traditional oil-producing Gulf States. Three processes are commercially available for large size plants

Neil M. Wade

2001-01-01

209

Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

1983-01-01

210

Removal of water haze from distillate fuel  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

1989-04-04

211

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2013-04-01

212

DISTILLATION OF LIGHT WATER FROM HEAVY WATER MODERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the equipment and method of operation of a ; distillation system to remove light water from heavy water moderator. The basic ; principles of the theory of distillation are reviewed. ( auth);

Bertsche

1958-01-01

213

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified...additives with distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane...Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel Item Units Ultra low sulfur Low sulfur High...kg 300-500 2000-4000 ASTM...

2009-07-01

214

A Column Dispersion Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Crushed glass and a Rhodamine B solution are used in a one-dimensional optically scanned column experiment to study the dispersion phenomenon in porous media. Results indicate that the described model gave satisfactory results and that the dispersion process in this experiment is basically convective. (DC)

Corapcioglu, M. Y.; Koroglu, F.

1982-01-01

215

Columns in Clay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

Leenhouts, Robin

2010-01-01

216

76 FR 19908 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections...AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...distilled spirits plant regulations in the...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...distilled spirits plant regulations as...

2011-04-11

217

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine prepared from the distillate obtained in the destructive distillation (carbonization) of wood, and commonly known prior to the passage of the act as destructively distilled wood turpentine or D.D. wood...

2009-01-01

218

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine prepared from the distillate obtained in the destructive distillation (carbonization) of wood, and commonly known prior to the passage of the act as destructively distilled wood turpentine or D.D. wood...

2010-01-01

219

Apparatus for fractionation of certain hydrocarbons. [distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparatus for separating sharp boiling point fractions from products of cracking petroleum oil comprises a fractional condenser; a condensate outlet from the fractional condenser; a first rectifying column connected to the condensate outlet; means for taking top, bottom and side cuts from the first rectifying column; a vapor outlet from the fractional condenser; an absorber connected to the vapor outlet;

H. S. Davis; W. J. Murray

1931-01-01

220

Optimal control of distillation column using Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many control problems involve simultaneous optimization of multiple performance measures that are often non-commensurable and competing with each other. The presence of multiple objectives in a problem usually gives rise to one set of optimal solutions, largely known as Pareto-optimal solutions. In this paper, the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) has been successfully applied to optimization of dynamic state of

Alireza Behroozsarand; Sirous Shafiei

2011-01-01

221

Condensation of Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Blends of R114 and R113 in a Horizontal Annulus with an Enhanced Inner Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer during condensation of non-azeotropic refrigerant blends (NARBs) of R114 and R113 in the annulus of a horizontal double tube. The inner tube was a 19.1mm o.d. corrugated tube with soldered wire fins on the outer surface. The outer tube was a 29.9mm i.d. smooth tube. Experiments were performed at two vapor mass fractions of R114 at the test section inlet of 0.23 and 0.36. The mass velocity of the test fluids ranged from 50 to 200kg/m2·s. The frictional pressure gradient data were correlated fairly well by an empirical equation for condensation of pure R11 and R113 reported in a previous paper. The double tube showed a significant heat transfer enhancement over a smooth tube value. The heat transfer coefficient for NARBs was considerably smaller than that for pure R113. The decrease was more significant for a low mass velocity. A dimensionless correlation for the vapor phase mass transfer coefficient was derived, where the dimensionless parameters for forced convection condensation from a vapor-gas mixture flowing normal to a cylinder was extended to the case of NARBs.

Nozu, Shigeru; Honda, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Tohru; Shibukuwa, Ken-Ichi

222

Design and construction of a packed column simulator operating under atmospheric and reduced pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distillation under reduced pressure for the separation of constituants is considered. To avoid thermic damage in columns, the most important parameters are pressure loss and resistance time. The development of a simulator, enabling the determination of the hydrodynamic parameters with the mixture air-water under different pressures for any given mixture, is carried out. A bibliographic study and a reference study, performed with a test mixture on a pilot column under reduced pressure, packed with Raschig ring are presented. The simulator and the results obtained are reported. The main hydrodynamic parameters such as pressure drop, hold-ups and flooding rate were taken into account. The packed column was considered as a reactor and the results of the residence time distribution are reported. Theoretical models show that the packed column behaves as an association of continuous stirred-tank reactors in series. A comparison between the actual column results and the simulator results demonstrate the accuracy of the simulation.

Messaoudene, Abdelhamid

1989-03-01

223

Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

2014-07-01

224

Bubble column bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article investigates the behavior of bubble column bioreactors with yeast culture media in the absence of cells.\\u000a To aid in the assessment of these reactors the following properties were estimated and partly theoretically treated: relative\\u000a mean gas hold-up, bubble swarm velocity, bubble size, gas\\/liquid interfacial area, energy requirement for aeration, oxygen\\u000a transfer coefficient across the gas\\/liquid interface and

K. Schügerl; J. Lücke; U. Oels

225

Behaviour of fixed-bed column for the adsorption of malachite green on surfactant-modified alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prepared surfactant-modified alumina (SMA) was used to remove malachite green (MG) from aqueous media. At a dose of 10 g\\/L, SMA removed ? 99% MG (initial concentration 100 mg\\/L). The adsorption capacity (Qmax) of SMA was 185 mg\\/g as calculated from Langmuir isotherm. In a fixed-bed column study, using the MG-spiked distilled water, the column design parameters were evaluated by

Asit Das; Anjali Pal; Sandip Saha; Sanjoy K. Maji

2009-01-01

226

Squalene recovery from olive oil deodorizer distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil deodorization distillate contains squalene in a concentration range of 10 to 30 wt%. A process for its recovery\\u000a by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is described. The process consists mainly of converting the free fatty acids and\\u000a the methyl and ethyl esters normally occurring in this by-product into their corresponding triglycerides. The latter are then\\u000a extracted with supercritical carbon

Paolo Bondioli; Carlo Mariani; Armando Lanzani; Enzo Fedeli; Adam Muller

1993-01-01

227

Calcium sulphate scaling in membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of precipitates containing CaSO4 during membrane distillation, applied to the concentration of aqueous salt solutions, is discussed in this paper. It was\\u000a found that the concentration of SO42? ions in such solutions should not exceed 600 mg L?1 when they are subjected to concentration. However, concentration of sulphates at the level of 800 mg L?1 in the feed is

Marek Gryta

2009-01-01

228

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

229

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

230

Catalytic hydroprocessing of petroleum and distillates  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong push for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and/or residue, which carries with it some problems. These are connected with obtaining state-of-the-art technologies at reasonable capital and operating costs to the refiner. Then there are problems associated with choosing the best catalyst--one specially designed to lower considerably the high content of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and metals (V, Ni, Fe). To address the above considerations, engineers and scientists working in the processing of petroleum and distillates from different parts of the world presented papers covering different facets of residue upgrading and distillate hydrotreating. This book is a compilation of most of the papers presented in the five sessions of the symposium. The editors have broadly classified the papers in terms of content into the following four categories: catalyst deactivation; upgrading of heavy oils and residue; hydrotreating of distillates; and general papers. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Oballa, M.C. [ed.] [Novacor Research and Technology Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shih, S.S. [ed.] [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

231

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15

232

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

233

The tallest column — optimality revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the optimal design of the tallest unloaded column under selfweight is revisited with a view towards clarifying the optimality of the design proposed by Keller and Niordson (The Tallest Column, J. Math. Mech. 16 (1966), pp. 433–446). The height of the tallest column is related to the first eigenvalue of a Sturm-Liouville operator. Since the operator associated

C. Maeve McCarthy

1999-01-01

234

Tests on slender composite columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two series of load tests on slender composite columns: eight tests on concrete filled rectangular hollow steel section columns and seven tests on concrete encased rolled steel joist columns, both with end eccentricities producing moments other than single curvature bending. In all tests, normal strength concrete of grade C25\\/30 and low strength steel of grade S275 were

Yong Wang

1999-01-01

235

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

236

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01

237

Experimental verification of the equilibrium stage model for the dynamics of the multicomponent distillation considering the effects of energy loss  

SciTech Connect

This paper on the dynamics of multicomponent distillation is based on experimental investigations in a laboratory-scale distillation column. The concentration and temperature profiles are obtained at the steady-state operating point, and the transition behavior is observed by systematically changing the relevant operating variables. The general scope of these experiments is to evaluate and study the concentration and temperature profiles measured along the column height. The developed methodology for sampling at vacuum is explained. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained by means of steady-state and dynamic simulation. The influence and the important of heat losses on the steady-state and dynamic behavior at high temperature levels are investigated and discussed. The aim of these studies is to prove the steady-state and dynamic simulation tool on the basis of the equilibrium stage model. It is found that the simulation results agree closely with those obtained experimentally. This refers to the concentration and temperature profiles as well as to the calculated and the experimentally used reboiler heat input. In order to achieve this good agreement, heat losses along the column height have to be taken into account in the simulation. Consequently, the consideration of heat losses is of great importance for the determination of HETP values in packed columns.

Kruse, C. [COGNIS GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fieg, G.; Jeromin, L.; Johannisbauer, W. [Henkel KGaA, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wozny, G. [TU Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozess- und Anlagentechnik

1995-05-01

238

Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS. PMID:21299215

Liu, KeShun

2011-03-01

239

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

SciTech Connect

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15

240

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation.  

PubMed

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved [formula: see text] state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved [formula: see text] states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

Fowler, Austin G; Devitt, Simon J; Jones, Cody

2013-01-01

241

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01

242

Preparation of distilled and purified continuous-variable entangled states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of entangled states of light over long distances is a major challenge in the field of quantum information. Optical losses, phase diffusion and mixing with thermal states lead to decoherence and destroy the non-classical states after some finite transmission-line length. Quantum repeater protocols, which combine quantum memory, entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping, were proposed to overcome this problem. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of entanglement distillation in the continuous-variable regime. Entangled states were first disturbed by random phase fluctuations and then distilled and purified using interference on beam splitters and homodyne detection. Measurements of covariance matrices clearly indicate a regained strength of entanglement and purity of the distilled states. In contrast to previous demonstrations of entanglement distillation in the complementary discrete-variable regime, our scheme achieved the actual preparation of the distilled states, which might therefore be used to improve the quality of downstream applications such as quantum teleportation.

Hage, Boris; Samblowski, Aiko; Diguglielmo, James; Franzen, Alexander; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

2008-12-01

243

Distilled and drinkable water quality produced by solar membrane distillation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scarcity of water for human consumption in many places such as arid and semi-arid regions is well known. This situation has become even more complicated in those areas where there are virtually no energy sources or the electrical grid is too weak or has not been provided. In these cases, the solar membrane distillation (MD) technology is an emerging and

J. R. Betancort Rodríguez; V. Millán Gabet; G. Melián Monroy; A. Bello Puerta; I. Fonseca Barrio

2012-01-01

244

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

245

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2010-01-01

246

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

SciTech Connect

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15

247

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

SciTech Connect

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01

248

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

1987-01-01

249

Method and apparatus for distillation of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The condensible parts are removed from the distillation gas of oil shale, a portion of the remaining amount of gas is removed and the rest is heated, E.G., by the combustion gas of the distillation residue and used without the addition of any more materials to distill oil shale. The installation for this consists of a distillation cyclone reactor, whose gas outlets are connected to an oil separator and whose tangential feed nozzles are connected by way of a blower and a heat exchanger to the oil separator.

Escher, G.; Frohnert, H.; Wenning, H.

1983-06-14

250

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Bruß, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara

2003-08-01

251

Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.  

PubMed

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other. PMID:14525209

Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara

2003-08-29

252

Columbia Library Columns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most institutions keep records of their various activities, and university libraries are no different. Columbia University's Library published its in-house "Columbia Library Columns" from 1951 to 1996. Over the years it was edited by several people, including Kenneth A. Lohf, Jean Ashton, and Michael Stoller. This remarkable archive brings together the entire run; all told, it includes 135 issues and 6,900 pages. Visitors can browse the table of contents, peruse a list of all the volumes, and also perform a detailed keyword search. The Selected Articles of Interest collection brings together some of the most compelling offerings, such as "The John Jay Papers," "Instructing Women: Conduct Books in the Plimpton Library," and a rather intriguing piece from 1978 titled "The Library of the Future Has Books."

253

Phase equilibria for high-boiling fossil-fuel distillates  

SciTech Connect

An experimental procedure is described for characterizing high-boiling, distillable fossil-fuel mixtures. A mixture is first separated into narrow-boiling fractions using a spinning-band column operating at low pressure and high reflux. Each fraction is characterized by structural properties as given by the number of atoms per average molecule for the following: carbon, aromatic-, ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..-, and ..gamma..-hydrogen; hydroxyl, ether oxygen; primary and secondary amines, pyridinic nitrogen; and thiophenic sulphur. Phase-equilibrium measurements were made for the crude-oil fractions using closed, constant-volume equilibrium cells. The reported measurements include vapor-pressures of eight fractions and the solubilities of methane, ethane, and carbon dioxide in one fraction. The measurements were made at sub-atmospheric pressures and from 20/sup 0/C to the lower of the atmospheric boiling point of the fraction of 300/sup 0/C. Liquid densities for the fractions were measured over the same temperature range for use in calculating gas solubilities by mass balance. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state is used to calculate phase equilibria for the systems. Equation-of-state constants are calculated from structural-characterization data. Limited experimental data indicate that vapor pressure calculations for petroleum fractions based on structural data are comparable to those based on specific gravity and normal boiling point. The results of this study suggest that for petroleum fractions, structural data for characterization do not provide significantly improved correlation of vapor pressures when that correlation is based on a simple model like the Soave equation. For effective utilization of structural characterization data, it appears necessary to base correlations on a more realistic molecular model that is more suitable for mixtures of large molecules.

