Science.gov

Sample records for azimuthally dependent transport

  1. Azimuthal angle dependence of dijet production in unpolarized hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2008-08-01

    We study the azimuthal angular dependence of back-to-back dijet production in unpolarized hadron scattering H{sub A}+H{sub B}{yields}J{sub 1}+J{sub 2}+X, arising from the product of two Boer-Mulders functions, which describe the transverse spin distribution of quarks inside an unpolarized hadron. We find that when the dijet is of two identical quarks (J{sub q}+J{sub q}) or a quark-antiquark pair (J{sub q}+J{sub q}), there is a cos{delta}{phi} angular dependence of the dijet, with {delta}{phi}={phi}{sub 1}-{phi}{sub 2}, and {phi}{sub 1} and {phi}{sub 2} are the azimuthal angles of the two individual jets. In the case of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production, we find that there is a color factor enhancement in the gluonic cross section, compared with the result from the standard generalized parton model. We estimate the cos{delta}{phi} asymmetry of dijet production at RHIC, showing that the color factor enhancement in the angular dependence of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production will reverse the sign of the asymmetry.

  2. Marine radar ocean wave retrieval's dependency on range and azimuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Bjrn; Collins, Clarence O.; Graber, Hans C.; Terrill, Eric; Herbers, Thomas H. C.

    2014-07-01

    The strength of the surface wave signal in marine X-band radar (MR) images strongly depends on range and azimuth (i.e., the angle between antenna look and peak wave direction). Traditionally, MR wave analysis is carried out in a set of rectangular windows covering the radar field of view (FOV). The FOV is typically partially obstructed, e.g., due to the coastline or ship superstructures. Especially for ships that are subject to regular course changes, this results in an increased variability or error associated with wave parameters. Using MR measurements from R/P FLIP, acquired off California during the 2010 US Office of Naval Research (ONR) high resolution air-sea interaction (Hi-Res) experiment, this study quantifies the dependency of the radar-based 2D wave spectrum and parameters on range and azimuth. With the help of reference data from a nearby Datawell Waverider buoy, we propose empirical methods to remove the dependency and we illustrate their efficacy.

  3. Azimuthal dependence in the gravity field induced by recent and past cryospheric forcings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, David A.; Gasperini, Paolo; Sabadini, Roberto; Boschi, Enzo

    1987-01-01

    Present-day glacial activities and the current variability of the Antarctic ice volume can cause variations in the long-wavelength gravity field as a consequence of transient viscoelastic responses in the mantle. The azimuthal dependence of the secular variations of the gravitational potential are studied and it is found that the nonaxisymmetric contributions are more important for recent glacial retreats than for Pleistocene deglaciation. Changes in land-based ice covering Antarctica can be detected by monitoring satellite orbits and their sensitivity to variations in gravitational harmonic for degree l greater than 3. Resonances in satellite orbits may be useful for detecting these azimuthally-dependent gravity signals.

  4. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu to UU collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloczynski, John; Huang, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Xilin; Liao, Jinfeng

    2015-07-01

    We study the charge-dependent azimuthal correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions, as motivated by the search for the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) and the investigation of related background contributions. In particular we aim to understand how these correlations induced by various proposed effects evolve from collisions with AuAu system to that with UU system. To do that, we quantify the generation of magnetic field in UU collisions at RHIC energy and its azimuthal correlation with the matter geometry using event-by-event simulations. Taking the experimental data for charge-dependent azimuthal correlations from AuAu collisions and extrapolating to UU with reasonable assumptions, we examine the resulting correlations to be expected in UU collisions and compare them with recent STAR measurements. Based on such analysis we discuss the viability for explaining the data with a combination of the CME-like and flow-induced contributions.

  5. Azimuthal angle dependence of di-jet production in unpolarized hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhun; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-08-04

    We study the azimuthal asymmetry of back-to-back di-jet production in unpolarized hadron scattering, arising from the product of two Boer-Mulders functions, which describe the transverse spin distribution of quarks inside an unpolarized hadron. We find that there is a cos {delta}{phi} angular dependence of the di-jet, with {delta}{phi} the difference of the azimuthal angle of tow jets respectively. In the case of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production, we find that there is a color factor enhancement in the gluonic cross-section due to the multiple initial-/final-state interactions, compared with the result from the standard generalized parton model. We estimate the cos {delta}{phi} asymmetry of the total di-jet production at RHIC, showing that the color factor enhancement in the azimuthal asymmetric cross section of J{sub q}+J{sub q} production will reverse the sign of the asymmetry.

  6. Polar-azimuthal angle dependent efficiency of different infrared superconducting nanowire single-photon detector designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, Mria; Sipos, ron; Najafi, Faraz; Berggren, Karl K.

    2011-10-01

    The illumination-angle-dependent absorptance was determined for three types of superconducting-nanowire singlephoton detector (SNSPD) designs: 1. periodic bare niobium-nitride (NbN) stripes with dimensions of conventional SNSPDs, 2. the same NbN patterns integrated with ~quarter-wavelength hydrogensilsesquioxane-filled nano- cavity, 3. similar cavity-integrated structures covered by a thin gold reflector. A three-dimensional finite-element method was applied to determine the optical response and near-field distribution as a function of p-polarized light illumination orientations specified by polar-angle, ?, and azimuthal-angle, ?. The numerical results proved that the NbN absorptance might be maximized via simultaneous optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles. Complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations were performed on analogous film-stacks to uncover the phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema on the optical response of NbN-patterns in P-structure-configuration. This comparative study showed that the absorptance of bare NbN patterns is zero at the angle corresponding to total internal reflection (TIR). In cavity-integrated structures the NbN absorptance curve indicates a maximum at the same orientation due to the phase shift introduced by the quarter-wavelength HSQ layer. The reflector promotes the NbN absorptance at small polar angles, but the available absorptance is limited by attenuated TIR in polar angle-intervals, where surface modes are excited on the gold film.

  7. Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yangbo; Qian, Jing; Bai, Feng; Wang, Zhuo; Wang, Chengwei; Fan, Wenzhong; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Quanzhong

    2016-04-01

    We report the modification of optical properties of 304 stainless steel surfaces by femtosecond laser direct writing with different scanning pitches. Regularly arranged ripples with a spatial period of ~700 nm were obtained, rendering vivid structural colors when we illuminated the surface with white light. Diffraction spectra were generated to investigate the spectral properties of the structural colors. Results indicate that the diffraction maximum strongly depends on scanning pitch and azimuthal angle, but that the central wavelength is insensitive to both of them. The reflectance properties were also investigated. This study adds a new parameter, the scanning pitch, to the list of parameters in the production of controllable colorized metal, which may find a range of applications in color display, decoration, and so on.

  8. Anisotropic parton escape is the dominant source of azimuthal anisotropy in transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liang; Edmonds, Terrence; Lin, Zi-Wei; Liu, Feng; Molnar, Denes; Wang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-01

    We trace the development of azimuthal anisotropy (vn, n = 2 , 3) via parton-parton collision history in two transport models. The parton vn is studied as a function of the number of collisions of each parton in Au + Au and d + Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV. It is found that the majority of vn comes from the anisotropic escape probability of partons, with no fundamental difference at low and high transverse momenta. The contribution to vn from hydrodynamic-type collective flow is found to be small. Only when the parton-parton cross-section is set unrealistically large does this contribution start to take over. Our findings challenge the current paradigm emerged from hydrodynamic comparisons to anisotropy data.

  9. The Azimuthal Dependence of Outflows and Accretion Detected Using O VI Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-12-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle (Φ) distribution of gas around galaxies traced by O vi absorption. We present the mean Φ probability distribution function of 29 Hubble Space Telescope-imaged O vi absorbing (EW > 0.1 Å) and 24 non-absorbing (EW < 0.1 Å) isolated galaxies (0.08 \\lt z \\lt 0.67) within ˜200 kpc of background quasars. We show that equivalent width (EW) is anti-correlated with impact parameter and O vi covering fraction decreases from 80% within 50 kpc to 33% at 200 kpc. The presence of O vi absorption is azimuthally dependent and occurs between ±10°-20° of the galaxy projected major axis and within ±30° of the projected minor axis. We find higher EWs along the projected minor axis with weaker EWs along the project major axis. Highly inclined galaxies have the lowest covering fractions due to minimized outflow/inflow cross-section geometry. Absorbing galaxies also have bluer colors while non-absorbers have redder colors, suggesting that star formation is a key driver in the O vi detection rate. O vi surrounding blue galaxies exists primarily along the projected minor axis with wide opening angles while O vi surrounding red galaxies exists primarily along the projected major axis with smaller opening angles, which may explain why absorption around red galaxies is less frequently detected. Our results are consistent with a circumgalactic medium (CGM) originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows. Non-detected O vi occurs between Φ = 20°-60°, suggesting that O vi is not mixed throughout the CGM and remains confined within the outflows and the disk-plane. We find low O vi covering fractions within +/- 10^\\circ of the projected major axis, suggesting that cool dense gas resides in a narrow planer geometry surrounded by diffuse O vi gas.

  10. System size dependence of nuclear modification and azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Somnath; Srivastava, Dinesh K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the system size dependence of jet quenching by analysing transverse momentum spectra of neutral pions in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at \\sqrt{s_{\\textrm {NN}}} =200 GeV for different centralities. The fast partons are assumed to lose energy by radiating gluons as they traverse the plasma and undergo multiple collisions. The energy loss per collision, ɛ, is taken as proportional to E (where E is the energy of the parton), proportional to \\sqrt{E}, or a constant depending on whether the formation time of the gluon is less than the mean path, greater than the mean-free path but less than the path length, or greater than the path length of the partons, respectively. NLO pQCD is used to evaluate pion production by modifying the fragmentation function to account for the energy loss. We reproduce the nuclear modification factor RAA by treating ɛ as the only free parameter, depending on the centrality and the mechanism of energy loss. These values are seen to explain the nuclear modification of prompt photons caused by the energy lost by final state quarks before they fragment into photons. These also reproduce the azimuthal asymmetry of transverse momentum distribution for pions within a factor of 2 and for prompt photons in fair agreement with experimental data.

  11. Azimuth-dependent Auger neutralization of He{sup +} on Ag(111) and (110) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Valdes, Diego; Monreal, R. C.; Blanco, J. M.; Esaulov, V. A.

    2007-04-15

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of the role played by s and d electrons in Auger neutralization processes of He{sup +} at Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces. We calculate crystal-lattice-site Auger neutralization rates as a function of the perpendicular distance between ions and surfaces. We find that the rate is very insensitive to the lateral position for large values of the perpendicular distance because the contribution of the delocalized s electrons dominates in this case. In contrast, the contribution of d electrons dominates at short perpendicular distances and the strong spatial localization of these electrons causes a similar strong dependence of the Auger rate with lateral position. We perform molecular dynamic simulations of scattered ion trajectories, which, used together with the Auger neutralization rates, allow us to obtain the theoretical ion fraction that we compare with our measurements. This parameter-free theory is able to reproduce the magnitude of the ion survival probability and its dependence with the azimuthal angle of incidence for both surfaces of Ag, thus showing the important role played by localized electrons in Auger neutralization of He.

  12. Azimuthal inhomogeneity of turbulence structure and its impact on intermittent particle transport in linear magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Arakawa, H.; Yamada, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Miwa, Y.; Kasuya, N.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2015-11-01

    Fluctuation component in the turbulence regime is found to be azimuthally localized at a phase of the global coherent modes in a linear magnetized plasma PANTA. Spatial distribution of squared bicoherence is given in the azimuthal cross section as an indicator of nonlinear energy transfer function from the global coherent mode to the turbulence. Squared bicoherence is strong at a phase where the turbulence amplitude is large. As a result of the turbulence localization, time evolution of radial particle flux becomes bursty. Statistical features such as skewness and kurtosis are strongly modified by the localized turbulence component, although contribution to mean particle flux profile is small.

  13. Hadronization scheme dependence of long-range azimuthal harmonics in high energy p + A reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Angelo; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2015-07-01

    We compare the distortion effects of three popular final-state hadronization schemes. We show how hadronization modifies the initial-state gluon correlations in high energy p + A collisions. The three models considered are (1) LPH: local parton-hadron duality, (2) CPR: collinear parton-hadron resonance independent fragmentation, and (3) LUND: color string hadronization. The strong initial-state azimuthal asymmetries are generated using the GLVB model for non-abelian gluon bremsstrahlung, assuming a saturation scale Qsat = 2 GeV. Long-range elliptic and triangular harmonics for the final hadron pairs are compared based on the three hadronization schemes. Our analysis shows that the process of hadronization causes major distortions of the partonic azimuthal harmonics for transverse momenta at least up to pT = 3 GeV. In particular, they appear to be greatly reduced for pT < 1 2 GeV.

  14. Multiplicity dependence of two-particle azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdanikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, F.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bornschein, J.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Czopowicz, T. R.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Dash, S.; Dash, A.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; Erasmo, G. D.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Elia, D.; Elwood, B. G.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P. G.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, M. M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, T.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martınez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nasar, M.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Da Silva, A. C. Oliveira; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Spacek, M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Ter Minasyan, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Xiang, C.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the measurements of particle pair yields per trigger particle obtained from di-hadron azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at = 0 .9, 2.76, and 7 TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The yields are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. Taken together with the single particle yields the pair yields provide information about parton fragmentation at low transverse momenta, as well as on the contribution of multiple parton interactions to particle production. Data are compared to calculations using the PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8, and PHOJET event generators. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Charge-dependent azimuthal correlations of secondary particles in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okorokov, V.; Parfenov, P.

    2016-02-01

    The P/CP symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) could be realized via transitions between local fluctuations of gauge fields. Azimuthal correlations which characterize the asymmetry of the emitted charged particles with respect to the reaction plane in non-central nucleus-nucleus collisions are the promising tools for experimental study of local P/CP violation in the strong interactions. The preliminary estimations of correlators within the model of chiral magnetic effect are presented for types of nuclei and collision energies corresponded to RHIC and the LHC beams for two various nuclear densities, namely, for approach of the hard sphere and for the two-component Fermi model. Besides of the correlator estimations for the symmetric collisions, the preliminary results for magnetic field in asymmetric Cu + Au collisions are also shown.

  16. Azimuthal and polar angle dependence of L X-ray differential cross-sections of Yb at 59.54 keV photon energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akku?, T.; ?ahin, Y.; Y?lmaz, D.

    2016-01-01

    The azimuthal and polar angle dependence of L X-ray was investigated in the same experimental setup to remove the existing ambiguity about alignments measurements. We measured Ll, L?, L? and L? X-ray differential cross sections of Yb for several different azimuthal angles (30, 20, 10, 0, -10 and -20) and polar angles (90, 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140) at 59.54 keV photon energy by using a Si(Li) detector. The azimuthal angle dependence of Ll and L? X-rays were observed. The azimuthal anisotropy of L? and L? X-rays were not observed. On the other hand, differential cross-sections for L? and L? X-rays were found independent on the polar angle within experimental error, those for Ll and L? X-rays depended on the polar angles. Azimuthal and polar angles dependence of L X-ray differential cross-sections contrast with the other experimental and theoretical results, which report evidence of the isotropic emission of Ll and L? X-rays following photoionization.

  17. Detector-selection technique for Monte Carlo transport in azimuthally symmetric geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Parks, C.V.

    1982-01-01

    Many radiation transport problems contain geometric symmetries which are not exploited in obtaining their Monte Carlo solutions. An important class of problems is that in which the geometry is symmetric about an axis. These problems arise in the analyses of a reactor core or shield, spent fuel shipping casks, tanks containing radioactive solutions, radiation transport in the atmosphere (air-over-ground problems), etc. Although amenable to deterministic solution, such problems can often be solved more efficiently and accurately with the Monte Carlo method. For this class of problems, a technique is described in this paper which significantly reduces the variance of the Monte Carlo-calculated effect of interest at point detectors.

  18. The effect of bicuculline application on azimuth-dependent recovery cycle of inferior collicular neurons of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Jen, Philip H-S

    2003-05-23

    The recovery cycle of auditory neurons is an important neuronal property, which determines a neuron's ability to respond to pairs of sounds presented at short inter-sound intervals. This property is particularly important for bats, which rely upon analysis of returning echoes to extract the information about targets after emission of intense orientation sounds. Because target direction often changes throughout the course of hunting, the changing echo direction may affect the recovery cycle and thus temporal processing of auditory neurons. In this study, we examined the effect of sound azimuth on the recovery cycle of inferior collicular (IC) neurons in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, under free-field stimulation conditions. Our study showed that the recovery cycle of most IC neurons (42/49, 86%) was longer when determined with sounds delivered at 40 degrees ipsilateral (i40 degrees ) than at 40 degrees contralateral (c40 degrees ) to the recording site. To study the contribution of GABAergic inhibition to sound azimuth-dependent recovery cycle, we compared the recovery cycle of IC neurons determined at two sound azimuths before and during iontophoretic application of bicuculline, an antagonist for GABA(A) receptors. Bicuculline application produced a greater decrease of the recovery cycle of these neurons at i40 degrees than at c40 degrees. As a result, the azimuth-dependent recovery cycle of these neurons was abolished or greatly reduced. Possible mechanisms underlying these observations and biological relevance to bat echolocation are discussed. PMID:12729962

  19. Multistation observations of the azimuth, polarization, and frequency dependence of ELF/VLF waves generated by electrojet modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Gołkowski, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Moore, R. C.; Chorsi, H. T.; Gedney, S. D.; Jacobs, R.

    2015-10-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments are performed with the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in Gakona, Alaska, for the purpose of generating extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) waves. Observations are made at three different azimuths from the heating facility and at distances from 37 km to 99 km. The polarization of the observed waves is analyzed in addition to amplitude as a function of modulation frequency and azimuth. Amplitude and eccentricity are observed to vary with both azimuth and distance from the heating facility. It is found that waves radiated at azimuths northwest of the facility are generated by a combination of modulated Hall and Pedersen currents, while waves observed at other azimuths are dominated by modulated Hall currents. We find no evidence for vertical currents contributing to ground observations of ELF/VLF waves. Observed amplitude peaks near multiples of 2 kHz are shown to result from vertical resonances in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and variations of the frequency of these resonances can be used to determine the D region ionosphere electron density profile in the vicinity of the HF heater.

  20. The cost of transportation`s oil dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Transportation is critical to the world`s oil dependence problem because of the large share of world oil it consumes and because of its intense dependence on oil. This paper will focus on the economic costs of transportation`s oil dependence.

  1. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p^{↑}+p at sqrt[s]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Banerjee, A; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cervantes, M C; Chakaberia, I; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, J H; Chen, X; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Christie, W; Contin, G; Crawford, H J; Das, S; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Esha, R; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Federic, P; Fedorisin, J; Feng, Z; Filip, P; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Fulek, L; Gagliardi, C A; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, S; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Hamad, A; Hamed, A; Haque, R; Harris, J W; He, L; Heppelmann, S; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, X; Huang, H Z; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Jiang, K; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Kochenda, L; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kosarzewski, L K; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Li, X; Li, C; Li, W; Li, Z M; Li, Y; Li, X; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, Y G; Ma, G L; Ma, L; Ma, R; Magdy, N; Majka, R; Manion, A; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; Meehan, K; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Okorokov, V; Olvitt, D; Page, B S; Pak, R; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peterson, A; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Posik, M; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, M K; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Sikora, R; Simko, M; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Song, L; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stepanov, M; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Summa, B; Sun, X; Sun, Z; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Surrow, B; Svirida, N; Szelezniak, M A; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Tawfik, A N; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tripathy, S K; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Upsal, I; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Varma, R; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Vossen, A; Wang, G; Wang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Webb, J C; Webb, G; Wen, L; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z G; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, Q H; Xu, Z; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Y F; Yang, Q; Yang, Y; Yang, S; Yang, Y; Yang, C; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, X P; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, L; Zhu, X; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2015-12-11

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p^{↑}+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities η>0.5, and for pair masses around the mass of the ρ meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p+p collisions. PMID:26705627

  2. Observation of Transverse Spin-Dependent Azimuthal Correlations of Charged Pion Pairs in p?+p at ?{s }=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Caldern de la Barca Snchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Y.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, B.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y. F.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    We report the observation of transverse polarization-dependent azimuthal correlations in charged pion pair production with the STAR experiment in p?+p collisions at RHIC. These correlations directly probe quark transversity distributions. We measure signals in excess of 5 standard deviations at high transverse momenta, at high pseudorapidities ? >0.5 , and for pair masses around the mass of the ? meson. This is the first direct transversity measurement in p +p collisions.

  3. Spin-dependent energy distribution of B-hadrons from polarized top decays considering the azimuthal correlation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi Nejad, S. M.

    2016-04-01

    Basically, the energy distribution of bottom-flavored hadrons produced through polarized top quark decays t (↑) →W+ + b (→Xb), is governed by the unpolarized rate and the polar and the azimuthal correlation functions which are related to the density matrix elements of the decay t (↑) → bW+. Here we present, for the first time, the analytical expressions for the O (αs) radiative corrections to the differential azimuthal decay rates of the partonic process t (↑) → b +W+ in two helicity systems, which are needed to study the azimuthal distribution of the energy spectrum of the hadrons produced in polarized top decays. These spin-momentum correlations between the top quark spin and its decay product momenta will allow the detailed studies of the top decay mechanism. Our predictions of the hadron energy distributions also enable us to deepen our knowledge of the hadronization process and to test the universality and scaling violations of the bottom-flavored meson fragmentation functions.

  4. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-07-15

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ?{sub 1}(r)?cos(kz)?cos(?t?l?), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ? matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ?{sub R}, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ? but becomes negligible at higher ?. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ? (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude ?r???v{sub r}/?{sub T}, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ? increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ? values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  5. Dependence of enhanced asymmetry-induced transport on collision frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, D. L.

    2014-07-01

    A single-particle code with collisional effects is used to study how asymmetry-induced radial transport in a non-neutral plasma depends on collision frequency. For asymmetries of the form ϕ1(r) cos(kz) cos(ωt-lθ), two sources for the transport have been identified: resonant particles and axially trapped particles. The simulation shows that this latter type, which occurs near the radius where ω matches the azimuthal rotation frequency ωR, is usually dominant at low collision frequency ν but becomes negligible at higher ν. This behavior can be understood by noting that axially trapped particles have a lower trapping frequency than resonant particles. In the low ν (banana) regime, the radial oscillations have amplitude Δr ≈ vr/ωT, so axially trapped particles dominate, and the transport may even exceed the resonant particle plateau regime level. As ν increases, collisions start to interrupt the slower axially trapped particle oscillations, while the resonant particles are still in the banana regime, so the axially trapped particle contribution to the transport decreases. At the largest ν values, axially trapped particle transport is negligible and the observed diffusion coefficient matches that given by plateau regime resonant particle theory. Heuristic models based on these considerations give reasonable agreement with the observed scaling laws for the value of the collision frequency where axially trapped particle transport starts to decrease and for the enhancement of the diffusion coefficient produced by axially trapped particles.

  6. Transverse-rapidity yt dependence of the nonjet azimuth quadrupole from 62- and 200-GeV Au-Au collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, David T.; Prindle, Duncan J.; Trainor, Thomas A.

    2015-06-01

    Previous measurements of a quadrupole component of azimuth correlations denoted by symbol v2 have been interpreted to represent elliptic flow, a hydrodynamic phenomenon conjectured to play a major role in noncentral nucleus-nucleus collisions. v2 measurements provide the main support for conclusions that a "perfect liquid" is formed in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. However, conventional v2 methods based on one-dimensional (1D) azimuth correlations give inconsistent results and may include a jet contribution. In some cases the data trends appear to be inconsistent with hydrodynamic interpretations. In this study we distinguish several components of 2D angular correlations and isolate a nonjet (NJ) azimuth quadrupole denoted by v2{2D} . We establish systematic variations of the NJ quadrupole on yt, centrality, and collision energy. We adopt transverse-rapidity yt as both a velocity measure and a logarithmic alternative to transverse momentum pt. Based on NJ-quadrupole trends, we derive a completely factorized universal parametrization of quantity v2{2D} (yt,b ,√{sN N}) which describes the centrality, yt, and energy dependence. From yt-differential v2(yt) data we isolate a quadrupole spectrum and infer a quadrupole source boost having unexpected properties. NJ quadrupole v2 trends obtained with 2D model fits are remarkably simple. The centrality trend appears to be uncorrelated with a sharp transition in jet-related structure that may indicate rapid change of Au-Au medium properties. The lack of correspondence suggests that the NJ quadrupole may be insensitive to such a medium. Several quadrupole trends have interesting implications for hydro interpretations.

  7. Observation of charge-dependent azimuthal correlations and possible local strong parity violation in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    Parity-odd domains, corresponding to non-trivial topological solutions of the QCD vacuum, might be created during relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the orbital momentum of the system created in non-central collisions. To study this effect, we investigate a three particle mixed harmonics azimuthal correlator which is a {Rho}-even observable, but directly sensitive to the charge separation effect. We report measurements of this observable using the STAR detector in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 and 62 GeV. The results are presented as a function of collision centrality, particle separation in rapidity, and particle transverse momentum. A signal consistent with several of the theoretical expectations is detected in all four data sets. We compare our results to the predictions of existing event generators, and discuss in detail possible contributions from other effects that are not related to parity violation.

  8. Observation of temperature dependent transport in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Mansfield, D.K.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Biglari, H.; Diamond, P.H.; Goldston, R.J.; Hegna, C.C.; McCune, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Scott, S.; Tang, W.M.; Taylor, G.; Waltz, R.E.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1990-10-01

    Local particle and heat transport coefficients have been measured in a controlled temperature scan of neutral-beam-heated plasmas with n, I{sub p}, and B{sub {var phi}} held constant. The electron particle transport is ascertained from a general flux analysis of a small density perturbation, and the heat transport is obtained from the equilibrium power balance. The local particle and heat transport coefficients vary as T{sub e}{sup {alpha}}, where {alpha} = 1.5--2.5. The observed temperature dependence for these plasmas is predicted by numerical calculations of anomalous transport due to trapped-particle drift-type microinstabilities.

  9. Gravity-dependent transport in industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, Simon; Kamotani, Yasuhiro

    1994-01-01

    Gravity-dependent transport phenomena in various industrial processes are investigated in order to address a broader range of microgravity phenomena and to develop new applications of microgravity. A number of important topics are identified and analyzed in detail. The present article describes results on coating flow, zeolite growth, and rotating electrochemical system.

  10. Azimuthal radiometric temperature measurements of wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of azimuthal view angle on the radiometric temperature of wheat canopies at various stages of development are investigated. Measurements of plant height, total leaf area index, green leaf area index and Feeks growth stage together with infrared radiometric temperature measurements at 12 azimuth intervals with respect to solar azimuth and at different solar zenith angles were obtained for four wheat canopies at various heights. Results reveal a difference on the order of 2 C between the temperatures measured at azimuths of 0 and 180 deg under calm wind conditions, which is attributed to the time-dependent transfer of heat between canopy component surfaces. The azimuthal dependence must thus be taken into account in the determination of radiometric temperatures.

  11. Charged particles time-dependent transverse transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraschetti, F.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    We discuss an analytical derivation for the temporal dependence of the transverse transport coefficient for times smaller than the correlation time of the magnetic turbulence, as seen by the particle, where the quasi-linear theory is not valid. The transverse transport is assumed to be dominated by the guiding center motion. Contributions of wavelengths shorter and longer than the coherence length to particle drift from the local magnetic field lines and to the magnetic field lines random walk are assessed for slab and 3D isotropic turbulence. Extensions of this model will allow for a study of solar wind physically motivated anisotropy.

  12. Azimuthal anisotropy of the Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Alessia; Debayle, Eric; Priestley, Keith; Barruol, Guilhem

    2006-10-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy is the dependence of local seismic properties on the azimuth of propagation. We present the azimuthally anisotropic component of a 3D SV velocity model for the Pacific Ocean, derived from the waveform modeling of over 56,000 multi-mode Rayleigh waves followed by a simultaneous inversion for isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic vsv structure. The isotropic vsv model is discussed in a previous paper (A. Maggi, E. Debayle, K. Priestley, G. Barruol, Multi-mode surface waveform tomography of the Pacific Ocean: a close look at the lithospheric cooling signature, Geophys. J. Int. 166 (3) (2006). doi:10.1111/j.1365-246x.2006.03037.x). The azimuthal anisotropy we find is consistent with the lattice preferred orientation model (LPO): the hypothesis of anisotropy generation in the Earth's mantle by preferential alignment of anisotropic crystals in response to the shear strains induced by mantle flow. At lithospheric depths we find good agreement between fast azimuthal anisotropy orientations and ridge spreading directions recorded by sea-floor magnetic anomalies. At asthenospheric depths we find a strong correlation between fast azimuthal anisotropy orientations and the directions of current plate motions. We observe perturbations in the pattern of seismic anisotropy close to Pacific hot-spots that are consistent with the predictions of numerical models of LPO generation in plume-disturbed plate motion-driven mantle flow. These observations suggest that perturbations in the patterns of azimuthal anisotropy may provide indirect evidence for plume-like upwelling in the mantle.

  13. Time-dependent modelling of mass-loading, transport, chemistry and magnetic fields in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arridge, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Radial profiles of plasma flux tube content are often modelled using diffusive plasma transport using an assumed source rate and diffusion coefficient. Such diffusive transport modelling can be combined with neutral-cloud theory to provide time-dependent chemistry in the plasma torus. Independently, and not necessarily self-consistently, the radial profile of the plasma azimuthal velocity can be calculated using the Hill-Pontius equation, for the mathematically separable case where the source and transport regions are spatially distinct. These steady state profiles can be imposed into a magnetospheric model to understand the resulting fields and currents. In a non-steady state where the plasma source rate is varying, and/or the outflowing plasma is not in equilibrium, these solutions do not apply. Hence, important questions concerning time-dependent variability in the jovian and saturnian magnetospheres cannot be adequately addressed using such models. In this paper we present a new approach where we solve the time-dependent equations for diffusive radial transport of both mass and angular momentum coupled with a neutral-plasma chemistry model, thus allowing for time-dependent plasma sources and the motion of radial structures produced by such time-dependence. These time-dependent solutions are coupled to an Euler potential magnetospheric model to calculate time-dependent magnetospheric configurations. We present our modelling methodology and the first results from this coupled model.

  14. Rapidity, azimuthal, and multiplicity dependence of mean transverse momentum and transverse momentum correlations in {pi}{sup +}p and K{sup +}p collisions in {radical}(s)=22 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Atayan, M.R.; Gulkanyan, H.; Bai Yuting; De Wolf, E.A.; Endler, A.M.F.; Fu Jinghua; Huang Yanping; Liu Lianshou; Wu Yuanfang; Hakobyan, R.; Kittel, W.; Smirnova, L.N.; Tikhonova, L.A.; Zotkin, S.A.

    2006-04-01

    Rapidity, azimuthal and multiplicity dependence of mean transverse momentum and transverse momentum correlations of charged particles is studied in {pi}{sup +}p and K{sup +}p collisions at 250 GeV/c incident beam momentum. For the first time, it is found that the rapidity dependence of the two-particle transverse momentum correlation is different from that of the mean transverse momentum, but both have similar multiplicity dependence. In particular, the transverse momentum correlations are boost invariant. This is similar to the recently found boost invariance of the charge balance function. A strong azimuthal dependence of the transverse momentum correlations originates from the constraint of energy-momentum conservation. The results are compared with those from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo generator. The similarities to and differences with the results from current heavy ion experiments are discussed.

  15. Dopamine transporter levels in cocaine dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Newberg, Andrew; Wintering, Nancy; Ploessl, Karl; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Gallop, Robert; Present, Julie

    2008-11-01

    Cocaine use is a significant problem in the US and it is well established that cocaine binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT) in the brain. This study was designed to determine if the DAT levels measured by 99mTc TRODAT SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) brain scans are altered in cocaine dependent subjects and to explore clinical correlates of such alterations. SPECT brain scans were acquired on 21 cocaine dependent subjects and 21 healthy matched controls. There were significantly higher DAT levels in cocaine dependent subjects compared to controls for the anterior putamen (p=0.003; Cohen's d effect size=0.98), posterior putamen (p<0.001; effect size=1.32), and caudate (p=0.003; effect size=0.97). DAT levels in these regions were 10%, 17%, and 8% higher in the cocaine dependent subjects compared to controls. DAT levels were unrelated to craving, severity of cocaine use, or duration of cocaine use, but DAT levels in the caudate and anterior putamen were significantly (p<0.05) negatively correlated with days since last use of cocaine. PMID:18565692

  16. Spin Dependent Transport in Novel Magnetic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayathilaka, Priyanga Buddhika

    Magnetic oxides have become of interest source for spin transport devices due to their high spin polarization. But the real applications of these oxides remains unsatisfactory up to date, mostly due to the change of properties as a result of nano structuring. Magnetite (Fe3O4) is one such a material. High Curie temperature and the half metallicity of Fe 3O4 make it a good potential candidate for spin transport devices. Studies have shown that the nano structuring Fe3O 4 changes most of it's important properties. This includes high saturation magnetization and drop of conductivity by a few orders of magnitude in Fe 3O4 thin films. In this study, we have successfully grown Fe3O4 by reactive sputtering and studied the effect of transition metal buffer layers on structural, transport, and magnetic properties of Fe3O 4. It is shown that the lattice strain created by different buffer layers has major impacts on the properties of Fe3O4 thin films. Also for the first time, the magnetic force microscopic measurements were carried out in Fe3O4 thin films through Verway transition. MFM data with the magnetization data have confirmed that the magnetization of Fe3O4 thin films rotate slightly out of the plane below the Verway transition. Fe3O4 thin films were also successfully used in fabricating spin valve structures with Chromium and Permalloy. Here, the Fe 3O4 was used to generated the spin polarized electrons through reflection instead of direct spin injection. This is a novel method that can be used to inject spins into materials with different conductivities, where the traditional direct spin injection fails. Also the effect of growth field on Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/Cr/Py spin valves were investigated. In Fe3O4 the growth field induced an uni-axial anisotropy while it creates a well define parallel and anti-parallel states in spin valves. Magneto thermal phenomenon including spin dependent Seebeck effectt, Planar Nernst effectt and Anomalous Nernst effectt were measured in ferromagnetic thin films and spin valves. Spin dependent Seebeck effectt and planar Nernst effectt were directly compared with the charge counterpart anisotropic magneto resistance. All the effects exhibited similar behavior indicating the same origin, namely spin dependent scattering.

  17. 32 CFR 718.3 - Transportation of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation of dependents. 718.3 Section 718... PERSONS ACT § 718.3 Transportation of dependents. (a) Whenever a person in active service is officially... and circumstances of the dependents and the destination to which transportation is requested. In...

  18. 32 CFR 718.3 - Transportation of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation of dependents. 718.3 Section 718... PERSONS ACT § 718.3 Transportation of dependents. (a) Whenever a person in active service is officially... and circumstances of the dependents and the destination to which transportation is requested. In...

  19. 32 CFR 718.3 - Transportation of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation of dependents. 718.3 Section 718... PERSONS ACT 718.3 Transportation of dependents. (a) Whenever a person in active service is officially... and circumstances of the dependents and the destination to which transportation is requested. In...

  20. 32 CFR 718.3 - Transportation of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation of dependents. 718.3 Section 718... PERSONS ACT 718.3 Transportation of dependents. (a) Whenever a person in active service is officially... and circumstances of the dependents and the destination to which transportation is requested. In...

  1. 32 CFR 718.3 - Transportation of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation of dependents. 718.3 Section 718... PERSONS ACT 718.3 Transportation of dependents. (a) Whenever a person in active service is officially... and circumstances of the dependents and the destination to which transportation is requested. In...

  2. Centrality dependence of dihadron correlations and azimuthal anisotropy harmonics in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-05-01

    Measurements from the CMS experiment at the LHC of dihadron correlations for charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV are presented. The results are reported as a function of the particle transverse momenta (pt) and collision centrality over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity [Delta(eta)] and the full range of relative azimuthal angle [Delta(phi)]. The observed two-dimensional correlation structure in Delta(eta) and Delta(phi) is characterised by a narrow peak at (Delta(eta), Delta(phi)) approximately (0, 0) from jet-like correlations and a long-range structure that persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. An enhancement of the magnitude of the short-range jet peak is observed with increasing centrality, especially for particles of pt around 1-2 GeV/c. The long-range azimuthal dihadron correlations are extensively studied using a Fourier decomposition analysis. The extracted Fourier coefficients are found to factorise into a product of single-particle azimuthal anisotropies up to pt approximately 3-3.5 GeV/c for at least one particle from each pair, except for the second-order harmonics in the most central PbPb events. Various orders of the single-particle azimuthal anisotropy harmonics are extracted for associated particle pt of 1-3 GeV/c, as a function of the trigger particle pt up to 20 GeV/c and over the full centrality range.

  3. Azimuthal anisotropy relative to the participant plane from a multiphase transport model in central p +Au , d +Au , and 3He+Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Adare, A.; McGlinchey, D.; Nagle, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    Recent data from p +p and p +Pb collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and d +Au and 3He+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) reveal patterns that—when observed in the collision of heavy nuclei—are commonly interpreted as indicators of a locally equilibrated system in collective motion. The comparison of these data sets, including the forthcoming results from p +Au and p +Al collisions at RHIC, will help to elucidate the geometric dependence of such patterns. It has recently been shown that a multiphase transport model (AMPT) can describe some of these features in LHC data with a parton-parton scattering cross section comparable to that required to describe A +A data. In this paper, we extend these studies by incorporating a full wave-function description of the 3He nucleus to calculate elliptical and triangular anisotropy moments v2 and v3 for p +Au , d +Au , and 3He+Au collisions at the RHIC top energy of 200 GeV. We find reasonable agreement with the measured v2 in d +Au and 3He+Au and v3 in 3He+Au for transverse momentum (pT)≲1 GeV /c , but underestimate these measurements for higher values of pT. We predict a pattern of coefficients (v2,v3) for p +Au , dominated by differences in the number of induced local hot spots (i.e., one, two, or three) arising from intrinsic geometry. Additionally, we examine how this substantial azimuthal anisotropy accrues during each individual evolutionary phase of the collision in the AMPT model. The possibility of a simultaneous description of RHIC- and LHC-energy data, the suite of different geometries, and high multiplicity p +p data is an exciting possibility for understanding the underlying physics in these systems.

  4. 14 CFR 171.315 - Azimuth monitor system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Azimuth monitor system requirements. 171.315 Section 171.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) 171.315 Azimuth monitor system...

  5. 14 CFR 171.315 - Azimuth monitor system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Azimuth monitor system requirements. 171.315 Section 171.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing System (MLS) 171.315 Azimuth monitor system...

  6. Azimuthal velocity in supercritical circular Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wereley, S. T.; Lueptow, R. M.

    1994-12-01

    Although the stability of supercritical circular Couette flow has been studied extensively, results for the velocity field of the flow are limited. The azimuthal velocity profiles for the Taylor vortex, wavy vortex, and turbulent Taylor vortex flow in the annulus between a rotating inner cylinder and a fixed outer cylinder with fixed end conditions were measured using laser Doppler velocimetry. The azimuthal velocity was measured at about 300 points per vortex pair, distributed in both the radial and axial directions. This measurement procedure was repeated for several Reynolds numbers within each flow regime to study both the spatial dependence and the Reynolds number dependence of the azimuthal velocity. The experimental results for the Taylor vortex flow regime compare well with the Davey perturbation expansion of the Navier-Stokes equations about the circular Couette flow solution [J. Fluid Mech. 14, 336 (1962)]. The measured azimuthal velocity fields also indicate two predominant effects with increasing Reynolds number: the magnitude of the radial gradient of azimuthal velocity near both cylinders increases and the radial outflow region between pairs of vortices becomes increasingly jet-like.

  7. The CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 1: Retrieval of 3-D distributions of NO2 and azimuth-dependent OVOC ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Koenig, T.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-06-01

    We present an innovative instrument telescope and describe a retrieval method to probe three-dimensional (3-D) distributions of atmospheric trace gases that are relevant to air pollution and tropospheric chemistry. The University of Colorado (CU) two-dimensional (2-D) multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (CU 2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), oxygen dimer (O2-O2, or O4), and water vapor (H2O); nitrous acid (HONO), bromine monoxide (BrO), and iodine monoxide (IO) are among other gases that can in principle be measured. Information about aerosols is derived through coupling with a radiative transfer model (RTM). The 2-D telescope has three modes of operation: mode 1 measures solar scattered photons from any pair of elevation angle (-20° < EA < +90° or zenith; zero is to the horizon) and azimuth angle (-180° < AA < +180°; zero being north); mode 2 measures any set of azimuth angles (AAs) at constant elevation angle (EA) (almucantar scans); and mode 3 tracks the direct solar beam via a separate view port. Vertical profiles of trace gases are measured and used to estimate mixing layer height (MLH). Horizontal distributions are then derived using MLH and parameterization of RTM (Sinreich et al., 2013). NO2 is evaluated at different wavelengths (350, 450, and 560 nm), exploiting the fact that the effective path length varies systematically with wavelength. The area probed is constrained by O4 observations at nearby wavelengths and has a diurnal mean effective radius of 7.0 to 25 km around the instrument location; i.e., up to 1960 km2 can be sampled with high time resolution. The instrument was deployed as part of the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany, from 7 June to 6 July 2013. We present first measurements (modes 1 and 2 only) and describe a four-step retrieval to derive (a) boundary layer vertical profiles and MLH of NO2; (b) near-surface horizontal distributions of NO2; (c) range-resolved NO2 horizontal distribution measurements using an "onion-peeling" approach; and (d) the ratios HCHO to NO2 (RFN), CHOCHO to NO2 (RGN), and CHOCHO to HCHO (RGF) at 14 pre-set azimuth angles distributed over a 360° view. Three-dimensional distribution measurements with 2-D-MAX-DOAS provide an innovative, regional perspective of trace gases as well as their spatial and temporal concentration gradients, and they maximize information to compare near-surface observations with atmospheric models and satellites.

  8. Polar and azimuthal angular dependence of coherent to incoherent scattering differential cross-section ratios of Au at 59.54 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akku?, Tuba; Pirimo?lu Dal, Mev?en; ?ahin, Yusuf

    2015-12-01

    Coherent to incoherent differential cross-section ratios of Au have been measured for several polar scattering angles (90, 100, 110, 120 and 130) and azimuthal angles (30, 20, 10, 0, -10, and -20) at 59.54 keV photon energy by using high purity germanium (HPGe) detector, which has a resolution of 199.6 eV at the 5.9 keV. The samples were excited with 59.54 keV gamma rays emitted from 3.7109 Bq (100 mCi) Am241 point source. The intensity ratios were corrected due to the photopeak efficiency of gamma detector and absorption of photons in the target and air. The experimental values obtained in this study were compared with those estimated on the basis of the non-relativistic form factors and relativistic form factors.

  9. On the dependence of the efficiency of a 240 GHz high-power gyrotron on the displacement of the electron beam and on the azimuthal index

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbrajs, O.; Avramidis, K. A.; Franck, J.; Jelonnek, J.

    2014-01-15

    Two issues in the cavity design for a Megawatt-class, 240 GHz gyrotron are addressed. Those are first, the effect of a misaligned electron beam on the gyrotron efficiency and second, a possible azimuthal instability of the gyrotron. The aforementioned effects are important for any gyrotron operation, but could be more critical in the operation of Megawatt-class gyrotrons at frequencies above 200 GHz, which will be the anticipated requirement of DEMO. The target is to provide some basic trends to be considered during the refinement and optimization of the design. Self-consistent calculations are the base for simulations wherever possible. However, in cases for which self-consistent models were not available, fixed-field results are presented. In those cases, the conservative nature of the results should be kept in mind.

  10. Azimuthal-Angle Dependence of Charged-Pion-Interferometry Measurements with Respect to Second- and Third-Order Event Planes in Au +Au Collisions at √sNN =200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Aoki, K.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; David, G.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Garishvili, I.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Han, R.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanischev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jia, J.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; Means, N.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mohanty, A. K.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murata, J.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Niida, T.; Nouicer, R.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Seto, R.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Torii, H.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xie, W.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au +Au collisions at √sNN =200 GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow.

  11. Azimuthal-angle dependence of charged-pion-interferometry measurements with respect to second- and third-order event planes in Au+Au collisions at √[S(NN)]=200  GeV.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E; Kim, E-J; Kim, S H; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Li, X; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mikeš, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Niida, T; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarján, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Todoroki, T; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2014-06-01

    Charged-pion-interferometry measurements were made with respect to the second- and third-order event plane for Au+Au collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200  GeV. A strong azimuthal-angle dependence of the extracted Gaussian-source radii was observed with respect to both the second- and third-order event planes. The results for the second-order dependence indicate that the initial eccentricity is reduced during the medium evolution, which is consistent with previous results. In contrast, the results for the third-order dependence indicate that the initial triangular shape is significantly reduced and potentially reversed by the end of the medium evolution, and that the third-order oscillations are largely dominated by the dynamical effects from triangular flow. PMID:24949761

  12. Reconstitution of microtubule-dependent organelle transport.

    PubMed

    Barak, Pradeep; Rai, Ashim; Dubey, Alok Kumar; Rai, Priyanka; Mallik, Roop

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule (MT)-based motor proteins transport many cellular factors to their functionally relevant locations within cells, and defects in transport are linked to human disease. Understanding the mechanism and regulation of this transport process in living cells is difficult because of the complex in vivo environment and limited means to manipulate the system. On the other hand, in vitro motility assays using purified motors attached to beads does not recapitulate the full complexity of cargo transport in vivo. Assaying motility of organelles in cell extracts is therefore attractive, as natural cargoes are being examined, but in an environment that is more amenable to manipulation. Here, we describe the purification and in vitro MT-based motility of phagosomes from Dictyostelium and lipid droplets from rat liver. These assays have the potential to address diverse questions related to endosome/phagosome maturation, fatty acid regulation, and could also serve as a starting point for reconstituting the motility of other types of organelles. PMID:24630110

  13. The CU 2-dimensional MAX-DOAS instrument - Part 1: Retrieval of NO2 in 3 dimensions and azimuth dependent OVOC ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, I.; Koenig, T.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Volkamer, R.

    2014-11-01

    We present an innovative instrument telescope, and describe a retrieval method to probe 3-D distributions of atmospheric trace gases that are relevant to air pollution and tropospheric chemistry. The University of Colorado (CU) two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2D-MAX-DOAS) instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO), oxygen dimer (O2-O2, or O4) and water vapor (H2O); also nitrous acid (HONO), bromine monoxide (BrO), iodine monoxide (IO) among other gases can in principle be measured. Information about aerosols is derived through coupling with a radiative transfer model (RTM). The 2-D telescope has 3 modes of operation: (mode 1) measures solar scattered photons from any pair of elevation angle (-20° < EA < +90° or zenith; zero is to the horizon) and azimuth angle (-180° < AA < +180°; zero being North), (mode 2) measures any set of AA at constant EA (almucantar scans); and (mode 3) tracks the direct solar beam via a separate view port. Vertical profiles of trace gases are measured, and used to estimate planetary boundary layer height (PBL). Horizontal distributions are then derived using PBL and parameterization of RTM (Sinreich et al., 2013). NO2 is evaluated at different wavelengths (350, 450, and 560 nm), exploiting the fact that the effective path length varies systematically with wavelength. The area probed is constrained by O4 observations at nearby wavelengths, and has an effective radius of 7.5 to 20 km around the instrument location; i.e., up to 1250 km2 can be sampled near-instantaneously, and with high time resolution. The instrument was deployed as part of the Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany from 7 June to 6 July 2013. We present first measurements (modes 1 and 2 only) and describe a four-step retrieval to derive (a) boundary layer vertical profiles of NO2 and PBL; (b) near-surface horizontal distributions of NO2; (c) range resolved NO2 horizontal distribution measurements using an "onion peeling" approach; and (d) the ratios HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN), CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN), and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) at 14 pre-set azimuth angles distributed over a 360° view. 2D-MAX-DOAS provides an innovative, regional perspective about trace gases, their spatial and temporal concentration gradients, and maximizes information to compare near-surface observations with atmospheric models and satellites.

  14. Energy-dependent transport of nickel by Clostridium pasteurianum.

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, M F; Drake, H L

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of nickel transport by Clostridium pasteurianum was investigated by using 63NiCl2 and a microfiltration transport assay. Nickel transport was energy dependent, requiring either glucose or sucrose; xylose and o-methyl glucose did not support growth, butyrogenesis, or transport. Transport was optimum at pH 7 and 37 degrees C, and early-stationary-phase cells had the highest propensity for nickel transport. The apparent Km and Vmax for nickel transport approximated 85 microM Ni and 1,400 pmol of Ni transported per min per mg (dry weight) of cells, respectively. On the basis of metal specificity, nickel appears to be transported primarily by a magnesium transporter, although an alternative nickel transporter may also be involved. ATPase inhibitors (N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, tributyltin chloride, 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, and quercetin), protonophores (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and gramicidin D), metal ionophores (valinomycin, monensin, and nigericin), benzyl viologen, carbon monoxide, and oxygen inhibited nickel transport. Nickel transport was coupled indirectly to butyrogenesis and was dependent on the energy state of the cell. PMID:3335482

  15. Particle-type dependence of azimuthal anisotropy and nuclear modification of particle production in Au+Au collisions at square root of sNN=200 GeV.

    PubMed

    Adams, J; Adler, C; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Amonett, J; Anderson, B D; Anderson, M; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Badyal, S K; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Bekele, S; Belaga, V V; Bellwied, R; Berger, J; Bezverkhny, B I; Bhardwaj, S; Bhaskar, P; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Billmeier, A; Bland, L C; Blyth, C O; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Boucham, A; Brandin, A; Bravar, A; Cadman, R V; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Carroll, J; Castillo, J; Castro, M; Cebra, D; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, Y; Chernenko, S P; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, B; Christie, W; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Das, S; Derevschikov, A A; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Dong, W J; Dong, X; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dubey, A K; Dunin, V B; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Eckardt, V; Efimov, L G; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Fachini, P; Faine, V; Faivre, J; Fatemi, R; Filimonov, K; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flierl, D; Foley, K J; Fu, J; Gagliardi, C A; Gagunashvili, N; Gans, J; Ganti, M S; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Geurts, F; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gonzalez, J E; Grachov, O; Grigoriev, V; Gronstal, S; Grosnick, D; Guedon, M; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Gushin, E; Gutierrez, T D; Hallman, T J; Hardtke, D; Harris, J W; Heinz, M; Henry, T W; Heppelmann, S; Herston, T; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Horsley, M; Huang, H Z; Huang, S L; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Ishihara, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Janik, M; Jiang, H; Johnson, I; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kaneta, M; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klay, J; Klein, S R; Klyachko, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kovalenko, A D; Kramer, M; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kulikov, A I; Kumar, A; Kunde, G J; Kunz, C L; Kutuev, R Kh; Kuznetsov, A A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lansdell, C P; Lasiuk, B; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednický, R; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, Q; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, L; Liu, Z; Liu, Q J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Long, H; Longacre, R S; Lopez-Noriega, M; Love, W A; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, J; Ma, Y G; Magestro, D; Mahajan, S; Mangotra, L K; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Martin, L; Marx, J; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meissner, F; Melnick, Yu; Meschanin, A; Messer, M; Miller, M L; Milosevich, Z; Minaev, N G; Mironov, C; Mishra, D; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Moore, C F; Mora-Corral, M J; Morozov, D A; Morozov, V; de Moura, M M; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nayak, S K; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nevski, P; Nikitin, V A; Nogach, L V; Norman, B; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okorokov, V; Oldenburg, M; Olson, D; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Panitkin, S Y; Pavlinov, A I; Pawlak, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Petrov, V A; Phatak, S C; Picha, R; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Porile, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potrebenikova, E; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Putschke, J; Rai, G; Rakness, G; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ravel, O; Ray, R L; Razin, S V; Reichhold, D; Reid, J G; Renault, G; Retiere, F; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevski, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L J; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Savin, I; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Schroeder, L S; Schweda, K; Seger, J; Seliverstov, D; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shestermanov, K E; Shimanskii, S S; Singaraju, R N; Simon, F; Skoro, G; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sood, G; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, S; Stock, R; Stolpovsky, A; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Struck, C; Suaide, A A P; Sugarbaker, E; Suire, C; Sumbera, M; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Szarwas, P; Tai, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tikhomirov, V; Tokarev, M; Tonjes, M B; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Trivedi, M D; Trofimov, V; Tsai, O; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; VanderMolen, A M; Vasiliev, A N; Vasiliev, M; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Voloshin, S A; Waggoner, W; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Ward, H; Watson, J W; Wells, R; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Willson, R; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wood, J; Wu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Z; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, E; Yepes, P; Yurevich, V I; Zanevski, Y V; Zborovský, I; Zhang, H; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Z P; Zołnierczuk, P A; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, J; Zubarev, A N

    2004-02-01

    We present STAR measurements of the azimuthal anisotropy parameter v(2) and the binary-collision scaled centrality ratio R(CP) for kaons and lambdas (Lambda+Lambda) at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at square root of s(NN)=200 GeV. In combination, the v(2) and R(CP) particle-type dependencies contradict expectations from partonic energy loss followed by standard fragmentation in vacuum. We establish p(T) approximately 5 GeV/c as the value where the centrality dependent baryon enhancement ends. The K(0)(S) and Lambda+Lambda v(2) values are consistent with expectations of constituent-quark-number scaling from models of hadron formation by parton coalescence or recombination. PMID:14995300

  16. Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Transporters in Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Dolder, Silvia; Siegrist, Mark; Wagner, Carsten A.; Biber, Jrg; Hernando, Nati; Hofstetter, Willy

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone degrading cells. Phosphate is an important constituent of mineralized bone and released in significant quantities during bone resorption. Molecular contributors to phosphate transport during the resorptive activity of osteoclasts have been controversially discussed. This study aimed at deciphering the role of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters during osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Our studies reveal RANKL-induced differential expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transport protein IIa (NaPi-IIa) transcript and protein during osteoclast development, but no expression of the closely related NaPi-IIb and NaPi-IIc SLC34 family isoforms. In vitro studies employing NaPi-IIa-deficient osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclasts reveal that NaPi-IIa is dispensable for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. These results are supported by the analysis of structural bone parameters by high-resolution microcomputed tomography that yielded no differences between adult NaPi-IIa WT and KO mice. By contrast, both type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters Pit-1 and Pit-2 were abundantly expressed throughout osteoclast differentiation, indicating that they are the relevant sodium-dependent phosphate transporters in osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. We conclude that phosphate transporters of the SLC34 family have no role in osteoclast differentiation and function and propose that Pit-dependent phosphate transport could be pivotal for bone resorption and should be addressed in further studies. PMID:25910236

  17. Azimuthal anisotropy of ?? production in Au+Au collisions at sqrt((s)NN)=200??GeV: path-length dependence of jet quenching and the role of initial geometry.

    PubMed

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Aoki, K; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bickley, A A; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Camacho, C M; Campbell, S; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Connors, M; Constantin, P; Csand, M; Csrgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Hanks, J; Han, R; Hartouni, E P; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; Heffner, M; Hegyi, S; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; He, X; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ide, J; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Isobe, T; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kametani, S; Kamihara, N; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kim, B I; Kim, D H; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, E; Kim, S H; Kim, Y J; Kinney, E; Kiriluk, K; Kiss, A; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Krl, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Leitner, E; Lenzi, B; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Lika, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Li, X; Love, B; Luechtenborg, R; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mignerey, A C; Mike, P; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mishra, M; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Okada, K; Oka, M; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, J; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Purwar, A K; Qu, H; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rosnet, P; Rukoyatkin, P; Rui?ka, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Semenov, A Yu; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slune?ka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Sparks, N A; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Tarjn, P; Themann, H; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vrtesi, R; Vinogradov, A A; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Wood, J P; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Xie, W; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Younus, I; You, Z; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, C; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of ?? production for 1dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data. PMID:21230825

  18. Azimuthal Anisotropy of π0 Production in Au+Au Collisions at √sNN=200  GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1 < p{sub T} < 18 GeV/c for Au+Au collisions at {radical} s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The observed anisotropy shows a gradual decrease for 3 {approx}< p{sub T} {approx}< 7-10 GeV/c, but remains positive beyond 10 GeV/c. The magnitude of this anisotropy is underpredicted, up to at least {approx}10 GeV/c, by current perturbative QCD (PQCD) energy-loss model calculations. An estimate of the increase in anisotropy expected from initial-geometry modification due to gluon saturation effects and fluctuations is insufficient to account for this discrepancy. Calculations that implement a path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  19. Azimuthal Anisotropy of pi Production in Au+Au Collisions at s_NN = 200 GeV: Path-length Dependence of Jet-Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Awes, Terry C; Cianciolo, Vince; Efremenko, Yuri; Enokizono, Akitomo; Read Jr, Kenneth F; Silvermyr, David O; Sorensen, Soren P; Stankus, Paul W; PHENIX, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1 < p{sub T} < 18 GeV/c for Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV. The observed anisotropy shows a gradual decrease for 3 {approx}< p {approx}< 7-10 GeV/c, but remains positive beyond 10 GeV/c. The magnitude of this anisotropy is underpredicted, up to at least {approx}10 GeV/c, by current perturbative QCD (PQCD) energy-loss model calculations. An estimate of the increase in anisotropy expected from initial-geometry modification due to gluon saturation effects and fluctuations is insufficient to account for this discrepancy. Calculations that implement a path-length dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  20. Azimuthal Anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} Production in Au+Au Collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV: Path-Length Dependence of Jet Quenching and the Role of Initial Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.; Bickley, A. A.; Ellinghaus, F.; Glenn, A.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Nagle, J. L.; Rosen, C. A.; Seele, J.; Wysocki, M.; Afanasiev, S.; Isupov, A.; Litvinenko, A.; Malakhov, A.; Peresedov, V.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Zolin, L.; Aidala, C.; Datta, A.

    2010-10-01

    We have measured the azimuthal anisotropy of {pi}{sup 0} production for 1dependence steeper than what is implied by current PQCD energy-loss models show reasonable agreement with the data.

  1. Time-dependent density functional theory for quantum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Yanho; Zhang, Yu; Chen, GuanHua

    2014-12-01

    The rapid miniaturization of electronic devices motivates research interests in quantum transport. Recently time-dependent quantum transport has become an important research topic. Here we review recent progresses in the development of time-dependent density-functional theory for quantum transport including the theoretical foundation and numerical algorithms. In particular, the reduced-single electron density matrix based hierarchical equation of motion, which can be derived from Liouville-von Neumann equation, is reviewed in details. The numerical implementation is discussed and simulation results of realistic devices will be given.

  2. Measurement of the azimuthal angle dependence of inclusive jet yields in Pb+Pb collisions at √(sNN)=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alio, L; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O L; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernard, C; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia, O; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Bittner, B; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boek, T T; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; 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Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigne, R; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M S; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, R; White, S; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2013-10-11

    Measurements of the variation of inclusive jet suppression as a function of relative azimuthal angle, Δφ, with respect to the elliptic event plane provide insight into the path-length dependence of jet quenching. ATLAS has measured the Δφ dependence of jet yields in 0.14 nb(-1) of √(s(NN))=2.76 TeV Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC for jet transverse momenta p(T)>45 GeV in different collision centrality bins using an underlying event subtraction procedure that accounts for elliptic flow. The variation of the jet yield with Δφ was characterized by the parameter, v(2)(jet), and the ratio of out-of-plane (Δφ~π/2) to in-plane (Δφ~0) yields. Nonzero v(2)(jet) values were measured in all centrality bins for p(T)<160 GeV. The jet yields are observed to vary by as much as 20% between in-plane and out-of-plane directions. PMID:24160592

  3. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-totrans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  4. Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 ?M Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 ?M Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements. PMID:21983793

  5. Glutamate transporter 1: target for the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Sari, Y

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that many aspects of alcohol and drug dependence involve changes in glutamate transmission. A number of studies have reported that drugs of abuse, including alcohol and cocaine, alter glutamate transport. Extracellular glutamate is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters in various brain regions. Of these transporters, glutamate transporter (GLT1) is a key player in the removal of most of the extracellular glutamate. Similar to neurodegenerative disease models, in which there is dysfunction of the glutamatergic excitatory system, the role of GLT1 has been tested in drug dependence models that show dysfunction of glutamate transmission. We and others have recently found that ceftriaxone, an FDA-approved drug known to elevate GLT1 expression, attenuates cue-induced cocaine relapse. Moreover, we recently found that alcohol-preferring rats treated with ceftriaxone showed a significant dosedependent reduction in alcohol consumption. We also demonstrated that ceftriaxone-induced upregulation of GLT1 expression was associated with increases in glutamate uptake in Huntington's disease mouse model. Importantly, ceftriaxone is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This review provides information about the potential therapeutic role of GLT1 for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22680643

  6. Microfluidic-Enabled Liposomes Elucidate Size-Dependent Transdermal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Mariana; Vreeland, Wyatt N.; Quezado, Zenaide; Finkel, Julia C.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic synthesis of small and nearly-monodisperse liposomes is used to investigate the size-dependent passive transdermal transport of nanoscale lipid vesicles. While large liposomes with diameters above 105 nm are found to be excluded from deeper skin layers past the stratum corneum, the primary barrier to nanoparticle transport, liposomes with mean diameters between 31–41 nm exhibit significantly enhanced penetration. Furthermore, multicolor fluorescence imaging reveals that the smaller liposomes pass rapidly through the stratum corneum without vesicle rupture. These findings reveal that nanoscale liposomes with well-controlled size and minimal size variance are excellent vehicles for transdermal delivery of functional nanoparticle drugs. PMID:24658111

  7. Microtubule-dependent transport and dynamics of vimentin intermediate filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hookway, Caroline; Ding, Liya; Davidson, Michael W.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Danuser, Gaudenz; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    We studied two aspects of vimentin intermediate filament dynamicstransport of filaments and subunit exchange. We observed transport of long filaments in the periphery of cells using live-cell structured illumination microscopy. We studied filament transport elsewhere in cells using a photoconvertible-vimentin probe and total internal reflection microscopy. We found that filaments were rapidly transported along linear tracks in both anterograde and retrograde directions. Filament transport was microtubule dependent but independent of microtubule polymerization and/or an interaction with the plus endbinding protein APC. We also studied subunit exchange in filaments by long-term imaging after photoconversion. We found that converted vimentin remained in small clusters along the length of filaments rather than redistributing uniformly throughout the network, even in cells that divided after photoconversion. These data show that vimentin filaments do not depolymerize into individual subunits; they recompose by severing and reannealing. Together these results show that vimentin filaments are very dynamic and that their transport is required for network maintenance. PMID:25717187

  8. Strain-modulation of spin-dependent transport in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhen-Zhou Hou, Jin; Cheng, Yan-Fu; Li, Guan-Qiang

    2014-10-27

    We investigate strain modulation of the spin-dependent electron transport in a graphene junction using the transfer matrix method. As an analogy to optics, we define the modulation depth in the electron optics domain. Additionally, we discuss the transport properties and show that the modulation depth and the conductance depend on the spin-orbit coupling strength, the strain magnitude, the width of the strained area, and the energy of the incident electron. The conductances of the spin-down and spin-up electrons have opposite and symmetrical variations, which results in the analogous features of their modulation depths. The maximum conditions for both the modulation depth and the electron spin upset rate are also analyzed.

