Science.gov

Sample records for azufres mexico geothermal

  1. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  2. Initial Measurements of Petrophysical Properties on Rocks from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, E.; Iglesias, E.; Razo, E.

    1986-01-21

    Petrophysical properties of geothermal reservoir rocks are valuable information for many activities, including reservoir characterization, modeling, field test analysis and planning of exploitation techniques. Petrophysical data of rocks from geothermal reservoirs located in volcanic areas is in general very scarce. In particular, no petrophysical data of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field area has ever been published. This work presents the results of initial petrophysical studies on outcrop rocks and drill core samples from the Los Azufres geothermal field. These studies are the first part of an ongoing experimental program intended to establish a data-base about physical properties of the Los Azufres rocks, in support of the many reservoir engineering activities which require of such information. The experimental work carried out consisted of laboratory measurements of density, porosity, permeability, compressibility, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, electrical resistivity and sonic wave velocities. Some of the experiments were aimed at investigation of the effects of temperature, pressure, saturation and other parameters on the physical properties of rocks.

  3. Origin of rainwater acidity near the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.P.; Quijano, J.L.; Johnson, Chad; Gerardo, J.Y.; Arellano, V.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of rainwater were monitored at Los Azufres geothermal field (88 MWe) and its surroundings during May - September 1995, which is the rainy season. Samples were collected from eight sites: three within the field, three in its surroundings and two sufficiently far from the field such that they have no geothermal input. The concentrations of Cl-, SO42- and NO3- were measured in about 350 samples and found to be generally <5 ppm. Chloride concentrations remained constant with time, but sulfate and nitrate concentrations decreased, which suggests a nearby industrial source for the sulfate and nitrate. A mixing model for Cl-, SO42- and ??34S also suggests an industrial source for the rainwater sulfur. The determination of pH was found to be necessary, but is not sufficient to characterize rainwater acidity. The Gran titration method was used to determine alkalinity with respect to equivalence point of H2CO3(*). Values of alkalinity were found to range from 10-4 to 10-6 eq/L, and were negative only for some samples from Vivero and Guadalajara. Thus, SO42- and NO3- are in general not in acidic form (i.e. balanced by Na+, Ca2+, etc. rather than H+). Sulfate ??34S values were about -1.5??? in Los Azufres and its surroundings, and in Morelia, but differed from the value of -0.2??? for Guadalajara. The ??34S values for H2S from the Los Azufres geothermal wells are in the range -3.4 to 0.0???. The ??34S ranges for the natural and anthropogenic sources for environmental sulfur overlap, making it difficult to differentiate between the contribution of different sources. However, a similarity of values of ??34S at Los Azufres and Morelia (85 km distant) suggest a regional source of sulfate that is not associated with geothermal emissions from Los Azufres. (C) 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of CNR.The chemical compositions of rainwater were analyzed at Los Azufres geothermal field in Spain from May-September 1995. The

  4. A chlorite solid solution geothermometer the Los Azufres (Mexico) geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathelineau, Michel; Nieva, David

    1985-11-01

    Chlorite constitutes a major hydrothermal alteration product of metamorphism of andesites, in the active geothermal system of Los Azufres (Mexico). Electron microprobe analyses performed on a set of crystals from each sample show wide variations in composition. Correlation coefficients among chemical constituents were calculated. It is shown that the tetrahedral charge is positively correlated with the octahedral vacancy and negatively with the iron content, and there is almost no correlation with the octahedral aluminium and magnesium content. A procedure is proposed to select end-members and substitution vectors, and to give a general formula for these chlorites. Their formation temperatures are estimated with great accuracy, combining results of microthermometric data on fluid inclusions from gangue minerals of chlorites (quartz, calcite), direct measurements in wells (Kuster equipment), and chemical geothermometers. Correlations between chlorite compositions, range and nature of site occupancy, and temperature are good. Formation temperatures of chlorites range from 130° C to 300° C. As no other thermodynamic parameter varies significantly in the studied field (composition of the host rocks, nature of the geothermal fluids, pressure, ...), these variations of site occupancy (mainly Al(IV) and the octahedral occupancy (6-Al(VI)-(Mg+Fe(2+)) = VAC) are considered mainly as temperature dependent. Molar fractions of each end-member show very different variations with increasing temperature: X-kaolinite decreases, and X-chamosite increases, while X-talc-3 brucite does not show significant change. From these data, activity coefficients and standard state chemical potential of major components, and molar free energy formation of chlorite have been calculated for each temperature of crystallisation.