Alexander, G.L.

1985-01-01

254

Five-Layer Density Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners can create five-layer density columns by employing one of three (or all) methods. Method 1 gives the names of the liquids and the order for adding them, and its goal is to directly construct the density column without any experimentation. Method 2 assumes names and densities of the five materials to be unknown, and involves open-ended experimenting, with few instructions, to construct the column. Method 3 also assumes names and densities of the materials to be unknown, and outlines a systematic way to approach the experimentation involved in constructing the column. Learners complete data tables and analyze the densities of the substances.

Rathjen, Don

2005-01-01

255

Compact electron beam focusing column  

SciTech Connect

A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

2001-07-13

256

45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. MAIN MEETING ROOM COLUMNS. Ends of gallery columns identified at the time of removal for transfer to the George School for re-erection. The stamp reads, 'REMOVED FROM 12th ST. MTG HSE PHILA 1972'. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

257

Solar pond driven distillation and power production system  

SciTech Connect

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. 4 refs.

Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

1981-01-01

258

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997  

EIA Publications

This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

Information Center

1997-06-15

259

Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

1996-01-01

260

Crude Oil Steam Distillation in Steam Flooding. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields i...

C. H. Wu R. B. Elder

1980-01-01

261

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

1995-01-01

262

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

263

A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

2006-01-01

264

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

265

Surface Depletion in the Vacuum Distillation of Metals from Bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Surface depletion was investigated in laboratory- and plant-scale distillation units with mixing by natural convection or by mechanical surface agitation. A model was developed for predicting the degree of surface depletion during the distillation of metals from bismuth as a function of temperature, still pot dimensions, and degree of agitation. This paper discusses those findings.

Bradley, R.F.

2001-08-29

266

Enhanced topic distillation using text, markup tags, and hyperlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topic distillation is the analysis of hyperlink graph structure to identify mutually reinforcing authorities (popular pages) and hubs (comprehensive lists of links to authorities). Topic distillation is becoming common in Web search engines, but the best-known algorithms model the Web graph at a coarse grain, with whole pages as single nodes. Such models may lose vital details in the markup

Soumen Chakrabarti; Mukul Joshi; Vivek Tawde

2001-01-01

267

Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon  

SciTech Connect

We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

2005-09-08

268

Utilization of distiller waste from ammonia-soda processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to examine the utilization of basic waste of soda ash industry: distiller waste. The aim of the process described is to obtain calcium sulphate in the form of gypsum by means of calcium ions contained in distiller waste liquid. Another raw material is sludge, a suspension which is created during the process of brine

T. Kasikowski; R. Buczkowski; B. Dejewska; K. Peszy?ska-Bia?czyk; E. Lemanowska; B. Igli?ski

2004-01-01

269

Concentration of noni juice by means of osmotic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic distillation (OD) or osmotic evaporation (OE) is a promising membrane process generally applied to concentrate solutions under isothermal conditions. In this work, this process was applied to concentrate commercial noni juice (Morinda citrifolia). Several nutraceutical properties have been reported for noni-derived products, mainly associated to the phenolic content of the fruit.The analyzed system is an osmotic distillation system where

H. Valdés; J. Romero; A. Saavedra; A. Plaza; V. Bubnovich

2009-01-01

270

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing which requires substantially fewer resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes with a transversal Hadamard operation which can distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call ``multilevel distillation.'' We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ?in = 0.01 to ?out in the range 10-5 to 10-40 is about 1410(1/?out) - 40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing.

Jones, Cody

2013-03-01

271

The Distillation Yield and Properties of Ternary Crude Oils Blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase of business transactions, processing blending oil is increasingly more common. Enhancing the distillation yield by optimizing the blending oils is currently one of the major challenges refineries are facing to make them profitable. Iran crude oil, Saudi crude oil, and Cabinda crude oil were selected to be studied in this article. The blending oil distillation yields and

L. Shaoping; D. Luoyong; S. Benxian; Z. Lijuan; T. Feng; X. Xinru; Y. Jingyi; Z. Beilei

2011-01-01

272

Charcoal adsorption of phenolic compounds present in distilled grape pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal adsorption of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity from distilled grape pomace pressing liquors (DPPL) and distilled grape pomace autohydrolysis liquors (DPAL) was carried out under anoxic conditions using commercially available activated charcoals (AC) in powdered, granulated or pelletized form. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second order rate, and equilibrium was reached in less than 15h. The Langmuir and Freundlich

María Luisa Soto; Andrés Moure; Herminia Domínguez; Juan Carlos Parajó

2008-01-01

273

Dorsal column stimulator applications  

PubMed Central

Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains unknown. The mechanism of action of SCS would be based on the antidromic activation of the dorsal column fibers, which activate the inhibitory interneurons within the dorsal horn. At present, the indications of SCS are being revised constantly, while new applications are being proposed and researched worldwide. Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is the most common indication for SCS, whereas, the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the second one. Also, this technique is useful in patients with refractory angina and critical limb ischemia, in whom surgical or endovascular treatment cannot be performed. Further indications may be phantom limb pain, chronic intractable pain located in the head, face, neck, or upper extremities, spinal lumbar stenosis in patients who are not surgical candidates, and others. Conclusion: Spinal cord stimulation is a useful tool for neuromodulation, if an accurate patient selection is carried out prior, which should include a trial period. Undoubtedly, this proper selection and a better knowledge of its underlying mechanisms of action, will allow this cutting edge technique to be more acceptable among pain physicians.

Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damian

2012-01-01

274

Extraction of soluble fiber from distillers' grains.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using coproducts from dry grind corn ethanol production as a substrate for the production of soluble fiber was examined. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis experiments were performed using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide to partially hydrolyze hemicellulose content of whole stillage, a precursor to distillers' grains, to soluble fiber. The influences of temperature, reaction time, and hydrolyzing agent concentration on the formation of soluble fiber were studied. Soluble fiber was recovered by precipitation in a 95% ethanol solution. Results indicate that appreciable quantities of soluble fiber may be extracted using either acid- or base-catalyzed reactions. The highest yield of soluble fibers was 13.2 g per 100 g-db of treated whole stillage using one weight percent sodium hydroxide at 80ºC for 1 h. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the amount of monomeric sugars which were formed during the hydrolysis procedures. PMID:22203395

Flodman, Hunter R; Boyer, Elizabeth J; Muthukumarappan, Arthy; Noureddini, Hossein

2012-02-01

275

EFFECTS OF VARYING LEVELS OF PROCESSED DISTILLERS SOLUBLES AND DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES ON NITROGEN AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF BEEF STEERS 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A series of nine metabolism studies were conducted with growing beef steers in switch- back or latin-square designs to evaluate the effect of (1) screened process distillers solubles (SDS), (2) screened process distillers grains with solubles (SDGS), (3) centrifuged process dis- tillers solubles (CDS), (4) centrifuged process distillers grains with solubles (CDGS) and (5) screened process distillers grains (SDG)

M. C. Chen; W. M. Beeson; T. W. Perry; M. T. Mohler

276

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-01-01

277

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-02-01

278

Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.  

PubMed

Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD. PMID:18849039

Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

2008-11-14

279

Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.  

PubMed

The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation. PMID:24627202

Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

2014-06-01

280

Use of Corn Distiller's Solubles from an Ethanol Plant for Aquaculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended...

C. C. Kohler

1984-01-01

281

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

282

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

283

40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section...manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance...manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture of...

2013-07-01

285

40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). 721.10530...10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87) is...

2013-07-01

286

27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 ...kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. (a) Brand name and kind...mean the same thing. (c) State of distillation â(1) Mandatory statement....

2009-04-01

287

40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene...

2013-07-01

288

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

289

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2010-04-01

290

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2009-04-01

291

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2013-04-01

292

27 CFR 28.26 - Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. 28.26 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.26 Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. (a) Distilled...

2010-04-01

293

27 CFR 28.26 - Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. 28.26 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.26 Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. (a) Distilled...

2009-04-01

294

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes...

2010-04-01

295

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2013-04-01

296

77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional 10 days. In Notice...of identity regulations for distilled spirits to include...

2012-06-29

297

Performance of multi-step-ahead-prediction ARX for steam temperature in a self-refilling distillation essential oil extraction system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, performance of multi-step-ahead-prediction (k-SAP) of ARX is evaluated. The data were collected from the self-refilling distillation column using RTD sensor with associated signal conditioning circuit. The control signal is on\\/off which is excited from pseudo-random binary sequences (PRBS). The PRBS is initially generated using MATLAB with 1 probability band. Then the signal is used by data acquisition

Mohd Hezri Fazalul Rahiman; Mohd Nasir Taib; YusofMd Salleh

2007-01-01

298

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

299

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ??0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(?2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ?in=0.01 to ?out in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/?out)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

Jones, Cody

2013-04-01

300

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

301

Possible remediation of dioxin-polluted soil by steam distillation.  

PubMed

2,7-Dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DCDD) was found to evaporate easily with water vapor from a heated solution. Steam distillation was also effective for the removal of DCDD from DCDD-applied soil; its concentration (250 microg/50g soil) in the original soil decreased to less than 5% after steam distillation for only 20 min. Actual dioxin-polluted soil in Tokorozawa City was partially decontaminated using the same method. These results suggest that steam distillation could be a new remedial method for soils contaminated with persistent environmental pollutants, such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:11515579

Mino, Y; Moriyama, Y

2001-08-01

302

Fiber Composite Columns under Compression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The micromechanics of fiber composite columns under compression is investigated theoretically. The model is based on the assumption that the fiber buckles inside the matrix under critical load. In the postbuckling range the fiber is considered as a beam o...

Y. C. B. Fung Y. N. Lanir

1971-01-01

303

Finite Element Beam Column Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A beam column under compressive loads with initial curvature exhibits typically different behavior as compared to linear elastic response of structural members within the framework of small displacement theory. For rings and beams with small initial curva...

J. H. Vandersloot

1977-01-01

304

Telescoping columns. [parabolic antenna support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extendable column is described which consists of several axially elongated rigid structural sections nested within one another. Each section includes a number of rotatably attached screws running along its length. The next inner section includes threaded lugs oriented to threadingly engage the screws. The column is extended or retracted upon rotation of the screws. The screws of each section are selectively rotated by a motor and an engagement mechanism.

Mazur, J. T. (inventor)

1980-01-01

305

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specified in Table 1 of this section. (c) You may use the following nonmetallic additives with distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust inhibitor. (5)...

2013-07-01

306

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOEpatents

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11

307

EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

308

A New Distillation Algorithm for Floating-Point Summation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summation of n floating-point numbers is ubiquitous in numerical computations. We present a new distillation algorithm for floating-point summation which is stable, efficient, and accurate. The algorithm iteratively \\

Yong-Kang Zhu; Jun-Hai Yong; Guo-Qin Zheng

2005-01-01

309

Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Reinhard F. [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

2004-06-01

310

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for enhanced analysis of naphthas: new column combination involving permethylated cyclodextrin in the second dimension.  

PubMed

A new column association using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the detailed molecular analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures is reported in this paper. In order to compare the impact of two different secondary columns, a novel column combination relying on a GC x 2GC system was used. This system is based on a non-polar first column (PONA) combined with both a permethylated beta-cyclodextrin (beta-Dex 120) stationary phase and a polysilphenylensiloxane (BPX 50) in the second dimension. Compared to BPX 50 stationary phase, the implementation of beta-cyclodextrin columns as the second dimension was found to improve the resolution between paraffins and naphthenes in the naphtha range but not in the middle distillate range. Attempts to improve the results and to understand the interaction mechanism remained unsuccessful. Therefore, the benefits of the beta-Dex 120-column are only demonstrated on heavy naphtha cut for the quantitation of hydrocarbons. PMID:18082171

Adam, Frédérick; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

2008-01-18

311

Distillation of the two-mode squeezed state.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed state obtained by parametric down-conversion. Applying the photon annihilation operator to both modes, we raise the fraction of the photon-pair component in the state, resulting in the increase of both squeezing and entanglement by about 50%. Because of the low amount of initial squeezing, the distilled state does not experience significant loss of Gaussian character. PMID:24579571

Kurochkin, Yury; Prasad, Adarsh S; Lvovsky, A I

2014-02-21

312

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

313

Distillation of The Two-Mode Squeezed State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed state obtained by parametric down-conversion. Applying the photon annihilation operator to both modes, we raise the fraction of the photon-pair component in the state, resulting in the increase of both squeezing and entanglement by about 50%. Because of the low amount of initial squeezing, the distilled state does not experience significant loss of Gaussian character.