  9. Temperature dependent electrical transport of disordered reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Narayanan, T. N.; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-06-01

    We report on the simple route for the synthesis of chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using ascorbic acid (a green chemical) as a reducing agent. Temperature-dependent electrical transport properties of rGO thin films have been studied in a wide range (50 K T 400 K) of temperature. Electrical conduction in rGO thin films was displayed in two different temperature regimes. At higher temperatures, Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of resistance was observed indicating a band gap dominating transport behavior. At lower temperatures, the rGO sample showed a conduction mechanism consistent with Mott's two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH). An unsaturated negative magnetoresistance (MR) was observed up to 3 T field. A decrease in negative MR at high temperatures is attributed to the phonon scattering of charge carriers.

  10. Single-electron approach for time-dependent electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurvitz, Shmuel

    2015-10-01

    We developed a new approach to electron transport in mesoscopic systems by using a particular single-particle basis. Although this basis generates redundant many-particle amplitudes, it greatly simplifies the treatment. By using our method for transport of non-interacting electrons, we generalize the Landauer formula for transient currents and time-dependent potentials. The result has a very simple form and clear physical interpretation. As an example, we apply it to resonant tunneling through a quantum dot where the tunneling barriers are oscillating in time. We obtain an analytical expression for the time-dependent (ac) resonant current. However, in the adiabatic limit this expression displays the dc current for zero bias (electron pumping).

  11. Engineering interband transport by time-dependent disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebirad, Ghazal; Mannella, Riccardo; Wimberger, Sandro

    2011-09-01

    We show how the evolution of atoms in a tilted lattice can be changed and controlled by phase noise on the lattice. Dependent on the characteristic parameters of the noise, the interband transport can be either suppressed or enhanced, which is of interest for very precise control in experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates. The effect of the noise on the survival probability in the ground band is summarized in a scaling plot, stressing the universality of our results.

  12. Field dependent spin transport of anisotropic Heisenberg chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezania, H.

    2016-04-01

    We have addressed the static spin conductivity and spin Drude weight of one-dimensional spin-1/2 anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain in the finite magnetic field. We have investigated the behavior of transport properties by means of excitation spectrum in terms of a hard core bosonic representation. The effect of in-plane anisotropy on the spin transport properties has also been studied via the bosonic model by Green's function approach. This anisotropy is considered for exchange constants that couple spin components perpendicular to magnetic field direction. We have found the temperature dependence of the spin conductivity and spin Drude weight in the gapped field induced spin-polarized phase for various magnetic field and anisotropy parameters. Furthermore we have studied the magnetic field dependence of static spin conductivity and Drude weight for various anisotropy parameters. Our results show the regular part of spin conductivity vanishes in isotropic case however Drude weight has a finite non-zero value and the system exhibits ballistic transport properties. We also find the peak in the static spin conductivity factor moves to higher temperature upon increasing the magnetic field at fixed anisotropy. The static spin conductivity is found to be monotonically decreasing with magnetic field due to increase of energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Furthermore we have studied the temperature dependence of spin Drude weight for different magnetic field and various anisotropy parameters.

  13. Transport of hydrogen in metals with occupancy dependent trap energies

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, K. Toussaint, U. von; Schwarz-Selinger, T.

    2014-10-07

    Common diffusion trapping models for modeling hydrogen transport in metals are limited to traps with single de-trapping energies and a saturation occupancy of one. While they are successful in predicting typical mono isotopic ion implantation and thermal degassing experiments, they fail at describing recent experiments on isotope exchange at low temperatures. This paper presents a new modified diffusion trapping model with fill level dependent de-trapping energies that can also explain these new isotope exchange experiments. Density function theory (DFT) calculations predict that even mono vacancies can store between 6 and 12 H atoms with de-trapping energies that depend on the fill level of the mono vacancy. The new fill level dependent diffusion trapping model allows to test these DFT results by bridging the gap in length and time scale between DFT calculations and experiment.

  14. 14 CFR 171.315 - Azimuth monitor system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Azimuth monitor system requirements. 171.315 Section 171.315 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES Microwave Landing...

  15. Two dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2004-12-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem.

  16. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Thomas A. . E-mail: tabrunn@sandia.gov; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-11-20

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P{sub 1} equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem.

  17. Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

    2004-03-12

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v{sub 4}) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v{sub 4} is about a factor of 10 smaller than v{sub 2}. For the sixth (v{sub 6}) and eighth (v{sub 8}) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported.

  18. Conformation dependent electronic transport in a DNA double-helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sourav; Karmakar, S. N.

    2015-10-01

    We present a tight-binding study of conformation dependent electronic transport properties of DNA double-helix including its helical symmetry. We have studied the changes in the localization properties of DNA as we alter the number of stacked bases within every pitch of the double-helix keeping fixed the total number of nitrogen bases within the DNA molecule. We take three DNA sequences, two of them are periodic and one is random and observe that in all the cases localization length increases as we increase the radius of DNA double-helix i.e., number of nucleobases within a pitch. We have also investigated the effect of backbone energetic on the I-V response of the system and found that in presence of helical symmetry, depending on the interplay of conformal variation and disorder, DNA can be found in either metallic, semiconducting and insulating phases, as observed experimentally.

  19. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer

    PubMed Central

    Umar Farooq, M.; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction. PMID:26198318

  20. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer.

    PubMed

    Umar Farooq, M; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction. PMID:26198318

  1. Anisotropic bias dependent transport property of defective phosphorene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar Farooq, M.; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorene is receiving great research interests because of its peculiar physical properties. Nonetheless, no systematic studies on the transport properties modified due to defects have been performed. Here, we present the electronic band structure, defect formation energy and bias dependent transport property of various defective systems. We found that the defect formation energy is much less than that in graphene. The defect configuration strongly affects the electronic structure. The band gap vanishes in single vacancy layers, but the band gap reappears in divacancy layers. Interestingly, a single vacancy defect behaves like a p-type impurity for transport property. Unlike the common belief, we observe that the vacancy defect can contribute to greatly increasing the current. Along the zigzag direction, the current in the most stable single vacancy structure was significantly increased as compared with that found in the pristine layer. In addition, the current along the armchair direction was always greater than along the zigzag direction and we observed a strong anisotropic current ratio of armchair to zigzag direction.

  2. Improvement of Azimuthator Based on Particle Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hailong; Wang, Chunsheng; Yan, Yuming; Liu, Hongchen; Jiang, Binhao

    2015-01-01

    The azimuthator is an important part of plasma optical mass separation. The existing design for an azimuthator is based on the single particle orbit theory and focused on the movement of ions. In this paper, the particle simulation method is adopted to study the behavior of plasma crossing an azimuthator. The results show that electrons are bounded at the entrance of the azimuthator and an axial electric field is produced due to the charge separation. In order to better achieve the function of the azimuthator, a cathode is designed to transmit the electrons and to obtain a quasi-neutral plasma beam.

  3. Temperature dependence of atomic transport in ion mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, L.S.; Xia, W.; Poker, D.B.; Fernandes, M.; Tao, K.; Lau, S.S.; Mayer, J.W.

    1988-09-01

    The moving species during ion beam mixing of Si/Ni and Si/Pt bilayers were investigated at temperatures between liquid-nitrogen temperature (LN/sub 2/) and 180 /sup 0/C using imbedded markers and Rutherford backscattering. For Si/Ni samples irradiated with Ar ions, the flux ratio of Si to Ni decreased from 1.6 to 0.2 as the substrate temperature increased from LN/sub 2/ to 180 /sup 0/C. Over this range of substrate temperatures, the individual amount of Si atoms transported was found to remain unchanged; whereas the transport flux of Ni atoms was observed to increase. Similar temperature dependence of the flux ratio was found for the Si/Pt system. The experimental results indicate that the substantial Si motion is due to the temperature-independent part of ion mixing which is associated with collision cascades. The Ni motion is characteristic of radiation-enhanced diffusion which is substrate temperature dependent.

  4. Type IIc SodiumDependent Phosphate Transporter Regulates Calcium Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Segawa, Hiroko; Onitsuka, Akemi; Kuwahata, Masashi; Hanabusa, Etsuyo; Furutani, Junya; Kaneko, Ichiro; Tomoe, Yuka; Aranami, Fumito; Matsumoto, Natsuki; Ito, Mikiko; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Li, Minqi; Amizuka, Norio; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    Primary renal inorganic phosphate (Pi) wasting leads to hypophosphatemia, which is associated with skeletal mineralization defects. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding the type IIc sodiumdependent phosphate transporter lead to hereditary hypophophatemic rickets with hypercalciuria, but whether Pi wasting directly causes the bone disorder is unknown. Here, we generated Npt2c-null mice to define the contribution of Npt2c to Pi homeostasis and to bone abnormalities. Homozygous mutants (Npt2c?/?) exhibited hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and elevated plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels, but they did not develop hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, renal calcification, rickets, or osteomalacia. The increased levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in Npt2c?/? mice compared with age-matched Npt2c+/+ mice may be the result of reduced catabolism, because we observed significantly reduced expression of renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D24-hydroxylase mRNA but no change in 1?-hydroxylase mRNA levels. Enhanced intestinal absorption of calcium (Ca) contributed to the hypercalcemia and increased urinary Ca excretion. Furthermore, plasma levels of the phosphaturic protein fibroblast growth factor 23 were significantly decreased in Npt2c?/? mice. Sodium-dependent Pi co-transport at the renal brush border membrane, however, was not different among Npt2c+/+, Npt2c+/?, and Npt2c?/? mice. In summary, these data suggest that Npt2c maintains normal Ca metabolism, in part by modulating the vitamin D/fibroblast growth factor 23 axis. PMID:19056871

  5. Scatterometer azimuthal response and wind wave directionality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giovanangeli, J. P.; Le Calve, O.; Bliven, L.

    1989-01-01

    Azimuthal response of a scatterometer to radiation scattered by the sea surface was studied in a wind-wave tank. The variation of the normalized radar cross section with the azimuth angle is fitted by a three-term series. Results show that the upwind-downwind asymmetry decreases as the wind speed increases. The crosswind modulation depends on the wind velocity. The results show that the evolution of the long-wind-crosswind ratio evolves with wind speed in a manner similar to the evolution of the isotropy of short capillary-gravity waves. The maximum of the isotropy of the short wind waves is obtained for wind velocities close to 4 m/s. For the same value of the velocity, the variations of radar response between long-wind and crosswind directions is minimum. For lower or higher values of wind velocities the directional accuracy of the radar increases, since the wind-wave field tends to align in the wind direction.

  6. Dimensional dependence of phonon transport in freestanding atomic layer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duckjong; Hwangbo, Yun; Zhu, Lijing; Mag-Isa, Alexander E.; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    Due to the fast development of nanotechnology, we have the capability of manipulating atomic layer systems such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and dichalcogenides. The major concern in the 2-dimensional nanostructures is how to preserve their exceptional single-layer properties in 3-dimensional bulk structures. In this study, we report that the extreme phonon transport in graphene is highly affected by the graphitic layer stacking based on experimental investigation of the thermal conduction in few-layer graphene, 1-7 layers thick, suspended over holes of various diameters. We fabricate freestanding axisymmetric graphene structures without any perturbing substrate, and measure the in-plane transport property in terms of thermal conduction by using Raman spectroscopy. From the difference in susceptibility to substrate effect, size effect on hot-spot temperature variation and layer number dependence of thermal conductivity, we show that the graphitic membranes with 2 or more layers have characteristics similar to 3-dimensional graphite, which are very different from those of 2-dimensional graphene membranes. This implies that the scattering of out-of-plane phonons by interlayer atomic coupling could be a key mechanism governing the intrinsic thermal property.Due to the fast development of nanotechnology, we have the capability of manipulating atomic layer systems such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and dichalcogenides. The major concern in the 2-dimensional nanostructures is how to preserve their exceptional single-layer properties in 3-dimensional bulk structures. In this study, we report that the extreme phonon transport in graphene is highly affected by the graphitic layer stacking based on experimental investigation of the thermal conduction in few-layer graphene, 1-7 layers thick, suspended over holes of various diameters. We fabricate freestanding axisymmetric graphene structures without any perturbing substrate, and measure the in-plane transport property in terms of thermal conduction by using Raman spectroscopy. From the difference in susceptibility to substrate effect, size effect on hot-spot temperature variation and layer number dependence of thermal conductivity, we show that the graphitic membranes with 2 or more layers have characteristics similar to 3-dimensional graphite, which are very different from those of 2-dimensional graphene membranes. This implies that the scattering of out-of-plane phonons by interlayer atomic coupling could be a key mechanism governing the intrinsic thermal property. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures and table on the sample preparation and the investigation of the PMMA residue on the graphene surface. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04000c

  7. Spin-Dependent Transport Phenomena in Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geppert, Chad Christopher

    This dissertation examines several aspects of spin-dependent transport phenomena in epitaxially grown ferromagnet/n-GaAs heterostructures. Further maturation of the field of semiconductor-based spintronics is hindered by difficulties in evaluating device performance across materials systems. Using Fe/n-GaAs and Co2MnSi/n-GaAs heterostructures as a test case, the main goal of this work is to demonstrate how such difficulties may be overcome by (1) specifying a more quantitative framework for evaluating transport parameters and (2) the introduction of a new spin-to-charge conversion phenomenon which may be parameterized by bulk semiconductor parameters. In the introductory chapter, this work is placed in the broader context of developing improved methods for the generation, modulation, and detection of spins. The lateral spin-valve geometry is presented as a concrete example of the typical measurement procedures employed. Chapter 2 presents the charge-based transport properties of these samples and establishes the notation and calculation techniques to be employed in subsequent chapters. In particular, we examine in detail the calculation of the electrochemical potential for a given carrier concentration. Chapter 3 provides a full derivation of the equations governing spin-dependent transport in the large polarization regime. This is applied to the case of extracting spin lifetimes and diffusion rates, demonstrating how quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions may be obtained upon properly accounting for both device geometry and material parameters. Further examination of the boundary conditions applicable to the heterojunctions of these samples demonstrates to what extent device performance may be parameterized across materials systems. Chapter 4 presents experimental observations of a new spin-to-charge conversion phenomenon using a non-magnetic probe. In the presence of a large non-equilibrium spin accumulation, the combination of a non-constant density of states and energy-dependent conductivity generates an electromotive force (EMF). It is shown that this signal dephases in the presence of applied and hyperfine fields, scales quadratically with the polarization, and is comparable in magnitude to the spin-splitting. Since this spin-generated EMF depends only on experimentally accessible parameters of the bulk material, its magnitude is used to quantify the injected spin polarization in absolute terms, independent of any assumptions regarding the spin-resistance of the interface. Chapter 5 examines spin-dependent contributions to signals measured in the Hall geometry. In particular, a large scattering asymmetry develops in the presence of hyperfine interactions with dynamically polarized nuclei. A pulsed measurement technique is introduced which allows the polarization of the electron spin system and nuclear spin system to be manipulated independently. Based on these results, a possible mechanism is presented based on inhomogeneities in the nuclear polarization. This motivates a phenomenological model which is compared against experimental data using the modeling techniques of the previous chapters.

  8. Time dependent electronic transport in chiral edge channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.

    2016-02-01

    We study time dependent electronic transport along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, affects the propagation of a single electron in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.

  9. Direct method for calculating temperature-dependent transport properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Yuan, Zhe; Wesselink, R. J. H.; Starikov, Anton A.; van Schilfgaarde, Mark; Kelly, Paul J.

    2015-06-01

    We show how temperature-induced disorder can be combined in a direct way with first-principles scattering theory to study diffusive transport in real materials. Excellent (good) agreement with experiment is found for the resistivity of Cu, Pd, Pt (and Fe) when lattice (and spin) disorder are calculated from first principles. For Fe, the agreement with experiment is limited by how well the magnetization (of itinerant ferromagnets) can be calculated as a function of temperature. By introducing a simple Debye-like model of spin disorder parameterized to reproduce the experimental magnetization, the temperature dependence of the average resistivity, the anisotropic magnetoresistance, and the spin polarization of a Ni80Fe20 alloy are calculated and found to be in good agreement with existing data. Extension of the method to complex, inhomogeneous materials as well as to the calculation of other finite-temperature physical properties within the adiabatic approximation is straightforward.

  10. Topological States in Partially-PT -Symmetric Azimuthal Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Torner, Lluis

    2015-11-01

    We introduce partially-parity-time (p PT ) -symmetric azimuthal potentials composed from individual PT -symmetric cells located on a ring, where two azimuthal directions are nonequivalent in a sense that in such potential excitations carrying topological dislocations exhibit different dynamics for different directions of energy circulation in the initial field distribution. Such nonconservative ratchetlike structures support rich families of stable vortex solitons in cubic nonlinear media, whose properties depend on the sign of the topological charge due to the nonequivalence of azimuthal directions. In contrast, oppositely charged vortex solitons remain equivalent in similar fully-P T -symmetric potentials. The vortex solitons in the p P T - and P T -symmetric potentials are shown to feature qualitatively different internal current distributions, which are described by different discrete rotation symmetries of the intensity profiles.

  11. High temperature dependence of thermal transport in graphene foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Man; Sun, Yi; Xiao, Huying; Hu, Xuejiao; Yue, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to the decreased thermal property of carbon materials with temperature according to the Umklapp phonon scattering theory, highly porous free-standing graphene foam (GF) exhibits an abnormal characteristic that its thermal property increases with temperature above room temperature. In this work, the temperature dependence of thermal properties of free-standing GF is investigated by using the transient electro-thermal technique. Significant increase for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity from 0.3 to 1.5 W m-1 K-1 and 4 10-5 to 2 10-4 m2 s-1 respectively is observed with temperature from 310 K to 440 K for three GF samples. The quantitative analysis based on a physical model for porous media of Schuetz confirms that the thermal conductance across graphene contacts rather than the heat conductance inside graphene dominates thermal transport of our GFs. The thermal expansion effect at an elevated temperature makes the highly porous structure much tighter is responsible for the reduction in thermal contact resistance. Besides, the radiation heat exchange inside the pores of GFs improves the thermal transport at high temperatures. Since free-standing GF has great potential for being used as supercapacitor and battery electrode where the working temperature is always above room temperature, this finding is beneficial for thermal design of GF-based energy applications.

  12. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides.

    PubMed

    Dobritzsch, Melanie; Lübken, Tilo; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Gorzolka, Karin; Blum, Elke; Matern, Andreas; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Böttcher, Christoph; Dräger, Birgit; Rosahl, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. PMID:26744218

  13. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-12-28

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10{sup −10} A) and rectification of more than 10{sup 6}. We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69 eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83 eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Güttler.

  14. Azimuthal jet tomography at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2014-12-01

    A generic jet-energy loss model that is coupled to state-of-the-art hydrodynamic fields and interpolates between a wide class of running coupling pQCD-based and AdS/CFT-inspired models is compared to recent data on the azimuthal and transverse momentum dependence of high-pT pion nuclear modification factors and high-pT elliptic flow measured at RHIC and LHC. We find that RHIC data are surprisingly consistent with various scenarios considered. However, extrapolations to LHC energies favor running coupling pQCD-based models of jet-energy loss. While conformal holographic models are shown to be inconsistent with data, recent non-conformal generalizations of AdS holography may provide an alternative description.

  15. Contaminant transport in soil with depth-dependent reaction coefficients and time-dependent boundary conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie; Zhan, Hongbin; Ma, Ying

    2013-05-01

    Predicting the fate and movement of contaminant in soils and groundwater is essential to assess and reduce the risk of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. Reaction processes of contaminant often decreased monotonously with depth. Time-dependent input sources usually occurred at the inlet of natural or human-made system such as radioactive waste disposal site. This study presented a one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation (CDE) for contaminant transport in soils with depth-dependent reaction coefficients and time-dependent inlet boundary conditions, and derived its analytical solution. The adsorption coefficient and degradation rate were represented as sigmoidal functions of soil depth. Solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) and concentration profiles obtained from CDE with depth-dependent and constant reaction coefficients were compared, and a constant effective reaction coefficient, which was calculated by arithmetically averaging the depth-dependent reaction coefficient, was proposed to reflect the lumped depth-dependent reaction effect. With the effective adsorption coefficient and degradation rate, CDE could produce similar BTCs and concentration profiles as those from CDE with depth-dependent reactions in soils with moderate chemical heterogeneity. In contrast, the predicted concentrations of CDE with fitted reaction coefficients at a certain depth departed significantly from those of CDE with depth-dependent reactions. Parametric analysis was performed to illustrate the effects of sinusoidally and exponentially decaying input functions on solute BTCs. The BTCs and concentration profiles obtained from the solutions for finite and semi-infinite domain were compared to investigate the effects of effluent boundary condition. The finite solution produced higher concentrations at the increasing limb of the BTCs and possessed a higher peak concentration than the semi-infinite solution which had a slightly long tail. Furthermore, the finite solution gave a higher concentration in the immediate vicinity of the exit boundary than the semi-infinite solution. The applicability of the proposed model was tested with a field herbicide and tracer leaching experiment in an agricultural area of northeastern Greece. The simulation results indicated that the proposed CDE with depth-dependent reaction coefficients was able to capture the evolution of metolachlor concentration at the upper soil depths. However, the simulation results at deep depths were not satisfactory as the proposed model did not account for preferential flow observed in the field. PMID:23490106

  16. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (?) were 1096.20 ?/sq, 0.751012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 C to 240 C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.661012 cm-2 to 1.551012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 ?/sq to 560.77 ?/sq, and mobility (?) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (?) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (?) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  17. Gymnemic acids inhibit sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Dawid, Corinna; Kottra, Gabor; Daniel, Hannelore; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-06-25

    To evaluate the activity of botanicals used in Chinese Traditional Medicine as hypoglycemic agents for diabetes type II prevention and/or treatment, extracts prepared from 26 medicinal herbs were screened for their inhibitory activity on sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) by using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording of glucose uptake in Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with cRNA for SGLT1. Showing by far the strongest SGLT1 inhibitory effect, the phytochemicals extracted from Gymnema sylvestre (Retz.) Schult were located by means of activity-guided fractionation and identified as 3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-2-tigloyl-22-O-2-tigloyl gymnemagenin (1) and 3-O-?-D-glucuronopyranosyl-21-O-2-methylbutyryl-22-O-2-tigloyl gymnemagenin (2) by means of LC-MS/MS, UPLC-TOF/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments. Both saponins exhibited low IC50 values of 5.97 (1) and 0.17 ?M (2), the latter of which was in the same range as found for the high-affinity inhibitor phlorizin (0.21 ?M). As SGLT1 is found in high levels in brush-border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells, these findings demonstrate for the first time the potential of these saponins for inhibiting electrogenic glucose uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24856809

  18. Spin-dependent heat transport and thermal boundary resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Taehee

    In this thesis, thermal conductivity change depending on the magnetic configurations has been studied. In order to make different magnetic configurations, we developed a spin valve structure, which has high MR ratio and low saturation field. The high MR ratio was achieved using Co/Cu multilayer and 21A or 34A thick Cu layer. The low saturation field was obtained by implementing different coercivities of the successive ferromagnetic layers. For this purpose, Co/Cu/Cu tri-layered structure was used with the thicknesses of the Co layers; 15 A and 30 A. For the thermal conductivity measurement, a three-omega method was employed with a thermally isolated microscale rod. We fabricated the microscale rod using optical lithography and MEMS process. Then the rod was wire-bonded to a chip-carver for further electrical measurement. For the thermal conductivity measurement, we built the three-omega measurement system using two lock-in amplifiers and two differential amplifiers. A custom-made electromagnet was added to the system to investigate the impact of magnetic field. We observed titanic thermal conductivity change depending on the magnetic configurations of the Co/Cu/Co multilayer. The thermal conductivity change was closely correlated with that of the electric conductivity in terms of the spin orientation, but the thermal conductivity was much more sensitive than that of the electric conductivity. The relative thermal conductivity change was 50% meanwhile that of electric resistivity change was 8.0%. The difference between the two ratios suggests that the scattering mechanism for charge and heat transport in the Co/Cu/Co multilayer is different. The Lorentz number in Weidemann-Franz law is also spin-dependent. Thermal boundary resistance between metal and dielectrics was also studied in this thesis. The thermal boundary resistance becomes critical for heat transport in a nanoscale because the thermal boundary resistance can potentially determine overall heat transport in thin film structures. A transient theraroreflectance (TTR) technique can be used for measuring the thermal conductivity of thin films in cross-sectional direction. In this study, a pump-probe scheme was employed for the TTR technique. We built an optical pump-probe system by using a nanosecond pulse laser for pumping and a continuous-wave laser for probing. A short-time heating event occured at the surface of a sample by shining a laser pulse on the surface. Then the time-resolved thermoreflectance signals were detected using a photodetector and an oscilloscope. The increased temperature decreases slowly and its thermal decay depends on the thermal properties of a sample. Since the reflectivity is linearly proportional to the temperature, the time-resolved thermoreflectance signals have the information of the thermal properties of a sample. In order to extract the thermal properties of a sample, a thermal analysis was performed by fitting the experimental data with thermal models. We developed 2-layered and 3-layered thermal models using the analogies between thermal conduction and electric conduction and a transmission-line concept. We used two sets of sample structures: Au/SiNx/Si substrate and Au/CoFe/SiNx/Si substrate with various thickness of SiN x layer. Using the pump-probe system, we measured the time-resolved thermoreflectance signals for each sample. Then, the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary resistance were obtained by fitting the experimental data with the thermal models. The thermal conductivity of SiNx films was measured to be 2.0 W/mK for both structures. In the case of the thermal boundary resistance, it was 0.81x10-5 m 2K/W at the Au/SiNx interface and 0.54x10 -5 m2K/W at the CoFe/SiNx interface, respectively. The difference of the thermal boundary resistance between Au/SiNx and CoFe/SiNx might be came from the different phonon dispersion of Au and CoFe. The thermal conductivity did not depend on the thickness of SiNx films in the thickness range of 50-200nm. However, the thermal boundary resistance at metal/SiNx interfaces will impact overall thermal conduction when the thickness of SiNx thin films is in a nanometer order. For example, apparent thermal conductivity of SiN x film becomes half of the intrinsic thermal conductivity when the thickness decreases to 16nm. Therefore, it is advised that the thermal boundary resistance between metal and dielectrics should be counted in nano-scale electronic devices. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  19. Thickness dependence of magnetic and transport properties in organic-CoFe discontinuous multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. X.; Wang, Y. P.; Zhang, X.-G.; Wang, Y.; Zou, Jin; Han, X. F.

    2010-05-01

    Spin-dependent transport measurement in 3-hexadecyl pyrrole (3HDP) with a CoFe layer and the current-in-plane geometry is reported. Transport properties indicate the CoFe layers are discontinuous when their thicknesses are smaller than 6 nm. The temperature dependence of the conductance suggests that the transport mechanism is likely small polaron hopping. The observed positive magnetoresistance ratio at low temperature gives evidence of spin-conserving transport.

  20. Relative azimuth inversion by way of damped maximum correlation estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, A.T.; Edwards, J.D.; Hutt, C.R.; Shelly, F.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal seismic data are utilized in a large number of Earth studies. Such work depends on the published orientations of the sensitive axes of seismic sensors relative to true North. These orientations can be estimated using a number of different techniques: SensOrLoc (Sensitivity, Orientation and Location), comparison to synthetics (Ekstrom and Busby, 2008), or by way of magnetic compass. Current methods for finding relative station azimuths are unable to do so with arbitrary precision quickly because of limitations in the algorithms (e.g. grid search methods). Furthermore, in order to determine instrument orientations during station visits, it is critical that any analysis software be easily run on a large number of different computer platforms and the results be obtained quickly while on site. We developed a new technique for estimating relative sensor azimuths by inverting for the orientation with the maximum correlation to a reference instrument, using a non-linear parameter estimation routine. By making use of overlapping windows, we are able to make multiple azimuth estimates, which helps to identify the confidence of our azimuth estimate, even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low. Finally, our algorithm has been written as a stand-alone, platform independent, Java software package with a graphical user interface for reading and selecting data segments to be analyzed.

  1. Kinesin-1/Hsc70-dependent mechanism of slow axonal transport and its relation to fast axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Terada, Sumio; Kinjo, Masataka; Aihara, Makoto; Takei, Yosuke; Hirokawa, Nobutaka

    2010-02-17

    Cytoplasmic protein transport in axons ('slow axonal transport') is essential for neuronal homeostasis, and involves Kinesin-1, the same motor for membranous organelle transport ('fast axonal transport'). However, both molecular mechanisms of slow axonal transport and difference in usage of Kinesin-1 between slow and fast axonal transport have been elusive. Here, we show that slow axonal transport depends on the interaction between the DnaJ-like domain of the kinesin light chain in the Kinesin-1 motor complex and Hsc70, scaffolding between cytoplasmic proteins and Kinesin-1. The domain is within the tetratricopeptide repeat, which can bind to membranous organelles, and competitive perturbation of the domain in squid giant axons disrupted cytoplasmic protein transport and reinforced membranous organelle transport, indicating that this domain might have a function as a switchover system between slow and fast transport by Hsc70. Transgenic mice overexpressing a dominant-negative form of the domain showed delayed slow transport, accelerated fast transport and optic axonopathy. These findings provide a basis for the regulatory mechanism of intracellular transport and its intriguing implication in neuronal dysfunction. PMID:20111006

  2. On perturbative azimuthal asymmetry at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaeian, A. H.

    2008-10-13

    We investigate the azimuthal asymmetry of partons and photons produced at the initial stage of nuclear collisions at the RHIC energy originating from quark-nucleus collisions. In our approach, the azimuthal asymmetry results from the correlation between color dipole orientation and impact parameter of the collision. The asymmetry is sensitive to the rapid variation of the nuclear density at the nuclear periphery. We either introduce the color-dipole orientation into the improved Born approximation, or model the dipole partial amplitude which satisfies available DIS data. We conclude that the azimuthal asymmetry coming from these mechanisms can be sizable.

  3. Analytical solution for one-dimensional advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent coefficients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mathematical models describing contaminant transport in heterogeneous porous media are often formulated as an advection-dispersion transport equation with distance-dependent transport coefficients. In this work, a general analytical solution is presented for the linear, one-dimensional advection-di...

  4. A Modified Direct-Reading Azimuth Protractor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, William C.; Pugliese, Joseph M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the construction of a direct-reading azimuth protractor (DRAP) used for mapping fracture and joint-surface orientations in underground mines where magnetic disturbances affect typical geologic pocket transit. (SL)

  5. PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport: Action, Regulation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Adamowski, Maciek; Friml, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Auxin participates in a multitude of developmental processes, as well as responses to environmental cues. Compared with other plant hormones, auxin exhibits a unique property, as it undergoes directional, cell-to-cell transport facilitated by plasma membrane-localized transport proteins. Among them, a prominent role has been ascribed to the PIN family of auxin efflux facilitators. PIN proteins direct polar auxin transport on account of their asymmetric subcellular localizations. In this review, we provide an overview of the multiple developmental roles of PIN proteins, including the atypical endoplasmic reticulum-localized members of the family, and look at the family from an evolutionary perspective. Next, we cover the cell biological and molecular aspects of PIN function, in particular the establishment of their polar subcellular localization. Hormonal and environmental inputs into the regulation of PIN action are summarized as well. PMID:25604445

  6. Development of Na/sup +/-dependent hexose transport in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.S.; Amsler, K.; Weiss, E.R.; Shaffer, C.

    1981-01-01

    The desriptions given here of experiments with LLC-PK/sub 1/ cell transport systems are more of a progress report than a definitive statement. The cells give great promise for exploring the differentiation of an important transport system, but a number of cell biological problems need resolution first. The kinetic analysis described suggests that the individual cells become fully, possibly terminally, differentiated and remain so. It is equally desirable to have a means of separating differentiated from undifferentiated cells, and to know the transport capacity of each. With these questions resolved, the use of modulators of the rate of differentiation, acceleration by inducers and inhibition by tumor promoters, gives obviously important experimental handles in exploring the underlying processes. The clones that have been derived so far add another dimension to the possibilities of this cell system, since the clones show different responses to the inducers and to TPA and these differences will be of value in sorting out mechanisms.

  7. Reduced Dopamine Transporter Availability and Neurocognitive Deficits in Male Patients with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Che-Hung; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Liang, Chih-Sung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Huang, Chang-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yen; Shih, Mei-Chen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in the development of alcohol dependence, cognitive dysfunction, and is regulated via dopamine transporter activity. Although dopamine transporter activity is critically involved in alcohol dependence, studies observing this relationship are limited. Thus the current study examined whether dopamine transporter availability is associated with developing of alcohol dependence and cognitive dysfunction. Brain imaging with 99mTc-TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure dopamine transporter availability among 26 male patients with pure alcohol dependence and 22 age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) were administered to assess neurocognitive functioning and personality traits, respectively. Compared to healthy controls, patients with alcohol dependence showed a significant reduction in dopamine transporter availability (p < 0.001), as well as diminished performance on the WCST (p < 0.001). Dopamine transporter availability was negatively correlated with both total and perseverative WCST errors among healthy controls, but only patients with alcohol dependence showed a positive correlation between dopamine transporter availability and a harm avoidance personality profile. Thus, reductions in dopamine transporter availability may play a pathophysiological role in the development of pure alcohol dependence, given its association with neurocognitive deficits. Moreover, personality may influence the development of pure alcohol dependence; however, additional clinical subgroups should be examined to confirm this possibility. PMID:26120847

  8. CONCENTRATION DEPENDENT TRANSPORT OF COLLOIDS IN SATURATED POROUS MEDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of soil column experiments was undertaken to explore the influence of colloid input concentration on the transport and fate of several colloid sizes in three soils. Stable mono-dispersed colloids and porous media that are negatively charged were employed in these studies. Decreasing the col...

  9. Azimuthally sensitive femtoscopy in event-by-event hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BoŻek, Piotr

    2014-04-01

    I analyze the pion femtoscopy correlations in noncentral Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions. The azimuthally sensitive Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) method is used to extract the interferometry radii depending on the azimuthal angle with respect to the second- and third-order event plane. The results are in semiquantitative agreement with the STAR collaboration data on the HBT radii with respect to the second-order reaction plane, with the preliminary PHENIX collaboration data on the HBT radii with respect to the third-order reaction plane in Au-Au collisions at 200 GeV, and with the preliminary ALICE collaboration data for the HBT radii with respect to the second-order event plane for Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV.

  10. RAB-10-Dependent Membrane Transport Is Required for Dendrite Arborization

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Yadav, Smita; DeVault, Laura; Jan, Yuh Nung; Sherwood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Formation of elaborately branched dendrites is necessary for the proper input and connectivity of many sensory neurons. Previous studies have revealed that dendritic growth relies heavily on ER-to-Golgi transport, Golgi outposts and endocytic recycling. How new membrane and associated cargo is delivered from the secretory and endosomal compartments to sites of active dendritic growth, however, remains unknown. Using a candidate-based genetic screen in C. elegans, we have identified the small GTPase RAB-10 as a key regulator of membrane trafficking during dendrite morphogenesis. Loss of rab-10 severely reduced proximal dendritic arborization in the multi-dendritic PVD neuron. RAB-10 acts cell-autonomously in the PVD neuron and localizes to the Golgi and early endosomes. Loss of function mutations of the exocyst complex components exoc-8 and sec-8, which regulate tethering, docking and fusion of transport vesicles at the plasma membrane, also caused proximal dendritic arborization defects and led to the accumulation of intracellular RAB-10 vesicles. In rab-10 and exoc-8 mutants, the trans-membrane proteins DMA-1 and HPO-30, which promote PVD dendrite stabilization and branching, no longer localized strongly to the proximal dendritic membranes and instead were sequestered within intracellular vesicles. Together these results suggest a crucial role for the Rab10 GTPase and the exocyst complex in controlling membrane transport from the secretory and/or endosomal compartments that is required for dendritic growth. PMID:26394140

  11. Doping Dependent Thermopower of PbTe from Boltzmann Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, David J

    2010-01-01

    The thermopower of PbTe as a function of temperature and doping level is reported based on Boltzmann transport calculations using the first principles relativistic electronic structure as obtained with the Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation. The results are discussed in relation to experimental data. For p-type material there is an enhancement at high-doping levels due to the onset of an increased density of states starting {approx}0.2 eV below the valence band edge. This leads to agreement between the calculated thermopower and recent results on PbTe with heavy Tl doping.

  12. Spin Dependent Transport Properties of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.

    Present computing and communication devices rely on two different classes of technologies; information processing devices are based on electrical charge transport in semiconducting materials while information storage devices are based on orientation of electron spins in magnetic materials. A realization of a hybrid-type device that is based on charge as well as spin properties of electrons would perform both of these actions thereby enhancing computation power to many folds and reducing power consumptions. This dissertation focuses on the fabrication of such spin-devices based on metallic and semiconducting nanostructures which can utilize spin as well as charge properties of electrons. A simplified design of the spin-device consists of a spin injector, a semiconducting or metallic channel, and a spin detector. The channel is the carrier of the spin signal from the injector to the detector and therefore plays a crucial role in the manipulation of spin properties in the device. In this work, nanostructures like nanowires and nanostripes are used to function the channel in the spin-device. Methods like electrospinning, hydrothermal, and wet chemical were used to synthesize nanowires while physical vapor deposition followed by heat treatment in controlled environment was used to synthesis nanostripes. Spin-devices fabrication of the synthesized nanostructures were carried out by electron beam lithography process. The details of synthesis of nanostructures, device fabrication procedures and measurement techniques will be discussed in the thesis. We have successfully fabricated the spin-devices of tellurium nanowire, indium nanostripe, and indium oxide nanostripe and studied their spin transport properties for the first time. These spin-devices show large spin relaxation length compared to normal metals like copper and offer potentials for the future technologies. Further, Heusler alloys nanowires like nanowires of Co 2FeAl were synthesized and studied for electrical transport properties since such systems are halfmetallic in nature and promise the possibilities of spin injection and detection. The study was extended to dilute magnetic semiconducting nanowire system of Cd1-xMnxTe which possess both magnetic and semiconducting properties. In summary, the studies made in this thesis will offer a new understanding of spin transport behavior for future technology.

  13. Bias and temperature dependence of hot electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jisang

    2002-03-01

    We present a qualitative model study of energy and temperature dependence of hot electron magnetotransport. In this model calculations, strong spin dependent inelastic scattering strength of hot electrons and spin mixing due to thermal spin waves have been taken into account. In addition, spatial inhomogeneity of Schottky barrier height has been considered. This calculations display that the magnetocurrent accords with the recent experimental data qualitatively at room temperature if we include the spin mixing effect with hot electron spin polarization although the experimental observation is not quite cleat to interpret.

  14. Anterograde Glycoprotein-Dependent Transport of Newly Generated Rabies Virus in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Anja; Nolden, Tobias; Schrter, Josephine; Rmer-Oberdrfer, Angela; Gluska, Shani; Perlson, Eran

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rabies virus (RABV) spread is widely accepted to occur only by retrograde axonal transport. However, examples of anterograde RABV spread in peripheral neurons such as dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons indicated a possible bidirectional transport by an uncharacterized mechanism. Here, we analyzed the axonal transport of fluorescence-labeled RABV in DRG neurons by live-cell microscopy. Both entry-related retrograde transport of RABV after infection at axon endings and postreplicative transport of newly formed virus were visualized in compartmentalized DRG neuron cultures. Whereas entry-related transport at 1.5 ?m/s occurred only retrogradely, after 2 days of infection, multiple particles were observed in axons moving in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. The dynamics of postreplicative retrograde transport (1.6 ?m/s) were similar to those of entry-related retrograde transport. In contrast, anterograde particle transport at 3.4 ?m/s was faster, indicating active particle transport. Interestingly, RABV missing the glycoproteins did not move anterogradely within the axon. Thus, anterograde RABV particle transport depended on the RABV glycoprotein. Moreover, colocalization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) and glycoprotein in distal axonal regions as well as cotransport of labeled RNPs with membrane-anchored mCherry reporter confirmed that either complete enveloped virus particles or vesicle associated RNPs were transported. Our data show that anterograde RABV movement in peripheral DRG neurons occurs by active motor protein-dependent transport. We propose two models for postreplicative long-distance transport in peripheral neurons: either transport of complete virus particles or cotransport of RNPs and G-containing vesicles through axons to release virus at distal sites of infected DRG neurons. IMPORTANCE Rabies virus retrograde axonal transport by dynein motors supports virus spread over long distances and lethal infection of the central nervous system. Though active rabies virus transport has been widely accepted to be unidirectional, evidence for anterograde spread in peripheral neurons supports the hypothesis that in some neurons RABV also enters the anterograde pathway by so-far unknown mechanisms. By live microscopy we visualized fast anterograde axonal transport of rabies virus. The velocities exceeded those of retrograde movements, suggesting that active, most likely kinesin-dependent transport machineries are involved. Dependency of anterograde transport on the expression of virus glycoprotein G and cotransport with vesicles further suggest that complete enveloped virus particles or cotransport of virus ribonucleoprotein and G-containing vesicles occurred. These data provide the first insight in the mechanism of anterograde rabies virus transport and substantially contribute to the understanding of RABV replication and spread of newly formed virus in peripheral neurons. PMID:25275124

  15. Spin-dependent electronic transport properties of liquid manganese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrouri, H.; Hugel, J.; Makradi, A.; Gasser, J. G.

    2001-09-01

    The experimental resistivity ? and thermopower S of liquid manganese have been interpreted within the framework of the extended Ziman formalism for both spin-independent and spin-dependent potentials. It appears that the spin-polarized treatment leads to results in much better agreement with the experimental values than the classical spin-independent approach.

  16. Azimuthal asymmetries in p?p ? jet ? X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Cristian; D'Alesio, Umberto; Murgia, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We study the azimuthal asymmetries for the distributions of leading pions inside a jet produced inclusively in high-energy proton-proton collisions within the framework of the transverse momentum dependent generalized parton model. We present results for the RHIC center-of-mass energies ?s = 200 and 500 GeV, mainly for forward jet rapidities, in particular for the two mechanisms which dominate such asymmetries: the Sivers and the Collins effects. We also briefly discuss the case of inclusive jet production and, adopting the socalled colour gauge invariant parton model, we propose a phenomenological analysis of the process dependence of the quark Sivers function.

  17. Directional transport is mediated by a Dynein-dependent step in an RNA localization pathway.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, James A; Kreiling, Jill A; Powrie, Erin A; Wood, Timothy R; Mowry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic RNA localization is a key biological strategy for establishing polarity in a variety of organisms and cell types. However, the mechanisms that control directionality during asymmetric RNA transport are not yet clear. To gain insight into this crucial process, we have analyzed the molecular machinery directing polarized transport of RNA to the vegetal cortex in Xenopus oocytes. Using a novel approach to measure directionality of mRNA transport in live oocytes, we observe discrete domains of unidirectional and bidirectional transport that are required for vegetal RNA transport. While kinesin-1 appears to promote bidirectional transport along a microtubule array with mixed polarity, dynein acts first to direct unidirectional transport of RNA towards the vegetal cortex. Thus, vegetal RNA transport occurs through a multistep pathway with a dynein-dependent directional cue. This provides a new framework for understanding the mechanistic basis of cell and developmental polarity. PMID:23637574

  18. Expression of a rat renal sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Steffgen, J; Kienle, S; Scheyerl, F; Franz, H E

    1994-01-01

    Microinjection of mRNA isolated from rat kidney cortex into Xenopus laevis oocytes resulted in the expression of a Na(+)-dependent dicarboxylate transporter, as detected by uptake measurements with [14C]succinate as substrate. The expressed transporter showed an S-shaped Na(+)-dependence with half-maximal activation at 19-21 mM Na+ and a Hill coefficient between 2 and 3. Endogenous succinate uptake was not Na(+)-dependent. Na(+)-stimulated succinate uptake in mRNA-injected oocytes exhibited a maximum at pH 7.5, whereas endogenous Na(+)-independent transporter was fastest at pH 8.5. The expressed dicarboxylate transporter also differed from the endogenous transporter in its sensitivity to citrate as well as dicarboxylates in trans and cis configurations. The expressed transporter resembled the renal basolateral transporter, especially with respect to affinity for succinate (Km 28 microM), activation by Na+, pH-dependence and substrate specificity. After injection of size-fractionated mRNA, succinate uptake was expressed by mRNA of 2-3 kb. Our results suggest expression of the basolateral Na(+)-dependent dicarboxylate transporter after injection of mRNA from rat kidney into Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8280108

  19. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Audiffred, M; Heine, T; Niehaus, T A

    2016-02-24

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green's function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous. PMID:26809017

  20. Stacking dependence of carrier transport properties in multilayered black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A.; Audiffred, M.; Heine, T.; Niehaus, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the effect of different stacking orders on carrier transport properties of multi-layer black phosphorous. We consider three different stacking orders AAA, ABA and ACA, with increasing number of layers (from 2 to 6 layers). We employ a hierarchical approach in density functional theory (DFT), with structural simulations performed with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the bandstructure, carrier effective masses and optical properties evaluated with the meta-generalized gradient approximation (MGGA). The carrier transmission in the various black phosphorous sheets was carried out with the non-equilibrium green’s function (NEGF) approach. The results show that ACA stacking has the highest electron and hole transmission probabilities. The results show tunability for a wide range of band-gaps, carrier effective masses and transmission with a great promise for lattice engineering (stacking order and layers) in black phosphorous.

  1. Azimuthal-spin-wave-mode-driven vortex-core reversals

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Myoung-Woo; Kim, Sang-Koog

    2015-01-14

    We studied, by micromagnetic numerical calculations, asymmetric vortex-core reversals driven by the m?=??1 and m?=?+1 azimuthal spin-wave modes' excitations in soft magnetic circular nano-disks. We addressed the similarities and differences between the asymmetric core reversals in terms of the temporal evolutions of the correlated core-motion speed, locally concentrated perpendicular gyrofield, and magnetization dip near the original vortex core. The criterion for the core reversals was found to be the magnetization dip that must reach the out-of-plane magnetization component, m{sub z}?=??p, with the initial polarization p, where p?=?+1 (?1) for the upward (downward) core magnetization. The core-motion speed and the associated perpendicular gyrofield, variable and controllable with static perpendicular field, H{sub z}, applied perpendicularly to the disk plane, must reach their threshold values to meet the ultimate core-reversal criterion. Also, we determined the H{sub z} strength and direction dependence of the core-switching time and threshold exciting field strength required for the core reversals, whose parameters are essential in the application aspect. This work offers deeper insights into the azimuthal spin-wave-driven core-reversal dynamics as well as an efficient means of controlling the azimuthal-modes-driven core reversals.

  2. Healthy places, active transport and path dependence: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Melissa; Mateo-Babiano, Derlie; Minnery, John

    2014-12-01

    Children walking to school, people cycling to the shops or work and neighbours chatting in the street, these are some of the gauges of an active and healthy community that can be achieved through utilising good design principles. But are these principles being applied in urban developments or are policy-makers following a 'path dependent' trajectory that severely limits the best practice outcomes sought? This review examines current research on path dependence to determine how this concept advances our understanding of barriers to change in the built environment, active transport and healthy communities. An online database search of scholarly bibliographic records identified 22 relevant articles for a critical review of studies that evaluated path dependence in the urban and built environment literature with a focus on transport, urban planning and health. A thematic analysis of the articles showed that different types of path dependence have contributed to the dominance of policies and designs supporting car-based transport to the detriment of public transport and active transport modes, leading to sub-optimal development patterns becoming 'locked-in'. However, the outcomes for active transport and physical activity are not all dire, and path dependence theory does provide some guidance on changing policy to achieve better outcomes. This review suggests that path dependence is one of the best theoretical frameworks to help health promoters understand barriers to change and can provide insights into developing future successful public health interventions. Future studies could focus further on active transport, local neighbourhood development and physical activity. PMID:25481484

  3. Azimuthally Anisotropic 3D Velocity Continuation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Burnett, William; Fomel, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We extend time-domain velocity continuation to the zero-offset 3D azimuthally anisotropic case. Velocity continuation describes how a seismic image changes given a change in migration velocity. This description turns out to be of a wave propagation process, in which images change along a velocity axis. In the anisotropic case, the velocity model is multiparameter. Therefore, anisotropic image propagation is multidimensional. We use a three-parameter slowness model, which is related to azimuthal variations in velocity, as well as their principal directions. This information is useful for fracture and reservoir characterization from seismic data. We provide synthetic diffraction imaging examples to illustratemore » the concept and potential applications of azimuthal velocity continuation and to analyze the impulse response of the 3D velocity continuation operator.« less

  4. Deterministic methods for time-dependent stochastic neutron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Randal S

    2009-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for solving the time-dependent survival probability equation in general (lD/2D/3D) geometries using the multi group SNmethod. Although this equation was first formulated by Bell in the early 1960's, it has only been applied to stationary systems (for other than idealized point models) until recently, and detailed descriptions of numerical solution techniques are lacking in the literature. This paper presents such a description and applies it to a dynamic system representative of a figurative criticality accident scenario.

  5. Subgridscale stabilization of time-dependent convection dominated diffusive transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitmann, N.

    2007-07-01

    In [W.J. Layton, A connection between subgrid scale eddy viscosity and mixed methods, Appl. Math. Comput. 133 (2002) 147-157], a variationally consistent eddy viscosity discretization is given for the stationary convection diffusion equation. We further develop this discretization to include the time-dependent problem. We give comprehensive stability and error analysis of the semi-discrete case. We also state the stability and error results for the fully discrete algorithm with a Crank-Nicholson time discretization. The error bound is near optimal and independent of the diffusion coefficient, [epsilon]. Finally, we give guidance on optimal parameter selection for some common finite element spaces.

  6. Time-dependent thermoelectric transport for nanoscale thermal machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daré, A.-M.; Lombardo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze an electronic nanoscale thermal machine driven by time-dependent environment: besides bias and gate voltage variations, we consider also the less prevailing time modulation of the couplings between leads and dot. We provide energy and heat current expressions in such situations, as well as expressions for the power exchanged between the dot+leads system and its outside. Calculations are made in the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function framework. We apply these results to design a cyclic refrigerator, circumventing the ambiguity of defining energy flows between subsystems in the case of strong coupling. For fast lead-dot coupling modulation, we observe transient currents which cannot be ascribed to charge tunneling.

  7. Spin-dependent tunneling transport in a lateral magnetic diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Shi, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Based on the gate-tunable two-dimensional electron gas, we have constructed laterally a double-barrier resonant tunneling structure by employing a peculiar triple-gate configuration, namely a ferromagnetic gate sandwiched closely by a pair of Schottky gates. Because of the in-plane stray field of ferromagnetic gate, the resulting bound spin state in well gives rise to the remarkable resonant spin polarization following the spin-dependent resonant tunneling regime. Importantly, by aligning the bound spin state through surface gate-voltage configuration, this resonant spin polarization can be externally manipulated, showing the desirable features for the spin-logic device applications.

  8. Diameter dependence of the transport properties of antimony telluride nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zuev, Yuri M; Lee, Jin Seok; Galloy, Clément; Park, Hongkun; Kim, Philip

    2010-08-11

    We report measurements of electronic, thermoelectric, and galvanomagnetic properties of individual single crystal antimony telluride (Sb(2)Te(3)) nanowires with diameters in the range of 20-100 nm. Temperature-dependent resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements indicate hole dominant diffusive thermoelectric generation with an enhancement of the TEP for smaller diameter wires up to 110 microV/K at T = 300 K. We measure the magnetoresistance in magnetic fields both parallel and perpendicular to the nanowire [110] axis, where strong anisotropic positive magnetoresistance behavior was observed. PMID:20698617

  9. KCNQ1-dependent transport in renal and gastrointestinal epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Vallon, Volker; Grahammer, Florian; Volkl, Harald; Sandu, Ciprian D.; Richter, Kerstin; Rexhepaj, Rexhepi; Gerlach, Uwe; Rong, Qi; Pfeifer, Karl; Lang, Florian

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding for the K+ channel ?-subunit KCNQ1 have been associated with long QT syndrome and deafness. Besides heart and inner ear epithelial cells, KCNQ1 is expressed in a variety of epithelial cells including renal proximal tubule and gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells. At these sites, cellular K+ ions exit through KCNQ1 channel complexes, which may serve to recycle K+ or to maintain cell membrane potential and thus the driving force for electrogenic transepithelial transport, e.g., Na+/glucose cotransport. Employing pharmacologic inhibition and gene knockout, the present study demonstrates the importance of KCNQ1 K+ channel complexes for the maintenance of the driving force for proximal tubular and intestinal Na+ absorption, gastric acid secretion, and cAMP-induced jejunal Cl- secretion. In the kidney, KCNQ1 appears dispensable under basal conditions because of limited substrate delivery for electrogenic Na+ reabsorption to KCNQ1-expressing mid to late proximal tubule. During conditions of increased substrate load, however, luminal KCNQ1 serves to repolarize the proximal tubule and stabilize the driving force for Na+ reabsorption. In mice lacking functional KCNQ1, impaired intestinal absorption is associated with reduced serum vitamin B12 concentrations, mild macrocytic anemia, and fecal loss of Na+ and K+, the latter affecting K+ homeostasis. PMID:16314573

  10. Pressure-dependent gas heat transport in a spherical pore

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, J.R.; Strieder, W.C. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    A mean free path gas kinetic theory is used to model the conductive heat transport of a gas within a void volume enclosed in a Fourier solid. A variational upper bound principle is derived for a void of arbitrary shape and applied to obtain a rigorous upper bound equation for the void gas conductivity in a spherical void. The variational void gas conductivity equation is exact in both the large and small Knudsen number (Kn) limits and provides a means to determine the accuracy of the reciprocal additivity interpolation formula as applied to thermal conductivity rather than diffusive mass transfer (maximum error 6% and Kn = 0.5 and [alpha] = 1). Temperature jump will occur even at atmospheric pressures and higher for sufficiently small thermal accommodation coefficients ([alpha]<0.1). Experimental void gas heat conductivities vs. pressure data for H[sub 2], He, Ne, N[sub 2], CO[sub 2], and F12 in a polyurethane foam are compared with theoretical mean free path void gas conductivity vs. inverse Knudsen number curves drawn for various [alpha]. Estimates of the thermal accommodation coefficients for the gas- polyurethane surface exhibit a maximum with increasing molecular mass of the gas molecules, which qualitatively agrees with the predictions of Baule's classical theory. Results also point to a rather sharp shift of the S curve to higher pressures with decreasing thermal accommodation.

  11. Azimuthal modulation of C-band scatterometer {sigma}{sup 0} over southern ocean sea ice

    SciTech Connect

    Early, D.S.; Long, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    In a continuing evaluation of the ERS-1 C-band scatterometer as a tool for studying polar sea ice, the authors evaluate the azimuthal modulation characteristics of Antarctic sea ice. ERS-1 AMI scatterometer mode data sets from several study regions dispersed in the Antarctic seasonal sea ice pack are evaluated for azimuthal modulation. When appropriate, the incidence angle dependence is estimated and removed in a study region before determining whether azimuthal modulation is present in the data. Other comparisons are made using the fore and aft beam measurement difference. The results show that over the ice pack, azimuthal modulation is less than 1 dB at the scale of observation of the ERS-1 C-band scatterometer.

  12. Shape dependent heat transport through green synthesized gold nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2015-08-01

    Nanofluids hold promise as a more efficient coolant for thermoelectric devices. Despite the capability of tailoring the thermo physical properties of nanofluids, by tuning the particle parameters such as shape, size and concentration, the toxicity of chemicals used for the preparation of nanoparticles is a serious concern. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is emerging as an alternative to the conventional chemical and physical methods for the preparation of nanoparticles. In this work, the results of the preparation of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents are presented. The green synthesis route employed for the present study provides particles of similar size, but the shape of the particles is found to vary depending upon the source of the natural reducing agents. The thermal diffusivity values of the gold nanofluid measured using laser based dual beam thermal lens technique elucidate the role of shape and concentration of the green synthesized nanoparticles on the effective thermal diffusivity values of the nanofluids.

  13. Temperature dependence of transport properties in liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayem El-Daher, Moustafa

    2001-12-01

    Using the Ziman formula, which results from solving the linearized Boltzmann equation, the electrical and thermal resistivities of selected metals in the liquid state are calculated over a range of temperatures, at and above the melting point. In previous studies of liquid metals, the electrical resistivity was calculated for only a very few cases and only at the melting point. In most cases the calculated structure factor S(q), if used, was obtained from simple models like the hard sphere or empty-core pair potential model. By doing the calculations over a range of temperatures, beyond the melting point and using a better S(q), we gain considerable insight into the transport properties of liquid metals. By calculating the thermal resistivity over the same range of temperatures we explain the deviation of the ratio of electrical and thermal resistivities from the Wiedemann-Franz law, which holds well for lower temperatures. The form factor is calculated for each liquid metal based on the model potential suggested by Taylor et al., including screening effects, by using the screening function of Geldart and Taylor. The liquid structure factors are calculated, in some cases, from the radial distribution function obtained from Monte Carlo simulations based on the same model potential mentioned above and used in the form factor construction. Both the calculated structure factors and the experimental structure factors obtained from x-ray scattering are used in the Ziman formula to obtain the thermal and electrical resistivities. The results are compared to experimental values and to other theoretical calculations done at the melting point for each of the selected metals using different model potentials and form factors or other theoretical methods.

  14. Multicomponent, multi-azimuth pre-stack seismic waveform inversion for azimuthally anisotropic media using a parallel and computationally efficient non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Mallick, Subhashis

    2015-02-01

    Consideration of azimuthal anisotropy, at least to an orthorhombic symmetry is important in exploring the naturally fractured and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs. Full waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic data can, in principle, provide more robust estimates of subsurface elastic parameters and density than the inversion of single component (P wave) seismic data. In addition, azimuthally dependent anisotropy can only be resolved by carefully studying the multicomponent seismic displacement data acquired and processed along different azimuths. Such an analysis needs an inversion algorithm capable of simultaneously optimizing multiple objectives, one for each data component along each azimuth. These multicomponent and multi-azimuthal seismic inversions are non-linear with non-unique solutions; it is therefore appropriate to treat the objectives as a vector and simultaneously optimize each of its components such that the optimal set of solutions could be obtained. The fast non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA II) is a robust stochastic global search method capable of handling multiple objectives, but its computational expense increases with increasing number of objectives and the number of model parameters to be inverted for. In addition, an accurate extraction of subsurface azimuthal anisotropy requires multicomponent seismic data acquired at a fine spatial resolution along many source-to-receiver azimuths. Because routine acquisition of such data is prohibitively expensive, they are typically available along two or at most three azimuthal orientations at a spatial resolution where such an inversion could be applied. This paper proposes a novel multi-objective methodology using a parallelized version of NSGA II for waveform inversion of multicomponent seismic displacement data along two azimuths. By scaling the objectives prior to ranking, redefining the crowding distance as functions of the scaled objective and the model spaces, and varying the crossover and mutation parameters over generations, the proposed methodology is also an improvement of the original NSGA II in overall computational efficiency, preservation of population diversity, and rapid sampling of the model space. By first inverting the near-offset pre-stack data for the background isotropic properties and obtaining constraints on the vertical velocities, followed by an inversion of the long-offset data, it is demonstrated that the proposed method can reliably estimate density and azimuthally anisotropic subsurface properties up to the complexity of an orthorhombic symmetry on noisy synthetic data computed from a model based on a real well log under an assumption of 1-D subsurface layers where the ambiguities between lateral heterogeneity and anisotropy could be ignored. In addition, a practical way to approximately compute the uncertainty values in the derived parameters using the method is also demonstrated.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Applications of spin dependent transport materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughton, J. M.; Pohm, A. V.; Fayfield, R. T.; Smith, C. H.