  5. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  6. Predicting thermal conductivity of rocks from the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico, from easily measurable properties

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Alfonso; Contreras, Enrique; Dominquez, Bernardo A.

    1988-01-01

    A correlation is developed to predict thermal conductivity of drill cores from the Los Azufres geothermal field. Only andesites are included as they are predominant. Thermal conductivity of geothermal rocks is in general scarce and its determination is not simple. Almost all published correlations were developed for sedimentary rocks. Typically, for igneous rocks, chemical or mineral analyses are used for estimating conductivity by using some type of additive rule. This requires specialized analytical techniques and the procedure may not be sufficiently accurate if, for instance, a chemical analysis is to be changed into a mineral analysis. Thus a simple and accurate estimation method would be useful for engineering purposes. The present correlation predicts thermal conductivity from a knowledge of bulk density and total porosity, properties which provide basic rock characterization and are easy to measure. They may be determined from drill cores or cuttings, and the procedures represent a real advantage given the cost and low availability of cores. The multivariate correlation proposed is a quadratic polynomial and represents a useful tool to estimate thermal conductivity of igneous rocks since data on this property is very limited. For porosities between 0% and 25%, thermal conductivity is estimated with a maximum deviation of 22% and a residual mean square deviation of 4.62E-3 n terms of the log{sub 10}(k{rho}{sub b}) variable. The data were determined as part of a project which includes physical, thermal and mechanical properties of drill cores from Los Azufres. For the correlation, sixteen determinations of thermal conductivity, bulk density and total porosity are included. The conductivity data represent the first determinations ever made on these rocks.

  7. Heterogeneity of the Liquid Phase, and Vapor Separation in Los Azufres (Mexico) Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, D.; Quijano, L.; Garfias, A.; Barragan, R.M.; Laredo, F.

    1983-12-15

    Data of chemical and isotopic composition of fluids from Los Azufres geothermal wells is interpreted in order to characterize the composition of the liquid phase, and to define the relation between this phase and fluids from steam-producing wells. Chemical and specific enthalpy data show that most wells considered are fed a mixture of steam and liquid. Thus, flashing occurs in the formation. This poses a problem on the interpretation of isotopic data, because the composition of the feeding mixture need not be representative of the composition of the liquid phase in the reservoir. Two extreme alternatives for the interpretation of isotopic data are considered. In the first alternative the composition of the total discharge is considered to be the same as that of the liquid in the reservoir. In the second alternative the feeding fluid is considered to be a mixture of the liquid phase in the reservoir and the calculated fraction of steam. In addition, this steam is assumed to separate from a much larger mass of that liquid phase at the downhole temperature. The contribution of steam is then subtracted from the total discharge to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Using data for silica concentration in total discharge and separated water, the chloride concentration in the reservoir liquid is calculated. This result is used to calculate the fraction of steam in the feeding mixture of each well. The isotopic data is then corrected as proposed for the second alternative, to yield the composition of the liquid phase. Comparison of the corrected and uncorrected isotopic values shows that the correction has an important effect only when the steam mass fraction in the feeding mixture is large (> 20%). The correction tends to reduce the dispersion of data points in a {delta} D vs {delta}{sup 18}O diagram. Points representing composition of liquid phase show an approximately linear distribution, suggesting a process of mixing of two fluids. Available data appears to

  8. Petrophysical Properties of Twenty Drill Cores from the Los Azufres, Mexico, Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, E.R.; Contreras L., E.; Garcia G., A.; Dominquez A., Bernardo

    1987-01-20

    For this study we selected 20 drill cores covering a wide range of depths (400-3000 m), from 15 wells, that provide a reasonable coverage of the field. Only andesite, the largely predominant rock type in the field, was included in this sample. We measured bulk density, grain (solids) density, effective porosity and (matrix) permeability on a considerable number of specimens taken from the cores; and inferred the corresponding total porosity and fraction of interconnected total porosity. We characterized the statistical distributions of the measured and inferred variables. The distributions of bulk density and grain density resulted approximately normal; the distributions of effective porosity, total porosity and fraction of total porosity turned out to be bimodal; the permeability distribution resulted highly skewed towards very small (1 mdarcy) values, though values as high as 400 mdarcies were measured. We also characterized the internal inhomogeneity of the cores by means of the ratio (standard deviation/mean) corresponding to the bulk density in each core (in average there are 9 specimens per core). The cores were found to present clearly discernible inhomogeneity; this quantitative characterization will help design new experimental work and interpret currently available and forthcoming results. We also found statistically significant linear correlations between total density and density of solids, effective porosity and total density, total porosity and total density, fraction of interconnected total porosity and the inverse of the effective porosity, total porosity and effective porosity; bulk density and total porosity also correlate with elevation. These results provide the first sizable and statistically detailed database available on petrophysical properties of the Los Azufres andesites. 1 tab., 16 figs., 4 refs.

