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1

Experimental study of multiple steady states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bekiaris et al. (1993) explained the existence of multiple steady states in homogeneous ternary azeotropic distillation, on the basis of the analysis of the case of infinite reflux and infinite column length (infinite number of trays). They showed that the predictions of multiple steady states for such infinite columns have relevant implications for columns of finite length operated at finite

T. E. Guettinger; Cornelius Dorn; Manfred Morari

1997-01-01

2

The Influence of Distillation Conditions on the Azeotropic Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermodynamic conditions that determine the presence of an azeotrope in a binary solution are developed and analyzed together with the criteria that define if the azeotrope has a maximum or minimum boiling point at constant pressure. It is shown that using simple models for describing vapor-liquid equilibria and vapor pressure data of the pure components it is possible to determine rather accurately how the azeotropic point will shift if the distillation is carried out at a different pressure or temperature. Examples are given on the use of the proposed method; these can be used as classroom material.

Wisniak, Jaime

1998-11-01

3

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction  

E-print Network

: A solvent with HA Boiling point with water Heptane or Hexane Low vapor pressure viscosifying oil Distillation setup/ process -Found the Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Boiling points for Water on microscope - Took several images at different time points - Took pictures in color also to see what was water

Petta, Jason

4

A reactive distillation process for a cascade and azeotropic reaction system: Carbonylation of ethanol with dimethyl carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling and simulation of the reactive distillation column have been carried out for the carbonylation process of ethanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) producing diethyl carbonate (DEC). As it includes three azeotropes and two cascade reversible reactions with an undesired intermediate, methyl-and-ethyl carbonate (MEC), the reactive distillation is ideally appropriate. Calculations via a robust transient method reveal that a complete DMC

Hu-Ping Luo; Wen-De Xiao

2001-01-01

5

Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures  

E-print Network

. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates the need for pre-calculated vessel holdups- posed a closed (total reflux) operation of the conventional batch distillation column with a condenser Condenser D Middle 3 2 1 2 1 x + 12B xF 1N N N D x x x x M xM B N Figure 1: Steadystate compositionprofile

Skogestad, Sigurd

6

Azeotropic distillation assisted fabrication of silver nanocages and their catalytic property for reduction of 4-nitrophenol.  

PubMed

Monodisperse silver nanocages (AgNCs) with specific interiors were successfully synthesized by an azeotropic distillation (AD) assisted method and exhibited excellent catalytic activities for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) into 4-aminophenol (4-AP) due to the unique hollow morphology and small thickness of the silver shell. PMID:25421649

Min, Jianzhong; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yunliang; Liang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenwei; Jiang, Xingmao

2015-01-14

7

Azeotropic data for binary and ternary systems at moderate pressures  

SciTech Connect

For the synthesis and design of distillation columns the knowledge of azeotropic points is most important. Therefore, a computerized data bank for azeotropic data has been established at the University of Oldenburg to supplement the existing mixture information stored in the Dortmund Data Bank. To check questionable literature data and to extend the contents of the computerized data bank, more than 500 azeotropic and zeotropic data for binary and ternary systems have been measured up to pressures of 3.5 bar with the help of a wire band column. A total of 38 binary azeotropic and zeotropic data for various ethers (MTBE, TAME, TAEE, ETBE, IPTBE) with different alcohols have already been published (Gmehling et al., 1995). A total of 273 binary and 28 ternary azeotropic and zeotropic data are reported in this paper.

Gmehling, J.; Boelts, R. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)] [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany)

1996-03-01

8

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns  

E-print Network

to be controlled. In many difficult process situations such as steelmaking furnaces [7], cement kilns [13], presses in the glass industry [4] and distillation columns [12], such models do not exist. While there are a variety of adaptive techniques which can...

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-06-07

9

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

10

Water content of pyrolysis oil: Comparison between Karl Fischer titration, GC\\/MS-corrected azeotropic distillation and 1H NMR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyrolysis converts biomass waste mainly into pyrolysis oil, which is a possible source of renewable energy and\\/or value-added chemicals. A very important characteristic of pyrolysis oil is its water content. Karl Fischer titration and azeotropic distillation by the Dean-Stark method are two common techniques for water determination. In this study, the water content is determined for several pyrolysis oil samples

K. Smets; P. Adriaensens; J. Vandewijngaarden; M. Stals; T. Cornelissen; S. Schreurs; R. Carleer; J. Yperman

2011-01-01

11

Efficiency of methods for Karl Fischer determination of water in oils based on oven evaporation and azeotropic distillation.  

PubMed

The efficiency of azeotropic distillation and oven evaporation techniques for trace determination of water in oils has recently been questioned by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), on the basis of measurements of the residual water found after the extraction step. The results were obtained by volumetric Karl Fischer (KF) titration in a medium containing a large excess of chloroform (> or = 65%), a proposed prerequisite to ensure complete release of water from the oil matrix. In this work, the extent of this residual water was studied by means of a direct zero-current potentiometric technique using a KF medium containing more than 80% chloroform, which is well above the concentration recommended by NIST. A procedure is described that makes it possible to correct the results for dilution errors as well as for chemical interference effects caused by the oil matrix. The corrected values were found to be in the range of 0.6-1.5 ppm, which should be compared with the 12-34 ppm (uncorrected values) reported by NIST for the same oils. From this, it is concluded that the volumetric KF method used by NIST gives results that are much too high. PMID:12659179

Larsson, William; Jalbert, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Roland; Cedergren, Anders

2003-03-15

12

Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

13

Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column, respectively. Because distillation is a mass-transfer process, the purity of the product(s) can be increased by increasing the effectiveness of the mass-transfer process (increasing the mass-transfer coefficient) and/or by increasing the available surface area for mass transfer through increased column height. The diameter of a distillation column is fixed by pressure-drop and mass-flow requirements. The approach taken in designing the present distillation column to be short yet capable of yielding a product of acceptably high purity was to pay careful attention to design details that affect mass-transfer processes.

Rozzi, Jay C.

2006-01-01

14

Effects of System Densities on Distillation Column Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol—butanol, ethanol—propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence

S. O. Fasesan; S. A. Sanni; E. A. Taiwo

1998-01-01

15

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

16

A cryogenic distillation column for the XENON1T experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XENON collaboration aims for the direct detection of cold dark matter in form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). A dual phase time projection chamber filled with liquid xenon is used to detect the WIMP-nucleon interaction. For the next generation experiment XENON1T with an active target mass of 1 ton of xenon, a new distillation column to remove krypton out of xenon to a concentration of < 5 × 10?13 (0.5 ppt) natural krypton in xenon is designed and tested at the Institut für Kernphysik, Universitat Munster. The experimental setup together with two diagnostic tools is presented, as well as one stability test of a 11 hour distillation run at the designed flowrate of 3 kg per hour.

Rosendahl, S.; Brown, E.; Cristescu, I.; Fieguth, A.; Huhmann, C.; Murra, M.; Weinheimer, C.

2014-11-01

17

Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon*  

E-print Network

(the reboiler) and one heat sink (the condenser), a diabatic column uses a heat exchanger at each trayOptimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Exchangers Edward Steven of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred

Salamon, Peter

18

High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

exchangers and distillation trays permits additional energy savings by lower reboiler temperature differences, and reduced reflux requirements for a fixed column height, due to closer tray spacings. This paper surveys the heat pump systems currently...

Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

1981-01-01

19

Application of the theta method to distillation columns where one or more reactions occur per stage  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1979 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering APPLICATION OF THE THETA METHOD TO DISTILLATION COLUMNS WHERE ONE OR MORE REACTIONS OCCUR PER STAGE A Thesis by ALICIA IZARRARAZ Approved as to style and content by: cubi...

Izarraraz, Alicia

2012-06-07

20

Assessing Safety in Distillation Column Using Dynamic Simulation and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safety assessment becomes an important activity in chemical industries since the need to comply with general legal requirements in addition to meet safer plant and profit. This paper reviews some most frequently causes of distillation column malfunction. First, analysis of case histories will be discussed for providing guidelines in identifying potential trouble spots in distillation column. A dynamic simulation for operational failure is simulated as the basis for assessing the consequences. A case study will be used from a side stream distillation column to show the implementation of the concept. A framework for assessing safety in the column is proposed using Fault Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA). Further, trouble-free operation in order to reduce the risk associated with column malfunction is described.

Werner, Suhendra; Fred, Witt; Compart

21

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column  

E-print Network

Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

Salamon, Peter

22

Simulation and experimental study of intermediate heat exchange in a sieve tray distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to combine a simulation study with an experimental in the investigation of intermediate heat exchange as a method to change the distribution of the driving forces in the column where the number of trays is kept constant. It was applied to a pilot plant sieve tray distillation column for a binary separation of ethanol

Ingela Niklasson Björn; Urban Grén; Fredrik Svensson

2002-01-01

23

Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems  

E-print Network

computer control system on an existing col umn. To be more specific, an ethylene-ethane column will be discussed - ethylene is the light key and ethane is the heavy key. Figure 1 shows a simple diagram for an ethylene column. As shown in Figure 1... is not always at the maximum allowable impurity. In other words, the ethylene column product should not contain the maximum amount of ethane (impurity) for all economic cases. b

Matthews, S. A.

1980-01-01

24

First Commissioning of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for Low Radioactivity Underground Argon  

E-print Network

We report on the performance and commissioning of a cryogenic distillation column for low radioactivity underground argon at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The distillation column is designed to accept a mixture of argon, helium, and nitrogen and return pure argon with a nitrogen contamination less than 10 ppm. In the first commissioning, we were able to run the distillation column in a continuous mode and produce argon that is 99.9% pure. After running in a batch mode, the argon purity was increased to 99.95%, with 500 ppm of nitrogen remaining. The efficiency of collecting the argon from the gas mixture was between 70% and 81%, at an argon production rate of 0.84-0.98 kg/day.

H. O. Back; T. Alexander; A. Alton; C. Condon; E. de Haas; C. Galbiati; A. Goretti; T. Hohmann; An. Ianni; C. Kendziora; B. Loer; D. Montanari; P. Mosteiro; S. Pordes

2012-05-01

25

A nonlinear profile observer using tray temperatures for high-purity binary distillation column control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, concise nonlinear profile position observer using tray temperatures instead of tray compositions is proposed. Composition measurement has been one of the major difficulties associated with the composition control of distillation columns because the on-line analyzers still suffer from large measurement delays, high investment\\/maintenance costs and low reliability. One of common alternatives to the analyzers is to use the

Joonho Shin; Hodong Seo; Myungwan Han

2000-01-01

26

Counter-current operation of structured catalytically packed distillation columns: pressure drop, holdup and mixing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structured packed columns, in which the catalyst particles are enclosed within wire gauze envelopes (“sandwiches”) are promising reactor configurations for reactive distillation and hydroconversions. By allowing preferential channels for the gas and liquid phases, counter-current operation is achieved even for millimeter sized catalyst particles without the problem of flooding. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive experimental study of

J. Ellenberger; R. Krishna

1999-01-01

27

Fuzzy supervisory PI control of a binary distillation column via distributed control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the fuzzy supervisory PI control is implemented via distributed control systems (DCS) to control a binary distillation column. The fuzzy c-mean clustering is used to identify the membership functions and fuzzy rules are determined using fuzzy gain scheduling technique. Thus, the need of heuristic method for designing fuzzy membership functions and rules from expert knowledge is omitted.

Poramade Cheingjong; Suvalai Pratishthananda

2008-01-01

28

Modified method to improve the design of Petlyuk distillation columns  

PubMed Central

Background A response surface analysis was performed to study the effect of the composition and feeding thermal conditions of ternary mixtures on the number of theoretical stages and the energy consumption of Petlyuk columns. A modification of the pre-design algorithm was necessary for this purpose. Results The modified algorithm provided feasible results in 100% of the studied cases, compared with only 8.89% for the current algorithm. The proposed algorithm allowed us to attain the desired separations, despite the type of mixture and the operating conditions in the feed stream, something that was not possible with the traditional pre-design method. The results showed that the type of mixture had great influence on the number of stages and on energy consumption. A higher number of stages and a lower consumption of energy were attained with mixtures rich in the light component, while higher energy consumption occurred when the mixture was rich in the heavy component. Conclusions The proposed strategy expands the search of an optimal design of Petlyuk columns within a feasible region, which allow us to find a feasible design that meets output specifications and low thermal loads. PMID:25061476

2014-01-01

29

Nonlinear model-based control algorithm for a distillation column using software sensor.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design of model-based globally linearizing control (GLC) structure for a distillation process within the differential geometric framework. The model of a nonideal binary distillation column, whose characteristics were highly nonlinear and strongly interactive, is used as a real process. The classical GLC law is comprised of a transformer (input-output linearizing state feedback), a nonlinear state observer, and an external PI controller. The tray temperature based short-cut observer (TTBSCO) has been used as a state estimator within the control structure, in which all tray temperatures were considered to be measured. Accordingly, the liquid phase composition of each tray was calculated online using the derived temperature-composition correlation. In the simulation experiment, the proposed GLC coupled with TTBSCO (GLC-TTBSCO) outperformed a conventional PI controller based on servo performances with and without measurement noise as well as on regulatory behaviors. In the subsequent part, the GLC law has been synthesized in conjunction with tray temperature based reduced-order observer (GLC-TTBROO) where the distillate and bottom compositions of the distillation process have been inferred from top and bottom product temperatures respectively, which were measured online. Finally, the comparative performance of the GLC-TTBSCO and the GLC-TTBROO has been addressed under parametric uncertainty and the GLC-TTBSCO algorithm provided slightly better performance than the GLC-TTBROO. The resulting control laws are rather general and can be easily adopted for other binary distillation columns. PMID:15868863

Jana, Amiya Kumar; Samanta, Amar Nath; Ganguly, Saibal

2005-04-01

30

Electroosmotic Membrane Pump for the separation of water from azeotropic mixtures. Technical progress report, Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

The Electroosmotic Membrane (EOM) Pump is proposed as a process for saving energy during the separation of azeotropes of alcohol and water. The process is electrically driven and removes water from the process stream through ion-selective membranes by electroosmosis. A laboratory-scale Model Cell was constructed to test the EOM pump concept using commercially available ion exchange membranes. Tests were performed with the Model Cell at various (1) alcohol-water compositions, (2) feed molalities of lithium chloride and lithium bromide in water, (3) stack temperatures, and (4) other operating conditions, such as stack configuration and membrane thickness. As part of the integration of the EOM pump and distillation processes, the effect of salt injection into the reflux line of the distillation column was studied. A conclusion of the study is that the overhead composition can be substantially enriched in alcohol to essentially anhydrous alcohol with salt addition.

Lundstrom, J.E.

1986-03-01

31

Estimating vent emissions from a distillation column: An alternative to stack testing  

SciTech Connect

This technical paper points out the cost-effectiveness and data manageability of material balance over the epidemic use of stack testing in the chemical industry. An example is drawn from a Title V emissions inventory prepared for an international manufacturer of pharmaceuticals and fuel additives. This example case focuses on the use of mass balance to estimate noncondensibles generated by a typical large-scale distillation column. Distillation fundamentals are reviewed, including discussion of relative volatility, x-y and McCabe-Thiele diagrams, and basic sieve tray mechanics. A seemingly complex set of energy and material balance equations is simplified by the application of constant molar overflow. The example case concludes with a calculation of column noncondensibles, and the paper closes with a review of the material balance approach, including its strengths, limitations, and applicability to other unit operations.

Dickerson, D.L. Jr. [ERM-Southeast, Charleston, SC (United States)

1996-12-31

32

Solution of Multicomponent distillation problems for conventional and complex columns at unsteady state operation  

E-print Network

-METHOD OF CONVERGENCE Complex Columns . Other Specifications for Holdups 13 15 IV. MODIFIED IMPLICIT METHOD 19 Use of the Modified Implicit Method in the Solution of Unsteady State Distillation Problems. Solution of Enthalpy Balances by Use... for Example 1 44 Results Obtained for Example 2 by Use of the Analytical Solution and Numerical Methods at Relatively Small Intervals 45 Results Obtained for Example 2 with X = 0. 1 and x = 0, 9 by Use of Analytical Solution and 0 Numerical Methods...

Pendon, Gregorio Parrenas

2012-06-07

33

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-print Network

capacity is required or where there a e severe and internals is less than six months. This assumes that coking problems, Style II F1exigrid 0 packing, hich has the F1exipac@ structured packing can be installed during very low holdUp and minimum dead..."UTILIZATION OF STRUCTURED PACKING FOR ENERGY SAVINGS IN DISTILLATION AND ABSORPTION COLUMNS" O. Jeffrey Berven and Wendell E. Howard Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wi chita, Kansas As the need to reduce production costs causes...

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

34

Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

Baker, R.W.

1991-12-01

35

Towards further internal heat integration in design of reactive distillation columns—part I: The design principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic efficiency of a reactive distillation column involving reactions with a highly thermal effect could sometimes be improved substantially through seeking further internal heat integration between the reaction operation and separation operation. Prudent arrangement of the reactive section and deliberate determination of feed location are the two effective methods that can complement internal heat integration within a reactive distillation

Kejin Huang; Koichi Iwakabe; Masaru Nakaiwa; Atsushi Tsutsumi

2005-01-01

36

Distillation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-24

37

Effects of reflux ratio and feed conditions for the purification of bioethanol in a continuous distillation column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous distillation column was used for the purification of bioethanol from fermentation of molasses using Saccharomyces cerevisia. Bioethanol produced was at 8.32% (v/v) level. The efficiency of continuous distillation process was evaluated based on reflux ratio, and feed condition. The lab results were validated using COFE simulation Software. The analyses showed that both reflux ratio and feed condition had significant effects on the distillation process. Stages increased from 1.79 to 2.26 as the reflux ratio was decreased from 90% to 45% and the saturated feed produced lower mole fraction of desired product. We concluded that the lower reflux ratio with cold feed condition was suitable for higher mole fraction of top product.

Dasan, Y. K.; Abdullah, M. A.; Bhat, A. H.

2014-10-01

38

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

39

Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

Baker, R.W.