    1999-11-01

    Newly developed materials that exhibit large changes in effective resistance with applied fields are being put to practical use. Magnetic multilayers with giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and spin dependent tunnelling (SDT) structures are being used in magnetic field sensors. Spin valves are being sold in read heads for hard drives and galvanic isolators. Both spin valves and SDT structures are being used in non-volatile random access memory development. After a brief introduction to these materials, the development of their uses in sensors, read heads, isolators and non-volatile memory are summarized. GMR magnetic field sensors represent a small, but growing market. SDT sensors have the potential to sense very small fields (to 1 pT). Spin valve read heads have enabled very high aerial packing densities for hard drives, up to 24 Gbits per square inch. GMR isolators can be used to duplicate the function of opto-isolators, but at much higher speeds and packing densities. Application of these materials to non-volatile random access memory could result in speeds and densities of semiconductor memory with the non-volatility of hard disk drives. Future directions in this field indicate a merging of semiconductor and these new magnetic materials.

  16. Temperature dependence of mitochondrial oligomycin-sensitive proton transport ATPase.

    PubMed

    Solaini, G; Baracca, A; Parenti Castelli, G; Lenaz, G

    1984-12-01

    The temperature dependence of the oligomycin-sensitive ATPase (complex V) kinetic parameters has been investigated in enzyme preparations of different phospholipid composition. In submitochondrial particles, isolated complex V, and complex V reconstituted in dimyristoyl lecithin vesicles, the Arrhenius plots show discontinuities in the range 18-28 degrees C, while no discontinuity is detected with dioleoyl lecithin recombinant. Van't Hoff plots of Km also show breaks in the same temperature interval, with the exception of the dioleoyl-enzyme vesicles, where Km is unchanged. Thermodynamic analysis of the ATPase reaction shows that DMPC-complex V has rather larger values of activation enthalpy and activation entropy below the transition temperature (24 degrees C) than those of the other preparations, while all enzyme preparations show similar free energies of activation (14.3-18.5 kcal/mol). The results indicate that temperature and lipid composition influence to a different extent both kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the mitochondrial ATPase. PMID:6242243

  17. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy beneath the Pakistan Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, Eric A.; Ni, James F.; Hearn, Thomas M.; Roecker, Steve

    1994-07-01

    Teleseismics S, SKS, and SKKS data, collected from a temporary broadband array across the Himalayan front in Pakistan, are analyzed for shear-wave splitting parameters. The SKS and SKKS phases have ray paths originating from both the South Pacific and Colombia which have azimuths approximately 40 deg apart with respect to the Pakistan array. If significant seismic azimuthal anisotropy is present we should observe splitting associated with one of these ray paths. No evidence was seen for any shear-wave splitting beneath any of the stations in the array. Teleseismic S waves were also used in order to provide better azimuthal coverage for the shear-wave splitting measurements. We were able to correct for any source-side anisotropy when needed. No receiver-side splitting was observed in any of the S wave data. The lack of shear-wave splitting beneath the Pakistan array indicates that there is no appreciable large-scale azimuthal anisotropy beneath this part of the Himalayas. Therefore, if there is any significant strain in the upper mantle beneath this area, it must either be vertically oriented, or, if horizontal, vertically vary in such a way that the integrated effect on S wave splitting is null.

  18. Functional characterization of a Na+-dependent dicarboxylate transporter from Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Christopher; Fitzgerald, Gabriel A; Wang, Da-Neng; Mindell, Joseph A

    2014-06-01

    The SLC13 transporter family, whose members play key physiological roles in the regulation of fatty acid synthesis, adiposity, insulin resistance, and other processes, catalyzes the transport of Krebs cycle intermediates and sulfate across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. SLC13 transporters are part of the divalent anion:Na(+) symporter (DASS) family that includes several well-characterized bacterial members. Despite sharing significant sequence similarity, the functional characteristics of DASS family members differ with regard to their substrate and coupling ion dependence. The publication of a high resolution structure of dimer VcINDY, a bacterial DASS family member, provides crucial structural insight into this transporter family. However, marrying this structural insight to the current functional understanding of this family also demands a comprehensive analysis of the transporter's functional properties. To this end, we purified VcINDY, reconstituted it into liposomes, and determined its basic functional characteristics. Our data demonstrate that VcINDY is a high affinity, Na(+)-dependent transporter with a preference for C4- and C5-dicarboxylates. Transport of the model substrate, succinate, is highly pH dependent, consistent with VcINDY strongly preferring the substrate's dianionic form. VcINDY transport is electrogenic with succinate coupled to the transport of three or more Na(+) ions. In contrast to succinate, citrate, bound in the VcINDY crystal structure (in an inward-facing conformation), seems to interact only weakly with the transporter in vitro. These transport properties together provide a functional framework for future experimental and computational examinations of the VcINDY transport mechanism. PMID:24821967

  19. Role of different scattering mechanisms on the temperature dependence of transport in graphene

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Suman; Amin, Kazi Rafsanjani; Modak, Ranjan; Singh, Amandeep; Mukerjee, Subroto; Bid, Aveek

    2015-01-01

    Detailed experimental and theoretical studies of the temperature dependence of the effect of different scattering mechanisms on electrical transport properties of graphene devices are presented. We find that for high mobility devices the transport properties are mainly governed by completely screened short range impurity scattering. On the other hand, for the low mobility devices transport properties are determined by both types of scattering potentials - long range due to ionized impurities and short range due to completely screened charged impurities. The results could be explained in the framework of Boltzmann transport equations involving the two independent scattering mechanisms. PMID:26608479

  20. Rat Liver Canalicular Membrane Vesicles Contain an ATP-Dependent Bile Acid Transport System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Toshirou; Gatmaitan, Zenaida; Che, Mingxin; Arias, Irwin M.

    1991-08-01

    The secretion of bile by the liver is primarily determined by the ability of the hepatocyte to transport bile acids into the bile canaliculus. A carrier-mediated process for the transport of taurocholate, the major bile acid in humans and rats, was previously demonstrated in canalicular membrane vesicles from rat liver. This process is driven by an outside-positive membrane potential that is, however, insufficient to explain the large bile acid concentration gradient between the hepatocyte and bile. In this study, we describe an ATP-dependent transport system for taurocholate in inside-out canalicular membrane vesicles from rat liver. The transport system is saturable, temperature-dependent, osmotically sensitive, specifically requires ATP, and does not function in sinusoidal membrane vesicles and right side-out canalicular membrane vesicles. Transport was inhibited by other bile acids but not by substrates for the previously demonstrated ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems for organic cations or nonbile acid organic anions. Defects in ATP-dependent canalicular transport of bile acids may contribute to reduced bile secretion (cholestasis) in various developmental, inheritable, and acquired disorders.

  1. Two-particle azimuthal correlations at forward rapidity in STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the 2008 run the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the Brookhaven Nation Laboratiory (BNL), NY, provided high luminosity in both p+p and d+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}}=200 GeV. Electromagnetic calorimeter acceptance in STAR was enhanced by the new Forward Meson Spectrometer (FMS), and is now almost contiguous from -1azimuth. This allows measurements of the azimuthal correlation between a forward neutral pion and a second particle in a very large rapidity range. The associated particle can be either a mid-rapidity neutral pion (using the STAR Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter, BEMC), a mid-rapidity charged particle (using the STAR Time Projection Chamber, TPC) or a second forward neutral pion in the FMS. Di-hadron azimuthal correlations provide sensitivity to the low longitudinal momentum fraction (x) component of the gluon density in the nuclear target. Initial state nonlinear effects are in fact expected to appear in d+Au collisions when the dense part of the nucleus is probed. The analysis in this thesis shows that such correlations and their dependence on rapidity, transverse momentum and collision centrality are qualitative consistent with the existence of gluon saturation effects in the relativistic nucleus. Correlations between a forward pion and a mid-rapidity particle do not show any significant broadening in the correlated peak in going from p+p to d+Au interactions. On the contrary, when the two particle are both reconstructed in the forward region (where the lowest x value is probed), d+Au collisions present a significantly broader peak in the azimuthal correlation than in p+p. Such effect is stronger when the p_{T} of the associated particle is lower and when central collisions are selected. Theoretical expectations for azimuthal correlations between a dilute system (deuteron) and a saturated target (Gold nucleus) have been explored. Two different approaches (dipole model and k_{T} factorization) for calculating the coincidence probability within the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework show qualitative agreement with the measurement.

  2. Applicability of the position-dependent diffusion approach to localized transport through disordered waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, Pauf; Yamilov, Alexey G.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we show analytically and numerically that the localized regime of wave transport can be modeled as position-dependent diffusion with a diffusion coefficient that retains the memory of the source location. The dependence on the source diminishes when absorption is introduced.

  3. Stoichiometry and pH dependence of the rabbit proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter PepT1.

    PubMed

    Steel, A; Nussberger, S; Romero, M F; Boron, W F; Boyd, C A; Hediger, M A

    1997-02-01

    1. The intestinal H(+)-coupled peptide transporter PepT1, displays a broad substrate specificity and accepts most charged and neutral di- and tripeptides. To study the proton-to-peptide stoichiometry and the dependence of the kinetic parameters on extracellular pH (pHo), rabbit PepT1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and used for uptake studies of radiolabelled neutral and charged dipeptides, voltage-clamp analysis and intracellular pH measurements. 2. PepT1 did not display the substrate-gated anion conductances that have been found to be characteristic of members of the Na(+)- and H(+)-coupled high-affinity glutamate transporter family. In conjunction with previous data on the ion dependence of PepT1, it can therefore be concluded that peptide-evoked charge fluxes of PepT1 are entirely due to H+ movement. 3. Neutral, acidic and basic dipeptides induced intracellular acidification. The rate of acidification, the initial rates of the uptake of radiolabelled peptides and the associated charge fluxes gave proton-substrate coupling ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1 for neutral, acidic and basic dipeptides, respectively. 4. Maximal transport of the neutral and charged dipeptides Gly-Leu, Gly-Glu, Gly-Lys and Ala-Lys occurred at pHo 5.5, 5.2, 6.2 and 5.8, respectively. The Imax values were relatively pHo independent but the apparent affinity (Km(app) values for these peptides were shown to be highly pHo dependent. 5. Our data show that at physiological pH (pHo 5.5-6.0) PepT1 prefers neutral and acidic peptides. The shift in transport maximum for the acidic peptide Gly-Glu to a lower pH value suggests that acidic dipeptides are transported in the protonated form. The shift in the transport maxima of the basic dipeptides to higher pH values may involve titration of a side-chain on the transporter molecule (e.g. protonation of a histidine group). These considerations have led us to propose a model for coupled transport of neutral, acidic and basic dipeptides. PMID:9051570

  4. Proline transport in Leishmania donovani amastigotes: dependence on pH gradients and membrane potential.

    PubMed

    Glaser, T A; Mukkada, A J

    1992-03-01

    Amastigotes of Leishmania donovani develop and multiply within the acidic phagolysosomes of mammalian macrophages. Isolated amastigotes are acidophilic; they catabolize substrates and synthesize macromolecules optimally at pH 5.5. Substrate transport in amastigotes has not been characterized. Here we show that amastigotes exhibit an uphill transport of proline (active transport) with an acid pH optimum (pH 5.5). It is dependent upon metabolic energy and is driven by proton motive force. Agents which selectively disturb the component forces of proton motive force, such as carbonyl cyanide chlorophenylhydrazone, nigericin and valinomycin, inhibit proline transport. Transport is sensitive to dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and insensitive to ouabain, demonstrating the involvement of a proton ATPase in the maintenance of proton motive force. It is suggested that the plasma membrane pH gradient probably makes the greatest contribution to proton motive force that drives substrate transport in the amastigote stage. PMID:1533014

  5. Azimuthal anisotropy in central U+U collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui

    2013-04-01

    The azimuthal anisotropy of particle production is commonly used in high-energy nuclear collisions to study the early evolution of the expanding system. The prolate shape of uranium nuclei provides the possibility to study how the initial geometry of the nuclei affects the azimuthal distributions. This allows one to study a variety of topics such as local parity violation, path length dependence of jet quenching, and particle production in heavy ion collisions. In this talk,the two-particle cumulant, v2, from central U+U collisions at ?sNN= 193 GeV and central Au+Au collisions at ?sNN= 200 GeV for inclusive charged hadrons will be presented. The STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters were used to select the most central collisions. Differences were observed between the multiplicity dependence of v2 for central Au+Au and U+U collisions. The observed v2 slope results were compared to Glauber model predictions and it was seen that this model cannot explain the present results on the multiplicity dependence of v2 in central collisions.

  6. Acoustic Efficiency of Azimuthal Modes in Jet Noise Using Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Bridges, James

    2006-01-01

    The link between azimuthal modes in jet turbulence and in the acoustic sound field has been examined in cold, round jets. Chevron nozzles, however, impart an azimuthal structure on the jet with a shape dependent on the number, length and penetration angle of the chevrons. Two particular chevron nozzles, with 3 and 4 primary chevrons respectively, and a round baseline nozzle are compared at both cold and hot jet conditions to determine how chevrons impact the modal structure of the flow and how that change relates to the sound field. The results show that, although the chevrons have a large impact on the azimuthal shape of the mean axial velocity, the impact of chevrons on the azimuthal structure of the fluctuating axial velocity is small at the cold jet condition and smaller still at the hot jet condition. This is supported by results in the azimuthal structure of the sound field, which also shows little difference in between the two chevron nozzles and the baseline nozzle in the distribution of energy across the azimuthal modes measured.

  7. The PTS(Ntr) system globally regulates ATP-dependent transporters in Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Prell, J; Mulley, G; Haufe, F; White, J P; Williams, A; Karunakaran, R; Downie, J A; Poole, P S

    2012-04-01

    Mutation of ptsP encoding EI(Ntr) of the PTS(Ntr) system in Rhizobium leguminosarum strain Rlv3841 caused a pleiotropic phenotype as observed with many bacteria. The mutant formed dry colonies and grew poorly on organic nitrogen or dicarboxylates. Most strikingly the ptsP mutant had low activity of a broad range of ATP-dependent ABC transporters. This lack of activation, which occurred post-translationally, may explain many of the pleiotropic effects. In contrast proton-coupled transport systems were not inhibited in a ptsP mutant. Regulation by PtsP also involves two copies of ptsN that code for EIIA(Ntr) , resulting in a phosphorylation cascade. As in Escherichia coli, the Rlv3841 PTS(Ntr) system also regulates K(+) homeostasis by transcriptional activation of the high-affinity ATP-dependent K(+) transporter KdpABC. This involves direct interaction of a two-component sensor regulator pair KdpDE with unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) . Critically, ptsP mutants, which cannot phosphorylate PtsN1 or PtsN2, had a fully activated KdpABC transporter. This is the opposite pattern from that observed with ABC transporters which apparently require phosphorylation of PtsN. These results suggest that ATP-dependent transport might be regulated via PTS(Ntr) responding to the cellular energy charge. ABC transport may be inactivated at low energy charge, conserving ATP for essential processes including K(+) homeostasis. PMID:22340847

  8. The temperature dependence of maltose transport in ale and lager strains of brewer's yeast

    PubMed Central

    Vidgren, Virve; Multanen, Jyri-Pekka; Ruohonen, Laura; Londesborough, John

    2010-01-01

    Lager beers are traditionally made at lower temperatures (614 C) than ales (1525 C). At low temperatures, lager strains (Saccharomyces pastorianus) ferment faster than ale strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Two lager and two ale strains had similar maltose transport activities at 20 C, but at 0 C the lager strains had fivefold greater activity. AGT1, MTT1 and MALx1 are major maltose transporter genes. In nine tested lager strains, the AGT1 genes contained premature stop codons. None of five tested ale strains had this defect. All tested lager strains, but no ale strain, contained MTT1 genes. When functional AGT1 from an ale strain was expressed in a lager strain, the resultant maltose transport activity had the high temperature dependence characteristic of ale yeasts. Lager yeast MTT1 and MALx1 genes were expressed in a maltose-negative laboratory strain of S. cerevisiae. The resultant Mtt1 transport activity had low temperature dependence and the Malx1 activity had high temperature dependence. Faster fermentation at low temperature by lager strains than ale strains may result from their different maltose transporters. The loss of Agt1 transporters during the evolution of lager strains may have provided plasma membrane space for the Mtt1 transporters that perform better at a low temperature. PMID:20402791

  9. A NEW MONTE CARLO METHOD FOR TIME-DEPENDENT NEUTRINO RADIATION TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; O'Connor, Evan; Burrows, Adam; Dolence, Joshua C.; Loeffler, Frank; Schnetter, Erik

    2012-08-20

    Monte Carlo approaches to radiation transport have several attractive properties such as simplicity of implementation, high accuracy, and good parallel scaling. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods can handle complicated geometries and are relatively easy to extend to multiple spatial dimensions, which makes them potentially interesting in modeling complex multi-dimensional astrophysical phenomena such as core-collapse supernovae. The aim of this paper is to explore Monte Carlo methods for modeling neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae. We generalize the Implicit Monte Carlo photon transport scheme of Fleck and Cummings and gray discrete-diffusion scheme of Densmore et al. to energy-, time-, and velocity-dependent neutrino transport. Using our 1D spherically-symmetric implementation, we show that, similar to the photon transport case, the implicit scheme enables significantly larger timesteps compared with explicit time discretization, without sacrificing accuracy, while the discrete-diffusion method leads to significant speed-ups at high optical depth. Our results suggest that a combination of spectral, velocity-dependent, Implicit Monte Carlo and discrete-diffusion Monte Carlo methods represents a robust approach for use in neutrino transport calculations in core-collapse supernovae. Our velocity-dependent scheme can easily be adapted to photon transport.

  10. PGR5-PGRL1-Dependent Cyclic Electron Transport Modulates Linear Electron Transport Rate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suorsa, Marjaana; Rossi, Fabio; Tadini, Luca; Labs, Mathias; Colombo, Monica; Jahns, Peter; Kater, Martin M; Leister, Dario; Finazzi, Giovanni; Aro, Eva-Mari; Barbato, Roberto; Pesaresi, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    Plants need tight regulation of photosynthetic electron transport for survival and growth under environmental and metabolic conditions. For this purpose, the linear electron transport (LET) pathway is supplemented by a number of alternative electron transfer pathways and valves. In Arabidopsis, cyclic electron transport (CET) around photosystem I (PSI), which recycles electrons from ferrodoxin to plastoquinone, is the most investigated alternative route. However, the interdependence of LET and CET and the relative importance of CET remain unclear, largely due to the difficulties in precise assessment of the contribution of CET in the presence of LET, which dominates electron flow under physiological conditions. We therefore generated Arabidopsis mutants with a minimal water-splitting activity, and thus a low rate of LET, by combining knockout mutations in PsbO1, PsbP2, PsbQ1, PsbQ2, and PsbR loci. The resulting Δ5 mutant is viable, although mature leaves contain only ∼20% of wild-type naturally less abundant PsbO2 protein. Δ5 plants compensate for the reduction in LET by increasing the rate of CET, and inducing a strong non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) response during dark-to-light transitions. To identify the molecular origin of such a high-capacity CET, we constructed three sextuple mutants lacking the qE component of NPQ (Δ5 npq4-1), NDH-mediated CET (Δ5 crr4-3), or PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET (Δ5 pgr5). Their analysis revealed that PGR5-PGRL1-mediated CET plays a major role in ΔpH formation and induction of NPQ in C3 plants. Moreover, while pgr5 dies at the seedling stage under fluctuating light conditions, Δ5 pgr5 plants are able to survive, which underlines the importance of PGR5 in modulating the intersystem electron transfer. PMID:26687812

  11. Linear Approximation SAR Azimuth Processing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindquist, R. B.; Masnaghetti, R. K.; Belland, E.; Hance, H. V.; Weis, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    A segmented linear approximation of the quadratic phase function that is used to focus the synthetic antenna of a SAR was studied. Ideal focusing, using a quadratic varying phase focusing function during the time radar target histories are gathered, requires a large number of complex multiplications. These can be largely eliminated by using linear approximation techniques. The result is a reduced processor size and chip count relative to ideally focussed processing and a correspondingly increased feasibility for spaceworthy implementation. A preliminary design and sizing for a spaceworthy linear approximation SAR azimuth processor meeting requirements similar to those of the SEASAT-A SAR was developed. The study resulted in a design with approximately 1500 IC's, 1.2 cubic feet of volume, and 350 watts of power for a single look, 4000 range cell azimuth processor with 25 meters resolution.

  12. Adenosine triphosphate-dependent taurocholate transport in human liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, H; Kuipers, F; Slooff, M J; Vonk, R J

    1992-01-01

    Transport systems involved in uptake and biliary secretion of bile salts have been extensively studied in rat liver; however, little is known about these systems in the human liver. In this study, we investigated taurocholate (TC) transport in canalicular and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles isolated from 15 human livers (donor age 6-64 yr). ATP stimulated the uptake of TC into both canalicular and basolateral human liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM and blLPM, respectively). Considerable interindividual variations in the transport velocity were observed in the different membrane preparations used: 9.0 +/- 1.3 (mean +/- SEM, n = 17; range 1.6-18.0) and 9.3 +/- 2.0 (range 1.1-29.8) pmol TC.mg protein-1.min-1 at 1.0 microM TC for cLPM and blLPM, respectively. TC transport was temperature sensitive and showed saturation kinetics with a high affinity for TC (Km 4.2 +/- 0.7 microM and 3.7 +/- 0.5 microM for cLPM and blLPM, respectively). Transport was dependent on the ATP concentration and saturable (Km 0.25 +/- 0.03 mM, n = 3). Neither nitrate, which reduces membrane potential, nor the protonophore FCCP strongly inhibited ATP-dependent TC transport, indicating that membrane potential and proton gradient are not involved in this process. TC transport was significantly inhibited by the classical anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (250 microM) and the glutathione conjugate S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione (100 microM). In conclusion, high affinity ATP-dependent TC transport is present in human liver at both the canalicular and the basolateral sides of the hepatocyte. PMID:1469089

  13. Temperature dependence of antenna excitation transport in native photosystem I particles. [Electronic energy transport (EET)

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle, P.A.; Struve, W.S. )

    1991-05-16

    The temperature dependence of polarized photobleaching dynamics was investigated through 680-nm pump-probe experiments in the Chl a antenna of native photosystem 1 particles (Chl/P700 {approximately} 200) from spinach. The anisotropic decay time is lengthened by an order of magnitude (from {approximately}7 to {approximately}62 ps) when the temperature is reduced from 290 to 38 K; most of this increase occurs between 65 and 38 K. The occurrence of this transition temperature in the tens of kelvin reflects the participation of protein phonons in antenna EET. The isotopic decay kinetics are considerably less temperature sensitive, indicating that the anisotropic and isotropic decays stem from different energy-transfer processes with contrasting temperature dependence. The 38 K photobleaching spectrum at 5 ps exhibits considerably more weighting in the lower energy Chl a spectral forms than the room-temperature spectrum, suggesting that rapid spectral equilibration occurs in the photosystem 1 antenna. In light of the phonon frequency and electron-phonon coupling parameters determined in independent PSI-200 spectral hole-burning experiments, the quantitative temperature dependence int he anisotropic decay times is consistent with a theory for phonon-assisted EET in which the pertinent phonons are independent modes localized about the donor and acceptor chromophores.

  14. AGE-DEPENDENT DIFFERENCES IN DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER AND VESICULAR MONOAMINE TRANSPORTER-2 FUNCTION AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR METHAMPHETAMINE NEUROTOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Trent J.; Farnsworth, Sarah J.; Rowley, Shane D.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2008-01-01

    The abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a serious public health problem because METH can cause persistent dopaminergic deficits in the brains of both animal models and humans. Surprisingly, adolescent post-natal day (PND)40 rats are resistant to these METH-induced deficits while young adult PND90 rats are not. Studies described in this report used rotating disk electrode voltammetry and western blotting techniques to investigate whether there are age-dependent differences in monoamine transporter function in PND38?42 and PND88?92 rats that could contribute to this phenomenon. The initial velocities of dopamine (DA) transport into, METH-induced DA efflux from, and DA transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity in striatal suspensions are greater in PND38?42 rats than in PND88?92 rats. DA transport velocities into vesicles that co-fractionate with synaptosomal membranes after osmotic lysis are also greater in PND38?42 rats. However, there is no difference in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) immunoreactivity between the two age groups in this fraction. This suggests that younger rats have a greater capacity to sequester cytoplasmic DA into membrane-associated vesicles due to kinetically upregulated VMAT-2 and also have increased levels of functionally active DAT. In the presence of METH, these may provide additional routes of cellular efflux for DA that is released from vesicles into the cytoplasm and thereby prevent cytoplasmic DA concentrations in younger rats from rising to neurotoxic levels after drug administration. These findings provide novel insight into the age-dependent physiological regulation of neuronal DA sequestration and may advance the treatment of disorders involving abnormal DA disposition including substance abuse and Parkinson's disease. PMID:19021208

  15. ATP-dependent taurocholate transport by rat liver canalicular membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Y; Kobayashi, H; Kurumi, Y; Shouji, M; Kitano, M; Yamamoto, T

    1991-10-01

    We conducted an experimental study to examine the possibility that ATP is involved in the mechanism by which bile acids are excreted through the liver canalicular membrane in opposing the concentration gradient. Canalicular membrane vesicles were purified from the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats, and the uptake of tritiated sodium taurocholate into canalicular membrane vesicles was determined by rapid filtration technique. Vesicle-associated sodium taurocholate was increased in the presence of ATP and ATP-regenerating system. This was also observed at a voltage-clamped condition. ATP-dependent uptake into the osmotically reactive intravesicular space was saturated with increasing concentrations of sodium taurocholate (Km = 47 mumol/L, Vmax = 270 pmoles/mg protein.20s). ATP-dependent uptake increased to the point of saturation when the sodium taurocholate concentration was 50 mumol/L and the ATP concentration was increased from 0 to 1 mmol/L (Km = 64 mumol/L). Among the several nucleotides used, ATP was a potent stimulator of transport, whereas a nonhydrolyzable analogue (i.e., adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imino]triphosphate) showed no effect. In addition, ATP-dependent transport was inhibited by vanadate in a dose-dependent manner. From these results it was concluded that the primary active transport of sodium taurocholate is present in hepatocellular canalicular membranes. This transport is directly dependent on ATP, and hydrolysis of gamma-phosphate of ATP is required. PMID:1916666

  16. Temperature dependent electrical transport behavior of InN/GaN heterostructure based Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roul, Basanta; Kumar, Mahesh; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S. B.; Sinha, Neeraj; Kalghatgi, A. T.

    2011-02-15

    InN/GaN heterostructure based Schottky diodes were fabricated by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The temperature dependent electrical transport properties were carried out for InN/GaN heterostructure. The barrier height and the ideality factor of the Schottky diodes were found to be temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of the barrier height indicates that the Schottky barrier height is inhomogeneous in nature at the heterostructure interface. The higher value of the ideality factor and its temperature dependence suggest that the current transport is primarily dominated by thermionic field emission (TFE) other than thermionic emission (TE). The room temperature barrier height obtained by using TE and TFE models were 1.08 and 1.43 eV, respectively.

  17. Size-dependent control of colloid transport via solute gradients in dead-end channels.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangwoo; Um, Eujin; Sabass, Benedikt; Ault, Jesse T; Rahimi, Mohammad; Warren, Patrick B; Stone, Howard A

    2016-01-12

    Transport of colloids in dead-end channels is involved in widespread applications including drug delivery and underground oil and gas recovery. In such geometries, Brownian motion may be considered as the sole mechanism that enables transport of colloidal particles into or out of the channels, but it is, unfortunately, an extremely inefficient transport mechanism for microscale particles. Here, we explore the possibility of diffusiophoresis as a means to control the colloid transport in dead-end channels by introducing a solute gradient. We demonstrate that the transport of colloidal particles into the dead-end channels can be either enhanced or completely prevented via diffusiophoresis. In addition, we show that size-dependent diffusiophoretic transport of particles can be achieved by considering a finite Debye layer thickness effect, which is commonly ignored. A combination of diffusiophoresis and Brownian motion leads to a strong size-dependent focusing effect such that the larger particles tend to concentrate more and reside deeper in the channel. Our findings have implications for all manners of controlled release processes, especially for site-specific delivery systems where localized targeting of particles with minimal dispersion to the nontarget area is essential. PMID:26715753

  18. Psychostimulants affect dopamine transmission through both dopamine transporter-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    dela Pea, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-01

    The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine transporter-mediated reverse transport and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine transporter. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine transporter, non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further affect the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine transporter-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364

  19. Continuous Energy, Multi-Dimensional Transport Calculations for Problem Dependent Resonance Self-Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    T. Downar

    2009-03-31

    The overall objective of the work here has been to eliminate the approximations used in current resonance treatments by developing continuous energy multi-dimensional transport calculations for problem dependent self-shielding calculations. The work here builds on the existing resonance treatment capabilities in the ORNL SCALE code system.

  20. Origin of Azimuthal Seismic Anisotropy in Oceanic Plates and Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.; Conrad, C. P.; Schaeffer, A. J.; Lebedev, S.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is strongest in Earth's thermo-mechanical boundarylayers where azimuthal anisotropy should be straightforward to relateto mantle flow. However, both frozen-in and active mantle convectionscenarios have been invoked, and no simple, global relationshipsexist. We show that lattice preferred orientation (LPO) inferred frommantle flow computations, in fact, produces a plausible globalbackground model for asthenospheric anisotropy underneath oceaniclithosphere. The same is not true for absolute plate motion (APM)models. A ~200 km thick layer where the flow model LPO matchesobservations from tomography lies just below the ~1200C isotherm of ahalf-space cooling model, indicating strong temperature-dependence ofthe processes that control the development of azimuthal anisotropy. Weinfer that the depth extent of shear, and hence the thickness of arelatively strong oceanic lithosphere, can be mapped this way. Thesefindings for the background model, and ocean-basin specific deviationsfrom the half-space cooling pattern, are found in all of the threerecent surface wave models we considered. Further exploration ofdeviations from the background model may be useful for general studiesof oceanic plate formation and dynamics as well as regional-scaletectonic analyses.

  1. Origin of azimuthal seismic anisotropy in oceanic plates and mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Schaeffer, Andrew J.; Lebedev, Sergei

    2014-09-01

    Seismic anisotropy is ubiquitous in the Earth's mantle but strongest in its thermo-mechanical boundary layers. Azimuthal anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere can be imaged by surface waves and should be particularly straightforward to relate to well-understood plate kinematics and large-scale mantle flow. However, previous studies have come to mixed conclusions as to the depth extent of the applicability of paleo-spreading and mantle flow models of anisotropy, and no simple, globally valid, relationships exist. Here, we show that lattice preferred orientation (LPO) inferred from mantle flow computations produces a plausible global background model for asthenospheric anisotropy underneath oceanic lithosphere. The same is not true for absolute plate motion (APM) models. A 200 km thick layer where the flow model LPO matches observations from tomography lies just below the 1200 C isotherm of a half-space cooling model, indicating strong temperature-dependence of the processes that control the development of azimuthal anisotropy. We infer that the depth extent of shear, and hence the thickness of a relatively strong oceanic lithosphere, can be mapped this way. These findings for the background model, and ocean-basin specific deviations from the half-space cooling pattern, are found in all of the three recent and independent tomographic models considered. Further exploration of deviations from the background model may be useful for general studies of oceanic plate formation and dynamics as well as regional-scale tectonic analyses.

  2. Accurate Prediction of Ligand Affinities for a Proton-Dependent Oligopeptide Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Samsudin, Firdaus; Parker, Joanne L.; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Newstead, Simon; Fowler, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Membrane transporters are critical modulators of drug pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety. One example is the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter PepT1, also known as SLC15A1, which is responsible for the uptake of the β-lactam antibiotics and various peptide-based prodrugs. In this study, we modeled the binding of various peptides to a bacterial homolog, PepTSt, and evaluated a range of computational methods for predicting the free energy of binding. Our results show that a hybrid approach (endpoint methods to classify peptides into good and poor binders and a theoretically exact method for refinement) is able to accurately predict affinities, which we validated using proteoliposome transport assays. Applying the method to a homology model of PepT1 suggests that the approach requires a high-quality structure to be accurate. Our study provides a blueprint for extending these computational methodologies to other pharmaceutically important transporter families.

  3. An asymptotic-preserving Lagrangian algorithm for the time-dependent anisotropic heat transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Chacon, Luis; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Hauck, Cory D.

    2014-09-01

    We propose a Lagrangian numerical algorithm for a time-dependent, anisotropic temperature transport equation in magnetized plasmas in the large guide field regime. The approach is based on an analytical integral formal solution of the parallel (i.e., along the magnetic field) transport equation with sources, and it is able to accommodate both local and non-local parallel heat flux closures. The numerical implementation is based on an operator-split formulation, with two straightforward steps: a perpendicular transport step (including sources), and a Lagrangian (field-line integral) parallel transport step. Algorithmically, the first step is amenable to the use of modern iterative methods, while the second step has a fixed cost per degree of freedom (and is therefore scalable). Accuracy-wise, the approach is free from the numerical pollution introduced by the discrete parallel transport term when the perpendicular to parallel transport coefficient ratio X? /X? becomes arbitrarily small, and is shown to capture the correct limiting solution when ? = X?L2?/X1L2? ? 0 (with L?? L? , the parallel and perpendicular diffusion length scales, respectively). Therefore, the approach is asymptotic-preserving. We demonstrate the capabilities of the scheme with several numerical experiments with varying magnetic field complexity in two dimensions, including the case of transport across a magnetic island.

  4. From bacteria to man: archaic proton-dependent peptide transporters at work.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Hannelore; Spanier, Britta; Kottra, Gabor; Weitz, Dietmar

    2006-04-01

    Uptake of nutrients into cells is essential to life and occurs in all organisms at the expense of energy. Whereas in most prokaryotic and simple eukaryotic cells electrochemical transmembrane proton gradients provide the central driving force for nutrient uptake, in higher eukaryotes it is more frequently coupled to sodium movement along the transmembrane sodium gradient, occurs via uniport mechanisms driven by the substrate gradient only, or is linked to the countertransport of a similar organic solute. With the cloning of a large number of mammalian nutrient transport proteins, it became obvious that a few "archaic'' transporters that utilize a transmembrane proton gradient for nutrient transport into cells can still be found in mammals. The present review focuses on the electrogenic peptide transporters as the best studied examples of proton-dependent nutrient transporters in mammals and summarizes the most recent findings on their physiological importance. Taking peptide transport as a general phenomenon found in nature, we also include peptide transport mechanisms in bacteria, yeast, invertebrates, and lower vertebrates, which are not that often addressed in physiology journals. PMID:16565475

  5. Charge dependence of neoclassical and turbulent transport of light impurities on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. S.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F. J.; Dickinson, D.; O'Mullane, M.; Patel, A.; Roach, C. M.; Summers, H. P.; Tanabe, H.; Valovič, M.; the MAST Team

    2015-09-01

    Carbon and nitrogen impurity transport coefficients are determined from gas puff experiments carried out during repeat L-mode discharges on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) and compared against a previous analysis of helium impurity transport on MAST. The impurity density profiles are measured on the low-field side of the plasma, therefore this paper focuses on light impurities where the impact of poloidal asymmetries on impurity transport is predicted to be negligible. A weak screening of carbon and nitrogen is found in the plasma core, whereas the helium density profile is peaked over the entire plasma radius. Both carbon and nitrogen experience a diffusivity of the order of 10 m2s-1 and a strong inward convective velocity of ˜40 m s-1 near the plasma edge, and a region of outward convective velocity at mid-radius. The measured impurity transport coefficients are consistent with neoclassical Banana-Plateau predictions within ρ ≤slant 0.4 . Quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the carbon and helium particle flux at two flux surfaces, ρ =0.6 and ρ =0.7 , suggest that trapped electron modes are responsible for the anomalous impurity transport observed in the outer regions of the plasma. The model, combining neoclassical transport with quasi-linear turbulence, is shown to provide reasonable estimates of the impurity transport coefficients and the impurity charge dependence.

  6. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide directly induces glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Snook, Laelie A; Nelson, Emery M; Dyck, David J; Wright, David C; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    Several gastrointestinal proteins have been identified to have insulinotropic effects, including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); however, the direct effects of incretins on skeletal muscle glucose transport remain largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of GIP on skeletal muscle glucose transport and insulin signaling in rats. Relative to a glucose challenge, a mixed glucose+lipid oral challenge increased circulating GIP concentrations, skeletal muscle Akt phosphorylation, and improved glucose clearance by ?35% (P < 0.05). These responses occurred without alterations in serum insulin concentrations. In an incubated soleus muscle preparation, GIP directly stimulated glucose transport and increased GLUT4 accumulation on the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin. Moreover, the ability of GIP to stimulate glucose transport was mitigated by the addition of the PI 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that signaling through PI3K is required for these responses. We also provide evidence that the combined stimulatory effects of GIP and insulin on soleus muscle glucose transport are additive. However, the specific GIP receptor antagonist (Pro(3))GIP did not attenuate GIP-stimulated glucose transport, suggesting that GIP is not signaling through its classical receptor. Together, the current data provide evidence that GIP regulates skeletal muscle glucose transport; however, the exact signaling mechanism(s) remain unknown. PMID:26041107

  7. Apparent resistivity of azimuthal anisotropy layered media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Ai-Guo; Mao, Tong-En; Li, Qing-He; Ge, Shuang-Cheng

    2002-09-01

    The electric field, equations of boundary conditions and calculation formula of apparent resistivity are derived for azimuthal anisotropy layered media with DC method based on anisotropic Ohms law. Taking Schlumberger symmetric system as an example and using recurrence formula of nuclear function, the paper theoretically simulates a model of four layers with the same anisotropy coefficient for each layer. The deep sounding curves of resistivity and the pattern of contours are obtained for the model. The results shows the theoretical formula of this paper is correct, the deep sounding curves not only exhibit the difference of resistivity among layers but also indicate the anisotropy characteristics of layers.

  8. Measurement of azimuthal hadron asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off unpolarised nucleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Bade?ek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Bchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dnnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthrl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabu, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Knigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krmer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schnning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szableski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wi?licki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-09-01

    Spin-averaged asymmetries in the azimuthal distributions of positive and negative hadrons produced in deep inelastic scattering were measured using the CERN SPS longitudinally polarised muon beam at 160 GeV/c and a 6LiD target. The amplitudes of the three azimuthal modulations cos??h, cos?2?h and sin??h were obtained binning the data separately in each of the relevant kinematic variables x, z or pTh and binning in a three-dimensional grid of these three variables. The amplitudes of the cos??h and cos?2?h modulations show strong kinematic dependencies both for positive and negative hadrons.

  9. Electroosmotic transport in polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannels with pH-dependent charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-05-01

    "Smart" polyelectrolyte-grafted or "soft" nanochannels with pH-responsiveness have shown great promise for applications like manipulation of ion transport, ion sensing and selection, current rectification, and many more. In this paper, we develop a theory to study the electroosmotic transport in a polyelectrolyte-grafted (or soft) nanochannel with pH-dependent charge density. In one of our recent studies, we have identified that explicit consideration of hydrogen ion concentration is mandatory for appropriately describing the electrostatics of such systems and the resulting monomer concentration must obey a non-unique, cubic distribution. Here, we use this electrostatic calculation to study the corresponding electroosmotic transport. We establish that the effect of pH in the electroosmotic transport in polyelectrolyte-grafted nanochannels introduces two separate issues: first is the consideration of the hydrogen and hydroxyl ion concentrations in describing the electroosmotic body force, and second is the consideration of the appropriate drag force that bears the signature of this cubic monomeric distribution. Our results indicate that the strength of the electroosmotic velocity for the pH-dependent case is always smaller than that for the pH-independent case, with the extent of this difference being a function of the system parameters. Such nature of the electroosmotic transport will be extremely significant in suppressing the electroosmotic flow strength with implications in large number applications such as capillary electrophoresis induced separation, electric field mediated DNA elongation, electrophoretic DNA nanopore sequencing, and many more.

  10. Stage-Dependent Axon Transport of Proteasomes Contributes to Axon Development.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Meng-Tsung; Guo, Chin-Lin; Liou, Angela Y; Chang, Ting-Ya; Ng, Ming-Chong; Florea, Bogdan I; Overkleeft, Herman S; Wu, Yen-Lin; Liao, Jung-Chi; Cheng, Pei-Lin

    2015-11-23

    Axon extension at the growing tip requires elevated local protein supply, with a capability sustainable over long axons in varying environments. The exact mechanisms, however, remain elusive. Here we report that axon-promoting factors elicited a retrograde transport-dependent removal of proteasomes from nascent axon terminals, thereby increasing protein stability at axon tips. Such an effect occurred through phosphorylation of a dynein-interacting proteasome adaptor protein Ecm29. During the transition from immature neurites to nascent axons in cultured hippocampal neurons, live-cell imaging revealed a significant increase of the retrograde axonal transport of fluorescently labeled 20S proteasomes. This retrograde proteasome transport depended on neuron stage and increased with axon lengths. Blockade of retrograde transport caused accumulation of proteasomes, reduction of axon growth, and attenuation of growth-associated Par6 at the axon tip of newly polarized neurons. Our results delineate a regulatory mechanism that controls proteasome abundance via preferential transport required for axon development in newborn neurons. PMID:26609957

  11. Temperature-dependent thermal conductivity in silicon nanostructured materials studied by the Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Giuseppe; Esfarjani, Keivan; Strubbe, David A.; Broido, David; Kolpak, Alexie M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials exhibit low thermal conductivity because of the additional scattering due to phonon-boundary interactions. As these interactions are highly sensitive to the mean free path (MFP) of phonons, MFP distributions in nanostructures can be dramatically distorted relative to bulk. Here we calculate the MFP distribution in periodic nanoporous Si for different temperatures, using the recently developed MFP-dependent Boltzmann transport equation. After analyzing the relative contribution of each phonon branch to thermal transport in nanoporous Si, we find that at room temperature optical phonons contribute 17 % to heat transport, compared to 5 % in bulk Si. Interestingly, we observe a constant thermal conductivity over the range 200 K transport of acoustic phonons with long intrinsic MFP and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Our findings, which are in qualitative agreement with the temperature trend of thermal conductivities measured in nanoporous Si-based systems, shed light on the origin of the reduction of thermal conductivity in nanostructured materials and demonstrate the necessity of multiscale heat transport engineering, in which the bulk material and geometry are optimized concurrently.

  12. Microwave measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in accelerating fields of disk-loaded waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.; Deruyter, H.; Defa, W.

    1983-03-01

    This paper presents microwave measurements of azimuthal asymmetries in the accelerating fields of the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide. These field asymmetries lead to rf phase-dependent beam steering which can be detrimental to operation of linear accelerators in general and of the SLAC Linear Collider in particular.

  13. Proton-dependent glutamine uptake by aphid bacteriocyte amino acid transporter ApGLNT1.

    PubMed

    Price, Daniel R G; Wilson, Alex C C; Luetje, Charles W

    2015-10-01

    Aphids house large populations of the gammaproteobacterial symbiont Buchnera aphidicola in specialized bacteriocyte cells. The combined biosynthetic capability of the holobiont (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Buchnera) is sufficient for biosynthesis of all twenty protein coding amino acids, including amino acids that animals alone cannot synthesize; and that are present at low concentrations in A. pisum's plant phloem sap diet. Collaborative holobiont amino acid biosynthesis depends on glutamine import into bacteriocytes, which serves as a nitrogen-rich amino donor for biosynthesis of other amino acids. Recently, we characterized A. pisum glutamine transporter 1 (ApGLNT1), a member of the amino acid/auxin permease family, as the dominant bacteriocyte plasma membrane glutamine transporter. Here we show ApGLNT1 to be structurally and functionally related to mammalian proton-dependent amino acid transporters (PATs 1-4). Using functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, combined with two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology we demonstrate that ApGLNT1 is electrogenic and that glutamine induces large inward currents. ApGLNT1 glutamine induced currents are dependent on external glutamine concentration, proton (H+) gradient across the membrane, and membrane potential. Based on these transport properties, ApGLNT1-mediated glutamine uptake into A. pisum bacteriocytes can be regulated by changes in either proton gradients across the plasma membrane or membrane potential. PMID:26028424

  14. Energy dependence of jet transport parameter and parton saturation in quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wang Xinnian

    2008-02-15

    We study the evolution and saturation of the gluon distribution function in the quark-gluon plasma as probed by a propagating parton and its effect on the computation of jet quenching or transport parameter q-circumflex. For thermal partons, the saturation scale Q{sub s}{sup 2} is found to be proportional to the Debye screening mass {mu}{sub D}{sup 2}. For hard probes, evolution at small x=Q{sub s}{sup 2}/6ET leads to jet energy dependence of q-circumflex. We study this dependence both for a conformal gauge theory in weak and strong coupling limit and for (pure gluon) QCD. The energy dependence can be used to extract the shear viscosity {eta} of the medium, since {eta} can be related to the transport parameter for thermal partons in a transport description. We also derive upper bounds on the transport parameter for both energetic and thermal partons. The latter leads to a lower bound on the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio which is consistent with the conjectured lower bound {eta}/s{>=}1/4{pi}. We also discuss the implications of these results on the study of jet quenching at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the CERN Large Hadron Collider and the bulk properties of the dense matter.

  15. ATP-dependent bile-salt transport in canalicular rat liver plasma-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, B; O'Neill, B; Meier, P J

    1992-01-01

    The present study identifies and characterizes a novel ATP-dependent bile-salt transport system in isolated canalicular rat liver plasma-membrane (cLPM) vesicles. ATP (1-5 mM) stimulated taurocholate uptake into cLPM vesicles between 6- and 8-fold above equilibrium uptake values (overshoot) and above values for incubations in the absence of ATP. The ATP-dependent portion of taurocholate uptake was 2-fold higher in the presence of equilibrated KNO3 as compared with potassium gluconate, indicating that the stimulatory effect of ATP was not due to the generation of an intravesicular positive membrane potential. Saturation kinetics revealed a very high affinity (Km approximately 2.1 microM) of the system for taurocholate. The system could only minimally be stimulated by nucleotides other than ATP. Furthermore, it was preferentially inhibited by conjugated univalent bile salts. Further strong inhibitory effects were observed with valinomycin, oligomycin, 4,4'-di-isothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonate, sulphobromophthalein, leukotriene C4 and N-ethylmaleimide, whereas nigericin, vanadate, GSH, GSSG and daunomycin exerted only weak inhibitory effects or none at all. These results indicate the presence of a high-affinity primary ATP-dependent bile-salt transport system in cLPM vesicles. This transport system might be regulated in vivo by the number of carriers present at the perspective transport site(s), which, in addition to the canalicular membrane, might also include pericanalicular membrane vesicles. PMID:1599411

  16. Using an electronic compass to determine telemetry azimuths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.R., Jr.; Scalf, J.D.; Jamison, B.E.; Lutz, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers typically collect azimuths from known locations to estimate locations of radiomarked animals. Mobile, vehicle-mounted telemetry receiving systems frequently are used to gather azimuth data. Use of mobile systems typically involves estimating the vehicle's orientation to grid north (vehicle azimuth), recording an azimuth to the transmitter relative to the vehicle azimuth from a fixed rosette around the antenna mast (relative azimuth), and subsequently calculating an azimuth to the transmitter (animal azimuth). We incorporated electronic compasses into standard null-peak antenna systems by mounting the compass sensors atop the antenna masts and evaluated the precision of this configuration. This system increased efficiency by eliminating vehicle orientation and calculations to determine animal azimuths and produced estimates of precision (azimuth SD=2.6 deg., SE=0.16 deg.) similar to systems that required orienting the mobile system to grid north. Using an electronic compass increased efficiency without sacrificing precision and should produce more accurate estimates of locations when marked animals are moving or when vehicle orientation is problematic.

  17. Azimuthal field instability in a confined ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Eduardo O.; Miranda, Jos A.

    2015-02-01

    We report the development of interfacial ferrohydrodynamic instabilities when an initially circular bubble of a nonmagnetic inviscid fluid is surrounded by a viscous ferrofluid in the confined geometry of a Hele-Shaw cell. The fluid-fluid interface becomes unstable due to the action of magnetic forces induced by an azimuthal field produced by a straight current-carrying wire that is normal to the cell plates. In this framework, a pattern formation process takes place through the interplay between magnetic and surface tension forces. By employing a perturbative mode-coupling approach we investigate analytically both linear and intermediate nonlinear regimes of the interface evolution. As a result, useful analytical information can be extracted regarding the destabilizing role of the azimuthal field at the linear level, as well as its influence on the interfacial pattern morphology at the onset of nonlinear effects. Finally, a vortex sheet formalism is used to access fully nonlinear stationary solutions for the two-fluid interface shapes.

  18. Beam energy dependence of azimuthal anisotropy at RHIC-PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, A.

    2012-05-15

    Recent PHENIX measurements of the elliptic ({upsilon}{sub 2}) and hexadecapole ({upsilon}{sub 4}) Fourier flow coefficients for charged hadrons as a function of transverse momentum (p{sub T}), collision centrality and particle species are presented and compared with results from the PHOBOS and STAR Collaborations respectively. The status of extensions to future PHENIX measurements at lower beam energies is also discussed.

  19. Radial and Azimuthal Polarizer Using a One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal with a Patterned Liquid Crystal Defect Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagashira, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Hitoshi; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-06-01

    We propose a radial and azimuthal polarizer (RAP) using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) with a patterned liquid crystal defect layer. A concentrically aligned liquid crystal defect layer in the 1D PhC causes the defect modes to be polarized azimuthally or radially, depending on the wavelength. Switching between these two polarizations is achieved by controlling the incident light wavelength.

  20. Sodium Dependent Multivitamin Transporter (SMVT): A Potential Target for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT; product of the SLC5A6 gene) is an important transmembrane protein responsible for translocation of vitamins and other essential cofactors such as biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid. Hydropathy plot (Kyte-Dolittle algorithm) revealed that human SMVT protein consists of 635 amino acids and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl termini oriented towards the cytoplasm. SMVT is expressed in various tissues such as placenta, intestine, brain, liver, lung, kidney, cornea, retina and heart. This transporter displays broad substrate specificity and excellent capacity for utilization in drug delivery. Drug absorption is often limited by the presence of physiological (epithelial tight junctions), biochemical (efflux transporters and enzymatic degradation) and chemical (size, lipophilicity, molecular weight, charge, etc.) barriers. These barriers may cause many potential therapeutics to be dropped from the preliminary screening portfolio and subsequent entry into the market. Transporter targeted delivery has become a powerful approach to deliver drugs to target tissues because of the ability of the transporter to translocate the drug to intracellular organelles at a higher rate. This review highlights studies employing SMVT transporter as a target for drug delivery to improve bioavailability and investigate the feasibility of developing SMVT targeted drug delivery systems. PMID:22420308

  1. Measurement of plasma current dependent changes in impurity transport and comparison with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N. T.; Greenwald, M.; White, A. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Ernst, D.; Podpaly, Y.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Candy, J.

    2012-05-15

    Measured impurity transport coefficients are found to demonstrate a strong dependence on plasma current in the core of Alcator C-Mod. These measurements are compared directly with linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation in an attempt to both qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce the measured impurity transport. Discharges constituting a scan of plasma current from 0.6 to 1.2 MA were performed during the 2010 run campaign. The impurity transport from these discharges was determined using a novel set of spectroscopic diagnostics available on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic suite allowed for the effective constraint of impurity transport coefficient profiles inside of r/a = 0.6. A decrease in the measured impurity diffusivity and inward convection is found with increased plasma current. Global, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations were performed using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] for all discharges in the experimental scan and are found to reproduce the experimental trends, while demonstrating good quantitative agreement with measurement. A more comprehensive quantitative comparison was performed on the 0.8 MA discharge of the current scan which demonstrates that simultaneous agreement between experiment and simulation in both the impurity particle transport and ion heat transport channels is attainable within experimental uncertainties.

  2. Measurement of plasma current dependent changes in impurity transport and comparison with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, N. T.; Greenwald, M.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; White, A. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Ernst, D.; Podpaly, Y.; Candy, J.

    2012-05-01

    Measured impurity transport coefficients are found to demonstrate a strong dependence on plasma current in the core of Alcator C-Mod. These measurements are compared directly with linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation in an attempt to both qualitatively and quantitatively reproduce the measured impurity transport. Discharges constituting a scan of plasma current from 0.6 to 1.2 MA were performed during the 2010 run campaign. The impurity transport from these discharges was determined using a novel set of spectroscopic diagnostics available on Alcator C-Mod. This diagnostic suite allowed for the effective constraint of impurity transport coefficient profiles inside of r/a = 0.6. A decrease in the measured impurity diffusivity and inward convection is found with increased plasma current. Global, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations were performed using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] for all discharges in the experimental scan and are found to reproduce the experimental trends, while demonstrating good quantitative agreement with measurement. A more comprehensive quantitative comparison was performed on the 0.8 MA discharge of the current scan which demonstrates that simultaneous agreement between experiment and simulation in both the impurity particle transport and ion heat transport channels is attainable within experimental uncertainties.

  3. Time-dependent 2-D modeling of edge plasma transport with high intermittency due to blobs

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2012-07-15

    The results on time-dependent 2-D fluid modeling of edge plasmas with non-diffusive intermittent transport across the magnetic field (termed cross-field) based on the novel macro-blob approach are presented. The capability of this approach to simulate the long temporal evolution ({approx}0.1 s) of the background plasma and simultaneously the fast spatiotemporal dynamics of blobs ({approx}10{sup -4} s) is demonstrated. An analysis of a periodic sequence of many macro-blobs (PSMB) is given showing that the resulting plasma attains a dynamic equilibrium. Plasma properties in the dynamic equilibrium are discussed. In PSMB modeling, the effect of macro-blob generation frequency on edge plasma parameters is studied. Comparison between PSMB modeling and experimental profile data is given. The calculations are performed for the same plasma discharge using two different models for anomalous cross-field transport: time-average convection and PSMB. Parametric analysis of edge plasma variation with transport coefficients in these models is presented. The capability of the models to accurately simulate enhanced transport due to blobs is compared. Impurity dynamics in edge plasma with macro-blobs is also studied showing strong impact of macro-blob on profiles of impurity charge states caused by enhanced outward transport of high-charge states and simultaneous inward transport of low-charge states towards the core. Macro-blobs cause enhancement of sputtering rates, increase radiation and impurity concentration in plasma, and change erosion/deposition patterns.

  4. High-Throughput Screening Assay for Inhibitors of TonB-Dependent Iron Transport.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Mathew; Jordan, Lorne D; Shipelskiy, Yan; Newton, Salete M; Klebba, Phillip E

    2016-03-01

    The TonB-dependent Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane protein FepA actively transports the siderophore ferric enterobactin (FeEnt) into the periplasm. We developed a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay that observes FeEnt uptake through FepA in living Escherichia coli, by monitoring fluorescence quenching that occurs upon binding of FeEnt, and then unquenching as the bacteria deplete it from solution by transport. We optimized the labeling and spectroscopic methods to screen for inhibitors of TonB-dependent iron uptake through the outer membrane. The assay works like a molecular switch that is on in the presence of TonB activity and off in its absence. It functions in 96-well microtiter plates, in a variety of conditions, with Z factors of 0.8-1.0. TonB-dependent iron transport is energy dependent, and the inhibitory effects of the metabolic inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 2,4-dinitrophenol, azide, cyanide, and arsenate on FeEnt uptake were readily detected by the assay. Because iron acquisition is a determinant of bacterial pathogenesis, HTS with this method may identify inhibitors that block TonB function and constitute novel therapeutics against infectious disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26518031

  5. The Insertion and Transport of Anandamide in Synthetic Lipid Membranes Are Both Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Di Pasquale, Eric; Chahinian, Henri; Sanchez, Patrick; Fantini, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Background Anandamide is a lipid neurotransmitter which belongs to a class of molecules termed the endocannabinoids involved in multiple physiological functions. Anandamide is readily taken up into cells, but there is considerable controversy as to the nature of this transport process (passive diffusion through the lipid bilayer vs. involvement of putative proteic transporters). This issue is of major importance since anandamide transport through the plasma membrane is crucial for its biological activity and intracellular degradation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the involvement of cholesterol in membrane uptake and transport of anandamide. Methodology/Principal Findings Molecular modeling simulations suggested that anandamide can adopt a shape that is remarkably complementary to cholesterol. Physicochemical studies showed that in the nanomolar concentration range, anandamide strongly interacted with cholesterol monolayers at the air-water interface. The specificity of this interaction was assessed by: i) the lack of activity of structurally related unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid and arachidonic acid at 50 nM) on cholesterol monolayers, and ii) the weak insertion of anandamide into phosphatidylcholine or sphingomyelin monolayers. In agreement with these data, the presence of cholesterol in reconstituted planar lipid bilayers triggered the stable insertion of anandamide detected as an increase in bilayer capacitance. Kinetics transport studies showed that pure phosphatidylcholine bilayers were weakly permeable to anandamide. The incorporation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine bilayers dose-dependently stimulated the translocation of anandamide. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that cholesterol stimulates both the insertion of anandamide into synthetic lipid monolayers and bilayers, and its transport across bilayer membranes. In this respect, we suggest that besides putative anandamide protein-transporters, cholesterol could be an important component of the anandamide transport machinery. Finally, this study provides a mechanistic explanation for the key regulatory activity played by membrane cholesterol in the responsiveness of cells to anandamide. PMID:19330032

  6. Protein kinase C-dependent regulation of human hepatic drug transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Mayati, Abdullah; Le Vee, Marc; Moreau, Amélie; Jouan, Elodie; Bucher, Simon; Stieger, Bruno; Denizot, Claire; Parmentier, Yannick; Fardel, Olivier

    2015-12-15

    Hepatic drug transporters are now recognized as major actors of hepatobiliary elimination of drugs. Characterization of their regulatory pathways is therefore an important issue. In this context, the present study was designed to analyze the potential regulation of human hepatic transporter expression by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Treatment by the reference PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) for 48h was shown to decrease mRNA expression of various sinusoidal transporters, including OATP1B1, OATP2B1, NTCP, OCT1 and MRP3, but to increase that of OATP1B3, whereas mRNA expression of canalicular transporters was transiently enhanced (MDR1), decreased (BSEP and MRP2) or unchanged (BCRP) in human hepatoma HepaRG cells. The profile of hepatic transporter mRNA expression changes in PMA-treated HepaRG cells was correlated to that found in PMA-exposed primary human hepatocytes and was similarly observed in response to the PKC-activating marketed drug ingenol mebutate. It was associated with concomitant repression of OATP1B1 and OATP2B1 protein expression and reduction of OATP, OCT1, NTCP and MRP2 activity. The use of chemical PKC inhibitors further suggested a contribution of novel PKCs isoforms to PMA-mediated regulations of transporter mRNA expression. PMA was finally shown to cause epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HepaRG cells and exposure to various additional EMT inducers, i.e., hepatocyte growth factor, tumor growth factor-β1 or the HNF4α inhibitor BI6015, led to transporter expression alterations highly correlated to those triggered by PMA. Taken together, these data highlight PKC-dependent regulation of human hepatic drug transporter expression, which may be closely linked to EMT triggered by PKC activation. PMID:26462574

  7. Binaural Sound Localizer for Azimuthal Movement Detection Based on Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keonwook; Choi, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Sound localization can be realized by utilizing the physics of acoustics in various methods. This paper investigates a novel detection architecture for the azimuthal movement of sound source based on the interaural level difference (ILD) between two receivers. One of the microphones in the system is surrounded by barriers of various heights in order to cast the direction dependent diffraction of the incoming signal. The gradient analysis of the ILD between the structured and unstructured microphone demonstrates the rotation directions as clockwise, counter clockwise, and no rotation of the sound source. Acoustic experiments with different types of sound source over a wide range of target movements show that the average true positive and false positive rates are 67% and 16%, respectively. Spectral analysis demonstrates that the low frequency delivers decreased true and false positive rates and the high frequency presents increases of both rates, overall. PMID:23112617

  8. TIME-DEPENDENT PERPENDICULAR TRANSPORT OF FAST CHARGED PARTICLES IN A TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Fraschetti, F.; Jokipii, J. R.