Kurochkin, Yury; Prasad, Adarsh S.; Lvovsky, A. I.

2014-02-01

314

Adding hydrogen donor to visbreaking improves distillate yields  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen donor visbreaking can be an attractive process for improving distillate yields when upgrading heavy crude oils and resids. Hydrogen donor visbreaking is a process in which a donor is provided to supply the hydrogen needed to obtain good distillate from residual materials. The process is a combination of two proven processes: visbreaking and mild gas-oil hydrogenation. It can be readily adapted to existing refinery equipment.

Bakshi, A.S.; Lutz, I.H.

1987-07-13

315

Reduction: distillation method for sulfate determination  

SciTech Connect

This article describes an improvement of the reduction/distillation/spectrophotometric technique that is widely used in the nuclear industry. The procedure involves the reduction of oxidized forms of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide with a hot solution containing hydroiodic acid, sodium hypophosphite, and acetic acid. The hydrogen sulfide is sparged from the reaction mixture with nitrogen which is then bubbled through a dilute zinc acetate solution which traps the sulfide. The addition of acid, p-aminodimethylaniline, and ferric chloride to the zinc acetate trapping solution quantitatively converts the sulfide to methylene blue which is then measured by absorption spectrophotometry at 667 nm. In this version of the technique, the samples and standard are added serially to a single, relatively large batch of the boiling reduction solution. The apparatus is not cooled down and disassembled between each sample run and the reduction solution is kept at a boil at all times and is continuously sparged with nitrogen gas. This reduces the total analysis time to a fraction of that necessary with the previous methods. Tables are presented summarizing the studies on: effect of matrix constituents on the determination of 100 ..mu..g of sulfate; effects of nitrates; and comparison of ion chromatographic results with those obtained by the sulfate reduction techniques. Agreement between values is good for these two techniques. The overall time for the analysis of a single solution sample is on the order of 10 min including the delay for color development. The relative standard deviations obtained on finely ground solid calcined nuclear waste containing from 0.1 to 10% sulfur as sulfate are typically on the order of 3 to 5%.

Siemer, D.D.

1980-10-01

316

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

317

Quantitative ester analysis in cachaca and distilled spirits by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

An analytical procedure for the separation and quantification of ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl octanoate, and ethyl laurate in cachaca, rum, and whisky by direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method is simple, selective, and appropriated for the determination of esters in distilled spirits. The limit of detection ranged from 29 (ethyl hexanoate) to 530 (ethyl acetate) microg L(-1), whereas the standard deviation for repeatability was between 0.774% (ethyl hexanoate) and 5.05% (isoamyl octanoate). Relative standard deviation values for accuracy vary from 90.3 to 98.5% for ethyl butyrate and ethyl acetate, respectively. Ethyl acetate was shown to be the major ester in cachaca (median content of 22.6 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol), followed by ethyl lactate (median content of 8.32 mg 100 mL(-1) anhydrous alcohol). Cachaca produced in copper and hybrid alembic present a higher content of ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate than those produced in a stainless-steel column, whereas cachaca produced by distillation in a stainless-steel column present a higher content of ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl laurate. As expected, ethyl acetate is the major ester in whiskey and rum, followed by ethyl lactate for samples of rum. Nevertheless, whiskey samples exhibit ethyl lactate at contents lower or at the same order of magnitude of the fatty esters. PMID:18570431

Nascimento, Eduardo S P; Cardoso, Daniel R; Franco, Douglas W

2008-07-23

318

Maximizing efficiency using Agilent Poroshell 120 columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Columns based on superficially porous technologies are an alternative to sub-2-µm particle based columns. The combination of these columns with the Agilent 1290 Infinity LC system produces high efficiency separations. Agilent Poroshell 120 columns offer:  Lower back pressure  Highest efficiency  Comparable volume capacity Author

Angelika Gratzfeld-Hüsgen; Edgar Naegele

319

Distillation of multipartite entanglement by local filtering operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study how to distill two typical multipartite entangled noisy states, the amplitude-damped W state and the amplitude-damped Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Unlike the currently existing multipartite entanglement purification schemes, our scheme is a single-copy-based scheme, i.e., only one noisy state is needed in each distillation round, and the complicated multilateral controlled-not (cnot) operations are replaced by measurements of local positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs). The results show that local POVM measurements on one copy of the noisy state can project the initial state onto a new state with higher entanglement and nonlocality. In this scheme, although the final state can violate the multipartite Bell inequality, the corresponding initial noisy state does not violate it, which means that this distillation scheme can reveal the hidden genuine multipartite nonlocality of these initial states. For the case of the amplitude-damped W state, if the POVM parameters are appropriately chosen, the fidelity of the output state can approach 1.0 for all the initial states with fidelity bigger than zero. So this single-copy-based multipartite entanglement distillation scheme has a wide range of distillable fidelities, and it is much simpler than the two-copy- or multiple-copy-based schemes. Furthermore, if the POVM measurement is carried out only on some member qubits rather than all of them, the distillation scheme can succeed too, which will greatly decrease the implementation complexity of the scheme. So this multipartite entanglement distillation scheme may be implementable in some physical system.

Huang, Yi-Sheng; Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

2014-06-01

320

Dilute-acid pretreatment of distillers' grains and corn fiber.  

PubMed

Distillers' grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the dry grind and wet corn milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers' grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their high levels of lignocellulosic material make them attractive feedstock for conversion to ethanol. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis for the conversion of distillers' grains and corn fiber to monomeric sugars and the formation of furfural were investigated. The extent of solubilization of biomass beyond monomeric sugars was also monitored. Biomass loadings in the range of 5-20 wt.% at 5% intervals, acid concentrations in the range of 0.5-1.5 vol.% at 0.5% intervals, and temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C were studied. The highest yields of monomeric sugars were observed when the least amount of biomass loading was pretreated with the highest concentration of sulfuric acid and when the temperature was 140 degrees C. For the majority of the cases under consideration, the most effective period of hydrolysis appeared to be during the initial 20-30 min of the reaction. Formation of furfural during the course of hydrolysis was significantly lower at 120 degrees C and also lower for the distillers' grains samples compared with the corn fiber samples. The total amount of the solubilized matter during the hydrolysis was significantly higher than the amount of the monomeric sugars. Analyses according to standard procedure were performed to quantify moisture, oil, carbohydrates, and ash in distillers' grains and corn fiber samples. The total carbohydrate content of distillers' grains and corn fiber were 57.7+/-2.0 and 77.0+/-1.0 wt.%, respectively. The presented results will provide a foundation for the suitability of the pretreated distillers' grains and corn fiber for enzymatic hydrolysis step. PMID:19773157

Noureddini, H; Byun, J

2010-02-01

321

Demonstration of ``regulatory`` process controls on the TSTA cryogenic distillation system  

SciTech Connect

Due to the nature of its fusion reaction, most of the DT used to fuel the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will exit unreacted. This effluent will be purified by the fuel cleanup system so that the isotope separation system (ISS) will be fed only hydrogen isotopes and possibly some helium. The ISS will separate this feed into streams nominally composed of He/H2/HD, D2, DT, and T2. These products will be recycled through appropriate fueling systems back to the fusion reactor or returned to storage. The ISS will have to respond properly to feed conditions which change rapidly. Feed changes will propagate quickly through the entire cascade. It is apparent that an automatic control system will be required to respond to these changes and maintain product quality. It is convenient to divide such a distillation control system into `regulatory` controls and composition controls. The `regulatory` controls include liquid levels, flowrates, reboiler heats, and pressure. A system of regulatory controls has been devised and installed on the four-column cascade of cryogenic columns at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This tritium-compatible ISS is designed for approximately 1/10 the ITER flowrate and is dedicated to fusion fuel studies. Details of the TSTA ISS have been published previously.

Willms, R.S.; Sherman, R.H.; Cole, S.P.; Riggs, J.B.; Okuno, K.

1995-04-01

322

Editorial: Research and Teaching Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The JCST Research and Teaching column will feature sound research on curriculum, pedagogy, and student learning at the college level. Topics of interest include all fields of science: chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, physics, geography, mathematics, environmental science, and computer science. Studies that are interdisciplinary or are readily applicable to several disciplines in the sciences are also of interest.

Towns, Marcy

2008-03-01

323

Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.  

PubMed

The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-01-01

324

Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes some activities concerning chemistry education, including a brief report of the 1973 conference on teaching of pre-university courses, a statement about using plastics containers, a survey of mathematical skills in chemistry, discussions about the Nuffield Foundation 27th Report and the report "Science for the 13-16 Age Group." (CC)

Education in Chemistry, 1974

1974-01-01

325

Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles are included concerning industry and schools, science and mathematics award scheme, teaching and research, safety, inservice training, Ugandan chemistry, plastics, and 19th century Nuffield. (DF)

Education in Chemistry, 1973

1973-01-01

326

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H 2 ( ˜0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H 2 and D 2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to ˜99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called "Heli-pack". The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.2±0.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H 2 to the purified HD gas.

Ohta, T.; Bouchigny, S.; Didelez, J.-P.; Fujiwara, M.; Fukuda, K.; Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S.; Rouillé, G.; Tanaka, M.; Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M.; Wang, S. Y.; Yosoi, M.

2012-02-01

327

Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

2013-11-01

328

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2009-07-15

329

Density Column Lab - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this first part of a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate the densities of several common, irregularly shaped objects with the purpose to resolve confusion about mass and density. After this activity, conduct the associated Density Column Lab - Part 2 activity before presenting the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for discussion about concepts that explain what students have observed.

GK-12 Program,

330

Method for packed column separations and purifications  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA)

2006-08-15

331

Use of simulation in rating and design of distillation units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate level of modelling detail in steady state flowsheet simulations is an important question for the calculation of thermal separation operations such as absorption, distillation, and liquid\\/liquid extraction. The generation of consistent mass and energy balances may often be performed employing standard implementations for the various unit operations. Surprisingly, operability and sensitivity aspects of the process may be estimated

Ulrich Eiden; Stephan Scholl

1997-01-01

332

27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for Taxes § 19.669 ...(1) Imposition of tax liability (§§ 19.222,...

2013-04-01

333

27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...officer. The requisition shall show the flight number, the registry number...retain both copies until the return of the flight. In case any of the distilled spirits...amended, 72 Stat. 1336, 1362, 1380; 19 U.S.C. 1309, 26 U.S.C....

2013-04-01

334

Investigation of Fuel Pump Failures with Navy Distillate Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the probable cause or causes of the fuel pump failures that have been encountered in some Naval ships since conversion to navy distillate (ND) fuel. The study concentrated on the pumps of the USS Constellation, since this ship has suff...

D. S. Wilson E. B. Arwas S. F. Murray A. L. Gu

1971-01-01

335

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

336

Process control interface system for a distillation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because it allows an efficient, flexible, and reliable system. The interface system is presented in an operator-friendly application, which has the capability

A. Téllez-anguiano; F. Rivas-cruz; C.-M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-garcía; David Juárez-romero

2009-01-01

337

Utilization of dried distillers grains for developing beef heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-yr study was conducted at 2 loca- tions to determine if supplementing beef heifers with dried distillers grains (DDG) as an energy source af- fected growth or reproduction. Spring-born crossbred heifers (n = 316) were blocked by age or sire and age and assigned randomly to DDG or control (dried corn gluten feed, whole corn germ, urea) supplement. Heif-

J. L. Martin; A. S. Cupp; R. J. Rasby; Z. C. Hall; R. N. Funston

2007-01-01

338

Atmospheric Steam Superheater for Steam Distillation of Food Antioxidants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steam superheater was designed and built to operate at atmospheric pressure and to provide superheated steam for as many as twelve edible fat and/or oil samples undergoing steam distillation for BHA and BHT antioxidants. The steam flow rate is sufficien...

D. Meo E. A. Goffi J. Swift

1971-01-01

339

Investigation on drying of middle distillate by Pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying of middle distillate (MD), from which diesel fuel is made, by Pervaporation (PV) was experimentally investigated in a laboratory plant applying organic membranes. The work was conducted in cooperation with a refinery in which MD is catalytically desulphurized by hydrogenation. The H2S formed is separated by steam stripping. The resulting water content in the MD is removed by

Karl-Heinz Reichmann; Ninja Hildebrand; Jürgen Freitag; Rainer Kossol; Helmut Schiml

2010-01-01

340

EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

341

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

342

Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

2005-01-01

343

Study on the concentration of acids by membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane distillation (MD) process was applied for the concentration of different mineral acids, such as, sulfuric phosphoric, hydrochloric and nitric acids. The MD of a citric acid solution as an example of an organic acid was also investigated. The experiments were carried out keeping the warm feed and cold solution temperatures at 333 and 293 K, respectively. The data

M. Tomaszewska; M. Gryta; A. W. Morawski

1995-01-01

344

Parametric studies in industrial distillation. Part I. Design comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum cost surfaces compare eight distillation systems separating ternary feeds. The regions of optimality for various designs depend upon the species separated, but changes in feed composition have characteristic effects on the relative costs. These characteristic effects can be used to generate heuristics in the form of expected regions of optimality, based on composition and simple physical properties. The expected

D. William Tedder; Dale F. Rudd

1978-01-01

345

Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

1968-01-01

346

Improved algorithms for topic distillation in a hyperlinked environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of topic distillation on the World Wide Web, namely, given a typ- ical user query to nd quality documents related to the query topic. Connectivity analysis has been shown to be useful in identifying high quality pages within a topic specic graph of hyperlinked documents. The essence of our approach is to augment a previous

Krishna Bharat; Monika Rauch Henzinger

1998-01-01

347

BIT at TREC 2009 Faceted Blog Distillation Task.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Paper presents the work done for the TREC 2009 faceted blog distillation task of blog track. In our approach, we use a mixture of language models based on global representation. Our model can be regarded as a combination of topic relevance model and ...