1991-12-01

40

The influence of vapour capacitance on the composition dynamics of packed distillation columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general transfer function matrix (TFM) expression is derived for the composition dynamics of ideal packed columns that are statically symmetrical, but are dynamically asymmetric, i.e., having a nonunity vapor/liquid capacitance ratio, c. For the special case of c = o, the system TFM is derived completely analytically to produce a parametric TFM, resembling that for c = 1. The result is successfully tested at high and zero frequencies against the initial and final values of the system step responses determined analytically and by time domain simulation. Complete inverse Nyquist diagrams are presented and compared with the c = 1 case. It is noted that whereas for c = 1, the system response for long columns is nonminimum phase, for c = o, the system behaves in a nonstrictly proper fashion with an abrupt initial negative response of magnitude similar to the nonminimum phase dip produced when c = 1. Hence, the variation of c does not greatly influence the general response characteristics of packed columns.

Edwards, J. B.; Guilandoust, M.

1981-11-01

41

Final Report - Advanced Hydraulic and Mass Transfer Models for Distillation Column Optimization and Design  

SciTech Connect

The project successfully developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation of the hydrodynamics of flow in a commercial structured packing element. This result fulfilled the prime objective of the research program. The simulation utilized commercial CFD code marketed by Fluent Inc. in combination with a novel graphical interface developed by Oak Ridge National Lab. The end product will allow the design of next generation column internals without the need for extensive experimental validation and will expand the fundamental understanding of the vapor-liquid contacting process.

Eldridge, Robert, B.

2005-10-13

42

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01

43

Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures  

E-print Network

the need for pre­calculated vessel holdups and makes the closed operating policy flexible and simple with a condenser vessel for sep­ aration of (ideal) binary mixtures. Kiva et al. (1988) ex­ tended this idea operation. TC TC Reboiler Vessel Condenser D Middle 3 2 1 2 1 x + 1 2 B x F 1 N N N D x x x x M x M B N

Skogestad, Sigurd

44

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17

45

Variation of Azeotropic Composition and Temperature with Pressure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment in which an azeotropic mixture is studied using the vapor pressures of the components as functions of temperature and the azeotropic composition and temperature at one pressure. Discusses in detail the mathematical treatment of obtained thermodynamic data. (MLH)

Gibbard, H. Frank; Emptage, Michael R.

1975-01-01

46

Nearly Azeotropic Mixtures To Replace Refrigerant 12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Number of nearly azeotropic fluid mixtures have saturation pressures similar to Refrigerant 12 while being about 2 percent as damaging to ozone layer. Five mixtures of R134a, R152a, R124, and R142b have low boiling-point spreads, low toxicity, and low ozone-damaging capability, are nonflammable, and more compatible with conventional oils than R134a. Pressure of combinations nearly equal to R12, and mixtures may be good "drop-in substitutes". Overall composition not altered by leakage. Usable in commercial, automotive, and household refrigerators and air conditioners.

Jones, Jack A.

1992-01-01

47

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22

48

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01

49

PREDICTIONS OF AZEOTROPES FORMED FROM FLUORINATED ETHERS, ETHANES, AND PROPANES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses an evaluation of the potential for azeotrope formation and performance for fluorinated ethers, ethanes, and propanes. (NOTE: The synthesis of new non-chlorinated refrigerants expands the base of alternatives for replacing ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (O...

50

Catalytic Distillation  

E-print Network

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01

51

THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF PREDICTED FLUORINATED ETHER, ETHANE, AND PROPANE AZEOTROPES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of thermodynamic analyses, using basic thermophysical property data, to evaluate seven predicted fluorinated ether, ethane, and propane azeotropes: E125/RC270, E125/R134a, E143a/R134, R134a/E143a, E143a/ R152a, R134/R245cb, and R245cb/R227ea. he performanc...

52

Mathematical modeling of a single stage ultrasonically assisted distillation process.  

PubMed

The ability of sonication phenomena in facilitating separation of azeotropic mixtures presents a promising approach for the development of more intensified and efficient distillation systems than conventional ones. To expedite the much-needed development, a mathematical model of the system based on conservation principles, vapor-liquid equilibrium and sonochemistry was developed in this study. The model that was founded on a single stage vapor-liquid equilibrium system and enhanced with ultrasonic waves was coded using MATLAB simulator and validated with experimental data for ethanol-ethyl acetate mixture. The effects of both ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the relative volatility and azeotropic point were examined, and the optimal conditions were obtained using genetic algorithm. The experimental data validated the model with a reasonable accuracy. The results of this study revealed that the azeotropic point of the mixture can be totally eliminated with the right combination of sonication parameters and this can be utilized in facilitating design efforts towards establishing a workable ultrasonically intensified distillation system. PMID:25432400

Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Nasef, Mohamed M; Ali, Mohamad W

2015-05-01

53

Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10  

E-print Network

Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10 C. Mirabello1, G. Tradigo1,2 , P.Veltri2, and G. Pollastri and Distill_roll is that for the former we use an improved fold recognition algorithm. Methods Distill runs 3 through 3 searches for Distill_roll (PSSM and SAMD profile against PDB sequences and SAMD, with 3

Pollastri, Gianluca

54

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

55

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-print Network

is therefore the first requirement of optimal control. Use of Slip-Stream Consider the distillation of a binary mixture where one or both components are valuable. are required pure, and are separated in a single column. The objective is to obtain maximum...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01

56

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is sep~ration of styrene and ethylbenzene. Approximately 70...% of the world's styrene capac ty is now processed through columns filled with Flex pac? or Mellapak structured packings. In conventio al column operation, energy savings of 20 to 30% re obtained by replacing trays or dumped packings Other benefits...

Hill, J.H.

57

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

58

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOEpatents

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

2007-12-25

59

Performance of a residential heat pump operating with a non-azeotropic binary refrigerant mixture - an interim report. [R22 vs non-azeotropic binary mixture of R13B1 and R152a  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of laboratory measurement of the performance change of a substantially unmodified residential heat pump designed for R22 when charged with a non-azeotropic, binary mixture of R13B1 and R152a. Results are presented for various sizes of fixed expansion devices. The effect of gliding temperature in the saturation zone was found to be small. The effect of composition shift by flash distillation in the accumulator was found to measurably improve low temperature heating performance. There appears to be an inherent trade-off when operating an unmodified heat pump with mixtures so as to increase capacity at lower temperatures. This trade-off is that as the evaporator pressure decreases and refrigerant begins to flood through to the accumulator and thus allowing the composition shift to occur, the subcooling on the high pressure side also decreases causing a decrease in the available latent enthalpy difference. A possible solution to this problem might be to increase the amount of initial charge. This would cause on increase in head pressures which could be a problem in the cooling mode. A possible solution to this excessive head pressure problem would be to incorporate a receiver in the system in the branch line just ahead of the expansion device for the outdoor coil. Thus, when this coil is acting as an evaporator (i.e., heating mode) the stored refrigerant would be released into the circulating system allowing for more composition shift to occur. Such a solution will be pursued as one of the items of study during the next phase of this project. 9 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Didion, D.; Mulroy, W.

1984-01-01

60

Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

Barduhn, Allen J.

1984-01-01

61

Dynamic catalytic distillation: Advanced simulation and experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive distillation offers a number of potential advantages, so that many traditional operations are currently being investigated in order to discover further applications of this technology. Increasingly, it is performed in columns with catalytic packings that combine the advantages of normal structured packings and heterogeneous catalysts. Analysis of reactive distillation is difficult due to strong physico-chemical interactions, and it is

L. U. Kreul; A. Górak; C. Dittrich; P. I. Barton

1998-01-01

62

Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

Pritchard, Colin

1986-01-01

63

Efficiency of vapor compression heat pumps based on non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work presents the results of cycle computation for vapor compression pumps based on ozone-safe mixed refrigerants. Non-azeotropic binary refrugerants R32/R152a (30/70) and R32/R134a (30/70) were considere as working substances. Properties of non-azeotropic refrigerants were calculated according to the additivity method of thermodynamic functions and method of Lemmon and Jacobsen. Deviations in the values of thermophysical properties obtained with two methods have been determined. It is shown that at the use of nonazeotropic mixture R32/R152a (30/70), energy conversion ratio increases by 2.2-3.6 % compared with the results for R32/R134a (30/70) at temperature difference between the processes of boiling and condensation from 28 to 53 °C.

Mezentseva, N. N.

2011-06-01

64

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

the operation is switched between total re ux operation and dumping the product i.e., the condenser holdup products are collected in the condenser drum and in the reboiler. Another alternative is to "invert multivessel batch distillation column by calculating in advance the nal holdup in each vessel and then using

Skogestad, Sigurd

65

Gas viscosities of azeotropic mixtures of the halogenated hydrocarbons R500, R502, and R503  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas viscosities of azeotropic mixtures R500 (dichlorodifluoromethane (R12)-1, 1-difluoroethane (R152a)), R 502 (chlorodifluoromethane (R22)-chloropentafluoroethane (R115)), and R503 (chlorotrifluoromethane (R13)-trifluoromethane (R23)) were measured with an oscillating disk viscometer of the Maxwell type at 273.15-423.15 K up to 7.5 MPa. Two empirical equations for the viscosities were obtained; one is for the atmospheric viscosities as a function of temperature, and the other

Mitsuo Takahashi; Chiaki Yokoyama; Shinji Takahashi

1988-01-01

66

Application of the self-heat recuperation technology to crude oil distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude oil distillation is an atmospheric distillation column using a furnace. It consumes about 50% of the energy required in an oil refinery plant. To reduce energy requirements, it is necessary to investigate crude oil distillation and to retrofit it with energy saving processes. Recently, the authors developed an innovative process design technology, termed self-heat recuperation technology for saving energy.

Yasuki Kansha; Akira Kishimoto; Atsushi Tsutsumi

67

Gas viscosities of azeotropic mixtures of the halogenated hydrocarbons R500, R502, and R503  

SciTech Connect

Gas viscosities of azeotropic mixtures R500 (dichlorodifluoromethane (R12)-1, 1-difluoroethane (R152a)), R 502 (chlorodifluoromethane (R22)-chloropentafluoroethane (R115)), and R503 (chlorotrifluoromethane (R13)-trifluoromethane (R23)) were measured with an oscillating disk viscometer of the Maxwell type at 273.15-423.15 K up to 7.5 MPa. Two empirical equations for the viscosities were obtained; one is for the atmospheric viscosities as a function of temperature, and the other is for the viscosities in the whole range of the present measurement as a function of temperature and density.

Takahashi, M.; Yokoyama, C.; Takahashi, S.

1988-07-01

68

Experimental investigation of moderately high temperature water source heat pump with non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental investigations were carried out on non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures, named M1A (mass fraction of 20%R152a and 80%R245fa), M1B (mass fraction of 37% R152a and 63%R245fa) and M1C (mass fraction of 50%R152a and 50%R245fa), based on a water-to-water heat pump system in the condensing temperature range of 70–90°C with a cycle temperature lift of 45°C. Performance of R245fa was tested for

Shengjun Zhang; Huaixin Wang; Tao Guo

2010-01-01

69

Free Boundary Problems in Distillation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics important in understanding the behavior of distillation columns: the shapes and stability of dielectric drops in an electric field and the flow patterns on distillation trays. Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of dielectric drops subject to an applied electric field are determined by solving simultaneously the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and the Maxwell equations for field distribution. Both linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops are studied, as are drops that are pendant/sessile on a supporting plate and those that are floating freely between two plates. The range of parameters for which hysteresis in drop deformation can be observed is given for linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops. Properly accounting for the effects of nonlinear polarization brings the theoretical results of this work into accord with previously published experimental results. Detailed examination of the electric fields inside nonlinearly polarizable drops reveals that they are very nonuniform, in contrast to the nearly uniform fields usually found in linearly polarizable drops. The concept of depth averaging the equations of motion for a thin film (relative to the length of the distillation tray) is used to reduce the three-dimensional, free surface flow problem to two dimensions. A one-dimensional model is first used to gain understanding into the behavior of the bulk flow, ignoring any edge effects. A rise in the height profile on the tray, or hydraulic jump, is predicted. The effects of Reynolds number, capillary number (surface tension), tray geometry, and film thickness are all examined. The importance of the downcomers is shown. The two-dimensional model allows examination not only of rectangular trays, but also round trays and trays which are annular arcs, so called "race track" trays. A large zone of recirculation is predicted near the walls of round trays. This is confirmed in published experimental results and in experimental observations reported here. Race track trays did not show recirculation even at large arc angles.

Wohlhuter, Frederick Karl

70

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01

71

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

72

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20

73

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

74

Cryogenic hydrogen isotope distillation for the fusion fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic distillation is an attractive method for the hydrogen isotopic separations required in fusion fuel cycles. The theoretical and practical aspects of designing and constructing such systems are well established. Practical considerations in the design of systems are presented and applied to the Isotope Separation System (ISS) at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), as well as systems of distillation columns that might be used for a reactor such as the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) and the recovery of breeding blanket product.

Sherman, R.H.

1985-01-01

75

Survey of Binary Azeotropes as Physical Chemistry Lab Experiments with Attention to Cost, Safety, and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is presented of possible binary azeotropic systems suitable for study in an undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. From a range of sources, a list has been compiled of the most acceptable systems on the basis of health, safety, waste disposal, and practicability concerns. More than 80 systems were reviewed. For comparison purposes, the list was reduced to a table

Robert J. Glinski; Christopher W. Smith; Jason B. Cooke

1999-01-01

76

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24

77

Datalogging the Distillation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

1995-01-01

78

Modeling of a heat pump charged with a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the vapor compression cycle and the main components of an air-to-air heat pump charged with a binary non-azeotropic mixture has been performed for steady-state operation. The general heat pump simulation model HPBI has been formulated which is based on independent, analytical models of system components and the logic linking them together. The logic of the program requires an iterative solution of refrigerant pressure and enthalpy balances, and refrigerant mixture and individual mixture component mass inventories. The modeling effort emphasis was on the local thermodynamic phenomena which were described by fundamental heat transfer equations and equation of state relationships among material properties. In the compressor model several refrigerant locations were identified and the processes taking place between these locations accounted for all significant heat and pressure losses.

Domanski, P.

1986-01-01

79

Pervaporative dehydration characteristics of an ethanol/water azeotrope through various chitosan membranes.  

PubMed

The permeation and separation characteristics of an ethanol/water azeotrope through chitosan membranes of different molecular weights and degrees of deacetylation during pervaporation were investigated. The normalized permeation rate decreased with increasing molecular weight up to 90kDa, but at over 90kDa, the rate increased. On the other hand, the water/ethanol selectivity increased with increasing molecular weight up to 90kDa but decreased at over 90kDa. With increasing degree of deacetylation, the water/ethanol permselectivity increased significantly, but the normalized permeation rate decreased. The characteristics of chitosan membranes are discussed based on their chemical and physical structures such as the contact angle, density, degree of swelling, and glass transition temperature. PMID:25662680

Uragami, Tadashi; Saito, Tomoyuki; Miyata, Takashi

2015-04-20

80

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2010-07-01

81

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2011-07-01

82

Winogradsky Columns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an exercise about Winogradsky Columns with emphasis placed on the formation and properties of microbial biofilms. It includes background reference material, a field/lab exercise, and several applications. Applications include methods for sampling column layers and a description of how to measure the electro-chemical gradient that develops within the column. Scientific illustrations and images are included as visual references.

Lennox, John; State, Penn

83

APPLICATION OF CAPILLARY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY TO THE ANALYSIS OF A MIDDLE DISTILLATE FUEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the application of capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of a middle distillate fuel. Small diameter (50 micrometer i.d.) fused silica capillary columns coated with crosslinked 50% phenyl polymethylsiloxane provided high separation...

84

Performance of a residential heat pump operating with a non-azeotropic binary refrigerant mixture - an interim report. [R22 vs non-azeotropic binary mixture of R13B1 and R152a  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents results of laboratory measurement of the performance change of a substantially unmodified residential heat pump designed for R22 when charged with a non-azeotropic, binary mixture of R13B1 and R152a. Results are presented for various sizes of fixed expansion devices. The effect of gliding temperature in the saturation zone was found to be small. The effect of composition

D. Didion; W. Mulroy

1984-01-01

85

Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

86

Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.  

PubMed

Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates. PMID:25307564

Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

2014-10-29

87

Topological quantum distillation.  

PubMed

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding, and computation with magic states. PMID:17155532

Bombin, H; Martin-Delgado, M A

2006-11-01

88

Observation of vapor bubble of non-azeotropic binary mixture in microgravity with a two-wavelength interferometer  

SciTech Connect

Although non-azeotropic mixtures are considered to be promising working fluids in advanced energy conversion systems, the primary technical problems in the heat transfer degradation in phase change processes cause economical handicap to wide-spread applications. The boiling behavior of mixtures still remains a number of basic questions being not answered yet, and the present authors believe that the most essential information for the boiling process in non-azeotropic mixtures is how temperature and concentration profiles are developed around the bubbles. The present study attempts at understanding fundamental heat and mass transfer mechanisms in nucleate pool boiling of non-azeotropic binary mixtures, and with the knowledge to develop a passive boiling heat transfer enhancement eventually. To this end, the authors have employed microgravity environment for rather detailed observation around vapor bubbles in the course of boiling inception and bubble growth. A two-wavelength Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been developed, which withstands mechanical shock caused by gravity change from very low gravity of the order of 10{sup {minus}5} g to relatively high gravity of approximately 8 g exposed during deceleration period. A series of experiments on single vapor bubbles for CFC113 single component and CFC12/CFC112 non-azeotropic binary mixture have been conducted under a high quality microgravity conditions available in 10-second free-fall facility of Japan Microgravity Center (JAMIC). The results for single component liquid showed a strong influence due to Marangoni effect caused by the temperature profile around the bubble. The results for non-azeotropic binary mixture showed, however, considerably different behavior from single component liquid. Both temperature and concentration profiles around a single vapor bubble were evaluated from the interferograms. The temperature and concentration layers established around the bubbles were nearly one order of magnitude larger than those predicted by thermal diffusion and mass diffusion. The temperature and concentration profiles evaluated from the present experiments suggest the role of Marangoni effects due to both concentration profile and temperature profile around the bubble interface.