    2011-06-20

    We present an analytic derivation of the temporal dependence of the perpendicular transport coefficient of charged particles in magnetostatic turbulence, for times smaller than the time needed for charged particles to travel the turbulence correlation length. This time window is left unexplored in most transport models. In our analysis all magnetic scales are taken to be much larger than the particle gyroradius, so that perpendicular transport is assumed to be dominated by the guiding center motion. Particle drift from the local magnetic field lines (MFLs) and magnetic field line random walk are evaluated separately for slab and three-dimensional (3D) isotropic turbulence. Contributions of wavelength scales shorter and longer than the turbulence coherence length are compared. In contrast to the slab case, particles in 3D isotropic turbulence unexpectedly diffuse from local MFLs; this result questions the common assumption that particle magnetization is independent of turbulence geometry. Extensions of this model will allow for a study of solar wind anisotropies.

  9. Grey transport acceleration method for time-dependent radiative transfer problems

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, E.

    1988-10-01

    A new iterative method for solving hte time-dependent multifrequency radiative transfer equations is described. The method is applicable to semi-implicit time discretizations that generate a linear steady-state multifrequency transport problem with pseudo-scattering within each time step. The standard ''lambda'' iteration method is shown to often converge slowly for such problems, and the new grey transport acceleration (GTA) method, based on accelerating the lambda method by employing a grey, or frequency-independent transport equation, is developed. The GTA method is shown, theoretically by an iterative Fourier analysis, and experimentally by numerical calculations, to converge significantly faster than the lambda method. In addition, the GTA method is conceptually simple to implement for general differencing schemes, on either Eulerian or Lagrangian meshes. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  10. Transport, metabolism, and endosomal trafficking-dependent regulation of intestinal fructose absorption.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Douard, Veronique; Yu, Shiyan; Gao, Nan; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2015-09-01

    Dietary fructose that is linked to metabolic abnormalities can up-regulate its own absorption, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not known. We hypothesized that glucose transporter (GLUT) protein, member 5 (GLUT5) is the primary fructose transporter and that fructose absorption via GLUT5, metabolism via ketohexokinase (KHK), as well as GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane via the Ras-related protein-in-brain 11 (Rab11)a-dependent endosomes are each required for regulation. Introducing fructose but not lysine and glucose solutions into the lumen increased by 2- to 10-fold the heterogeneous nuclear RNA, mRNA, protein, and activity levels of GLUT5 in adult wild-type mice consuming chow. Levels of GLUT5 were >100-fold that of candidate apical fructose transporters GLUTs 7, 8, and 12 whose expression, and that of GLUT 2 and the sodium-dependent glucose transporter protein 1 (SGLT1), was not regulated by luminal fructose. GLUT5-knockout (KO) mice exhibited no facilitative fructose transport and no compensatory increases in activity and expression of SGLT1 and other GLUTs. Fructose could not up-regulate GLUT5 in GLUT5-KO, KHK-KO, and intestinal epithelial cell-specific Rab11a-KO mice. The fructose-specific metabolite glyceraldehyde did not increase GLUT5 expression. GLUT5 is the primary transporter responsible for facilitative absorption of fructose, and its regulation specifically requires fructose uptake and metabolism and normal GLUT5 trafficking to the apical membrane. PMID:26071406

  11. Examination of temperature dependent subgroup formulations in direct whole core transport calculation for power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Y. S.; Lee, U. C.; Joo, H. G.

    2012-07-01

    The traditional subgroup method which has been applied for lattice transport calculations has an inherent limitation for non-uniform temperature distributions. As a measure to incorporate temperature dependence into the subgroup formulation, the subgroup level and number density adjustment method have been proposed. In this paper, the temperature dependent subgroup formulations employed for reflecting the non-uniform temperature effects on the resonance spatial self-shielding are examined for the whole core transport calculation with the thermal feedback. For 2D pin-cell problem with non-uniform temperature profiles, the inherent limitation of conventional subgroup method is confirmed. And the improvement in terms of reactivity is observed with the proposed adjustment scheme. For the real PWR core calculation with thermal feedback in the hot-full-power condition, the noticeable correction for the fuel temperature coefficient by about 10% more negative is obtained with the correction schemes. (authors)

  12. Time-dependent density functional theory quantum transport simulation in non-orthogonal basis

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Yan Ho; Xie, Hang; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, Guan Hua; Zheng, Xiao

    2013-12-14

    Basing on the earlier works on the hierarchical equations of motion for quantum transport, we present in this paper a first principles scheme for time-dependent quantum transport by combining time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. This scheme is beyond the wide band limit approximation and is directly applicable to the case of non-orthogonal basis without the need of basis transformation. The overlap between the basis in the lead and the device region is treated properly by including it in the self-energy and it can be shown that this approach is equivalent to a lead-device orthogonalization. This scheme has been implemented at both TDDFT and density functional tight-binding level. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate our method and comparison with wide band limit approximation is made. Finally, the sparsity of the matrices and computational complexity of this method are analyzed.

  13. Using time-dependent density functional theory in real time for calculating electronic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffhauser, Philipp; Kümmel, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme for calculating electronic transport within the propagation approach to time-dependent density functional theory. Our scheme is based on solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations on grids in real space and real time for a finite system. We use absorbing and antiabsorbing boundaries for simulating the coupling to a source and a drain. The boundaries are designed to minimize the effects of quantum-mechanical reflections and electrical polarization build-up, which are the major obstacles when calculating transport by applying an external bias to a finite system. We show that the scheme can readily be applied to real molecules by calculating the current through a conjugated molecule as a function of time. By comparing to literature results for the conjugated molecule and to analytic results for a one-dimensional model system we demonstrate the reliability of the concept.

  14. Real-space pseudopotential calculations of spin-dependent electron transport in magnetic molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhu; Chelikowsky, James R.; Neaton, J. B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2007-12-01

    A real-space pseudopotential approach is developed to calculate the spin-dependent transport in nanoscale junctions. Our method is based on self-consistent solution of the Kohn-Sham equation of density functional theory with asymptotic boundary conditions. This method is applied to a simple magnetic molecule, the Sc dimer, bridging nonmagnetic, planar jellium electrodes for a series of molecule-lead spacing. We find that the spin-dependent conductance within this formalism is rather robust over a wide range of electronic coupling parameters. The minority channel of parallel-aligned Sc2 produces a fairly stable conductance of roughly half of a quantum unit (e2/h) . Other systems show sensitive dependence on the coupling strength. Atomic origins of the dependence are discussed.

  15. pH-dependent transport of metals through a reactive porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present a study on the effect of pH-dependent adsorption and hydrodynamic dispersion on metal transport through a reactive porous medium with hydrophilic surface. We investigate how the migration of a certain fraction of a metal can be facilitated by its competitive adsorption with protons. We performed laboratory experiments using a chromatographic column filled with silica beads coated with hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and flooded initially with an acidic solution (pH 3) and then with an alkaline solution (pH > 7) containing either sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, or barium cations. Concentrations were chosen for which nonclassical transport is predicted. Highly resolved breakthrough curves measured with inline ion chromatography allowed us to observe in all cases the formation of a fast wave/pulse traveling at the interstitial fluid velocity and a retarded front. Classical theory of reactive transport through porous media predicts the formation of only the retarded front and assumes that hydrodynamic dispersion only smooths it without introducing an additional wave. Therefore, the fast wave is a notable exception to this theory. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is due to the interplay between hydrodynamic dispersion and pH-dependent adsorption. Hydrodynamic dispersion broadens the metal concentration front at the inlet of the column and creates a mixing zone where the high-pH solution containing the metal mixes with the low-pH solution initially present in the system. The resulting pH of the mixing zone spans a range where both the adsorption and the retardation of the metal are negligible. This leads to the formation of a metal plume, which then separates from the retarded front traveling at the interstitial fluid velocity as an isolated pulse. This fast transport phenomenon operates independently of other modes of rapid transport, such as colloid-facilitated transport and flow in fractures. A one-dimensional reactive transport model for an incompressible fluid was developed combining surface complexation with mass conservation equations for a solute and the acidity (difference between the total proton and the hydroxide concentrations). In all cases, the model agrees with the measurements capturing the underlying physics of the overall transport behavior and it shows the identity of the cation affects the behavior quantitatively but not qualitatively. This indicates that the formation of the fast pulse is a general transport phenomenon. Its potential effects are on the performance of subsurface engineering infrastructures for pollutant containment, the mobilization of metal contaminants by brine acidified upon contact with CO2 during geologic carbon storage, and the chromatographic separation processes in industrial applications.

  16. Characterization of Energy-Dependent Ca2+ Transport in Maize Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Elzam, O. E.; Hodges, T. K.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental conditions which optimize both substrate- and ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in corn (Zea mays) mitochondria have been determined. It has been found that a substrate (pyruvate + succinate) dependent, Pi independent, binding of Ca2+ occurs. This reaction is very rapid and complete in less than 30 seconds. For massive accumulation of calcium, Pi is essential. Phosphate is accumulated along with the calcium and the ratio of Ca:Pi accumulated is about 1.6:1 indicating the precipitation of hydroxyapatite inside the mitochondria. The activation energies and Michaelis constants for both the substrate- and ATP-driven reactions have been determined. It has also been shown that the substrate-driven system is more efficient in Ca2+ accumulation than the ATP-driven system. This is partially due to the fact that Mg2+ is essential for the ATP-driven system but not for the substrate-driven system and that Mg2+ acts as a strong competitor of Ca2+ transport. The effect of other inorganic ions on Ca2+ transport energized by both substrate and ATP were examined. The results lend support to the hypothesis that high energy intermediates of oxidative phosphorylation participate directly in Ca2+ binding and transport in plant mitochondria. PMID:16656889

  17. Parametric dependence of particle pinch coefficients for electron particle transport in linear gyrokinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Fable, E.; Sauter, O.; Angioni, C.

    2008-11-01

    Peaked density profiles are observed in the core of Tokamak plasmas in regimes where the core particle sources and neoclassical transport are negligible. Gyrokinetic theory predicts that microinstabilities can produce a net inward particle convection balancing outward diffusion and thus explaining the experimental observations. In this work we present a general methodology that allows to calculate the particle pinch coefficients, i.e. the off-diagonal elements of the transport matrix. We adopt this procedure to perform a systematic study of the parametric dependence of these coefficients for electron particle transport in different plasma conditions. Once the coefficients are computed, one can reconstruct the predicted gradient and compare with the experimental observations in regimes with parameters similar to the ones employed in these calculations. The procedure can predict the density logarithmic gradient at zero particle flux in a self-consistent way, based on first principles. The results can be helpful in understanding the possible range of variation of the predicted gradients as a function of the main plasma parameters and in clarifying the relevant dependencies for electrons. Finally, as instructive example, we discuss how this procedure can effectively help to interpret measurements of peaked density profiles in TCV electron Internal Transport Barriers and the significant thermodiffusive inward convection that is observed.

  18. Green's function of the time-dependent radiative transport equation in terms of rotated spherical harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemert, Andr; Kienle, Alwin

    2012-09-01

    The time-dependent radiative transport equation is solved for the three-dimensional spatially uniform infinite medium which is illuminated by a point unidirectional source using a spherical harmonics transform under rotation. Apart from the numerical evaluation of a spherical Hankel transform which connects the spatial distance with the radial distance in Fourier space, the dependence on all variables is found analytically. For the special case of a harmonically modulated source, even the spherical Hankel transform can be carried out analytically. Additionally, a special solution for the isotropically scattering infinite medium is given. The Monte Carlo method is used for a successful verification of the derived solution.

  19. Temperature dependent spin transport properties of platinum inferred from spin Hall magnetoresistance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Sibylle Althammer, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B.; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-06-16

    We study the temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet/platinum hybrid structures via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance measurements. Our experiments show a decrease of the SMR magnitude with decreasing temperature. Using the sensitivity of the SMR to the spin transport properties of the normal metal, we interpret our data in terms of a decrease of the spin Hall angle in platinum from 0.11 at room temperature to 0.075 at 10 K, while the spin diffusion length and the spin mixing conductance of the ferrimagnetic insulator/normal metal interface remain almost constant.

  20. Time-Dependent DIII-D Heat Transport Simulations Using Neural-Network Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, J. M.; Smith, S. P.; Meneghini, O.; Luna, C. J.

    2014-10-01

    The neural network transport model BRAINFUSE has been developed to produce transport fluxes based on local parameters. The BRAIN-FUSE model has been integrated into the transport modeling framework ONETWO in order to develop time dependent solutions and has been validated by artificially varying the input neutral beam power and comparing the output to DIII-D scans. These efforts have led to the development of a time-dependent workflow within the OMFIT integrated modeling framework. The new work flow can evolve the electron and ion temperatures as a function of time dependent sources and equilibria. The effects of different engineering parameters can be explored and optimized in support of DIII-D operations. The efficiency of this workflow enables planning plasma operations of next-day experiments, as will be required for ITER. Work supported in part by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235 & DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  1. Ochratoxin A secretion by ATP-dependent membrane transporters in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, Jan; Lektarau, Yuri; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2006-05-01

    The ATP-dependent membrane transporters, P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP, localized in the luminal membranes of the intestines, liver and kidney, counteract absorption and increase excretion of xenobiotics and drugs. Previously, it has been suggested that the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a substrate for ATP-dependent transporters, and hence the absorption and secretion of OTA in the Caco-2 cell model was investigated. To this end, Caco-2 cells were cultured as confluent monolayers in bicameral inserts and the transepithelial transport of the mycotoxin was assessed. Caco-2 cells secreted OTA to the luminal side in a concentration-dependent manner. This secretory permeability was higher than the absorptive permeability, while the absorptive permeability remained constant for all OTA concentrations tested. The secretion decreased and absorption increased in the presence of the MRP-inhibitor MK571, the P-gp and BCRP inhibitor GF120918, and the BCRP-inhibitor Ko143, suggesting that the secretion of OTA is mediated by MRP2 and BCRP. Cyclosporine A also decreased the secretory permeability, but did not affect absorptive permeability, while PSC833 did neither change absorption nor secretion of OTA. Hence it can be suggested that OTA is a substrate for MRP2 as well as BCRP. These findings are of interest in evaluating mycotoxin absorption after oral ingestion, tissue distribution and particularly excretion pathways, including renal, biliary and mammary gland excretion. PMID:16244858

  2. Temperature-dependent electrical transport in ferroelectric organic field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudari, Amrit; Guha, Suchismita

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric dielectrics, permitting access to nearly an order of magnitude range of polarization with temperature as the tuning parameter, offer a great test-bed to monitor the changes in interfacial transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as the polarization strength is tuned. Temperature-dependent transport studies have been carried out from pentacene and other organic semiconductor-based OFETs using the ferroelectric copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFe) as a gate insulating layer. By fits to an Arrhenius-type dependence of the charge carrier mobility as a function of temperature, the activation energy in the ferroelectric phase is found to increase as the thickness of the PVDF-TrFe layer increases. For thicknesses of the dielectric layer above 100 nm, the activation energy is found to be greater than 150 meV, which greatly reduces in the paraelectric phase of the dielectric. The weak temperature-dependence of the charge carrier mobility in the ferroelectric phase of PVDF-TrFe may be attributed to a polarization fluctuation driven transport. The threshold voltage decreases upon increasing temperatures with a large change above the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition temperature. This work was supported by National Science Foundation under Grant No. ECCS-1305642.

  3. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/ (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer.

  4. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ?2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  5. VACUUM calculation in azimuthally symmetric geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chance, M.S.

    1996-11-01

    A robustly accurate and effective method is presented to solve Laplace`s equation in general azimuthally symmetric geometry for the magnetic scalar potential in the region surrounding a plasma discharge which may or may not contain external conducting shells. These shells can be topologically toroidal or spherical, and may have toroidal gaps in them. The solution is incorporated into the various MHD stability codes either through the volume integrated perturbed magnetic energy in the vacuum region or through the continuity requirements for the normal component of the perturbed magnetic field and the total perturbed pressure across the unperturbed plasma-vacuum boundary. The method is based upon using Green`s second identity and the method of collocation. As useful byproducts, the eddy currents and the simulation of Mirnov loop measurements are calculated.

  6. N-Glycosylation is required for Na{sup +}-dependent vitamin C transporter functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Veedamali S. Marchant, Jonathan S.; Reidling, Jack C.; Said, Hamid M.

    2008-09-12

    The human sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters (hSVCT1 and hSVCT2) mediate cellular uptake of ascorbic acid. Both these transporters contain potential sites for N-glycosylation in their extracellular domains (Asn-138, Asn-144 [hSVCT1]; Asn-188, Asn-196 [hSVCT2]), however the role of N-glycosylation in transporter function is unexplored. On the basis of the result that tunicamycin decreased {sup 14}C-ascorbic acid uptake in HepG2 cells, we systematically ablated all consensus N-glycosylation sites in hSVCT1 and hSVCT2 to resolve any effects on ascorbic acid uptake, transporter expression and targeting. We show that removal of individual N-glycosylation sites significantly impairs protein expression and consequently ascorbic acid uptake for hSVCT1 mutants (N138Q is retained intracellularly) and for hSVCT2 mutants (all of which reach the cell surface). N-Glycosylation is therefore essential for vitamin C transporter functionality.

  7. Modeling ballistic effects in frequency-dependent transient thermal transport using diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Understanding ballistic phonon transport effects in transient thermoreflectance experiments and explaining the observed deviations from classical theory remains a challenge. Diffusion equations are simple and computationally efficient but are widely believed to break down when the characteristic length scale is similar or less than the phonon mean-free-path. Building on our prior work, we demonstrate how well-known diffusion equations, namely, the hyperbolic heat equation and the Cattaneo equation, can be used to model ballistic phonon effects in frequency-dependent periodic steady-state thermal transport. Our analytical solutions are found to compare excellently to rigorous numerical results of the phonon Boltzmann transport equation. The correct physical boundary conditions can be different from those traditionally used and are paramount for accurately capturing ballistic effects. To illustrate the technique, we consider a simple model problem using two different, commonly used heating conditions. We demonstrate how this framework can easily handle detailed material properties, by considering the case of bulk silicon using a full phonon dispersion and mean-free-path distribution. This physically transparent approach provides clear insights into the nonequilibrium physics of quasi-ballistic phonon transport and its impact on thermal transport properties.

  8. Genome-wide Analysis of AP-3dependent Protein Transport in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vikram C.; Daboussi, Lydia; Lorenz, Todd C.

    2009-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved adaptor protein-3 (AP-3) complex mediates cargo-selective transport to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. To identify proteins that function in AP-3mediated transport, we performed a genome-wide screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for defects in the vacuolar maturation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a cargo of the AP-3 pathway. Forty-nine gene deletion strains were identified that accumulated precursor ALP, many with established defects in vacuolar protein transport. Maturation of a vacuolar membrane protein delivered via a separate, clathrin-dependent pathway, was affected in all strains except those with deletions of YCK3, encoding a vacuolar type I casein kinase; SVP26, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export receptor for ALP; and AP-3 subunit genes. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy revealed ALP transport defects in yck3? cells. Characterization of svp26? cells revealed a role for Svp26p in ER export of only a subset of type II membrane proteins. Finally, ALP maturation kinetics in vac8? and vac17? cells suggests that vacuole inheritance is important for rapid generation of proteolytically active vacuolar compartments in daughter cells. We propose that the cargo-selective nature of the AP-3 pathway in yeast is achieved by AP-3 and Yck3p functioning in concert with machinery shared by other vacuolar transport pathways. PMID:19116312

  9. Cathode Work Function Dependence of Electron Transport Efficiency through Buffer Layer in Organic Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oida, Tatsuya; Harafuji, Kenji

    2012-09-01

    An electron transport mechanism through a cathode buffer layer of organic solar cells is experimentally investigated. Inverted organic solar cells with the structure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/thin cathode metal/bathocuproine (BCP)/fullerene (C60)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/pentacene/Ag (anode) are examined. A new model, in that electrons are transported across the BCP buffer layer not through defect states but over the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), is proposed. That is, the defect state density in the BCP layer is not important for electron transport, though the hopping transport model via the defect states is widely accepted. The transport efficiency is sensitive to the cathode work function (WFC). As WFC decreases, the energy difference between the BCP LUMO and the cathode Fermi level decreases. This introduces a low electronic potential barrier height from the cathode to the acceptor. The low WFC is thus important to achieve a low series resistance. Furthermore, the dependence of WFC on barrier height is also confirmed for tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum buffer.

  10. Substrate-Dependent Ligand Inhibition of the Human Organic Cation Transporter OCT2

    PubMed Central

    Belzer, Mathew; Morales, Mark; Jagadish, Bhumasamudram; Mash, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates the initial step in renal secretion of organic cations: uptake from the blood, across the basolateral membrane, and into the renal proximal tubule cells. Because of its potential as a target for unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considerable attention has been directed toward understanding the basis of OCT2 selectivity. These studies typically assess selectivity based on ligand inhibition profiles for OCT2-mediated transport of a probe substrate. However, little attention has been given to the potential influence of the substrate on the profile of ligand inhibition. Here we compared the IC50 values obtained for a set of structurally distinct inhibitors against OCT2-mediated transport of three structurally distinct substrates: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP); metformin; and a novel fluorescent substrate, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[methyl(7-nitrobenzo[c][l,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)amino]ethanaminium iodide (NBD-MTMA). The median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 9-fold higher than that for inhibition of metformin transport. Similarly, the median IC50 value for inhibition of MPP transport was 5-fold higher than that for NBD-MTMA transport. However, this was not a systematic difference in inhibitory efficacy; the ratio of IC50 values, MPP versus NBD-MTMA, ranged from 88-fold (ipratropium) to 0.3-fold (metformin). These data show that 1) the choice of OCT2 substrate significantly influences both quantitative and qualitative inhibitory interactions with cationic drugs; and 2) ligand interactions with OCT2 are not restricted to competition for a common ligand binding site, consistent with a binding surface characterized by multiple, possibly overlapping interaction sites. Development of predictive models of DDIs with OCT2 must take into account the substrate dependence of ligand interaction with this protein. PMID:23709117

  11. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions And Their Impact on Radionuclide Transport - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-06-30

    Matrix diffusion and adsorption within a rock matrix are widely regarded as important mechanisms for retarding the transport of radionuclides and other solutes in fractured rock (e.g., Neretnieks, 1980; Tang et al., 1981; Maloszewski and Zuber, 1985; Novakowski and Lapcevic, 1994; Jardine et al., 1999; Zhou and Xie, 2003; Reimus et al., 2003a,b). When remediation options are being evaluated for old sources of contamination, where a large fraction of contaminants reside within the rock matrix, slow diffusion out of the matrix greatly increases the difficulty and timeframe of remediation. Estimating the rates of solute exchange between fractures and the adjacent rock matrix is a critical factor in quantifying immobilization and/or remobilization of DOE-relevant contaminants within the subsurface. In principle, the most rigorous approach to modeling solute transport with fracture-matrix interaction would be based on local-scale coupled advection-diffusion/dispersion equations for the rock matrix and in discrete fractures that comprise the fracture network (Discrete Fracture Network and Matrix approach, hereinafter referred to as DFNM approach), fully resolving aperture variability in fractures and matrix property heterogeneity. However, such approaches are computationally demanding, and thus, many predictive models rely upon simplified models. These models typically idealize fracture rock masses as a single fracture or system of parallel fractures interacting with slabs of porous matrix or as a mobile-immobile or multi-rate mass transfer system. These idealizations provide tractable approaches for interpreting tracer tests and predicting contaminant mobility, but rely upon a fitted effective matrix diffusivity or mass-transfer coefficients. However, because these fitted parameters are based upon simplified conceptual models, their effectiveness at predicting long-term transport processes remains uncertain. Evidence of scale dependence of effective matrix diffusion coefficients obtained from tracer tests highlights this point and suggests that the underlying mechanisms and relationship between rock and fracture properties are not fully understood in large complex fracture networks. In this project, we developed a high-resolution DFN model of solute transport in fracture networks to explore and quantify the mechanisms that control transport in complex fracture networks and how these may give rise to observed scale-dependent matrix diffusion coefficients. Results demonstrate that small scale heterogeneity in the flow field caused by local aperture variability within individual fractures can lead to long-tailed breakthrough curves indicative of matrix diffusion, even in the absence of interactions with the fracture matrix. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial scale dependence of these processes highlights the inability of short-term tracer tests to estimate transport parameters that will control long-term fate and transport of contaminants in fractured aquifers.

  12. Global Upper Mantle Azimuthal Anisotropy From Probabilistic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.

    2014-12-01

    The new model of Yuan and Beghein (2013), hereafter YBaniSV13, is the first global model to constrain 3-D azimuthal anisotropy in the deep upper mantle. It is compatible with previous models in the uppermost 200km of the mantle, but also displays 1% anisotropy above, inside, and below the Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ). Another interesting characteristic of this model is the change in fast seismic direction detected, on average, at ~250km depth and at the MTZ boundaries. These results have important consequences for our understanding of mantle deformation and convection patterns in the mantle. It is therefore important to assess the robustness if these features. We already tested that the model does not strongly depend on the reference 1-D mantle model, on the presence of discontinuities in this reference model, or on the crustal model and Moho depth used to calculate the laterally varying partial derivatives. In this work, we apply a model space approach, the Neighborhood Algorithm (NA) of Sambridge (1999), to determine quantitative model uncertainties and parameter trade-offs. First, the NA generates an ensemble of models with a sampling density that increases toward the best fitting regions of the model space, and then performs a Bayesian appraisal of the models obtained that allows us to determine the likelihood of azimuthal anisotropy in different region of Earth's interior. Such approaches have the advantage of sampling the model null-space, and therefore provide more reliable model uncertainties than traditional inverse techniques. We use YBaniSV13 as initial model, and search the model space around it, allowing for large enough deviations to test the robustness of the anisotropy amplitude. We compare results from a model space search based on the chi-square misfit and from a model space search based on the variance reduction, which is another useful measure of data fit that is independent of data uncertainties. Preliminary results for the chi-square driven search show that most likely model that is close to YBaniSV13, but uncertainties are rather large even in the shallow mantle where azimuthal anisotropy is usually considered to be well-resolved.

  13. Functional Implications and Ubiquitin-Dependent Degradation of the Peptide Transporter Ptr2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Ken; Moriya, Atsuto; Uemura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The peptide transporter Ptr2 plays a central role in di- or tripeptide import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although PTR2 transcription has been extensively analyzed in terms of upregulation by the Ubr1-Cup9 circuit, the structural and functional information for this transporter is limited. Here we identified 14 amino acid residues required for peptide import through Ptr2 based on the crystallographic information of Streptococcus thermophilus peptide transporter PepTst and based on the conservation of primary sequences among the proton-dependent oligopeptide transporters (POTs). Expression of Ptr2 carrying one of the 14 mutations of which the corresponding residues of PepTst are involved in peptide recognition, salt bridge interaction, or peptide translocation failed to enable ptr2?trp1 cell growth in alanyl-tryptophan (Ala-Trp) medium. We observed that Ptr2 underwent rapid degradation after cycloheximide treatment (half-life, approximately 1 h), and this degradation depended on Rsp5 ubiquitin ligase. The ubiquitination of Ptr2 most likely occurs at the N-terminal lysines 16, 27, and 34. Simultaneous substitution of arginine for the three lysines fully prevented Ptr2 degradation. Ptr2 mutants of the presumed peptide-binding site (E92Q, R93K, K205R, W362L, and E480D) exhibited severe defects in peptide import and were subjected to Rsp5-dependent degradation when cells were moved to Ala-Trp medium, whereas, similar to what occurs in the wild-type Ptr2, mutant proteins of the intracellular gate were upregulated. These results suggest that Ptr2 undergoes quality control and the defects in peptide binding and the concomitant conformational change render Ptr2 subject to efficient ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. PMID:25172766

  14. Study on the azimuth bearing scheme of a large Alt-azimuth telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huai; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Shuang

    2010-05-01

    The azimuth bearing schemes in typical large Alt-azimuth telescopes, especially the 3.5-m APO telescope and the 4.1-m SOAR telescope were analyzed. A scheme of high-angular contacted thrust ball bearing integrated with a radial ball bearing was put forward. According to the Hertz contact theory, the corresponding parameters were designed for engineering application. The static performance parameters, within the range of 60 ~ 85 original contact angle were calculated. Compared with the traditional plane thrust ball bearing, the results shows that the high-angular (?>80) contact thrust ball bearing has more benefits at bearing strength and rigidity for large telescope. The ?1500mm diameter prototyping bearing shows good performance, including the axial jitter is 0.009mm, the radial jitter is 0.006mm, the maximum starting torque without load is 30Nm, and the load capacity is more than 30t, which offers advanced technique path for the buildup of the high precision azimuth shafting and the whole telescope system.

  15. The Molecular Mechanism of Ion-Dependent Gating in Secondary Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Noskov, Sergei Yu.

    2013-01-01

    LeuT-like fold Na-dependent secondary active transporters form a large family of integral membrane proteins that transport various substrates against their concentration gradient across lipid membranes, using the free energy stored in the downhill concentration gradient of sodium ions. These transporters play an active role in synaptic transmission, the delivery of key nutrients, and the maintenance of osmotic pressure inside the cell. It is generally believed that binding of an ion and/or a substrate drives the conformational dynamics of the transporter. However, the exact mechanism for converting ion binding into useful work has yet to be established. Using a multi-dimensional path sampling (string-method) followed by all-atom free energy simulations, we established the principal thermodynamic and kinetic components governing the ion-dependent conformational dynamics of a LeuT-like fold transporter, the sodium/benzyl-hydantoin symporter Mhp1, for an entire conformational cycle. We found that inward-facing and outward-facing states of Mhp1 display nearly the same free energies with an ion absent from the Na2 site conserved across the LeuT-like fold transporters. The barrier separating an apo-state from inward-facing or outward-facing states of the transporter is very low, suggesting stochastic gating in the absence of ion/substrate bound. In contrast, the binding of a Na2 ion shifts the free energy stabilizing the outward-facing state and promoting substrate binding. Our results indicate that ion binding to the Na2 site may also play a key role in the intracellular thin gate dynamics modulation by altering its interactions with the transmembrane helix 5 (TM5). The Potential of Mean Force (PMF) computations for a substrate entrance displays two energy minima that correspond to the locations of the main binding site S1 and proposed allosteric S2 binding site. However, it was found that substrate's binds to the site S1 ?5 kcal/mol more favorable than that to the site S2 for all studied bound combinations of ions and a substrate. PMID:24204233

  16. Temperature dependence of ion and water transport in perfluorinated ionomer membranes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Morihiro; Hayamizu, Kikuko; Okada, Tatsuhiro

    2005-03-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of transport of ions and water molecules in perfluorosulfonated ionomer membranes for fuel cells, the temperature dependence of their transport behaviors was investigated in detail. Two types of Flemion membranes having different equivalent weight values (EW) were utilized along with Nafion 117 as the perfluorinated ionomer membranes, and H-, Li-, and Na-form samples were prepared for each membrane by immersion in 0.03 M HCl, LiCl, and NaCl aqueous solutions, respectively. The ionic conductivity, water self-diffusion coefficient (D(H)(2)(O)), and DSC were measured in the fully hydrated state as a function of temperature. The ionic conductivity of the membranes was reflected by the cation transport through the intermediary of water. Clearly, H(+) transports by the Grotthuss (hopping) mechanism, and Li(+) and Na(+) transport by the vehicle mechanism. The differences of the ion transport mechanisms were observed in the activation energies through the Arrhenius plots. The D(H)(2)(O) in the membranes exhibited a tendency similar to the ionic conductivity for the cation species and the EW value. However, no remarkable difference of D(H)(2)(O) between H- and the other cation-form membranes was observed as compared with the ionic conductivity. It indicates that water in each membrane diffuses almost in a similar way; however, H(+) transports by the Grotthuss mechanism so that conductivity of H(+) is much higher than that of the other cations. Moreover, the D(H)(2)(O) and DSC curves showed that a part of water in the membranes freezes around -20 degrees C, but the nonfreezing water remains and diffuses below that temperature. This fact suggests that completely free water (bulk water) does not exist in the membranes, and water weakly interacting with the cation species and the sulfonic acid groups in secondary and higher hydration shells freezes around -20 degrees C, while strongly binding water in primary hydration shells does not freeze. The ratio of freezing and nonfreezing water was estimated from the DSC curves. The D(H)(2)(O) in the membranes was found to be influenced by the ratio of freezing and nonfreezing water. DFT calculation of the interaction (solvation) energy between the cation species and water molecules suggested that the water content and the ratio of freezing and nonfreezing water depend strongly on the cation species penetrated into the membrane. PMID:16851330

  17. Transition to magnetorotational turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, A.; Willis, A. P.; Hollerbach, R.; Avila, M.

    2015-09-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to be a powerful source of turbulence and momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs, but obtaining observational evidence of its operation is challenging. Recently, laboratory experiments of Taylor-Couette flow with externally imposed axial and azimuthal magnetic fields have revealed the kinematic and dynamic properties of the MRI close to the instability onset. While good agreement was found with linear stability analyses, little is known about the transition to turbulence and transport properties of the MRI. We here report on a numerical investigation of the MRI with an imposed azimuthal magnetic field. We show that the laminar Taylor-Couette flow becomes unstable to a wave rotating in the azimuthal direction and standing in the axial direction via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Subsequently, the flow features a catastrophic transition to spatio-temporal defects which is mediated by a subcritical subharmonic Hopf bifurcation. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the PROMISE experiment and dramatically extend their realizable parameter range. We find that as the Reynolds number increases defects accumulate and grow into turbulence, yet the momentum transport scales weakly.

  18. Dissecting in vivo steady-state dynamics of karyopherin-dependent nuclear transport

    PubMed Central

    Lolodi, Ogheneochukome; Yamazaki, Hiroya; Otsuka, Shotaro; Kumeta, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Shige H.

    2016-01-01

    Karyopherin-dependent molecular transport through the nuclear pore complex is maintained by constant recycling pathways of karyopherins coupled with the Ran-dependent cargo catch-and-release mechanism. Although many studies have revealed the bidirectional dynamics of karyopherins, the entire kinetics of the steady-state dynamics of karyopherin and cargo is still not fully understood. In this study, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence loss in photobleaching on live cells to provide convincing in vivo proof that karyopherin-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport of cargoes is bidirectional. Continuous photobleaching of the cytoplasm of live cells expressing NLS cargoes led to progressive decrease of nuclear fluorescence signals. In addition, experimentally obtained kinetic parameters of karyopherin complexes were used to establish a kinetic model to explain the entire cargo import and export transport cycles facilitated by importin β. The results strongly indicate that constant shuttling of karyopherins, either free or bound to cargo, ensures proper balancing of nucleocytoplasmic distribution of cargoes and establishes effective regulation of cargo dynamics by RanGTP. PMID:26538027

  19. Energy dependence of jet transport parameter and parton saturationin quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2007-06-24

    We study the evolution and saturation of the gluondistribution function in the quark-gluon plasma as probed by apropagating parton and its effect on the computation of jet quenching ortransport parameter $\\hat q $. For thermal partons, the saturation scale$Q2_s$ is found to be proportional to the Debye screening mass $\\mu_D2$.For hard probes, evolution at small $x=Q2_s/6ET$ leads to jet energydependence of hat q. We study this dependence for both a conformal gaugetheory in weak and strong coupling limit and for (pure gluon) QCD. Theenergy dependence can be used to extract the shear viscosity $\\eta$ ofthe medium since $\\eta$ can be related to the transport parameter forthermal partons in a transport description. We also derive upper boundson the transport parameter for both energetic and thermal partons. Thelater leads to a lower bound on shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratiowhich is consistent with the conjectured lower bound $\\eta/s\\geq 1/4\\pi$.Implications on the study of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC and the bulkproperties of the dense matter are discussed.

  20. Structure and mechanism of a bacterial sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Mancusso, Romina; Gregorio, G. Glenn; Liu, Qun; Wang, Da-Neng

    2013-01-01

    In human cells, cytosolic citrate is a major precursor for the synthesis of fatty acids, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Cytosolic citrate further regulates the cell’s energy balance by activating the fatty acid synthesis pathway while down-regulating both the glycolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation pathways (Supplementary Fig. 1) 1–4. The rate of fatty acid synthesis in liver and adipose cells, the two major tissue types for such synthesis, correlates directly with the concentration of citrate in the cytosol 2–5. The cytosolic citrate concentration partially depends on direct import across the plasma membrane via the Na+-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT) 6,7. Mutations of the homologous fly gene (INDY, I’m Not Dead Yet) result in reduced fat storage through calorie restriction 8. More recently, NaCT-knockout mice have been found to have increased hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, higher lipid oxidation and energy expenditure, and reduced lipogenesis, which taken together protect the mice from obesity and insulin resistance 9. To understand the transport mechanism of NaCT/INDY proteins, here we report the 3.2 Å crystal structure of a bacterial INDY homolog. One citrate molecule and one sodium ion are bound per protein, and their binding sites are defined by conserved amino acid motifs, forming the structural basis for understanding the transporters’ specificity. Comparison of the structures of the two symmetrical halves of the transporter suggests conformational changes that propel substrate translocation. PMID:23086149

  1. Z dependence of the core impurity transport in ASDEX Upgrade H mode discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dux, R.; Peeters, A. G.; Gude, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Neu, R.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    1999-11-01

    The dependence of core plasma impurity transport on the Z number has been investigated for ASDEX Upgrade H mode discharges. For the elements Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe the diffusion coefficient in the centre is D <= 6 10-2m2/s and rises with the radial distance from the centre. With increasing Z number the transport becomes strongly convective with inward directed drift velocities that produce very peaked impurity densities for high Z. The inward drift decreases with decreasing deuterium density gradient. Neoclassical transport of the impurities has been calculated numerically. The calculated diffusion coefficient and drift velocity are close to the experimental values for the lower-Z elements Ne and Ar. However, for high Z, the calculated diffusion coefficient is smaller by a factor of up to 2.5 and the inward drift velocity is too small by a factor of 10. Toroidal rotation of the plasma that leads to an increased impurity density on the outboard side of the flux surfaces is not taken into account by the neoclassical calculations. Inboard/outboard asymmetries are not present for Ar and Ne with toroidal Mach number Mtor around 1. However, for heavier elements than Kr with Mtor approx 2 and an outboard/inboard ratio of approx 1.5, poloidal variation of the impurity density is important and might account for the discrepancy between the measured and calculated transport coefficients.

  2. Reconstitution and characterization of ATP-dependent bile acid transport in human and rat placenta.

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, P; Marin, J J; Beveridge, M J; Novak, D A

    1995-01-01

    Bile acid (BA) transport across the human microvillus maternal-facing trophoblast plasma membrane (mTPM) has been recently reported to be stimulated by the presence of ATP [Marin, Bravo, El-Mir and Serrano (1993) J. Hepatol. 18, S41]. Reconstitution of BA transport activity in proteoliposomes from human mTPM is reported in this paper. Typical characteristics of BA transport in native mTPM vesicles, including a requirement for ATP hydrolysis and inhibition by other BA species, were preserved in proteoliposome preparations. BA transport into 20- and 14-day-gestation rat mTPM vesicles was also stimulated by the presence of ATP as noted in human mTPM and in the rat liver canalicular membrane. Besides this functional similarity, these ATP-dependent carriers may share structural characteristics, as demonstrated by studies using an antibody (100 Ab) raised against the 100 kDa BA carrier of the canalicular membrane from rat liver which recognized proteins in both human and rat brush-border trophoblast membranes. Images Figure 2 PMID:7487884

  3. Proton Gradients and Proton-Dependent Transport Processes in the Chloroplast

    PubMed Central

    Höhner, Ricarda; Aboukila, Ali; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Venema, Kees

    2016-01-01

    Proton gradients are fundamental to chloroplast function. Across thylakoid membranes, the light induced -proton gradient is essential for ATP synthesis. As a result of proton pumping into the thylakoid lumen, an alkaline stromal pH develops, which is required for full activation of pH-dependent Calvin Benson cycle enzymes. This implies that a pH gradient between the cytosol (pH 7) and the stroma (pH 8) is established upon illumination. To maintain this pH gradient chloroplasts actively extrude protons. More than 30 years ago it was already established that these proton fluxes are electrically counterbalanced by Mg2+, K+, or Cl- fluxes, but only recently the first transport systems that regulate the pH gradient were identified. Notably several (Na+,K+)/H+ antiporter systems where identified, that play a role in pH gradient regulation, ion homeostasis, osmoregulation, or coupling of secondary active transport. The established pH gradients are important to drive uptake of essential ions and solutes, but not many transporters involved have been identified to date. In this mini review we summarize the current status in the field and the open questions that need to be addressed in order to understand how pH gradients are maintained, how this is interconnected with other transport processes and what this means for chloroplast function. PMID:26973667

  4. Surface Charge- and Space-Dependent Transport of Proteins in Crowded Environments of Nanotailored Posts

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Chang Kyoung; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Retterer, Scott T; Siuti, Piro; Iyer, Sukanya; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    The reaction and diffusion of molecules across barriers and through crowded environments is integral to biological system function and to separation technologies. Ordered, microfabricated post arrays are a promising route to creating synthetic barriers with controlled chemical and physical characteristics. They can be used to create crowded environments, to mimic aspects of cellular membranes, and to serve as engineered replacements of polymer-based separation media. Here, the translational diffusion of fluorescein isothiocyante and various forms of green fluorescent protein (GFP), including 'supercharged' variants, are examined in a silicon-based post array environment. The technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) is combined with analytical approximations and numerical simulations to assess the relative effects of reaction and diffusion on molecular transport, respectively. FRAP experiments were conducted for 64 different cases where the molecular species, the density of the posts, and the chemical surface charge of the posts were varied. In all cases, the dense packing of the posts hindered the diffusive transport of the fluorescent species. The supercharged GFPs strongly interacted with oppositely charged surfaces. With similar molecular and surface charges, transport is primarily limited by hindered diffusion. For conventional, enhanced GFP in a positively charged surface environment, transport was limited by the coupled action of hindered diffusion and surface interaction with the posts. Quantification of the size-, space-, time-, and charge-dependent translational diffusion in the post array environments can provide insight into natural processes and guide the design and development of selective membrane systems.

  5. Na -dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-10-05

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo (3,2,1)octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo (2,2,1)heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system.

  6. Spin dependent transport in diluted magnetic semiconductor/superconductor tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, A. A.; Negarestani, S.

    2014-12-01

    A modification of Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) model is proposed to describe transport properties of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS)/superconductor(SC)/DMS double tunneling junctions. Coherent spin-polarized transport is studied by taking into account the Andreev reflection on spatial variation of SC barrier parameters in the heterostructure. It is shown that the conductance spectrum exhibits an oscillatory behavior with quasi-particle energy, and the oscillation amplitude is reduced with increasing temperature. We also examine the dependence of tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) on the barrier strength (?) and spin polarization (P) of two DMS layers. Our results show that TMR decreases with increasing temperature and barrier strength, which may be useful in designing the nano spin-valve devices based on DMS and SC materials.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of sodium-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporter 1 protein in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hyun; Oh, Chang Seok; Mun, Ga Hee; Kim, Jae Hyup; Chung, Yoon Hee; Hwang, Young Il; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Wang Jae

    2006-10-01

    Recently, two L-ascorbic acid transporters were identified; sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter (SVCT) 1 and SVCT2. The previous study suggested that SVCT protein might be present on the apical membrane in the straight segment (S3) of proximal tubule. In the present study, SVCT1 immunoreactivity (IR) was observed in the brush border of proximal straight tubules in the medullary ray of renal cortex and the outer stripe of outer medulla, while SVCT2 IR was not localized in any region of the kidney. Since the mechanism of VC reabsorption in the kidney has not been fully elucidated up to the present time, it is meaningful to demonstrate the exact cellular distribution of SVCT protein in the kidney. PMID:16673096

  8. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory: Quantum interference and phonon induced decoherence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yam, ChiYung; Chen, GuanHua

    2015-04-28

    A time-dependent inelastic electron transport theory for strong electron-phonon interaction is established via the equations of motion method combined with the small polaron transformation. In this work, the dissipation via electron-phonon coupling is taken into account in the strong coupling regime, which validates the small polaron transformation. The corresponding equations of motion are developed, which are used to study the quantum interference effect and phonon-induced decoherence dynamics in molecular junctions. Numerical studies show clearly quantum interference effect of the transport electrons through two quasi-degenerate states with different couplings to the leads. We also found that the quantum interference can be suppressed by the electron-phonon interaction where the phase coherence is destroyed by phonon scattering. This indicates the importance of electron-phonon interaction in systems with prominent quantum interference effect. PMID:25933746

  9. Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory: Quantum interference and phonon induced decoherence dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu Chen, GuanHua; Yam, ChiYung

    2015-04-28

    A time-dependent inelastic electron transport theory for strong electron-phonon interaction is established via the equations of motion method combined with the small polaron transformation. In this work, the dissipation via electron-phonon coupling is taken into account in the strong coupling regime, which validates the small polaron transformation. The corresponding equations of motion are developed, which are used to study the quantum interference effect and phonon-induced decoherence dynamics in molecular junctions. Numerical studies show clearly quantum interference effect of the transport electrons through two quasi-degenerate states with different couplings to the leads. We also found that the quantum interference can be suppressed by the electron-phonon interaction where the phase coherence is destroyed by phonon scattering. This indicates the importance of electron-phonon interaction in systems with prominent quantum interference effect.

  10. Numerical solution of the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    This study presents three numerical algorithms to solve the time dependent neutron transport equation by the method of the characteristics. The algorithms have been developed taking into account delayed neutrons and they have been implemented into the novel MCART code, which solves the neutron transport equation for two-dimensional geometry and an arbitrary number of energy groups. The MCART code uses regular mesh for the representation of the spatial domain, it models up-scattering, and takes advantage of OPENMP and OPENGL algorithms for parallel computing and plotting, respectively. The code has been benchmarked with the multiplication factor results of a Boiling Water Reactor, with the analytical results for a prompt jump transient in an infinite medium, and with PARTISN and TDTORT results for cross section and source transients. The numerical simulations have shown that only two numerical algorithms are stable for small time steps.

  11. Kinesin-1-syntaphilin coupling mediates activity-dependent regulation of axonal mitochondrial transport.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanmin; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2013-07-22

    Axonal mitochondria are recruited to synaptic terminals in response to neuronal activity, but the mechanisms underlying activity-dependent regulation of mitochondrial transport are largely unknown. In this paper, using genetic mouse model combined with live imaging, we demonstrate that syntaphilin (SNPH) mediates the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria through binding to KIF5. In vitro analysis showed that the KIF5-SNPH coupling inhibited the motor adenosine triphosphatase. Neuronal activity further recruited SNPH to axonal mitochondria. This motor-docking interplay was induced by Ca(2+) and synaptic activity and was necessary to establish an appropriate balance between motile and stationary axonal mitochondria. Deleting snph abolished the activity-dependent immobilization of axonal mitochondria. We propose an "Engine-Switch and Brake" model, in which SNPH acts both as an engine off switch by sensing mitochondrial Rho guanosine triphosphatase-Ca(2+) and as a brake by anchoring mitochondria to the microtubule track. Altogether, our study provides new mechanistic insight into the molecular interplay between motor and docking proteins, which arrests axonal mitochondrial transport in response to changes in neuronal activity. PMID:23857772

  12. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sporsheim, Bjørnar; Øverby, Anders; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-01-01

    Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system. PMID:26690132

  13. Saturation Dependence of Transport in Porous Media Predicted by Percolation and Effective Medium Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarian, Behzad; Hunt, Allen G.; Skinner, Thomas E.; Ewing, Robert P.

    2015-02-01

    Accurate prediction of the saturation dependence of different modes of transport in porous media, such as those due to conductivity, air permeability, and diffusion, is of broad interest in engineering and natural resources management. Most current predictions use a "bundle of capillary tubes" concept, which, despite its widespread use, is a severely distorted idealization of natural porous media. In contrast, percolation theory provides a reliable and powerful means to model interconnectivity of disordered networks and porous materials. In this study, we invoke scaling concepts from percolation theory and effective medium theory to predict the saturation dependence of modes of transport hydraulic and electrical conductivity, air permeability, and gas diffusion in two disturbed soils. Universal scaling from percolation theory predicts the saturation dependence of air permeability and gas diffusion accurately, even when the percolation threshold for airflow is estimated from the porosity. We also find that the non-universal scaling obtained from the critical path analysis (CPA) of percolation theory can make excellent predictions of hydraulic and electrical conductivity under partially saturated conditions.

  14. Overexpression of the Auxin Binding PROTEIN1 Modulates PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Čovanová, Milada; Sauer, Michael; Rychtář, Jan; Friml, Jiří; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) is a putative auxin receptor and its function is indispensable for plant growth and development. ABP1 has been shown to be involved in auxin-dependent regulation of cell division and expansion, in plasma-membrane-related processes such as changes in transmembrane potential, and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the ABP1-regulated downstream pathway remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Using auxin transport assays and quantitative analysis of cellular morphology we show that ABP1 regulates auxin efflux from tobacco BY-2 cells. The overexpression of ABP1can counterbalance increased auxin efflux and auxin starvation phenotypes caused by the overexpression of PIN auxin efflux carrier. Relevant mechanism involves the ABP1-controlled vesicle trafficking processes, including positive regulation of endocytosis of PIN auxin efflux carriers, as indicated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and pharmacological manipulations. Conclusions/Significance The findings indicate the involvement of ABP1 in control of rate of auxin transport across plasma membrane emphasizing the role of ABP1 in regulation of PIN activity at the plasma membrane, and highlighting the relevance of ABP1 for the formation of developmentally important, PIN-dependent auxin gradients. PMID:23894588

  15. Application of the multigrid amplitude function method for time-dependent transport equation using MOC

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujita, K.; Endo, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    2013-07-01

    An efficient numerical method for time-dependent transport equation, the mutigrid amplitude function (MAF) method, is proposed. The method of characteristics (MOC) is being widely used for reactor analysis thanks to the advances of numerical algorithms and computer hardware. However, efficient kinetic calculation method for MOC is still desirable since it requires significant computation time. Various efficient numerical methods for solving the space-dependent kinetic equation, e.g., the improved quasi-static (IQS) and the frequency transform methods, have been developed so far mainly for diffusion calculation. These calculation methods are known as effective numerical methods and they offer a way for faster computation. However, they have not been applied to the kinetic calculation method using MOC as the authors' knowledge. Thus, the MAF method is applied to the kinetic calculation using MOC aiming to reduce computation time. The MAF method is a unified numerical framework of conventional kinetic calculation methods, e.g., the IQS, the frequency transform, and the theta methods. Although the MAF method is originally developed for the space-dependent kinetic calculation based on the diffusion theory, it is extended to transport theory in the present study. The accuracy and computational time are evaluated though the TWIGL benchmark problem. The calculation results show the effectiveness of the MAF method. (authors)

  16. Variable-range hopping transport: crossovers from temperature dependence to electric field dependence in disordered carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheah, Chun Y.; Kaiser, Alan B.

    2014-04-01

    Variable-range hopping (VRH) is an important conduction mechanism in disordered conductors. One example of such a disordered conductor is reduced graphene oxide in which VRH dominates the temperature dependence of electronic conduction. Electronic transport is generally by electric field-assisted, thermally-driven VRH, following the theory of Mott, and Pollak and Riess. However, with the increase of electric field and decrease of temperature, we identify a surprisingly smooth crossover to solely field-driven VRH described by the theory of Shklovskii. We give the analytic expression for the crossover field E_C as a function of temperature and coefficients from thermally-driven and field-driven VRH. Besides reduced graphene oxide, we show in this work that our crossover scenario can also account for the experimentally measured conductivity data of three-dimensional (3D) carbon networks as well as that of quasi-1D highly-doped conducting polymers, illustrating the wide validity of our proposed physical scenario. Our crossover scenario has the advantage of combining two distinct regimes of VRH conduction yet remaining within the currently established theoretical framework.

  17. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, Ezekial A

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  18. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    SciTech Connect

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Hollmann, E. M.; Rognlien, T. D.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, E.

    2014-06-15

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  19. Multi-fluid transport code modeling of time-dependent recycling in ELMy H-mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigarov, A. Yu.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Rognlien, T. D.; Hollmann, E. M.; Lasnier, C. J.; Unterberg, E.

    2014-06-01

    Simulations of a high-confinement-mode (H-mode) tokamak discharge with infrequent giant type-I ELMs are performed by the multi-fluid, multi-species, two-dimensional transport code UEDGE-MB, which incorporates the Macro-Blob approach for intermittent non-diffusive transport due to filamentary coherent structures observed during the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) and simple time-dependent multi-parametric models for cross-field plasma transport coefficients and working gas inventory in material surfaces. Temporal evolutions of pedestal plasma profiles, divertor recycling, and wall inventory in a sequence of ELMs are studied and compared to the experimental time-dependent data. Short- and long-time-scale variations of the pedestal and divertor plasmas where the ELM is described as a sequence of macro-blobs are discussed. It is shown that the ELM recovery includes the phase of relatively dense and cold post-ELM divertor plasma evolving on a several ms scale, which is set by the transport properties of H-mode barrier. The global gas balance in the discharge is also analyzed. The calculated rates of working gas deposition during each ELM and wall outgassing between ELMs are compared to the ELM particle losses from the pedestal and neutral-beam-injection fueling rate, correspondingly. A sensitivity study of the pedestal and divertor plasmas to model assumptions for gas deposition and release on material surfaces is presented. The performed simulations show that the dynamics of pedestal particle inventory is dominated by the transient intense gas deposition into the wall during each ELM followed by continuous gas release between ELMs at roughly a constant rate.

  20. Novel anion dependence of induced cation transport in malaria-infected erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K; Horner, H A

    1995-10-13

    Following invasion by the malaria parasite there appear in the parasitized erythrocyte new ("induced") permeation pathways that mediate the transport of a wide variety of small solutes. Although anion-selective, these pathways have a significant cation permeability and cause a substantial increase in the basal leak of cations into and out of the infected cell. In this study of human erythrocytes infected in vitro with Plasmodium falciparum it was shown that the transport of monovalent cations (Rb+ and choline), but not that of a nonelectrolyte (sorbitol) or a monovalent anion (lactate), via the malaria-induced pathways is strongly dependent on the nature of the anion in the suspending medium. Substitution of NO3- for Cl- resulted in a 4-6-fold increase in the unidirectional influx and efflux of Rb+, and a 2-3-fold increase in the influx of choline via the induced pathways. By contrast, replacement of Cl- with NO3- caused a slight (although not significant) decrease in the malaria-induced influx of sorbitol and lactate. Hemolysis experiments with a range of K+ salts revealed that the net influx of K+ into infected cells showed the same novel anion dependence as seen for the unidirectional flux of Rb+ and choline, with hemolysis occurring much faster in iso-osmotic KNO3 and KSCN solutions than in KCl, KBr, or KI solutions. Hemolysis in the corresponding Na+ salt solutions was very much slower, consistent with the induced pathways being selective for K+ over Na+, and raising the possibility that the efflux of cell K+ via these pathways may play a role in host cell volume regulation. A number of models that would account for the anion dependence of malaria-induced cation transport are considered. PMID:7592635

  1. NHERF1 Regulation of PTH-dependent Bimodal Pi Transport in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Yang, Yanmei; Liu, Li; Blair, Harry C.; Friedman, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Control of systemic inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels is crucial for osteoid mineralization. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) mediates actions on phosphate homeostasis mostly by regulating the activity of the type 2 sodium-phosphate cotransporter (Npt2), and this action requires the PDZ protein NHERF1. Osteoblasts express Npt2 and in response to PTH enhance osteogenesis by increasing mineralized matrix. The regulation of Pi transport in osteoblasts is poorly understood. To address this gap we characterized PTH-dependent Pi transport and the role of NHERF1 in primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts. Under proliferating conditions osteoblasts express Npt2a, Npt2b, PTH receptor, and NHERF1. Npt2a mRNA expression was lower in calvarial osteoblasts from NHERF1-null mice. Under basal conditions Pi uptake in osteoblasts from wild-type mice was greater than that of knockout mice. PTH inhibited Pi uptake in proliferating osteoblasts from wild-type mice, but not in cells from knockout mice. In vitro induction of mineralization enhanced osteoblast differentiation and increased osterix and osteocalcin expression. Contrary to the results with proliferating osteoblasts, PTH increased Pi uptake and ATP secretion in differentiated osteoblasts from wild-type mice. PTH had no effect on Pi uptake or ATP release in differentiated osteoblasts from knockout mice. NHERF1 regulation of PTH-sensitive Pi uptake in proliferating osteoblasts is mediated by cAMP/PKA and PLC/PKC, while modulation of Pi uptake in differentiated osteoblasts depends only on cAMP/PKA signaling. The results suggest that NHERF1 cooperates with PTH in differentiated osteoblasts to increase matrix mineralization. We conclude that NHERF1 regulates PTH differentially affects Na-dependent Pi transport at distinct stages of osteoblast proliferation and maturation. PMID:23046970

  2. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport in time-dependent blood flow past fiber rectangular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierenberg, Jennifer R.; Fujioka, Hideki; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Grotberg, James B.

    2009-03-01

    The influence of time-dependent flows on oxygen and carbon dioxide transport for blood flow past fiber arrays arranged in in-line and staggered configurations was computationally investigated as a model for an artificial lung. Both a pulsatile flow, which mimics the flow leaving the right heart and passing through a compliance chamber before entering the artificial lung, and a right ventricular flow, which mimics flow leaving the right heart and directly entering the artificial lung, were considered in addition to a steady flow. The pulsatile flow was modeled as a sinusoidal perturbation superimposed on a steady flow while the right ventricular flow was modeled to accurately depict the period of flow acceleration (increasing flow) and deceleration (decreasing flow) during systole followed by zero flow during diastole. It was observed that the pulsatile flow yielded similar gas transport as compared to the steady flow, while the right ventricular flow resulted in smaller gas transport, with the decrease increasing with Re. The pressure drop across the fiber array (a measure of the resistance), work (an indicator of the work required of the right heart), and shear stress (a measure of potential blood cell activation and damage) are lowest for steady flow, followed by pulsatile flow, and then right ventricular flow. The pressure drop, work, shear stress, and Sherwood numbers (a measure of the gas transport efficiency) decrease with increasing porosity and are smaller for AR <1 as compared to AR >1 (AR is the distance between fibers in the flow direction/distance between fibers in direction perpendicular to flow), although for small porosities the Sherwood numbers are of similar magnitude. In general, for any fiber array geometry, high pressure drop, work, and shear stresses correlate with high Sherwood numbers, and low pressure drop, work, and shear stresses correlate with low Sherwood numbers creating a need for a compromise between pressure drop/work/shear stresses and gas transport.

  3. Regulation of glomerulotubular balance. III. Implication of cytosolic calcium in flow-dependent proximal tubule transport.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhaopeng; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Weinstein, Alan M; Wang, Tong

    2015-04-15

    In the proximal tubule, axial flow (drag on brush-border microvilli) stimulates Na(+) and HCO3 (-) reabsorption by modulating both Na/H exchanger 3 (NHE3) and H-ATPase activity, a process critical to glomerulotubular balance. We have also demonstrated that blocking the angiotensin II receptor decreases baseline transport, but preserves the flow effect; dopamine leaves baseline fluxes intact, but abrogates the flow effect. In the current work, we provide evidence implicating cytosolic calcium in flow-dependent transport. Mouse proximal tubules were microperfused in vitro at perfusion rates of 5 and 20 nl/min, and reabsorption of fluid (Jv) and HCO3 (-) (JHCO3) were measured. We examined the effect of high luminal Ca(2+) (5 mM), 0 mM Ca(2+), the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), and the Ca-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin. In control tubules, increasing perfusion rate from 5 to 20 nl/min increased Jv by 62% and JHCO3 by 104%. With respect to Na(+) reabsorption, high luminal Ca(2+) decreased transport at low flow, but preserved the flow-induced increase; low luminal Ca(2+) had little impact; both BAPTA and 2-APB had no effect on baseline flux, but abrogated the flow effect; thapsigargin decreased baseline flow, leaving the flow effect intact. With respect to HCO3 (-) reabsorption, high luminal Ca(2+) decreased transport at low flow and mildly diminished the flow-induced increase; low luminal Ca(2+) had little impact; both BAPTA and 2-APB had no effect on baseline flux, but abrogated the flow effect. These data implicate IP3 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling as a critical step in transduction of microvillous drag to modulate Na(+) and HCO3 (-) transport. PMID:25651568

  4. Mass transport subject to time-dependent flow with nonuniform sorption in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nel, Marie-Christine; Zoia, Andrea; Joelson, Maminirina

    2009-11-01

    We address the description of solutes flow with trapping processes in porous media. Starting from a small-scale model for tracer particle trajectories, we derive the corresponding governing equations for the concentration of the mobile and immobile phases within a fractal mobile-immobile model approach. We show that this formulation is fairly general and can easily take into account nonconstant coefficients and in particular space-dependent sorption rates. The transport equations are solved numerically and a comparison with Monte Carlo particle-tracking simulations of spatial contaminant profiles and breakthrough curves is proposed, so as to illustrate the obtained results.