  9. Microbial diversity in Los Azufres geothermal field (Michoacán, Mexico) and isolation of representative sulfate and sulfur reducers.

    PubMed

    Brito, Elcia M S; Villegas-Negrete, Norberto; Sotelo-González, Irene A; Caretta, César A; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Gassie, Claire; Hakil, Florence; Colin, Yannick; Duran, Robert; Gutiérrez-Corona, Felix; Piñón-Castillo, Hilda A; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Malm, Olaf; Torres, João P M; Fahy, Anne; Reyna-López, Georgina E; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2014-03-01

    Los Azufres spa consists of a hydrothermal spring system in the Mexican Volcanic Axis. Five samples (two microbial mats, two mud pools and one cenote water), characterized by high acidity (pH between 1 and 3) and temperatures varying from 27 to 87 °C, were investigated for their microbial diversity by Terminal-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene library analyses. These data are the first to describe microbial diversity from Los Azufres geothermal belt. The data obtained from both approaches suggested a low bacterial diversity in all five samples. Despite their proximity, the sampling points differed by their physico-chemical conditions (mainly temperature and matrix type) and thus exhibited different dominant bacterial populations: anoxygenic phototrophs related to the genus Rhodobacter in the biomats, colorless sulfur oxidizers Acidithiobacillus sp. in the warm mud and water samples, and Lyzobacter sp.-related populations in the hot mud sample (87 °C). Molecular data also allowed the detection of sulfate and sulfur reducers related to Thermodesulfobium and Desulfurella genera. Several strains affiliated to both genera were enriched or isolated from the mesophilic mud sample. A feature common to all samples was the dominance of bacteria involved in sulfur and iron biogeochemical cycles (Rhodobacter, Acidithiobacillus, Thiomonas, Desulfurella and Thermodesulfobium genera). PMID:24446065

  10. Permeability enhancement due to cold water injection: A Case Study at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.; Ortiz, J.; Iglesias, E.; Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca )

    1989-04-01

    Pressure transient buildup and falloff data from 3 wells at the Los Azufres geothermal field have been evaluated to determine the extent to which cold water infection increases the permeability of the near-bore reservoir formation. Simultaneous analysis of the buildup and falloff data provides estimates of the permeability-thickness of the reservoir, the skin factor of the well, and the degree of permeability enhancement in the region behind the thermal front. Estimates of permeability enhancement range from a factor of 4 to 9, for a temperature change of about 150{degree}C. The permeability enhancement is attributed to thermally induced contraction and stress-cracking of the formation. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  11. Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, δ18O, δD, δ13C and 87Sr/86Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, D. L.; Castro, M. C.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Tremblay, A.; Garduño, V. H.; Hall, C. M.; Hélie, J.-F.; Ghaleb, B.

    2013-01-01

    Isotopes of noble gases, CO2, H2O and Sr were measured in 10 geothermal wells and 8 hot springs, fumaroles and mud volcanoes at Los Azufres, the second most important geothermal field in Mexico. The aim of this study is to provide additional information on fluid circulation in the field and surrounding areas (Araró hot springs), as well as on physical processes such as boiling, steam separation and invasion of re-injected brines following over 25 years of geothermal fluid exploitation. Mantle helium dominates in fluids from the northern production zone of Marítaro, with measured 3He/4He ratios up to 7 Ra (where Ra is the atmospheric ratio of 1.386 × 10- 6). 3He/4He ratios are positively correlated with 87Sr/86Sr ratios and with δD and δ18O. These relationships suggest that Los Azufres fluids represent a mixing between primary magmatic 3He-rich fluids and groundwater currently discharging at Araró hot springs and enriched in radiogenic 4He acquired from Miocene andesites. Unusually high He ratios together with radiogenic Sr isotopic ratios suggest that thermal waters acquired mantle He from deep-seated parent magmas and radiogenic Sr possibly during their uprising through the metamorphic basement. 40Ar/36Ar ratios of 366 to 429 measured in two wells indicate either mantle-derived argon or a radiogenic 40Ar in situ component, suggesting the local presence of an older crustal fluid component in the northern part of the field. Ne, Kr and Xe are entirely of atmospheric origin, but processes of boiling, steam separation and re-injection of used brines have led to fractionation of their elemental abundances. Comparison with previous studies suggests that the boiling zone in the northern production zone is currently extending further north (Marítaro hot springs). In the southwestern productive zone, re-injected brines might account for more than 90% of the exploited fluids.