Abe, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

1999-07-01

89

27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits. 27.40 Section 27.40 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

90

AMMONIA DISTILLATION FOR DEUTERIUM SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative volatility or separation factor for deuterium enrichment in ; ammonia distillation was measured at several pressures and deuterium ; concentrations. The knowledge of this ingormation is very helpful in predicting ; costs of heawy water production by the ammonia distillation process. It hss been ; stated by others, that the ammonia distillation process of heawy water production ;

G. T. Petersen; M. Benedict

1960-01-01

91

Microbial activity in weathering columns.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the metabolic activity of the microbial population associated with a pyritic tailing after a column-weathering test. For this purpose, a column 150cm high and 15cm diameter was used. The solid was a tailing with 63.4% pyrite and with minor amounts of Cu, Pb and Zn sulfides (1.4, 0.5 and 0.8%, respectively). The column model was the habitual one for weathering tests: distilled water was added at the top of the column; the water flowed down through tailings and finally was collected at the bottom for chemical and microbiological analysis. Weathering was maintained for 36 weeks. The results showed a significant presence of microbial life that was distributed selectively over the column: sulfur- and iron-oxidizing aerobic bacteria were in the more oxygenated zone; anaerobic sulfur-reducing bacteria were isolated from the samples taken from the anoxic part of the column. Activity testing showed that (oxidizing and reducing) bacteria populations were active at the end of the weathering test. The quality of the water draining from the column was thus the final product of biological oxidation and reduction promoted by the bacteria consortia. PMID:16949201

García, C; Ballester, A; González, F; Blázquez, M L

2007-03-22

92

Polyhydroxy glucose functionalized silica for the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate.  

PubMed

Although most of the water in a bio-ethanol fermentation broth can be removed by distillation, a small amount of water remains in the bio-ethanol distillate as the water-ethanol azeotrope. To improve the use of ethanol as a fuel, glucose-modified silica, as an adsorbent, was prepared using a facile method and applied to the dehydration of bio-ethanol distillate. The factors affecting the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent, such as the particle size, initial concentration of water in the samples, adsorption temperature and adsorbent dose, were examined by measuring the adsorption kinetics and equilibrium. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were used to evaluate the adsorption efficiency. Of these, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherms showed a good correlation with the experimental data. The Langmuir isotherm showed some deviation from the experimental results, and indicated that adsorption in this case was not a simple monolayer adsorption. The property of the adsorbent was attributed to functionalized silica with many hydroxyl groups on its surface. An examination of the separation factors of water/ethanol revealed the modified silica to have preferential selectivity for water. Compared to activated carbon and silica, glucose-modified silica exhibited higher adsorption capacity for water under the same adsorption conditions. In addition, the glucose-modified silica adsorbent exhibited a relatively constant adsorption capacity for five adsorption/desorption cycles. PMID:24366162

Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung Ho

2014-07-01

93

Cascade Distillation System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

2014-01-01

94

Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components  

DOEpatents

Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

2011-07-26

95

Improved Analysis and Understanding of the Petlyuk Distillation Column  

E-print Network

at steady state five degrees of freedom, which may be selected as the following manipulated input variables product specifica- tions we usually have two remaining DOFs when all these specifications are

Skogestad, Sigurd

96

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-print Network

aT Possible First glance may show only 3 or 4 utility levels (temperatures) to choose from. These might well be 1000e apart. Some ways to increase the options are: ' multieffect distillation (this spreads the 6T across 2 or 3 towers) use of waste heat...). Cooling below top? Liquid composition Heating above bottom FIG. 3 INTERNED lATE CONDENSER AND REBOILER Plax efficiency Max ett'iclenc)' SO, of heavy 95' of heavy component in component In feed teed 1 condenser r 1 [eboiler 67 20 2 con6ensers r 1...

Steinmeyer, D.

97

Column Chromatography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners separate the components of Gatorade using a home-made affinity column. In doing so, learners model the basic principle of affinity chromatography, a technique used to purify chemicals as well as bio-pharmaceuticals and petroleum products. This resource contains information about affinity chromatography and polarity.

Yu, Julie

2007-01-01

98

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2013-04-01

99

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2011-04-01

100

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2012-04-01

101

27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.  

...ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits Rules...through the various steps of production as quickly as plant operation will permit...many distilling or other production operations as...

2014-04-01

102

27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation...many distilling or other production operations as desired...through the various steps of production as expeditiously as plant operation will...

2010-04-01

103

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2012-04-01

104

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2013-04-01

105

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2011-04-01

106

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2014-04-01

107

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2010-04-01

108

Vapor compression distillation module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

109

SIMULATION OF NON-AZEOTROPIC REFRIGERANT MIXTURES FOR USE IN A DUAL-CIRCUIT REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER WITH COUNTERCURRENT HEAT EXCHANGES  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses a refrigerator/freezer (RF) system that has two complete and independent refrigeration cycles for the two compartments. It uses a non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture (NARM) in each cycle and countercurrent heat exchangers throughout. This RF is housed in a stan...

110

Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

bed density for maximum column efficiency. Zenix SEC phases are designed to ensure highest resolution1 Zenix SEC Column Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies and 3 m technologies allow the chemistry of thin film formation to be well controlled, which results in high column-to-column

Lebendiker, Mario

111

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-print Network

The Scaleup of Structured Packing From Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application O. Jeffrey'Berven and Michael A. Ulowetz Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wichita, Kansas Structured packing is being utilized more and more... in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

112

Extraction of protein from distiller’s grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the feasibility of extracting the oil and protein from distiller’s grain (DG) to obtain a higher-valued protein-rich product and a carbohydrate-rich residue better suited for conversion to fermentable sugars. Protein extractions based on aqueous ethanol, alkaline-ethanol, and aqueous enzyme treatments were compared. Three of the methods extracted a significant amount of the protein from dried, defatted DG

Drew J. Cookman; Charles E. Glatz

2009-01-01

113

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2014-04-01

114

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2011-04-01

115

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2013-04-01

116

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...substances. (a) Use in production. Distillates...distilling system before the production gauge and promptly...the distilled spirits plant from which the...

2012-04-01

117

Revamp for more middle distillate  

SciTech Connect

In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

1985-03-01

118

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

DOEpatents

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03

119

Phytosterol Distribution in Fractions Obtained from Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles Using Sieving and Elutriation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 84(6):626-630 In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation was effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), the coproduct remaining after ethanol production from corn. To separate fiber, air was blown through sieve fractions in an elutriation column. Material carried by air to the top of the elutriation column was the lighter

Radhakrishnan Srinivasan; Robert A. Moreau; Kent D. Rausch; M. E. Tumbleson; Vijay Singh

2007-01-01

120

Solution of systems of columns with energy exchange between recycle streams  

E-print Network

, several examples of systems of fractionating columns in which energy is exchanged between columns are solved by use of the capital theta method of convergence. In this col- umn modular approach, the equations of each unit in the system are solved... by the most appropriate method. Also, the theta method of convergence is generalized to solve distillation columns for which the specifications include the reflux ratio and the boilup ratio. This method is also applied to absorber-type columns. iv...

Haas, Joe Ray

2012-06-07

121

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

122

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

Riggs, J.B.

1997-07-01

123

Compartmental modeling of high purity air separation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants. The development of nonlinear control technology is motivated by the need to frequently change production rates in response to time varying utility costs. Detailed column models based on stage-by-stage balance equations are too complex to be incorporated directly into optimization-based strategies such as nonlinear model predictive control.

Shoujun Biana; Suabtragool Khowinij; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

124

Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

125

Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distiller’s dried grains (DDG). The dried distiller’s grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

126

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

127

Solar power water distillation unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

2013-06-01

128

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

129

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

130

Comparison of batch and column methods for assessing leachability of hazardous waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic and organic analytes were leached from four waste samples by using batch and column leaching methods. Waste samples were electroplating sludge, fly ash, filter cake, and polystill bottoms. Leachate concentration profiles were constructed from sequential leaching of waste with distilled deionized water using a combined solution to waste ratio of 40:1. Leachate profiles produced by the batch and column

Danny R. Jackson; Benjamin C. Garrett; Thomas A. Bishop

1984-01-01

131

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

ENERGY RECOVERY IN INDUSTRIAL DISTILLATION PROCESSES Duane B. Paul General Electric Company Fitchburg, Massachusetts ABSTRACT Overhead separati on processes whi ch present attracti ve Distillation processes are energy intensive Condenser...

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01

132

Properties of Distillers Grains Composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in renewable biofuel sources has intensified in recent years, leading to greatly increased production of ethanol and its primary coproduct, Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS). Consequently, the development of new outlets for DDGS has become crucial to maintaining the economic viab...

133

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

134

Contextual Reasoning Distilled M. Benerecetti  

E-print Network

Contextual Reasoning Distilled M. Benerecetti , P. Bouquet , and C. Ghidini ¡ ¢ Dip. di Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD, U.K. Phone number: +44 (0)161 247 1556 C.Ghidini@doc.mmu.ac.uk Abstract can be traced back to R. Weyhrauch and his work on mechanising logical theories in the interactive

Bouquet, Paolo

135

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

136

27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.322 Distillates...system prior to the production gauge for addition...the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates...spirits for use in wine production and the receipt...

2010-04-01

137

27 CFR 1.91 - Bottled distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Bottled distilled spirits. 1.91 Section 1.91 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

138

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

2011-04-01

139

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of oil is present in the liquid fraction after fermentation and ethanol distillation. The oil removed represents a significant alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. The objectives of the present research were to study the effect of

Sandra Majoni

2009-01-01

140

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-print Network

is described in three configurations overhead vapor compresed, bottoms vapor compressed, or completely closed cycle. As with conventional cascades, conventional heat pumping does to increase the distillation efficiency. Heat pumping merely substitutes...) from overhead to interreboiler; 2) from intercondenser to bottoms reboilerj or 3) from intercondenser to interreboiler. Also, the vapor being compressed can be overhead vapor, bottoms vapor, or a separate closed cycle vapor. Thus there are nine...

Erickson, D. C.

141

Fate of pesticides in a distilled spirit of barley shochu during the distillation process.  

PubMed

Moromi (the fermented mash) of "mugi shochu" that had been artificially contaminated with pesticides was distilled to elucidate the fate of pesticides in the distillation process. The pesticides residing in the distillate were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of the analyzed pesticides (249 compounds), 89% were not detected in the distillate, showing that the distillation process minimized the risk of pesticide contamination. PMID:21150108

Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Kinami, Tomohisa; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2010-01-01

142

The fate of mycotoxins during the distillation process of barley shochu, a distilled alcoholic beverage.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains and critical risk substances for brewers. Fermented barley mash contaminated artificially with 13 representative mycotoxins was distilled with small-scale apparatuses to elucidate the possibility of mycotoxin transfer from mash to distillates. None of these were detected in the distillates. The distillation process can effectively reduce the contamination risk posed by mycotoxins in distilled alcoholic beverages. PMID:22232264

Nagatomi, Yasushi; Inoue, Tomonori; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2012-01-01

143

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

144

Five points on columns  

E-print Network

Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five ...

Rockland, Kathleen

145

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

146

A comparison of the toluene distillation and vacuum/heat methods for extracting soil water for stable isotopic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hanford Loam, from Richland, Washington, was used as a test soil to determine the precision, accuracy and nature of two methods to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis: azeotropic distillation using toluene, and simple heating under vacuum. The soil was oven dried, rehydrated with water of known stable isotopic compositions, and the introduced water was then extracted. Compared with the introduced water, initial aliquots of evolved water taken during a toluene extraction were as much as 30 ‰ more depleted in D and 2.7 ‰ more depleted in 18O, whereas final aliquots were as much as 40 ‰ more enriched in D and 14.3 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Initial aliquots collected during the vacuum/heat extraction were as much as 64 ‰ more depleted in D and 8.4 ‰ more depleted in 18O than was the introduced water, whereas the final aliquots were as much as 139 ‰ more enriched in D, and 20.8 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Neither method appears quantitative; however, the difference in stable isotopic composition between the first and last aliquots of water extracted by the toluene method is less than that from the vacuum/heat method. This is attributed to the smaller fractionation factors involved with the higher average temperatures of distillation of the toluene. The average stable isotopic compositions of the extracted water varied from that of the introduced water by up to 1.4 ‰ in ?D and 4.2 ‰ in ?18O with the toluene method, and by 11.0 ‰ in ?D and 1.8 ‰ in ?18O for the vacuum/heat method. The lack of accuracy of the extraction methods is thought to be due to isotopic fractionation associated with water being weakly bound (not released below 110°C) in the soil. The isotopic effect of this heat-labile water is larger at low water contents (3.6 and 5.2% water by weight) as the water bound in the soil is a commensurately larger fraction of the total. With larger soilwater contents the small volume of water bound with an associated fractionation is not enough to affect the remaining unbound introduced soil water. Pretreatment of the soil to equilibrate the heat-labile water to the test water produced good results for the toluene distillation but not the vacuum/heat extraction method. Vapors collected over the soils also show stable isotopic variations related to soilwater content. These vapors also appear to be in closer equilibrium with the free water, as extracted by the toluene method, than with the originally introduced water; thus, the soil vapors do not appear to be isotopically affected by the heat-labile water. The toluene method appears to be better for extracting soil water for stable isotopic analysis because it allows more precise temperature control and excludes the extraction of heat-labile water which is isotopically fractionated. The bound nature of this heat-labile water limits association with the hydrologically active soil water; thus, the exclusion of this water from the soil water attained by toluene distillation may be advantageous. However, the azeotropic nature of toluene distillation affords no benefit and the extraction procedure must continue to completion.

Ingraham, Neil L.; Shadel, Craig

1992-12-01

147

Column Liquid Chromatography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

1984-01-01

148

Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

149

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15

150

Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

2011-01-01

151

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. ATV identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal PI composition controllers. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state RGA values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity), were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

NONE

1996-11-01

152

Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Second annual report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of two industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter and a xylene/toluene column) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. Each configuration was evaluated with respect to steady-state relative gain array (RGA) values, sensitivity to feed composition changes, and open loop dynamic performance. Each configuration was tuned using setpoint changes over a wider range of operation for robustness and tested for feed composition upsets. Overall, configuration selection was shown to have a dominant effect upon control performance. Configuration analysis tools (e.g., RGA, condition number, disturbance sensitivity) were found to reject configuration choices that are obviously poor choices, but were unable to critically differentiate between the remaining viable choices. Configuration selection guidelines are given although it is demonstrated that the most reliable configuration selection approach is based upon testing the viable configurations using dynamic column simulators.

Riggs, J.B.

1996-11-01

153

27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...65 Experimental distilled spirits plants. The appropriate TTB officer may...

2010-04-01

154

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2011-04-01

155

40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

2010-07-01

156

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

157

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2010-01-01

158

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

159

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2013-01-01

160

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

...2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

161

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

162

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

163

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

... 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2014-01-01

164

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2012-01-01

165

7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8 ...STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

2011-01-01

166

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2014-04-01

167

Recycling of acetone by distillation  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

1992-09-01

168

Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process  

SciTech Connect

The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

1994-12-31

169

Inelastic column behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.

Duberg, John E; Wilder, Thomas W , III

1952-01-01

170

Separation characteristics of multistage water/hydrogen exchange column for water detritiation in fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

A simulation code of multistage chemical exchange columns has been developed. The sieve trays for liquid-vapor scrubbing and the catalyst beds for vapor-hydrogen exchange reactions are alternately piled within the column. The code deals with all the twelve molecular species of hydrogen gas and water; and is based on the Newton-Raphson method. The characteristics of the column were discussed from the calculated results by this code such as effects of temperature and pressure. Similar to the distillation columns, the phase flow rates within the column (hydrogen gas and water vapor) and product flow rates have large effects on the separation performance of the column. A control method of the column was also proposed from these calculated results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Yamanishi, T.; Okuno, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-10-01

171

Near azeotropic mixture substitute  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention comprises a refrigerant mixture consisting of a first mole fraction of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and a second mole fraction of a component selected from the group consisting of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124) and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b); a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a) and CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124); a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a) and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b); and a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 (R124), CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 (R142b) and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 (R152a).

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

172

Thermodynamic performance limit and evaporator design considerations for NARM-based domestic refrigerator-freeze systems. Rept. for Aug 89-May 90. [Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of an investigation of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) for a two-temperature-level heat exchange process found in a domestic refrigerator-freezer. Ideal (constant air temperature) heat exchange processes are assumed. The results allow the effects of intercooling between the evaporator refrigerant stream and the condenser outlet stream to be examined systematically. Three refrigerant pairs, R22/R142b, R22/R123, and R32/R142b, were studied, but the results for only R22/R123 are presented because of its unique temperature glide curvature. Practical implementation of a Lorenz cycle constrains evaporator design. An evaporator module design is presented which meets the NARM system constraints.

Smith, M.K.; Heun, M.C.; Crawford, R.R.; Newell, T.A.

1990-01-01

173

Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information  

E-print Network

uniform and stable packing bed density for maximum column efficiency. Zenix-C SEC phases are designed1 Zenix-C SEC Column User Manual Column Information Utilizing proprietary surface technologies in high column-to-column reproducibility. The nature of the chemical bonding and the maximum bonding

Lebendiker, Mario

174

An improved model for multiple effect distillation  

E-print Network

Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

Mistry, Karan H.

175

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

176

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-print Network

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01

177

Identification of the more complex triacylglycerols in bovine milk fat by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using polar capillary columns.  