C. Zhang P. Jiang Q. Yang Z. Niu

2009-01-01

348

Blog Distillation for Linking Wikipedia Entries to Blog Feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to blog distillation, i.e., searching for blog feeds that are principally devoted to a given topic. We study this task for the purpose of regarding each of Wikipedia entries as a topic and linking it blog feeds. First, in order to collect candidates of blog feeds for a given query, in this paper, we use

Mariko KAWABA; Hiroyuki NAKASAKI; Tomohiro FUKUHARA

2008-01-01

349

Effect of kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of models is derived for studying the effects of chemical kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation. Activity-based rate and phase equilibrium expressions provide an accurate and thermodynamically consistent description of composition changes in nonideal, reacting vapor-liquid mixtures. For certain strategies of operation, which dictate the rate of product removal, the model equations are nonautonomous, leading to

Ganesh Venimadhavan; George Buzad; Michael F. Doherty; Michael F. Malone

1994-01-01

350

SOME APPLICATIONS ON VACUUM DISTILLATION OF METALS TO RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of qacuum distillation of metals to radiochemical ; separations was explored using mercury, indium, and cadmium as examples. ; Separations studied include those which couple chemical reduction or electrolysis ; from solution with volatillization, as well as carrier-free separations made ; directly from solid metals. Critical evaluations are included for yield and ; contamination. The degree of separation

J. R. DeVoe; W. W. Meinke

1963-01-01

351

Characterization of membrane distillation membranes prepared by phase inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flat membrane distillation membranes have been successfully manufactured from PVDF\\/DMAc and PVDF\\/DMF blends by using phase inversion induced by an immersion precipitation technique. The structure of the membranes is asymmetric with a porous top layer and macrovoids, as assessed by SEM. The existence of MD fluxes in these membranes is established by performing various pure water flux

J. M. Ortiz de Zárate; J. I. Mengual

1995-01-01

352

Membrane Distillation and Related Operations—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane contactors represent an emerging technology in which the membrane is used as a tool for inter phase mass transfer operations: the membrane does not act as a selective barrier, but the separation is based on the phase equilibrium. In principle, all traditional stripping, scrubbing, absorption, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, emulsification, liquid?liquid extraction, and mass transfer catalysis processes can be carried

Efrem Curcio; Enrico Drioli

2005-01-01

353

Reduction of Total Acid Number of Crude Oil and Distillate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of total acid number (TAN) of crude oil and distillate was investigated. Organic amines and aqueous ammonia were evaluated. Among organic amines, diethylamine and diethylenetriamine can effectively reduce the TAN. Superior alkalinity can improve acid removal while steric hindrance may weaken acid removal. The result showed that aqueous ammonia can acquire ideal results when the molecule ratio of ammonia

R. Lu; X. Xu; J. Yang; J. Gao

2007-01-01

354

Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

2013-06-01

355

Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1981-12-01

356

Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process

Jean-Pierre Mericq; Stéphanie Laborie; Corinne Cabassud

2010-01-01

357

Environmental impacts of seawater distillation and reverse osmosis processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents and compares the marine and atmospheric discharges of typical large MSF and RO plants. Distillation plants require an inlet seawater flow around 8 to 10 times the fresh water production rate, for cooling and feed make-up. The discharge is raised in salinity and in temperature, due to heat rejection from the process. A seawater RO plant generally

A. J. Morton; I. K. Callister; N. M. Wade

1997-01-01

358

Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes. PMID:22159042

Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

2012-02-01

359

Analysis of the Competitive Viability of Independent Middle Distillate Marketers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The viability of the home heating oil dealer is being threatened by changes in the basic conditions of the middle distillate industry. These changes, which were examined over the study period from 1972 through 1978, are summarized below. (1) The overall n...

1979-01-01

360

Membrane Distillation - Examples of Applications in Technology and Environmental Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents membrane distillation (MD), a separation process based on evaporation through pores of a hydrophobic membrane. Different configurations of the process were considered. Membrane properties, transport phenomena through the membranes, and module designs have been discussed. Appli- cations of MD in water and wastewater treatment as well as in the food industry have been presented. The concentration of

M. Tomaszewska

2000-01-01

361

Two-stage hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation process for distillate hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydrotreating process. It comprises passing a stream of middle distillate charge stock into the first of at least two reaction zones and producing a first reaction zone effluent, the two reaction zones comprising a first catalytic reaction zone containing a fixed bed of solid desulfurization catalyst; separating the first reaction zone effluent into liquid and vapor

E. C. Haun; G. J. Thompson; J. K. Gorawara; D. K. Sullivan

1992-01-01

362

Distillate Fuel Processing for Marine Fuel Cell Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing a 625 kW fuel cell power plant for marine applications based on its Direct Carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC(Trademark)) technology. The power plant is designed for operation on Mil-F- 16884J Naval distillate fuel designat...

G. Steinfield R. Sanderson H. Ghezel-Ayagh S. Abens M. C. Cervi

2000-01-01

363

40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...Chemical Substances § 721.10625 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...substances identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene...

2013-07-01

364

Do-It-Yourself Guideline for Constructing a Solar Alcohol Distillation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and testing of a solar powered distillation system are described. The system consists of a parabolic dish collector, a two axis sun tracking stand, sun tracking solar cell system, condenser, fermentation tanks, and continuous distillation ...

B. W. Kennedy

1982-01-01

365

27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous...

2009-04-01

366

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar...203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2010-04-01

367

27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous...

2010-04-01

368

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling...204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2009-04-01

369

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling...204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2010-04-01

370

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar...203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2009-04-01

371

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rectification, warehousing, or warehousing and bottling. 1.82 Section 1.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.82 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in...

2009-04-01

372

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rectification, warehousing, or warehousing and bottling. 1.82 Section 1.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.82 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in...

2010-04-01

373

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. 28.28 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and...

2009-04-01

374

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. 28.28 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and...

2010-04-01

375

27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on...

2013-04-01

376

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2013-04-01

377

The Shape of the Tallest Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The height at which an unloaded column will buckle under its own weight is thefourth root of the least eigenvalue of a certain Sturm--Liouville operator. We show that the operatorassociated with the column proposed by Keller and Niordson (The Tallest Column, J. Math. Mech.,16 (1966), pp. 433--446) does not possess a discrete spectrum. This calls into question their formaluse

C. Maeve Mccarthy; Steven J. Cox

1998-01-01

378

Stratigraphic Columns Across Southern Western Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website depicts stratigraphic columns of exposed rocks in southwestern regions of the United States. A general explanation of symbols used in the columns is provided for reference, and the columns indicate rock type, formation names and geologic time periods. The areas covered include the Grand Canyon, central and southern Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, and western New Mexico and Colorado.

Blakey, Ronald

379

29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the top of the column shaft. (3) Columns shall be set on level finished floors, pre-grouted leveling plates, leveling nuts, or shim packs which are adequate to transfer the construction loads. (4) All columns shall be evaluated by a...

2013-07-01

380

How to design baffle tray columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

As with packed columns, well-known heat transfer equations can be used to estimate mass transfer efficiencies for baffle tray columns. Other variables that can be calculated using this method include: flooding capacity, pressure drop, number of transfer units (NTUs) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP). Gas-liquid contacting columns containing simple baffles have been used in hydrocarbon processing

Fair

1993-01-01

381

MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF COLUMN CONSOLIDATED PASTE BACKFILL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to characterize the microstructural properties of cemented paste backfill (CPB) after its self-weight consolidation in columns. To reach this objective, three self-weight consolidation column tests that have each 3 m height were carried out on in situ CPB samples at Louvicourt mine's backfill plant. These columns simulate three realistic drainage scenarios such as fully

Erol Yilmaz

382

Dry-Column Flash Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

1997-10-01

383

AN EXHAUSTIVE STEAM-DISTILLATION AND SOLVENT-EXTRACTION UNIT FOR PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a modified Nielsen-Kryger steam-distillation apparatus that provides exhaustive distillation of pesticides and industrial chemicals from water, sediments, and tissue and the simultaneous extraction of the distillate by a small volume of organic solvent....

384

77 FR 6038 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports...AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports...the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...distilled spirits plants to report their...

2012-02-07

385

Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it

1984-01-01

386

Evaluation and Test Program of a 50-Ton Per Day ''Waste Distillator''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of the testing program was a 50-ton per day Waste Distillator manufactured by Waste Distillation Technology Inc. of Irvington, New York. This Distillator produces a volatile gas product (suitable as a boiler fuel) and carbon char residue via t...

R. Pfeffer G. Tardos A. LaCava

1985-01-01

387

Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

Hassan, Afifa Afifi

1981-01-01

388

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

SciTech Connect

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2007-11-15

389

Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We introduce distillation codes, a method for streamingand storing data. Like erasure codes, distillation codesallow information to be decoded from a sufficiently largequorum of symbols. In contrast to erasure codes, distillationcodes are robust against pollution attacks, a powerfulclass of denial of service (DoS) attacks in which adversariesinject invalid symbols during the decoding process.We examine applications of distillation codes to

Chris Karlof; Naveen Sastry; Yaping Li; Adrian Perrig; J. D. Tygar

2004-01-01

390

Method of enhancing distillate yield in a hydrocarbonaceous material thermocracking process  

SciTech Connect

A method for destructive distillation of hydrocarbonaceous distillant is disclosed wherein a dienophile is introduced into the vaporous phase to reduce the production of non-distillable polymeric product. Specifically dienophiles available economically in large amounts such as maleic anhydride are disclosed. The introduction of additional sulfide to further reduce production of asphaltenic polymeric product is also described.

Gleim, W.K.

1981-05-05

391

Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure nonstabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed nonstabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states

Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

2010-01-01

392

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Digugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman

2007-11-01

393

27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Distilling material or vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24... § 24.306 Distilling material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces...used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

2010-04-01

394

27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Distilling material or vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24... § 24.306 Distilling material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces...used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

2009-04-01

395

Design and optimization, using genetic algorithms, of intensified distillation systems for a class of quaternary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and optimization of a coupled multicomponent distillation system is a non-linear and mul- tivariable problem. The complexity of this kind of problem results in high solving difficulty. This paper addresses the application of genetic algorithms to the optimization of intensified distillation systems for quaternary distillations. We used a multiobjective genetic algorithm with restrictions coupled to the Aspen Plus

Héctor Hernández-Escoto; Salvador Hernández

2009-01-01

396

EVALUATION OF FEMA 356 MODELS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS AND BEAM-COLUMN JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the accuracy of FEMA 356 shear and flexure modeling procedures for reinforced concrete (RC) columns and beam-column joints with poorly detailed or insufficient reinforcement. Following the FEMA 356 guidelines, generalized flexure and shear force- deformation relations were developed and compared with the experimental data from 26 column specimens and 17 beam-column joint specimens. Specifically, the measured and

H. Sezen; F. Alemdar

397

Winogradsky Column Unit: Chemical and Physical Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part activity leads Physical Science students, grades 8-12, to explore chemical change using Winogradsky Columns. Part 1 constructs student concepts concerning chemical and physical changes. Part 2 asks students to compare physical versus chemical changes and observe chemical changes in a Winogradsky Column, and teaches them to build their own column. It includes the following student pages: introductory lesson, Winogradsky Column lesson, challenge your thinking activity sheet, how to make a Winogradsky Column, how to create an observation journal, and journal evaluation sheet.

Pevzner, Yevgeny; Shelton, Sharyn A.; Project, Westminster C.

398

Properties of monolithic silica columns for HPLC.  

PubMed

Monolithic silica columns and their use in high peak-capacity HPLC separations are reviewed. Monolithic silica columns can potentially provide higher overall performance than particle-packed columns based on the variable external porosity and variable through-pore size/skeleton size ratios. The high permeability of monolithic silica columns resulting from the high porosity is shown to be advantageous to generate large numbers of theoretical plates with long capillary columns. High permeability together with the high stability of the network structures of silica allows their use in high-speed separations required for a second-dimension column in two dimensional HPLC. Disadvantages of monolithic silica columns are also described. PMID:16760589

Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Tohru; Kimura, Hiroshi; Hara, Takeshi; Tokuda, Daisuke; Tanaka, Nobuo

2006-04-01

399

Soil column leaching of pesticides.  