  5. Selective sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 inhibitors block glucose absorption and impair glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide release.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Robert L; Greenway, Frank L; Chen, Lihong; Liu, Yaping; Breed, Sharon L; Andrews, Susan M; Wald, Jeffrey A; Walker, Ann; Smith, Chari D

    2015-06-01

    GSK-1614235 and KGA-2727 are potent, selective inhibitors of the SGLT1 sodium-dependent glucose transporter. Nonclinical (KGA-2727) and clinical (GSK-1614235) trials assessed translation of SGLT1 inhibitor effects from rats to normal human physiology. In rats, KGA-2727 (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle was given before oral administration of 3-O-methyl-α-d-glucopyranose (3-O-methylglucose, 3-OMG) containing 3-[3H]OMG tracer. Tracer absorption and distribution were assessed from plasma, urine, and fecal samples. SGLT1 inhibition reduced urine 3-OMG recovery and increased fecal excretion. SGLT1 inhibitor effects on plasma glucose, insulin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were also measured during a standard meal. Incremental glucose, insulin, and GIP concentrations were decreased, indicating downregulation of β-cell and K cell secretion. Minimal effects were observed in the secretion of the L cell product, GLP-1. With the use of a three-way, crossover design, 12 healthy human subjects received placebo or 20 mg GSK-1614235 immediately before or after a meal. Five minutes into the meal, 3-OMG was ingested. Postmeal dosing had little impact, yet premeal dosing delayed and reduced 3-OMG absorption, with an AUC0-10 of 231±31 vs. 446±31 μg·h(-1)·ml(-1), for placebo. Recovery of tracer in urine was 1.2±0.7 g for premeal dosing and 2.2±0.1 g for placebo. Incremental concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, and GIP were reduced for 2 h with premeal GSK-1614235. Total GLP-1 concentrations were significantly increased, and a trend for increased peptide YY (PYY) was noted. SGLT1 inhibitors block intestinal glucose absorption and reduce GIP secretion in rats and humans, suggesting SGLT1 glucose transport is critical for GIP release. Conversely, GLP-1 and PYY secretion are enhanced by SGLT1 inhibition in humans. PMID:25767259

  6. Spin-dependent electron transport in zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Simchi, Hamidreza; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi Mazidabadi, Hossein

    2014-01-28

    The spin-dependent electron transport properties of zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules connected to zigzag graphene leads are studied in the zero bias regime using the non-equilibrium Green's function method. The conductance of the adenine molecule increased and became spin-dependent when a zinc or manganese atom was doped into the molecules. The effects of a transverse electric field on the spin-polarization of the transmitted electrons were investigated and the spin-polarization was controlled by changing the transverse electric field. Under the presence of a transverse electric field, both the zinc- and manganese-doped adenine molecules acted as spin-filters. The maximum spin-polarization of the manganese-doped adenine molecule was greater than the molecule doped with zinc.

  7. Long-range azimuthal correlations in protonproton and protonnucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam

    2014-11-04

    In this study, we show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest partonparton cross-section of ? = 1.5 3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in protonproton and protonnucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  8. Constraining Data Mining with Physical Models: Voltage- and Oxygen Pressure-Dependent Transport in Multiferroic Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Strelcov, Evgheni; Belianinov, Alexei; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chu, Ying-Hao; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-10-14

    Development of new generation electronic devices necessitates understanding and controlling the electronic transport in ferroic, magnetic, and optical materials, which is hampered by two factors. First, the complications of working at the nanoscale, where interfaces, grain boundaries, defects, and so forth, dictate the macroscopic characteristics. Second, the convolution of the response signals stemming from the fact that several physical processes may be activated simultaneously. Here, we present a method of solving these challenges via a combination of atomic force microscopy and data mining analysis techniques. Rational selection of the latter allows application of physical constraints and enables direct interpretation of the statistically significant behaviors in the framework of the chosen physical model, thus distilling physical meaning out of raw data. We demonstrate our approach with an example of deconvolution of complex transport behavior in a bismuth ferrite-cobalt ferrite nanocomposite in ambient and ultrahigh vacuum environments. Measured signal is apportioned into four electronic transport patterns, showing different dependence on partial oxygen and water vapor pressure. These patterns are described in terms of Ohmic conductance and Schottky emission models in the light of surface electrochemistry. Furthermore, deep data analysis allows extraction of local dopant concentrations and barrier heights empowering our understanding of the underlying dynamic mechanisms of resistive switching. PMID:26312554

  9. Charge-dependent transport switching of single molecular ions in a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    PubMed

    Tauzin, Lawrence J; Shuang, Bo; Kisley, Lydia; Mansur, Andrea P; Chen, Jixin; de Leon, Al; Advincula, Rigoberto C; Landes, Christy F

    2014-07-22

    The tunable nature of weak polyelectrolyte multilayers makes them ideal candidates for drug loading and delivery, water filtration, and separations, yet the lateral transport of charged molecules in these systems remains largely unexplored at the single molecule level. We report the direct measurement of the charge-dependent, pH-tunable, multimodal interaction of single charged molecules with a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, a 10 bilayer film of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) PAA/PAH. Using fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking, two modes of interaction were detected: (1) adsorption, characterized by the molecule remaining immobilized in a subresolution region and (2) diffusion trajectories characteristic of hopping (D ∼ 10(-9) cm(2)/s). Radius of gyration evolution analysis and comparison with simulated trajectories confirmed the coexistence of the two transport modes in the same single molecule trajectories. A mechanistic explanation for the probe and condition mediated dynamics is proposed based on a combination of electrostatics and a reversible, pH-induced alteration of the nanoscopic structure of the film. Our results are in good agreement with ensemble studies conducted on similar films, confirm a previously-unobserved hopping mechanism for charged molecules in polyelectrolyte multilayers, and demonstrate that single molecule spectroscopy can offer mechanistic insight into the role of electrostatics and nanoscale tunability of transport in weak polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:24960617

  10. Charge-Dependent Transport Switching of Single Molecular Ions in a Weak Polyelectrolyte Multilayer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The tunable nature of weak polyelectrolyte multilayers makes them ideal candidates for drug loading and delivery, water filtration, and separations, yet the lateral transport of charged molecules in these systems remains largely unexplored at the single molecule level. We report the direct measurement of the charge-dependent, pH-tunable, multimodal interaction of single charged molecules with a weak polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, a 10 bilayer film of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) PAA/PAH. Using fluorescence microscopy and single-molecule tracking, two modes of interaction were detected: (1) adsorption, characterized by the molecule remaining immobilized in a subresolution region and (2) diffusion trajectories characteristic of hopping (D ? 109 cm2/s). Radius of gyration evolution analysis and comparison with simulated trajectories confirmed the coexistence of the two transport modes in the same single molecule trajectories. A mechanistic explanation for the probe and condition mediated dynamics is proposed based on a combination of electrostatics and a reversible, pH-induced alteration of the nanoscopic structure of the film. Our results are in good agreement with ensemble studies conducted on similar films, confirm a previously-unobserved hopping mechanism for charged molecules in polyelectrolyte multilayers, and demonstrate that single molecule spectroscopy can offer mechanistic insight into the role of electrostatics and nanoscale tunability of transport in weak polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:24960617

  11. Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Yan, Renhong; Zhang, Xi; Chu, Qi; Shi, Yigong

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic bacteria, exemplified by Escherichia coli, rely on acid-resistance systems (ARs) to survive the acidic environment of the stomach. AR3 consumes intracellular protons through decarboxylation of arginine (Arg) in the cytoplasm and exchange of the reaction product agmatine (Agm) with extracellular Arg. The latter process is mediated by the Arg:Agm antiporter AdiC, which is activated in response to acidic pH and remains fully active at pH 6.0 and below. Despite our knowledge of structural information, the molecular mechanism by which AdiC senses acidic pH remains completely unknown. Relying on alanine-scanning mutagenesis and an in vitro proteoliposome-based transport assay, we have identified Tyr74 as a critical pH sensor in AdiC. The AdiC variant Y74A exhibited robust transport activity at all pH values examined while maintaining stringent substrate specificity for Arg:Agm. Replacement of Tyr74 by Phe, but not by any other amino acid, led to the maintenance of pH-dependent substrate transport. These observations, in conjunction with structural information, identify a working model for pH-induced activation of AdiC in which a closed conformation is disrupted by cation? interactions between proton and the aromatic side chain of Tyr74. PMID:25136114

  12. Transport of Sulfide-Reduced Graphene Oxide in Saturated Quartz Sand: Cation-Dependent Retention Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tianjiao; Fortner, John D; Zhu, Dongqiang; Qi, Zhichong; Chen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    We describe how the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) via environmentally relevant pathways affects its transport behavior in porous media. A pair of sulfide-reduced GOs (RGOs), prepared by reducing 10 mg/L GO with 0.1 mM Na2S for 3 and 5 days, respectively, exhibited lower mobility than did parent GO in saturated quartz sand. Interestingly, decreased mobility cannot simply be attributed to the increased hydrophobicity and aggregation upon GO reduction because the retention mechanisms of RGOs were highly cation-dependent. In the presence of Na(+) (a representative monovalent cation), the main retention mechanism was deposition in the secondary energy minimum. However, in the presence of Ca(2+) (a model divalent cation), cation bridging between RGO and sand grains became the most predominant retention mechanism; this was because sulfide reduction markedly increased the amount of hydroxyl groups (a strong metal-complexing moiety) on GO. When Na(+) was the background cation, increasing pH (which increased the accumulation of large hydrated Na(+) ions on grain surface) and the presence of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) significantly enhanced the transport of RGO, mainly due to steric hindrance. However, pH and SRHA had little effect when Ca(2+) was the background cation because neither affected the extent of cation bridging that controlled particle retention. These findings highlight the significance of abiotic transformations on the fate and transport of GO in aqueous systems. PMID:26348539

  13. Azimuthal anisotropy in U+U collisions at STAR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hui; Sorensen, Paul

    2014-10-06

    The azimuthal anisotropy of particle production is commonly used in high-energy nuclear collisions to study the early evolution of the expanding system. The prolate shape of uranium nuclei makes it possible to study how the geometry of the colliding nuclei affects #12;final state anisotropies. It also provides a unique opportunity to understand how entropy is produced in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, the two- and four- particle cumulant v2 (v2{2} and v2{4}) from U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV for inclusive charged hadrons will be presented. The STAR Zero Degreemore »Calorimeters are used to select very central collisions. Differences were observed between the multiplicity dependence of v2{2} for most central Au+Au and U+U collisions. The multiplicity dependence of v2{2} in central collisions were compared to Monte Carlo Glauber model predictions and it was seen that this model cannot explain the present results. (auth)« less

  14. Azimuthal anisotropy in U+U collisions at STAR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Hui; Sorensen, Paul

    2014-10-06

    The azimuthal anisotropy of particle production is commonly used in high-energy nuclear collisions to study the early evolution of the expanding system. The prolate shape of uranium nuclei makes it possible to study how the geometry of the colliding nuclei affects #12;final state anisotropies. It also provides a unique opportunity to understand how entropy is produced in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, the two- and four- particle cumulant v2 (v2{2} and v2{4}) from U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV for inclusive charged hadrons will be presented. The STAR Zero Degreemore » Calorimeters are used to select very central collisions. Differences were observed between the multiplicity dependence of v2{2} for most central Au+Au and U+U collisions. The multiplicity dependence of v2{2} in central collisions were compared to Monte Carlo Glauber model predictions and it was seen that this model cannot explain the present results. (auth)« less

  15. Azimuthal anisotropy in U+U collisions at STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hui; Sorensen, Paul

    2014-10-06

    The azimuthal anisotropy of particle production is commonly used in high-energy nuclear collisions to study the early evolution of the expanding system. The prolate shape of uranium nuclei makes it possible to study how the geometry of the colliding nuclei affects #12;final state anisotropies. It also provides a unique opportunity to understand how entropy is produced in heavy ion collisions. In this paper, the two- and four- particle cumulant v2 (v2{2} and v2{4}) from U+U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV and Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV for inclusive charged hadrons will be presented. The STAR Zero Degree Calorimeters are used to select very central collisions. Differences were observed between the multiplicity dependence of v2{2} for most central Au+Au and U+U collisions. The multiplicity dependence of v2{2} in central collisions were compared to Monte Carlo Glauber model predictions and it was seen that this model cannot explain the present results. (auth)

  16. pH-dependent transport of metal cations in porous media.

    PubMed

    Prigiobbe, Valentina; Bryant, Steven L

    2014-04-01

    We study the effect of pH-dependent adsorption and hydrodynamic dispersion on cation transport through a reactive porous medium with a hydrophilic surface. We investigate how competitive adsorption between a proton and a metal (which in some situations of practical interest may also be a radionuclide) can facilitate the migration of a certain fraction of the latter. We performed laboratory experiments using a chromatographic column filled with silica beads coated with iron oxide and flooded initially with an acidic solution (pH ? 3) and then with an alkaline solution (pH > 7) containing either sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, or barium. The composition of each injected solution was chosen to represent one of two possible theoretical predictions, either a retarded shock and a fast pulse, that is, traveling at the interstitial fluid velocity, or only a retarded shock. Highly resolved breakthrough curves measured with inline ion chromatography allowed us to observe in all cases agreement with theoretical predictions, including numerous observations of a fast pulse. The fast pulse is the result of the interaction between pH-dependent adsorption and hydrodynamic dispersion and has previously been observed in systems with strontium. Here, we show the fast pulse arises also in the case of other cations allowing a generalization of the physical mechanism underlying this phenomenon and consideration of it as a new fast transport behavior. A one-dimensional reactive transport model for an incompressible fluid was developed combining surface complexation with mass conservation equations for a solute and the acidity (difference between the total proton and hydroxide concentration). In all cases, the model agrees with the measurements capturing the underlying physics of the overall transport behavior. Our results suggest that the interplay between pH-dependent adsorption and hydrodynamic dispersion can give rise to the rapid migration of metals through reactive porous media with potential effects on, for example, the performance of subsurface engineering infrastructures for pollutant containment, the mobilization of metal contaminants by brine acidified upon contact with CO2 during geologic carbon storage, and the chromatographic separation processes in industrial applications. PMID:24564735

  17. Temperature Dependent Transport of Two-Dimensional Electrons in the Integral Quantum Hall Regime.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsuang-Ping

    This thesis is concerned with the temperature (T) dependent electronic transport properties of a two dimensional electron gas subject to background potential fluctuations and a perpendicular magnetic field. We have carried out an extensive temperature dependent study of the transport coefficients, in the region of an integral quantum plateau, in an In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP heterostructure for 4.2K < T < 50K. By assuming a simple thermal activation picture, we demonstrate a quantitative deduction of the electron density of states. Our results indicate that there exists a significant number of states (1 x 10('10)cm(' -2)meV('-1)) even at the middle between two Landau levels, which is unexpected from model calculations based on short ranged randomness. In addition, the different T dependent behavior of (rho)(,xx) between the states in the tails and those near the center of a Landau level, indicates the existence of different electron states in a Landau level. Moreover, we have performed T dependent trans- port measurements in the transition region between two quantum plateaus, in several different materials. In the In(,x)Ga(,1-x)As/InP sample, when T(, )> 4K, the transport behavior can be attributed to the T dependent distribution function. When T(, )< 4K, our experi- mental T-driven (sigma)(,xx) vs. (sigma)(,xy) flow diagram is consistent with the pre- dicted theoretical renormalization group flow diagram, and suggests the existence of a critical point related to the localization to delocali- zation transition. However, in the GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As samples there is a difference in the T dependent behavior of (sigma)(,xx), between N = 1(UPARR) and 1(DARR) electrons. First, (sigma)(,xx)(1(UPARR)) decreases with decreasing T; whereas (sigma)(,xx)(1(DARR)) increases with decreasing T for 0.3K(, )< T < 4.2K. Second, (sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(DARR)) ('(TURN)) 3(sigma)(,xx)('max) (1(UPARR)) at T('(TURN))0.5K in all of our samples. These results indicate the existence of spin dependent scattering in GaAs/ Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As sample. Furthermore the (sigma)(,xx)('max) value in our GaAs/ Al(,x)Ga(,1-x)As samples is found to be smaller than 30% of the value calculated from SCBA, at T('(TURN))4.2K. Finally, in the weak localization regime (B('(TURN))0), our magneto-transport data, in a GaAs/Al(,x)Ga(,1 -x)As sample with a split gate on top, is consistent with 1D localization theory. The extracted l(,in) as a function of (sigma) supports the theory for electron-electron scattering in a weakly disordered system.

  18. Spin-dependent electron transport in a Rashba quantum wire with rough edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, X. B.; Li, H. L.; Zhou, G. H.; Liu, N. H.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin-dependent electron transport in a Rashba quantum wire with rough edges. The charge and spin conductances are calculated as function of the electron energy and wire length by adopting the spin-resolved lattice Green function method. For a single disordered Rashba wire, it is found that the charge conductance quantization is destroyed by the edge disorder. However, a nonzero spin conductance can be generated and its amplitude can be manipulated by varying the wire length, which is attributed to the broken structure symmetries and the spin-dependent quantum interference induced by the rough boundaries. For a large ensemble of disordered Rashba wires, the average charge conductance decreases monotonically, however, the average spin conductance increases to a maximum value and then decreases, with increasing wire length. Further study shows that the influence of the rough edges on the charge and spin conductances can be eliminated by applying a perpendicular magnetic field to the wire. In addition, a very large magnitude of the spin conductance can be achieved when the electron energy lies between the two thresholds of each pair of subbands. These findings may not only benefit to further apprehend the transport properties of the Rashba low-dimensional systems but also provide some theoretical instructions to the application of spintronics devices.

  19. Biogenesis of the crystalloid organelle in Plasmodium involves microtubule-dependent vesicle transport and assembly

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Sadia; Tremp, Annie Z.; Dessens, Johannes T.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria parasites possess unique subcellular structures and organelles. One of these is the crystalloid, a multivesicular organelle that forms during the parasite’s development in vector mosquitoes. The formation and function of these organelles remain poorly understood. A family of six conserved and modular proteins named LCCL-lectin adhesive-like proteins (LAPs), which have essential roles in sporozoite transmission, localise to the crystalloids. In this study we analyse crystalloid formation using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing GFP-tagged LAP3. We show that deletion of the LCCL domain from LAP3 causes retarded crystalloid development, while knockout of LAP3 prevents formation of the organelle. Our data reveal that the process of crystalloid formation involves active relocation of endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles to common assembly points via microtubule-dependent transport. Inhibition of microtubule-dependent cargo transport disrupts this process and replicates the LCCL domain deletion mutant phenotype in wildtype parasites. These findings provide the first clear insight into crystalloid biogenesis, demonstrating a fundamental role for the LAP family in this process, and identifying the crystalloid and its formation as potential targets for malaria transmission control. PMID:25900212

  20. Transport of Solutes in Hyporheic Zones with Temperature-Dependent Reversible Sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M.; Cardenas, M. B.; Zheng, L.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most important processes impacting the mobility of heavy metals in rivers and their hyporheic zones is reversible sorption to sediment. Reversible sorption has been shown to be a temperature dependent process, however the impact of this variability on heavy metal fate and transport, as well as environmental metal concentrations, has not received much attention. In this study we used zinc as an example heavy metal. Previous studies of the impact of temperature on the sorption of zinc on a goethite substrate show a change in partitioning coefficient and thus retardation factor of 10 to over 60 percent with a temperature change from 10 to 25*C, depending on concentration of dissolved zinc in the water. This relationship was extrapolated to estimate the change in reversible sorption of zinc on silicate sand. This change was then utilized within a finite-element model coupling hyporheic fluid flow in porous media with heat transfer and solute transport with reversible sorption to explore the ways in which variations in surface water temperature over varying timescales can drive changes in both zinc sorption and dissolved zinc fluxes at the bedform scale. These linked processes are of fundamental importance when considering the number of different ways in which surface water temperatures can be varied through both human and non-human activities.

  1. Large Conductance Switching in a Single-Molecule Device through Room Temperature Spin-Dependent Transport.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Albert C; Aravena, Daniel; Cerdá, Jorge I; Acís-Castillo, Zulema; Li, Haipeng; Real, José Antonio; Sanz, Fausto; Hihath, Josh; Ruiz, Eliseo; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2016-01-13

    Controlling the spin of electrons in nanoscale electronic devices is one of the most promising topics aiming at developing devices with rapid and high density information storage capabilities. The interface magnetism or spinterface resulting from the interaction between a magnetic molecule and a metal surface, or vice versa, has become a key ingredient in creating nanoscale molecular devices with novel functionalities. Here, we present a single-molecule wire that displays large (>10000%) conductance switching by controlling the spin-dependent transport under ambient conditions (room temperature in a liquid cell). The molecular wire is built by trapping individual spin crossover Fe(II) complexes between one Au electrode and one ferromagnetic Ni electrode in an organic liquid medium. Large changes in the single-molecule conductance (>100-fold) are measured when the electrons flow from the Au electrode to either an α-up or a β-down spin-polarized Ni electrode. Our calculations show that the current flowing through such an interface appears to be strongly spin-polarized, thus resulting in the observed switching of the single-molecule wire conductance. The observation of such a high spin-dependent conductance switching in a single-molecule wire opens up a new door for the design and control of spin-polarized transport in nanoscale molecular devices at room temperature. PMID:26675052

  2. Bias Dependence of Spin Transport in Epitaxial Ferromagnet-Semiconductor Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakovic, A. F.; Schultz, B. D.; Strand, J.; Adelmann, C.; Palmstrom, C. J.; Crowell, P. A.

    2003-03-01

    We have performed electroluminescence polarization (ELP) measurements on MBE grown ferromagnet-semiconductor heterostructures in order to establish the bias voltage and magnetic field dependence of spin transport from Fe into the semiconductor heterostructure. Al_xGa_1-xAs/GaAs/ Al_xGa_1-xAs quantum wells embedded in the depletion region of a n-i-p diode are used as spin-detectors. Electrons are injected through a ? -doped Schottky barrier. Doping profiles are used to control both the width of the barrier and the carrier concentration in the drift region between the barrier and the spin detector. The effect of band structure profiles on the transport properties will be discussed. The maximum amplitude of the ELP signal is between 4 % and 11 % and closely tracks the out-of-plane magnetization of the Fe electrode. Measurements of the bias dependence at 5.0 T and 10 K show a characteristic peak in the ELP signal at low bias voltages (1.7 V - 2.0 V applied between the ferromagnet and the p-layer), and a slow decrease at higher bias. Photoluminescence and differential magnetoabsorption indicate background contributions that are smaller than the ELP signal in all cases. This work was supported by ONR, DARPA/ONR, NSF/MRSEC and a 3M Fellowship (AFI).

  3. Spin-dependent transport for armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons between ferromagnetic leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Benhu; Chen, Xiongwen; Zhou, Benliang; Ding, Kai-He; Zhou, Guanghui

    2011-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the spin-dependent transport for the system of an armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) between two ferromagnetic (FM) leads with arbitrary polarization directions at low temperatures, where a magnetic insulator is deposited on the AGNR to induce an exchange splitting between spin-up and -down carriers. By using the standard nonequilibrium Green's function (NGF) technique, it is demonstrated that the spin-resolved transport property for the system depends sensitively on both the width of AGNR and the polarization strength of FM leads. The tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) around zero bias voltage possesses a pronounced plateau structure for a system with semiconducting 7-AGNR or metallic 8-AGNR in the absence of exchange splitting, but this plateau structure for the 8-AGNR system is remarkably broader than that for the 7-AGNR one. Interestingly, an increase of the exchange splitting ? suppresses the amplitude of the structure for the 7-AGNR system. However, the TMR is much enhanced for the 8-AGNR system under a bias amplitude comparable to the splitting strength. Further, the current-induced spin-transfer torque (STT) for the 7-AGNR system is systematically larger than that for the 8-AGNR one. The findings here suggest the design of GNR-based spintronic devices by using a metallic AGNR, but it is more favorable to fabricate a current-controlled magnetic memory element by using a semiconducting AGNR.

  4. Spin- and valley-dependent transport properties for metal-silicene-metal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Ma; Liu, Guang; Liu, Yiman; Long, Meng-Qiu; Zhou, Guanghui

    2015-09-01

    Detailed knowledge relating to the interactions between silicene and normal metal is crucial to understanding silicene growth on metal surfaces and metal/silicene interfaces in nanoelectronic devices. In this work, we study the valley- and spin-dependent transport properties of a metal/silicene/metal junction (MSM) with end and side metal-silicene contacts, respectively, where the central silicene sheet is simultaneously in proximity to a ferromagnet and a perpendicular electric field. By connecting the wave amplitudes obeying the lattice Schrdinger equation for the interfaces within the tight-binding model, the tunable conductance of both end-contacted (EC) and side contacted (SC) MSM junctions have been calculated. The current through MSM junctions is spin and valley polarized due to the coupling between valley and spin degrees of freedom, and the conductance and polarization show oscillating behavior as a function of the length of the silicene sheet. In particular, we find that the full spin and valley polarized conductance can be achieved by introducing proper electric and exchange fields. Further, the conductance is heavily dependent on the hopping integrals of simple metal, silicene and metal/silicene interfaces for EC junctions, and as long as the hopping integrals satisfy certain condition (with suitable incident energy) there is no difference in the transport between EC and SC junctions. The findings here may be meaningful in understanding the nature of metal/silicene interfaces.

  5. PET imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Gil, Roberto; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Perez, Audrey; Frankle, W. Gordon; Laruelle, Marc; Krystal, John; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Rodent models as well as studies in humans have suggested alterations in serotonin (5HT) innervation and transmission in early onset genetically determined or type II alcoholism. This study examines two indices of serotonergic transmission, 5HT transporter levels and 5-HT1A availability, in vivo, in type II alcoholism. This is the first report of combined tracers for pre and post-synaptic serotonergic transmission in the same alcoholic subjects and the first study of 5HT1A receptors in alcoholism. Method Fourteen alcohol dependent subjects were scanned (11 with both tracers, 1 with [11C]DASB only and two with [11C]WAY100635 only). Twelve healthy controls (HC) subjects were scanned with [11C]DASB and another 13 were scanned with [11C]WAY100635. Binding Potential (BPp, mL/cm3) and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient (BPND, unitless) were derived for both tracers using 2 tissue compartment model and compared to HC across different brain regions. Relationships to severity of alcoholism were assessed. Results No significant differences were observed in regional BPp or BPND between patients and controls in any of the regions examined. No significant relationships were observed between regional 5HT transporter availability, 5-HT1A availability, and disease severity with the exception of a significant negative correlation between SERT and years of dependence in amygdala and insula. Conclusion This study did not find alterations in measures of 5-HT1A or 5HT transporter levels in patients with type II alcoholism. PMID:18962444

  6. Induction of Mrp3 and Mrp4 transporters during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is dependent on Nrf2

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksunes, Lauren M. Slitt, Angela L. Maher, Jonathan M. Augustine, Lisa M. Goedken, Michael J. Chan, Jefferson Y. Cherrington, Nathan J. Klaassen, Curtis D. Manautou, Jose E.

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediates detoxification and antioxidant gene transcription following electrophile exposure and oxidative stress. Mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2-null) are highly susceptible to acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity and exhibit lower basal and inducible expression of cytoprotective genes, including NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutamate cysteine ligase (catalytic subunit, or Gclc). Administration of toxic APAP doses to C57BL/6J mice generates electrophilic stress and subsequently increases levels of hepatic Nqo1, Gclc and the efflux multidrug resistance-associated protein transporters 1-4 (Mrp1-4). It was hypothesized that induction of hepatic Mrp1-4 expression following APAP is Nrf2 dependent. Plasma and livers from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2-null mice were collected 4, 24 and 48 h after APAP. As expected, hepatotoxicity was greater in Nrf2-null compared to WT mice. Gene and protein expression of Mrp1-4 and the Nrf2 targets, Nqo1 and Gclc, was measured. Induction of Nqo1 and Gclc mRNA and protein after APAP was dependent on Nrf2 expression. Similarly, APAP treatment increased hepatic Mrp3 and Mrp4 mRNA and protein in WT, but not Nrf2-null mice. Mrp1 was induced in both genotypes after APAP, suggesting that elevated expression of this transporter was independent of Nrf2. Mrp2 was not induced in either genotype at the mRNA or protein levels. These results show that Nrf2 mediates induction of Mrp3 and Mrp4 after APAP but does not affect Mrp1 or Mrp2. Thus coordinated regulation of detoxification enzymes and transporters by Nrf2 during APAP hepatotoxicity is a mechanism by which hepatocytes may limit intracellular accumulation of potentially toxic chemicals.

  7. Redox-Dependent Franck-Condon Blockade and Avalanche Transport in a Graphene-Fullerene Single-Molecule Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chit Siong; Sadeghi, Hatef; Rogers, Gregory; Sangtarash, Sara; Dallas, Panagiotis; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Warner, Jamie; Lambert, Colin J; Briggs, G Andrew D; Mol, Jan A

    2016-01-13

    We report transport measurements on a graphene-fullerene single-molecule transistor. The device architecture where a functionalized C60 binds to graphene nanoelectrodes results in strong electron-vibron coupling and weak vibron relaxation. Using a combined approach of transport spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and DFT calculations, we demonstrate center-of-mass oscillations, redox-dependent Franck-Condon blockade, and a transport regime characterized by avalanche tunnelling in a single-molecule transistor. PMID:26633125

  8. A nitrogen-dependent switch in the high affinity ammonium transport in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Straub, Daniel; Ludewig, Uwe; Neuhäuser, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are crucial for the high affinity primary uptake and translocation of ammonium in plants. In the model legume Medicago truncatula, the genomic set of AMT-type ammonium transporters comprises eight members. Only four genes were abundantly expressed in young seedlings, both in roots and shoots. While the expression of all AMTs in the shoot was not affected by the nitrogen availability, the dominating MtAMT1;1 gene was repressed by nitrogen in roots, despite that cellular nitrogen concentrations were far above deficiency levels. A contrasting de-repression by nitrogen was observed for MtAMT1;4 and MtAMT2;1, which were both expressed at intermediate level. Weak expression was found for MtAMT1;2 and MtAMT2;3, while the other AMTs were not detected in young seedlings. When expressed from their endogenous promoters, translational fusion proteins of MtAMT1;1 and MtAMT2;1 with green fluorescent protein were co-localized in the plasma membrane of rhizodermal cells, but also detected in cortical root layers. Both transporter proteins similarly functionally complemented a yeast strain that is deficient in high affinity ammonium transport, both at acidic and neutral pH. The uptake into yeast mediated by these transporters saturated with Km AMT1;1 = 89 µM and Km AMT2;1 = 123 µM, respectively. When expressed in oocytes, MtAMT1;1 mediated much larger (15)N-ammonium uptake than MtAMT2;1, but NH4 (+) currents were only recorded for MtAMT1;1. These currents saturated with a voltage-dependent Km = 90 µM at -80 mV. The cellular localization and regulation of the AMTs suggests that MtAMT1;1 encodes the major high affinity ammonium transporter gene in low nitrogen grown young M. truncatula roots and despite the similar localization and substrate affinity, MtAMT2;1 appears functionally distinct and more important at higher nitrogen supply. PMID:25164101

  9. Sodium dependency of active chloride transport across isolated fish skin (Gillichthys mirabilis).

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W S

    1981-01-01

    1. The effects of thiocyanate, ouabain, ion-substituted Ringer solution and electrochemical gradients on Na+ and Cl- transport were examined using the isolated skin of the marine teleost, Gillichthys mirabilis. 2. Bilateral replacement of Na+ with choline in the bathing solutions reduces net Cl- flux by 93%, indicating that active Cl- transport by the skin is Na-dependent. 3. Thiocyanate inhibits short-circuit current with an ED50 of 6.4 x 10(-4)M, and, at 10(-2)M, decreases Cl-efflux, influx, net flux and short-circuit current by 68, 33, 74 and 81%, respectively. 4. Ouabain (10(-5)M) reduces Cl- efflux and net flux by 56 and 86%, respectively, indicating that the Cl- transport requires Na,K-ATPase. 5. Subsequent addition of thiocyanate to ouabain-treated skin reduces Cl- efflux, net flux and short-circuit current, suggesting that the two agents operate at different sites involved in Cl- transport. 6. Unilateral substitution of gluconate for Cl- on the serosal side does not affect Cl- influx, indicating that Cl- passive transport is via Fickean diffusion, not Cl-Cl exchange diffusion. 7. The addition of NaCl to the mucosal side, which mimics the in vivo sea-water condition, increases Cl- influx and transepithelial potential and decreases tissue resistance. The net flux (secretion) of Cl- with hypertonic saline on the mucosal side (0.51 +/- 0.06 muequiv/cm2 . hr) demonstrates that the skin could secrete Cl- in vivo. 8. Na+ fluxes across the skin are passive, as the observed flux ration (efflux/influx) is similar to that predicted by the Ussing-Teorell equation under both closed- and open-circuit conditions. 9. The permeability ratio (PNa:PCl) in approximately 5.4:1.0, indicating that the skin is more permeable to Na+, and that at least part of the serosa-positive transepithelial potential may be a Na+ diffusion potential. 10. The results suggest that Cl- secretion by Gillichthys skin is secondary active transport involving Na,K-ATPase and serosal Na+. PMID:7320911

  10. Upper crustal azimuthal anisotropy across the contiguous U.S. determined by Rayleigh wave ellipticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fan-Chi; Schmandt, Brandon

    2014-12-01

    Constraints on upper crustal seismic anisotropy provide insight into the local stress orientation and structural fabric, but such constraints are scarce except in areas with dense recordings of local seismicity. We investigate directionally dependent Rayleigh wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh wave H/V (horizontal to vertical) amplitude ratios, between 8 and 20 s period across USArray to infer azimuthal anisotropy in the upper crust across the contiguous U.S. To determine the H/V ratios, we use all available multicomponent ambient noise cross correlations between all USArray stations operating between 2007 and 2013. In many locations, the observed H/V ratios are clearly back azimuth dependent with a 180 periodicity, which allows the fast directions and amplitudes of upper crustal anisotropy to be determined. The observed patterns of anisotropy correlate well with both near-surface geological features (e.g., the Intermountain Seismic Belt and Appalachian-Ouachita collision belt) and a previous stress model.

  11. Synthetic aperture radar images with composite azimuth resolution

    DOEpatents

    Bielek, Timothy P; Bickel, Douglas L

    2015-03-31

    A synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is produced by using all phase histories of a set of phase histories to produce a first pixel array having a first azimuth resolution, and using less than all phase histories of the set to produce a second pixel array having a second azimuth resolution that is coarser than the first azimuth resolution. The first and second pixel arrays are combined to produce a third pixel array defining a desired SAR image that shows distinct shadows of moving objects while preserving detail in stationary background clutter.

  12. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-27

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma.

  13. The Dependence of H-mode Energy Confinement and Transport on Collisionality in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2012-11-28

    Understanding the dependence of confi nement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong and favorable dependence of normalized con nement on collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study gen- erally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by almost an order of unity. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confi nement time with decreasing collisionality when other dimension less variables were held as fi xed as possible. This increase of confi nement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and Electron Temperature Gradient modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma

  14. Glucose deprivation increases monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) expression and MCT1-dependent tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    De Saedeleer, C J; Porporato, P E; Copetti, T; Pérez-Escuredo, J; Payen, V L; Brisson, L; Feron, O; Sonveaux, P

    2014-07-31

    The glycolytic end-product lactate is a pleiotropic tumor growth-promoting factor. Its activities primarily depend on its uptake, a process facilitated by the lactate-proton symporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). Therefore, targeting the transporter or its chaperon protein CD147/basigin, itself involved in the aggressive malignant phenotype, is an attractive therapeutic option for cancer, but basic information is still lacking regarding the regulation of the expression, interaction and activities of both proteins. In this study, we found that glucose deprivation dose-dependently upregulates MCT1 and CD147 protein expression and their interaction in oxidative tumor cells. While this posttranslational induction could be recapitulated using glycolysis inhibition, hypoxia, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) inhibitor rotenone or hydrogen peroxide, it was blocked with alternative oxidative substrates and specific antioxidants, pointing out at a mitochondrial control. Indeed, we found that the stabilization of MCT1 and CD147 proteins upon glucose removal depends on mitochondrial impairment and the associated generation of reactive oxygen species. When glucose was a limited resource (a situation occurring naturally or during the treatment of many tumors), MCT1-CD147 heterocomplexes accumulated, including in cell protrusions of the plasma membrane. It endowed oxidative tumor cells with increased migratory capacities towards glucose. Migration increased in cells overexpressing MCT1 and CD147, but it was inhibited in glucose-starved cells provided with an alternative oxidative fuel, treated with an antioxidant, lacking MCT1 expression, or submitted to pharmacological MCT1 inhibition. While our study identifies the mitochondrion as a glucose sensor promoting tumor cell migration, MCT1 is also revealed as a transducer of this response, providing a new rationale for the use of MCT1 inhibitors in cancer. PMID:24166504

  15. Hyperbolic theory for pH-dependent adsorption in reactive transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Hesse, M. A.; Bryant, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    We use the hyperbolic theory of conservation laws to analyze the transport of strontium (Sr2+) through a porous medium with surface complexation. An hydrophilic iron-oxide surface was considered where Sr2+ and hydrogen (H+) compete for the same site leading to competitive adsorption described by an pH-dependent Langmuir isotherm. Despite the importance of pH-dependent adsorption in environmental applications, the basic structure of the displacement has received little attention. In reactive transport problems with pH-dependent adsorption, one of the conservation laws is for the total hydrogen (cHtot = cH+-cOH-) in the system, also called the acidity. The presence of this equation gives rise to additional nonlinearity in the problems that distinguishes them from other competitive sorption problems where hydrogen is not involved. We analyze a 1D reactive transport model with an incompressible fluid containing H+, Sr2+, sodium (Na+), and chlorine (Cl-) flowing through a reactive porous media made of goethite. Under the assumption of overall charge balance and of only advection for Na+ and Cl-, the mathematical problem reduces to a strictly hyperbolic 3x3 system of partial dierential equations (PDEs) for cHtot, Sr2+ (cSr2+), and effective anions (ca = cCl--cNa+) which are coupled by the adsorption isotherms for H+ and Sr2+ and have the non-linearity in the accumulation terms. One characteristic field is linearly degenerate while the other two are non-genuinely nonlinear due to inflection loci in both isotherms. We derived the complete set of analytical solutions to the Riemann problem (constant initial and injected states) and described the characteristic waves that may arise, concluding that only nine combinations of a contact discontinuity with rarefactions, shocks, shock-rarefactions are possible. The composite shock-rarefaction waves arise from the inflection loci in the isotherms and are absent in classic competitive Langmuir sorption. The inflection loci divide the composition space into two distinct high and low pH regions with distinct composition paths. The existence of a detached branch of the Hugoniot-locus is essential to the construction of composite waves that form when the left and right states are in distinct regions of the composition space. Highly resolved numerical solutions at large Peclet numbers show excellent agreement with the analytical solutions in the hyperbolic limit except under certain conditions when a pulse of Sr2+ and one of H+ arise ahead of the cor- responding retarded front and travel at the average fluid velocity. These conditions define the necessary conditions for the occurrence of the non-classical reactive transport which is not limited to only the Sr2+ front as observed in the earlier works [1,2] but it involves also the H+ front. These results raise important questions regarding the prediction of the migration of toxic compounds in the subsurface and pose also theoretical questions about the convergence of the vanishing diffusion solution to the hyperbolic limit, the stability of shock layers in reactive transport, and the role of the Riemann problem as an intermediate asymptotic solution for a wider range of problems. 1. Prigiobbe, V., Hesse, M., Bryant, S. L. (2012) Transport Porous Med 93 127-145. 2. Prigiobbe, V., Hesse, M., Bryant, S. L. (2012) accepted for publication in Geophys Res. Lett.

  16. Reduced striatal dopamine transporter density associated with working memory deficits in opioid-dependent male subjects: a SPECT study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chih-Sung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Yen, Che-Hung; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Huang, Chang-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yen; Shih, Mei-Chen; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Research on the effects of repeated opioid use on striatal dopamine transporters has yielded inconsistent results, possibly confounded by a history of methamphetamine or methadone exposure in opioid-dependent individuals. Previous studies have shown that striatal dopamine transporter density is positively correlated with the cognitive performance of healthy volunteers. This study aimed to investigate changes in striatal dopamine transporter density and their functional significance in opioid-dependent individuals. Single-photon emission computed tomography with [(99m) Tc]TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure striatal dopamine transporter levels in 20 opioid-dependent individuals and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Opioid-dependent individuals had no history of methamphetamine or methadone use. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was performed to assess neurocognitive function. We found that compared with healthy controls, opioid-dependent individuals showed a significant reduction in striatal dopamine transporter density. They also showed poorer performance on the WCST in terms of the trials administered, total errors, perseverative responses, perseverative errors, and non-perseverative errors. Striatal dopamine transporter levels negatively correlated with non-perseverative errors not only in opioid-dependent individuals but also in healthy controls. These findings suggest that in human, repeated opioid exposure reduces striatal dopamine transporter density, which can be associated with non-perseverative errors. Non-perseverative errors may be one of the more sensitive parameters in WCST to identify working memory deficits associated with striatal dopamine transporter reduction. Moreover, we suggest that whether opioid-associated neurotoxicity is reversible depends on the brain region. PMID:25439653

  17. The endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 differentially modulates recognition memory in rats depending on environmental aversiveness

    PubMed Central

    Campolongo, Patrizia; Ratano, Patrizia; Manduca, Antonia; Scattoni, Maria L.; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Cuomo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid compounds may influence both emotional and cognitive processes depending on the level of environmental aversiveness at the time of drug administration. However, the mechanisms responsible for these responses remain to be elucidated. The present experiments investigated the effects induced by the endocannabinoid transport inhibitor AM404 (0.55 mg/kg, i.p.) on both emotional and cognitive performances of rats tested in a Spatial Open Field task and subjected to different experimental settings, named High Arousal (HA) and Low Arousal (LA) conditions. The two different experimental conditions influenced emotional reactivity independently of drug administration. Indeed, vehicle-treated rats exposed to the LA condition spent more time in the center of the arena than vehicle-treated rats exposed to the HA context. Conversely, the different arousal conditions did not affect the cognitive performances of vehicle-treated animals such as the capability to discriminate a spatial displacement of the objects or an object substitution. AM404 administration did not alter locomotor activity or emotional behavior of animals exposed to both environmental conditions. Interestingly, AM404 administration influenced the cognitive parameters depending on the level of emotional arousal: it impaired the capability of rats exposed to the HA condition to recognize a novel object while it did not induce any impairing effect in rats exposed to the LA condition. These findings suggest that drugs enhancing endocannabinoid signaling induce different effects on recognition memory performance depending on the level of emotional arousal induced by the environmental conditions. PMID:22454620

  18. The amino terminus of tau inhibits kinesin-dependent axonal transport: implications for filament toxicity.

    PubMed

    LaPointe, Nichole E; Morfini, Gerardo; Pigino, Gustavo; Gaisina, Irina N; Kozikowski, Alan P; Binder, Lester I; Brady, Scott T

    2009-02-01

    The neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies is characterized by filamentous deposits of the microtubule-associated protein tau, but the relationship between tau polymerization and neurotoxicity is unknown. Here, we examined effects of filamentous tau on fast axonal transport (FAT) using isolated squid axoplasm. Monomeric and filamentous forms of recombinant human tau were perfused in axoplasm, and their effects on kinesin- and dynein-dependent FAT rates were evaluated by video microscopy. Although perfusion of monomeric tau at physiological concentrations showed no effect, tau filaments at the same concentrations selectively inhibited anterograde (kinesin-dependent) FAT, triggering the release of conventional kinesin from axoplasmic vesicles. Pharmacological experiments indicated that the effect of tau filaments on FAT is mediated by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activities. Moreover, deletion analysis suggested that these effects depend on a conserved 18-amino-acid sequence at the amino terminus of tau. Interestingly, monomeric tau isoforms lacking the C-terminal half of the molecule (including the microtubule binding region) recapitulated the effects of full-length filamentous tau. Our results suggest that pathological tau aggregation contributes to neurodegeneration by altering a regulatory pathway for FAT. PMID:18798283

  19. Pressure dependence of the large polaron transport in anatase TiO2 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaćimović, Jaćim; Vaju, Cristian; Berger, Helmuth; Magrez, Arnaud; Cerovski, Viktor; Žikić, Radomir; Gaál, Richard; Forró, László

    2012-02-01

    Anatase is a TiO2 polymorph which is a 3.2 eV gap semiconductor interesting for several applications, including catalysis, photocatalysis, and, especially, dye-sensitized solar cells. Surprisingly, transparent single crystals of anatase grown in our laboratory show a metallic resistivity above 60 K which origin is a shallow donor level created by oxygen vacancies. The high value of the resistivity and its T^3 temperature dependence are the result of the polaronic nature of the charge carriers which is supported by the Seebeck coefficient (S). The application of hydrostatic pressure fails to close the donor level and to extend the conducting state to the entire temperature range. Instead, we have found a non-monotonic variation of the low temperature activation energy with applied pressure which is ascribed to the change of polaron's mobility. Thermo-electric power exhibits an unconventional temperature and pressure dependence shedding an additional light on the conductivity mechanism in this compound. The pressure dependence of S is governed by the transport of the large entropy associated with the polaron formation.

  20. Density-dependent electron transport and precise modeling of GaN high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-10-01

    We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of electron transport in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing electron velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 107 cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 1011 cm-2. An optical phonon emission-based electron velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the electron velocity with strong electron-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.

  1. A time-dependent neutron transport method of characteristics formulation with time derivative propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Adam J.; Lee, John C.

    2016-02-01

    A new time-dependent Method of Characteristics (MOC) formulation for nuclear reactor kinetics was developed utilizing angular flux time-derivative propagation. This method avoids the requirement of storing the angular flux at previous points in time to represent a discretized time derivative; instead, an equation for the angular flux time derivative along 1D spatial characteristics is derived and solved concurrently with the 1D transport characteristic equation. This approach allows the angular flux time derivative to be recast principally in terms of the neutron source time derivatives, which are approximated to high-order accuracy using the backward differentiation formula (BDF). This approach, called Source Derivative Propagation (SDP), drastically reduces the memory requirements of time-dependent MOC relative to methods that require storing the angular flux. An SDP method was developed for 2D and 3D applications and implemented in the computer code DeCART in 2D. DeCART was used to model two reactor transient benchmarks: a modified TWIGL problem and a C5G7 transient. The SDP method accurately and efficiently replicated the solution of the conventional time-dependent MOC method using two orders of magnitude less memory.

  2. Forward-backward correlations between multiplicities in windows separated in azimuth and rapidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vechernin, Vladimir

    2015-07-01

    The forward-backward (FB) charged particle multiplicity correlations between windows separated in rapidity and azimuth are analyzed using a model that treats strings as independent identical emitters. Both the short-range (SR) contribution, originating from the correlation between multiplicities produced from a single source, and the long-range (LR) contribution, originating from the fluctuation in the number of sources, are taken into account. The dependencies of the FB correlation coefficient, b, on the windows' rapidity and azimuthal acceptance and the gaps between these windows are studied and compared with the preliminary data of ALICE. The analysis of these dependencies effectively separates the contributions of two above mechanisms. It is also demonstrated that traditional definitions of FB correlation coefficient b have a strong nonlinear dependence on the acceptance of windows. Suitable alternative observables for the future FB correlation studies are proposed. The connection between b and the two-particle correlation function, C2, is traced, as well as its connection to the untriggered di-hadron correlation analysis. Using a model independent analysis, it is shown that measurement of the FB multiplicity correlations between two small windows separated in rapidity and azimuth fully determines the two-particle correlation function C2, even if the particle distribution in rapidity is not uniform.

  3. Field dependent thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductorsA tool to determine the nature of charge transport in materials exhibiting thermally activated transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendels, Dan; Tessler, Nir

    2015-03-01

    By implementing Monte Carlo simulations and employing the concept of effective temperature, we explore the effects of an applied field bias on the charge carrier statistics and Peltier coefficient in hopping systems subject to the parameter range applicable to disordered organic semiconductors. Distinct differences are found between the observed field dependences as obtained from systems in which energetic disorder is spatially correlated and those in which it is not. Considerable differences are also found between the charge carrier statistics and the Peltier coefficient's field dependence in systems in which charge is transported by bare charge carriers and systems in which it is propagated by polarons. Peltier coefficient field dependence investigations are, hence, proposed as a new tool for studying charge transport and thermoelectricity in disordered organic semiconductors and systems which exhibit thermally activated transport in general.

  4. Optimization of Azimuthal Uniformity in NIF Polar-Drive Implosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craxton, R. S.; Radha, P. B.; Davis, A. K.; Froula, D. H.; Hohenberger, M.; McKenty, P. W.; Michel, D. T.; Olson, P. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A. J.

    2013-10-01

    The primary method for optimizing polar-drive experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is beam repointing in the polar direction, leading to designs that are uniform in two-dimensional, azimuthally symmetric hydrodynamic simulations. However, in some cases, azimuthal variations in the deposited energy can affect the implosion uniformity and may be observable in self-emission images. Azimuthal uniformity has been investigated using the hydrodynamics code SAGE, which includes three-dimensional ray tracing. Optimal azimuthal adjustments to the beam pointings have been developed for the ongoing LLE polar-drive campaign on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  5. New substrates for TonB-dependent transport: do we only see the 'tip of the iceberg'?

    PubMed

    Schauer, Kristine; Rodionov, Dmitry A; de Reuse, Hilde

    2008-07-01

    TonB-dependent transport is a mechanism for active uptake across the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The system promotes transport of rare nutrients and was thought to be restricted to iron complexes and vitamin B12. Recent experimental evidence of TonB-energized transport of nickel and different carbohydrates, in addition to bioinformatic-based predictions, challenges this notion and reveals that the number and variety of TonB-dependent substrates is underestimated. It is becoming clear that the chemical nature of the substrates, the energetic requirements for transport and the subsequent translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane can differ from those of the well-studied systems for iron complexes and vitamin B12. These findings question the understanding of TonB-dependent uptake and provide insights into the adaptation of bacteria to their environments. PMID:18539464

  6. Stoichiometry dependent electron transport and gas sensing properties of indium oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gali, Pradeep; Sapkota, Gopal; Syllaios, A J; Littler, Chris; Philipose, U

    2013-06-01

    The effect of stoichiometry of single crystalline In2O3 nanowires on electrical transport and gas sensing was investigated. The nanowires were synthesized by vapor phase transport and had diameters ranging from 80 to 100 nm and lengths between 10 and 20 μm, with a growth direction of [001]. Transport measurements revealed n-type conduction, attributed to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the crystal lattice. As-grown In2O3 nanowires were shown to have a carrier concentration of ≈5 × 10(17) cm(-3), while nanowires that were annealed in wet O2 showed a reduced carrier concentration of less than 10(16) cm(-3). Temperature dependent conductivity measurements on the as-grown nanowires and analysis of the thermally activated Arrhenius conduction for the temperature range of 77-350 K yielded an activation energy of 0.12 eV. This is explained on the basis of carrier exchange that occurs between the surface states and the bulk of the nanowire, resulting in a depleted surface layer of thickness of the order of the Debye length (LD), estimated to be about 3-4 nm for the as-grown nanowires and about 10 times higher for the more stoichiometric nanowires. Significant changes in the electrical conductance of individual In2O3 nanowires were also observed within several seconds of exposure to NH3 and O2 gas molecules at room temperature, thus demonstrating the potential use of In2O3 nanowires as efficient miniaturized chemical sensors. The sensing mechanism is dominated by the nanowire channel conductance, and a simple energy band diagram is used to explain the change in conductivity when gas molecules adsorbed on the nanowire surface influence its electrical properties. Less stoichiometric nanowires were found to be more sensitive to oxidizing gases while more stoichiometric nanowires showed significantly enhanced response to reducing gases. PMID:23644899

  7. Prandtl-Number Dependence of Heat Transport in Laminar Horizontal Convection.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    We report the Prandtl-number (Pr) and Rayleigh-number (Ra) dependencies of the Reynolds number (Re) and mean convective heat transport, measured by the Nusselt number (Nu), in horizontal convection (HC) systems, where the heat supply and removal are provided exclusively through a lower horizontal surface of a fluid layer. For laminar HC, we find that Re?Ra^{2/5}Pr^{-4/5}, Nu?Ra^{1/5}Pr^{1/10} with a transition to Re?Ra^{1/2}Pr^{-1}, Nu?Ra^{1/4}Pr^{0} for large Pr. The results are based on direct numerical simulations for Ra from 310^{8} to 510^{10} and Pr from 0.05 to 50 and are explained by applying the Grossmann-Lohse approach [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] transferred from the case of Rayleigh-Bnard convection to the case of laminar HC. PMID:26824542

  8. Prandtl-Number Dependence of Heat Transport in Laminar Horizontal Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkina, Olga; Wagner, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We report the Prandtl-number (Pr) and Rayleigh-number (Ra) dependencies of the Reynolds number (Re) and mean convective heat transport, measured by the Nusselt number (Nu), in horizontal convection (HC) systems, where the heat supply and removal are provided exclusively through a lower horizontal surface of a fluid layer. For laminar HC, we find that Re ˜Ra2 /5Pr-4 /5 , Nu ˜Ra1 /5Pr1 /10 with a transition to Re ˜Ra1 /2Pr-1, Nu ˜Ra1 /4Pr0 for large Pr. The results are based on direct numerical simulations for Ra from 3 ×108 to 5 ×1010 and Pr from 0.05 to 50 and are explained by applying the Grossmann-Lohse approach [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] transferred from the case of Rayleigh-Bénard convection to the case of laminar HC.

  9. Study of the temperature dependent transport properties in nanocrystalline lithium lanthanum titanate for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash, K. P.; Christopher Selvin, P.; Nalini, B.; Somasundaram, K.; Sivaraj, P.; Chandra Bose, A.

    2016-04-01

    The nano-crystalline Li0.5La0.5TiO3 (LLTO) was prepared as an electrolyte material for lithium-ion batteries by the sol-gel method. The prepared LLTO material is characterized by structural, morphological and electrical characterizations. The LLTO shows the cubic perovskite structure with superlattice formation. The uniform distribution of LLTO particles has been analyzed by the SEM and TEM analysis of the sample. Impedance measurements at various temperatures were carried out and the temperature dependent conductivity of as prepared LLTO nanopowders at different temperatures from room temperature to 448 K has been analyzed. The transport mechanism has been analyzed using the dielectric and modulus analysis of the sample. Maximum grain conductivity of the order of 10-3 S cm-1 has been obtained for the sample at higher temperatures.

  10. Spin-dependent negative differential conductance in transport through single-molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Hu, Liang-Bin; Yang, Mou

    2013-04-01

    Transport properties are theoretically studied through an anisotropy single-molecule magnet symmetrically connected to two identical ferromagnetic leads. It is found that even though in parallel configuration of leads' magnetizations, the total current still greatly depends on the spin polarization of leads at certain particular bias region, and thus for large polarization a prominent negative differential conductance (NDC) emerges. This originates from the joint effect of single-direction transitions and spin polarization, which removes the symmetry between spin-up and spin-down transitions. The present mechanism of NDC is remarkably different from the previously reported mechanisms. To clarify the physics of the NDC, we further monitored the shot noise spectroscopy and found that the appearance of the NDC is accompanied by the rapid decrease of Fano factor.

  11. Role of interfacial roughness on bias-dependent magnetoresistance and transport properties in magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. C. A.; Hsu, C. Y.; Liao, Y. F.; Lin, M. Z.; Lee, C. H.

    2005-11-01

    The effects of metal-insulator interfacial roughness, modulated by Ar+ irradiation, on bias dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and electrical transport of CoFe -AlOx-CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have been studied. Reduction of TMR ratio and asymmetric TMR falloff curves as a function of dc bias have been observed for Ar+-irradiated MTJs. The results are analyzed by x-ray reflectivity together with complex impedance techniques, indicating interfacial roughness which likely results in a proportional rising trap state density (TSD). Increasing TSD for Ar+-irradiated MTJs increases an unpolarized current which decreases TMR ratio. The asymmetric TMR falloff curves are attributed to the different TSDs of bottom and top CoFe -AlOx interfaces in tunneling process.

  12. Anisotropic magnetism and spin-dependent transport in Co nanoparticle embedded ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. Y.; Zeng, Y. J.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Batuk, D.; Hadermann, J.; Zhang, Y. Z.; Ye, Z. Z.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; Van Bael, M. J.; Van Haesendonck, C.

    2013-07-01

    Oriented Co nanoparticles were obtained by Co ion implantation in crystalline ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of elliptically shaped Co precipitates with nanometer size, which are embedded in the ZnO thin films, resulting in anisotropic magnetic behavior. The low-temperature resistance of the Co-implanted ZnO thin films follows the Efros-Shklovskii type variable-range-hopping. Large negative magnetoresistance (MR) exceeding 10% is observed in a magnetic field of 1 T at 2.5 K and the negative MR survives up to 250 K (0.3%). The negative MR reveals hysteresis as well as anisotropy that correlate well with the magnetic properties, clearly demonstrating the presence of spin-dependent transport.

  13. Concentration Dependent Electrical Transport Properties of Ni-Cr Binary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthar, P. H.; Khambholja, S. G.; Thakore, B. Y.; Gajjar, P. N.; Jani, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    The concentration dependent electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of liquid Ni-Cr alloys are computed at 1400 K temperature. The electrical resistivity has been studied according to Faber-Ziman model in wide range of Cr concentration. In the present work, the electron-ion interaction is incorporated through our well tested local model potential with screening function due to Sarkar et al.. [S] along with the Hartree [H] dielectric function. Good agreement is achieved between the presently calculated results of resistivity as well as thermal conductivity with the experimental data found in the literature, confirming the applicability of model potential and Faber-Ziman model for such a study.

  14. Spin-dependent thermoelectronic transport of a single molecule magnet Mn(dmit){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhongbo; Wei, Xinyuan; Yang, Zhongqin; An, Yipeng

    2014-05-28

    We investigate spin-dependent thermoelectronic transport properties of a single molecule magnet Mn(dmit){sub 2} sandwiched between two Au electrodes using first-principles density functional theory combined with nonequilibrium Green's function method. By applying a temperature difference between the two Au electrodes, spin-up and spin-down currents flowing in opposite directions can be induced due to asymmetric distribution of the spin-up and spin-down transmission spectra around the Fermi level. A pure spin current and 100% spin polarization are achieved by tuning back-gate voltage to the system. The spin caloritronics of the molecule with a perpendicular conformation is also explored, where the spin-down current is blocked strongly. These results suggest that Mn(dmit){sub 2} is a promising material for spin caloritronic applications.

  15. The spin-dependent transport of Co-encapsulated Si nanotubes contacted with Cu electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yan-Dong; Yan, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Yang

    2014-02-10

    Unlike carbon nanotubes, silicon ones are hard to form. However, they could be stabilized by metal-encapsulation. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic transport of Co-encapsulated Si nanotubes, which are contacted with Cu electrodes. For the finite tubes, as the tube-length increases, the transmission changes from spin-unpolarized to spin-polarized. Further analysis shows that, not only the screening of electrodes on Co's magnetism but also the spin-asymmetric Co-Co interactions are the physical mechanisms. As Cu and Si are the fundamental elements in semiconductor industry, our results may throw light on the development of silicon-based spintronic devices.

  16. Azimuthal anisotropy: Transition from hydrodynamic flow to jet suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, R.; PHENIX Collaboration, et al.

    2010-11-09

    Measured second and fourth azimuthal anisotropy coefficients v{sub 2,4}(N{sub part},p{sub T}) are scaled with the initial eccentricity {var_epsilon}{sub 2,4}(N{sub part}) of the collision zone and studied as a function of the number of participants N{sub part} and the transverse momenta p{sub T}. Scaling violations are observed for p{sub T} {le} 3 GeV/c, consistent with a p{sub T}{sup 2} dependence of viscous corrections and a linear increase of the relaxation time with p{sub T}. These empirical viscous corrections to flow and the thermal distribution function at freeze-out constrain estimates of the specific viscosity and the freeze-out temperature for two different models for the initial collision geometry. The apparent viscous corrections exhibit a sharp maximum for p{sub T} {ge} 3 GeV/c, suggesting a breakdown of the hydrodynamic ansatz and the onset of a change from flow-driven to suppression-driven anisotropy.