  12. Status of geothermal electrical power development in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso E.H.; Manon M.A.

    1983-09-01

    A review of geothermal power generation in Mexico is given. The status of power plants on-line and under construction at Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros is presented. A forecast of generating capacity for the future is given along with the obstacles to geothermal energy development in Mexico.

  13. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  14. Pressure Buildup Testing of Well 18 in Los Azufres Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Upton, Pedro Sanchez; Gudmundsson, Jon-Steinar

    1987-01-20

    Well 18 is a production well in the southern zone of Los Azufres geothermal field in México (see Figure 1). The well is located on the eastern flank of the drilled area, and produces a steam/water mixture from a depth of 1200-1250 m. A 19 hour pressure buildup test that was carried out in March 1986, is the subject of this paper. It is part of work reported by Sánchez-U. (1986) at the Geothermal Training Programme in Iceland. The permeability-thickness product of well 18 in Los Azufres field was determined 5.4 dm from a Horner plot. The well was found to be intersected by a fracture, as evident from the slope on a log-log plot at early time, and a skin value of -5.3. The overall pressure buildup of the well was found to be typical for double-porosity reservoir behavior, having a storativity ratio of 0.1. An outer boundary behavior was observed in the pressure buildup data. 1 tab., 6 figs., 14 refs.

  15. The use of air as a natural tracer infractured hydrothermal systems, Los Azufres, Mexico, case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Sudrez Arriaga; Hector Gutierrez Puente, Josefina Moreno Ochoa

    1991-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with cold water has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres geothermal field. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured hydrothermal system could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate, under the action of the induced injection-extraction gradient, from reinjection sectors to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. A coarse numerical estimation of the average permeability tensor existing at Tejamaniles, the southern sector, explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years: the anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock would demand considerably quantities of tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, especially when fluid extraction was low. At the same time concentrations of calcium, cesium, chloride, potassium, rubidium and sodium, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of this field's sector.

  16. Response of the Los Azufres Geothermal Field to Four Years of 25 MW Wellhead Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, G.; Gallardo, M.

    1987-01-20

    Production and chemical data have been compiled and analyzed on a six-month averaged basis for the first four years of electric energy generation with five 5-MW wellhead generators at the Los Azufres geothermal field. The data were evaluated with respect to the extent of observable thermal drawdown of the reservoir from 25 MW of generation in relation to the estimated capacity of the field of several hundred megawatts of power. The analysis updates the previous one compiled after the first two years of continuous production, at which time the results indicated that differences in reservoir temperature estimated from geochemical thermometers and wellhead production data were not statistically significant based on the number of data and the standard deviations. Analysis of the data after four years of operation were made for the larger number of data and smaller standard deviations. The results review the adequacy of the sampling frequency and the reliability of the measurements from statistical t-Test of the means of the first and second two-year periods. 3 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.

  17. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  18. Renewed Volcano-Stratigraphc Studies of Calderas with Geothermal Potential in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, J. L.; Arce, J. L.; García-Tenorio, F.; Layer, P. W.; Saucedo, R.; Castro, R.; Garduño, V. H.; Jimenez, A.; Pérez, H.; Valdez, G.; Meriggi, L.

    2014-12-01

    During the past six years we have carried out volcanologic fieldwork either in active geothermal fields in Mexico (Los Azufres, Tres Vírgenes, and Cerro Prieto) or in potential sites in which some geothermal exploration studied had been done by the National Power Company (CFE). These studies have been very successful in reassessing the location of the geothermal reservoirs within the volcanic successions through detailed mapping of the volcanic units using high resolution topography and satellite imagery to produce 3-D imagery in conjunction with field work to produce preliminary geologic maps. Detailed stratigraphy of volcanic units, assisted with 40Ar/39Ar and radiocarbon geochronology have redefined the evolution of some of these complexes. For example, our studies at Los Azufres geothermal field located in the State of Michoacán indicate that the volcanic complex of the same name sits upon a structural high transected by E-W faults related to the youngest structures of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The volcanic complex has been emplaced during the past ~1.5 Ma. During this time, magmas evolved from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition with the emplacement of circa 100 vents. Several landforms have undergone intense hydrothermal alteration and, in some cases, generated debris avalanches. The revised stratigraphy based on drill holes and new dates of cores suggested that the geothermal reservoir is hosted in Miocene rocks bracketed between the Miocene Sierra de Mil Cumbres volcanics (17-22 Ma) and the products of the volcanic field itself. Similar studies will be carried out at four other Pleistocene calderas (Acoculco, La Primavera, Aguajito and Reforma) attempting to refine their volcanic stratigraphy, evolution, and the location of the geothermal system, and those results will help in the design of exploration strategies for geothermal sources.