PubMed

In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

Katagi, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

400

Reactive distillation for synthesizing ethyl tert-butyl ether from low-grade alcohol catalyzed by potassium hydrogen sulfate  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) from the reaction between ethanol (EtOH) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in the presence of different acid catalysts (KHSO{sub 4}, NaHSO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and Amberlyst 15) was investigated at low alcohol grade (mixture of 80 mol % water). Potassium hydrogen sulfate (KHSO{sub 4}) showed the highest selectivity among the tested catalysts. Other catalysts caused the dehydration of TBA into water (H{sub 2}O) and isobutene (IB). In the top of the reactive distillation column with total reflux, the condensate was split into two layers. The upper layer contained ETBE with a more than 60 mole fraction.

Matouq, M.; Quitain, A.T.; Takahashi, Katsuroku; Goto, Shigeo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-03-01

401

Determination of trace amounts of nitrogen in uranium based samples by ion chromatography (IC) without Kjeldahl distillation.  

PubMed

A simple, sensitive and fast ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection is described for the determination of traces of nitrogen in uranium based fuel materials. Initially a method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH4(+) using cation exchange column after matrix separation by Kjeldahl distillation. The method was then improved by eliminating this distillation. Matrix separation after sample dissolution was done by hydrolyzing and filtering off the polyvalent cations. This had helped in reducing both the sample size and analysis time. Optimization of dissolution conditions for various kinds of uranium based samples was done to keep acid content minimum; a prerequisite chromatographic condition. The calibration plot for nitrogen was linear in the concentration range of 0.02-1 mg L(-1) with regression coefficient of 0.9999. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) obtained in this method (100 microL injected) was 3% and 2% in 9 replicates at nitrogen level of 28 and 55 ng g(-1), respectively. Detection limit based on S/N=3 (100 microL injected) as well as three times of variation in blank value was 4 ng g(-1). The developed method was authenticated by comparison with certified uranium-alloy standard as well as with independent indophenol photometry method. The developed method was applied to uranium-alloy, uranium-metal, sintered UO2 pellets and sintered UO2 microspheres samples. PMID:17631107

Verma, Poonam; Rastogi, Ramakant K; Ramakumar, Karanam L

2007-07-23

402

Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states  

SciTech Connect

We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15

403

Possible Remediation of Dioxin-Polluted Soil by Steam Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,7-Dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DCDD) was found to evaporate easily with water vapor from a heated solution. Steam distilla- tion was also effective for the removal of DCDD from DCDD-ap- plied soil; its concentration (250 m mg\\/50 g soil) in the original soil decreased to less than 5% after steam distillation for only 20 min. Actual dioxin-polluted soil in Tokorozawa City was par-

Yoshiki MINO; Yoko MORIYAMA

2001-01-01

404

Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests. PMID:21327250

Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

2011-04-01

405

Superheated water extraction, steam distillation and SFE of peppermint oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superheated water extraction, steam distillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) are compared for extraction of\\u000a l-menthol, menthone, eucalyptol and other components of peppermint (mentha piperita) leaves. Different temperatures and pressures were investigated. SFE results at 25\\/40?°C and 6.5\\/8\\/10 MPa were comparable\\u000a with those reported in the literature. Although SFE is a gentle way of extracting thermally unstable compounds, this method

Andreas Ammann; Dirk C. Hinz; R. Shane Addleman; Chien M. Wai; B. W. Wenclawiak

1999-01-01

406

Wetting criteria for the applicability of membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation can only be applied on liquid mixtures which do not wet a microporous hydrophobic membrane. Solutions of inorganic material in water have such high values of surface tension (?Lgreater-or-equal, slanted72x10?3 N\\/m) that the non-wetting condition is fulfilled for a number of hydrophobic membranes. As soon as organic solutes are present in the solution, the surface tension?L will be

A. C. M. Franken; J. A. M. Nolten; M. H. V. Mulder; D. Bargeman; C. A. Smolders

1987-01-01

407

Theoretical and experimental studies on air gap membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) is an innovative membrane separation technique for pure water extraction from aqueous\\u000a solutions. In this study, both theoretical and experimental investigations are carried out on AGMD of different aqueous solutions,\\u000a namely, tap water, salted water, dyed solutions, acid solutions, and alkali solutions. A simple mechanistic model of heat\\u000a and mass transfer associated with AGMD is

G. L. Liu; C. Zhu; C. S. Cheung; C. W. Leung

1998-01-01

408

Determination of phenols using simultaneous steam distillation-extraction.  

PubMed

Simultaneous distillation-extraction was proposed as a preconcentration step for the determination of phenol and its derivatives in aqueous and soil samples. Detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) (water) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) (soil) were achieved by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The described preconcentration procedure was applied for the primary study of the adsorption equilibrium in a water-soil system serving as a model of phenol behaviors in the environment. PMID:10670728

Barták, P; Frnková, P; Cáp, L

2000-01-21

409

General Paradigm for Distilling Classical Key From Quantum States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a formalism for distilling a classical key from a quantum state in\\u000aa systematic way, expanding on our previous work on secure key from bound\\u000aentanglement [K. Horodecki et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005)]. More detailed\\u000aproofs, discussion and examples are provided of the main results. Namely, we\\u000ademonstrate that all quantum cryptographic protocols can be recast

Karol Horodecki; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim

2009-01-01

410

Fractionation of anhydrous milk fat by short-path distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anhydrous milk fat was fractionated by short-path distillation into four fractions at temperatures of 245 and 265 C and pressures\\u000a of 220 and 100 ?m Hg. Two fractions (LF1 and LF2) were liquid, one fraction (IF) was semi-solid and one fraction (SF) was\\u000a solid at room temperature. The fractions were characterized by melting temperature profile, solid fat index and triglyceride

Joseph Arul; Armand Boudreaua; Joseph Makhlouf; Rene Tardif; Tony Bellavia

1988-01-01

411

Lactic acid and biosurfactants production from hydrolyzed distilled grape marc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid hydrolysis of distilled grape marc, an useless agricultural residue from wineries, was carried out using dilute sulfuric acid (1–5%) at several reaction times and 130°C, in order to obtain monomeric sugars which after supplementation with corn steep liquor (10g\\/L) and yeast extract (10g\\/L) were used to carry out the fermentation into lactic acid by Lactobacillus pentosus without detoxification stage.

Oscar Manuel Portilla Rivera; Ana Belén Moldes; Ana María Torrado; José Manuel Domínguez

2007-01-01

412

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

413

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-01-01

414

Correlate the flooding of packed columns a new way  

SciTech Connect

Packed-column pressure-drop and flooding-point prediction has received new attention recently. These publications, like most earlier ones, focus on gas-flow-induced pressure drop, and flooding due to liquid entrainment in the packing. A few years ago, some problems occurred when packing was applied in high-pressure distillation service, such as ethylene and propylene superfractionators. Apparently, the maximum liquid-through-put capacity was lower than predicted from the gas-flow-induced flooding correlations. Such situation exists when predicting the performance of valve trays in similar service: liquid downflow can be limiting before entrainment flooding occurs. The reason for this behavior is the relatively low liquid and high vapor density of these high-pressure services. The liquid/vapor density ratios are typically 10--15:1 for such hydrocarbon systems. In contrast, for low-pressure water/air systems, this ratio is in the range 300--800:1. A large amount of experimental data for low-pressure systems has been used to correlate pressure drop and flooding, but it doesn't cover the technically important region of low liquid and high vapor density. This Article suggests an approach for understanding such liquid-limited systems.

Kaiser, V.

1994-06-01

415

Spinodal instabilities and the distillation effect in relativistic hadronic models  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-gas phase transitions in asymmetric nuclear matter give rise to a distillation effect that corresponds to the formation of droplets of high-density symmetric matter in a background of a neutron gas possibly with a very small fraction of protons. In the present work we test the model dependence of this effect. We study the spinodal instabilities of asymmetric nuclear matter within six different mean-field relativistic models with both constant and density-dependent coupling parameters. We also consider the effects of introducing the {delta} meson and the nonlinear {omega}-{rho} coupling. It is shown that the distillation effect within density-dependent models is not so efficient and is comparable to results obtained for nonrelativistic models. Thermodynamical instabilities of nuclear matter neutralized by electrons as found in stellar matter are also investigated. The high Fermi energy of electrons completely erases the instability of density-dependent models. The other models still show a small region of instability but the distillation effect completely disappears because the electron presence freezes the proton fluctuations.

Avancini, S. S.; Menezes, D. P. [Departamento de Fisica, CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis, CP 476, CEP 88.040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Brito, L.; Provide circumflex ncia, C. [Centro de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Chomaz, Ph. [GANIL (DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS), Boite Postale 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

2006-08-15

416

Characterization of polyacrylamide based monolithic columns.  

PubMed

Supermacroporous monolithic polyacrylamide (pAAm)-based columns have been prepared by radical cryo-copolymerization (copolymerization in the moderately frozen system) of acrylamide with functional co-monomer, allyl glycidyl ether (AGE), and cross-linker N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBAAm) directly in glass columns (ID 10 mm). The monolithic columns have uniform supermacroporous sponge-like structure with interconnected supermacropores of pore size 5-100 microm. The monoliths can be dried and stored in the dry state. High mechanical stability of the monoliths allowed sterilization by autoclaving. Column-to-column reproducibility of pAAm-monoliths was demonstrated on 5 monolithic columns from different batches prepared under the same cryostructuration conditions. PMID:15354560

Plieva, Fatima M; Andersson, Jonatan; Galaev, Igor Yu; Mattiasson, Bo

2004-07-01

417

Transverse Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete Columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the article we are dealing with the influence of transverse reinforcement to the resistance of a cross-section of the reinforced concrete columns and also with the effective detailing of the column reinforcement. We are verifying the correctness of design guides for detailing of transverse reinforcement. We are also taking into account the diameter of stirrups and its influence over transverse deformation of column.

Grambli?ka, Štefan; Veróny, Peter

2013-11-01

418

Pressure drop of internals for packed columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their low pressure drop per equilibrium stage, random and particularly structured packings are frequently used in vacuum distillation. For applications requiring operation at absolute pressures below 100mbar usually the total allowable pressure drop is specified. Demanding separations require frequent collection and redistribution of liquid. This means dealing with an additional source of pressure drop which is usually ignored,

A. Rix; Z. Olujic

2008-01-01

419

A Final Column (Rainbow Teachers, Rainbow Students).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents, in a farewell column, some reflections on educational issues and movements concerning rainbow students, including self-esteem, story sharing, nonverbal differences, racial identification, and testing. (TB)

Brooks, Charlotte K.

1996-01-01

420

Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

2014-06-01

421

NMR and GC/MS investigation of the saturate and distillate fractions from the Cerro Negro heavy petroleum crude  

SciTech Connect

Six fractions of the Cerro Negro heavy petroleum crude have been evaluated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The fractions include four saturated hydrocarbon distillate fractions distilling above 200/sup 0/C (200 to 425/sup 0/C (392 to 797/sup 0/F), 425 to 550/sup 0/C (797 to 1022/sup 0/F), 550 to 700/sup 0/C (1022 to 1292/sup 0/F), and >700/sup 0/C (>1292/sup 0/F)) and two distillate subfractions designated as <200/sup 0/C and >200/sup 0/C. The >700/sup 0/C and 550 to 700/sup 0/C saturated hydrocarbon fractions are not suited for analyses by combined GC/MS because their distillation ranges are higher than the upper limit of material that will elute from the gas chromatographic column. The /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectral data for the 550 to 700/sup 0/C and >700/sup 0/C fractions indicate that normal and branched alkanes with an average carbon chainlength of C/sub 10/ are present but must be bonded to a larger molecular moiety based upon mass spectral evidence and boiling point considerations. Normal and branched alkanes were not detected in either 200 to 425/sup 0/C or 425 to 550/sup 0/C samples at concentrations of 0.01% by weight. NMR data for the 200 to 425/sup 0/C fraction give no indication of normal alkanes with C chainlengths >9. Branched alkanes possibly of the isoprenoid-like structure are present. The average molecular structural representation is an alkyl-substituted dicyclic alkane. Average molecular structural representation for the 425 to 550/sup 0/C fraction is also an alkyl-substituted dicyclic alkane. However, at least one of the alkyl substituents has a chainlength >10. Both normal and branched alkanes of C/sub 7-12/ were detected in the <200/sup 0/C subfraction. Alkanes of C/sub 12-31/ were in the >200/sup 0/C sample. /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C spectra for both subfractions indicate similar chemical composition. 12 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

Netzel, D. A.; Guffey, F. D.