PubMed

The fourth most volatile 2.5% molecular distillate of butteroil obtained by redistillation of the most volatile 10% cut was examined by gas chromatography on a polar capillary column (RSL-300) with electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectrometry. For this purpose the distillate was first freed from the acetyldiacylglycerols by thin-layer chromatography on plain silica gel and the remainder resolved into long and short chain length saturates, cis- and trans-monoenes, dienes and trienes by thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate-silica gel. The order of gas chromatographic elution was established for more than 100 major and minor species making up the bulk of the molecular distillate. The results were used to derive the quantitative composition of the triacylglycerol species making up the various peaks obtained by polar capillary column gas chromatography of the total molecular distillate, which closely resembles the lower half of the molecular mass distribution of whole bovine milk fat. PMID:3243860

Myher, J J; Kuksis, A; Marai, L; Sandra, P

1988-10-28

178

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-print Network

, .. ~ REDUCING ENERGY USAGE IN,EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION A. C. Saxena V. A. Bhandari Polysar Limited Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Abstract Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C. hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower... not affect tower stability and the operators h~,e adapted well to the new control strategy. INTRODUCTION For its rubber manufacturing operations at Sarnia, Ontario, Canada, Polysar Limited extracts butadiene 1:3 from a mixed C. hydrocarbon feed...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

179

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

180

27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled spirits. 17.162 Section 17.162 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS...Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

181

27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk. 1.90 Section 1.90 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

182

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-print Network

CHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and evaluate the efficiency of the fractional distillation versus simple distillation by gas chromatography discussion of gas chromatography. For your distillations (remember to add boiling stones) you will use 30 m

Taber, Douglass

183

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3? {3}+1) ? 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

2013-06-01

184

Nuclear reactor control column  

DOEpatents

The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest cross-sectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor.

Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Plum Borough, PA)

1982-01-01

185

Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Distillers Dried Grain Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distillers dried grains (DDG). The distillers dried\\u000a grain oil distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was\\u000a tested for its impact on the oxidative stability index (OSI) at 110 °C of soybean, sunflower, and high-oleic sunflower oils,\\u000a as well as the same oils that were stripped

Jill Kristine Winkler-Moser; Steven Francis Vaughn

2009-01-01

186

Five Points on Columns  

PubMed Central

Column,” like “gene,” has both conceptual and linguistic shortcomings. The simple question “what is a column” is not easy to answer and the word itself is not easy to replace. In the present article, I have selected five points, in no way comprehensive or canonical, but which may nevertheless serve as a prompt and aid for further discussions and re-evaluation. These are: that anatomical columns are not solid structures, that they are part of locally interdigitating systems, that any delimited column also participates in a widely distributed network, that columns are not an obligatory cortical feature, and that columns (as “modules”) occur widely in the brain in non-cortical structures. I focus on the larger scale macrocolumns, mainly from an anatomical perspective. My position is that cortical organization is inherently dynamic and likely to incorporate multiple processing styles. One can speculate that the distributed mappings within areas like piriform cortex may resemble at least one mode of neocortical processing strategy. PMID:20589097

Rockland, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

187

Comparison of Advanced Distillation Control Methods, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to evaluate configuration selections for single-ended and dual-composition control, as well as to compare conventional and advanced control approaches. In addition, a simulator of a main fractionator was used to compare the control performance of conventional and advanced control. For each case considered, the controllers were tuned by using setpoint changes and tested using feed composition upsets. Proportional Integral (PI) control performance was used to evaluate the configuration selection problem. For single ended control, the energy balance configuration was found to yield the best performance. For dual composition control, nine configurations were considered. It was determined that the use of dynamic simulations is required in order to identify the optimum configuration from among the nine possible choices. The optimum configurations were used to evaluate the relative control performance of conventional PI controllers, MPC (Model Predictive Control), PMBC (Process Model-Based Control), and ANN (Artificial Neural Networks) control. It was determined that MPC works best when one product is much more important than the other, while PI was superior when both products were equally important. PMBC and ANN were not found to offer significant advantages over PI and MPC. MPC was found to outperform conventional PI control for the main fractionator. MPC was applied to three industrial columns: one at Phillips Petroleum and two at Union Carbide. In each case, MPC was found to significantly outperform PI controls. The major advantage of the MPC controller is its ability to effectively handle a complex set of constraints and control objectives.

Dr. James B. Riggs

2000-11-30

188

Eruption column physics  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author focuses on the fluid dynamics of large-scale eruption columns. The dynamics of these columns are rooted in multiphase flow phenomena, so a major part of the paper sets up a foundation on that topic that allows one to quickly assess the inherent assumptions made in various theoretical and experimental approaches. The first part is centered on a set of complex differential equations that describe eruption columns, but the focus is on a general understanding of important physical processes rather than on the mathematics. The author discusses briefly the relative merits and weaknesses of different approaches, emphasizing that the largest advances in understanding are made by combining them. He then focuses on dynamics of steady eruption columns and then on transient phenomena. Finally he briefly reviews the effects of varying behavior of the ambient medium through which an eruption column moves. These final sections will emphasize concepts and a qualitative understanding of eruption dynamics. This paper relies on principles of continuum mechanics and transport processes but does not go into detail on the development of those principles. 36 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Valentine, G.A.

1997-03-01

189

Computation of multicomponent distillation processes by the Newton-Raphson method using an implicit function  

SciTech Connect

A new iterative method is presented for the rigorous simulation of multicomponent distillation processes using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the simultaneous equations, which is characterized by the use of the liquid compositions as the independent variables and analytical equations for evaluating the partial derivatives, with the vapor compositions and temperatures as the dependent variables. The analytical equations for the partial derivatives of the vapor compositions with respect to the liquid compositions are derived, using the implicit-function theorem. The advantages of the method are that a numerical differentiation of the partial derivatives is unnecessary, as is normalization of the liquid compositions. The method has excellent convergence characteristics when applied to 10 typical distillation columns of complicated structure.

Shimizu, K. (Nippon Synthetic Chem. Ind. Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Sayama, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Suzuki, K. (Okayama Univ. (Japan))

1993-01-01

190

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

191

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

192

Fluid mechanics of distillation trays (II): Prediction of flow fields on some practically important sieve trays  

SciTech Connect

Separation processes account for 6% of the annual US energy expenditure, 50% of which is consumed by distillation alone. Therefore, it is not too surprising that distillation, the work horse of the chemical process industry, is under attack by emerging technologies based on membranes and adsorption, whose proponents claim enormous potential savings in energy expenditures. Moreover, the massive scale of use plus the energy intensiveness implies that even small improvements in the efficiency of distillation processes can result in large gains in energy savings. Such improvements can come from developing fundamental understanding of the fluid mechanics of tray columns, which has heretofore been lacking and is the subject of this paper. The flow on a distillation tray is governed by the equations of mass and momentum conservation in three-dimensions. These equations are reduced here to a set of two-dimensional equations by averaging them across the depth of the fluid film flowing across the tray. The depth-averaged equations are then solved by a Galerkin/finite element technique. The evolution of film height and flow fields are determined for three types of trays that are commonly found in the laboratory and in actual plants: rectangular trays, circular trays, and so-called race track trays. Sample results include development and growth of eddies of zones of recirculation on various types of trays, variation of film height with position on a tray, and effect of tray geometry, flow rate, and physical properties on tray holdup. Occurrence of eddies and large height variations on trays can have detrimental consequences in vapor-liquid contacting operations. Therefore, the new rigorous computations should prove indispensable in developing column designs that avoid or minimize them.

Basaran, O.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Wohlhuter, F.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-04-01

193

Fiber separation from distillers dried grains with solubles using a larger elutriation apparatus and use of fiber as a feedstock for corn fiber gum production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an earlier study, the combination of sieving and elutriation (air flow) was found to be effective in separating fiber from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS); the elutriation column diameter used was 63 mm. Larger quantities of fractions were needed for carrying out studies on producti...

194

27 CFR 17.151 - Use of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits. 17.151 Section 17.151 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.151...

2010-04-01

195

40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.  

...forth as follows: § 721.9635 Terpenes and terpenoids, limonene fraction, distn. residues, distillates. (a) Chemical...The chemical substance identified as terpenes and terpenoids, limonene fraction, distn. residues, distillates (PMN...

2014-07-01

196

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2013-07-01

197

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2012-07-01

198

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2010-07-01

199

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2011-07-01

200

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2014-07-01

201

Columns in Clay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

Leenhouts, Robin

2010-01-01

202

Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

203

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

204

Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

1983-01-01

205

Acetylation of corn distillers dried grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that acidic conditions provide substantially higher % acetyl content, intrinsic viscosity and thermoplasticity even at low ratios of acetic anhydride and catalyst concentrations compared to using alkaline conditions for acetylation of oil-and-zein-free distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Conventional methods of carbohydrate and protein acetylation are unsuitable for acetylating DDGS which is a mixture of carbohydrates and

Narendra Reddy; Chunyan Hu; Kelu Yan; Yiqi Yang

2011-01-01

206

Improved micromachined column design and fluidic interconnects for programmed high-temperature gas chromatography separations.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of micromachined chromatographic columns for use in a commercial gas chromatography (GC) system. A vespel/graphite ferrule based compression sealing technique is presented using which leak-proof fluidic interconnection between the inlet tubing and the microchannel was achieved. This sealing technique enabled separation at temperatures up to 350°C on a ?GC column. This paper reports the first high-temperature separations in microfabricated chromatographic columns at these temperatures. A 2m microfabricated column using a double Archimedean spiral design with a square cross-section of 100?m×100?m has been developed using silicon microfabrication techniques. The microfabricated column was benchmarked against a 2m 100?m diameter commercial column and the performance between the two columns was evaluated in tests performed under identical conditions. High temperature separations of simulated distillation (ASTM2887) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA8310) were performed using the ?GC column in temperature programmed mode. The demonstrated ?GC column along with the high temperature fixture offers one more solution toward potentially realizing a portable ?GC device for the detection of semi-volatile environmental pollutants and explosives without the thermal limitations reported to date with ?GC columns using epoxy based interconnect technology. PMID:24866564

Gaddes, David; Westland, Jessica; Dorman, Frank L; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

2014-07-01

207

Condensation of Non-Azeotropic Refrigerant Blends of R114 and R113 in a Horizontal Annulus with an Enhanced Inner Tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were performed to study the flow characteristics and heat transfer during condensation of non-azeotropic refrigerant blends (NARBs) of R114 and R113 in the annulus of a horizontal double tube. The inner tube was a 19.1mm o.d. corrugated tube with soldered wire fins on the outer surface. The outer tube was a 29.9mm i.d. smooth tube. Experiments were performed at two vapor mass fractions of R114 at the test section inlet of 0.23 and 0.36. The mass velocity of the test fluids ranged from 50 to 200kg/m2·s. The frictional pressure gradient data were correlated fairly well by an empirical equation for condensation of pure R11 and R113 reported in a previous paper. The double tube showed a significant heat transfer enhancement over a smooth tube value. The heat transfer coefficient for NARBs was considerably smaller than that for pure R113. The decrease was more significant for a low mass velocity. A dimensionless correlation for the vapor phase mass transfer coefficient was derived, where the dimensionless parameters for forced convection condensation from a vapor-gas mixture flowing normal to a cylinder was extended to the case of NARBs.

Nozu, Shigeru; Honda, Hiroshi; Aoyama, Tohru; Shibukuwa, Ken-Ichi

208

Predicting Stability of Distiller’s Wet Grains (DWG) with Color Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distiller’s wet grain (DWG) is one of the coproducts from the fuel ethanol industry. Although many studies have investigated\\u000a the nutritional properties of DWG, little work has investigated the storability and shelf life for these feed products or\\u000a how to measure these quantities. The objectives of this research were to measure the development of microorganisms and their\\u000a respiration over time

K. A. Rosentrater; R. M. Lehman

2010-01-01

209

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2012-04-01

210

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2014-04-01

211

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

212

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2011-04-01

213

Rejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation  

E-print Network

. Introduction Membrane distillation (MD) is a low temperature distillation process that involves the transportRejection and fate of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) during membrane distillation Kaushalya COCs) Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) Volatility Fate and transport Hydrophobicity

214

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2013-04-01

215

27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...being adjacent to a distilled spirits plant if— (1) Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and ...wine cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the same...

2010-04-01

216

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2014-04-01

217

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2011-04-01

218

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for a distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine...Such distilled spirits plant is qualified under subpart D of this part for the production of distilled spirits; and...cellar and distilled spirits plant are operated by the...

2012-04-01

219

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

220

27 CFR 1.84 - Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Acquisition of distilled spirits in bulk by Government agencies. 1.84...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

221

27 CFR 17.163 - Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits. 17.163 Section 17.163 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS... Evidence of taxpayment of distilled spirits. (a) Shipments from distilled...

2010-04-01

222

27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

223

DIRECT COMPUTATIONS TO DESCRIBE BATCH DISTILLATION WITH RECTIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analog of the Rayleigh Equation has been applied for many years to describe batch distillation with rectification for binary mixtures. A solution is obtained by iterative graphical computations followed by numerical integration. When the batch distillation algorithm is stated in terms of distillate composition a computational non-iterative soluton may be obtained. For a binary separation this expression may be

RAYMOND C. WAGGONER

1990-01-01

224

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations , shared between two honest par- ties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution , assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2006-01-01

225

Distillation and solvent extraction process for rerefining used lubricating oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Used oil is rerefined by distillation and extraction with tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. In accordance with the process, used oil is rerefined by distillation to remove a volatile forecut followed by further distillation with recirculation provisions to obtain the desired fractions of lubricating oil products while reducing the vaporization temperature of the oil. The recycle effect tends to reduce coking and cracking

H. J. Beard; L. C. Fletcher; R. Oblasny

1982-01-01

226

Application of vacuum membrane distillation for ammonia removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to investigate the applicability of membrane distillation for ammonia removal from its aqueous solutions. Among the different recognized membrane distillation configurations, vacuum membrane distillation is applied in the present work for ammonia removal. The effects of different operating parameters on ammonia removal from aqueous solutions of different concentrations have been investigated. Experimental results showed that high feed

M. S. EL-Bourawi; M. Khayet; R. Ma; Z. Ding; Z. Li; X. Zhang

2007-01-01

227

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

between total reflux operation and dumping the product (i.e., the condenser holdup is introduced in the condenser drum and in the reboiler. Another alternative is to ''invert'' the column by charging the feed column by calculating in advance the final holdup in each vessel and then using a level control system

Skogestad, Sigurd

228

Identification of a Pilot Scale Distillation Column: A Kernel Based Approach  

E-print Network

economic and environmental issues be- come more and more important, efficient knowledge of the behavior of possible model structures and techniques exists , e.g., neural networks, wavelets, fuzzy models and Least problem of finding the vector w and b R for regression can be formulated as follows (Suykens et al., 2002

229

Prediction of the Trayed Distillation Column Mass-Transfer Performance by Neural Networks  

E-print Network

developed for the prediction of the sieve-tray efficiency and structured packing height equivalent predictions. Introduction Overview. In a previous work,2 the height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP connection conveys a signal from one node to another labeled by a "weight", that indicates the extent

Eldridge, R. Bruce

230

Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers  

E-print Network

are initiated at ths bottom of the stripper. Any vapox' rate oalculated by an enthalpy balance is parsd. tted to differ by no more than a specified amount from the one used to saks the given trial calculation. If the oalculated value differs avre than...

Dickey, Billy Ray

2012-06-07

231

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

232

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-print Network

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03

233

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

Kvajic, G.

234

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-print Network

to thank my committee members, Dr. Barrufet and Dr. El- Halwagi, for their guidance throughout the completion of this research. I am truly grateful to Dr. Jorge Lara, the faculty, and the staff of the Chemical Engineering Department of Texas A... is commonly used for small- and medium-scale desalination units. There are two methods to compress the vapor: mechanical compressors and steam jets. Lara [6] states that mechanical vapor compression is very efficient. Unlike other distillation systems...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14

235

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15

236

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

237

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

238

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

239

Leaching potential of phenylurea herbicides in a calcareous soil: comparison of column elution and batch studies.  

PubMed

The transfer of eleven phenylurea herbicides through soil columns was investigated in laboratory conditions in order to determine leaching properties in a calcareous soil. Elution curves with distilled water were plotted after herbicide application on the soil column. Phenylurea retention by the soil indicating interactions with soil can be classified as follows: fenuron < fluometron ? isoproturon = monuron < metoxuron < monolinuron < metobromuron < chlorotoluron < linuron = diuron < chlorbromuron. The number and nature of halogen atoms on the phenyl ring had an important influence on leaching. Retention was higher for molecules with higher number of halogen, and it was also higher for bromine than chlorine. Column elution experiments were compared to batch experiments from which the distribution coefficients K d were determined. According to Kendall correlation coefficients, parameter m/m 0 max from column experiments was relatively well linked to K d. In case of phenylurea, a linear relationship between K d and m/m 0 max was established. PMID:23097070

Langeron, Julie; Sayen, Stéphanie; Couderchet, Michel; Guillon, Emmanuel

2014-04-01

240

Double-column gas chromatography using packed pre-columns and glass capillary main columns.  

PubMed

Methods of column switching are described that make possible back-flushing, heart cutting and trapping. Conventional packed columns are employed as pre-columns for their high sample capacity, and glass capillary columns are used as the main columns for their high separation efficiency. Some typical examples of the application of double-column gas chromatography are presented: (1) solvent cutting for identification and exact quantitative determination of a phosphorus ester impurity in a sample of wheat flour (including trapping); (2) separation of trace amounts of methyl esters of fatty acids by means of back-flushing and trapping; (3) enrichment technique using trapping of trace elements in the front section of the capillary (plus solvent cutting, multiple injection and back-flushing); and (4) coupling a nitrogen-selective detector to the capillary main column to gain additional information. To illustrate the trapping effect, the separation number was determined with and without trapping. PMID:548547

Blass, W; Riegner, K; Hulpke, H

1979-04-21

241

Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.  