  19. Eruptive History of the Rhyolitic Guangoche Volcano, Los Azufres Volcanic Field, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel Granados, E.; Arce, J. L.; Macias, J. L.; Layer, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Guangoche is a rhyolitic and polygenetic volcano with a maximum elevation of 2,760 meters above sea level. It is situated to the southwest of the Los Azufres Volcanic Field (LAVF), in the central sector of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Guangoche volcano is the youngest volcano described within the LAVF. It shows a horseshoe shaped crater open to the south, with a central lava dome. Its eruptive history during late Pleistocene has been intense with six explosive eruptions that consists of: 1) A southwards sector collapse of the volcano that generated a debris avalanche deposit with megablocks of heterogenous composition; 2) A plinian-type eruption that generated a pumice fall deposit and pyroclastic density currents by column collapse at 30.6 ka; 3) A plinian-type eruption "White Pumice Sequence" (29 ka) that developed a 22-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 7.0 x 107 kg/s (vol. = 0.53 km3); 4) A dome-destruction event, "Agua Blanca Pyroclastic Sequence" at 26.7 ka, that deposited a block-and-ash flow deposit; 5) A subplinian-plinian type eruption "Ochre Pyroclastic Sequence" (<26 ka) with an important initial phreatomagmatic phase, that generated pyroclastic density currents and pumice fallouts. The subplinian-plinian event generated a 16-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 1.9 x 107 kg/s, and magma volume of 0.38 km3; 6) The eruptive history ended with a subplinian eruption (<<26 ka), that generated a multilayered fall deposit, that developed a 11-km-high eruptive column, with a MDR of 2.9 x 106 kg/s and a magma volume of 0.26 km3. Volcanic activity at Guangoche volcano has been intense and future activity should not be discarded. Unfortunately, the last two events have not been dated yet. Guangoche rhyolitic magma is characterized by low-Ba contents suggesting crystal mush extraction for their genesis.

  20. SW New Mexico BHT geothermal gradient calculations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shari Kelley

    2015-07-24

    This file contains a compilation of BHT data from oil wells in southwestern New Mexico. Surface temperature is calculated using the collar elevation. An estimate of geothermal gradient is calculated using the estimated surface temperature and the uncorrected BHT data.

  1. A geothermal resource data base: New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in New Mexico up to 1993. Economically important geothermal direct-use development in New Mexico and the widespread use of personal computers (PC) in recent years attest to the need for an easily used and accessible data base of geothermal data in a digital format suitable for the PC. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction.

  2. Mechanisms of arsenic enrichment in geothermal and petroleum reservoirs fluids in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Birkle, Peter; Bundschuh, Jochen; Sracek, Ondra

    2010-11-01

    The lack of chemical similarity between thermal fluids in geothermal and petroleum reservoirs in Mexico indicates a distinct origin for arsenic in both types of reservoirs. Deep fluids from geothermal reservoirs along the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) are characterized by elevated arsenic concentrations, within a range between 1 and 100 mg L(-1) at a depth from 600 to 3000 m b.s.l. Based on hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), arsenic is linked to typical geothermal species like lithium, silica, and boron. The lack of correlation between arsenic and salinity reflects the importance of secondary water-rock interaction processes. The predominance of arsenic compared to Fe- and Cu-concentrations, and the occurrence of secondary minerals (sulfides and clay minerals) in temperature-dependent hydrothermal zones, supports this hypothesis. Neither magmatic fluids input, nor As mineralization is a prerequisite for As enrichment in Mexican geothermal fluids. In contrast, petroleum reservoir waters from sedimentary basins in SE-Mexico show maximum As concentrations of 2 mg L(-1), at depths from 2900 to 6100 m b.s.l. The linear chloride-arsenic correlation indicates that evaporated seawater represents the major source for aqueous arsenic in oil reservoirs, and only minor arsenic proportions are derived from interaction with carbonate host rock. Speciation modeling suggests the lack of arsenic solubility control in both geothermal and petroleum reservoirs, but precipitation/co-precipitation of As with secondary sulfides could occur in petroleum reservoirs with high iron concentrations. Geothermal fluids from magmatic-type reservoirs (Los Azufres and Los Humeros at the TMVB and Las Tres Vírgenes with a granodioritic basement) show relative constant arsenic concentrations through varying temperature conditions, which indicates that temperatures above 230-250 °C provide optimal and stable conditions for arsenic mobility. In contrast, temperature conditions for sedimentary