1987-08-01

422

Wet Corn Distillers Byproducts Compared with Dried Corn Distillers Grains with Solubles as a Source of Protein and Energy for Ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five trials investigated the feeding value of wet and dried corn distillers byproducts as a source of protein and energy for growing and finishing cattle and investigated the effect of heat damage on the feeding value of dried distillers byproducts. In a calf growth trial, no differences in rate of gain or protein efficiency were observed among calves fed wet

G. A. Ham; R. A. Stock; T. J. Klopfenstein; E. M. Larson; D. H. Shain; R. P. Huffman

1994-01-01

423

Synthesis of Ion Microbeam Column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrostatic lenses have traditionally been designed by analyzing and combining different electrode configurations. Computational complexity typically limits such systems to a few geometrically simple elements, where the component interactions are neglected and not exploited to combat the various aberrations. Recently, Szilagyi and Szep have demonstrated that an axially symmetric column of circular plates, with the electrode potentials optimized for focusing, can surpass the typical conventional designs by many times in performance. Following the footsteps of pioneers like Burfoot and Hawkes, we partition the plates in order to transcend the limitations set by Scherzer's theorem on the chromatic and spherical aberrations of axially symmetric structures. Two algorithms, one based upon integral asymptotics and one upon the Levinson algorithm. for Toeplitz matrix inversion, are developed to complement the charge-density method in analyzing the new column structures. Various optimization schemes are combined to avoid shallow minima at a reasonable computational cost. With each plate partitioned into four sectors, we show that the interactions between the monopole and the quadrupole components can increase the output current density by more than 400% over the axially symmetric structure. By adjusting the sector potentials, we can realize systems capable of both focusing and deflecting the beam. In comparison to some existing designs, our systems excel in both performance and compactness, sometimes by many hundred percents. We then further partition the plates to generate the "octupole" deflectors and correctors. We show that the "octupole" deflectors can drastically slow down the beam degradation with deflection distance and that the correctors can further increase the output current density by more than 300%. Finally, we apply linear system theories to the study of the first-order properties of optical systems with different symmetries. We showed, without resorting to perturbational mathematics, that the higher multipole components, with more than 2 folds of rotational symmetry, can induce no first-order influences. We also find that there are systems with other symmetries that can replace an axially symmetric structure in the first-order approximation. This latter study is the beginning of our investigation for the optimum system geometry.

Mui, Peter Hon-Fung

1995-01-01

424

Column Formation in Magnetorheological Fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1990, Halsey and Toor identified a long-range attractive interaction between \\underbarinfinite chains of thermally fluctuating dipoles associated with Peierl's instability. It was suggested that this explained the formation of columns from single chains in dilute electrorheological fluids where the chains are effectively infinite due to image dipoles. In the approximation of Halsey and Toor, this attractive interaction term was independent of external field. In magnetorheological (MR) fluids there are no image dipoles and as a result, finite size corrections must be included. We show that these corrections give rise to a repulsive term which is also long ranged, and in addition grows roughly as the external field squared. The net effect of this term and the Halsey-Toor term is that the range of attraction between two MR chains (i) is typically only a couple of particle diameters and (ii) decreases as the external field increases. (i) and (ii) appear to be in gross contradiction with experiments on MR fluids. Analytical and numerical results will be presented in an attempt to solve this paradox.

Gross, Mark

1997-03-01

425

Column size effects of DER fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static yield stress of dielectric electrorheological (DER) fluids of infinite column state and chain state are calculated from the first principle method. The results indicate that the column surface contributions to ER effects is very small and both states will give correct results to the real DER fluids.

Zhao, T.; Ma, H. R.

2001-07-01

426

Results from the Winogradsky Column Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features research results from a student project involving Winogradsky Columns constructed using sandy sediment and water collected from an estuary in Massachusetts. The page includes high-resolution images of the columns and profiles of hydrogen sulfide and methane versus depth.

Science, Semester I.; Laboratory, Marine B.

427

Inelastic Buckling of Eccentrically Loaded Columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inelastic buckling of eccentrically loaded simply supported columns of rectangular and circular cross sections is analyzed. The material of the column is assumed to satisfy Ramberg-Osgood's stress-strain relation. The load-carrying-capacity of the col...

N. C. Huang

1973-01-01

428

Seismic performance of bond controlled RC columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was carried out to examine the enhancement of seismic performances of reinforced concrete (RC) columns such as shear strength and ductility by controlling the bond of longitudinal reinforcements. Four 300×300 mm square RC columns with ordinary bonded reinforcements and completely unbonded reinforcements were tested under reversed cyclic loading. The test results showed that this method is very effective

G. R. Pandey; H. Mutsuyoshi; T. Maki

2008-01-01

429

Building a Winogradsky Column Video Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This five-minute Quick Time video demonstrates how to build a Winogradsky Column. The video is published by NASA Quest and can be used as a teaching supplement to classroom activities including the Winogradsky Column. This video requires Quick Time player to view, which can be downloaded on site.

Scalice, Daniella; Dodson, Karen; Quest, Nasa

430

Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

1990-08-15

431

Automated column equilibration, washing, sample loading and elution of bench-packed mini-columns.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe an easy and efficient way to pack mini-columns and use them in the Biomek 1000 Automated Laboratory Workstation. These procedures allow for automated column equilibration, column washing, sample loading and elution, and utilization of commercially available components. Various resins can be packed, allowing for automation of a variety of procedures in which minicolumns are used. PMID:1571139

Jagadeeswaran, P

1992-03-01

432

Composite Column Design/Test Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Effective engineered composite design activities require predictive and quantitative methodology. This research incorporates engineering design, using smart spreadsheets, into a laboratory activity focusing on columns made of composite materials. In a previous work, a laboratory activity was developed supporting composite design of polymer matrix composite beams. The present work applies a similar approach expanded to ceramic composites in the form of columns. In the lab, students simulate composite columns and use a smart spreadsheet to help optimize their design for engineering performance, including specific properties. Parameters are discussed and evaluated before the column is made. The composite is then fabricated. Finally, the composite is tested and the experimental data (critical load for columns) is compared to predictions.

Johnson, Craig

2009-09-22

433

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition. PMID:23535305

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

2013-01-01

434

All nonclassical correlations can be activated into distillable entanglement.  

PubMed

We devise a protocol in which general nonclassical multipartite correlations produce a physically relevant effect, leading to the creation of bipartite entanglement. In particular, we show that the relative entropy of quantumness, which measures all nonclassical correlations among subsystems of a quantum system, is equivalent to and can be operationally interpreted as the minimum distillable entanglement generated between the system and local ancillae in our protocol. We emphasize the key role of state mixedness in maximizing nonclassicality: Mixed entangled states can be arbitrarily more nonclassical than separable and pure entangled states. PMID:21702584

Piani, Marco; Gharibian, Sevag; Adesso, Gerardo; Calsamiglia, John; Horodecki, Pawe?; Winter, Andreas

2011-06-01

435

Development of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities involved in the design, development, and test of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem are described. This subsystem, part of a larger regenerative life support evaluation system, is designed to recover usable water from urine, urinal rinse water, and concentrated shower and laundry brine collected from three space vehicle crewmen for a period of 180 days without resupply. Details of preliminary design and testing as well as component developments are included. Trade studies, considerations leading to concept selections, problems encountered, and test data are also presented. The rework of existing hardware, subsystem development including computer programs, assembly verification, and comprehensive baseline test results are discussed.

Johnson, K. L.

1978-01-01

436

Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.  

PubMed

A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD. PMID:22940345

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

2012-11-01

437

Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering  

SciTech Connect

We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, EECS Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2011-09-15

438

Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

1995-01-01

439

Quantum Chemical: New name and focus for National Distillers  

SciTech Connect

This article explains why the National Distillers and Chemical Corporation has narrowed its focus on petrochemicals and energy. At one time the company had diversified into wine and spirits, insurance, metals, chemicals and energy. However, the company decided to reexamine where its commitments should be. It decided to stick with chemicals and energy because it could be a leader in these fields and not in its other interests. The article explains how the new company, Quantum Chemical, is doing and where it is headed in the future.

Reisch, M.S.

1988-03-14

440

Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

2010-12-01

441

Improving the fidelity of optical Zeno gates via distillation  

SciTech Connect

We have modeled the Zeno effect controlled-sign gate of Franson et al. [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062302 (2004)] and shown that high two-photon to one-photon absorption ratios, {kappa}, are needed for high fidelity free-standing operation. Hence we instead employ this gate for cluster state fusion, where the requirement for {kappa} is less restrictive. With the help of partially offline one-photon and two-photon distillations, we can achieve a fusion gate with unity fidelity but nonunit probability of success. We conclude that for {kappa}>2200, the Zeno fusion gate will out perform the equivalent linear optics gate.

Leung, Patrick M.; Ralph, Timothy C. [Centre for Quantum Computer Technology, Department of Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 (Australia)

2006-12-15

442

Separation of fiber from distillers dried grains (DDG) using sieving and elutriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the dry-grind corn-to-ethanol process, distillers wet grains (DWG) and syrup are blended and dried to produce distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Some dry-grind plants produce distillers dried grains (DDG) as a coproduct instead of DDGS. In these plants, syrup is not mixed with DWG and is sold as a liquid food ingredient or used for energy generation by

Radhakrishnan Srinivasan; Robert A. Moreau; Carl Parsons; Vijay Singh

2008-01-01

443

Direct injection of plasma to determine pseudoephedrine by high performance liquid chromatography with column switching.  

PubMed

An HPLC method has been developed for the determination of pseudoephedrine in plasma using column switching. Preparation of the sample was simple in that only 1000 microL of water was added to 200 microL of plasma before injection. A 900 microL aliquot was injected onto the precolumn. Double distilled water was used to elute and remove proteins and polar components in the sample. The components retained on the precolumn were flushed forward onto the analytical column by the mobile phase (acetonitrile-0.2 mol/L ammonium sulphate, 10:90 v/v) with automated column switching. The limit of determination of pseudoephedrine in plasma was 12 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-assay for the determination of pseudoephedrine in plasma were 1.2-9.8% over the concentration range 1020-21.8 ng/mL. The mean recovery by on-line solid phase extraction was 94.76% (RSD = 1.1%). PMID:10191946

Guo, P; Li, Z; Li, T; Wang, X; Li, F

1999-02-01

444

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

SciTech Connect

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16

445

Assessment of some diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin.  

PubMed

In the present study the qualitative and quantitative determination of diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin was carried out. This widely consumed juniper-based spirit is aromatized using Juniper (Juniperus communis) berries. Although juniper reportedly contains several diterpenic compounds, no studies have addressed the diterpenic composition of juniper-based spirits or beverages. With this objective, here we followed a multilevel factorial experimental design to optimize a direct immersion-solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and analyzed eight commercial brands of gin. With total concentrations ranging from 10 to 190 microg L(-1), manool, manoyl oxide and trans-totarol were the most abundant diterpenoids of the 10 identified or tentatively identified at variable but not negligible concentrations in the distilled gin samples. The diterpenic composition allowed the brands to be differentiated. This indicates that these compounds contribute to the sensory characteristics of the distinct commercial brands, thus guaranteeing the authenticity and consequently the quality of the product. PMID:18929011

Vichi, Stefania; Aumatell, Montserrat Riu; Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

2008-11-01

446

Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

2013-07-01

447

Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

1979-01-01

448

Electrochemical study of dialcarb "distillable" room-temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Electrode-dependent potential windows (see picture, GC=glassy carbon) are determined for five dialkylammonium carbamate (dialcarb) room-temperature ionic liquids in a systematic study of their physical and electrochemical properties. The viscosity and conductivity of the dialcarb ionic liquids, which are "distillable" at low temperature, are comparable to those of some conventional room-temperature ionic liquids. The physical and electrochemical properties of five "distillable" room-temperature ionic liquids from the dialcarb family (dialkylammonium carbamates formed from CO(2) and dialkyl amines) are systematically investigated. In particular dimethyl (DIMCARB), diethyl (DIECARB), dipropyl (DIPCARB), methylethyl (MEETCARB), and methylpropyl (MEPRCARB) carbamate ionic liquids are studied. The temperature dependence of the viscosity and conductivity of MEETCARB exhibit an Arrhenius-type relationship. Except for DIPCARB, which has too high a resistance, a reference potential scale is available by using the IUPAC recommended redox system, that is the cobalticenium/cobaltocene (Cc(+)/Cc) process, which exhibits an ideal reversible voltammetric response. Oxidation of decamethylferrocene, but not ferrocene, also is ideal in DIMCARB, DIECARB, MEETCARB, and MEPRCARB. The magnitudes of the potential windows of the electrochemically viable dialcarbs are investigated and follow the order of glassy carbon>Au>Pt>Hg. Diffusion coefficients of Cc(+), DmFc, and double-layer capacitance values are compared in each dialcarb. Despite the considerable viscosity of the dialcarbs, steady-state voltammetric behavior is achieved at a rotating disk electrode for rotation rates of 1000 rpm or higher. PMID:19090511

Wang, Huan; Zhao, Chuan; Bhatt, Anand I; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Lu, Jia-Xing; Bond, Alan M

2009-02-01

449

The effect of re-dissolution solvents and HPLC columns on the analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in the eulittoral macroalgae Prasiola crispa and Porphyra umbilicalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many macroalgal species that are regularly exposed to high solar radiation such as the eulittoral green alga Prasiola crispa and the red alga Porphyra umbilicalis synthesize and accumulate high concentrations of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) as UV-sunscreen compounds. These substances are typically extracted with a widely used standard protocol following quantification by various high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. However, further preparation steps prior to HPLC analysis as well as different HPLC column types have not been systematically checked regarding separation quality and reproducibility. Therefore pure methanol, distilled water and HPLC eluent were evaluated as re-dissolution solvent for dried Prasiola and Porphyra extracts, which were subsequently analyzed on three reversed-phase C8 and C18 HPLC columns. The data indicate that distilled water and the HPLC eluent gave almost identical peak patterns and MAA contents on the C8 and C18 columns. In contrast, the application of the widely used methanol led to double peaks or even the loss of specific peaks as well as to a strong decline in total MAA amounts ranging from about 35% of the maximum in P. crispa to 80% of the maximum in P. umbilicalis. Consequently, methanol should be avoided as re-dissolution solvent for the HPLC sample preparation. An improved protocol for the MAA analysis in macroalgae in combination with a reliable C18 column is suggested.