PubMed

The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation. PMID:24627202

Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

2014-06-01

242

Movement of Endotoxin Through Soil Columns  

PubMed Central

Land treatment of wastewater is an attractive alternative to conventional sewage treatment systems and is gaining widespread acceptance. Although land application systems prevent surface water pollution and augment the available water supplies, the potential dangers to human health should be evaluated. Since sewage may contain high amounts of bacterial endotoxin, the removal of endotoxin from sewage by percolation through soil was investigated. It was found that 90 to 99% of the endotoxin was removed after travel of sewage through 100 to 250 cm of loamy sand soil. When distilled water was allowed to infiltrate into the soil to simulate rainfall, the endotoxin was mobilized and moved in a concentrated band through the soil column. On testing samples from actual land treatment sites, as much as 480 ng of endotoxin per milliliter was found in some groundwater samples. The presence of endotoxin in potable water is known to be a potential problem under some circumstances, but the importance of endotoxin in water supplies has not been fully assessed. Therefore, the design, operation, and management of land application systems should take into account the fate of endotoxin in groundwater beneath the sites. PMID:7387154

Goyal, Sagar M.; Gerba, Charles P.; Lance, J. Clarence

1980-01-01

243

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

PubMed Central

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

2013-01-01

244

ZIRCONIUM CORROSION IN DISTILLED WATER AT 85  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zr corrosion in distilled water (pH = 6.5, SOâ = 0.6 mg\\/l) at 85 ; deg C in contact with 1 x 18H9T steel (0.l2% C, 0.50% Si, l.30% Mn, 18.13% Cr, ; 9.8% Ni, and 0.55% Ti) and with aluminum AlM (0.22 Fe, 0.06 Si, and <0.01 Cu) at ; a surface ratio of 1: 1 was investigated. The

V. V. Gerasimov; A. I. Gromova; E. T. Shapovalov

1961-01-01

245

Distillation and the Role of Weak Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will examine how distillation works and the roles of all components involved in the process. The site is filled with thorough diagrams accompanied by solid textual explanations. Aside from diagrams and text, students will engage in simple quizzes testing the concepts they have just learned. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-10-17

246

Drum drying performance of condensed distillers solubles and comparison to performance of modified condensed distillers solubles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Condensed distillers solubles (CDS) is a viscous, syrupy co-product of ethanol production from corn; CDS exhibits strong recalcitrance to drying due to its chemical composition, which includes a substantial amount of glycerol. The objectives of this study were to determine the drum drying performan...

247

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

1987-01-01

248

Density Column Lab - Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Concluding a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate densities of several household liquids and compare them to the densities of irregularly shaped objects (as determined in Part 1). Then they create density columns with the three liquids and four solid items to test their calculations and predictions of the different densities. Once their density columns are complete, students determine the effect of adding detergent to the columns. After this activity, present the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for a discussion about why the column layers do not mix.

GK-12 Program,

249

Compact electron beam focusing column  

SciTech Connect

A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2-D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

2001-07-13

250

Five-Layer Density Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners can create five-layer density columns by employing one of three (or all) methods. Method 1 gives the names of the liquids and the order for adding them, and its goal is to directly construct the density column without any experimentation. Method 2 assumes names and densities of the five materials to be unknown, and involves open-ended experimenting, with few instructions, to construct the column. Method 3 also assumes names and densities of the materials to be unknown, and outlines a systematic way to approach the experimentation involved in constructing the column. Learners complete data tables and analyze the densities of the substances.

Rathjen, Don

2005-01-01

251

SIGMM Education Column December 2010  

E-print Network

commonly used to analyze and solve multimedia research problems. The course was proposed for two reasons were consulted to identify a common core to go into CS5240. This initial list was still deemed tooSIGMM Education Column December 2010 SIGMM Education Column Authors: Wei Tsang Ooi and Terence Sim

Sim, Terence

252

CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;  

E-print Network

of an aqueous mixture but at a much lower/ less destructive temperature than distilling the compound directly for a dropping funnel. The water initially in your round bottom flask will be sufficient for the distillation, but they are obviously required. Boil the mixture vigorously, but watch for boil-overs! Collect about 125 m

Taber, Douglass

253

Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds ...

254

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

255

Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

1996-01-01

256

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

257

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

1995-01-01

258

Modeling the flow properties of distillers dried grains with solubles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are an excellent source of energy, minerals, and bypass protein for ruminants, and are also used in monogastric rations as well. With the remarkable growth of the US fuel ethanol industry in the past decade, large quantities of distillers grains are now b...

259

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2012-04-01

260

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2010-04-01

261

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2013-04-01

262

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2011-04-01

263

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2014-04-01

264

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.203...

2010-04-01

265

27 CFR 19.133 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.133 Section 19.133...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Location and Use § 19.133 Use of distilled spirits plant premises. (a) General. No...

2010-04-01

266

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.204...

2010-04-01

267

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2010-04-01

268

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2011-04-01

269

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2012-04-01

270

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2014-04-01

271

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2013-04-01

272

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2013-04-01

273

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

...2014-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2014-04-01

274

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2011-04-01

275

27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

2012-04-01

276

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2012-04-01

277

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2013-04-01

278

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2014-04-01

279

27 CFR 19.295 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Distilled Spirits...material: (1) To plant premises, other...not involving the production of spirits, alcohol...introduced into the production system from the...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2011-04-01

280

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2012-04-01

281

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2014-04-01

282

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2013-04-01

283

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

284

27 CFR 5.47 - Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled before January 1, 1980). 5...LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47 Standards of fill...

2010-04-01

285

27 CFR 27.120 - Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Persons authorized to receive distilled spirits imported in bulk. 27.120 Section...TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Importation of Distilled Spirits In Bulk § 27.120 Persons...

2010-04-01

286

77 FR 6038 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1513-AB89 Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations...Notice No. 124, Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations...response to a request from a distilled spirits industry association. DATES:...

2012-02-07

287

77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional 10 days. In Notice...of identity regulations for distilled spirits to include...

2012-06-29

288

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

289

Determination of lithium in rocks by distillation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the quantitative extraction and recovery of lithium from rocks is based on a high temperature volatilization procedure. The sample is sintered with a calcium carbonate-calcium chloride mixture at 1200?? C. for 30 minutes in a platinum ignition tube, and the volatilization product is collected in a plug of Pyrex glass wool in a connecting Pyrex tube. The distillate, which consists of the alkali chlorides with a maximum of 5 to 20 mg. of calcium oxide and traces of a few other elements, is removed from the apparatus by dissolving in dilute hydrochloric acid and subjected to standard analytiaal procedures. The sinter residues contained less than 0.0005% lithium oxide. Lithium oxide was recovered from synthetic samples with an average error of 1.1%.

Fletcher, M.H.

1949-01-01

290

Mush Column Magma Chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior of the system, coupled with these processes, define the fundamental compositional and dynamic diversity of the Mush Column. In some ways it functions like a complex musical instrument. Entrainment, transport, and sorting of cumulate crystals as a function of repose time and the local flux intensity also contribute to the basic compositional diversity of the system. In the Ferrar dolerite system, about 104 km3 of dolerite is distributed throughout a fir-tree like stack of 4 or 5 extensive 300-750 m thick sills. The lowest sill contains a vast tongue of entrained orthopyroxene (opx) cumulates emplaced with the sill itself. The bulk sill composition varies from 20 pc MgO in the tongue center to 7 pc in the leading tip and margins of the sill, which itself defines the compositional spectrum of the whole complex and is remarkably similar to that exhibited by Hawaii. Relative sorting of large (1-50 mm) opx and small (1-3 mm) plagioclase due to kinetic sieving in the tongue produces pervasive anorthosite stringers. Through local ponding this has culminated in the formation of a small, well-formed layered intrusion consisting of alternating layers of orthopyroxenite and anorthosite. Upwards in the system the sills become progressively depleted in MgO and temporally and spatially contiguous flood basalts are low MgO tholeiites with no sign of opx cumulates. The size, extent, number of sills, and the internal structure of individual sills suggest a rhythm of injection similar to that of volcanic episodes. The continued horizontal stretching of a system of this type would lead to processes as recorded by ophiolites, and the repeated injection into a single reservoir would undoubtedly lead to a massive layered intrusion or to a series of high-level nested plutons.

Marsh, B. D.

2002-12-01

291

Seismic behavior of lightweight concrete columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sixteen full-scale, column-beam assemblies, which represented a portion of a frame subjected to simulated seismic loading, were tested. Controlled test parameters included concrete type, column size, amount of main column steel, size and spacing of column confining hoops, and magnitude of column axial load. The columns were subjected to constant axial load and slow moment reversals at increasing inelastic deformations. Test data showed that properly designed lightweight concrete columns maintained ductility and strength when subjected to large inelastic deformations from load reversals. Confinement requirements for normal weight concrete columns were shown to be applicable to lightweight concrete columns up to thirty percent of the design strength.

Rabbat, B. G.; Daniel, J. I.; Weinmann, T. L.; Hanson, N. W.

1982-09-01

292

Sr Spec Resin + Small (2 mL) Column Procedure for Sr Separation Prepared by Joseph Street, 3/20/2012  

E-print Network

. It involves the use of nitric acid (up to 8M concentration), so appropriate safety columns (stored in large fume hood in wet lab, in 8M nitric acid in small and 8M distilled nitric acid in separate containers - Milli-Q/Ultrapure water (squirt

Paytan, Adina

293

27 CFR 1.71 - Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon or less.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in containers of a capacity of one gallon...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Nonindustrial Use of Distilled...

2010-04-01

294

Mass transfer in countercurrent packed columns: Application to supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction of terpenes  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is an alternative separation method to more conventional processes such as liquid extraction and distillation. However, up to now, few works have been devoted to the investigation of the efficiency of countercurrent packed columns under supercritical conditions from a mass transfer point of view. Mass transfer in a countercurrent column, filled with structured gauze packing, was measured for the separation of a mixture of terpenes (d-limonene/1,8-cineole) by supercritical carbon dioxide, at 313 and 318 K and pressures up to 9 MPa. The extraction efficiency was determined in terms of the overall mass transfer coefficient. Operating lines for this process had an appreciable curvature due to a high miscibility of the two contacting phases. The real slope of these lines had to be estimated. Available mass transfer models for packed columns predicted efficiencies diverging to a great extent from the experimental results.

Simoes, P.C.; Matos, H.A.; Carmelo, P.J.; Gomes de Azevedo, E.; Nunes da Ponte, M. (Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Monte de Caparica (Portugal). Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia)

1995-02-01

295

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

296

GAMMA DENSITY CONTROLS EXTRACTION COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma absorption density gauging can monitor both the organic extract ; and the aqueous raffinate and can control column feed rates to maintain normal ; steadystate operation in a liquid-liquid uranium extraction process. (auth);

Ryle

1957-01-01

297

Self-regenerating column chromatography  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for treating both cations and anions by using a self-regenerating, multi-ionic exchange resin column system which requires no separate regeneration steps. The process involves alternating ion-exchange chromatography for cations and anions in a multi-ionic exchange column packed with a mixture of cation and anion exchange resins. The multi-ionic mixed-charge resin column works as a multi-function column, capable of independently processing either cationic or anionic exchange, or simultaneously processing both cationic and anionic exchanges. The major advantage offered by the alternating multi-function ion exchange process is the self-regeneration of the resins.

Park, Woo K. (Centerville, OH)

1995-05-30

298

Dynamic variability of column ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A first-order, analytic estimate of the dynamical change in column ozone density is given as a function of temperature change in the lower stratosphere. It is found that, for each 1 percent (about 2 C) cooling averaged over the lower stratosphere, the column ozone density can be expected to decrease by approximately 7 percent, if it can be assumed that such a temperature change is induced by changes in wave transports.

Tung, Ka Kit; Yang, HU

1988-01-01

299

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

300

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

2009-04-30

301

SEISMIC PERFORMANCE OF UFC SEGMENT COLUMNS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under an extreme ground motion, flexural capacity of a RC column deteriorates due to crushing of the core concrete and buckling of longitudinal bars. Therefore, it is important to prevent damage at the plastic hinge region for enhancing the seismic performance of RC columns. Two UFC segment columns which use UFC segments at the plastic hinge region and unbonded longitudinal bars are proposed; 1) in-core RC type column, and 2) PC cable type column. The seismic performance of two columns were clarified based on cyclic loading experiments. It is shown that the in-core RC type column shows better performance than the PC cable type column.

Ichikawa, Shota; Zhang, Rui; Sasaki, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Kazuhiko; Elgawady, Mohamed; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Yamanobe, Shinichi

302

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

is the most basic of the three and can be measured with small columns or in special laboratory devices. The other efficiencies depend upon liquid and vapor mixing conditions and on vapor flow rates that might cause entrainment of liquid to the next tray..., corrections for crossflow of liquid and its departure from plug flow must be added. Recently, an improved binary model, developed for sieve trays, was presented [24J. This new model also predicts local efficiency, but its development incorporated also a...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01

303

EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

304

Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

1985-02-19

305

Explosion hazards in crude, distillate storage tanks assessed  

SciTech Connect

Explosion and fire hazards in crude oil and light distillate storage tanks have been assessed by actual field temperature measurements at the Zarka refinery in Jordan. Results of the assessment are presented.

Tamimi, A. (Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (JO))

1990-11-19

306

Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings  

E-print Network

The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

1984-01-01

307

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2014-04-01

308

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2012-04-01

309

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2013-04-01

310

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Liability for...produced in, or removed from, the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or regulations. (26...

2011-04-01

311

27 CFR 19.830 - Application of distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Administrative...produced in or removed from the premises of a vinegar plant in violation of law or this...

2010-04-01

312

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-print Network

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

313

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOEpatents

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11

314

Pollution attenuation by soils receiving cattle slurry after passage of a slurry-like feed solution. Column experiments.  

PubMed

Designing soil filtration systems or vegetated filter strips as a means of attenuating water pollution should take into account soil purging capacity. Here we report data on laboratory column trials used to investigate the capacity of a Hortic Anthrosol to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from cattle slurry applied at the surface. The columns comprised 900 g of soil to a depth of about 20-25 cm, and had been used previously in an experiment involving passage of at least 5 pore volumes of an ion-containing cattle slurry-like feed solution. For the present experiments, the columns were first washed through with distilled water (simulating resting and rain falling after passage of the feed solution), and then received a single slurry dose equivalent to about 300 m3 ha(-1). The columns were then leached with distilled water, with monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion contents in outflow. The results indicated that the pollution-neutralising capacity of the soil was still high but clearly lower than in the earlier experiments with the feed solution. Furthermore, the time-course of COD showed that organic acids were leached through the column even more rapidly than chloride (often viewed as an inert tracer) enhancing the risk of heavy metals leaching and subsequent water pollution. Resting and alternate use of different soil-plant buffer zones would increase the lifespan of purging systems that use soil like the here studied one. PMID:12118698

Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; López-Períago, Eugenio; Diaz-Fierros-Viqueira, Francisco

2002-09-01

315

Comparison of cattle fecal communities from animals fed diets containing corn and distiller's grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: Distiller’s grain is a byproduct of ethanol production, and is considered a good source of protein for cattle. However, there is concern that use of distiller’s grain may create a gastrointestinal environment that allows the growth of fecal pathogens, and the specific changes t...

316

RAPID DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SIX ALKYLAMINES IN COSMETICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid distillation method coupled with ion chromatography was developed for simultaneous determination of methylamine, ethylamine, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine in cosmetics. The distillation system was designed professionally to achieve rapid distillation in less than 3 min and eliminate the interferences of alkali metals, alkaline earth and organic compounds effectively. Samples were distilled using vapour stream under alkaline conditions and

Zhixiong Zhong; Gongke Li; Binghui Zhu; Zhibin Luo

2012-01-01

317

27 CFR 1.81 - Importation of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Importation of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.81 Section 1.81 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

318

27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits in bulk. 1.80 Section 1.80 Alcohol...ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled...

2010-04-01

319

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2011-04-01

320

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2014-04-01

321

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2010-04-01

322

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2012-04-01

323

27 CFR 28.301 - Loss of distilled spirits in transit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Loss of distilled spirits in transit. 28.301 Section 28.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 28.301 Loss of distilled spirits in transit. The tax on distilled spirits withdrawn...

2013-04-01

324

Toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates to soil organisms.  

PubMed

Canadian standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are based on four distillate ranges (F1, C6-C10; F2, >C10-C16; F3, >C16-C34; and F4, >C34). Concerns have arisen that the ecological soil contact standards for F3 may be overly conservative. Oil distillates were prepared and characterized, and the toxicity of F3 and two subfractions, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3b (>C23-C34), to earthworms (Eisenia andrei), springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi), and northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus), as well as the toxicity of F2 to earthworms, was determined. Clean soil was spiked with individual distillates and measured concentrations were determined for select tests. Results agree with previous studies with these distillates. Reported toxicities of crude and petroleum products to invertebrates were generally comparable to that of F3 and F3a. The decreasing order of toxicity was F3a?>?F3?>?F3b with invertebrates, and F3a?>?F3b?>?F3 with plants. The toxicities of F3a and F3b were not sufficiently different to recommend regulating hydrocarbons based on these distillate ranges. The results also suggest that test durations may be insufficient for determining toxicity of higher distillate ranges, and that the selection of species and endpoints may significantly affect interpretation of toxicity test results. PMID:20836068

Cermak, Janet H; Stephenson, Gladys L; Birkholz, Detlef; Wang, Zhendi; Dixon, D George

2010-12-01

325

Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

1989-08-22

326

Integrated column arithmetic according to progressive schematisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following an introduction on the relation between column arithmetic and mental arithmetic in connection with the development of pocket calculators and computers, the characteristics of progressive schematisation are described with regard to column multiplication and column division. In this way, an image is formed of the specific characteristics of this approach to column arithmetic set against the background of traditional

A. Treffers

1987-01-01

327

Selected Topics in Column Generation  

E-print Network

Dec 2, 2002 ... real-time dispatching of automobile service units. Lübbecke and ...... the dominating column in a post-processing phase. ... anyway, e.g., shortest path problems, the lower bound on the optimal integral z? in (15) obtained from.

2002-12-02

328

Distillation in microchemical systems using capillary forces and segmented flow.  