  3. New Mexico statewide geothermal energy program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Parker, S.K.

    1988-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of geothermal energy resource assessment work conducted by the New Mexico Statewide Geothermal Energy Program during the period September 7, 1984, through February 29, 1988, under the sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy and the State of New Mexico Research and Development Institute. The research program was administered by the New Mexico Research and Development Institute and was conducted by professional staff members at New Mexico State University and Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. The report is divided into four chapters, which correspond to the principal tasks delineated in the above grant. This work extends the knowledge of the geothermal energy resource base in southern New Mexico with the potential for commercial applications.

  4. Analysis of thermally induced permeability enhancement in geothermal injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.S.; Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Ortiz-Ramirez, J.

    1987-02-01

    Reinjection of spent geothermal brine is a common means of disposing of geothermal effluents and maintaining reservoir pressures. Contrary to the predictions of two-fluid models (two-viscosity) of nonisothermal injection, an increase of injectivity, with continued injection, is often observed. Injectivity enhancement and thermally-affected pressure transients are particularly apparent in short-term injection tests at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico. During an injection test, it is not uncommon to observe that after an initial pressure increase, the pressure decreases with time. As this typically occurs far below the pressure at which hydraulic fracturing is expected, some other mechanism for increasing the near-bore permeability must explain the observed behavior. This paper focuses on calculating the magnitude of the nearbore permeability changes observed in several nonisothermal injection tests conducted at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field.

  5. Geothermal energy: The heat is on for New Mexico greenhouses

    SciTech Connect

    Berghage, R.; Shoenmackers, R.; Witcher, J.C. )

    1994-11-01

    Greenhouse operators are sensitive to energy costs related to heating, so operators are looking to alternative sources of energy like geothermal resources. The Rincon/Radium Springs and the Las Cruces-East Mesa geothermal areas of New Mexico offer a proven, environmentally benign, energy source that give substantial energy cost savings compared to traditional fossil fuels. A number of commercial greenhouses, both large and small, are already taking advantage of geothermal heat in the southwest to reduce their energy costs and increase their profitability.

  6. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  7. New Mexico Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis from LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Kelley

    2015-10-27

    This submission contains geospatial (GIS) data on water table gradient and depth, subcrop gravity and magnetic, propsectivity, heat flow, physiographic, boron and BHT for the Southwest New Mexico Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis by LANL Earth & Environmental Sciences. GIS data is in ArcGIS map package format.

  8. New Mexico State University Campus geothermal demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Cuniff, R.A.; Fisher, K.P.; Chintawongvanich, P.

    1984-04-01

    This report presents the design, construction highlights, and performance of the New Mexico State University Campus Geothermal Demonstration Project at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Construction started in July 1981, first system use was January 1982, and the system was dedicated on April 21, 1982. Included herein are summary observations after two years of use. The geothermal hot water from New Mexico State University wells is used to heat potable water, which in turn provides 83 percent of the domestic hot water on the New Mexico State University campus, as well as space heat to two buildings, and for two heated swimming pools. The original system is providing service to 30 total buildings, with two additional buildings (150,000 square feet) in process of geothermal conversion.) The system overall performance has been excellent, except for geothermal well pump problems. In terms of operating efficiency, the system has exceeded the design parameters. In spite of abnormally high costs for well and pump repairs, the system has shown a positive cost avoidance of more than $118,000 for the first year of operation. For the first two full years of operation, the system has produced a net positive cost avoidance of more than $200,000. Payback on the total investment of $1,670,000 is projected to be 6 to 10 years, depending on the future prices of natural gas and electricity.

  9. Geothermal energy from deep sedimentary basins: The Valley of Mexico (Central Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhardt, Nils; Götz, Annette E.