Karsten, Ulf; Escoubeyrou, Karine; Charles, François

2009-09-01

450

Investigating Bacteria with the Winogradsky Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructor's guide to teaching about biodiversity in the microbial world. This activity encourages students to investigate bacteria using a Winogradsky Column. Students can create a unique environment with slight variations on the recipe; and soon have an inquiry project that could easily occupy the entire year. With the simple extensions given, teachers can isolate and grow a number of the species found in the column and extend this column to a number of examples in the real world showing the relevance of this complex yet deceptively simple lab.

Rogan, Brian

2010-02-18

451

Characterisation of chamomile volatiles by simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction in comparison to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction.  

PubMed

A new method for complete separation of steam-volatile organic compounds is described using the example of chamomile flowers. This method is based on the direct combination of hydrodistillation and solid-phase extraction in a circulation apparatus. In contrast to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), an RP-18 solid phase as adsorptive material is used rather than a water-insoluble solvent. Therefore, a prompt and complete fixation of all volatiles takes place, and the circulation of water-soluble bisabololoxides as well as water-soluble and thermolabile en-yne-spiroethers is inhibited. This so-called simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction (SD-SPE) provides extracts that better characterise the real composition of the vapour phase, as well as the composition of inhalation vapours, than do SDE extracts or essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The data indicate that during inhalation therapy with chamomile, the bisabololoxides and spiroethers are more strongly involved in the inhaling activity than so far assumed. PMID:20033869

Krüger, Hans

2010-05-01

452

A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

1977-01-01

453

Micro-Column Arrays for Nanolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program has made substantial advances in areas relevant to the use of low energy electron beams and microfabricated electron beam columns for high resolution lithography. The first was the development of novel cold field emission sources. Foc...

H. G. Craighead

1997-01-01

454

How to design baffle tray columns  

SciTech Connect

As with packed columns, well-known heat transfer equations can be used to estimate mass transfer efficiencies for baffle tray columns. Other variables that can be calculated using this method include: flooding capacity, pressure drop, number of transfer units (NTUs) and the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP). Gas-liquid contacting columns containing simple baffles have been used in hydrocarbon processing industry plants for many years. Principal areas of application have been for contacting liquids containing suspended solids and for quenching hot gases with coolant liquids. They are advantageous for fouling services. But because of their simplistic design they have not been thought to produce high efficiencies for transferring mass or heat. When used primarily for mass transfer purposes, only a few theoretical stages have been expected of them. This paper discusses hydrodynamics, previous studies on the design of baffle tray columns, capacity, pressure drop, and mass transfer efficiency, and gives an example calculation of mass transfer efficiency.

Fair, J.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

1993-05-01

455

Preparative Sephadex Column Electrophoresis: An Improved Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preparative column electrophoresis using Sephadex G-25 as supporting medium offers a rapid and inexpensive method of purifying a large quantity of proteins with minimum sample loss. This apparatus has been very effective in separating closely related ho...

E. Kay J. H. C. Shih

1973-01-01

456

Shear strengthening of beam-column joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear failure of beam-column joints is identified as the principal cause of collapse of many moment-resisting frame buildings during recent earthquakes. Effective and economical rehabilitation techniques for the upgrade of the joint shear-resistance capacity in existing structures are needed. The objective of this research is to develop effective selective rehabilitation schemes for reinforced concrete beam-column joints using advanced composite materials.

Ahmed Ghobarah; A. Said

2002-01-01

457

CMOS \\/ CMOL architectures for spiking cortical column  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a spiking cortical column model based on neural associative memory, and demonstrate architectures for emulating the cortical column model with nanogrid molecular circuitry. We investigate a number of options for cost-effective hardware with digital CMOS and mixed-signal CMOL, a hybrid CMOS\\/nanogrid technology. We also give an example of a dynamic learning algorithm that is a suitable match to

Changjian Gao; Mazad S. Zaveri; Dan W. Hammerstrom

2008-01-01

458

Novel electrostatic column for ion projection lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion projection lithography (IPL) is being considered for high volume sub-0.25-[mu]m lithography. A novel ion-optical column has been designed for exposing 20[times]20 mm[sup 2] fields at 3[times] reduction from stencil mask to wafer substrates. A diverging lens is realized by using the stencil mask as the first electrode of the ion-optical column. The second and third electrode form an accelerating

A. Chalupka; G. Stengl; H. Buschbeck; G. Lammer; H. Vonach; R. Fischer; E. Hammel; H. Loeschner; R. Nowak; P. Wolf; W. Finkelstein; R. W. Hill; I. L. Berry; L. R. Harriott; J. Melngailis; J. C. Wolfe; H. Stroh; H. Wollnik; A. A. Mondelli; J. J. Petillo; K. Leung

1994-01-01

459

Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows: a refactoring approach  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific workflows management systems are increasingly used to specify and manage bioinformatics experiments. Their programming model appeals to bioinformaticians, who can use them to easily specify complex data processing pipelines. Such a model is underpinned by a graph structure, where nodes represent bioinformatics tasks and links represent the dataflow. The complexity of such graph structures is increasing over time, with possible impacts on scientific workflows reuse. In this work, we propose effective methods for workflow design, with a focus on the Taverna model. We argue that one of the contributing factors for the difficulties in reuse is the presence of "anti-patterns", a term broadly used in program design, to indicate the use of idiomatic forms that lead to over-complicated design. The main contribution of this work is a method for automatically detecting such anti-patterns, and replacing them with different patterns which result in a reduction in the workflow's overall structural complexity. Rewriting workflows in this way will be beneficial both in terms of user experience (easier design and maintenance), and in terms of operational efficiency (easier to manage, and sometimes to exploit the latent parallelism amongst the tasks). Results We have conducted a thorough study of the workflows structures available in Taverna, with the aim of finding out workflow fragments whose structure could be made simpler without altering the workflow semantics. We provide four contributions. Firstly, we identify a set of anti-patterns that contribute to the structural workflow complexity. Secondly, we design a series of refactoring transformations to replace each anti-pattern by a new semantically-equivalent pattern with less redundancy and simplified structure. Thirdly, we introduce a distilling algorithm that takes in a workflow and produces a distilled semantically-equivalent workflow. Lastly, we provide an implementation of our refactoring approach that we evaluate on both the public Taverna workflows and on a private collection of workflows from the BioVel project. Conclusion We have designed and implemented an approach to improving workflow structure by way of rewriting preserving workflow semantics. Future work includes considering our refactoring approach during the phase of workflow design and proposing guidelines for designing distilled workflows.

2014-01-01

460

Ocular dominance columns in New World monkeys.  

PubMed

Squirrel monkeys normally lack ocular dominance columns in V1. This study shows that squirrel monkeys can exhibit clear ocular dominance columns if they are made strabismic within a few weeks of birth. Columns were seen only in layer 4C beta and were coarser than the overlying blob pattern in the same animal. In physiological recordings from layer 4C of a normal squirrel monkey, single units were mostly monocular, but units driven by the two eyes were intermixed. These results suggest that in squirrel monkeys activity-dependent mechanisms do normally segregate geniculate inputs from the two eyes, but on a much finer scale than in Old World primates. Strabismic owl monkeys also showed ocular dominance columns; normal owl monkeys showed variable expression. Because ocular dominance columns, when present in New World monkeys, tend to occur in later-maturing parts of layer 4C, I hypothesize that a difference in the relative timing of the maturation of geniculocortical inputs and intracortical lateral connectivity explains the variability of ocular dominance column expression in New World monkeys. PMID:8604053

Livingstone, M S

1996-03-15

461

Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.  

PubMed

Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol. PMID:24397718

Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

2014-01-01

462

Effect of compositional variability of distillers' grains on cellulosic ethanol production.  

PubMed

In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84kg of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers' grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable bioproducts by applying cellulose conversion technology. Its compositional variability is one of the factors that could affect the overall process design and economics. In this study, we present compositional variability of distillers' grains collected from four different dry grind ethanol plants and its effect on enzymatic digestibility and fermentability. We then selected two sources of distillers grains based on their distinctive compositional difference. These were pretreated by either controlled pH liquid hot water (LHW) or ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Fermentation of the pretreated distillers' grains using either industrial yeast or genetically engineered glucose and xylose co-fermenting yeast, yielded 70-80% of theoretical maximum ethanol concentration, which varied depending on the batch of distillers' grains used. Results show that cellulose conversion and ethanol fermentation yields are affected by the compositions of distillers' grains. Distillers' grains with a high extractives content exhibit a lower enzymatic digestibility but a higher fermentability. PMID:20223655

Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R; Bals, Bryan; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Dien, Bruce S; Cotta, Michael A

2010-07-01

463

Do-it-yourself guideline for constructing a solar alcohol distillation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and testing of a solar powered distillation system are described. The system consists of a parabolic dish collector, a two axis sun tracking stand, sun tracking solar cell system, condenser, fermentation tanks, and continuous distillation still. The assembly instructions for the parabolic dish are included as well as the basic steps to follow in mashing and fermenting of

1982-01-01

464

UV resonance Raman characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquid distillates  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of a series of distillates of coal-derived liquids. The UV Raman spectra easily monitor changes in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition as a function of distillation temperature. Specific species, such as pyrene, can be determined by judicious choice of excitation wavelength.

Rumelfanger, R.; Asher, S.A.; Perry, M.B.

1988-02-01

465

Utilization of Distillers Dried Grains Plus Solubles by Dairy Cows in Early Lactation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentrate mix containing 48% distillers dried grains with solubles was compared with isonitrogenous soybean meal-based mixes without (negative con- trol) or with (positive control) sup- plemental fat in a feeding trial of 24 cows (16 Holsteins, 8 Jerseys) during the first 50 days of lactation. Jerseys fed distillers grains produced more daily fat-corrected milk per unit metabolic body size

D. L. Palmquist; H. R. Conrad

1982-01-01

466

Valorization of citrus by-products using Microwave Steam Distillation (MSD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from fresh citrus by-products (orange peels) was studied. The effectiveness of this innovative method in extraction of citrus essential oils have been evaluated and compared to conventional steam distillation. MSD offers important advantages like shorter extraction time (6min), cleaner features and provides an essential oil with better sensory properties (better reproduction of

Naima Sahraoui; Maryline Abert Vian; Mohamed El Maataoui; Chahrazed Boutekedjiret; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

467

An improved microwave Clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave Clevenger or microwave accelerated distillation (MAD) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. MAD extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. MAD has

Mohamed A. Ferhat; Brahim Y. Meklati; Jacqueline Smadja; Farid Chemat

2006-01-01

468

Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

2011-01-01

469

Compact Unit for the Continuous Distillation of Hardwood and Recovery of Byproducts. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on a grant to design and to build a wood distillation unit which could be operated with a minimum of labor, using locally available hardwood as raw material. This wood distillation unit would be compact and simple in its component...