  17. MATE Transporter-Dependent Export of Hydroxycinnamic Acid Amides[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Gorzolka, Karin; Matern, Andreas; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Böttcher, Christoph; Rosahl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The ability of Arabidopsis thaliana to successfully prevent colonization by Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum), depends on multilayered defense responses. To address the role of surface-localized secondary metabolites for entry control, droplets of a P. infestans zoospore suspension, incubated on Arabidopsis leaves, were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling. The hydroxycinnamic acid amide coumaroylagmatine was among the metabolites secreted into the inoculum. In vitro assays revealed an inhibitory activity of coumaroylagmatine on P. infestans spore germination. Mutant analyses suggested a requirement of the p-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-p-coumaroyl transferase ACT for the biosynthesis and of the MATE transporter DTX18 for the extracellular accumulation of coumaroylagmatine. The host plant potato is not able to efficiently secrete coumaroylagmatine. This inability is overcome in transgenic potato plants expressing the two Arabidopsis genes ACT and DTX18. These plants secrete agmatine and putrescine conjugates to high levels, indicating that DTX18 is a hydroxycinnamic acid amide transporter with a distinct specificity. The export of hydroxycinnamic acid amides correlates with a decreased ability of P. infestans spores to germinate, suggesting a contribution of secreted antimicrobial compounds to pathogen defense at the leaf surface. PMID:26744218

  18. Redox probing study of the potential dependence of charge transport through Li2O2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Knudsen, Kristian B.; Luntz, Alan C.; Jensen, Søren H.; Vegge, Tejs; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-11-20

    In the field of energy storage devices the pursuit for cheap, high energy density, reliable secondary batteries is at the top of the agenda. The Li–O2 battery is one of the possible technologies that, in theory, should be able to close the gap, which exists between the present state-of-the-art Li-ion technologies and the demand placed on batteries by technologies such as electrical vehicles. Here we present a redox probing study of the charge transfer across the main deposition product lithium peroxide, Li2O2, in the Li–O2 battery using outer-sphere redox shuttles. The change in heterogeneous electron transfer exchange rate as amore » function of the potential and the Li2O2 layer thickness (~depth-of-discharge) was determined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the attenuation of the electron transfer exchange rate with film thickness is dependent on the probing potential, providing evidence that hole transport is the dominant process for charge transfer through Li2O2 and showing that the origin of the sudden death observed upon discharge is due to charge transport limitations.« less

  19. Na/sup +/-dependent transport of /sup 14/C-L-lysine across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Crandall, E.D.

    1986-03-01

    Transepithelial transport of the basic amino acid L-lysine has been studied utilizing the isolated intact bullfrog lung mounted in the Ussing chamber. Lungs were excised from doubly pithed bullfrogs and sandwiched between two hemichambers. /sup 14/C-(U)-L-lysine was added to the upstream reservoir of amphibian Ringer solution, while the tissue was short-circuited. Two lungs from the same animal were used simultaneously to determine the two opposite unidirectional fluxes. Downstream and upstream radioactivities were assayed and used to estimate the apparent permeability (P) of the labeled lysine. Results indicate that the apparent P of /sup 14/C-L-lysine measured in the alveolar (M) to the pleural (S) direction is 19.06 (+- 2.84) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s and P in the S to M direction is 3.29 (+- 0.02) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s. When the 100 mM NaCl in the bath was replaced by 110 mM choline chloride, the flux of /sup 14/C-L-lysine from the alveolar to the pleural side decreased to the same value as that in the opposite direction. The flux from the pleural to the alveolar direction in the absence of Na/sup +/ did not change. These results suggest that the alveolar epithelium exhibits Na/sup +/-dependent amino acid (L-lysine) transport in the M->S, but not in the S->M, direction.

  20. Temperature-dependent charge injection and transport in pentacene thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Shin, Hyunji; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, Jaehoon; Choi, Jong Sun

    2015-11-01

    The electrical characteristics of p-channel pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs) were analyzed at different operating temperatures ranging from 253 to 353 K. An improvement in the drain current and field-effect mobility of the pentacene TFTs is observed with increasing temperature. From the Arrhenius plots of field-effect mobility extracted at various temperatures, a lower activation energy of 99.34 meV was obtained when the device is operating in the saturation region. Such observation is ascribed to the thermally activated hole transport through the pentacene grain boundaries. On the other hand, it was found that the Au/pentacene contact significantly affects the TFTs electrical characteristics in the linear region, which resulted in a higher activation energy. The activation energy based on the linear field-effect mobility, which increased from 344.61 to 444.70 meV with decreasing temperature, implies the charge-injection-limited electrical behavior of pentacene TFTs at low temperatures. The thermally induced electrical characteristic variations in pentacene TFTs can thus be studied through the temperature dependence of the charge injection and transport processes.

  1. A new multidimensional, energy-dependent two-moment transport code for neutrino-hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, O.; Obergaulinger, M.; Janka, H.-T.

    2015-11-01

    We present the new code ALCAR developed to model multidimensional, multienergy-group neutrino transport in the context of supernovae and neutron-star mergers. The algorithm solves the evolution equations of the zeroth- and first-order angular moments of the specific intensity, supplemented by an algebraic relation for the second-moment tensor to close the system. The scheme takes into account frame-dependent effects of the order O(v/c) as well as the most important types of neutrino interactions. The transport scheme is significantly more efficient than a multidimensional solver of the Boltzmann equation, while it is more accurate and consistent than the flux-limited diffusion method. The finite-volume discretization of the essentially hyperbolic system of moment equations employs methods well-known from hydrodynamics. For the time integration of the potentially stiff moment equations we employ a scheme in which only the local source terms are treated implicitly, while the advection terms are kept explicit, thereby allowing for an efficient computational parallelization of the algorithm. We investigate various problem set-ups in one and two dimensions to verify the implementation and to test the quality of the algebraic closure scheme. In our most detailed test, we compare a fully dynamic, one-dimensional core-collapse simulation with two published calculations performed with well-known Boltzmann-type neutrino-hydrodynamics codes and we find very satisfactory agreement.

  2. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport Properties of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr Binary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakore, B. Y.; Suthar, P. H.; Khambholja, S. G.; Gajjar, P. N.; Bhatt, N. K.; Jani, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The temperature dependent electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ni10Cr90 and Co20Cr80 alloys are computed at various temperatures. The electrical resistivity has been calculated according to Faber-Ziman model combined with Ashcroft-Langreth partial structure factors. In the present work, to include the ion-electron interaction, we have used a well tested local model potential. For exchange-correlation effects, five different forms of local field correction functions due to Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru and Utsumi (IU), Farid et al (F) and Sarkar et al (S) are used. The present results due to S function are in good agreement with the experimental data as compared to results obtained using other four functions. The S functions satisfy compressibility sum rule in long wave length limit more accurately as compared to T, IU and F functions, which may be responsible for better agreement of results, obtained using S function. Also, present result confirms the validity of present approach in determining the transport properties of alloys like Ni-Cr and Co-Cr.

  3. Temperature Dependent Electrical Transport Properties of Ni-Cr and Co-Cr Binary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Thakore, B. Y.; Khambholja, S. G.; Bhatt, N. K.; Jani, A. R.; Suthar, P. H.; Gajjar, P. N.

    2011-12-12

    The temperature dependent electrical transport properties viz. electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ni{sub 10}Cr{sub 90} and Co{sub 20}Cr{sub 80} alloys are computed at various temperatures. The electrical resistivity has been calculated according to Faber-Ziman model combined with Ashcroft-Langreth partial structure factors. In the present work, to include the ion-electron interaction, we have used a well tested local model potential. For exchange-correlation effects, five different forms of local field correction functions due to Hartree (H), Taylor (T), Ichimaru and Utsumi (IU), Farid et al (F) and Sarkar et al (S) are used. The present results due to S function are in good agreement with the experimental data as compared to results obtained using other four functions. The S functions satisfy compressibility sum rule in long wave length limit more accurately as compared to T, IU and F functions, which may be responsible for better agreement of results, obtained using S function. Also, present result confirms the validity of present approach in determining the transport properties of alloys like Ni-Cr and Co-Cr.

  4. Nitrogen-dependent posttranscriptional regulation of the ammonium transporter AtAMT1;1.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lixing; Loqué, Dominique; Ye, Fanghua; Frommer, Wolf B; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2007-02-01

    Ammonium transporter (AMT) proteins of the AMT family mediate the transport of ammonium across plasma membranes. To investigate whether AMTs are regulated at the posttranscriptional level, a gene construct consisting of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter driving the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AMT1;1 gene was introduced into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Ectopic expression of AtAMT1;1 in transgenic tobacco lines led to high transcript levels and protein levels at the plasma membrane and translated into an approximately 30% increase in root uptake capacity for 15N-labeled ammonium in hydroponically grown transgenic plants. When ammonium was supplied as the major nitrogen (N) form but at limiting amounts to soil-grown plants, transgenic lines overexpressing AtAMT1;1 did not show enhanced growth or N acquisition relative to wild-type plants. Surprisingly, steady-state transcript levels of AtAMT1;1 accumulated to higher levels in N-deficient roots and shoots of transgenic tobacco plants in spite of expression being controlled by the constitutive 35S promoter. Moreover, steady-state transcript levels were decreased after addition of ammonium or nitrate in N-deficient roots, suggesting a role for N availability in regulating AtAMT1;1 transcript abundance. Nitrogen deficiency-dependent accumulation of AtAMT1;1 mRNA was also observed in 35S:AtAMT1;1-transformed Arabidopsis shoots but not in roots. Evidence for a regulatory role of the 3'-untranslated region of AtAMT1;1 alone in N-dependent transcript accumulation was not found. However, transcript levels of AtAMT1;3 did not accumulate in a N-dependent manner, even though the same T-DNA insertion line atamt1;1-1 was used for 35S:AtAMT1;3 expression. These results show that the accumulation of AtAMT1;1 transcripts is regulated in a N- and organ-dependent manner and suggest mRNA turnover as an additional mechanism for the regulation of AtAMT1;1 in response to the N nutritional status of plants. PMID:17172286

  5. The dependence of H-mode energy confinement and transport on collisionality in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaye, S. M.; Gerhardt, S.; Guttenfelder, W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the dependence of confinement on collisionality in tokamaks is important for the design of next-step devices, which will operate at collisionalities at least one order of magnitude lower than in the present generation. A wide range of collisionality has been obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by employing two different wall conditioning techniques, one with boronization and between-shot helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC+B), and one using lithium evaporation (Li EVAP). Previous studies of HeGDC+B plasmas indicated a strong increase of normalized confinement with decreasing collisionality. Discharges with lithium conditioning discussed in the present study generally achieved lower collisionality, extending the accessible range of collisionality by a factor of two. While the confinement dependences on dimensional, engineering variables of the HeGDC+B and Li EVAP datasets differed, collisionality was found to unify the trends, with the lower collisionality lithium conditioned discharges extending the trend of increasing normalized confinement time, BT?E, with decreasing collisionality when other dimensionless variables were held as fixed as possible. This increase of confinement with decreasing collisionality was driven by a large reduction in electron transport in the outer region of the plasma. This result is consistent with gyrokinetic calculations that show microtearing and electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes to be more stable for the lower collisionality discharges. Ion transport, near neoclassical at high collisionality, became more anomalous at lower collisionality, possibly due to the growth of hybrid TEM/KBM modes in the outer regions of the plasma.

  6. Hepatic taurine transport: a Na+-dependent carrier on the basolateral plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Bucuvalas, J C; Goodrich, A L; Suchy, F J

    1987-09-01

    Highly purified rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were used to examine the mechanism and the driving forces for hepatic uptake of the beta-amino acid, taurine. An inwardly directed 100 mM NaCl gradient stimulated the initial rate of taurine uptake and energized a transient twofold accumulation of taurine above equilibrium ("overshoot"). In contrast, uptake was slower and no overshoot was detected in the presence of a KCl gradient. A negative intravesicular electrical potential generated by the presence of permeant anions or an outwardly directed K+ gradient with valinomycin increased Na+-stimulated taurine uptake. External Cl- stimulated Na+-dependent taurine uptake independent of effects on the transmembrane electrical potential difference. Na+-dependent taurine uptake showed a sigmoidal dependence on extravesicular Na+ concentration, suggesting multiple Na+ ions are involved in the translocation of each taurine molecule. Na+-dependent taurine uptake demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum velocity of 0.537 nmol.mg protein-1.min-1 and an apparent Km of 174 microM. [3H]taurine uptake was inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled taurine, beta-alanine, or hypotaurine but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In summary, using basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles, we have shown that hepatic uptake of taurine occurs by a carrier-mediated, secondary active transport process specific for beta-amino acids. Uptake is electrogenic, stimulated by external Cl-, and requires multiple Na+ ions for the translocation of each taurine molecule. PMID:3631271

  7. Hepatic taurine transport: a Na/sup +/-dependent carrier on the basolateral plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Bucuvalas, J.C.; Goodrich, A.L.; Suchy, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    Highly purified rat basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles were used examine the mechanism and the driving forces for hepatic uptake of the ..beta..-amino acid, taurine. An inwardly directed 100 mM NaCl gradient stimulated the initial rate of taurine uptake and energized a transient twofold accumulation of taurine above equilibrium (overshoot). In contrast, uptake was slower and no overshoot was detected in the presence of a KCl gradient. A negative intravesicular electrical potential generated by the presence of permeant anions or an outwardly directed K/sup +/ gradient with valinomycin increased Na/sup +/-stimulated taurine uptake. External Cl/sup -/ stimulated Na/sup +/-dependent taurine uptake independent of effects on the transmembrane electrical potential difference. Na/sup +/-dependent taurine uptake showed a sigmoidal dependence on extravesicular Na/sup +/ concentration, suggesting multiple Na/sup +/ ions are involved in the translocation of each taurine molecule. Na/sup +/-dependent taurine uptake demonstrated Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a maximum velocity of 0.537 nmol x mg protein/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/ and an apparent K/sub m/ of 174 ..mu..M. (/sup 3/H)taurine uptake was inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled taurine, ..beta..-alanine, or hypotaurine but not by L-glutamine or L-alanine. In summary, using basolateral liver plasma membrane vesicles, the authors have shown that hepatic uptake of taurine occurs by a carrier-mediated, secondary active transport process specific for ..beta..-amino acids. Uptake is electrogenic, stimulated by external Cl/sup -/, and requires multiple Na/sup +/ ions for the translocation of each taurine molecule.

  8. Functional characterisation of human SGLT-5 as a novel kidney-specific sodium-dependent sugar transporter.

    PubMed

    Grempler, Rolf; Augustin, Robert; Froehner, Stefanie; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Simon, Eric; Mark, Michael; Eickelmann, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLT) actively catalyse carbohydrate transport across cellular membranes. Six of the 12 known SGLT family members have the capacity to bind and/or transport monosaccharides (SGLT-1 to 6); of these, all but SGLT-5 have been characterised. Here we demonstrate that human SGLT-5 is exclusively expressed in the kidney. Four splice variants were detected and the most abundant SGLT-5-mRNA was functionally characterised. SGLT-5 mediates sodium-dependent [(14)C]-?-methyl-D-glucose (AMG) transport that can be inhibited by mannose, fructose, glucose, and galactose. Uptake studies using demonstrated high capacity transport for mannose and fructose and, to a lesser extent, glucose, AMG, and galactose. SGLT-5 mediated mannose, fructose and AMG transport was weakly (?M potency) inhibited by SGLT-2 inhibitors. In summary, we have characterised SGLT-5 as a kidney mannose transporter. Further studies are warranted to explore the physiological role of SGLT-5. PMID:22212718

  9. Novel ATP-dependent calcium transport component from rat liver plasma membranes. The transporter and the previously reported (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase are different proteins.

    PubMed

    Lin, S H

    1985-07-01

    An ATP-dependent calcium transport component from rat liver plasma membranes was solubilized by cholate and reconstituted into egg lecithin vesicles by a cholate dialysis procedure. The uptake of Ca2+ into the reconstituted vesicles was ATP-dependent and the trapped Ca2+ could be released by A23187. Nucleotides, including ADP, UTP, GTP, CTP, GDP, AMP, and adenyl-5'-yl beta, gamma-imidophosphate, and p-nitrophenylphosphate did not substitute for ATP. The concentration of ATP required for half-maximal stimulation of Ca2+ uptake into the reconstituted vesicles was 6.2 microM. Magnesium was required for calcium uptake. Inhibitors of mitochondrial calcium-sequestering activities, i.e. oligomycin, sodium azide, ruthenium red, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, and valinomycin did not affect the uptake of Ca2+ into the vesicles. In addition, strophanthidin and p-chloromercuribenzoate did not affect the transport. Calcium transport, however, was inhibited by vanadate in a concentration-dependent fashion with a K0.5 of 10 microM. A calcium-stimulated, vanadate-inhibitable phosphoprotein was demonstrated in the reconstituted vesicles with an apparent molecular weight of 118,000 +/- 1,300. These properties of Ca2+ transport by vesicles reconstituted from liver plasma membranes suggest that this ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport component is different from the high affinity (Ca2+-Mg2+)-ATPase found in the same membrane preparation (Lotersztajn, S., Hanoune, J. and Pecker, F. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 11209-11215; Lin, S.-H., and Fain, J.N. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 3016-3020). When the entire reconstituted vesicle population was treated with ATP and 45Ca in a buffer containing oxalate, the vesicles with Ca2+ transport activity could be separated from other vesicles by centrifugation in a density gradient and the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport component was purified approximately 9-fold. This indicates that transport-specific fractionation may be used to isolate the ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport component from liver plasma membrane. PMID:2409077

  10. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Inhibitors: Inhibition of Dopamine Transporter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Alexander; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 5 reduces the rewarding properties of psychostimulants by dampening postsynaptic dopamine (DA) receptor signaling. Cdk5 is also present in midbrain DA neurons, where the DA transporter (DAT) is localized and limits DA neurotransmission by removing extracellular DA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Cdk5 could also affect the disposition of DA by regulating DAT activity. Incubation of rat dorsal striatal (dSTR) synaptosomes with the Cdk5 inhibitors roscovitine, olomoucine, and 4-{[(7-oxo-6,7-dihydro-8H-[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-e]indol-8-ylidene)methyl]amino}-N-(2-pyridyl)benzenesulfonamide (GW8510) or the inactive congener iso-olomoucine resulted in a rapid, concentration-dependent inhibition of specific [3H]DA uptake. However, roscovitine was the only inhibitor that did not also decrease [3H]2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (WIN35,428) binding to dSTR DATs. Roscovitine-induced inhibition of dSTR [3H]DA uptake was explained by decreased maximal uptake velocity, without a change in cell-surface DAT levels. Roscovitine did not enhance [3H]DA release mediated by either DAT reverse-transport or Ca2+ channels in dSTR slices. Instead, roscovitine enhanced spontaneous [3H]DA outflow and inhibited DAT-mediated [3H]DA reaccumulation into dSTR slices. To explore the involvement of Cdk5 in roscovitine-induced down-regulation of DAT activity, Cdk5 protein was knocked down via Cdk5-small interfering RNA by as much as 86% in porcine aortic endothelial cells stably expressing human (h)DATs. However, Cdk5 depletion did not alter hDAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that roscovitine inhibits DAT activity independently of Cdk5; therefore, results obtained with such inhibitors should be interpreted with caution. Our study is the first to demonstrate that Cdk5 inhibitors reduce brain DAT activity via a mechanism that is independent of DAT trafficking and reverse-transport. PMID:19628755

  11. PPAR? activation promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport through an LXR-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Tohyama, Junichiro; Naik, Snehal U; Tanigawa, Hiroyuki; Jaye, Michael; MacPhee, Colin; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Objective Peroxisome proliferator-activate receptor? (PPAR?) activation has been shown in vitro to increase macrophage cholesterol efflux, the initial step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). However, it remains unclear whether PPAR? activation promotes macrophage RCT in vivo. Methods and Results We demonstrated that a specific potent PPAR? agonist GW7647 inhibited atherosclerosis and promoted macrophage RCT in hypercholesterolemic mice expressing the human apoA-I gene. We compared the effect of GW7647 on RCT in human apoA-I transgenic (hA-ITg) mice with wild-type (WT) mice and showed that the PPAR? agonist promoted RCT in hA-ITg mice to a much greater extent than in WT mice, indicating that human apoA-I expression is important for PPAR?-induced RCT. We further investigated the dependence of the macrophage PPAR?-LXR pathway on the promotion of RCT by GW7647. Primary murine macrophages lacking PPAR? or LXR abolished the ability of GW7647 to promote RCT in hA-ITg mice. In concert, the PPAR? agonist promoted cholesterol efflux and ABCA1/ABCG1 expression in primary macrophages and this was also by the PPAR?-LXR pathway. Conclusion Our observations demonstrate that a potent PPAR? agonist promotes macrophage RCT in vivo in a manner that is enhanced by human apoA-I expression and dependent on both macrophage PPAR? and LXR expression. PMID:21441141

  12. Effect of temperature-dependent electrical conductivity on transport processes in magnetosolidmechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, G. T.; Arnas, O. A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of temperature-dependent electrical conductivity on transport processes for a solid block is analyzed on the basis of a one-dimensional steady-state model under specified thermal boundary conditions. Assumptions are that the solid has an infinitely segmented electrode configuration, the magnetic field (By) may be resolved into a constant applied field and an induced field, the gradient of the electrochemical potential is equal to the electrostatic potential, a constant potential difference is applied externally across each pair of opposite electrodes, and all material properties except electrical conductivity are constant. Conductivity is expressed in normalized form in terms of a baseline conductivity and a constant for the material. The application of the assumptions of the model to the general phenomenological relations yields the governing equations. Solution of these equations gives the distribution of temperature, electric current density, and magnetic field strength along the length of the solid. It is shown that significant differences exist between the case for constant electrical conductivity and the case where electrical conductivity is temperature dependent.

  13. Misorientation-angle-dependent electrical transport across molybdenum disulfide grain boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Perello, David J.; Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundaries in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have unique atomic defect structures and band dispersion relations that depend on the inter-domain misorientation angle. Here, we explore misorientation angle-dependent electrical transport at grain boundaries in monolayer MoS2 by correlating the atomic defect structures of measured devices analysed with transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that grain boundaries are primarily composed of 5–7 dislocation cores with periodicity and additional complex defects formed at high angles, obeying the classical low-angle theory for angles <22°. The inter-domain mobility is minimized for angles <9° and increases nonlinearly by two orders of magnitude before saturating at ∼16 cm2 V−1 s−1 around misorientation angle≈20°. This trend is explained via grain-boundary electrostatic barriers estimated from density functional calculations and experimental tunnelling barrier heights, which are ≈0.5 eV at low angles and ≈0.15 eV at high angles (≥20°). PMID:26813605

  14. Neuronal transporter and astrocytic ATP exocytosis underlie activity-dependent adenosine release in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes within the mammalian CNS. However, the precise mechanisms of how the concentration of extracellular adenosine increases following neural activity remain contentious. Here we have used microelectrode biosensors to directly measure adenosine release induced by focal stimulation in stratum radiatum of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Adenosine release was both action potential and Ca2+ dependent and could be evoked with low stimulation frequencies and small numbers of stimuli. Adenosine release required the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and could be evoked by local application of glutamate receptor agonists. Approximately 40% of stimulated-adenosine release occurred by translocation of adenosine via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). This component of release persisted in the presence of the gliotoxin fluoroacetate and thus results from the direct release of adenosine from neurons. A reduction of adenosine release in the presence of NTPDase blockers, in slices from CD73?/? and dn-SNARE mice, provides evidence that a component of adenosine release arises from the extracellular metabolism of ATP released from astrocytes. This component of release appeared to have slower kinetics than the direct ENT-mediated release of adenosine. These data suggest that activity-dependent adenosine release is surprisingly complex and, in the hippocampus, arises from at least two distinct mechanisms with different cellular sources. PMID:23713028

  15. Misorientation-angle-dependent electrical transport across molybdenum disulfide grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Perello, David J.; Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundaries in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have unique atomic defect structures and band dispersion relations that depend on the inter-domain misorientation angle. Here, we explore misorientation angle-dependent electrical transport at grain boundaries in monolayer MoS2 by correlating the atomic defect structures of measured devices analysed with transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that grain boundaries are primarily composed of 5-7 dislocation cores with periodicity and additional complex defects formed at high angles, obeying the classical low-angle theory for angles <22. The inter-domain mobility is minimized for angles <9 and increases nonlinearly by two orders of magnitude before saturating at ~16 cm2 V-1 s-1 around misorientation angle~20. This trend is explained via grain-boundary electrostatic barriers estimated from density functional calculations and experimental tunnelling barrier heights, which are ~0.5 eV at low angles and ~0.15 eV at high angles (>=20).

  16. Misorientation-angle-dependent electrical transport across molybdenum disulfide grain boundaries.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Perello, David J; Zhao, Jiong; Deng, Qingming; Kim, Hyun; Han, Gang Hee; Chae, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Hye Yun; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    Grain boundaries in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides have unique atomic defect structures and band dispersion relations that depend on the inter-domain misorientation angle. Here, we explore misorientation angle-dependent electrical transport at grain boundaries in monolayer MoS2 by correlating the atomic defect structures of measured devices analysed with transmission electron microscopy and first-principles calculations. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that grain boundaries are primarily composed of 5-7 dislocation cores with periodicity and additional complex defects formed at high angles, obeying the classical low-angle theory for angles <22. The inter-domain mobility is minimized for angles <9 and increases nonlinearly by two orders of magnitude before saturating at ?16?cm(2)?V(-1)?s(-1) around misorientation angle?20. This trend is explained via grain-boundary electrostatic barriers estimated from density functional calculations and experimental tunnelling barrier heights, which are ?0.5?eV at low angles and ?0.15?eV at high angles (?20). PMID:26813605

  17. A State Representation Approach for Atomistic Time-Dependent Transport Calculations in Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelovich, Tamar; Kronik, Leeor; Hod, Oded

    2014-03-01

    A new method for simulating electron dynamics in open quantum systems out of equilibrium, motivated by the intuitive and practical nature of the damped Liouville von-Neumann equation approach of Sánchez et al. [J. Chem Phys, 124, 214708 (2006)], is presented. The new approach is based on a transformation of the Hamiltonian matrix from an atomistic to a state representation of the molecular junction. This allows us to define the bias voltage across the system uniquely while maintaining a proper thermal distribution within the lead models. Furthermore, it allows us to investigate time-dependent effects in non-linear and multi-lead configurations. We investigate the degree of conservation of exact conditions such as the N-representability of the density matrix and suggest ways to remedy the violation of Pauli's exclusion principle. We believe that the new approach offers a practical and physically sound route for performing atomistic time-dependent transport calculations in realistic models of molecular electronics junctions.

  18. Depth-variant azimuthal anisotropy in Tibet revealed by surface wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shantanu; Yuan, Xiaohui; Debayle, Eric; Tilmann, Frederik; Priestley, Keith; Li, Xueqing

    2015-06-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy derived from multimode Rayleigh wave tomography in China exhibits depth-dependent variations in Tibet, which can be explained as induced by the Cenozoic India-Eurasian collision. In west Tibet, the E-W fast polarization direction at depths <100 km is consistent with the accumulated shear strain in the Tibetan lithosphere, whereas the N-S fast direction at greater depths is aligned with Indian Plate motion. In northeast Tibet, depth-consistent NW-SE directions imply coupled deformation throughout the whole lithosphere, possibly also involving the underlying asthenosphere. Significant anisotropy at depths of 225 km in southeast Tibet reflects sublithospheric deformation induced by northward and eastward lithospheric subduction beneath the Himalaya and Burma, respectively. The multilayer anisotropic surface wave model can explain some features of SKS splitting measurements in Tibet, with differences probably attributable to the limited back azimuthal coverage of most SKS studies in Tibet and the limited horizontal resolution of the surface wave results.

  19. Communication: Methane dissociation on Ni(111) surface: Importance of azimuth and surface impact site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangjian; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the role of reactant ro-vibrational degrees of freedom (DOFs) in reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecular dissociation on metal surfaces is of great importance to explore the complex chemical reaction mechanism. Here, we present an expensive quantum dynamics study of the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on a rigid Ni(111) surface by developing an accurate nine-dimensional quantum dynamical model including the DOF of azimuth. Based on a highly accurate fifteen-dimensional potential energy surface built from first principles, our simulations elucidate that the dissociation probability of CH4 has the strong dependence on azimuth and surface impact site. Some improvements are suggested to obtain the accurate dissociation probability from quantum dynamics simulations.

  20. Communication: Methane dissociation on Ni(111) surface: Importance of azimuth and surface impact site.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangjian; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhang, Dong H

    2016-03-14

    Understanding the role of reactant ro-vibrational degrees of freedom (DOFs) in reaction dynamics of polyatomic molecular dissociation on metal surfaces is of great importance to explore the complex chemical reaction mechanism. Here, we present an expensive quantum dynamics study of the dissociative chemisorption of CH4 on a rigid Ni(111) surface by developing an accurate nine-dimensional quantum dynamical model including the DOF of azimuth. Based on a highly accurate fifteen-dimensional potential energy surface built from first principles, our simulations elucidate that the dissociation probability of CH4 has the strong dependence on azimuth and surface impact site. Some improvements are suggested to obtain the accurate dissociation probability from quantum dynamics simulations. PMID:26979673

  1. Magnetic Resonance Microscopy of Scale Dependent Transport Phenomena and Bioactivity in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, J. D.; Codd, S. L.; Romanenko, K. V.; Hornemann, J. A.; Brosten, T. R.

    2008-05-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) provides the ability to obtain data on the pore scale via imaging and the sample scale by bulk measurement, allowing for connection between microscale dynamics and macroscale transport phenomena. This has led to MRM techniques becoming a preeminent method for characterization of dynamics in porous media. A significant question in modeling transport in porous media is definition of the porous media structure as homogeneous (ordered) or heterogeneous (disordered)[1]. One means of defining the 'complexity' of a porous media is based on the dynamics of the system[2]. The ability of MRM to measure the time dependent statistics of the dynamics [3,4,5] provides quantification of the pre-asymptotic dynamics. The transition from preasymptotic to Gaussian transport consistent with models of homogeneous porous media is clearly visualized. Biological activity in porous media, such as microbial growth, typically manifests itself as biofilms or colonies of microbes that adhere to surfaces and are surrounded by a hydrogel of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The biofilm growth introduces complexity into the system structure in generation of physical pore blocking, trapping within the EPS gel, elastic interfaces due to the EPS and generation of channels in which faster flow occur. The hierarchy of length and time scales and multiple physical processes which are introduced by the biofilm growth impacts the porous media transport as reflected in the change in dynamics [6]. The transition can be modeled using statistical mechanical approaches based on continuous time random walk (CTRW) processes that generate fractional differential equations[7]. The bioactivity alters the structure of the porous media from homogeneous to heterogeneous resulting in the transition from a Gaussian to a non Gaussian subdiffusive dispersion process. References 1. M. Quintard and S. Whitaker, Transport in ordered and disordered porous media: Volume averaged equations, closure problems and comparison with experiment. Chemical Engineering Science, 48(14): 2537-2564 (1993). 2. N. Goldenfeld and L.P. Kadanoff, Simple lessons from complexity. Science, 284: 87-89 (1999). 3. J.D. Seymour and P.T. Callaghan, Generalized approach to NMR analysis of flow and dispersion in porous medium. AIChE Journal, 43: 2096-2111 (1997). 4. S.L. Codd, B. Manz, J.D. Seymour, and P.T. Callaghan, Taylor dispersion and molecular displacements in poiseuille flow. Physical Review E, 60(4): R3491-R3494 (1999). 5. P.T. Callaghan, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy. New York: Oxford University Press (1991). 6. G.K. Batchelor, Developments in microhydrodynamics, in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, W.T. Koiter, Editor. North-Holland: Amsterdam. p. 33-55 (1976). 7. J.D. Seymour, J.P. Gage, S.L. Codd, and R. Gerlach, Anomalous fluid transport in porous media induced by biofilm growth. Physical Review Letters, 93: 198103 (2004).

  2. Two highly conserved glutamate residues critical for type III sodium-dependent phosphate transport revealed by uncoupling transport function from retroviral receptor function.

    PubMed

    Bottger, Pernille; Pedersen, Lene

    2002-11-01

    Type III sodium-dependent phosphate (NaP(i)) cotransporters, Pit1 and Pit2, have been assigned housekeeping P(i) transport functions and suggested involved in chondroblastic and osteoblastic mineralization and ectopic calcification. Both proteins exhibit dual function, thus, besides being transporters, they also serve as receptors for several gammaretroviruses. We here show that it is possible to uncouple transport and receptor functions of a type III NaP(i) cotransporter and thus exploit the retroviral receptor function as a control for proper processing and folding of mutant proteins. Thus exchanging two putative transmembranic glutamate residues in human Pit2, Glu(55) and Glu(575), with glutamine or with lysine severely impaired or knocked out, respectively, P(i) transport function, but left viral receptor function undisturbed. Both glutamates are conserved in type III NaP(i) cotransporters, in fungal NaP(i) cotransporters PHO-4 and Pho89, and in other known or putative phosphate permeases from a number of species and are the first residues shown to be critical for type III NaP(i) cotransport. Their putative transmembranic positions together with the presented data are consistent with Glu(55) and Glu(575) being parts of a cation liganding site or playing roles in conformational changes associated with substrate transport. Finally, the results also show that Pit2 retroviral receptor function per se is not dependent on Pit2 P(i) transport function. PMID:12205090

  3. Two distinct mechanisms for bilirubin glucuronide transport by rat bile canalicular membrane vesicles. Demonstration of defective ATP-dependent transport in rats (TR-) with inherited conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, T; Gatmaitan, Z; Roy-Chowdhry, J; Arias, I M

    1992-01-01

    Bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid in hepatocytes and subsequently secreted in bile. The major conjugate is bilirubin diglucuronide. Using sealed vesicles which are primarily derived from the canalicular (CMV) and sinusoidal (SMV) membrane vesicle domains of the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, we demonstrated that bilirubin glucuronides are transported by CMV by both ATP- and membrane potential-dependent transport systems. In CMV from normal rats, these processes are additive. In CMV from TR- rats, which have an autosomal recessively inherited defect in biliary secretion of nonbile acid organic anions, ATP-dependent transport of bilirubin diglucuronide was absent whereas the membrane potential driven system was retained. Other canalicular ATP-dependent transport systems, which were previously described for organic cations and bile acids, are functionally retained in TR- rats. Our study indicates that bilirubin glucuronides are primarily secreted into the bile canaliculus by an ATP-dependent mechanism which is defective in an animal model of the human Dubin-Johnson syndrome. PMID:1430236

  4. Radial and azimuthal dynamics of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, Matthew

    The moon Io orbits Jupiter emitting neutral particles from its volcanic surface. This emission is ionized and forms the Io plasma torus around Jupiter. The variation of conditions at Io and Jupiter lead to variations in the content of the plasma in the torus. Volcanoes on Io's surface erupt and change the rate of neutral input. Hot electrons (30--100 eV), whose abundances vary in azimuth, create highly ionized species. Radial variation in subcorotation velocities, velocities less than that of the motion of the dipole magnetic field, creates shears while maintaining coherent radial structure in the torus. Poorly understood changes in plasma density circulate through the torus creating the anomalous System IV behavior that has a period slightly longer than the rotation of Jupiter's magnetic field. This thesis summarizes the research that has produced a two-dimensional physical chemistry model, tested several existing theories about subcorotation velocities, System IV variation, and hot electrons, and adopted new methods of Io plasma torus analysis. In an attempt to understand important dynamics, the thesis modeled differing scenarios such as an initialized two-peak structure, a subcorotation profile dictated by mass loading and ionospheric conductivity, and a critical combination of two populations of hot electrons that accurately mimics the observed System IV phenomenon. This model was also used to solve the inverse problem of determining the best fit for the model parameters, neutral source input rate and radial transport rate, using observations of density, temperature, and composition. In addition the thesis shows the need for multi-dimensional modeling and the results from its groundbreaking two-dimensional model.

  5. Measurement of Azimuthal Asymmetries in Inclusive Production of Hadron Pairs in e{sup +}e{sup -} Annihilation at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, R.; Hasuko, K.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Ogawa, A.; Abe, K.; Hoshi, Y.; Adachi, I.; Dragic, J.; Gershon, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Limosani, A.; Nakamura, I.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ozaki, H.

    2006-06-16

    The Collins effect connects transverse quark spin with a measurable azimuthal dependence in the yield of hadronic fragments around the quark's momentum vector. Using two different reconstruction methods, we find evidence of statistically significant azimuthal asymmetries for charged pion pairs in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 10.52 GeV, which can be attributed to a transverse polarization of the primordial quarks. The measurement was performed using a sample of 79x10{sup 6} hadronic events collected with the Belle detector.

  6. Azimuthal distributions of charged hadrons, pions, and kaons produced in deep-inelastic scattering off unpolarized protons and deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Akopov, Z.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Augustyniak, W.; Avakian, R.; Avetissian, A.; Avetisyan, E.; Belostotski, S.; Blok, H. P.; Borissov, A.; Bowles, J.; Bryzgalov, V.; Burns, J.; Capiluppi, M.; Cisbani, E.; Ciullo, G.; Contalbrigo, M.; Dalpiaz, P. F.; Deconinck, W.; De Leo, R.; De Nardo, L.; De Sanctis, E.; Diefenthaler, M.; Di Nezza, P.; Dren, M.; Elbakian, G.; Ellinghaus, F.; Fantoni, A.; Felawka, L.; Frullani, S.; Gapienko, G.; Gapienko, V.; Garibaldi, F.; Gavrilov, G.; Gharibyan, V.; Giordano, F.; Gliske, S.; Golembiovskaya, M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hartig, M.; Hasch, D.; Hillenbrand, A.; Hoek, M.; Holler, Y.; Hristova, I.; Imazu, Y.; Ivanilov, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Jo, H. S.; Joosten, S.; Kaiser, R.; Karyan, G.; Keri, T.; Kinney, E.; Kisselev, A.; Korotkov, V.; Kozlov, V.; Kravchenko, P.; Krivokhijine, V. G.; Lagamba, L.; Lapiks, L.; Lehmann, I.; Lenisa, P.; Lpez Ruiz, A.; Lorenzon, W.; Ma, B.-Q.; Mahon, D.; Makins, N. C. R.; Manaenkov, S. I.; Manfr, L.; Mao, Y.; Marianski, B.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Marukyan, H.; Miller, C. A.; Miyachi, Y.; Movsisyan, A.; Murray, M.; Nappi, E.; Naryshkin, Y.; Nass, A.; Negodaev, M.; Nowak, W.-D.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Perez-Benito, R.; Petrosyan, A.; Raithel, M.; Reimer, P. E.; Reolon, A. R.; Riedl, C.; Rith, K.; Rosner, G.; Rostomyan, A.; Rubin, J.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salomatin, Y.; Sanftl, F.; Schfer, A.; Schnell, G.; Schler, K. P.; Seitz, B.; Shibata, T.-A.; Stancari, M.; Statera, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stewart, J.; Stinzing, F.; Terkulov, A.; Truty, R. M.; Trzcinski, A.; Tytgat, M.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Van Haarlem, Y.; Van Hulse, C.; Veretennikov, D.; Vikhrov, V.; Vilardi, I.; Wang, S.; Yaschenko, S.; Ye, Z.; Yen, S.; Yu, W.; Zagrebelnyy, V.; Zeiler, D.; Zihlmann, B.; Zupranski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The azimuthal cos?? and cos?2? modulations of the distribution of hadrons produced in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of electrons and positrons off hydrogen and deuterium targets have been measured in the HERMES experiment. For the first time these modulations were determined in a four-dimensional kinematic space for positively and negatively charged pions and kaons separately, as well as for unidentified hadrons. These azimuthal dependences are sensitive to the transverse motion and polarization of the quarks within the nucleon via, e.g., the Cahn, Boer-Mulders and Collins effects.

  7. Parametric excitation of azimuthally non-symmetric surface waves propagating in metal waveguides filled with isotropic plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girka, V. O.; Girka, ? O.; Sydora, R. D.; Ivahnenko, O.; Shkoda, Y.

    2015-06-01

    The paper is devoted to developing the theory of parametric excitation of electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of symmetry in cylindrical waveguides partially filled with isotropic plasma. The problem is studied theoretically in the fluid approximation and expressions for the wave fields are derived from Maxwells equations. The azimuthally non-symmetric electromagnetic waves propagate in the form of wave packets which are approximately described by the main azimuthal harmonic and two nearest satellite temporal harmonics. The boundary condition, which is cast in a nonlinear form, describes the flowing of a surface current on the plasma interface. This condition allows one to derive an infinite set of equations for harmonics of the tangential electric field of azimuthally non-symmetric surface waves. The dependence of the growth rate of the parametric instability of these waves on parameters of the plasma-filled waveguide and alternating electric field is studied both analytically and numerically.

  8. Expression of type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters/retroviral receptors mRNAs during osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L B; Pedersen, F S; Pedersen, L

    2001-02-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is essential for the formation of bone. Pi transport in osteoblastic cells is mainly handled by sodium-dependent Pi (NaPi) transporters, different from the renal type I and II transporters; their molecular identities are, however, still subject to investigation. Recently, two type III NaPi transporters, Pit1 and Pit2, were identified, both of which exhibit some of the biochemical and regulatory characteristics of osteoblastic cell-associated NaPi transporters. Here, we have investigated the Pit1 and Pit2 steady-state mRNA levels during the osteoblast differentiation in cultures of the nontransformed MC3T3-E1 cell line. While Pit2 mRNAs were invariably expressed at low levels, Pit1 mRNA levels were found to increase during osteoblast differentiation concomitantly with osteocalcin mRNA. Moreover, the increase in Pit1 mRNA levels also correlated with the time in culture at which mineralization could be observed. The increase in Pit1 mRNA levels over time in culture was only observed in cultures grown under conditions allowing for osteoblast differentiation. This is the first time that osteoblast differentiation-dependent regulation of expression of a NaPi transporter has been demonstrated. Moreover, we show here for the first time the presence of Pit1 and Pit2 mRNAs in undifferentiated and differentiated nontransformed osteoblastic cells. Our data suggest that both Pit1 and Pit2 NaPi transporters are involved in Pi transport in preosteoblastic and osteoblastic cells, and they represent the first evidence consistent with a potential role for Pit1, but not for Pit2, in differentiation-dependent Pi transport. The observed upregulation of Pit1 mRNA levels during osteoblast differentiation suggests that Pit1 might be used as a marker for osteoblast maturation. PMID:11182373

  9. Spin-dependent transport of spin-orbit coupled holes in GaAs nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Alex

    2012-02-01

    In undergraduate physics, we are often taught that holes in the valence band are just positively charged heavy electrons. But valence band holes are spin-3/2 particles, and this gives them very different properties to spin-1/2 electrons, particularly when confined to low dimensions. These differences show up as highly anisotropic spin properties, which can be directly probed with conventional transport measurements. We have fabricated high quality hole quantum wires that show clean and stable quantized conductance plateaus [1]. In contrast to 1D electron quantum systems, the spin-splitting in these hole wires is highly anisotropic [2], and depends only on the orientation of the in-plane magnetic field relative to the quantum wire [3]. However the orientation and k-dependence of the spin-splitting cannot be reconciled with existing theories, suggesting that more theoretical work is needed before we understand the physics of spin-3/2 holes, even on ``simple'' (100) surfaces. We have also studied spin-3/2 holes in quantum dots, which show characteristic signatures of Kondo physics. A clear zero-bias peak is observed in the differential conductance, which splits with an applied in-plane magnetic field. The splitting is twice as large as the splitting for the lowest one-dimensional subband, consistent with Kondo physics. Unlike electrons this splitting is highly anisotropic with magnetic field, due to the strong spin-orbit coupling [4]. [4pt] [1] O. Klochan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 092105 (2006).[0pt] [2] R. Danneau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 026403 (2006).[0pt] [3] J C H Chen et al, New Journal of Physics 12, 033043 (2010).[0pt] [4] O. Klochan et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 076805 (2011).

  10. Antidepressant-like effects and basal immobility depend on age and serotonin transporter genotype.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, N C; Koek, W; Daws, L C

    2015-09-01

    Monoamine uptake inhibitors are common treatments for depression; however, the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs varies widely. Two factors that are commonly linked to clinical outcome are age and serotonin transporter (SERT) genotype. Mouse models provide powerful tools to study consequences of age and genotype on antidepressant-like efficacy; however, to date, systematic studies of this nature are lacking. Here, we used the tail suspension test (TST), a preclinical assay for antidepressant efficacy, to gain insight into age and SERT genotype dependency of immobility time in the TST under control conditions (saline injection) and in response to the tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine (DMI). Immobility after saline injection in juvenile, adolescent, adult, mature adult and middle-aged mice (postnatal days 21, 28, 90, 210 and 300, respectively) significantly increased with age; however, the rate of increase was slower for SERT null (-/-) mice than for wild-type (+/+) or heterozygote (+/-) mice. Desipramine reduced immobility across ages and SERT genotypes. Middle-aged, but not adult, SERT(-/-) mice were significantly more sensitive to DMI than age-matched SERT(+/+) or SERT(+/-) mice. Desipramine was less potent in middle-aged SERT(+/+) and SERT(+/-) mice than in adult SERT(+/+) or SERT(+/-) mice. Regardless of age, DMI's maximal effects were greater in SERT(-/-) mice than in SERT(+/+) or SERT(+/-) mice. These results show that immobility time in the TST varies as a function of age and SERT genotype, underscoring the utility of the TST as a potential model to examine age- and SERT genotype-dependent influences on antidepressant response. PMID:26250357

  11. Fast strontium transport induced by hydrodynamic dispersion and pH-dependent sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, Valentina; Hesse, Marc A.; Bryant, Steven L.

    2012-09-01

    As a fluid carries solutes through a porous material, species that sorb onto the surface of the material travel more slowly than the fluid. Stronger adsorption results in slower solute migration, or increased solute retardation. The adsorption of strontium (Sr2+) onto iron-oxides is strongly pH-dependent and becomes significant at high pH. Radioactive Sr2+ isotopes are, therefore, commonly stored in alkaline solutions to maximize their retardation. Field observations and numerical simulations of the leakage of such solutions into low-pH soils, however, show that even Sr2+ stored in alkaline solutions can migrate without retardation. Migration occurs because hydrodynamic dispersion allows mixing of Sr2+ with the low-pH fluid forming an acidic Sr2+-rich plume which can travel without retardation. Here we report the first experimental observations confirming this dispersion-induced fast Sr2+ transport. We report column-flood experiments where a high-pH solution containing Sr2+ was injected into a low-pH porous medium of iron-oxide-coated beads. We observe both a strongly retarded Sr2+ front and an isolated fast pulse of Sr2+ traveling at the average fluid velocity. This dispersion-induced fast pulse of strontium must be taken into account when considering the safety of radionuclide storage in alkaline solutions.

  12. [Ruthenium red inhibits energy-dependent and passive Ca2+ transport in permeabilized smooth muscle cells].

    PubMed

    Shinlova, O P; Kosterin, S A; Veklich, T A

    1996-08-01

    The effects of ruthenium red, pH, and sodium ions on active and passive Ca2+ transport were studied in digitonin-treated (0.1 mg/ml) suspension of myometrial cells using radiolabeled 45Ca2+. The inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation ruthenium red (10 microM) suppressed active accumulation of the cation in permeabilized myocytes by 78-85%. Ruthenium red-sensitive Ca2+ accumulation significantly (10-fold, mean) exceeds ruthenium red-resistant Mg2+, ATP-dependent Ca2+ accumulation assayed in the absence of oxalate and inhibited by 50 nM tapsigargin (blocker of endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump). Acidification of incubation medium (pH 8.0-6.0, Tris-malcate/KOH buffer) inhibits ruthenium red-sensitive active Ca2+ accumulation in permeabilized myocytes and passive release of this cation in the dilution medium after blockage of mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation by ruthenium red. Partial isotonic substitution of KCl (135-95 mM) with NaCl (15-55 mM) in incubation medium did not affect the initial rate of active ruthenium red-sensitive Ca2+ accumulation and the kinetics of passive Ca2+ release from permeabilized cells after blockade of active Ca2+ accumulation by ruthenium red. Mechanism of Ca2+ exchange in myometrial mitochondria is discussed. PMID:8962918

  13. Neoclassical and gyrokinetic analysis of time-dependent helium transport experiments on MAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. S.; Garzotti, L.; Casson, F. J.; Dickinson, D.; Fox, M. F. J.; O'Mullane, M.; Patel, A.; Roach, C. M.; Summers, H. P.; Valovi?, M.; The MAST Team

    2014-09-01

    Time-dependent helium gas puff experiments have been performed on the Mega Ampre Spherical Tokamak (MAST) during a two point plasma current scan in L-mode and a confinement scan at 900 kA. An evaluation of the He II (n = 4 ? 3) spectrum line induced by charge exchange suggests anomalous rates of diffusion and inward convection in the outer regions of both L-mode plasmas. Similar rates of diffusion are found in the H-mode plasma, however these rates are consistent with neoclassical predictions. The anomalous inward pinch found in the core of L-mode plasmas is also not apparent in the H-mode core. Linear gyrokinetic simulations of one flux surface in L-mode using the GS2 and GKW codes find that equilibrium flow shear is sufficient to stabilize ITG modes, consistent with beam emission spectroscopy (BES) observations, and suggest that collisionless TEMs may dominate the anomalous helium particle transport. A quasilinear estimate of the dimensionless peaking factor associated with TEMs is in good agreement with experiment. Collisionless TEMs are more stable in H-mode because the electron density gradient is flatter. The steepness of this gradient is therefore pivotal in determining the inward neoclassical particle pinch and the particle flux associated with TEM turbulence.

  14. Measurement of voltage-dependent electronic transport across amine-linked single-molecular-wire junctions.

    PubMed

    Widawsky, J R; Kamenetska, M; Klare, J; Nuckolls, C; Steigerwald, M L; Hybertsen, M S; Venkataraman, L

    2009-10-28

    We measure the conductance and current-voltage characteristics of two amine-terminated molecular wires -- 4,4'-diaminostilbene and bis-(4-aminophenyl)acetylene -- by breaking Au point contacts in a molecular solution at room temperature. Histograms compiled from thousands of measurements show a slight increase in the molecular junction conductance (I/V) as the bias is increased to nearly 450 mV. Comparatively, similar conductance measurements made with 1,6-diaminohexane, a saturated molecule, demonstrate almost no bias dependence. We also present a new technique to measure a statistically defined current-voltage (I-V) curve. Application to all three molecules shows that 4,4'-diaminostilbene exhibits the largest increase in differential conductance as a function of applied bias. This indicates that the predominant transport channel for 4,4'-diaminostilbene (the highest occupied molecular orbital) is closer to the Fermi level of the metal than that of the other molecules, consistent with the trends observed in the molecular ionization potential. We find that junctions constructed with the conjugated molecules show greater noise in individual junctions and less structural stability, on average, at biases greater than 450 mV. In contrast, junctions formed with the alkane can sustain a bias of up to 900 mV. This significantly affects the statistically averaged I-V characteristic measured for the conjugated molecules at higher bias. PMID:19801764

  15. Measurement of voltage-dependent electronic transport across amine-linked single-molecular-wire junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widawsky, J. R.; Kamenetska, M.; Klare, J.; Nuckolls, C.; Steigerwald, M. L.; Hybertsen, M. S.; Venkataraman, L.

    2009-10-01

    We measure the conductance and current-voltage characteristics of two amine-terminated molecular wires 4,4'-diaminostilbene and bis-(4-aminophenyl)acetyleneby breaking Au point contacts in a molecular solution at room temperature. Histograms compiled from thousands of measurements show a slight increase in the molecular junction conductance (I/V) as the bias is increased to nearly 450 mV. Comparatively, similar conductance measurements made with 1,6-diaminohexane, a saturated molecule, demonstrate almost no bias dependence. We also present a new technique to measure a statistically defined current-voltage (I-V) curve. Application to all three molecules shows that 4,4'-diaminostilbene exhibits the largest increase in differential conductance as a function of applied bias. This indicates that the predominant transport channel for 4,4'-diaminostilbene (the highest occupied molecular orbital) is closer to the Fermi level of the metal than that of the other molecules, consistent with the trends observed in the molecular ionization potential. We find that junctions constructed with the conjugated molecules show greater noise in individual junctions and less structural stability, on average, at biases greater than 450 mV. In contrast, junctions formed with the alkane can sustain a bias of up to 900 mV. This significantly affects the statistically averaged I-V characteristic measured for the conjugated molecules at higher bias.

  16. Size and Charge Dependence of Ion Transport in Human Nail Plate.

    PubMed

    Baswan, Sudhir M; Li, S Kevin; LaCount, Terri D; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    The electrical properties of human nail plate are poorly characterized yet are a key determinate of the potential to treat nail diseases, such as onychomycosis, using iontophoresis. To address this deficiency, molar conductivities of 17 electrolytes comprising 12 ionic species were determined in hydrated human nail plate in vitro. Cation transport numbers across the nail for 11 of these electrolytes were determined by the electromotive force method. Effective ionic mobilities and diffusivities at infinite dilution for all ionic species were determined by regression analysis. The ratios of diffusivities in nail to those in solution were found to correlate inversely with the hydrodynamic radii of the ions according to a power law relationship having an exponent of -1.75 ± 0.27, a substantially steeper size dependence than observed for similar experiments in skin. Effective diffusivities of cations in nail were 3-fold higher than those of comparably sized anions. These results reflect the strong size and charge selectivity of the nail plate for ionic conduction and diffusion. The analysis implies that efficient transungual iontophoretic delivery of ionized drugs having radii upward of 5 Å (molecular weight, ca. ≥340 Da) will require chemical or mechanical alteration of the nail plate. PMID:26886342

  17. Dissecting the Molecular Mechanism of Nucleotide-Dependent Activation of the KtrAB K+ Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Szollosi, Andras; Vieira-Pires, Ricardo S.; Teixeira-Duarte, Celso M.; Rocha, Rita; Morais-Cabral, João H.

    2016-01-01

    KtrAB belongs to the Trk/Ktr/HKT superfamily of monovalent cation (K+ and Na+) transport proteins that closely resemble K+ channels. These proteins underlie a plethora of cellular functions that are crucial for environmental adaptation in plants, fungi, archaea, and bacteria. The activation mechanism of the Trk/Ktr/HKT proteins remains unknown. It has been shown that ATP stimulates the activity of KtrAB while ADP does not. Here, we present X-ray structural information on the KtrAB complex with bound ADP. A comparison with the KtrAB-ATP structure reveals conformational changes in the ring and in the membrane protein. In combination with a biochemical and functional analysis, we uncover how ligand-dependent changes in the KtrA ring are propagated to the KtrB membrane protein and conclude that, despite their structural similarity, the activation mechanism of KtrAB is markedly different from the activation mechanism of K+ channels. PMID:26771197

  18. MGS MAG/ER Data Analysis Using a Time and Magnetic Field Dependent Electron Transport Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Mitchell, David L.; Nagy, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of that project was to examine certain details about the dayside electron environment at Mars as seen by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) magnetometer/electron reflectometer (MAG/ER) instrument. Specifically, we stated that we would use the Khazanov and Liemohn (K&L) kinetic electron transport model to analyze features in the observations. This code includes a non-uniform magnetic field and time-dependence in the result (different from most other models of this type). It was originally developed for electron motion along field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere (between conjugate ionospheres), and is thus quite appropriate for application to the Mars magnetic field scenario. Numerous code developments were implemented and the Mars version of the K&L model is fully operational. Initial results from this code have focused on the examination of MGS MAG/ER observations in the crustal field region when it is on the dayside. After several presentations at scientific meetings, this study culminated in a JGR publication last year.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits intestinal ?-carotene absorption by downregulation of lipid transporter expression via PPAR-? dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Kondaiah, Palsa; Palika, Ravindranadh; Ghosh, Sudip; Nair, Madhavan K; Raghu, Pullakhandam

    2016-01-15

    The involvement of lipid transporters, the scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and Niemann-Pick type C1 Like 1 protein (NPC1L1) in carotenoid absorption is demonstrated in intestinal cells and animal models. Dietary ?-3 fatty acids are known to possess antilipidemic properties, which could be mediated by activation of PPAR family transcription factors. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on intestinal ?-carotene absorption. ?-carotene uptake in Caco-2/TC7 cells was inhibited by EPA (p<0.01) and PPAR? agonist (P<0.01), but not by DHA, PPAR? or PPAR? agonists. Despite unaltered ?-carotene uptake, both DHA and PPAR? agonists inhibited the NPC1L1 expression. Further, EPA also induced the expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A) expression, a PPAR? target gene. Interestingly, EPA induced inhibition of ?-carotene uptake and SR B1 expression were abrogated by specific PPAR? antagonist, but not by PPAR? antagonist. EPA and PPAR? agonist also inhibited the basolateral secretion of ?-carotene from Caco-2 cells grown on permeable supports. These results suggest that EPA inhibits intestinal ?-carotene absorption by down regulation of SR B1 expression via PPAR? dependent mechanism and provide an evidence for dietary modulation of intestinal ?-carotene absorption. PMID:26577021

  20. Numerical Study of Spin-Dependent Transport Through a Magnetic Quantum Wire with Lattice Vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-03-01

    The impact of lattice vacancy on the spin dependent transport properties of a magnetic-quantum wire (MQW) has been investigated. A simple tight binding Hamiltonian to describe the model is used, where the quantum wire is attached to two semi-infinite one-dimensional non-magnetic electrodes. Based on the Landauer-Buttiker formalism all the calculations are performed numerically which describe two-terminal conductance. The results suggest that in presence of vacancy the transmission reduces and vacancy creates quasilocalized states around zero energy (E f = 0). In order to investigate spin-filtering effect of (MQW), the degree of polarization in the presence and absences of vacancy has been studied. Also it is found that the effect of vacancy decreases when the size of MQW increases. The results show that a magnetic quantum wire can be used as a spin filter. The application of the predicted results may be useful in designing molecular spin-polarized transistors in the future.

  1. Numerical Study of Spin-Dependent Transport Through a Magnetic Quantum Wire with Lattice Vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2015-10-01

    The impact of lattice vacancy on the spin dependent transport properties of a magnetic-quantum wire (MQW) has been investigated. A simple tight binding Hamiltonian to describe the model is used, where the quantum wire is attached to two semi-infinite one-dimensional non-magnetic electrodes. Based on the Landauer-Buttiker formalism all the calculations are performed numerically which describe two-terminal conductance. The results suggest that in presence of vacancy the transmission reduces and vacancy creates quasilocalized states around zero energy (E f = 0). In order to investigate spin-filtering effect of (MQW), the degree of polarization in the presence and absences of vacancy has been studied. Also it is found that the effect of vacancy decreases when the size of MQW increases. The results show that a magnetic quantum wire can be used as a spin filter. The application of the predicted results may be useful in designing molecular spin-polarized transistors in the future.

  2. Studies of azimuthal modulations in two hadron fragmentation of a transversely polarised quark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Kotzinian, Aram; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2014-04-01

    We study the azimuthal modulations of dihadron fragmentation functions (DiFFs) of a transversely polarised quark using an NJL-jet based model that incorporates the Collins effect for single hadron emission. The DiFFs are extracted as Monte Carlo (MC) averages of corresponding multiplicities using their probabilistic interpretation. To simplify the model and highlight the possible mechanisms that create this modulation, we choose the elementary Collins function to be proportional to the elementary unpolarised fragmentation and a constant probability (PSF) for the quark to flip its spin after a single hadron emission. Moreover, as a leading order calculation, only one of the produced hadrons in the decay chain of the quark is produced with elementary Collins modulation. We calculate the dependence of the polarised DiFFs on various angles such as the azimuthal angle of the single hadron and the angle of the two-hadron production plane ?R for several values of PSF. We observe that the polarised DiFFs for oppositely charged pion pairs exhibit a sin(?R) modulation. This effect is induced purely via the elementary Collins effect and persists even when the quark completely depolarises after a single hadron emission (PSF=0.5). Moreover, similar sine modulations are present in the distribution of pion pairs with respect to the azimuthal angle of their total transverse momentum, ?T.

  3. Azimuthal Directivity of Fan Tones Containing Multiple Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Nallasamy, M.

    1997-01-01

    The directivity of fan tone noise is generally measured and plotted in the sideline or flyover plane and it is assumed that this curve is the same for all azimuthal angles. When two or more circumferential (m-order) modes of the same tone are present in the fan duct, an interference pattern develops in the azimuthal direction both in the duct and in the farfield. In this investigation two m-order modes of similar power were generated in a large low speed fan. Farfield measurements and a finite element propagation code both show substantial variations in the azimuthal direction. Induct mode measurement were made and used as input to the code. Although these tests may represent a worst case scenario, the validity of the current practice of assuming axisymmetry should be questioned.

  4. Effect of earthquake locations on Rayleigh wave azimuthal anisotropy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhitu; Masters, Guy

    2015-11-01

    Various factors need to be considered when inverting for surface wave azimuthal anisotropic structure. This paper focuses on the 2? terms for Rayleigh wave azimuthal anisotropy and shows that the uncertainties of earthquake locations also have significant impacts on the resulting anisotropic structure. We use the global Rayleigh wave phase velocity data set collected in a previous study to demonstrate this effect. The differences between azimuthal anisotropic patterns with and without source relocations are greatest near plate boundaries. Large differences around the South American plate are also identified. Although most of the earthquakes are shifted by less than 15 km from the CMT locations, earthquakes near the Andes can be systematically shifted by more than 30 km. Our final epicentres for earthquakes on ridge-transform fault systems better match the plate boundaries.

  5. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet are studied utilizing the modal frequency spectrum method. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing quickly but dominating only after the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal modes is seen nearer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Based on the results from these naturally occurring jet instability mode tests, target modes for efficient excitation were determined and two cases of excitation were examined.