PubMed

Distillation is a ubiquitous method of separating liquid mixtures based on differences in volatility. Performing such separations in microfluidic systems is difficult because interfacial forces dominate over gravitational forces. We describe distillation in microchemical systems and present an integrated silicon device capable of separating liquid mixtures based on boiling point differences. Microfluidic distillation is realized by establishing vapor-liquid equilibrium during segmented flow. Enriched vapor in equilibrium with liquid is then separated using capillary forces, and thus enabling a single-stage distillation operation. Design criteria for operation of on-chip distillation is set forth, and the working principle demonstrated by separation of binary mixtures of 50 : 50 mol% MeOH-toluene and 50 : 50 mol% DCM-toluene at 70.0 degrees C. Analysis of vapor condensate and liquid exiting a single-stage device gave MeOH mole fractions of 0.22 +/- 0.03 (liquid) and 0.79 +/- 0.06 (vapor). Similarly, DCM mole fractions were estimated to be 0.16 +/- 0.07 (liquid) and 0.63 +/- 0.05 (vapor). These experimental results were consistent with phase equilibrium predictions. PMID:19532958

Hartman, Ryan L; Sahoo, Hemantkumar R; Yen, Bernard C; Jensen, Klavs F

2009-07-01

329

Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.  

PubMed

The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

2002-10-01

330

Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose  

PubMed Central

The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-01-01

331

A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

2014-11-01

332

Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

2013-11-01

333

Density Column Lab - Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this first part of a two-part lab activity, students use triple balance beams and graduated cylinders to take measurements and calculate the densities of several common, irregularly shaped objects with the purpose to resolve confusion about mass and density. After this activity, conduct the associated Density Column Lab - Part 2 activity before presenting the associated Density & Miscibility lesson for discussion about concepts that explain what students have observed.

GK-12 Program,

334

Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Conrol Freeport Texas PLant  

E-print Network

Distillation APC – Control Matrix 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 5 ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC – Graphics Screen... Independent and Dependent Variables with Limits 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 6 • The independent and dependent variables are displayed on graphics screens. • The limits of the variables are shown as pink shaded areas. • The actual value of a variable...

Eisele, D.

2014-01-01

335

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2009-07-15

336

Noisy Preprocessing and the Distillation of Private States  

E-print Network

We provide a simple security proof for prepare & measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally-entangled states, a more general {\\em private state} is distilled. Besides a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS)-like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

Joseph M. Renes; Graeme Smith

2006-03-28

337

Method for packed column separations and purifications  

SciTech Connect

The invention encompasses a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber. A mixture of a fluid and a matrix material are introduced through a column chamber inlet so that the matrix material is packed within a column chamber to form a packed column. The column chamber having the column chamber inlet or first port for receiving the mixture further has an outlet port and an actuator port. The outlet port is partially closed for capturing the matrix material and permitting the fluid to flow therepast by rotating relative one to the other of a rod placed in the actuator port. Further rotation relative one to the other of the rod and the column chamber opens the outlet and permits the matrix material and the fluid to flow therethrough thereby unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber.

Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA)

2006-08-15

338

Stratigraphic Columns Across Southern Western Interior  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website depicts stratigraphic columns of exposed rocks in southwestern regions of the United States. A general explanation of symbols used in the columns is provided for reference, and the columns indicate rock type, formation names and geologic time periods. The areas covered include the Grand Canyon, central and southern Arizona, southern Utah and Nevada, and western New Mexico and Colorado.

Blakey, Ronald

339

29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.  

...anchor rods (anchor bolts). (2) Each column anchor rod (anchor bolt) assembly, including the column-to-base plate weld and the column foundation, shall be designed to resist a minimum eccentric gravity load of 300 pounds (136.2 kg)...

2014-07-01

340

27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Alternate Operations § 19.207...

2010-04-01

341

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

2012-07-01

342

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

2013-07-01

343

40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).  

...2014-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

2014-07-01

344

27 CFR 5.47a - Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled after December 31, 1979).  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47a Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...uniform capacity. (3) Discrepancies in measure due to differences in...

2014-04-01

345

27 CFR 5.47a - Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled after December 31, 1979).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47a Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...uniform capacity. (3) Discrepancies in measure due to differences in...

2011-04-01

346

27 CFR 5.47a - Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled after December 31, 1979).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47a Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...uniform capacity. (3) Discrepancies in measure due to differences in...

2012-04-01

347

27 CFR 5.47a - Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled after December 31, 1979).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47a Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...uniform capacity. (3) Discrepancies in measure due to differences in...

2010-04-01

348

27 CFR 5.47a - Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits bottled after December 31, 1979).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.47a Metric standards of fill (distilled spirits...uniform capacity. (3) Discrepancies in measure due to differences in...

2013-04-01

349

41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal...Special Handling Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for...

2010-07-01

350

19 CFR 11.7 - Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...Distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages imported in bottles and similar containers...distilled spirits and other alcoholic beverages in bottles and similar...

2010-04-01

351

27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...distilled spirits, wines, and beer into the United States from foreign countries including commodity taxes, permits, marking, branding, closing and labeling of containers and packages, and records and reports. Note: Distilled spirits, wines,...

2012-04-01

352

27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...distilled spirits, wines, and beer into the United States from foreign countries including commodity taxes, permits, marking, branding, closing and labeling of containers and packages, and records and reports. Note: Distilled spirits, wines,...

2013-04-01

353

27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

...distilled spirits, wines, and beer into the United States from foreign countries including commodity taxes, permits, marking, branding, closing and labeling of containers and packages, and records and reports. Note: Distilled spirits, wines,...

2014-04-01

354

27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.98 Conveyance of...

2010-04-01

355

27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on...

2014-04-01

356

27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on...

2011-04-01

357

27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on...

2012-04-01

358

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

...2014-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2014-04-01

359

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

...AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce...

2014-04-01

360

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce...

2013-04-01

361

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2013-04-01

362

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce...

2012-04-01

363

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2011-04-01

364

27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants § 19.51 Home production of distilled spirits prohibited. A person may not produce...

2011-04-01

365

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2012-04-01

366

27 CFR 19.315 - Removal or destruction of distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.315 ...material—(a) to plant premises, other...not involving the production of (1) spirits...introduced into the production system may be...distilled spirits plant or bonded...

2010-04-01

367

27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on...

2013-04-01

368

Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

369

The influence of distilled water on the fluidity of protoplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary It is found that if distilled water is allowed to flow through the leaves of terrestrial plants (Achillea millefolium, Chenopodium album, Rumex acetosella, Ficaria verna), the protoplasm of the cells exhibits increased fluidity. The terrestrial plants thus react in the same way as the earlier investigatedHelodea. The cause is not the absence of nutrient salts or of microelements, since

M. G. Stålfelt

1957-01-01

370

Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3  

E-print Network

in boiling point, the more volatile component is preferentially vaporized by the solar- illuminated particles vaporization process: the solar-illuminated particles rise to temperatures well above the boiling points environment with laser excitation to avoid vapor water contamination. This results in a distillate greatly

371

Chapter 4 Desalination: Reverse Osmosis and Membrane Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse osmosis (RO) and membrane distillation (MD), the two important applications associated with membrane-based desalination, are discussed in detail. Various RO process parameters, such as membrane synthesis, materials involved, and fouling control, play vital roles in the success of membrane filtration. The membrane synthesis process has a large influence on the physical and mechanical properties of the membrane. It also

Tilak Gullinkala; Brett Digman; Colleen Gorey; Richard Hausman; Isabel C. Escobar

2010-01-01

372

Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data  

E-print Network

Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data Michael Schmidt1 and Hod Lipson2 phenomena in nature. Despite the prevalence of computing power, the process of finding natural laws and invariants underlie nearly all physical laws in na- ture (1), suggesting that the search for many natural

Fernandez, Thomas

373

Instrumentation for potentiostatic corrosion studies with distilled water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Corrosion is studied potentiostatically in the corroding environment of distilled water with an instrument that measures the potential of the corroding specimen immediately after interruption of the polarizing current. No current is flowing. The process permits compensation for IR drops when potentiostatic control is used in high resistance systems.

Loess, R. E.; Youngdahl, C. A.

1969-01-01

374

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

SciTech Connect

Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

Yildiz, Ali [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-07-15

375

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

376

Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

2013-06-01

377

Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

378

Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

379

Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

2005-01-01

380

Distilling angular momentum nonclassical states in trapped ions  

SciTech Connect

In the spirit of quantum nondemolition measurements, we show that by exploiting suitable vibronic couplings and repeatedly measuring the atomic population of a confined ion, it is possible to distill center-of-mass vibrational states with a well-defined square of angular momentum or, alternatively, angular momentum projection Schroedinger cat states.

Militello, B.; Messina, A. [INFM, MIUR, and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell'Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)

2004-09-01

381

[Production of antitumor substances from shochu distillation remnants].  

PubMed

This study aimed to develop a new processing method for the effective use of rice shochu distillation remnants. We examined the inhibitory effects on the growth of human lung carcinoma cells in the medium of rice shochu distillation remnants with various fungi. Interestingly, high inhibitory effects on the growth of human lung carcinoma cells in the medium of rice shochu distillation remnants with Aspergillus oryzae were obtained, although no inhibitory effect was observed in the case of synthetic medium. We therefore fractionated the medium of rice shochu distillation remnants with A. oryzae using anion-exchange and reverse-phase chromatography. Furthermore, we attempted to determine the chemical structure of compounds that showed high inhibitory effects on the growth of tumor cells. The chemical structure of 1-hydroxy-6-(1-methylpropyl)-3-(2-methylproryl)-2(1H)-pyrazinone was revealed on the basis of liquid and gas mass spectroscopies. This compound should be completely safe based on toxic test results using model mice. PMID:16679744

Tsuchiya, Kimi; Tsuzaki, Kenji; Nishimura, Kenryo; Kiyonaga, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi

2006-05-01

382

Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

1968-01-01

383

EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

384

Membrane Distillation and Related Operations—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane contactors represent an emerging technology in which the membrane is used as a tool for inter phase mass transfer operations: the membrane does not act as a selective barrier, but the separation is based on the phase equilibrium. In principle, all traditional stripping, scrubbing, absorption, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, emulsification, liquid?liquid extraction, and mass transfer catalysis processes can be carried

Efrem Curcio; Enrico Drioli

2005-01-01

385

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

386

Winogradsky Column Unit: Chemical and Physical Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-part activity leads Physical Science students, grades 8-12, to explore chemical change using Winogradsky Columns. Part 1 constructs student concepts concerning chemical and physical changes. Part 2 asks students to compare physical versus chemical changes and observe chemical changes in a Winogradsky Column, and teaches them to build their own column. It includes the following student pages: introductory lesson, Winogradsky Column lesson, challenge your thinking activity sheet, how to make a Winogradsky Column, how to create an observation journal, and journal evaluation sheet.

Pevzner, Yevgeny; Shelton, Sharyn A.; Project, Westminster C.

387

Dry-Column Flash Chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry-column flash chromatography is a safe, powerful, yet easily learned preparative chromatography technique. It has proven useful in research, and an adaptation of the technique for use in large teaching laboratories (general chemistry, organic chemistry) is described here. The student version is similar to vacuum filtration, uses the same compact, readily available glassware, and inexpensive and safe solvents (ethyl acetate and hexane) and adsorbent (Merck grade 60 silica gel). The technique is sufficiently simple and powerful that a beginning student can successfully resolve diastereomers on sample scales ranging from 100 mg to >1 g.

Shusterman, Alan J.; McDougal, Patrick G.; Glasfeld, Arthur

1997-10-01

388

Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses: Design and accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated.

A. A. Hassan

1981-01-01

389

27 CFR 28.192 - Packages of distilled spirits to be gauged.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Packages of distilled spirits to be gauged. 28.192 Section 28...OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Distilled Spirits With Benefit of Drawback Filing of Notice...Removal § 28.192 Packages of distilled spirits to be gauged. Except for...

2010-04-01

390

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

None

1981-04-01

391

Soil column leaching of pesticides.  

PubMed

In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are persistence (DT50) of the pesticide, and its sorption/desorption(Koc) characteristics. These parameters may vary for the same pesticide from geographic site-to-site and with soil depth. The interactions that normally occur between pesticides and dissolved organic matter (DOM) or WDC are yet other factors that may complicate pesticide leaching behavior.The soil mobility of pesticides is normally tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Lab studies are initially performed to give researchers a preliminary appraisal of the relative mobility of a pesticide. Later, field lysimeter studies can be performed to provide more natural leaching conditions that emulate the actual field use pattern. Lysimeter studies give the most reliable information on the leaching behavior of a pesticide under field conditions, but these studies are time-consuming and expensive and cannot be performed everywhere. It is for this reason that the laboratory soil column leaching approach is commonly utilized to profile the mobility of a pesticide,and appraise how it behaves in different soils, and relative to other pesticides.Because the soil structure is chemically and physically heterogenous, different pesticide tests may produce variable DT50 and Koc values; therefore, initial pesticide mobility testing is undertaken in homogeneously packed columns that contain two or more soils and are eluted at constant flow rates. Such studies are done in duplicate and utilize a conservative tracer element. By fitting an appropriate mathematical model to the breakthrough curve of the conservative tracer selected,researchers determine key mobility parameters, such as pore water velocity, the column-specific dispersion coefficient, and the contribution of non equilibrium transport processes. Such parameters form the basis for estimating the probable transport and degradation rates that will be characteristic of the tested pesticide. Researchers also examine how a pesticide interacts with soil DOM and WDC, and what contribution from facilitated transport to mobility is made as a result of the effects of

Katagi, Toshiyuki

2013-01-01

392

Disposable microliter immunoabsorbent columns: construction and operation.  

PubMed

Disposable microliter immunoabsorbent columns were constructed from pasteur pipets. The bed support was a cube of gelatin surgical sponge, which was tamped into the pipet tip. Column dead space, represented by the compressed volume of the sponge, was 5 microliters. The columns were used with protein A-Sepharose; settled bed volumes were 50 microliters. It was possible to pour columns that functioned as immunoabsorbents with bed volumes as small as 10 microliters. There was no gravity flow through these columns. Flow was achieved by touching column tips to absorbent paper if liquid was to be discarded or to 50 microliters capillary tubes for fluid collection. A simple capillary collection tube assembly was designed for operation of a row of 10 columns at a time. In a test system of [3H]methotrexate and IgG anti-methotrexate, 90% of applied antigen was bound to antibody columns, whereas 90% was recovered in the eluates from control columns. The columns were used in the initial step of screening uncloned hybridoma culture fluids for anti-MSP. PMID:3900218

Leonard, E J; Skeel, A

1985-10-10

393

Modelling failure of natural rock columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural rock columns often assume strange geometries that look unstable under the static loading of the rock mass itself and even more so under the resonance inducing, dynamic loads of seismic shaking. A two-dimensional finite element stress model was applied to the analysis of six selected rock columns formed in welded, horizontally jointed tuff in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona. The columns were selected for precarious appearing geometries, such as asymmetrical overhangs, narrow aspect, and severely incut "hourglass" profiles. In none of the cases did the stress modelling indicate proximity to either compressional or tensile failure. The modelling revealed that failure because of slip along inclined joints penetrating the rock was much more likely. Surprisingly, columns with pronounced "hourglass" morphologies were found to be more stable than cylindrical columns in rock with non-horizontal joints. The uniformity of column heights suggests that either rare, high velocity winds or prehistoric seismicity cropped the previous generation of columns. An estimate of the resonant frequencies of a typical column provides some idea of the dynamic response of the columns to seismic shaking. The question of seismic destruction is intriguing because the columns were apparently unaffected by a magnitude 7.2 earthquake 120 km away in 1887.

Hall, Douglas B.

1996-03-01

394

Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford ?/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.

Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.

2013-10-01

395

Rearing of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, embryos in distilled water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.

Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.

1969-01-01

396

Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states  

SciTech Connect

We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15

397

Thin layer distillation for matrix isolation in flow analysis.  

PubMed

Analyte transfer from the matrix in a thin layer distillation (TLD) cell and its subsequent measurement were investigated in a flow injection configuration. We designed the cell such that the donor and acceptor streams flowed in parallel channels separated by a thin dividing wall. The matrix transfer process involved room-temperature distillation of the analyte into the headspace of the TLD cell and its subsequent condensation/uptake by a concurrently flowing acceptor stream. There are no membranes; hence there are no membrane-related problems. The TLD system design was optimized with respect to its dimensions and operational parameters. Throughput and sensitivity were compared with a conventional pervaporation flow injection (PFI) system for ammonia and five different amines. For the higher molecular mass amines, the TLD approach provided comparable or superior performance. The TLD technique should be an attractive approach for online analysis of volatile chemical species in 'dirty' samples, especially for volatile analytes of higher molecular mass. PMID:19071680

Mornane, Patrick; van den Haak, Jeroen; Cardwell, Terence J; Cattrall, Robert W; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kolev, Spas D

2007-04-30

398

The Winogradsky Column: An Animated Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This five-minute animated tutorial describes Winogradsky columns. The tutorial shows how to create a Winogradsky Column, describes the various layers and types of microbes in a column, and explains the interdependence and metabolic activities of the organisms. Users are given the choice of a "narrated" version or a "step-through" version in which each image is accompanied with text. The tutorial takes a moment to load.

Services, Sumanas I.

399

An exact algorithm for IP column generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exact column generation algorithm for integer programs with a large (implicit) number of columns is presented. The family of problems that can be treated includes not only standard partitioning problems such as bin packing and certain vehicle routing problems in which the columns generated have 0–1 compenents and a right-hand side vector of 1's, but also the cutting stock

François Vanderbeck; Laurence A. Wolsey

1996-01-01

400

Coal liquefaction using vacuum distillation and an external residuum feed  

SciTech Connect

A process for liquefying coal in which a slurry comprising a petroleum or petroleum-derived solvent and particulate coal is heated in a dissolution zone to substantially dissolve the coal and produce a first effluent containing undissolved solids to which petroleum residuum is added to produce a second effluent which is distilled under reduced pressure. The process eliminates the need for physical solids separation such as filtration or centrifugation and is most advantageously employed in high-severity coal liquefaction.

Kuehler, C.W.

1985-04-09

401

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23

402

Determination of phenols using simultaneous steam distillation-extraction.  