    2015-04-01

    The geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico has not been addressed in the past, although volcaniclastic settings in other parts of the world contain promising target reservoir formations. A first assessment of the geothermal potential of the Valley of Mexico is based on thermophysical data gained from outcrop analogues, covering all lithofacies types, and evaluation of groundwater temperature and heat flow values from literature. Furthermore, the volumetric approach of Muffler and Cataldi (1978) leads to a first estimation of ca. 4000 TWh (14.4 EJ) of power generation from Neogene volcanic rocks within the Valley of Mexico. Comparison with data from other sedimentary basins where deep geothermal reservoirs are identified shows the high potential of the Valley of Mexico for future geothermal reservoir utilization. The mainly low permeable lithotypes may be operated as stimulated systems, depending on the fracture porosity in the deeper subsurface. In some areas also auto-convective thermal water circulation might be expected and direct heat use without artificial stimulation becomes reasonable. Thermophysical properties of tuffs and siliciclastic rocks qualify them as promising target horizons (Lenhardt and Götz, 2015). The here presented data serve to identify exploration areas and are valuable attributes for reservoir modelling, contributing to (1) a reliable reservoir prognosis, (2) the decision of potential reservoir stimulation, and (3) the planning of long-term efficient reservoir utilization. References Lenhardt, N., Götz, A.E., 2015. Geothermal reservoir potential of volcaniclastic settings: The Valley of Mexico, Central Mexico. Renewable Energy. [in press] Muffler, P., Cataldi, R., 1978. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources. Geothermics, 7, 53-89.

  10. Active and passive seismic studies of geothermal resources in New Mexico and investigations of earthquake hazards to geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, P.; Daggett, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Seismic data were collected in southwestern New Mexico to investigate the sources of the geothermal anomalies and to investigate the potential earthquake hazards of geothermal development. No major crustal structure anomalies have been located related to known geothermal resources, and no areas of continual seismicity have been identified, which is interpreted to indicate a lack of active, or recently active crustal intrusions in southwestern New Mexico. Without a magnetic heat source, the geothermal potential of the known anomalies is probably limited to intermediate and low temperature applications (<180/sup 0/C). The lack of continual seismicity indicates low seismic hazard in the area directly related to geothermal development, although the historic and geologically recent tectonic activity should be taken into consideration during any development in the area. A model of forced groundwater convection is presented to explain the geothermal anomalies in southwestern New Mexico, which is consistent with all available geological and geophysical data from the area.

  11. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  12. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  13. Biocorrosion in a geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrette-Bedolla, M.; Ballesteros-Almanza, M.L.; Sanchez-Yanez, J.M.; Valdez-Salas, B.; Hernandez-Duque, G.

    1999-04-01

    Hyperthermophilic archaebacteria (Thermoproteus neutrophilus) promoting the corrosion of type 316 stainless steel (SS) (UNS S31600) in vapor ducts of the Tejamaniles geothermal electric power plant in Los Azufres, Michoacan, Mexico, were isolated from condensed steam. Metallographic analysis and scanning electron microscopy were performed to determine the morphology of microbiological attack on the SS. Electrochemical corrosion tests showed that the bacteria induced corrosion on type 316 SS preferentially at grain boundaries. Large amounts of elemental sulfur and carbon were detected where the bacterial culture was located.

  14. Heating the New Mexico Tech Campus with geothermal energy. Final report, July 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    LeFebre, V.; Miller, A.

    1980-01-01

    An area between the base of Socorro Peak and the New Mexico Tech Campus (located in central New Mexico) has been proposed as a site for geothermal exploratory drilling. The existing site environment is summarized, a program for site monitoring is proposed, impacts of geothermal production and reinjection are listed, and problems associated with geothermal development are examined. The most critical environmental impact is the increased seismic activity that may be associated with geothermal fluid migration resulting from geothermal production and reinjection.

  15. Utilization of geothermal energy for agribusiness development in southwestern New Mexico. Technical completion report, July 19, 1978-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Landsford, R.R.; Abernathy, G.H.; Gollehon, N.R.

    1981-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of the direct heat utilization from geothermal resources for agribusiness uses in the Animas Valley, Southwestern New Mexico. The analysis includes an evaluation of the groundwater and geothermal resources in the Animas Valley, monitoring of an existing geothermal greenhouse, and evaluation of two potential agribusiness applications of geothermal waters (greenhouses and meat precooking).

  16. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.L.; Vonder Haar, S.

    1980-01-01

    To aid in a paleoenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495 m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. We found foraminifera in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples, and nannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscs, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations are not possible at this time because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350{sup 0}C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to brackish water environments that correspond, in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-My-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500 m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet, have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  17. Microfossils from Cerro Prieto geothermal wells, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, M.L.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-08-10