  6. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced muons off longitudinally polarised deuterons at COMPASS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Anatoly; COMPASS Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of positive (h+) and negative hadrons (h-) have been measured by scattering of 160 GeV muons off longitudinally polarised deuterons at CERN. The asymmetries were decomposed in several terms, according to their expected modulation as a function of the outgoing hadron azimuthal angle phi. Each term receives contributions from one or several spin and transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. The amplitudes of all phi-modulation terms of the hadron asymmetries integrated over the kinematic variables are found to be consistent with zero within statistical errors, while the constant terms are nonzero and equal for h+ and h-within the statistical errors. The dependencies of the phi-modulated terms versus the Bjorken momentum fraction x, the hadron fractional momentum z, and the hadron transverse momentum pTh were studied. The x dependence of the constant terms for both positive and negative hadrons is in agreement with the longitudinal double-spin hadron asymmetries, measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. The x dependence of the sin phi-modulation term is less pronounced than that in the corresponding HERMES data. All other dependencies of the phi-modulation amplitudes are consistent with zero within the statistical errors.

  7. A Barley Efflux Transporter Operates in a Na+-Dependent Manner, as Revealed by a Multidisciplinary Platform.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Yagnesh; Rongala, Jay; Luang, Sukanya; Singh, Abhishek; Shadiac, Nadim; Hayes, Julie; Sutton, Tim; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen D; McPhee, Gordon; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Mertens, Haydyn D T; Kirby, Nigel M; Lee, Jung-Goo; Yingling, Yaroslava G; Hrmova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and survival depend upon the activity of membrane transporters that control the movement and distribution of solutes into, around, and out of plants. Although many plant transporters are known, their intrinsic properties make them difficult to study. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the root anion-permeable transporter Bot1 plays a key role in tolerance to high soil boron, facilitating the efflux of borate from cells. However, its three-dimensional structure is unavailable and the molecular basis of its permeation function is unknown. Using an integrative platform of computational, biophysical, and biochemical tools as well as molecular biology, electrophysiology, and bioinformatics, we provide insight into the origin of transport function of Bot1. An atomistic model, supported by atomic force microscopy measurements, reveals that the protein folds into 13 transmembrane-spanning and five cytoplasmic ?-helices. We predict a trimeric assembly of Bot1 and the presence of a Na(+) ion binding site, located in the proximity of a pore that conducts anions. Patch-clamp electrophysiology of Bot1 detects Na(+)-dependent polyvalent anion transport in a Nernstian manner with channel-like characteristics. Using alanine scanning, molecular dynamics simulations, and transport measurements, we show that conductance by Bot1 is abolished by removal of the Na(+) ion binding site. Our data enhance the understanding of the permeation functions of Bot1. PMID:26672067

  8. A Barley Efflux Transporter Operates in a Na+-Dependent Manner, as Revealed by a Multidisciplinary Platform[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Yagnesh; Rongala, Jay; Luang, Sukanya; Shadiac, Nadim; Sutton, Tim; Tyerman, Stephen D.; McPhee, Gordon; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Lee, Jung-Goo

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and survival depend upon the activity of membrane transporters that control the movement and distribution of solutes into, around, and out of plants. Although many plant transporters are known, their intrinsic properties make them difficult to study. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), the root anion-permeable transporter Bot1 plays a key role in tolerance to high soil boron, facilitating the efflux of borate from cells. However, its three-dimensional structure is unavailable and the molecular basis of its permeation function is unknown. Using an integrative platform of computational, biophysical, and biochemical tools as well as molecular biology, electrophysiology, and bioinformatics, we provide insight into the origin of transport function of Bot1. An atomistic model, supported by atomic force microscopy measurements, reveals that the protein folds into 13 transmembrane-spanning and five cytoplasmic α-helices. We predict a trimeric assembly of Bot1 and the presence of a Na+ ion binding site, located in the proximity of a pore that conducts anions. Patch-clamp electrophysiology of Bot1 detects Na+-dependent polyvalent anion transport in a Nernstian manner with channel-like characteristics. Using alanine scanning, molecular dynamics simulations, and transport measurements, we show that conductance by Bot1 is abolished by removal of the Na+ ion binding site. Our data enhance the understanding of the permeation functions of Bot1. PMID:26672067

  9. Azimuthal jet tomography at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Barbara; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2014-11-01

    Results based on a generic jet-energy loss model that interpolates between running coupling pQCD-based and AdS/CFT-inspired holographic prescriptions are compared to recent data on the high-pT pion nuclear modification factor and the high-pT elliptic flow in nuclear collisions at RHIC and LHC. The jet-energy loss model is coupled to various (2 + 1) d (viscous hydrodynamic) fields. The impact of energy-loss fluctuations is discussed. While a previously proposed AdS/CFT jet-energy loss model with a temperature-independent jet-medium coupling is shown to be inconsistent with the LHC data, we find a rather broad class of jet-energy independent energy-loss models dE / dx = ? (T)xzT 2 + z that can account for the current data with different temperature-dependent jet-medium couplings ? (T) and path-length dependence exponents of 0 ? z ? 2.

  10. The role of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 2 in the absorption of cyanidin-3-o-β-glucoside in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Feng, Dan; Song, Gang; Li, Hua-Wen; Tang, Huan-Wen; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2014-10-01

    Anthocyanins have multiple biological activities of benefit to human health. While a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the mechanisms of their absorption mechanism remain ill-defined. In the present study, we investigated the absorption mechanism of cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Cy-3-G transport was assessed by measuring the absorptive and efflux direction. Inhibition studies were conducted using the pharmacological agents, phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), or phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The results showed that phloridzin and phloretin significantly inhibited the absorption of Cy-3-G. In addition, Caco-2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for SGLT1 or GLUT2 showed significantly decreased Cy-3-G absorption. These siRNA transfected cells also showed a significantly decreased rate of transport of Cy-3-G compared with the control group. These findings suggest that Cy-3-G absorption is dependent on the activities of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine and that SGLT1 and GLUT2 could be a limiting step for the bioavailability of Cy-3-G. PMID:25314643

  11. The Role of Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter 1 and Glucose Transporter 2 in the Absorption of Cyanidin-3-O-β-Glucoside in Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Tang-Bin; Feng, Dan; Song, Gang; Li, Hua-Wen; Tang, Huan-Wen; Ling, Wen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins have multiple biological activities of benefit to human health. While a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the mechanisms of their absorption mechanism remain ill-defined. In the present study, we investigated the absorption mechanism of cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-G) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Cy-3-G transport was assessed by measuring the absorptive and efflux direction. Inhibition studies were conducted using the pharmacological agents, phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), or phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The results showed that phloridzin and phloretin significantly inhibited the absorption of Cy-3-G. In addition, Caco-2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for SGLT1 or GLUT2 showed significantly decreased Cy-3-G absorption. These siRNA transfected cells also showed a significantly decreased rate of transport of Cy-3-G compared with the control group. These findings suggest that Cy-3-G absorption is dependent on the activities of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine and that SGLT1 and GLUT2 could be a limiting step for the bioavailability of Cy-3-G. PMID:25314643

  12. Carrier transport simulation of anomalous temperature dependence in nematic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masanao; Takezoe, Hideo; Ishikawa, Ken

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the carrier transport phenomena in model liquid crystalline systems, which were constructed on the basis of the Gay-Berne potential and Monte Carlo calculation. The carrier transport was analyzed under the condition that the molecular arrangement in the system was fixed and thermally activated carriers were transported by hopping in the system. The carrier transport simulation was performed by Monte Carlo method using Miller-Abrahams hopping ratio. By these calculations, we reproduced the experimental results of the electronic conduction in nematic liquid crystals.

  13. Volume-dependent regulation of ion transport and membrane phosphorylation in human and rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Orlov, S N; Pokudin, N I; Kotelevtsev, Y V; Gulak, P V

    1989-02-01

    Osmotic swelling of human and rat erythrocytes does not induce regulatory volume decrease. Regulatory volume increase was observed in shrunken erythrocytes of rats only. This reaction was blocked by the inhibitors of Na+/H+ exchange. Cytoplasmic acidification in erythrocytes of both species increases the amiloride-inhibited component of 22Na influx by five- to eight-fold. Both the osmotic and isosmotic shrinkage of rat erythrocytes results in the 10- to 30-fold increase of amiloride-inhibited 22Na influx and a two-fold increase of furosemide-inhibited 86Rb influx. We failed to indicate any significant changes of these ion transport systems in shrunken human erythrocytes. The shrinking of quin 2-loaded human and rat erythrocytes results in the two- to threefold increase of the rate of 45Ca influx, which is completely blocked by amiloride. The dependence of volume-induced 22Na influx in rat erythrocytes and 45Ca influx in human erythrocytes on amiloride concentration does not differ. The rate of 45Ca influx in resealed ghosts was reduced by one order of magnitude when intravesicular potassium and sodium were replaced by choline. It is assumed that the erythrocyte shrinkage increases the rate of a nonselective Cao2+/(Nai+, Ki+) exchange. Erythrocyte shrinking does not induce significant phosphorylation of membrane protein but increases the 32P incorporation in diphosphoinositides. The effect of shrinkage on the 32P labeling of phosphoinositides is diminished after addition of amiloride. It is assumed that volume-induced phosphoinositide response plays an essential role in the mechanism of the activation of transmembrane ion movements. PMID:2541247

  14. Localization of type-III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Inden, Masatoshi; Iriyama, Masaki; Takagi, Mari; Kaneko, Masayuki; Hozumi, Isao

    2013-09-19

    Type-III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters 1 and 2 (PiT-1 and PiT-2, respectively) are proteins encoded by SLC20A1 and SLC20A2, respectively. The ubiquitous distribution of PiT-1 and PiT-2 mRNAs in mammalian tissues is in agreement with the housekeeping maintenance of homeostasis of intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi), which is absorbed from interstitial fluid for normal cellular functions. Recently, mutations of SLC20A2 have been found in patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC), also known as Fahr's disease. However, the localization of PiT-2 in the brain has not been clarified yet. Therefore, the aim of this study is to clarify the distribution of PiT-2 expression in the mouse brain. Our biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses using a polyclonal antibody (Ab) and a monoclonal Ab showed that PiT-2 was ubiquitously expressed throughout the brain. In terms of the cellular type, PiT-2 was predominantly detected in neurons; it colocalized with ?-tubulin III in the cerebral cortex and with calbindin D-28K in Purkinje cells. Additionally, PiT-2 immunopositivity was detected in the microtubule-associated protein 2-positive neuronal dendrites in the cerebral cortex. However, colocalization with PiT-2 immunopositivity was not observed in the synaptophysin-positive nerve terminals. PiT-2 was also expressed in astrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Our results indicate that PiT-2 plays an important role in the maintenance of cellular Pi homeostasis in neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells. This finding is a milestone in the study of the function of PiT-2 in the normal mouse brain and particularly in the brains of patients with Fahr's disease. PMID:23911649

  15. Computational models for drug inhibition of the human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Ekins, Sean; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E

    2009-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) is the primary mechanism for intestinal bile acid reabsorption. In the colon, secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, drugs that inhibit ASBT have the potential to increase the risk of colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify FDA-approved drugs that inhibit ASBT and to derive computational models for ASBT inhibition. Inhibition was evaluated using ASBT-MDCK monolayers and taurocholate as the model substrate. Computational modeling employed a HipHop qualitative approach, a Hypogen quantitative approach, and a modified Laplacian Bayesian modeling method using 2D descriptors. Initially, 30 compounds were screened for ASBT inhibition. A qualitative pharmacophore was developed using the most potent 11 compounds and applied to search a drug database, yielding 58 hits. Additional compounds were tested, and their K(i) values were measured. A 3D-QSAR and a Bayesian model were developed using 38 molecules. The quantitative pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic features, and five excluded volumes. Each model was further validated with two external test sets of 30 and 19 molecules. Validation analysis showed both models exhibited good predictability in determining whether a drug is a potent or nonpotent ASBT inhibitor. The Bayesian model correctly ranked the most active compounds. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, we found that many FDA-approved drugs from diverse classes, such as the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors, are ASBT inhibitors. PMID:19673539

  16. Computational Models for Drug Inhibition of the Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaowan; Ekins, Sean; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Polli, James E.

    2009-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT; SLC10A2) is the primary mechanism for intestinal bile acid re-absorption. In the colon, secondary bile acids increase the risk of cancer. Therefore, drugs that inhibit ASBT have the potential to increase the risk of colon cancer. The objectives of this study were to identify FDA-approved drugs that inhibit ASBT and to derive computational models for ASBT inhibition. Inhibition was evaluated using ASBT-MDCK monolayers and taurocholate as the model substrate. Computational modeling employed a HipHop qualitative approach, a Hypogen quantitative approach, as well as a modified Laplacian Bayesian modeling method using 2D descriptors. Initially, 30 compounds were screened for ASBT inhibition. A qualitative pharmacophore was developed using the most potent 11 compounds and applied to search a drug database, yielding 58 hits. Additional compounds were tested and their Ki values were measured. A 3D-QSAR and a Bayesian model were developed using 38 molecules. The quantitative pharmacophore consisted of one hydrogen bond acceptor, three hydrophobic features, and five excluded volumes. Each model was further validated with two external test sets of 30 and 19 molecules. Validation analysis showed both models exhibited good predictability in determining whether a drug is a potent or non-potent ASBT inhibitor. The Bayesian model correctly ranked the most active compounds. In summary, using a combined in vitro and computational approach, we found that many FDA-approved drugs from diverse classes, such as the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and HMG CoA-reductase inhibitors, are ASBT inhibitors. PMID:19673539

  17. Ionic mechanisms of Ca(2+)-dependent electrolyte transport across equine sweat gland epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Ko, W H; Chan, H C; Chew, S B; Wong, P Y

    1996-01-01

    1. The ionic mechanism involved in Ca(2+)-stimulated electrolyte transport in cultured equine sweat gland epithelial cells was studied using the short-circuit current (ISC) technique. 2. Microscopy revealed that the cultured cells grown on Millipore filters formed polarized monolayers with tight junctions. Monolayers exhibited a mean transepithelial resistance of 333.9 +/- 40.4 omega cm2. 3. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents, A23187 (1 microM) or thapsigargin (0.01-1 microM), stimulated ISC while forskolin exerted little effect on the ISC. 4. Replacement of external Cl- by gluconate significantly reduced the ISC by 63% when stimulated by 0.1 microM thapsigargin. Residual ISC could be abolished (> 99%) by elimination of HCO3- from the bathing solution. 5. Basolateral addition of bumetanide (0.1 mM), ouabain (0.01 mM) and acetazolamide (45 microM) and apical addition of methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA, 1-100 microM) all had inhibitory effects on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC to various extents. 6. Substantial current inhibition could be obtained using 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC) in a concentration-dependent manner. 7. The K+ channel blocker barium (5 mM) was effective on both sides of the epithelium with a much larger effect on the basolateral side. 8. The inhibitory effects of acetazolamide, amiloride, MIA, DIDS and DPC on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC were also observed when a Cl(-)-free solution was used. 9. The results provide evidence for Ca(2+)-stimulated HCO3- as well as Cl- secretion by equine sweat gland epithelium. Images Figure 1 PMID:8799908

  18. Lactation stage-dependent expression of transporters in rat whole mammary gland and primary mammary epithelial organoids.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Samuel E; Alcorn, Jane

    2010-04-01

    Since solute carrier (SLC) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play pivotal roles in the transport of both nutrients and drugs into breast milk, drug-nutrient transport interactions at the lactating mammary gland are possible. Our purpose was to characterize lactation stage-dependent changes in transporter expression in rat mammary gland and isolated mammary epithelial organoids (MEO) to provide additional insight for the safe use of maternal medications during breastfeeding. We used quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to assess the temporal expression patterns of SLC and ABC transporters in rat mammary gland and isolated MEO at different stages of lactation. In whole mammary gland five distinct patterns of expression emerged relative to late gestation: (i) decreasing throughout lactation (Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mrp1, Octn2, Ent2, Ent3, Ncbt2, Mtx1); (ii) prominent increase in early lactation, which may remain elevated or decline with advancing lactation (Octn1, Cnt2, Cnt3, Ent1, Pept1, Pept2); (iii) constant but decreasing later in lactation (Octn3, Dmt1); (iv) increasing until mid-to-late lactation (Oct1, Cnt1); and (v) prominent increase late in lactation (Ncbt1). In isolated MEO (an enriched source of mammary epithelial cells) major differences in expression patterns were noted for Octn3, Ncbt1, and Mtx1, but otherwise were reasonably similar with the whole mammary gland. In conclusion our study augments existing data on transporter expression in the lactating mammary gland. These data should facilitate investigations into lactation-stage dependent changes in drug or nutrient milk-to-serum concentration ratios, the potential for drug- or disease-transporter interactions, and mechanistic studies of transporter function in the lactating mammary gland. PMID:19702690

  19. Long-range azimuthal correlations in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions from the incoherent scattering of partons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, Guo -Liang; Bzdak, Adam

    2014-11-04

    In this study, we show that the incoherent elastic scattering of partons, as present in a multi-phase transport model (AMPT), with a modest parton–parton cross-section of σ = 1.5 – 3 mb, naturally explains the long-range two-particle azimuthal correlation as observed in proton–proton and proton–nucleus collisions at the Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Surface harmonics method for two-dimensional time-dependent neutron transport problems of square-lattice nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Kondrushin, A. E.; Fomichenko, P. A.

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent equations of the Surface Harmonics Method (SHM) have been derived from the time-dependent neutron transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons for solving the two-dimensional time-dependent problems. These equations have been realized in the SUHAM-TD code. The TWIGL benchmark problem has been used for verification of the SUHAM-TD code. The results of the study showed that computational costs required to achieve necessary accuracy of the solution can be an order of magnitude less than with the use of the conventional finite difference method (FDM). (authors)

  1. 14 CFR 171.313 - Azimuth performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MLS datum point to threshold distance 10 0 m to 1 023 m 1 m Approach elevation antenna height 7 −6.3 m... balance of the required coverage, where the proportional sector is less than plus or minus 40 degrees... the azimuth ground equipment antenna inclined at 15 degrees above the horizontal to a height of...

  2. Azimuthal correlations and alignment of particles in gamma families

    SciTech Connect

    Yuldashbaev, T. S. Chudakov, V. M.; Nuritdinov, Kh.

    2008-11-15

    Azimuthal angular correlations and the alignment of photons are studied in gamma families recorded by the Pamir Collaboration in a carbon x-ray emulsion chamber. The present interpretation of these experimental data is based on a model of semihard parton scattering in nucleon-nucleus collisions and on arguments favoring the production of exotic beam strings and heavy leading resonances undergoing quasicoplanar decays.

  3. Radial and Azimuthal Oscillations in Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harim; Moon, Yong-Jae; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We present the first observational detection of radial and azimuthal oscillations in full halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs). We analyse nine HCMEs well-observed by the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) from February to June, 2011. Using the LASCO C3 running difference images, we estimated the instantaneous apparent speeds of the HCMEs in different radial directions from the solar disk centre. We find that the development of all these HCMEs is accompanied with quasi-periodic variations of the instantaneous radial velocity with the periods ranging from 24 to 48 minutes. The amplitudes of the instant speed variations reach about a half of the projected speeds. The amplitudes are found to anti-correlate with the periods and correlate with the HCME speed, indicating the nonlinear nature of the process. The oscillations have a clear azimuthal structure in the heliocentric polar coordinate system. The oscillations in seven events are found to be associated with distinct azimuthal wave modes with the azimuthal wave number m=1 for six events and m=2 for one event. The polarisation of the oscillations in these seven HCMEs is broadly consistent with those of their position angles with the mean difference of 42.5 degree. The oscillations may be connected with natural oscillations of the plasmoids around a dynamical equilibrium, or self-oscillatory processes, e.g. the periodic shedding of Alfvénic vortices. Our results indicate the need for advanced theory of oscillatory processes in CMEs.

  4. Control of Arabidopsis meristem development by thioredoxin-dependent regulation of intercellular transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cell-to-cell transport in plants occurs through cytoplasmic channels called “plasmodesmata” and is regulated by developmental and environmental factors. Callose deposition modulates plasmodesmal transport in vivo, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate this process. Here we report a ...

  5. Seed filling in domesticated maize and rice depends on SWEET-mediated hexose transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrate import into seeds directly determines seed size and must have been increased through domestication. However, evidence for domestication of sugar translocation and the identity of seed filling transporters remained elusive. Maize ZmSWEET4c, as opposed to its sucrose-transporting homologs...

  6. ATP-dependent transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Lucy C.J.; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M.; Weaver, Richard J.

    2013-06-01

    Multidrug resistance associated protein-2, MRP2 (human), Mrp2 (rat) are an efflux transporter, responsible for the transport of numerous endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including taurocholate, methotrexate and carboxydichlorofluorescein (CDF). The present study aims to characterise transport of statins by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2 using membrane and vesicle preparations. All statins tested (simvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, lovastatin and rosuvastatin) stimulated vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in membranes expressing human or rat MRP2/Mrp2, suggesting that all statins are substrates of human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. The substrate affinity (Km) of all statins for MRP2/Mrp2 was comparable and no correlation between lipophilicity (logD{sub 7.0}) and Km was seen. All statins also inhibited uptake of the fluorescent Mrp2 substrate, CDF (1 μM) into vesicles expressing human or rat MRP2/Mrp2 with similar IC{sub 50} values. Fitting of the inhibitory data to the hill slope equation, gave hill coefficients (h) of greater than one, suggesting that transport involved more than one binding site for inhibitors of MPR2 and Mrp2. We conclude that statins were transported by both human and rat MRP2/Mrp2 with similar affinity. Statins were also shown to compete with other substrates for transport by MRP2/Mrp2 and that this transport involved more than one binding site on the Mrp2/MRP2 protein. - Highlights: • We characterised MRP2 (human)/Mrp2 (rat)-mediated transport of statins. • We show statins were transported by human and rat MRP2/Mrp2. • Statins competed with a known substrate for transport by MRP2/Mrp2. • Competition involved more than one binding site on the MRP2/Mrp2 protein.

  7. Coherent quantum transport in disordered systems: II. Temperature dependence of carrier diffusion coefficients from the time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xinxin; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Jianshu

    2014-04-01

    The time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method for carrier quantum dynamics (Zhong and Zhao 2013 J. Chem. Phys. 138 014111), a truncated version of the stochastic Schrödinger equation/wavefunction approach that approximately satisfies the detailed balance principle and scales well with the size of the system, is applied to investigate the carrier transport in one-dimensional systems including both the static and dynamic disorders on site energies. The predicted diffusion coefficients with respect to temperature successfully bridge from band-like to hopping-type transport. As demonstrated in paper I (Moix et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 085010), the static disorder tends to localize the carrier, whereas the dynamic disorder induces carrier dynamics. For the weak dynamic disorder, the diffusion coefficients are temperature-independent (band-like property) at low temperatures, which is consistent with the prediction from the Redfield equation, and a linear dependence of the coefficient on temperature (hopping-type property) only appears at high temperatures. In the intermediate regime of dynamic disorder, the transition from band-like to hopping-type transport can be easily observed at relatively low temperatures as the static disorder increases. When the dynamic disorder becomes strong, the carrier motion can follow the hopping-type mechanism even without static disorder. Furthermore, it is found that the memory time of dynamic disorder is an important factor in controlling the transition from the band-like to hopping-type motions.

  8. Contact metal-dependent electrical transport in carbon nanotubes and fabrication of graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perello, David

    In this thesis, we fabricate and characterize carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene-based field effect transistor devices. The CNT-based work centers around the physics of metal contacts to CNT, particularly relating the work function of contact metals to carrier transport across the junction. The graphene work is motivated by the desire to utilize the high carrier mobility of graphene in field effect transistors. CNT have excellent electrical properties including high carrier mobility, large field effect switching capabilities, and a long mean free path. Absent, however is an experimentally-backed model explaining contact-metal work function, device layout, and environment effects. To fill this void, we introduce a surface-inversion channel (SIC) model based on low temperature and electrical measurements of a distinct single-walled semiconducting CNT contacted by Hf, Cr, Ti and Pd electrodes. Anomalous barrier heights and metal-contact dependent band-to-band tunneling phenomena are utilized to show that dependent upon contact work function and gate field, transport occurs either directly between the metal and CNT channel or indirectly via injection of carriers from the metal-covered CNT region to the CNT channel. The model is consistent with previously contradictory experimental results, and the methodology is simple enough to apply in other contact-dominant systems. In agreement with the initial contact theory above, we further develop a model explain Isd-Vsd tendencies in CNT FETs. Using experimental and analytical analysis, we demonstrate a relationship between the contact metal work function and electrical transport properties saturation current (Isat) and differential conductance ssd=6Isd 6Vsd in ambient exposed CNT. A single chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown 6 millimeter long semiconducting single-walled CNT is electrically contacted with a statistically significant number of Hf, Cr, Ti, Pd, and Ti, Au electrodes, respectively. The observed exponentially increasing relationship of I sat and sigmasd with metal-contact work function that is explained by a theoretical model derived from thermionic field emission. Statistical analysis and spread of the data suggest that the conduction variability in same-CNT devices results from differences in local surface potential of the metal contact. Based on the theoretical model and methodology, an improved CNT-based gas sensing device layout is suggested; a method to experimentally determine gas-induced work function changes in metals is also proposed. Third, a performance analysis on CNT Schottky diodes using source-drain current anisotropy is explored. An analytical model is derived based on thermionic field emission and used to correlate experimental data from Pd-Hf, Ti-Hf, Cr-Hf, Ti-Cr, and Pd-Au mixed metal devices fabricated on one single 6 mm-long CNT. Results suggest that the difference in work functions of the two contact-metals, and not a dominant Schottky contact, determines diode performance. Results are further applied and demonstrated in a reversible polarity diode. Next, we develop experimental processes to grow high quality monolayer graphene on Cu foil. Cu foil is pre-annealed and hand polished to increase Cu crystalline domain size and reduce surface roughness. This is done to reduce nucleation sites for graphene during CVD growth. After growth on Cu foil, the graphene is transferred to SiO2 using a floating PMMA method described in section 3.2.2. Finally, the quality of the graphene is analyzed via Raman spectroscopy, optical imagery, and sheet resistance measurements. After demonstrating the quality of the graphene film, we investigate the effect of UV irradiation of graphene, CNT, and graphene/CNT hybrids in an oxygen environment. Samples were irradiated by 254/185 nm UV light in an oxygen environment for up to two hours. Results suggest a unique method to generate graphene nanoribbons using aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) as a graphene etch mask. Ambient and cryogenic Gsd-Vg measurements of resulting ultrathin graphene nanoribbons show p-type character an

  9. Leptin Affects System A Amino Acid Transport Activity in the Human Placenta: Evidence for STAT3 Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    von Versen-Höynck, F.; Rajakumar, A.; Parrott, M.S.; Powers, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Amino acids are important nutrients during fetal development, and the activity of placental amino acid transporters is crucial in the regulation of fetal growth. Leptin, an adipocyte- and placenta-derived hormone, has been proposed to act as a peripheral signal in reproduction in humans. Leptin is elevated during pregnancy and elevated further in pathologic pregnancies such as preeclampsia. However, the role of leptin in placental function has not been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that leptin plays a role in the regulation of placental amino acid transport by activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. Methods: Placental amino acid transport, specifically system A transport was studied in placental villous fragments using the amino acid analog, methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB). Specific inhibitors of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway were used to further elucidate their role in leptin-mediated effects on amino acid transport activity. Western blotting was performed to identify STAT3 phosphorylation as a measure of leptin receptor activation. Results: Leptin significantly increased system A amino acid transporter activity by 22-42% after 1 h of incubation. Leptin activated JAK-STAT signaling pathway as evidenced by STAT3 phosphorylation, and inhibition of STAT3 or JAK2 resulted in 36-45% reduction in system A amino acid transporter activity. Furthermore, blocking endogenously produced leptin also decreased system A transport by 45% comparable to STAT3 inhibition. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that leptin stimulates system A by JAK-STAT dependent pathway in placental villous fragments. Our findings support the autocrine/paracrine role of leptin in regulating amino acid transport in the human placenta. PMID:19203792

  10. Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havl?kov, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Zagrski, R.; Seidl, J.; Hor?ek, J.

    2011-06-01

    The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention given to transient parallel transport which reveals two distinct time scales due to the transport mechanisms of convection and diffusion. Time-dependent modelling combined with the effect of ballooning shows propagation of particles along the magnetic field line with Mach number up to M ? 1 and supersonic transport when plasma-neutral interactions are not present. Asymmetric heat and particle fluxes are analysed for a case with poloidally asymmetric radial outflow (ballooning) and for a radial outflow with parallel momentum (rotation). In addition, parallel damping of the density and electron temperature calculated in SOLF1D is compared with the approximative model used in the turbulence code ESEL both for steady-state and turbulent SOL. Dynamics of the parallel transport are investigated for a simple transient event simulating the propagation of particles and energy to the targets from a blob passing across the flux tube at the outboard midplane and for more complex time-dependent data provided by ESEL.

  11. Kinetic modeling of pH-dependent antimony (V) sorption and transport in iron oxide-coated sand.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yongbing; Li, Lulu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms and kinetics controlling the retention and transport of antimony (Sb) is prerequisite for evaluating the risk of groundwater contamination by the toxic element. In this study, kinetic batch and saturated miscible displacement experiments were performed to investigate effects of protonation-deprotonation reactions on sorption-desorption and transport of Sb(V) in iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS). Results clearly demonstrated that Sb(V) sorption was highly nonlinear and time dependent, where both sorption capacity and kinetic rates decreased with increasing solution pH. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained at different solution pH exhibited that mobility of Sb(V) were higher under neutral to alkaline condition than under acidic condition. Because of the nonlinear and non-equilibrium nature of Sb(V) retention and transport, multi-reaction models (MRM) with equilibrium and kinetic sorption expressions were utilized successfully to simulate the experiment data. Equilibrium distribution coefficient (Ke) and reversible kinetic retention parameters (k1 and k2) of both kinetic sorption and transport experiment showed marked decrease as pH increased from 4.0 to 7.5. Surface complexation is suggested as the dominant mechanism for the observed pH-dependent phenomena, which need to be incorporated into the kinetic models to accurately simulate the reactive transport of Sb(V) in vadose zone and aquifers. PMID:26291756

  12. Temperature-dependent effects of cholesterol on sodium transport through lipid membranes by an ionizable mobile carrier.

    PubMed

    Wehrli, S; Ramirez, C; Kraus, J L; Castaing, M

    1992-06-30

    Temperature-jump relaxation experiments on Na+ transport by (221)C10-cryptand were carried out in order to study the influence of cholesterol and its temperature-dependence on ion transport through thin lipid membranes. The experiments were performed on large, negatively charged unilamellar vesicles (LUV) prepared from mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, phosphatidic acid and cholesterol (mole fractions 0-0.43), at various temperatures and carrier concentrations. The initial rates of Na+ transport and the apparent rate constants of its translocation by (221)C10 increased with the carrier concentration and the temperature. The incorporation of cholesterol into the membranes significantly reduced the carrier concentration- and temperature-dependence of these two parameters. The apparent energy required to activate the transport decreased significantly with increasing carrier concentrations at any given cholesterol molar fraction, and increased significantly with the cholesterol molar fraction at any given carrier concentration. Our interpretation of the action of cholesterol on this transport system is based on the assumption that the binding cavity of cryptands is likely to be located towards the aqueous side of the dipole layer. The results are discussed in terms of the structural, physico-chemical and electrical characteristics of carriers and complexes, and of the interactions occurring between an ionizable mobile carrier and the membrane. PMID:1504075

  13. Sequence relationships between integral inner membrane proteins of binding protein-dependent transport systems: evolution by recurrent gene duplications.

    PubMed Central

    Saurin, W.; Dassa, E.

    1994-01-01

    Periplasmic binding protein-dependent transport systems are composed of a periplasmic substrate-binding protein, a set of 2 (sometimes 1) very hydrophobic integral membrane proteins, and 1 (sometimes 2) hydrophilic peripheral membrane protein that binds and hydrolyzes ATP. These systems are members of the superfamily of ABC transporters. We performed a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of 70 hydrophobic membrane proteins of these transport systems in order to investigate their evolutionary history. Proteins were grouped into 8 clusters. Within each cluster, protein sequences displayed significant similarities, suggesting that they derive from a common ancestor. Most clusters contained proteins from systems transporting analogous substrates such as monosaccharides, oligopeptides, or hydrophobic amino acids, but this was not a general rule. Proteins from diverse bacteria are found within each cluster, suggesting that the ancestors of current clusters were present before the divergence of bacterial groups. The phylogenetic trees computed for hydrophobic membrane proteins of these permeases are similar to those described for the periplasmic substrate-binding proteins. This result suggests that the genetic regions encoding binding protein-dependent permeases evolved as whole units. Based on the results of the classification of the proteins and on the reconstructed phylogenetic trees, we propose an evolutionary scheme for periplasmic permeases. According to this model, it is probable that these transport systems derive from an ancestral system having only 1 hydrophobic membrane protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8003968

  14. Breaking symmetry in propagation of radially and azimuthally polarized high power laser pulses in underdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Naveen; Zhidkov, Alexei; Nakanii, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Shinichi; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2016-03-01

    Propagation of relativistically intense azimuthally or radially polarized laser pulses (RPP) is demonstrated, via 3D particle-in-cell simulations, to be unstable in uniform underdense plasma. Strong breaking of the pulse symmetry occurs for RPP with power exceeding the critical one for self-focusing in transversely uniform plasma with an increment, Γ, close to the well-known Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability depending on the acceleration, α, and the modulated density gradient length, L, as Γ≈(α/L) 1 /2 . In deeper plasma channels, the instability vanishes. Electron self-injection in the pulse wake and resulting acceleration is explored.

  15. Systematic Azimuth Quadrupole and Minijet Trends from Two-Particle Correlations in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettler, David

    Heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) produce a tremendous amount of data but new techniques are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the physics behind these collisions. We present measurements from the STAR detector of both pt-integral and pt-differential azimuth two-particle correlations on azimuth (phi) and pseudorapidity (eta) for unidentified hadrons in Au-Au collisions at a center of mass energy = 62 and 200 GeV. The azimuth correlations can be fit to extract a quadrupole component--related to conventional v2 measures--and a same-side peak. The azimuth quadrupole component is distinguished from eta-localized same-side correlations by taking advantage of the full 2D eta and phi dependence. Both pt-integral and pt-differential results are presented as functions of Au-Au centrality. We observe simple universal energy and centrality trends for the pt-integral quadrupole component. pt-differential results can be transformed to reveal quadrupole pt spectra that are nearly independent of centrality. A parametrization of the pt-differential quadrupole shows a simple pt dependence that can be factorized from the centrality and collision energy dependence above 0.75 GeV/c. Angular correlations contain jet-like structure with most-probable hadron momentum 1 GeV/c. For better comparison to RHIC data we analyze the energy scale dependence of fragmentation functions from e+-e - collisions on rapidity y. We find that replotting fragmentation functions on a normalized rapidity variable results in a compact form precisely represented by the beta distribution, its two parameters varying slowly and simply with parton energy scale Q. The resulting parameterization enables extrapolation of fragmentation functions to low Q in order to describe fragment distributions at low transverse momentum ptin heavy ion collisions at RHIC. We convert minimum-bias jet-like angular correlations to single-particle hadron yields and compare them with parton fragment yields inferred from differential spectrum analysis (spectrum hard components). We find that jet-like correlations in central 200 GeV Au-Au collisions correspond quantitatively to pQCD predictions, and the jet-correlated hadron yield comprises one third of the Au-Au final state in central collisions.

  16. Cloning and molecular characterization of the ontogeny of a rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid transporter.

    PubMed Central

    Shneider, B L; Dawson, P A; Christie, D M; Hardikar, W; Wong, M H; Suchy, F J

    1995-01-01

    Sodium-dependent bile acid transport in the rat ileum is abruptly expressed at weaning. Degenerate oligonucleotides, based on amino acid sequence identities between the rat liver and hamster ileal transporters, were used to amplify a rat ileal probe. A 1.2-kb cDNA clone, which contains the full coding region (348 amino acids, 38 kD), was isolated by hybridization screening. In vitro translation yielded a 38-kD protein which glycosylated to 48 kD. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurocholate was observed in oocytes injected with cRNA. Northern blot analysis revealed a 5.0-kb mRNA in ileum, kidney, and cecum. A 48-kD protein was detected in ileal brush border membranes and localized to the apical border of villus ileal enterocytes. mRNA and protein expression, which were negligible before weaning, increased dramatically at weaning. Nuclear transcription rates for the transporter increased 15-fold between postnatal days 7 and 28. The apparent molecular weight of the transporter also increased between days 19 and 28. In summary, the developmental regulation of the rat ileal sodium-dependent bile acid cotransporter is characterized by transcriptionally regulated increases in mRNA and protein levels at the time of weaning with changes in apparent molecular weight of the protein after weaning. Images PMID:7860756

  17. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  18. Palmitoylation Controls Dopamine Transporter Kinetics, Degradation, and Protein Kinase C-dependent Regulation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, James D.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Palmitoylation is a lipid modification that confers diverse functions to target proteins and is a contributing factor for many neuronal diseases. In this study, we demonstrate using [3H]palmitic acid labeling and acyl-biotinyl exchange that native and expressed dopamine transporters (DATs) are palmitoylated, and using the palmitoyl acyltransferase inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2BP), we identify several associated functions. Treatment of rat striatal synaptosomes with 2BP using lower doses or shorter times caused robust inhibition of transport Vmax that occurred with no losses of DAT protein or changes in DAT surface levels, indicating that acute loss of palmitoylation leads to reduction of transport kinetics. Treatment of synaptosomes or cells with 2BP using higher doses or longer times resulted in DAT protein losses and production of transporter fragments, implicating palmitoylation in regulation of transporter degradation. Site-directed mutagenesis indicated that palmitoylation of rat DAT occurs at Cys-580 at the intracellular end of transmembrane domain 12 and at one or more additional unidentified site(s). Cys-580 mutation also led to production of transporter degradation fragments and to increased phorbol ester-induced down-regulation, further supporting palmitoylation in opposing DAT turnover and in opposing protein kinase C-mediated regulation. These results identify S-palmitoylation as a major regulator of DAT properties that could significantly impact acute and long term dopamine transport capacity. PMID:21118819

  19. Sodium-dependent net urea transport in rat initial inner medullary collecting ducts.

    PubMed Central

    Isozaki, T; Lea, J P; Tumlin, J A; Sands, J M

    1994-01-01

    We reported that feeding rats 8% protein for 3 wk induces net urea transport and morphologic changes in initial inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) which are not present in rats fed 18% protein. In this study, we measured net urea transport in microperfused initial IMCDs from rats fed 8% protein for > or = 3 wk and tested the effect of inhibiting Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity and found that adding 1 mM ouabain to the bath reversibly inhibited net urea transport from 14 +/- 3 to 6 +/- 2 pmol/mm per min (P < 0.01), and that replacing potassium (with sodium) in the bath reversibly inhibited net urea transport from 18 +/- 3 to 5 +/- 0 pmol/mm per min (P < 0.01). Replacing perfusate sodium with N-methyl-D-glucamine reversibly inhibited net urea transport from 12 +/- 2 to 0 +/- 1 pmol/mm per min (P < 0.01), whereas replacing bath sodium had no significant effect on net urea transport. Adding 10 nM vasopressin to the bath exerted no significant effect on net urea transport. Finally, we measured Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity in initial and terminal IMCDs from rats fed 18% or 8% protein and found no significant difference in either subsegment. Thus, net urea transport in initial IMCDs from rats fed 8% protein for > or = 3 wk requires sodium in the lumen, is reduced by inhibiting Na+/K(+)-ATPase, and is unchanged by vasopressin or phloretin. These results suggest that net urea transport may occur via a novel, secondary active, sodium-urea cotransporter. PMID:7929827

  20. A two-dimensional, time-dependent model of suspended sediment transport and bed reworking for continental shelves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, C.K.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional, time-dependent solution to the transport equation is formulated to account for advection and diffusion of sediment suspended in the bottom boundary layer of continental shelves. This model utilizes a semi-implicit, upwind-differencing scheme to solve the advection-diffusion equation across a two-dimensional transect that is configured so that one dimension is the vertical, and the other is a horizontal dimension usually aligned perpendicular to shelf bathymetry. The model calculates suspended sediment concentration and flux; and requires as input wave properties, current velocities, sediment size distributions, and hydrodynamic sediment properties. From the calculated two-dimensional suspended sediment fluxes, we quantify the redistribution of shelf sediment, bed erosion, and deposition for several sediment sizes during resuspension events. The two-dimensional, time-dependent approach directly accounts for cross-shelf gradients in bed shear stress and sediment properties, as well as transport that occurs before steady-state suspended sediment concentrations have been attained. By including the vertical dimension in the calculations, we avoid depth-averaging suspended sediment concentrations and fluxes, and directly account for differences in transport rates and directions for fine and coarse sediment in the bottom boundary layer. A flux condition is used as the bottom boundary condition for the transport equation in order to capture time-dependence of the suspended sediment field. Model calculations demonstrate the significance of both time-dependent and spatial terms on transport and depositional patterns on continental shelves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interactions of noncanonical motifs with hnRNP A2 promote activity-dependent RNA transport in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Muslimov, Ilham A.; Tuzhilin, Aliya; Tang, Thean Hock; Wong, Robert K.S.; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    A key determinant of neuronal functionality and plasticity is the targeted delivery of select ribonucleic acids (RNAs) to synaptodendritic sites of protein synthesis. In this paper, we ask how dendritic RNA transport can be regulated in a manner that is informed by the cells activity status. We describe a molecular mechanism in which inducible interactions of noncanonical RNA motif structures with targeting factor heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2 form the basis for activity-dependent dendritic RNA targeting. High-affinity interactions between hnRNP A2 and conditional GA-type RNA targeting motifs are critically dependent on elevated Ca2+ levels in a narrow concentration range. Dendritic transport of messenger RNAs that carry such GA motifs is inducible by influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent calcium channels upon ?-adrenergic receptor activation. The combined data establish a functional correspondence between Ca2+-dependent RNAprotein interactions and activity-inducible RNA transport in dendrites. They also indicate a role of genomic retroposition in the phylogenetic development of RNA targeting competence. PMID:24841565

  2. *Iron accumulation in bronchial epithelial cells is dependent on concurrent sodium transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airway epithelial cells prevent damaging effects of extracellular iron by taking up the metal and sequestering it within intracellular ferritin. Epithelial iron transport is associated with transcellular movement of other cations including changes in the expression or activity of...

  3. CLIP-170-dependent capture of membrane organelles by microtubules initiates minus-end directed transport

    PubMed Central

    Lomakin, Alexis J.; Semenova, Irina; Zaliapin, Ilya; Kraikivski, Pavel; Nadezhdina, Elena; Slepchenko, Boris M.; Akhmanova, Anna; Rodionov, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Summary Cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) continuously grow and shorten at free plus ends. During mitosis, this dynamic behavior allows MTs to capture chromosomes to initiate their movement to the spindle poles, however, the role of MT dynamics in capturing organelles for transport in interphase cells has not been demonstrated. Here we used Xenopus melanophores to test the hypothesis that MT dynamics significantly contribute to the efficiency of MT minus-end directed transport of membrane organelles. We demonstrated that initiation of transport of membrane-bounded melanosomes (pigment granules) to the cell center involves their capture by MT plus ends, and that inhibition of MT dynamics or loss of the MT plus-end tracking protein CLIP-170 from MT tips dramatically inhibits pigment aggregation. We conclude that MT dynamics are required for the initiation of MT transport of membrane organelles in interphase cells, and that +TIPs such as CLIP-170 play an important role in this process. PMID:19758557

  4. Seed filling in domesticated maize and rice depends on SWEET-mediated hexose transport.

    PubMed

    Sosso, Davide; Luo, Dangping; Li, Qin-Bao; Sasse, Joelle; Yang, Jinliang; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Suzuki, Masaharu; Koch, Karen E; McCarty, Donald R; Chourey, Prem S; Rogowsky, Peter M; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Yang, Bing; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate import into seeds directly determines seed size and must have been increased through domestication. However, evidence of the domestication of sugar translocation and the identities of seed-filling transporters have been elusive. Maize ZmSWEET4c, as opposed to its sucrose-transporting homologs, mediates transepithelial hexose transport across the basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), the entry point of nutrients into the seed, and shows signatures indicative of selection during domestication. Mutants of both maize ZmSWEET4c and its rice ortholog OsSWEET4 are defective in seed filling, indicating that a lack of hexose transport at the BETL impairs further transfer of sugars imported from the maternal phloem. In both maize and rice, SWEET4 was likely recruited during domestication to enhance sugar import into the endosperm. PMID:26523777

  5. Sucrose- and H+-Dependent Charge Movements Associated with the Gating of Sucrose Transporter ZmSUT1

    PubMed Central

    Carpaneto, Armando; Koepsell, Hermann; Bamberg, Ernst; Hedrich, Rainer; Geiger, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    Background In contrast to man the majority of higher plants use sucrose as mobile carbohydrate. Accordingly proton-driven sucrose transporters are crucial for cell-to-cell and long-distance distribution within the plant body. Generally very negative plant membrane potentials and the ability to accumulate sucrose quantities of more than 1 M document that plants must have evolved transporters with unique structural and functional features. Methodology/Principal Findings To unravel the functional properties of one specific high capacity plasma membrane sucrose transporter in detail, we expressed the sucrose/H+ co-transporter from maize ZmSUT1 in Xenopus oocytes. Application of sucrose in an acidic pH environment elicited inward proton currents. Interestingly the sucrose-dependent H+ transport was associated with a decrease in membrane capacitance (Cm). In addition to sucrose Cm was modulated by the membrane potential and external protons. In order to explore the molecular mechanism underlying these Cm changes, presteady-state currents (Ipre) of ZmSUT1 transport were analyzed. Decay of Ipre could be best fitted by double exponentials. When plotted against the voltage the charge Q, associated to Ipre, was dependent on sucrose and protons. The mathematical derivative of the charge Q versus voltage was well in line with the observed Cm changes. Based on these parameters a turnover rate of 500 molecules sucrose/s was calculated. In contrast to gating currents of voltage dependent-potassium channels the analysis of ZmSUT1-derived presteady-state currents in the absence of sucrose (I?=?Q/?) was sufficient to predict ZmSUT1 transport-associated currents. Conclusions Taken together our results indicate that in the absence of sucrose, trapped protons move back and forth between an outer and an inner site within the transmembrane domains of ZmSUT1. This movement of protons in the electric field of the membrane gives rise to the presteady-state currents and in turn to Cm changes. Upon application of external sucrose, protons can pass the membrane turning presteady-state into transport currents. PMID:20838661

  6. Effects of the magnetic anchoring groups on spin-dependent transport properties of Ni(dmit)2 device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shenlang; Long, Mengqiu; Zhang, Xiaojiao; He, Jun; Xu, Hui; Chen, Keqiu

    2014-07-01

    By using non-equilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigated the spin-dependent electronic transport properties through a single-molecule-magnet (SMM) Ni(dmit)2 between two nanoscale Au(1 1 1) electrodes with different anchoring groups. The nonmagnetic (S) and magnetic (Ni, Mn) anchoring groups have been chosen. Our results show that the spin-dependent electronic transport properties can be modulated significantly by the anchoring groups, and many interesting phenomena such as high spin-filtering ratio, rectifying and negative differential resistance can be observed. These characteristics could be used in the study of spin physics and the realization of nano-spintronic devices based on SMMs.

  7. Development of monoclonal antibodies specific for the human sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter NaPi2b.

    PubMed

    Kiyamova, Ramziya; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Ovcharenko, Galina; Lituyev, Dmytro; Malyuchik, Sergyy; Usenko, Vasiliy; Khozhayenko, Yuliya; Gurtovyy, Vadym; Yin, Beatrice; Ritter, Gerd; Old, Lloyd; Filonenko, Valeriy; Gout, Ivan

    2008-08-01

    Homeostasis of inorganic phosphate in the human body is maintained by regulated absorption, metabolism, and excretion. Sodium-dependent phosphate transporters (NaPi) mediate the transport of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) in cells in response to dietary phosphate consumption, hormones, and growth factors. NaPi2b is a member of the sodium-dependent phosphate transporter family, with a distinct pattern of expression and regulation. Signaling pathways activated by mitogens, glucocorticoids, and metabolic factors have been implicated in regulating P(i) transport via NaPi2b. Inactivation of NaPi2b function by mutations has been linked to human pathologies, such as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. In this study, we describe the generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human NaPi2b. The monoclonal antibodies were shown to recognize specifically transiently overexpressed and endogenous NaPi2b in commonly used immunoassays, including Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry. These properties make them particularly valuable reagents for elucidating NaPi2b function in health and disease. PMID:18724815

  8. Field-dependent critical state of high-Tc superconducting strip simultaneously exposed to transport current and perpendicular magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Cun; He, An; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2013-12-15

    We present an exact analytical approach for arbitrary field-dependent critical state of high-T{sub c} superconducting strip with transport current. The sheet current and flux-density profiles are derived by solving the integral equations, which agree with experiments quite well. For small transport current, the approximate explicit expressions of sheet current, flux-density and penetration depth for the Kim model are derived based on the mean value theorem for integration. We also extend the results to the field-dependent critical state of superconducting strip in the simultaneous presence of applied field and transport current. The sheet current distributions calculated by the Kim model agree with experiments better than that by the Bean model. Moreover, the lines in the I{sub a}-B{sub a} plane for the Kim model are not monotonic, which is quite different from that the Bean model. The results reveal that the maximum transport current in thin superconducting strip will decrease with increasing applied field which vanishes for the Bean model. The results of this paper are useful to calculate ac susceptibility and ac loss.

  9. Anomalous diameter dependence of thermal transport in ultra-narrow Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamitaheri, Hossein; Neophytou, Neophytos; Kosina, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We present atomistic valence force field calculations of thermal transport in Si nanowires of diameters from 12 nm down to 1 nm. We show that as the diameter is reduced, the phonon density-of-states and transmission function acquire a finite value at low frequency, in contrast to approaching zero as in the bulk material. It turns out that this effect results in what Ziman described as the "problem of long longitudinal waves" [J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons: The Theory of Transport Phenomena in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1962)], which states that the thermal conductivity of a material increases as its length is increased due to the vanishing scattering for long-wavelength phonons. We show that this thermal transport improvement also appears in nanowires as their diameter is decreased below D = 5 nm (not only as the length increases), originating from the increase in the density of the long wavevector modes. The observation is present under ballistic transport conditions, and further enhanced with the introduction of phonon-phonon scattering. Because of this, in such ultra-narrow nanowires, as the diameter is reduced, phonon transport is dominated more and more by lower energy phonons with longer mean-free paths. We show that 80% of the heat is carried by phonons with energies less than 5 meV, most with mean-free paths of several hundreds of nanometers.

  10. Anomalous diameter dependence of thermal transport in ultra-narrow Si nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Karamitaheri, Hossein; Neophytou, Neophytos; Kosina, Hans

    2014-01-14

    We present atomistic valence force field calculations of thermal transport in Si nanowires of diameters from 12 nm down to 1 nm. We show that as the diameter is reduced, the phonon density-of-states and transmission function acquire a finite value at low frequency, in contrast to approaching zero as in the bulk material. It turns out that this effect results in what Ziman described as the “problem of long longitudinal waves” [J. M. Ziman, Electrons and Phonons: The Theory of Transport Phenomena in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1962)], which states that the thermal conductivity of a material increases as its length is increased due to the vanishing scattering for long-wavelength phonons. We show that this thermal transport improvement also appears in nanowires as their diameter is decreased below D = 5 nm (not only as the length increases), originating from the increase in the density of the long wavevector modes. The observation is present under ballistic transport conditions, and further enhanced with the introduction of phonon-phonon scattering. Because of this, in such ultra-narrow nanowires, as the diameter is reduced, phonon transport is dominated more and more by lower energy phonons with longer mean-free paths. We show that ∼80% of the heat is carried by phonons with energies less than 5 meV, most with mean-free paths of several hundreds of nanometers.

  11. Protonation-dependent conformational dynamics of the multidrug transporter EmrE.

    PubMed

    Dastvan, Reza; Fischer, Axel W; Mishra, Smriti; Meiler, Jens; Mchaourab, Hassane S

    2016-02-01

    The small multidrug transporter from Escherichia coli, EmrE, couples the energetically uphill extrusion of hydrophobic cations out of the cell to the transport of two protons down their electrochemical gradient. Although principal mechanistic elements of proton/substrate antiport have been described, the structural record is limited to the conformation of the substrate-bound state, which has been shown to undergo isoenergetic alternating access. A central but missing link in the structure/mechanism relationship is a description of the proton-bound state, which is an obligatory intermediate in the transport cycle. Here we report a systematic spin labeling and double electron electron resonance (DEER) study that uncovers the conformational changes of EmrE subsequent to protonation of critical acidic residues in the context of a global description of ligand-induced structural rearrangements. We find that protonation of E14 leads to extensive rotation and tilt of transmembrane helices 1-3 in conjunction with repacking of loops, conformational changes that alter the coordination of the bound substrate and modulate its access to the binding site from the lipid bilayer. The transport model that emerges from our data posits a proton-bound, but occluded, resting state. Substrate binding from the inner leaflet of the bilayer releases the protons and triggers alternating access between inward- and outward-facing conformations of the substrate-loaded transporter, thus enabling antiport without dissipation of the proton gradient. PMID:26787875

  12. Substrate-dependent expression of Na+ transport and shunt conductance in A6 epithelia.

    PubMed

    Helman, S I; Liu, X

    1997-08-01

    A6 epithelia grown in tissue culture vary enormously in their baseline rates of Na+ transport due to differences in growth media, serum, and other unknown factors. To evaluate the effect(s) of substrates on expression of Na+ transport, we determined short-circuit currents, open-circuit voltages, and electrical resistances of mature confluent A6 epithelia grown on a variety of commercially available permeable supports. Because the cells, growth conditions, and all other factors were the same, differences in transport could be attributed alone to the substrate on which the cells were grown. Tissues were grown on both large- and small-diameter inserts of the same type with differing ratios of edge length to area so that the contribution of the edge and tight junction conductances to the combined shunt conductance of the inserts could be evaluated. Shunt and cellular conductances and the cellular Thvenin electromotive force were determined after aldosterone stimulation and amiloride inhibition of Na+ transport. Marked and extreme differences were observed not only for expression of Na+ transport (controls, 0.09-3.94 microA/cm2; aldosterone, 1.53-28.2 microA/cm2) due to changes of apical membrane conductance but also for the development of junctional conductances (3,250 to < infinity omega.cm2) and edge conductances (13,175 to < infinity omega.cm) among substrates. PMID:9277341

  13. Search for gyrokinetic dependencies in helium transport at Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Kenneth; Rowan, William; Hatch, David; Bespamyatnov, Igor; Horton, Wendell

    2013-10-01

    Helium-3 and helium-4 impurity transport measurements and density profile measurements have been obtained on Alcator C-Mod in a variety of discharge conditions, using the core Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic. The helium concentrations range from trace (< 2 %) to large minority (~ 20 %). L-mode, H-mode, and I-mode results are included, with Ohmic heated, ICRF heated, and LH heated plasmas. Helium profiles are observed to vary with plasma current, and also change in time during ICRF shots. Linear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are performed for some shots using the GENE code. Sensitivity scans are done for magnetic shear, impurity density, and other plasma parameters and transport scalings are compared with experimental results. Simulated transport flux is compared with experimentally derived D and v parameters. Supported by USDoE awards DE-FG03-96ER-54373 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  14. Automobile dependence in cities: An international comparison of urban transport and land use patterns with implications for sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Kenworthy, J.R.; Laube, F.B.

    1996-07-01

    Cities around the world are subject to increasing levels of environmental impact from dependence on the automobile. In the highly auto-dependent cities of the US and Australia, this is manifested in problems such as urban sprawl and its destruction of prime farming land and natural landscapes, photochemical smog that can be primarily attributed to auto emissions. On top of the more local impacts of the automobile, the global dimension should not be forgotten. Perhaps the two most pressing issues in this regard are the oil problem and the greenhouse problem. A comparison of global cities over the period 1980 to 1990 reveals large differences in automobile dependence with implications for the future sustainability of cities in different countries. This study explores some of the underlying land use, transport, and economic reasons for these different transport patterns. It briefly reviews what the sustainability agenda means for transport and land use patterns in cities and suggests a suite of targets or goals for sustainability by which cities might measure their current directions and plans.

  15. Azimuthal Decorrelation of Jets Widely Separated in Rapidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; lvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gmez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; Gonzlez Sols, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grnendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernndez-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lks, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; Nei?, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Puelji?, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.

    1996-07-01

    This study reports the first measurement of the azimuthal decorrelation between jets with pseudorapidity separation up to five units. The data were accumulated using the D0 detector during the 1992-1993 collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron at s = 1.8 TeV. These results are compared to next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions and to two leading-log approximations (LLA) where the leading-log terms are resummed to all orders in ?S. The final state jets as predicted by NLO QCD show less azimuthal decorrelation than the data. The parton showering LLA Monte Carlo HERWIG describes the data well; an analytical LLA prediction based on Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov resummation shows more decorrelation than the data.

  16. Azimuthal anisotropy at Valhall: The Helmholtz equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordret, AurLien; Shapiro, Nikolai M.; Singh, Satish; Roux, Philippe; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Barkved, Olav. I.

    2013-06-01

    We used 6 h of continuous vertical records from 2320 sensors of the Valhall Life of Fields Seismic network to compute 2,690,040 cross-correlation functions between the full set of sensor pair combinations. We applied the "Helmholtz tomography" approach combined with the ambient noise correlation method to track the wave front across the network with every station considered as a virtual source. The gradient of the interpolated phase travel time gives us an estimate of the local phase speed and of the direction of wave propagation. By combining the individual measurements for every station, we estimated the distribution of Scholte's wave phase speeds with respect to azimuth. The observed cosine pattern indicates the presence of azimuthal anisotropy. The elliptic shape of the fast anisotropy direction is consistent with results of previous shear wave splitting studies and reflects the strong seafloor subsidence due to the hydrocarbon reservoir depletion at depth and is in good agreement with geomechanical modeling.

  17. Replacement of the Green Bank Telescope azimuth track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Robert; Symmes, Arthur; Egan, Dennis

    2008-07-01

    The azimuth track of the Green Bank Telescope did not perform as designed. Relative movement of components was noted during construction; in addition, fretting of the base plate and wear plate faying surfaces, fatigue cracking of the wear plates, fatigue failure of wear plate fasteners, and deterioration of the cementitous grout layer occurred at a rapid pace during the first few years of operation. After extensive failure analysis, a new system of components was designed and fabricated, and installation of the components was performed during 2007 (Symmes, Anderson, and Egan, "Improving the service life of the 100m Green Bank Telescope azimuth track", SPIE 7012-121). The highlights and lessons learned during the fabrication and installation phases are described herein. This information will benefit any organization performing a similar replacement, and may be helpful in new installations as well.

  18. Bidirectional FcRn-dependent IgG transport in a polarized human intestinal epithelial cell line

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Bonny L.; Badizadegan, Kamran; Wu, Zhen; Ahouse, Jeremy C.; Zhu, Xiaoping; Simister, Neil E.; Blumberg, Richard S.; Lencer, Wayne I.

    1999-01-01

    The MHC class I–related Fc receptor, FcRn, mediates the intestinal absorption of maternal IgG in neonatal rodents and the transplacental transport of maternal IgG in humans by receptor-mediated transcytosis. In mice and rats, expression of FcRn in intestinal epithelial cells is limited to the suckling period. We have recently observed, however, clear expression of FcRn in the adult human intestine, suggesting a function for FcRn in intestinal IgG transport beyond neonatal life in humans. We tested this hypothesis using the polarized human intestinal T84 cell line as a model epithelium. Immunocytochemical data show that FcRn is present in T84 cells in a punctate apical pattern similar to that found in human small intestinal enterocytes. Solute flux studies show that FcRn transports IgG across T84 monolayers by receptor-mediated transcytosis. Transport is bidirectional, specific for FcRn, and dependent upon endosomal acidification. These data define a novel bidirectional mechanism of IgG transport across epithelial barriers that predicts an important effect of FcRn on IgG function in immune surveillance and host defense at mucosal surfaces. PMID:10510331

  19. Na+-dependent and Na+-independent betaine transport across the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Cano, Mercedes; Calonge, Mara L; Ilundin, Anunciacin A

    2015-10-01

    The low renal excretion of betaine indicates that the kidney efficiently reabsorbs the betaine filtered by the glomeruli but the mechanisms involved in such a process have been scarcely investigated. We have detected concentrative and non-concentrative betaine transport activity in brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from rat renal cortex and medulla. The concentrative system is the Sodium/Imino-acid Transporter 1 (SIT1) because it is Na+- and Cl--dependent, electrogenic and is inhibited by an anti-SIT1 antibody. Its apparent affinity constant for betaine, Kt, is 1.10.5 mM and its maximal transport velocity, Vmax, 0.50.1 nmol betaine/mg protein/s. Inhibitors of the Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake are L-proline (75%) and cold betaine, L-carnitine and choline (40-60%). Neither creatine, TEA, taurine, ?-alanine, GABA nor glycine significantly inhibited Na+/Cl-/betaine uptake. The non-concentrative betaine transport system is Na+- and H+-independent, electroneutral, with a Kt for betaine of 477 ?M and a Vmax of 7.81 pmol betaine/mg protein/s. Its transport activity is nearly abolished by betaine, followed by L-carnitine (70-80%) and proline (40-50%), but a difference from the Na+/Cl-/betaine transport is that it is inhibited by TEA (approx. 50%) and unaffected by choline. The underlying carrier functions as an antiporter linking betaine entry into the BBMV with the efflux of either L-carnitine or betaine, an exchange unaffected by the anti-SIT1 antibody. As far as we know this is the first work reporting that betaine crosses the apical membrane of rat renal epithelium by SIT1 and by a Na+- and H+-independent transport system. PMID:26028423

  20. Azimuthal Anisotropy in U +U and Au +Au Collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Caldern de la Barca Snchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikola, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kotchenda, L.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Li, C.; Li, Z. M.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D. L.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B. J.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Z.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A. N.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Collisions between prolate uranium nuclei are used to study how particle production and azimuthal anisotropies depend on initial geometry in heavy-ion collisions. We report the two- and four-particle cumulants, v2{2 } and v2{4 }, for charged hadrons from U +U collisions at ?{sNN }=193 GeV and Au +Au collisions at ?{sNN}=200 GeV . Nearly fully overlapping collisions are selected based on the energy deposited by spectators in zero degree calorimeters (ZDCs). Within this sample, the observed dependence of v2{2 } on multiplicity demonstrates that ZDC information combined with multiplicity can preferentially select different overlap configurations in U +U collisions. We also show that v2 vs multiplicity can be better described by models, such as gluon saturation or quark participant models, that eliminate the dependence of the multiplicity on the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions.