PubMed

Simultaneous distillation-extraction was proposed as a preconcentration step for the determination of phenol and its derivatives in aqueous and soil samples. Detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) (water) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) (soil) were achieved by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The described preconcentration procedure was applied for the primary study of the adsorption equilibrium in a water-soil system serving as a model of phenol behaviors in the environment. PMID:10670728

Barták, P; Frnková, P; Cáp, L

2000-01-21

403

Refiner\\/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b\\/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b\\/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates.

Thompson

1997-01-01

404

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-print Network

) Madhav Nyapathi Seshu , B.E., R.V. College of Engineering, Bangalore, India Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mahmoud El-Halwagi Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous... regions of the parametric space. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate the applicability of the presented methodology. iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Mahmoud El-Halwagi for his guidance and support...

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2006-10-30

405

Distillation of secret key and entanglement from quantum states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study and solve the problem of distilling a secret key from quantum states representing correlation between two parties (Alice and Bob) and an eavesdropper (Eve) via one-way public discussion: we prove a coding theorem to achieve the 'wire-tapper' bound, the difference of the mutual information Alice-Bob and that of Alice-Eve, for so-called classical-quantum-quantum-correlations, via one-way public communication. This result

Igor Devetak; Andreas Winter

2005-01-01

406

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-01-01

407

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

408

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-12-12

409

Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

2014-06-01

410

Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

2005-09-01

411

Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

2006-01-01

412

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-print Network

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01

413

IN VITRO STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF SCREENING PROCESSED CORN DISTILLERS SOLUBLES AND CENTRIFUGE PROCESSED CORN DISTILLERS SOLUBLES ON CELLULOSE DIGESTION AND MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 1 ,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A series of in vitro fermentation trials were conducted to investigate the effect of screening processed distillers solubles (SDS) and centri- fuge processed distillers solubles (CDS) on cel- lulose digestion, microbial protein synthesis and forage dry matter digestion. The possible dif- ference between SDS and CDS was also sur- veyed by adding 1 ml each of valeric acid (10

M. C. Chen; W. M. Beeson; T. W. Perry

2010-01-01

414

Building a Winogradsky Column Video Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This five-minute Quick Time video demonstrates how to build a Winogradsky Column. The video is published by NASA Quest and can be used as a teaching supplement to classroom activities including the Winogradsky Column. This video requires Quick Time player to view, which can be downloaded on site.

Daniella Scalice

415

Results from the Winogradsky Column Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page features research results from a student project involving Winogradsky Columns constructed using sandy sediment and water collected from an estuary in Massachusetts. The page includes high-resolution images of the columns and profiles of hydrogen sulfide and methane versus depth.

Science, Semester I.; Laboratory, Marine B.

416

Circulation in gas-slurry column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Circulation in bubble columns, such as those used in fischer-tropsch synthesis, detracts from their performance in that gas is carried on average more rapidly through the column, and the residence time distribution of the gas in the column is widened. Both of these factors influence mass-transfer operations in bubble columns. Circulation prediction and measurement has been undertaken using probes, one-dimensional models, laser Doppler velocimetry, and numerical modeling. Local void fraction was measured using resistance probes and a newly developed approach to determining air/water threshold voltage for the probe. A tall column of eight inch diameter was constructed of Plexiglas and the distributor plate was manufactured to distribute air evenly through the base of the column. Data were gathered throughout the volume at three different gas throughputs. Bubble velocities proved difficult to measure using twin probes with cross-correlation because of radial bubble movement. A series of three-dimensional mean and RMS bubble and liquid velocity measurements were also obtained for a turbulent flow in a laboratory model of a bubble column. These measurements have been made using a three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), to determine velocity distributions non-intrusively. Finally, the gas-liquid flow inside a vertically situated circular isothermal column reactor was simulated numerically. 74 refs., 170 figs., 5 tabs.

Clark, N.; Kuhlman, J.; Celik, I.; Gross, R.; Nebiolo, E.; Wang, Yi-Zun.

1990-08-15

417

Pharmacia Spin Column Protocol Leslie Vosshall  

E-print Network

Probequant G25 oligonucleotides 100 ul All sizes Probequant G50 DNA 50 ul Microspin G50 ABI sequencing 20 ul of column at perforation. 3. Loosen lid ½ turn and place column into a clean microcentrifuge tube. 4. Spin microcentrifuge tube. 7. Load sample. Be sure to dispense into the resin bed, not around the sides of the tube. 8

418

How to Calculate Molecular Column Density  

E-print Network

The calculation of the molecular column density from molecular spectral (rotational or ro-vibrational) transition measurements is one of the most basic quantities derived from molecular spectroscopy. Starting from first principles where we describe the basic physics behind the radiative and collisional excitation of molecules and the radiative transfer of their emission, we derive a general expression for the molecular column density. As the calculation of the molecular column density involves a knowledge of the molecular energy level degeneracies, rotational partition functions, dipole moment matrix elements, and line strengths, we include generalized derivations of these molecule-specific quantities. Given that approximations to the column density equation are often useful, we explore the optically thin, optically thick, and low-frequency limits to our derived general molecular column density relation. We also evaluate the limitations of the common assumption that the molecular excitation temperature is con...

Mangum, Jeffrey G

2015-01-01

419

New benchmark for basic and neutral nitrogen compounds speciation in middle distillates using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.  

PubMed

This paper reports an analytical method for the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) separation and identification of nitrogen compounds (N-compounds) in middle distillates according to their types (basicity). For the evaluation of the best chromatographic conditions, a non-polar x polar approach was chosen. The impact of the second dimension (stationary phase and column length) on the separation of basic and neutral N-compounds was evaluated by mean of two-dimensional resolution. This study revealed that the implementation of polar secondary column having free electron pairs improves drastically the separation of N-compounds. Indeed, the presence of permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions between neutral N-compounds and the stationary phase was enlightened. The comparison of two different nitrogen chemiluminescence detectors (NCD) was also evaluated for GC x GC selective monitoring of N-compounds. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity achieved using developed chromatographic and detection conditions, it was possible to identify univocally and to quantitate N-compounds (i) by class of compounds and (ii), within a class, by carbon number. Finally, quantitative comparison of GC x GC-NCD with conventional gas chromatography illustrates the benefits of GC x GC leading to an excellent correlation with results obtained by American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) methods for the determination of basic/neutral nitrogen ratio in diesel samples. PMID:17379235

Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Brodusch, Nicolas; Durand, Emmanuelle; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

2007-04-27

420

Direct injection of plasma to determine pseudoephedrine by high performance liquid chromatography with column switching.  

PubMed

An HPLC method has been developed for the determination of pseudoephedrine in plasma using column switching. Preparation of the sample was simple in that only 1000 microL of water was added to 200 microL of plasma before injection. A 900 microL aliquot was injected onto the precolumn. Double distilled water was used to elute and remove proteins and polar components in the sample. The components retained on the precolumn were flushed forward onto the analytical column by the mobile phase (acetonitrile-0.2 mol/L ammonium sulphate, 10:90 v/v) with automated column switching. The limit of determination of pseudoephedrine in plasma was 12 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-assay for the determination of pseudoephedrine in plasma were 1.2-9.8% over the concentration range 1020-21.8 ng/mL. The mean recovery by on-line solid phase extraction was 94.76% (RSD = 1.1%). PMID:10191946

Guo, P; Li, Z; Li, T; Wang, X; Li, F

1999-02-01

421

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.  

PubMed

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition. PMID:23535305

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

2013-01-01

422

Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

1995-01-01

423

Development of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activities involved in the design, development, and test of a preprototype vapor compression distillation water recovery subsystem are described. This subsystem, part of a larger regenerative life support evaluation system, is designed to recover usable water from urine, urinal rinse water, and concentrated shower and laundry brine collected from three space vehicle crewmen for a period of 180 days without resupply. Details of preliminary design and testing as well as component developments are included. Trade studies, considerations leading to concept selections, problems encountered, and test data are also presented. The rework of existing hardware, subsystem development including computer programs, assembly verification, and comprehensive baseline test results are discussed.

Johnson, K. L.

1978-01-01

424

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-print Network

injection 3 1.1.2 Steam distillation……………………………… 4 1.2 Objectives of study………..………………………………. 7 1.2.1 Deliverables…………………………………… 8 1.2.2 Model applications…………………………….. 8 II LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………….. 9 III STEAM DISTILLATION...…………………………………. 24 3.3 Analytical models…………………………………………. 30 IV EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE………. 33 4.1 Experimental apparatus…………………………………… 33 4.1.1 Fluid injection system…………………………. 35 4.1.2 Distillation cell………………………………... 35 viii CHAPTER...

Jaiswal, Namit

2007-09-17

425

Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.  

PubMed

A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products. PMID:22688247

Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

2012-01-01

426

Investigating Bacteria with the Winogradsky Column  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an instructor's guide to teaching about biodiversity in the microbial world. This activity encourages students to investigate bacteria using a Winogradsky Column. Students can create a unique environment with slight variations on the recipe; and soon have an inquiry project that could easily occupy the entire year. With the simple extensions given, teachers can isolate and grow a number of the species found in the column and extend this column to a number of examples in the real world showing the relevance of this complex yet deceptively simple lab.

Rogan, Brian

2010-02-18

427

Flutter of cantilevered column under rocket thrust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes an experimental investigation on the flutter of visco-elastic cantilevers subjected to a tangential follower force. The force was produced by the direct installation of a real solid rocket motor to the tip end of the cantilevered columns. The columns lost their stability by flutter. The results were compared with theoretical flutter predictions made by accounting for an internal damping of the test columns, as well as the mass and size of the installed rocket motor. The introduction of the concept of instability in a finite time interval is of vital importance in predicting the experimental flutter force.

Sugiyama, Yoshihiko; Katayama, Kazuo; Kinoi, Sigeru

1995-01-01

428

Demetallization, detarring and desulfurization of distillation residues. [Comparison of available technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the present stage of technical development, only catalytic pressure hydrogenation appears feasible for desulfurizing distillation residues. New detarring and demetallization processes are also reviewed.

Riediger

1976-01-01

429

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

SciTech Connect

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16

430

Determination of chlorinated benzenes in bottom sediment samples by WCOT column gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

An integrated analytical procedure for determining chlorinated benzene contaminants that enables quantitation of individual isomers as low as 0.4 ..mu..g/kg in sediment samples has been developed. Preparation of the sample can be performed by using one of three techniques, namely, Soxhlet extraction and ultrasonic extraction or steam distillation. Chlorinated benzenes are then characterized and quantified by open tubular column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Recoveries of individual chlorinated benzene isomers at three different levels from two different types of sediment, one low and one high in organic matter, were evaluated. Although all three methods are quantitative, the steam distillation method was found to be the most efficient for the determination, insofar as time and simplicity are concerned. Data presented indicate that detection limits of this method are 0.4 to 10 ..mu..g/kg of individual chlorobenzene isomers. Chlorobenzene recovery from bottom sediment samples at concentration levels between 1 and 100 ..mu..g/kg is 86 +/- 14%. 13 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

Onuska, F.I.; Terry, K.A.

1985-04-01

431

Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

1979-01-01

432

Phenolic constituents, furans, and total antioxidant status of distilled spirits.  

PubMed

The concentrations of 11 phenols and 5 furans were measured in 12 categories of distilled spirits by HPLC methodology, together with the total antioxidant status (TAS) of the same beverages. Ellagic acid was the phenol present in highest concentration in all beverages. Moderate amounts of syringaldehyde, syringic acid, and gallic acid, as well as lesser amounts of vanillin and vanillic acid, were measurable in most samples of whiskey, brandy, and rum but were largely undetectable in gin, vodka, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural was the predominant furan in the former three beverages, notably cognac, with 2-furaldehyde the next highest, but these were undetectable in most of the latter beverages. Highest TAS values were given by armagnac, cognac, and bourbon whiskey, all three of which tended toward the highest concentrations of phenols. Negative TAS values were exhibited by rum, vodka, gin, and miscellaneous spirits in line with the low or undetectable phenol concentrations in these beverages. Wood aging is the most likely source of phenols and furans in distilled spirits. Those beverages exposed to this treatment contain significant antioxidant activity, which is between the ranges for white and red wines, with the potential to augment the antiatherosclerotic functions attributable to the ethanol that they contain. PMID:10552753

Goldberg, D M; Hoffman, B; Yang, J; Soleas, G J

1999-10-01

433

Alcohol and dilution water characteristics in distilled anis (ouzo).  

PubMed

The authenticity of some mixed drinks such as vodka or rum was correlated to the conductivity of the dilution water. Authentic drinks demonstrated low conductivity, suggesting the use of treated water, whereas fraud drinks were mixed with regular tap water. The objective of the present study was to test if this criterion is valid for distilled anis, also known as ouzo. Several Greek distilled anis samples, mostly ouzo samples, were tested for different parameters including conductivity, pH, and percentage of different alcohol constituents. Because ouzo in Greece is commonly produced by small enterprises, no correlation between conductivity and the size of the producer was possible. Neither was it possible to correlate the price or high consumption with conductivity and, thus, prior water treatment. Alcohol quality in terms of undesirable constituents, such as methanol content, was good and comparable among samples. In ouzo, water is related to the producer quality goal for the final product and, thus, it is treated and used accordingly. PMID:24816147

Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Bekatorou, Argyro

2014-05-28

434

Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

2013-07-01

435

Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum middle distillate (PMD) fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that distill between {approximately} 170-370{degrees}C. Commercial products that fall into this category include kerosine, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and home heating oil. These products contain both saturated (paraffins and cycloparaffins) and aromatic species, but because of the boiling range normally contain very small amounts of the 3-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents, which are considered to be carcinogenic. Nevertheless, there is evidence of weak tumorigenic activity when these materials are repeatedly applied to mouse skin. In the current studies representative products were tested in two commonly used, short-term assays for genetic toxicity, the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. All samples were inactive in the micronucleus assay, and three were clearly inactive in the Salmonella test. Of the remaining two, one was marginally active in the Salmonella assay, and one was equivocal. The marginally active sample contained detectable levels of PAH due to the use of catalytically cracked materials as blending stocks. The results indicated that PMDs that do not contain cracked material were not mutagenic. Thus they may produce tumors via nongenotoxic processes. Those products that do contain cracked stocks may have sufficient PAH to be mutagenic in the Salmonella assay, and in those cases the PAH might also contribute to tumor formation. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

McKee, R.H.; Amoruso, M.A.; Freeman, J.J.; Przygoda, R.T. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences, East Millstone, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

436

Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus  

PubMed Central

Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

2013-01-01

437

Plastic Hinging Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns  

E-print Network

The location of inelastic deformations in reinforced concrete bridge columns has been examined to simulate the nonlinear response of bridge columns and estimate the ultimate displacement capacity. In bridge columns, these nonlinear deformations...

Firat Alemdar, Zeynep

2010-04-27

438

AVIRIS Spectrometer Maps Total Water Vapor Column  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) processes maps of vertical-column abundances of water vapor in atmosphere with good precision and spatial resolution. Maps provide information for meteorology, climatology, and agriculture.

Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Alley, Ronald E.; Vane, Gregg A.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Gary, Bruce L.

1992-01-01

439

A Versatile, Automatic Chromatographic Column Packing Device  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an inexpensive apparatus for packing liquid and gas chromatographic columns of high efficiency. Consists of stainless steel support struts, an Automat Getriebmotor, and an associated three-pulley system capable of 10, 30, and 300 rpm. (MLH)

Barry, Eugene F.; And Others

1977-01-01

440

The Impact Biomechanics of Spinal Column Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertebral column is the central bony pillar of the body and serves to protect the spinal cord from injury. Vertebrae show\\u000a regional differences but they all possess a common pattern. Analysis of the biomechanics of individual components of the spine\\u000a allows one to predict how the spinal column behaves during impact. Although many forces and moments in different directions

M. J. Shelly; A. R. Poynton

441

Divided Wall Column Without the Wall  

E-print Network

the partitions. Consequently, operating range is very limited. An additional thermodynamic deficiency inherent in the PETLYUK system lies within the vapor mixing and liquid mixing zones as further explained below. Let us focus on the vapor... Balanced Fully Thermally Coupled system (HBFTC system), is a column equipped with one reboiler 100 and one condenser 200. Further, the column is divided into four operating zones, in ascending elevation as follows: ?? A stripping zone, zone B, 1...

Tung, P.

2004-01-01

442

Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better detection via good peak separation with a longer run time is a better asset than moderate peak separation with a shorter run time. Even given that RESOLVE is highly interested in water and that mission timeline is of significant importance given the short seven-to-ten-day mission timeline, worse detection with an 8m column may lead to overlooking other substances existing on the moon that could advance planetary science. Thus, I recommend the 20m column. However, if mission timeline and water separation are deemed the highest priority, the 8m column should be selected due to its ability to separate water within a shorter run time than the 20m column.

Huz, Kateryna

2014-01-01

443

Interpretation of the lime column penetration test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

Liyanapathirana, D. S.; Kelly, R. B.

2010-06-01

444

Utilization of dry distiller’s grain and solubles as nutrient supplement in the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation at high solids loading of corn stover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry distiller’s grain and solubles (DDGS) is a major by-product of corn-based ethanol production and is usually used as animal\\u000a feed. Here, it was added to the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) carried out at high solids loading\\u000a of steam explosion pretreated corn stover using a mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1. The performance of SSF process with DDGS was

Dexi BiDeqiang; Deqiang Chu; Pei Zhu; Chenyang Lu; Chao Fan; Jian Zhang; Jie Bao

2011-01-01

445

Determination of P bioavailability in corn and sorghum distiller's dried grains with solubles for growing pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 35 barrows (29.6 kg BW) were used in a 34-day study to determine the effects of corn or sorghum distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, bone trains, and P bioavailability. One corn and three sorghum DDGS were each collected from different processing plants. Pi...