M. A. Morselli

1983-01-01

470

Evaluation of Wet Distillers Grains in Finishing Diets for Yearling Steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was conducted with 940-lb yearling steers fed 113 days to determine the feeding value of distillers grains relative to corn grain. Replacing corn and urea with wet distillers grains for 20% of the diet dry matter tended to increase gain with no increase in feed consumption, resulting in improved feed conversion. Replacing 40% of diet dry matter

Allen Trenkle

1997-01-01

471

Digestibility of Diets with Corn Grain and Urea Replaced with Corn Distillers Grains or Solubles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten steers were used in a digestion experiment to evaluate replacing dry rolled corn and urea with 4% and 8% condensed distiller solubles (CDS), or 10% and 20% wet corn distillers grain with solubles (DGS). The steers were placed in digestion crates for total collection of feces during a 5 d period following 14 d of diet adaptation. Intake (kg\\/d)

David Pingel; Allen H. Trenkle

2006-01-01

472

Evaluation of steam distillation procedures for the routine determination of inorganic soil nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to select a reliable routine analytical procedure for the extraction and estimation of inorganic N in South African soils three steam distillation procedures were compared. With the one procedure the soil sample is shaken with 2,0 ? KCl for one hour and the extract is then analyzed by distillation. With the other two procedures the soil sample is

C. C. du Preez; R. du T. Burger; D. J. Laubscher

1987-01-01

473

Mixed-State Entanglement and Distillation: Is there a ``Bound'' Entanglement in Nature?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that if a mixed state can be distilled to the singlet form it must violate partial transposition criterion [A. Peres, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1413 (1996)]. It implies that there are two qualitatively different types of entanglement: ``free'' entanglement which is distillable, and ``bound'' entanglement which cannot be brought to the singlet form useful for quantum communication

Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Ryszard Horodecki

1998-01-01

474

Arkose: A Prototype Mechanism and Tool for Collaborative Information Generation and Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this thesis have been to gain a better understanding of collaborative knowledge sharing and distilling and to build a prototype collaborative system that supports flexible knowledge generation and distillation. To reach these goals, I have conducted two user studies and built two systems. The first system, Arkose 1.0, is a…

Nam, Kevin Kyung

2010-01-01

475

A review and comparison of solar distillation: Direct and indirect type systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fast growing problems around the world is providing drinking water. This is felt especially in arid and semi-arid areas where lots of people lack fresh water. Solar energy can be used as the heat source to distillate brackish water. In this study, a comprehensive review of solar desalination systems is presented. The solar distillation systems are classified

Hikmet S. Aybar; Hossein Assefi

2009-01-01

476

Study of Faceted Blog Distillation -- PRIS at TREC 2009 Blog Track.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes BUPT (pris) participation in faceted blog distillation task at Blog Track 2009. The system adopts a two-stage strategy in faceted blog distillation task. In the first stage, the system carries out a basic topic relevance retrieval to ...

F. Chen H. Gao H. Sun J. Gao S. Li

2009-01-01

477

Comparison of osmotic membrane distillation and forward osmosis membrane processes for concentration of anthocyanin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with comparison of osmotic membrane distillation and forward osmosis membrane processes for concentration of anthocyanin extract as well as to study the effect of various process parameters such as osmotic agent concentration, fl ow rates of feed and osmotic agent on transmembrane fl ux. Mechanism of mass transfer in case of osmotic membrane distillation and forward

Chetan A. Nayak; Navin K. Rastogi

2010-01-01

478

Compact unit for the continuous distillation of hardwood and recovery of byproducts. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report on a grant to design and to build a wood distillation unit which could be operated with a minimum of labor, using locally available hardwood as raw material. This wood distillation unit would be compact and simple in its components, sturdy in construction, reasonably low priced, and easy to assemble and disassemble for its relocation

Morselli

1983-01-01

479

Distribution of the liquid aerosol produced from bursting bubbles in sea and distilled water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser holographic techniques are used to observe and measure the liquid droplets (film drops) produced by air bubbles bursting in both seawater and distilled water. Film drop aerosol production is found not only to be a function of parent bubble size but also of the type of water (sea or distilled) in which the bubbles burst. For bubbles in the

G. M. Afeti; F. J. Resch

1990-01-01

480

Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process  

PubMed Central

The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered.

Gryta, Marek

2012-01-01

481

Treatment of radioactive wastewater using direct contact membrane distillation.  

PubMed

Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was used to treat low level radioactive wastewater (LLRW). The dusty gas model (DGM) was used to analyze the mass transfer mechanism and calculate the permeate flux. The operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed velocity and feed concentration were studied. The experimental results showed that DCMD process can separate almost all Cs(+), Sr(2+) and Co(2+) from wastewater. The permeate flux decreased linearly when NaNO3 concentration increased from 1.0 to 200 g/L. The permeate flux remained about 60% of its initial flux even when NaNO3 concentration in feed solution was as high as 200 g/L. The dusty gas model can be successfully applied to estimate the mass transfer, and the experimental permeate flux values fitted well with that calculated by DGM. DCMD is a promising separation process for low level radioactive wastewater treatment. PMID:23959250

Liu, Haiyang; Wang, Jianlong

2013-10-15

482

Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams  

PubMed Central

Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer.

Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

2011-01-01

483

Selective subsurface absorption of hydrogen in palladium using laser distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical model for the selective subsurface absorption of atomic hydrogen in a Pd(111) surface by infrared (IR) laser pulses is presented. The dynamics of the adsorbate is studied within the reduced density matrix approach. Energy and phase relaxation of the hydrogen atom are treated using the semigroup formalism. The vibrational excitation leading to subsurface absorption is performed using rationally designed pulses as well as IR laser pulses optimized on-the-fly. It is shown that dissipation can be used as a tool to transfer population to an otherwise inaccessible state via a mechanism known as ``laser distillation.'' We demonstrate that when the reaction path is generalized from a reduced one-dimensional to full three-dimensional treatment of the system, the laser control strategy can prove very different.

Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Saalfrank, Peter

2009-08-01

484

Selective process for the upgrading of distillate transportation fuel  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the selective upgrading of combustion quality of a distillate transportation fuel containing cycloparaffinic hydrocarbons the fuel being selected from the group consisting of aviation turbine fuel (ATF), diesel fuel and kerosene by: (a) selectively dehydrogenating the cycloparaffinic hydrocarbons i the presence of a dehydrogenation catalyst and at dehydrogenation reaction conditions selective to convert the cycloparaffinic hydrocarbons to cyclomonoolefinic hydrocarbons; (b) selectively ring opening by disproportionation of the cyclomonoolefinic hydrocarbons by contact with a hydrocarbon comprising ethylene in the presence of an olefin disproportionation catalyst and at disproportionation conditions selective to open the cyclomonoolefinic hydrocarbons to produce acyclic di-..cap alpha..-olefin hydrocarbons; and (c) selectively hydrogenating the acyclic di-..cap alpha..-olefin hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrogenation catalyst to saturate the acyclic di-..cap alpha..-olefin hydrocarbons, at hydrogenation conditions effective to produce acyclic paraffinic hydrocarbons.

Bush, W.V.

1987-06-30

485

Amino acid adsorption by clay minerals in distilled water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of 15 protein amino acids from dilute (~ 10 ?M) distilled water solutions onto organic-free kaolinite and montmorillonite clay minerals (1 wt% suspensions) was determined at room temperature over a 48 hour period. The systems came to steady state within 2 hours. Basic (positively charged) amino acids were strongly adsorbed (40-80% removal) by both clay minerals. Neutral (uncharged) amino acids were taken up appreciably (10-15%) by montmorillonite, but little if any (<5%) by kaolinite. Acidic (negatively charged) amino acids were adsorbed (20-35%) only by kaolinite. These adsorption patterns appear to be related in part to electrostatic interactions between the clay mineral surfaces and the different amino acid types. The measured extents and selectivities of adsorption onto these clay minerals are sufficiently great to potentially affect the distributions and reactions of free amino acids in natural environments.

Hedges, John I.; Hare, P. E.

1987-02-01

486

Tests of blending and correlation of distillate fuel properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a fuel test matrix, results from tests of several blends of distillate aircraft fuels, and the use of correlations in formulation determination during a NASA-sponsored program to identify new aircraft fuels are described. The program was initiated in order to characterize fuel blends which are appropriate for different types of combustors in use and under development. The fuels were required to feature a specified range of properties. Attention is given to fuel volatility, hydrogen content, aromatic content, freezing point, kinematic viscosity, and naphthalene content. Paraffinic and naphtenic base stocks were employed, using alkyl benzene, naphthene benzenes, and naphthalenes to adjust the blend properties. Categories for the test fuels comprised source-controlled and composition controlled fuels. Test results and compositions of various fuels are provided.

Erwin, J.; Bowden, J. N.

1982-01-01

487

Performance enhancement of R\\/C building columns and beam–column joints through shotcrete jacketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness and suitability of shotcrete and cast-in-place concrete as means of retrofitting columns and beam–column joints in reinforced concrete frame structures, so as to improve their shear and\\/or flexural performance. Thus, the use of four-sided and two-sided reinforced shotcrete or cast-in-place concrete jackets has been investigated experimentally for the case of pre-earthquake retrofitting of columns and

Alexander-Dimitrios G. Tsonos

2010-01-01

488

Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.  

PubMed

Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD. PMID:20659753

Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

2010-10-01

489

Coherent eavesdropping attacks in tomographic quantum cryptography: Nonequivalence of quantum and classical key distillation  

SciTech Connect

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that - for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography - the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks.

Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, J.Y.; Englert, Berthold-Georg [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Kwek, L.C. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

2005-10-15

490

Coherent eavesdropping attacks in tomographic quantum cryptography: Nonequivalence of quantum and classical key distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. We show that—for protocols that use quantum channels of any dimension and completely characterize them by state tomography—the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation of a specific kind is substantially lower than the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation if the eavesdropper can perform powerful coherent attacks. In marked contrast, earlier investigations had shown that the thresholds are identical for incoherent attacks on the same classical distillation scheme. It remains an open question whether other schemes for classical advantage distillation have higher thresholds for coherent eavesdropping attacks.

Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Lim, Jenn Yang; Kwek, Leong Chuang; Englert, Berthold-Georg

2005-10-01

491

Assessing the accuracy of selectivity as a basis for solvent screening in extractive distillation processes  

SciTech Connect

An important parameter for consideration in the screening of solvents for an extractive distillation process is selectivity at infinite dilution. The higher the selectivity, the better the solvent. This paper assesses the accuracy of using selectivity as a basis for solvent screening in extractive distillation processes. Three types of binary mixtures that are usually separated by an extractive distillation process are chosen for investigation. Having determined the optimum solvent feed rate to be two times the feed rate of the binary mixture, the total annual costs of extractive distillation processes for each of the chosen mixtures and for various solvents are carried out. The solvents are ranked on the basis of the total annual cost (obtained by design and costing equations) for the extractive distillation processes, and this ranking order is compared with that of selectivity at infinite dilution as determined by the UNIFAC method. This matching of selectivity with total annual cost does not produce a very good correlation.

Momoh, S.O. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

1991-01-01

492

27 CFR 5.47a - Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled after December 31, 1979).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980. Distilled spirits bottled domestically before January 1, 1980, may be marketed after December...ATF-62, 44 FR 71622, Dec. 11, 1979; T.D. ATF-146,...

2013-04-01

493

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2013-04-01

494

27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol, Tobacco...to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

2013-04-01

495

27 CFR 19.58 - Use of taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... (1) Medicines, medicinal preparations, food...purposes. (3) Toilet, medicinal, and antiseptic preparations...out as having certain medicinal properties, are also...a distilled spirits plant, and are subject...

2010-04-01

496

27 CFR 19.58 - Use of taxpaid distilled spirits to manufacture products unfit for beverage use.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and... (1) Medicines, medicinal preparations, food...purposes. (3) Toilet, medicinal, and antiseptic preparations...out as having certain medicinal properties, are also...a distilled spirits plant, and are subject...

2009-04-01

497

Characterizing gaseous flow in submicron chromatography columns.  

SciTech Connect

Enormous interest exists to develop the next generation of an integrated microsystem for chemical and biological analysis ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) and to further reduce the volume of the system. One approach is to scale down the size of critical components and to explore any pumping mechanism that can minimize the power requirement. Since the majority of the pumping requirement is to overcome the wall resistance in the gas chromatography (GC) column, our attention is to study the gas flow in this GC column. As the column dimension decreases, the gaseous flow will go from a continuum regime into a non-continuum regime; i.e., slip, transition, and free molecular regimes. Thus it is very important to well characterize the gaseous flow in submicron columns and to understand its flow behavior. Specifically, in this study, our focus is to investigate the effects of viscosity, rarefaction, and compressibility as the column dimension decreases. Both theoretical predictions and experimental results will be presented.

Wong, Chung-Nin Channy

2003-05-01

498

Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of liquid hot water and AFEX pretreated distillers’ grains at high-solids loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dry milling ethanol industry produces distiller’s grains as major co-products, which are composed of unhydrolyzed and unfermented polymeric sugars. Utilization of the distiller’s grains as an additional source of fermentable sugars has the potential to increase overall ethanol yields in current dry grind processes. In this study, controlled pH liquid hot water pretreatment (LHW) and ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)

Youngmi Kim; Rick Hendrickson; Nathan S. Mosier; Michael R. Ladisch; Bryan Bals; Venkatesh Balan; Bruce E. Dale

2008-01-01

499

Near azeotropic mixture substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A refrigerant and a process of formulating thereof that consists of a mixture of a first mole fraction of CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3 and a second mole fraction of a component selected from the group consisting of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 ; a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 ; and a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

500

Near azeotropic mixture substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention comprises a refrigerant mixture having two halocarbon components. The first component is present in a mole fraction of about 0.7 to less than 1.0 while the second component is present in a mole fraction of more than 0.0 to about 0.3. The first component is CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3. The second component can be CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CHClFCF.sub.3, a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, or a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3. The preferred embodiment of this invention comprises about 0.7 to less than 1.0 mole fraction CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3, and more than 0.0 to about 0.3 mole fraction of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2. The most preferred embodiment of this invention comprises about 0.7 to less than 1.0 mole fraction CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3 and more than 0.0 to about 0.3 mole fraction CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2. The resulting refrigerant has a vapor pressure close to-that of CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, a nearly constant vapor pressure with evaporation, and is substantially less damaging to the Earth's ozone layer than CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01