  1. Azimuthal clumping instabilities in a Z-pinch wire array

    SciTech Connect

    Strickler, Trevor; Lau, Y.Y.; Gilgenbach, R.M.; Cuneo, M.E.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    2005-05-15

    A simple model is constructed to evaluate the temporal evolution of azimuthal clumping instabilities in a cylindrical array of current-carrying wires. An analytic scaling law is derived, which shows that randomly seeded perturbations evolve at the rate of the fastest unstable mode, almost from the start. This instability is entirely analogous to the Jeans instability in a self-gravitating disk, where the mutual attraction of gravity is replaced by the mutual attraction among the current-carrying wires.

  2. AN AZIMUTHAL ASYMMETRY IN THE LkH? 330 DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Prez, Laura M.; Andrews, Sean; Rosenfeld, Katherine

    2013-09-20

    Theory predicts that giant planets and low mass stellar companions shape circumstellar disks by opening annular gaps in the gas and dust spatial distribution. For more than a decade it has been debated whether this is the dominant process that leads to the formation of transitional disks. In this paper, we present millimeter-wave interferometric observations of the transitional disk around the young intermediate mass star LkH? 330. These observations reveal a lopsided ring in the 1.3 mm dust thermal emission characterized by a radius of about 100 AU and an azimuthal intensity variation of a factor of two. By comparing the observations with a Gaussian parametric model, we find that the observed asymmetry is consistent with a circular arc, that extends azimuthally by about 90 and emits about 1/3 of the total continuum flux at 1.3 mm. Hydrodynamic simulations show that this structure is similar to the azimuthal asymmetries in the disk surface density that might be produced by the dynamical interaction with unseen low mass companions orbiting within 70 AU from the central star. We argue that such asymmetries might lead to azimuthal variations in the millimeter-wave dust opacity and in the dust temperature, which will also affect the millimeter-wave continuum emission. Alternative explanations for the observed asymmetry that do not require the presence of companions cannot be ruled out with the existing data. Further observations of both the dust and molecular gas emission are required to derive firm conclusions on the origin of the asymmetry observed in the LkH? 330 disk.

  3. Propagation along azimuthally magnetized ferrite-loaded circular waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. S.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes the modal dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves traveling along the azimuthally magnetized ferrite-loaded coaxial transmission line and the ferrite-loaded wire. The modal dispersion curves are used to determine the pass and stop bands of normal propagation. Boundary-value problems were solved with Bolle-Heller functions. The dispersion characteristics of transverse electric modes are presented as plots of the normalized propagation constant vs the normalized frequency.

  4. Azimuthal structures of produced particles in heavy-ion interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vokal, S. Orlova, G. I.; Lehocka, S.

    2009-02-15

    The angular structures of particles produced in {sup 208}Pb at 158 A GeV/c and {sup 197}Au at 11.6 A GeV/c induced interactions with Ag(Br) nuclei in emulsion detector have been investigated. Nonstatistical well-ordered ring-like structures of produced particles in azimuthal plane of a collision have been found, and their parameters have been determined.

  5. Spherically symmetric stationary MHD equilibria with azimuthal rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, R. L.; Clemente, R. A.; Lopes, S. R.

    1997-01-01

    An equation for stationary MHD equilibrium with azimuthal rotation in spherical coordinates is derived. Following a procedure introduced by Maschke and Perrin, by supposing that the plasma temperature is a surface quantity, we describe a two-parameter family of axisymmetric toroidal configurations. The equilibrium equation is analytically solved for given hypotheses in such a way as to investigate the effect of plasma rotation on the magnetic field structure.

  6. Measurements of di-hadron correlations and azimuthal anisotropies in the BES at RHIC by STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liao; STAR Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) aims to vary the temperature and baryon-chemical potential of the medium formed from heavy-ion collisions, by colliding Au nuclei at energies from 7.7 GeV to 200 GeV (center of mass energy per nucleon). In doing so, it hopes to create a map of the Quantum ChromoDynamical (QCD) phase diagram of nuclear matter, and determine at which temperature Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) formation occurs. Spatial inhomogeneities in the initial state of the collision can create pressure gradients in the QGP, which induce anisotropies among produced particles, known as azimuthal anisotropy. These anisotropies manifest themselves as the ridge in di-hadron correlations, which has been extensively studied at the top the RHIC energies and the LHC. We will present some preliminary measurements of di-hadron correlations from?{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27 and 39 GeV BES data, and the azimuthal anisotropy parameters v2 { 2 } and v3 { 2 } obtained from the ???? correlation function, and compare with previous STAR results at top (or higher) RHIC energies. We will also look at the ?? gap dependence and the energy dependence of these anisotropy parameters.

  7. Auger neutralization of He+ on Cu surfaces: Simulation of azimuthal scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebl, D.; Primetzhofer, D.; Abad, E.; Monreal, R. C.; Bauer, P.

    2013-12-01

    Charge exchange by Auger neutralization (AN) plays an important role in surface analysis techniques such as low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Recent advances in the theoretical description of AN have included a model based on a linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) approach, which is able to calculate accurate neutralization probabilities of He+ due to AN in LEIS. Previous investigations have shown that the neutralization probability is strongly influenced by the distance dependent shift of the He 1s level. In this study simulations of He+ scattered from Cu(1 0 0) and Cu(1 1 0) surfaces at fixed azimuth angles are presented. Additionally, the azimuth dependence of ion- and neutral-yield for He+ scattered from Cu(1 0 0) is simulated and compared to experimental data. Calculations were performed using the LCAO model in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The excellent agreement between simulation and experiment provides evidence that the obtained values for the level shift are a characteristic property of the surface.

  8. Modification of the azimuth control system in the LLMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Binhua; Yang, Lei; Chen, Linfei; Mao, Wei

    2000-10-01

    A new control system of the azimuth transmission mechanism used in the Lower Latitude Meridian Circle (LLMC) is described in this paper. Because the original azimuth transmission mechanism causes too much vibration during the transposition of the horizontal axis of the instrument, we decided to modify the original system by two ways. One is to modify the lift mechanism and the azimuth transmission mechanism. The other is to replace the original stepper motors with a new type of stepper motor. According to the requirement of the new motor and its sine subdivided microstep driver, the original control system has been modified. The new system has an expansion output board and a new control program compared with the original one. The hardware architecture of the new system is described. The program in the single chip microcontroller is written in ASM, which is composed of 10 subroutines. The program in a host PC is written in C++. The methods using in controlling motors and skills in designing these programs are discussed. Two sketch flow charts of the control program are presented in the paper. Modification of the lift mechanism is also introduced. All this works make the vibration very slight.

  9. Crack azimuths on Europa: The G1 lineament sequence revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarid, A.R.; Greenberg, R.; Hoppa, G.V.; Brown, D.M., Jr.; Geissler, P.

    2005-01-01

    The tectonic sequence in the anti-jovian area covered by regional mapping images from Galileo's orbit E15 is determined from a study of cross-cutting relationships among lineament features. The sequence is used to test earlier results from orbit G1, based on lower resolution images, which appeared to display a progressive change in azimuthal orientation over about 90?? in a clockwise sense. Such a progression is consistent with expected stress variations that would accompany plausible non-synchronous rotation. The more recent data provide a more complete record than the G1 data did. We find that to fit the sequence into a continual clockwise change of orientation would require at least 1000?? (> 5 cycles) of azimuthal rotation. If due to non-synchronous rotation of Europa, this result implies that we are seeing back further into the tectonic record than the G1 results had suggested. The three sets of orientations found by Geissler et al. now appear to have been spaced out over several cycles, not during a fraction of one cycle. While our more complete sequence of lineament formation is consistent with non-synchronous rotation, a statistical test shows that it cannot be construed as independent evidence. Other lines of evidence do support non-synchronous rotation, but azimuths of crack sequences do not show it, probably because only a couple of cracks form in a given region in any given non-synchronous rotation period. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AN AZIMUTHAL DYNAMO WAVE IN SPHERICAL SHELL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Elizabeth; Käpylä, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Brandenburg, Axel

    2014-01-10

    We report the discovery of an azimuthal dynamo wave of a low-order (m = 1) mode in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent convection in spherical shells. Such waves are predicted by mean-field dynamo theory and have been obtained previously in mean-field models. An azimuthal dynamo wave has been proposed as a possible explanation for the persistent drifts of spots observed on several rapidly rotating stars, as revealed through photometry and Doppler imaging. However, this has been judged unlikely because evidence for such waves from DNS has been lacking. Here we present DNS of large-scale magnetic fields showing a retrograde m = 1 mode. Its pattern speed is nearly independent of latitude and does not reflect the speed of the differential rotation at any depth. The extrema of magnetic m = 1 structures coincide reasonably well with the maxima of m = 2 structures of the temperature. These results provide direct support for the observed drifts being due to an azimuthal dynamo wave.

  11. AtCCX3 is an Arabidopsis endomembrane H(+)-dependent K(+) transporter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Arabidopsis ("Arabidopsis thaliana") cation calcium exchangers (CCXs) were recently identified as a subfamily of cation transporters; however, no plant "CCXs" have been functionally characterized. Here, we show that Arabidopsis AtCCX3 (At3g14070) and AtCCX4 (At1g54115) can suppress yeast mutants...

  12. Coupled Factors Influencing Concentration Dependent Colloid Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coupled influence of input suspension concentration (Ci), ionic strength (IS) and hydrodynamics on the transport and retention of 1.1 'm carboxyl modified latex colloids in saturated quartz sand (150 'm) was investigated. Results from batch experiments and interaction energy calculations indica...

  13. Plasticity in Cell Division Patterns and Auxin Transport Dependency during in Vitro Embryogenesis in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Mercedes; Li, Hui; Jacquard, Cdric; Angenent, Gerco C; Krochko, Joan; Offringa, Remko; Boutilier, Kim

    2014-06-20

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, zygotic embryo divisions are highly regular, but it is not clear how embryo patterning is established in species or culture systems with irregular cell divisions. We investigated this using the Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis system, where the male gametophyte is reprogrammed in vitro to form haploid embryos in the absence of exogenous growth regulators. Microspore embryos are formed via two pathways: a zygotic-like pathway, characterized by initial suspensor formation followed by embryo proper formation from the distal cell of the suspensor, and a pathway characterized by initially unorganized embryos lacking a suspensor. Using embryo fate and auxin markers, we show that the zygotic-like pathway requires polar auxin transport for embryo proper specification from the suspensor, while the suspensorless pathway is polar auxin transport independent and marked by an initial auxin maximum, suggesting early embryo proper establishment in the absence of a basal suspensor. Polarity establishment in this suspensorless pathway was triggered and guided by rupture of the pollen exine. Irregular division patterns did not affect cell fate establishment in either pathway. These results confirm the importance of the suspensor and suspensor-driven auxin transport in patterning, but also uncover a mechanism where cell patterning is less regular and independent of auxin transport. PMID:24951481

  14. Drosophila Vision Depends on Carcinine Uptake by an Organic Cation Transporter.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ratna; Luan, Zhuo; Guo, Peiyi; Li, Hong-Sheng

    2016-03-01

    Recycling of neurotransmitters is essential for sustained neuronal signaling, yet recycling pathways for various transmitters, including histamine, remain poorly understood. In the first visual ganglion (lamina) of Drosophila, photoreceptor-released histamine is taken up into perisynaptic glia, converted to carcinine, and delivered back to the photoreceptor for histamine regeneration. Here, we identify an organic cation transporter, CarT (carcinine transporter), that transports carcinine into photoreceptors during histamine recycling. CarT mediated in vitro uptake of carcinine. Deletion of the CarT gene caused an accumulation of carcinine in laminar glia accompanied by a reduction in histamine, resulting in abolished photoreceptor signal transmission and blindness in behavioral assays. These defects were rescued by expression of CarT cDNA in photoreceptors, and they were reproduced by photoreceptor-specific CarT knockdown. Our findings suggest a common role for the conserved family of CarT-like transporters in maintaining histamine homeostasis in both mammalian and fly brains. PMID:26923590

  15. A KINETIC MODEL FOR CELL DENSITY DEPENDENT BACTERIAL TRANSPORT IN POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A kinetic transport model with the ability to account for variations in cell density of the aqueous and solid phases was developed for bacteria in porous media. Sorption kinetics in the advective-dispersive-sorptive equation was described by assuming that adsorption was proportio...

  16. Transport activity-dependent intracellular sorting of the yeast general amino acid permease.

    PubMed

    Cain, Natalie E; Kaiser, Chris A

    2011-06-01

    Intracellular trafficking of the general amino acid permease, Gap1p, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by amino acid abundance. When amino acids are scarce Gap1p is sorted to the plasma membrane, whereas when amino acids are abundant Gap1p is sorted from the trans-Golgi through the multivesicular endosome (MVE) and to the vacuole. Here we test the hypothesis that Gap1p itself is the sensor of amino acid abundance by examining the trafficking of Gap1p mutants with altered substrate specificity and transport activity. We show that trafficking of mutant Gap1p(A297V), which does not transport basic amino acids, is also not regulated by these amino acids. Furthermore, we have identified a catalytically inactive mutant that does not respond to complex amino acid mixtures and constitutively sorts Gap1p to the plasma membrane. Previously we showed that amino acids govern the propensity of Gap1p to recycle from the MVE to the plasma membrane. Here we propose that in the presence of substrate the steady-state conformation of Gap1p shifts to a state that is unable to be recycled from the MVE. These results indicate a parsimonious regulatory mechanism by which Gap1p senses its transport substrates to set an appropriate level of transporter activity at the cell surface. PMID:21471002

  17. Danofloxacin-mesylate is a substrate for ATP-dependent efflux transporters

    PubMed Central

    Schrickx, J A; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Next to its broad antimicrobial spectrum, the therapeutic advantages of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug Danofloxacin-Mesylate (DM) are attributed to its rapid distribution to the major target tissues such as lungs, intestines and the mammary gland in animals. Previous analyses revealed that effective drug concentrations are achieved also in luminal compartments of these organs, suggesting that active transport proteins facilitate excretion into the luminal space. Members of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily, including P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 are known to be expressed in many tissue barriers and in cell-membranes facing luminal compartments. Hence we hypothesized that DM is a substrate for one of these efflux-transporters. Experimental approach: Confluent monolayers of Caco-2 cells, grown on microporous membranes in two-chamber devices were used. DM concentrations were measured by fluorimetric assay after HPLC of the culture media. Key results: DM transport across Caco-2 cells was asymmetric, with a rate of secretion exceeding that of absorption. The P-gp inhibitors PSC833 and GF120918 and the MRP-inhibitor MK571 partially decreased the secretion of DM and increased its absorption rate. The BCRP inhibitor, Ko143, decreased secretion only at a concentration of 1??M. When DM was applied together with ciprofloxacin, secretion as well as absorption of DM decreased. Conclusions and Implications: DM is a substrate for the efflux transporters P-gp and MRP2, whereas the specific role of BCRP in DM transport needs further evaluation. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for the understanding of the pharmacokinetics of DM in healthy and diseased individuals. PMID:17211460

  18. Rayleigh Wave Azimuthal Anisotropy beneath the Hawaiian Swell - Evidence for plume-related mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Gabi; Marzen, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    During the two-stage Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) deployment, we collected continuous seismic data at ten land stations and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites from 2005 through mid-2007. Both the usage broad-band seismometers as well as the central location of Hawaii with good azimuthal seismicity coverage allows us to conduct a comprehensive analysis of surface wave azimuthal anisotropy at periods between 20 and 100 s. Using a triangle method that we developed for earlier studies, we fit propagating spherical wave fronts to the phases at three stations simultaneously to determine the frequency-dependent average phase velocity within these triangles. We use the standard Smith-and-Dahlen parameterization to express azimuthal variations. A systematic comparison between results obtained for different truncation levels in the trigonometric expansion allows us to assess stability of the results and assign error bars. We observe a marked shift in the overall geometry of fast directions. At periods shorter than about 30 s, the fast direction aligns coherently with the fossil spreading direction across the entire PLUME network. This result supports the idea that flow-aligned asthenospheric material is added to the cooling plate as it thickens. This is also consistent with published PLUME shear-wave splitting observations. However, at longer periods, that sense the asthenosphere below the fast direction rotates incoherently, indicating that flow in the asthenosphere is significantly perturbed from the direction of current plate motion. We present results from forward modeling as well as initial inversions that suggest that plume-related mantle flow does not reach into the upper lithosphere, at the scales imposed by both the PLUME station spacing and the surface waves used in this study.

  19. An ATP-dependent L-carnitine transporter in Listeria monocytogenes Scott A is involved in osmoprotection.

    PubMed Central

    Verheul, A; Rombouts, F M; Beumer, R R; Abee, T

    1995-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, psychotrophic, food-borne pathogen which is able to grow in osmotically stressful environments. Carnitine (beta-hydroxy-L-tau-N-trimethyl aminobutyrate) can contribute significantly to growth of L. monocytogenes at high osmolarity (R. R. Beumer, M. C. te Giffel, L. J. Cox, F. M. Rombouts, and T. Abee, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:1359-1363, 1994). Transport of L-[N-methyl-14C]carnitine in L. monocytogenes was shown to be energy dependent. Analysis of cell extracts revealed that L-carnitine was not further metabolized, which supplies evidence for its role as an osmoprotectant in L. monocytogenes. Uptake of L-carnitine proceeds in the absence of a proton motive force and is strongly inhibited in the presence of the phosphate analogs vanadate and arsenate. The L-carnitine permease is therefore most likely driven by ATP. Kinetic analysis of L-carnitine transport in glucose-energized cells revealed the presence of a high-affinity uptake system with a Km of 10 microM and a maximum rate of transport (Vmax) of 48 nmol min-1 mg of protein-1. L-[14C]carnitine transport in L. monocytogenes is significantly inhibited by a 10-fold excess of unlabelled L-carnitine, acetylcarnitine, and tau-butyrobetaine, whereas L-proline and betaine display, even at a 100-fold excess, only a weak inhibitory effect. In conclusion, an ATP-dependent L-carnitine transport system in L. monocytogenes is described, and its possible roles in cold adaptation and intracellular growth in mammalian cells are discussed. PMID:7768820

  20. Bicarbonate-dependent chloride transport drives fluid secretion by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jiajie; Liao, Jie; Huang, Junwei; Robert, Renaud; Palmer, Melissa L; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; O'Grady, Scott M; Hanrahan, John W

    2012-01-01

    Anion and fluid secretion are both defective in cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the transport mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, Cl− and HCO3− secretion was measured using genetically matched CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient and CFTR-expressing cell lines derived from the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3. Forskolin stimulated the short-circuit current (Isc) across voltage-clamped monolayers, and also increased the equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) calculated under open-circuit conditions. Isc was equivalent to the HCO3− net flux measured using the pH-stat technique, whereas Ieq was the sum of the Cl− and HCO3− net fluxes. Ieq and HCO3− fluxes were increased by bafilomycin and ZnCl2, suggesting that some secreted HCO3− is neutralized by parallel electrogenic H+ secretion. Ieq and fluid secretion were dependent on the presence of both Na+ and HCO3−. The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide abolished forskolin stimulation of Ieq and HCO3− secretion, suggesting that HCO3− transport under these conditions requires catalysed synthesis of carbonic acid. Cl− was the predominant anion in secretions under all conditions studied and thus drives most of the fluid transport. Nevertheless, 50–70% of Cl− and fluid transport was bumetanide-insensitive, suggesting basolateral Cl− loading by a sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1)-independent mechanism. Imposing a transepithelial HCO3− gradient across basolaterally permeabilized Calu-3 cells sustained a forskolin-stimulated current, which was sensitive to CFTR inhibitors and drastically reduced in CFTR-deficient cells. Net HCO3− secretion was increased by bilateral Cl− removal and therefore did not require apical Cl−/HCO3− exchange. The results suggest a model in which most HCO3− is recycled basolaterally by exchange with Cl−, and the resulting HCO3−-dependent Cl− transport provides an osmotic driving force for fluid secretion. PMID:22777674

  1. Azimuthal anisotropy layering and plate motion in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    We recently developed a three dimensional radially and azimuthally anisotropic model of the upper mantle in north America, using a combination of long-period 3-component surface and overtone waveforms, and SKS splitting measurements (Yuan and Romanowicz, 2010, Yuan et al., 2011). We showed that azimuthal anisotropy is a powerful tool to detect layering in the upper mantle, revealing two domains in the cratonic lithosphere, separated by a sharp laterally varying boundary in the depth range 100-150 km, which seems to coincide with the mid-lithospheric boundary (MLD) found in receiver function studies. Contrary to receiver functions, azimuthal anisotropy also detects the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as manifested by a change in the fast axis direction, which becomes quasi-parallel to the absolute plate motion below ~250 km depth. A zone of stronger azimuthal anisotropy is found below the LAB both in the western US (peaking at depths of 100-150km) and in the craton (peaking at a depth of about 300 km). Here we show preliminary attempts at expanding our approach to the global scale, with a specific goal of determining whether such an anisotropic LAB can also be observed in the Pacific ocean. We started with our most recent global upper mantle radially anisotropic shear velocity model, determined using the Spectral Element Method (SEMum2; French et al., this meeting). We augment the corresponding global surface wave and overtone dataset (period range 60 to 400 s) with deep events and shorter period body waves, in order to ensure optimal deeper depth (>250km) anisotropy recovery due to the paucity of shear wave splitting measurements in the oceans. Our preliminary results, which do not yet incorporate SKS splitting measurements, look promising as they confirm the layering found previously in North America, using a different, global dataset and starting model. In the Pacific, our study confirms earlier azimuthal anisotropy results in the region (e.g. Smith et al. 2004; Maggi et al. 2006) that the shallow upper mantle beneath the ocean basin is strongly stratified. Our results further illustrate that 1) a shallow anisotropy domain (~100 km) is present, which is high in velocity and has in general a northward anisotropy direction where the plate is old (>80 Ma); and 2) there is a deeper domain (100-200 km) with stronger anisotropy, which correlates spatially with the low velocity zone and has a fast axis direction in good agreement with the absolute plate motion direction (HS3 NUVEL-1A). The boundary between the anisotropy domains clearly follows the age progressive deepening of the fast velocity in the shallow domain, suggesting an oceanic LAB that separates the Pacific lithosphere and the underlying asthenosphere.

  2. Glucose transporter 3 is a rab11-dependent trafficking cargo and its transport to the cell surface is reduced in neurons of CAG140 Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    McClory, Hollis; Williams, Dana; Sapp, Ellen; Gatune, Leah W; Wang, Ping; DiFiglia, Marian; Li, Xueyi

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) disturbs glucose metabolism in the brain by poorly understood mechanisms. HD neurons have defective glucose uptake, which is attenuated upon enhancing rab11 activity. Rab11 regulates numerous receptors and transporters trafficking onto cell surfaces; its diminished activity in HD cells affects the recycling of transferrin receptor and neuronal glutamate/cysteine transporter EAAC1. Glucose transporter 3 (Glut3) handles most glucose uptake in neurons. Here we investigated rab11 involvement in Glut3 trafficking. Glut3 was localized to rab11 positive puncta in primary neurons and immortalized striatal cells by immunofluorescence labeling and detected in rab11-enriched endosomes immuno-isolated from mouse brain by Western blot. Expression of dominant active and negative rab11 mutants in clonal striatal cells altered the levels of cell surface Glut3 suggesting a regulation by rab11. About 4% of total Glut3 occurred at the cell surface of primary WT neurons. HD(140Q/140Q) neurons had significantly less cell surface Glut3 than did WT neurons. Western blot analysis revealed comparable levels of Glut3 in the striatum and cortex of WT and HD(140Q/140Q) mice. However, brain slices immunolabeled with an antibody recognizing an extracellular epitope to Glut3 showed reduced surface expression of Glut3 in the striatum and cortex of HD(140Q/140Q) mice compared to that of WT mice. Surface labeling of GABA?1 receptor, which is not dependent on rab11, was not different between WT and HD(140Q/140Q) mouse brain slices. These data define Glut3 to be a rab11-dependent trafficking cargo and suggest that impaired Glut3 trafficking arising from rab11 dysfunction underlies the glucose hypometabolism observed in HD. PMID:25526803

  3. Relating reactive solute transport to hierarchical and multiscale sedimentary architecture in a Lagrangian-based transport model: 1. Time-dependent effective retardation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Ritzi, Robert W.; Huang, Chao Cheng; Dai, Zhenxue

    2015-03-01

    This series of papers addresses the transport of reactive solutes in groundwater. In part 1, the time-dependent effective retardation factor, Reff>(t>), of reactive solutes undergoing equilibrium sorption is linked to hierarchical stratal architecture using a Lagrangian-based transport model. The model is based on hierarchical expressions of the spatial covariance of the log distribution coefficient, ?=ln?>(Kd>), and the spatial cross covariance between ? and the log permeability, Y=ln?>(k>). The spatial correlation structure in these covariance expressions is the probability of transitioning across strata types of different scales, and they are parameterized by independent and quantifiable physical attributes of sedimentary architecture including univariate statistics for Y, ?, and the proportions and lengths of facies. Nothing is assumed about Y-? point correlation; it is allowed to differ by facies type. The duration of the time-dependent change in Reff>(t>) is a function of the effective ranges of the cross-transition probability structures (i.e., the ranges of indicator correlation structures) for each scale of stratal architecture. The plume velocity and the effective retardation stabilize at a large-time limit after the plume centroid has traveled a distance that encompasses the effective ranges of these cross-transition probability structures. The well-documented perchloroethene (PCE) tracer test at the Borden research site is used to illustrate the model. The model gives a viable explanation for the observed PCE plume deceleration, and thus the observed Reff>(t>) can be explained by the process of linear equilibrium sorption and the heterogeneity in k and Kd. In part 2 [Soltanian et al., reactive plume dispersion, as quantified by the particle displacement variance is linked to stratal architecture using a Lagrangian-based transport model.

  4. Temperature-dependent gas transport performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube/parylene composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Junhe; Wang, Xianying; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Guangping

    2014-08-01

    A novel composite membrane consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene was successfully fabricated. Seamless filling of the spaces in CNT forests with parylene was achieved by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and followed with the Ar/O2 plasma etching to expose CNT tips. Transport properties of various gases through the CNT/parylene membranes were explored. And gas permeances were independent on feed pressure in accordance with the Knudsen model, but the permeance values were over 60 times higher than that predicted by the Knudsen diffusion kinetics, which was attributed to specular momentum reflection inside smooth CNT pores. Gas permeances and enhancement factors over the Knudsen model firstly increased and then decreased with rising temperature, which confirmed the existence of non-Knudsen transport. And surface adsorption diffusion could affect the gas permeance at relatively low temperature. The gas permeance of the CNT/parylene composite membrane could be improved by optimizing operating temperature.

  5. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.; Clark, Kyle; Weber, Adam Z.; Kostecki, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationship between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.

  6. Salvinorin A Regulates Dopamine Transporter Function Via A Kappa Opioid Receptor and ERK1/2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.; Sitte, Harald H.; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP+ accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP+). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signaling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists. PMID:25107591

  7. A Novel Member of the Trehalose Transporter Family Functions as an H+-Dependent Trehalose Transporter in the Reabsorption of Trehalose in Malpighian Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shingo; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Noda, Hiroaki; Kikawada, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    In insects, Malpighian tubules are functionally analogous to mammalian kidneys in that they not only are essential to excrete waste molecules into the lumen but also are responsible for the reabsorption of indispensable molecules, such as sugars, from the lumen to the principal cells. Among sugars, the disaccharide trehalose is highly important to insects because it is the main hemolymph sugar to serve as a source of energy and carbon. The trehalose transporter TRET1 participates in the transfer of newly synthesized trehalose from the fat body across the cellular membrane into the hemolymph. Although transport proteins must play a pivotal role in the reabsorption of trehalose in Malpighian tubules, the molecular context underlying this process remains obscure. Previously, we identified a Tret1 homolog (Nlst8) that is expressed principally in the Malpighian tubules of the brown planthopper (BPH). Here, we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system to show that NlST8 exerts trehalose transport activity that is elevated under low pH conditions. These functional assays indicate that Nlst8 encodes a proton-dependent trehalose transporter (H-TRET1). To examine the involvement of Nlst8 in trehalose reabsorption, we analyzed the sugar composition of honeydew by using BPH with RNAi gene silencing. Trehalose was detected in the honeydew as waste excreted from Nlst8-dsRNA-injected BPH under hyperglycemic conditions. However, trehalose was not expelled from GFP-dsRNA-injected BPH even under hyperglycemic conditions. We conclude that NlST8 could participate in trehalose reabsorption driven by a H+ gradient from the lumen to the principal cells of the Malpighian tubules. PMID:22934042

  8. MONTE CARLO PARTICLE TRANSPORT IN MEDIA WITH EXPONENTIALLY VARYING TIME-DEPENDENT CROSS-SECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    F. BROWN; W. MARTIN

    2001-02-01

    A probability density function (PDF) and random sampling procedure for the distance to collision were derived for the case of exponentially varying cross-sections. Numerical testing indicates that both are correct. This new sampling procedure has direct application in a new method for Monte Carlo radiation transport, and may be generally useful for analyzing physical problems where the material cross-sections change very rapidly in an exponential manner.

  9. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call "transporter exchange." This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  10. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call “transporter exchange.” This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  11. Carrier density dependent electric transport of serially connected two quantum point contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. M.; Lin, H. I.; Umansky, V.; Hsu, S. Y.

    2010-02-01

    We have measured the electric transport of double quantum point contacts in series at low temperatures. Two pairs of metal gates are placed longitudinally and sequentially with an edge-to-edge distance of 600 nm. They are used to form two quantum point contacts in a GaAs/AlxGaAs heterostructure. Isolating from an insulating layer, a top gate is also fabricated on top of the quantum point contacts to modify the electron densities in the quantum point contacts and the two dimensional electron gas as well. The transport is characterized by the direct transmission probability Td which represents the portions of electrons travelling ballistically from one quantum point contact to the other. Our results show that the parameter Td decreases with decreasing carrier density. The transport is partially adiabatic in high 2D electron densities and transits to completely ohmic regimes in low densities. Because of the correlation between the coherence length and transmission probability, we attribute the result to the reduction of the coherence length and mean free path in the unconstricted electron gas between quantum point contacts.

  12. Nucleotide dependent packing differences in helical crystals of the ABC transporter MsbA.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew; Mulligan, Sheila; Carragher, Bridget; Chang, Geoffrey; Milligan, Ronald A

    2009-03-01

    Bacterial ATP binding cassette (ABC) exporters fulfill a wide variety of transmembrane transport roles and are homologous to the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. Recent X-ray structures of the exporters MsbA and Sav1866 have begun to describe the conformational changes that accompany the ABC transport cycle. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures of MsbA reconstituted into a lipid bilayer. Using ATPase inhibitors, we captured three nucleotide transition states of the transporter that were subsequently reconstituted into helical arrays. The enzyme-substrate complex (trapped by ADP-aluminum fluoride or AMPPNP) crystallized in a different helical lattice than the enzyme-product complex (trapped by ADP-vanadate). Approximately 20A resolution maps were calculated for each state and revealed MsbA to be a dimer with a large channel between the membrane spanning domains, similar to the outward facing crystal structures of MsbA and Sav1866. This suggests that while there are likely structural differences between the nucleotide transition states, membrane embedded MsbA remains in an outward facing conformation while nucleotide is bound. PMID:19114108

  13. Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Honglei; Hu, Yanfeng; Fan, Tingting; Li, Jisheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25652660

  14. Effects of a Radial Dependence in Transport Parameters on the Estimation of Solar Particle Fluence at Jupiter's Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, A.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Bieber, J. W.; Evenson, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are one major hazard concern for astronauts in space missions, and their possible effects need to be evaluated before planning long-term missions such as eventual manned trips to Mars. Although particle transport between the Sun and the Earth is currently well understood, an accurate modeling technique for transport to larger distances is still needed in order to predict potential damage to spacecraft and crew by SEPs, especially during extreme events. A common consensus is that the pitch-angle scattering radial mean free path can be assumed to be constant, but new results in simulations of solar wind turbulence suggest that there is a dependence on distance to the Sun. In this work we model the radial transport of SEPs in the inner heliosphere and out to the orbit of Jupiter by specifying a different radial dependence for the pitch-angle scattering mean free path. We estimate time profiles and fluence at different distances from the Sun for different particle energies, and compare the results with those corresponding to the previous assumptions. Partially supported by the Thailand Research Fund and NASA's Living With a Star program under grant NNX08AQ18G.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide modulates actin-dependent auxin transport via regulating ABPs results in changing of root development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Honglei; Hu, Yanfeng; Fan, Tingting; Li, Jisheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling has been considered a key regulator of plant developmental processes and defenses. In this study, we demonstrate that high levels of H2S inhibit auxin transport and lead to alterations in root system development. H2S inhibits auxin transport by altering the polar subcellular distribution of PIN proteins. The vesicle trafficking and distribution of the PIN proteins are an actin-dependent process. H2S changes the expression of several actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and decreases the occupancy percentage of F-actin bundles in the Arabidopsis roots. We observed the effects of H2S on F-actin in T-DNA insertion mutants of cpa, cpb and prf3, indicating that the effects of H2S on F-actin are partially removed in the mutant plants. Thus, these data imply that the ABPs act as downstream effectors of the H2S signal and thereby regulate the assembly and depolymerization of F-actin in root cells. Taken together, our data suggest that the existence of a tightly regulated intertwined signaling network between auxin, H2S and actin that controls root system development. In the proposed process, H2S plays an important role in modulating auxin transport by an actin-dependent method, which results in alterations in root development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25652660

  16. Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Chao; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui

    2014-12-01

    Charge transport properties in close-packed nanoparticle arrays with thickness crossing over from two dimensions to three dimensions have been studied. The dimensionality transition of nanoparticle arrays was realized by continually printing spatially well-defined nanoparticle monolayers on top of the device in situ. The evolution of charge transport properties depending on the dimensionality has been investigated in both the Efros-Shaklovskii variable-range-hopping (ES-VRH) (low temperature) regime and the sequential hopping (SH) (medium temperature) regime. We find that the energy barriers to transport decrease when the thickness of nanoparticle arrays increases from monolayer to multilayers, but start to level off at the thickness of 4-5 monolayers. The energy barriers are characterized by the coefficient ?D at ES-VRH regime and the activation energy Ea at SH regime. Moreover, a turning point for the temperature coefficient of conductance was observed in multilayer nanoparticle arrays at high temperature, which is attributed to the increasing mobility with decreasing temperature of hopping transport in three dimensions.

  17. Analysis of mutations that uncouple transport from phosphorylation in enzyme IIGlc of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system.

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, G J; van Meurs, G; Verwey, M A; Postma, P W; van Dam, K

    1992-01-01

    Mutations that uncouple glucose transport from phosphorylation were isolated in plasmid-encoded Escherichia coli enzyme IIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The uncoupled enzymes IIGlc were able to transport glucose in the absence of the general phosphoryl-carrying proteins of the PTS, enzyme I and HPr, although with relatively low affinity. Km values of the uncoupled enzymes IIGlc for glucose ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 mM, 2 orders of magnitude higher than the value of normal IIGlc. Most of the mutant proteins were still able to phosphorylate glucose and methyl alpha-glucoside (a non-metabolizable glucose analog specific for IIGlc), indicating that transport and phosphorylation are separable functions of the enzyme. Some of the uncoupled enzymes IIGlc transported glucose with a higher rate and lower apparent Km in a pts+ strain than in a delta ptsHI strain lacking the general proteins enzyme I and HPr. Since the properties of these uncoupled enzymes IIGlc in the presence of PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer resembled those of wild-type IIGlc, these mutants appeared to be conditionally uncoupled. Sequencing of the mutated ptsG genes revealed that all amino acid substitutions occurred in a hydrophilic segment within the hydrophobic N-terminal part of IIGlc. These results suggest that this hydrophilic loop is involved in binding and translocation of the sugar substrate. Images PMID:1569016

  18. Vanadate inhibits vacuolar H(+)-ATPase-mediated proton transport in chicken kidney microsomes by an ADP-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    David, P; Horne, W C; Baron, R

    1996-04-01

    Recent reports indicate that vacuolar-type proton ATPases from chicken osteoclasts (Chatterjee et al. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 6257-6261), yeast vacuoles and chromaffin granules (Beltran and Nelson (1992) Acta Physiol. Scand. Suppl. 607, 41-47) can be inhibited by vanadate, albeit at a concentration much higher than that required to inhibit P-type ATPases. We have characterized the mechanism by which vanadate inhibits vacuolar-type ATPase-mediated proton transport by chicken kidney microsomes. The initial rate of proton transport is somewhat less sensitive to vanadate than the total acidification, with IC50 values of 1.58 mM and 0.78 mM vanadate, respectively. The inhibition of both the initial rate and total acidification is noncompetitive with respect to ATP. The inhibition is abolished when ADP is removed by an ATP-regenerating system, and the addition of exogenous ADP increases the vanadate inhibition of proton transport in a synergistic manner, thus demonstrating that inhibition by vanadate is dependent on the presence of ADP and explaining the lower effect of vanadate on the initial rate of acidification. Phosphate protects proton transport activity from inhibition by vanadate. These effects of ADP and phosphate suggest that inhibition by vanadate may involve the formation of a complex with ADP at a nucleotide binding site, possibly at the catalytic site of the enzyme. PMID:8634310

  19. Structure, expression, and functional analysis of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate/aspartate transporter from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Storck, T; Schulte, S; Hofmann, K; Stoffel, W

    1992-01-01

    Transport systems specific for L-glutamate and L-aspartate play an important role in the termination of neurotransmitter signals at excitatory synapses. We describe here the structure and function of a 66-kDa glycoprotein that was purified from rat brain and identified as an L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter (GLAST). A GLAST-specific cDNA clone was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide with 543 amino acid residues (59,697 Da). The amino acid sequence of GLAST suggests a distinctive structure and membrane topology, with some conserved motifs also present in prokaryotic glutamate transporters. The transporter function has been verified by amino acid uptake studies in the Xenopus laevis oocyte system. GLAST is specific for L-glutamate and L-aspartate, shows strict dependence on Na+ ions, and is inhibited by DL-threo-3-hydroxy-aspartate. In situ hybridization reveals a strikingly high density of GLAST mRNA in the Purkinje cell layer of cerebellum, presumably in the Bergmann glia cells, and a less dense distribution throughout the cerebrum. These data suggest that GLAST may be involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter concentration in central nervous system. Images PMID:1279699

  20. Dimensionality-dependent charge transport in close-packed nanoparticle arrays: from 2D to 3D

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Duan, Chao; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Charge transport properties in close-packed nanoparticle arrays with thickness crossing over from two dimensions to three dimensions have been studied. The dimensionality transition of nanoparticle arrays was realized by continually printing spatially well-defined nanoparticle monolayers on top of the device in situ. The evolution of charge transport properties depending on the dimensionality has been investigated in both the Efros-Shaklovskii variable-range-hopping (ES-VRH) (low temperature) regime and the sequential hopping (SH) (medium temperature) regime. We find that the energy barriers to transport decrease when the thickness of nanoparticle arrays increases from monolayer to multilayers, but start to level off at the thickness of 4–5 monolayers. The energy barriers are characterized by the coefficient βD at ES-VRH regime and the activation energy Ea at SH regime. Moreover, a turning point for the temperature coefficient of conductance was observed in multilayer nanoparticle arrays at high temperature, which is attributed to the increasing mobility with decreasing temperature of hopping transport in three dimensions. PMID:25523836

  1. Transport characteristics of n-ZnO/p-Si heterojunction as determined from temperature dependent current-voltage measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djiokap, S. R. Tankio; Urgessa, Z. N.; Mbulanga, C. M.; Venter, A.; Botha, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods have been synthesized by a two-step chemical bath deposition process on silicon substrates having different dopant densities and orientations. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis reveal that the orientation of the Si substrate does not affect the orientation, distribution or crystallinity of the nanostructures. The electrical properties of the ZnO/Si heterojunction are also investigated by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The ideality factor is found to be 2.6 at 295 K, indicating that complex current transport mechanisms are at play. Temperature dependent I-V characteristics have been used to determine the dominant transport mechanism. The experimental results suggest that in the low bias region the current is dominated by a trap assisted multi-step tunneling process.

  2. Edge contact dependent spin transport for n-type doping zigzag-graphene with asymmetric edge hydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Zhenhua; Tang, Guiping; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Huali; Yang, Changhu

    2014-01-01

    Spin transport features of the n-type doping zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with an edge contact are investigated by first principle methods, where ZGNRs are C–H2 bonded at one edge while C–H bonded at the other to form an asymmetric edge hydrogenation. The results show that a perfect spin filtering effect (100%) in such ZGNR nanojunctions can be achieved in a very large bias region for the unchanged spin states regardless of bias polarities, and the nanojunction with a contact of two C–H2 bonded edges has larger spin polarized current than that with a contact of two C–H bonded edges. The transmission pathways and the projected density of states (PDOS) demonstrate that the edge of C-H2 bonds play a crucial role for the spin magnetism and spin-dependent transport properties. Moreover, the negative differential resistance (NDR) effect is also observed in the spin-polarized current. PMID:24509476

  3. Spatial potential ripples of azimuthal surface modes in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muoz Rojo, Miguel; Zhang, Yingjie; Manzano, Cristina V.; Alvaro, Raquel; Gooth, Johannes; Salmeron, Miquel; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators (TI) nanowires (NW) are an emerging class of structures, promising both novel quantum effects and potential applications in low-power electronics, thermoelectrics and spintronics. However, investigating the electronic states of TI NWs is complicated, due to their small lateral size, especially at room temperature. Here, we perform scanning probe based nanoscale imaging to resolve the local surface potential landscapes of Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) at 300?K. We found equipotential rings around the NWs perimeter that we attribute to azimuthal 1D modes. Along the NW axis, these modes are altered, forming potential ripples in the local density of states, due to intrinsic disturbances. Potential mapping of electrically biased NWs enabled us to accurately determine their conductivity which was found to increase with the decrease of NW diameter, consistent with surface dominated transport. Our results demonstrate that TI NWs can pave the way to both exotic quantum states and novel electronic devices.

  4. Spatial potential ripples of azimuthal surface modes in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Rojo, Miguel; Zhang, Yingjie; Manzano, Cristina V.; Alvaro, Raquel; Gooth, Johannes; Salmeron, Miquel; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators (TI) nanowires (NW) are an emerging class of structures, promising both novel quantum effects and potential applications in low-power electronics, thermoelectrics and spintronics. However, investigating the electronic states of TI NWs is complicated, due to their small lateral size, especially at room temperature. Here, we perform scanning probe based nanoscale imaging to resolve the local surface potential landscapes of Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) at 300 K. We found equipotential rings around the NWs perimeter that we attribute to azimuthal 1D modes. Along the NW axis, these modes are altered, forming potential ripples in the local density of states, due to intrinsic disturbances. Potential mapping of electrically biased NWs enabled us to accurately determine their conductivity which was found to increase with the decrease of NW diameter, consistent with surface dominated transport. Our results demonstrate that TI NWs can pave the way to both exotic quantum states and novel electronic devices. PMID:26751282

  5. Spatial potential ripples of azimuthal surface modes in topological insulator Bi2Te3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Rojo, Miguel; Zhang, Yingjie; Manzano, Cristina V; Alvaro, Raquel; Gooth, Johannes; Salmeron, Miquel; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators (TI) nanowires (NW) are an emerging class of structures, promising both novel quantum effects and potential applications in low-power electronics, thermoelectrics and spintronics. However, investigating the electronic states of TI NWs is complicated, due to their small lateral size, especially at room temperature. Here, we perform scanning probe based nanoscale imaging to resolve the local surface potential landscapes of Bi2Te3 nanowires (NWs) at 300 K. We found equipotential rings around the NWs perimeter that we attribute to azimuthal 1D modes. Along the NW axis, these modes are altered, forming potential ripples in the local density of states, due to intrinsic disturbances. Potential mapping of electrically biased NWs enabled us to accurately determine their conductivity which was found to increase with the decrease of NW diameter, consistent with surface dominated transport. Our results demonstrate that TI NWs can pave the way to both exotic quantum states and novel electronic devices. PMID:26751282

  6. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Fowlkes, Jason; Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (∼3.6 nm) and 10 layers (∼7 nm), with ∼70 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron–phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications.

  7. Thickness-dependent charge transport in few-layer MoS2 field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Wei; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Fowlkes, Jason; Li, Xufan; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-04-22

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is currently under intensive study because of its exceptional optical and electrical properties in few-layer form. However, how charge transport mechanisms vary with the number of layers in MoS2 flakes remains unclear. Here, exfoliated flakes of MoS2 with various thicknesses were successfully fabricated into field-effect transistors (FETs) to measure the thickness and temperature dependences of electrical mobility. For these MoS2 FETs, measurements at both 295 K and 77 K revealed the maximum mobility for layer thicknesses between 5 layers (∼3.6 nm) and 10 layers (∼7 nm), with ∼70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) measured for 5 layer devices at 295 K. Temperature-dependent mobility measurements revealed that the mobility rises with increasing temperature to a maximum. This maximum occurs at increasing temperature with increasing layer thickness, possibly due to strong Coulomb scattering from charge impurities or weakened electron-phonon interactions for thicker devices. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements for different gate voltages revealed a metal-to-insulator transition for devices thinner than 10 layers, which may enable new memory and switching applications. This study advances the understanding of fundamental charge transport mechanisms in few-layer MoS2, and indicates the promise of few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides as candidates for potential optoelectronic applications. PMID:26963583

  8. Presynaptic Na+-dependent transport and exocytose of GABA and glutamate in brain in hypergravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Pozdnyakova, N.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and L-glutamate are the most widespread neurotransmitter amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA is now widely recognized as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. L-glutamate mediates the most of excitatory synaptic neurotransmission in the brain. They involved in the main aspects of normal brain function. The nerve terminals (synaptosomes) offer several advantages as a model system for the study of general mechanisms of neurosecretion. Our data allowed to conclude that exposure of animals to hypergravity (centrifugation of rats at 10G for 1 hour) had a profound effect on synaptic processes in brain. Comparative analysis of uptake and release of GABA and glutamate have demonstrated that hypergravity loading evokes oppositely directed alterations in inhibitory and excitatory signal transmission. We studied the maximal velocities of [^3H]GABA reuptake and revealed more than twofold enhancement of GABA transporter activity (Vmax rises from 1.4 |pm 0.3 nmol/min/mg of protein in the control group to 3.3 0.59 nmol/min/mg of protein for animals exposed to hypergravity (P ? 0.05)). Recently we have also demonstrated the significant lowering of glutamate transporter activity (Vmax of glutamate reuptake decreased from 12.5 3.2 nmol/min/mg of protein in the control group to 5.6 0.9 nmol/min/mg of protein in the group of animals, exposed to the hypergravity stress (P ? 0.05)). Significant changes occurred in release of neurotransmitters induced by stimulating exocytosis with the agents, which depolarized nerve terminal plasma membrane. Depolarization-evoked Ca2+-stimulated release was more abundant for GABA (7.2 0.54% and 11,74 1,2 % of total accumulated label for control and hypergravity, respectively (P?0.05)) and was essentially less for glutamate (14.4 0.7% and 6.2 1.9%) after exposure of animals to centrifuge induced artificial gravity. Changes observed in depolarization-evoked exocytotic release seem to be in a concert with alterations of plasma membrane transporters activity studied. Perhaps, lowering of glutamate transporter activity and increase of the velocity of GABA uptake correlated with diminution and augmentation of exocytotic release of these neurotransmitters, respectively. It is possible to suggest that observed changes in the activity of the processes responsible for the uptake and release of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters are likely to be physiologically important and reflect making protective mechanisms more active for neutralization of harm influence of hypergravity stress.

  9. Separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions using crystal direction dependent transport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho Park, Youn; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Hee Han, Suk; Eom, Jonghwa; Choi, Heon-Jin; Cheol Koo, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    The Rashba spin-orbit interaction effective field is always in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas and perpendicular to the carrier wavevector but the direction of the Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. These two spin-orbit interaction parameters can be determined separately by measuring and analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for various crystal directions. In the InAs quantum well system investigated, the Dresselhaus term is just 5% of the Rashba term. The gate dependence of the oscillation patterns clearly shows that only the Rashba term is modulated by an external electric field.

  10. Temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties in few-layer graphene interconnects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the temperature dependence of electrical resistance behaviours in tri- and four-layer graphene interconnects. Nonlinear currentvoltage characteristics were observed at different temperatures, which are attributed to the heating effect. With the resistance curve derivative analysis method, our experimental results suggest that Coulomb interactions play an essential role in our devices. The room temperature measurements further indicate that the graphene layers exhibit the characteristics of semiconductors mainly due to the Coulomb scattering effects. By combining the Coulomb and short-range scattering theory, we derive an analytical model to explain the temperature dependence of the resistance, which agrees well with the experimental results. PMID:23885802

  11. Temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties in few-layer graphene interconnects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanping; Liu, Zongwen; Lew, Wen Siang; Wang, Qi Jie

    2013-01-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the temperature dependence of electrical resistance behaviours in tri- and four-layer graphene interconnects. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics were observed at different temperatures, which are attributed to the heating effect. With the resistance curve derivative analysis method, our experimental results suggest that Coulomb interactions play an essential role in our devices. The room temperature measurements further indicate that the graphene layers exhibit the characteristics of semiconductors mainly due to the Coulomb scattering effects. By combining the Coulomb and short-range scattering theory, we derive an analytical model to explain the temperature dependence of the resistance, which agrees well with the experimental results. PMID:23885802

  12. Separation of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions using crystal direction dependent transport measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ho Park, Youn; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 ; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Hee Han, Suk; Eom, Jonghwa; Choi, Heon-Jin; Cheol Koo, Hyun

    2013-12-16

    The Rashba spin-orbit interaction effective field is always in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas and perpendicular to the carrier wavevector but the direction of the Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. These two spin-orbit interaction parameters can be determined separately by measuring and analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for various crystal directions. In the InAs quantum well system investigated, the Dresselhaus term is just 5% of the Rashba term. The gate dependence of the oscillation patterns clearly shows that only the Rashba term is modulated by an external electric field.

  13. The hepatobiliary disposition of timosaponin b2 is highly dependent on influx/efflux transporters but not metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jingjing; Tian, Xiaoting; Xu, Guanglin; Wu, Zhitao; Chen, Chen; Wang, Le; Pan, Lili; Huang, Chenggang; Pan, Guoyu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the hepatobiliary disposition of timosaponin B2 (TB-2), a natural saponin. Although TB-2 has multiple pharmacologic activities, the mechanism of its hepatobiliary disposition has not been explored. Because the metabolism of TB-2 is limited and the accumulation of TB-2 in primary hepatocytes is highly temperature dependent (93% of its accumulation is due to active uptake), the contribution of hepatic transporters was investigated. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1- and OATP1B3-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells were employed. TB-2 serves as a substrate for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, with the former playing a predominant role in the hepatic uptake of TB-2. An inhibition study in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes suggested that TB-2 is a substrate for both breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2), consistent with its high biliary excretion index (43.1-44.9%). This hypothesis was further verified in BCRP and MRP2 membrane vesicles. The cooperation of uptake and efflux transporters in TB-2 hepatic disposition could partially explain the double-peak phenomenon observed in rat plasma and liver and biliary clearance, which accounted for 70% of the total TB-2 clearance. Moreover, TB-2 significantly increased the rosuvastatin concentration in rat plasma in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased its biliary excretion, which corresponded to reductions in rosuvastatin accumulation in hepatocytes and the biliary excretion index in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes, representing a perfect example of a potential saponin-statin drug-drug interaction. These studies demonstrate that transporters (Oatp, Bcrp/Mrp2), but not metabolism, contribute significantly to rat TB-2 hepatobiliary disposition. PMID:25336752

  14. Platelets as potential peripheral markers to study functioning of the high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters in the nerve terminals of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T. A.; Kasatkina, L. A.

    Activity of the high-affinity sodium-dependent glutamate transporters in the brain nerve terminals is demonstrated to alter under artificial gravity conditions. A comparison analysis is made for L-[14C] glutamate transport in platelets and isolated nerve terminals. The kinetic characteristics of the transporters, [Na+]-dependence and influence of the transpoter inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate on the L-[14C] glutamate uptake process are determined. It is shown that glutamate uptake process is very similar for platelets and nerve terminals. Thus it is reasonable to use platelets as a potential peripheral model for glutamate transport.

  15. Coding of azimuthal directions via time-compensated combination of celestial compass cues.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Keram; Homberg, Uwe

    2007-06-01

    Many animals use the sun as a reference for spatial orientation [1-3]. In addition to sun position, the sky provides two other sources of directional information, a color gradient [4] and a polarization pattern [5]. Work on insects has predominantly focused on celestial polarization as an orientation cue [6, 7]. Relying on sky polarization alone, however, poses the following two problems: E vector orientations in the sky are not suited to distinguish between the solar and antisolar hemisphere of the sky, and the polarization pattern changes with changing solar elevation during the day [8, 9]. Here, we present neurons that overcome both problems in a locust's brain. The spiking activity of these neurons depends (1) on the E vector orientation of dorsally presented polarized light, (2) on the azimuthal, i.e., horizontal, direction, and (3) on the wavelength of an unpolarized light source. Their tuning to these stimuli matches the distribution of a UV/green chromatic contrast as well as the polarization of natural skylight and compensates for changes in solar elevation during the day. The neurons are, therefore, suited to code for solar azimuth by concurrent combination of signals from the spectral gradient, intensity gradient, and polarization pattern of the sky. PMID:17524646

  16. Temperature-Dependent Electron Transport in Si and Ge Nanoparticle Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Derek; Church, Carena; Muthuswamy, Elayaraja; Kauzlarich, Susan; Carter, Sue

    2013-03-01

    We have studied both Si and Ge nanoparticle-based photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in a layered structure via spin-coating of the colloidal Si or Ge solution. With the low toxicity and high abundance of these group IV elements, combined with the relatively low costs of manufacturing via solution deposition, large-scale device processing offers high dollar-per-Watt opportunities as efficiencies continue to improve. To that end, we previously reported temperature effects of solution-processed PbS quantum dot (QD) PVs, wherein the capping ligand's thermal properties were shown to have strong effects on device performance. Here we show similar ligand effects in group IV QD devices. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements at temperatures from 100 to 360 K under dark conditions were fit to the ideal diode equation revealing the electron transport mechanism, with fit parameters matching transport models. The illuminated I-V data provide insight into each device's built-in potential, carrier mobility, and activation energy. In addition, modulating the illumination intensity gives the ideality factors of the solar cells. We show how these variations with temperature and light-intensity can be used to increase device performance for future studies.

  17. Modeling and analysis of time-dependent tritium transport in lithium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, A.; Raffray, A. R.; Abdou, M. A.

    Tritium behavior in the solid breeder blanket is one of the key factors in determining tritium self-sufficiency, as well as safety, of fusion reactors. Therefore, it is important to understand the tritium transport mechanisms and processes, in order to accurately determine the tritium release and inventory in the blanket. A model has been developed at UCLA to describe the tritium behavior in solid breeder materials, together with a computer code which can predict the tritium release and inventory. However, the model was limited in some cases: for example, it did not include the capability to account for surface to bulk fluxes and for trapping inside the grain which can have major effects on the tritium transport. The model capabilities have been extended to enable its application over a wide range of experimental conditions. Improvements include: (1) implementing an initial model to account for the general effect of trapping in the bulk, (2) addition of a dissolution flux which would enable a more accurate modeling of solubility driven by hydrogen partial pressure in the solid breeder porosity, (3) inclusion of more hydrogen isotopes species in the pore, and, (4) modification of the existing computer code to allow for broader application, such as the possibility of accounting for both first order and second order adsorption/desorption. The code was used to analyze experimental data on tritium behavior in Li 2O from the BEATRIX-II experiment.

  18. Temperature-dependent gas transport performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube/parylene composite membranes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel composite membrane consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and parylene was successfully fabricated. Seamless filling of the spaces in CNT forests with parylene was achieved by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and followed with the Ar/O2 plasma etching to expose CNT tips. Transport properties of various gases through the CNT/parylene membranes were explored. And gas permeances were independent on feed pressure in accordance with the Knudsen model, but the permeance values were over 60 times higher than that predicted by the Knudsen diffusion kinetics, which was attributed to specular momentum reflection inside smooth CNT pores. Gas permeances and enhancement factors over the Knudsen model firstly increased and then decreased with rising temperature, which confirmed the existence of non-Knudsen transport. And surface adsorption diffusion could affect the gas permeance at relatively low temperature. The gas permeance of the CNT/parylene composite membrane could be improved by optimizing operating temperature. PMID:25246864

  19. Time-dependent transport through a correlated quantum dot with magnetic impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.; Weiss, S.; Eckel, J.; Thorwart, M.; Pfannkuche, D.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate electronic- and spin transport through a single level quantum dot with magnetic impurity in a symmetric forward bias setup. On the quantum dot, electrons either interact with each other due to Coulomb interaction or with the spin 1/2 magnetic impurity. For certain configurations, the tunnel coupling to the leads induces an exponential relaxation of the impurity spin, which has been prepared in a polarized state initially. Furthermore, we study the influence of the nonequilibrium transport current on the relaxation dynamics. We obtain the respective numerical result by means of the iterative summation of path integral (ISPI) scheme. Within this approach, observables of interest are calculated from a functional derivative with respect to appropriate source terms in the Keldysh partition function. The real-time path integral extends over all possible paths (i) of the impurity spin and (ii) of the Ising like fluctuating spin fields we have to introduce in order to decouple the quartic interaction term of the Anderson model. The ISPI scheme allows us to sum up all paths including the time non-local self energies of the leads.

  20. Spatial tuning to sound-source azimuth in the inferior colliculus of unanesthetized rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Brian; Alex, Caitlin; Condit, Daniel W.; Kim, Duck O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research devoted to the study of inferior colliculus (IC) neurons' tuning to sound-source azimuth, there remain many unanswered questions because no previous study has examined azimuth tuning over a full range of 360° azimuths at a wide range of stimulus levels in an unanesthetized preparation. Furthermore, a comparison of azimuth tuning to binaural and contralateral ear stimulation over ranges of full azimuths and widely varying stimulus levels has not previously been reported. To fill this void, we have conducted a study of azimuth tuning in the IC of the unanesthetized rabbit over a 300° range of azimuths at stimulus levels of 10–50 dB above neural threshold to both binaural and contralateral ear stimulation using virtual auditory space stimuli. This study provides systematic evidence for neural coding of azimuth. We found the following: 1) level-tolerant azimuth tuning was observed in the top 35% regarding vector strength and in the top 15% regarding vector angle of IC neurons; 2) preserved azimuth tuning to binaural stimulation at high stimulus levels was created as a consequence of binaural facilitation in the contralateral sound field and binaural suppression in the ipsilateral sound field; 3) the direction of azimuth tuning to binaural stimulation was primarily in the contralateral sound field, and its center shifted laterally toward −90° with increasing stimulus level; 4) at 10 dB, azimuth tuning to binaural and contralateral stimulation was similar, indicating that it was mediated by monaural mechanisms; and 5) at higher stimulus levels, azimuth tuning to contralateral ear stimulation was severely degraded. These findings form a foundation for understanding neural mechanisms of localizing sound-source azimuth. PMID:21849611