446

Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle  

E-print Network

Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol, but sorghum grain is commonly either blended with corn before use or used as the sole grain for ethanol and practical implications of feeding corn and sorghum wet distillers grains to growing and finishing cattle

447

Microwave accelerated steam distillation of essential oil from lavender: A rapid, clean and environmentally friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process design and operation for microwave accelerated steam distillation (MASD) of essential oils was developed. A packed bed of lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae) sits above the steam source generated by microwave heating. Only steam passes through it without the boiling water mixing with vegetable raw material, as is the case in hydro-distillation. MASD has been compared

F. Chemat; M. E. Lucchesi; J. Smadja; L. Favretto; G. Colnaghi; F. Visinoni

2006-01-01

448

Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. PMID:23401139

Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

2013-04-01

449

Effect of compositional variability of Distillers' Grains on cellulosic ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84 kg of dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers’ grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable b...

450

Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

451

27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

2013-04-01

452

27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

2012-04-01

453

27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

2014-04-01

454

27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

... 2014-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

2014-04-01

455

27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

2013-04-01

456

27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

2012-04-01

457

Arkose: A Prototype Mechanism and Tool for Collaborative Information Generation and Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goals of this thesis have been to gain a better understanding of collaborative knowledge sharing and distilling and to build a prototype collaborative system that supports flexible knowledge generation and distillation. To reach these goals, I have conducted two user studies and built two systems. The first system, Arkose 1.0, is a…

Nam, Kevin Kyung

2010-01-01

458

Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

2011-01-01

459

An integrated method of independent component analysis and support vector machines for industry distillation process monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the complex operation and multi-loop control in the industry distillation process, the diagnosis of the complex fault has become more and more difficult. An integrated method of independent component analysis (ICA) and support vector machines (SVM) is proposed to detect and diagnose industry distillation process faults. The ICA is used for feature extraction and data reduction from original features.

Cuimei Bo; Xu Qiao; Guangming Zhang; Yangjin Bai; Shi Zhang

2010-01-01

460

Recent advances in column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis.  

PubMed

Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials. PMID:22512799

Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita

2012-04-01

461

Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.  

PubMed

Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate. PMID:20707339

López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

2010-09-01

462

European refinery utilization: Consider the combined effects of distillation and conversion  

SciTech Connect

Despite a weaker relationship between capacity utilization and complex refining margins in Europe, a correlation with distillation margins remains. Distillation capacity utilization has historically been correlated with overall complex refining margins. However, in recent years that relationship has become more tenuous. The main reason appears to be that utilization rates in secondary processing units, including conversion units, have declined and eroded conversion margins. This has been difficult for the outside observer to monitor because of the lack of comprehensive and timely data on secondary utilization rates. A second factor may have been underestimation of installed capacity due to modifications since installation. Nevertheless, the relationship between distillation capacity utilization and distillation margins has remained a good one. Consequently, there may be considerable value in forecasting utilization rates so that it is possible to assess the outlook for distillation margins.

Hudson, J.M.; Gray, G.M. [Salmon Brothers, London (United Kingdom)

1996-01-01

463

On the Origin of the High Column Density Turnover in the H I Column Density Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ? 1021 cm-2, which is present at both z = 0 and z ? 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ? 1022 cm-2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ? 1021 cm-2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I >~ 1022 cm-2. We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Ly? column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ~ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

2012-12-01

464

Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.  

PubMed

In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

2010-07-01

465

Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible." To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) opted a development approach that explicitely incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 prelimnary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigative strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.

2015-01-01

466

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2012-04-01

467

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2013-04-01

468

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

...2014-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2014-04-01

469

27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 ...OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Changes to Registrations and Permits...

2011-04-01

470

Electrospun superhydrophobic membranes with unique structures for membrane distillation.  

PubMed

With modest temperature demand, low operating pressure, and high solute rejection, membrane distillation (MD) is an attractive option for desalination, waste treatment, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, large-scale practical applications of MD are still hindered by the absence of effective membranes with high hydrophobicity, high porosity, and adequate mechanical strength, which are important properties for MD permeation fluxes, stable long-term performance, and effective packing in modules without damage. This study describes novel design strategies for highly robust superhydrophobic dual-layer membranes for MD via electrospinning. One of the newly developed membranes comprises a durable and ultrathin 3-dimensional (3D) superhydrophobic skin and porous nanofibrous support whereas another was fabricated by electrospinning 3D superhydrophobic layers on a nonwoven support. These membranes exhibit superhydrophobicity toward distilled water, salty water, oil-in-water emulsion, and beverages, which enables them to be used not only for desalination but also for other processes. The superhydrophobic dual-layer membrane #3S-N with nanofibrous support has a competitive permeation flux of 24.6 ± 1.2 kg m(-2) h(-1) in MD (feed and permeate temperate were set as 333 and 293 K, respectively) due to the higher porosity of the nanofibrous scaffold. Meanwhile, the membranes with the nonwoven support exhibit greater mechanical strength due to this support combined with better long-term performance because of the thicker 3D superhydrophobic layers. The morphology, pore size, porosity, mechanical properties, and liquid enter pressure of water of these superhydrophobic composite membranes with two different structures are reported and compared with commercial polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. PMID:25147909

Liao, Yuan; Loh, Chun-Heng; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

2014-09-24

471

Counterflow isotachophoresis in a monolithic column.  

PubMed

This study describes stationary counterflow isotachophoresis (ITP) in a poly(acrylamide-co-N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide) monolithic column as a means for improving ITP processing capacity and reducing dispersion. The flow profile in the monolith was predicted using COMSOL's Brinkman Equation application mode, which revealed that the flow profile was mainly determined by monolith permeability. As monolith permeability decreases, the flow profile changes from a parabolic shape to a plug shape. An experimental monolithic column was prepared in a fused-silica capillary using an ultraviolet-initiated polymerization method. A monolithic column made from 8% (wt.) monomer was chosen for the stationary counterflow ITP experiments. Counterflow ITP in the monolithic column showed undistorted analyte zones with significantly reduced dispersion compared to the severe dispersion observed in an open capillary. Particularly, for r-phycoerythrin focused by counterflow ITP, its zone width in the monolithic column was only one-third that observed in an open capillary. These experiments demonstrate that stationary counterflow ITP in monoliths can be a robust and practical electrofocusing method. PMID:24935025

Liu, Bingwen; Cong, Yongzheng; Ivory, Cornelius F

2014-09-01

472

Modeling of rotating disc contactor (RDC) column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most important separation processes. Different kinds of liquid-liquid extractor such as Rotating Disc Contactor (RDC) Column being used in industries. The study of liquid-liquid extraction in an RDC column has become a very important subject to be discussed not just among chemical engineers but mathematician as well. In this research, the modeling of small diameter RDC column using the chemical system involving cumene/isobutryric asid/water are analyzed by the method of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In the previous research, we begin the process of analyzed the data using methods of design of the experiments (DOE) to identify which factor and their interaction factor are significant and to determine the percentage of contribution of the variance for each factor. From the result obtained, we continue the research by discussed the development and validation of an artificial neural network model in estimating the concentration of continuous and concentration of dispersed outlet for an RDC column. It is expected that an efficient and reliable model will be formed to predict RDC column performance as an alternative to speed up the simulation process.

Ismail, Wan Nurul Aiffah; Zakaria, Siti Aisyah; Noor, Nor Fashihah Mohd; Sulong, Ibrahim; Arshad, Khairil Anuar

2014-12-01

473

Near azeotropic mixture substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A refrigerant and a process of formulating thereof that consists of a mixture of a first mole fraction of CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3 and a second mole fraction of a component selected from the group consisting of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 ; a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 ; and a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

474

Near azeotropic mixture substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention comprises a refrigerant mixture having two halocarbon components. The first component is present in a mole fraction of about 0.7 to less than 1.0 while the second component is present in a mole fraction of more than 0.0 to about 0.3. The first component is CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3. The second component can be CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CHClFCF.sub.3, a mixture of CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2, or a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2 and CHF.sub.2 CH.sub.3. The preferred embodiment of this invention comprises about 0.7 to less than 1.0 mole fraction CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3, and more than 0.0 to about 0.3 mole fraction of a mixture of CHClFCF.sub.3 and CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2. The most preferred embodiment of this invention comprises about 0.7 to less than 1.0 mole fraction CH.sub.2 FCF.sub.3 and more than 0.0 to about 0.3 mole fraction CH.sub.3 CClF.sub.2. The resulting refrigerant has a vapor pressure close to-that of CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, a nearly constant vapor pressure with evaporation, and is substantially less damaging to the Earth's ozone layer than CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

475

Flammability limits of fuel/fluorocarbon azeotropes  

SciTech Connect

Both Dehn and Thorne have intimated that flash point (FP) measurements could be used to define the gas-phase flammability limits of fire and retardant vapor mixtures above the surface of heated retardant containing flammable liquids. However, it was found that ignitable mixtures exist above the liquid surface, where the concentration of the agent in the fluid is well beyond the limiting concentrating for inerting of alcohol fires. Clearly this anomaly results from diffusion competition of air and liquid vapor mixture at the position of the ignitor, as influenced by the design of the experimental apparatus. The authors are skeptical about the need or worth of attempting to define flammability limits using FP data, especially since unknown variables control the response. More important is to define the concentration of liquid phase retardant that will affect gas phase inerting. Thus, it is necessary to continue practical testing of retardant-containing liquids for their effectiveness in mitigating possible accidents, e.g., the next phase of this work will assess the effectiveness of halocarbons to inert high-pressure alcohol/agent leaks impinging on both electrical and flame ignition sources.

Alvares, N.J.; Hammond, P.R.; Foote, K.; Ford, H.W. Jr.

1981-02-10

476

PCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension A column experiment  

E-print Network

, have been specially designed to study PCB behavior during sediment resuspension, settlingPCB fluxes from the sediment to the water column following resuspension ­ A column experiment was systematically due to significant levels of PCB-DL and PCDD/F in fish tissue. New campaigns of characterization

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

477

[Packed glass capillary column with multi-cores].  

PubMed

The paper describes the preparation of the columns with multi-cores and their plate heights, optimum gas velocity, minimum plate heights (HETP) and corresponding pressure drop (deltaP=Pi-Po) were measured. It is found that HETP increases as core number increase, but column pressure drop (deltaP) decrease with increase of core number. The conclusion is: 1. The column with multi-cores have a better permeability than the conventional packed capillary column. Although its column efficiency is lower than that of the conventional one when packed particles is in the same column size, the comprehensive properties (N/deltaP) are evidently superior than the conventional capillary column. 2. The pressure drop decreasesas the number and diameter of the core in packed capillary column increase. 3. When packed column particle size gets smaller, column efficiency gets higher, but the particle inlay bacomes difficult. The existence of the cores will make the column efficiency get some loss, but it can improve the column permeability and the inlaid geomery. 4. In considering pressure drop, HETP and the particle inlaid condition in column fabrication as a whole, the optimum column type is the packed capillary column with three cores. 5. Ideal column size is: deltad=1-1. 5dp,d=1-2dp,n> or =3, dp=140-250 mesh. PMID:15739425

Liu, X; Yang, H; Lu, W

1997-01-01

478

Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column  

DOEpatents

A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-25

479

Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses: design and accuracy. Water-resources investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 degrees C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated.

Hassan

1981-01-01

480

Characterization of Physical, Chemical, and Flow Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and DDGS Extrudates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is the main coproduct from dry grind ethanol manufacturing. Significant quantities of distillers grains are being produced due to the increased demand for ethanol as a fuel additive. Marketing of distillers grains, however, is hampered by inconsistencies ...

481

75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages; Comment Period...Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages, a notice of proposed...Lynne J. Omlie on behalf of the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States,...

2010-12-29

482

Complex osteotomies vertebral column resection and decancellation.  

PubMed

Pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) is nowadays widely used to treat sagittal imbalance. Some complex malalignment cases cannot be treated by a PSO, whereas the imbalance is coronal or mixed or the sagittal imbalance is major and cannot be treated by a single PSO. The aim of this article was to review these complex situations--coronal imbalance, mixed imbalance, two-level PSO, vertebral column resection, and vertebral column decancellation, and to focus on their specificities. It wills also to evoke the utility of navigation in these complex cases. PMID:24831304

Obeid, Ibrahim; Bourghli, Anouar; Boissière, Louis; Vital, Jean-Marc; Barrey, Cédric

2014-07-01

483

Optical Measurement Technique for Space Column Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple optical technique for the structural characterization of lightweight space columns is presented. The technique is useful for determining the coefficient of thermal expansion during cool down as well as the induced strain during tension and compression testing. The technique is based upon object-to-image plane scaling and does not require any photogrammetric calibrations or computations. Examples of the measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion are presented for several lightweight space columns. Examples of strain measured during tension and compression testing are presented along with comparisons to results obtained with Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) position transducers.

Barrows, Danny A.; Watson, Judith J.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Phelps, James E.

2004-01-01

484

Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components.  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

Egorov, Oleg B. (Richland, WA); O'Hara, Matthew J. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

2004-08-24

485

Systems for column-based separations, methods of forming packed columns, and methods of purifying sample components  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

Egorov, Oleg B. (Richland, WA); O'Hara, Matthew J. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

486

Systems For Column-Based Separations, Methods Of Forming Packed Columns, And Methods Of Purifying Sample Components  

DOEpatents

The invention encompasses systems for column-based separations, methods of packing and unpacking columns and methods of separating components of samples. In one aspect, the invention includes a method of packing and unpacking a column chamber, comprising: a) packing a matrix material within a column chamber to form a packed column; and b) after the packing, unpacking the matrix material from the column chamber without moving the column chamber. In another aspect, the invention includes a system for column-based separations, comprising: a) a fluid passageway, the fluid passageway comprising a column chamber and a flow path in fluid communication with the column chamber, the flow path being obstructed by a retaining material permeable to a carrier fluid and impermeable to a column matrix material suspended in the carrier fluid, the flow path extending through the column chamber and through the retaining material, the flow path being configured to form a packed column within the column chamber when a suspension of the fluid and the column matrix material is flowed along the flow path; and b) the fluid passageway extending through a valve intermediate the column chamber and the retaining material.

Egorov, Oleg B. (Richland, WA); O'Hara, Matthew J. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Chandler, Darrell P. (Richland, WA); Brockman, Fred J. (Kennewick, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

2006-02-21

487

Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process  

SciTech Connect

Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

1983-12-01

488

Algorithmic Game Theory Column Mario Mavronicolas  

E-print Network

Algorithmic Game Theory Column by Mario Mavronicolas Department of Computer Science, University in Algorithmic Game Theory today. The complexity of this problem has been found to be very sensitive with problems of equilibrium computation. 1 Introduction Noncooperative Game Theory has been providing

Mavronicolas, Marios

489

"Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

1973-01-01

490

Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column  

SciTech Connect

This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

Laurinat, J.E.

1999-06-16

491

Column densities of interstellar molecular hydrogen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equivalent widths of some 50 lines in the 0-0 to 5-0 Lyman bands of H2 are reported in the spectra of 28 stars. Curves of growth are given and column densities for levels from J = 0 to J = 5 are tabulated, with a few values and upper limits for N(6) and N(7), together with values for b, the velocity spread parameter. In three Orion stars and in rho Leo pairs of components are detected, the difference in radial velocity is determined, and column densities are measured or estimated; tentative identifications are made with the components observed by Hobbs (1969) in the Na D-lines. Column densities for HD are given for 13 stars. Upper limits for column densities in the first and second vibrational levels are listed for several stars; the ratio of N(J = 0) in the v double prime = 1 level to that in the ground vibrational level is less than 2.4 x 10 to the minus 8th power in zeta Oph. Values of a rotational excitation temperature for the higher J levels are given for all the stars. Data are presented which show an apparent increase of velocity dispersion with J for a number of stars, as measured both from the curves of growth and from line widths.

Spitzer, L., Jr.; Cochran, W. D.; Hirshfeld, A.

1974-01-01

492

Density Gradient Columns for Chemical Displays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Procedures for preparing density gradient columns for chemical displays are presented. They include displays illustrating acid-base reactions, metal ion equilibria, and liquid density. The lifetime of these metastable displays is surprising, some lasting for months in display cabinets. (JN)

Guenther, William B.

1986-01-01

493

Calibration curves for density-gradient columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical calibration curves for density-gradient columns at various stages of their development are derived on the assumption that the behaviour is controlled by a Fick's law diffusion. Curves are given for two sets of initial conditions, corresponding to those most commonly used in practice.

D W Budworth

1962-01-01

494

Vivapure Metal Chelate Mega spin columns  

E-print Network

Chromatography (IMAC) purification devices, which simply can be used in a centrifuge. IMAC is a common columns 2 250 ml centrifuge bottles - standard caps 2 Instruction Manual 1 Specifications Max. volume per centrifuge run 75 ml Recommended centrifugation speed 500 x g - 1000 x g (please refer to protocol) Binding

Lebendiker, Mario

495

Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by designing…

Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

2011-01-01

496

Ionized Columns between Thunderstorms and the Ionosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that, if electrons of relativistic energies are generated within thunder- storms and then 'run away' upward above the thunderclouds, their range is probably only a few kilometers; their ionizing effects are therefore localized. Calculations indicate, however, that the bremsstrahlung produced during the stoppage of the electrons can create ionized columns extending to ionospheric heights (about 100 kin).

R. K. COLE

1966-01-01

497

Inklings: Collected Columns on Leadership and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together 35 of David P. Campbell's essays originally published as a regular column in a quarterly publication called "Issues and Observations." The articles deal with topics ranging from leadership issues such as risk-taking, executive motivation, decision making, and corporate taboos, to more general concerns such as father-son…

Campbell, David P.

498

WATER COLUMN DATA AND SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Water samples collected monthly, for 18 months, from six sites in the Laguna Madre were analyzed to identify and quantify phytopigments using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In addition, water column pigment and nutrient data were acquired at 12 stations in Upper ...

499

Numerical simulation of collapsing volcanic columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complex thermofluid dynamic two-phase and two-component flow model is implemented to simulate collapsing volcanic columns. The model involves only one particle size class and accounts for water vapor mixing with air in the atmosphere. The effect of particle collisions in the model is accounted for by a kinetic theory model that solves for the granular temperature and therefore predicts

Flavio Dobran; Augusto Neri; Giovanni Macedonio

1993-01-01

500

Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

1981-09-01