    To aid in a paleonenvironmental and age reconstruction of the Cerro Prieto reservoir system, 59 samples of well cuttings were analyzed for microfossils. The cuttings were obtained at depths from 351 to 3495m in 14 geothermal wells in the Cerro Prieto field, Baja California, Mexico. Foraminifera was found in 6 samples, ostracodes in 19 samples and mannoplankton as coccoliths in 24 samples. Other groups, such as molluscus, insects, fish skeletal parts, and plant material were occasionally present. Detailed interpretations at this time cannot be made because of poor preservation of samples. This is primarily due to causes: dissolution by geothermal fluids that reach 350/sup 0/C, and the extensive mixing of filled Cretaceous forms (reworked from the Colorado Plateau region) with Tertiary species during drilling. Further studies of ostracodes and foraminifera from colder portions of the wells are needed. The abundant and well-preserved ostracodes indicate marine to backish water inviroments that correspond in part, to lagoonal or estuarine facies. The presence of the mid-Tertiary (15-m.y.-old) marine foraminifera, Cassigerinela chipolensis, in wells M-11 and M-38, 350 to 500m deep, is perplexing. These are not laboratory contaminates and, as yet have not been found in the drilling mud. If further studies confirm their presence at Cerro Prieto, established ideas about the opening of the Gulf of California and about Pacific Coast mid-Tertiary history will need to be rewritten.

  18. Thermodynamic behaviour of simplified geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiriart, G.; Sanchez, E.

    1985-01-22

    Starting from the basic laws of conservation of mass and energy, the differential equations that represent the thermodynamic behavior of a simplified geothermal reservoir are derived. Its application is limited to a reservoir of high permeability as it usually occurs in the central zone of a geothermal field. A very practical method to solve numerically the equations is presented, based on the direct use of the steam tables. The method, based in one general equation, is extended and illustrated with a numerical example to the case of segregated mass extraction, variable influx and heat exchange between rock and fluid. As it is explained, the method can be easily coupled to several influx models already developed somewhere else. The proposed model can become an important tool to solve practical problems, where like in Los Azufres Mexico, the geothermal field can be divided in an inner part where flashing occurs and an exterior field where storage of water plays the main role.

  19. Thermal extraction analysis of five Los Azufres production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Paul; Quijano, Luis

    1995-01-26

    Thermal energy extraction from five wells supplying 5-MWe wellhead generators in three zones of the Los Azufres geothermal field has been examined from production and chemical data compiled over 14-years of operation. The data, as annual means, are useful in observing small-scale changes in reservoir performance with continuous production. The chemical components are chloride for quality control and the geothermometer elements for reservoir temperatures. The flowrate and fluid enthalpy data are used to calculate the thermal extraction rates. Integration of these data provides an estimate of the total energy extracted from the zone surrounding the well. The combined production and chemical geothermometer data are used to model the produced fluid as coming from just-penetrating wells for which the annual produced mass originates from a series of concentric hemispheric shells moving out into the reservoir. Estimates are made of the drawdown distance into the reservoir and the far-field conditions.

  20. Seismic and magneto-telluric imaging for geothermal exploration at Jemez pueblo in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Albrecht, Michael

    2011-01-25

    A shallow geothermal reservoir in the Pueblo of Jemez in New Mexico may indicate a commercial-scale geothermal energy potential in the area. To explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, seismic surveys are conducted along three lines for the purpose of imaging complex subsurface structures near the Indian Springs fault zone. A 3-D magneto-telluric (MT) survey is also carried out in the same area. Seismic and MT imaging can provide complementary information to reveal detailed geologic formation properties around the fault zones. The high-resolution seismic images will be used together with MT images, geologic mapping, and hydrogeochemistry, to explore the geothermal resource at Jemez Pueblo, and to determine whether a conunercial-scale geothermal resource exists for power generation or direct use applications after drilling and well testing.

  1. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  2. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 251 records for New Mexico. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for New Mexico. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  3. Geothermal development in Cerro Prieto Baja California, Mexico (1983)

    SciTech Connect

    Manon M.A.

    1983-09-01

    The actual stage of the expansion program and some of the main characteristics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field are presented. This is similar to the one presented in this same conference back in 1981, but it has been updated.

  4. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area. PMID:27418073

  5. INITIAL CHEMICAL AND RESERVOIR CONDITIONS AT LOS AZUFRES WELLHEAD POWER PLANT STARTUP

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Semprini, L.; Verma, S.; Barragan, R.; Molinar, R.; Aragon, A.; Ortiz, J.; Miranda, C.

    1985-01-22

    One of the major concerns of electric utilities in installing geothermal power plants is not only the longevity of the steam supply, but also the potential for changes in thermodynamic properties of the resource that might reduce the conversion efficiency of the design plant equipment. Production was initiated at Los Azufres geothermal field with wellhead generators not only to obtain electric energy at a relatively early date, but also to acquire needed information about the resource so that plans for large central power plants could be finalized. Commercial electric energy production started at Los Azufres during the summer of 1982 with five 5-MWe wellhead turbine-generator units. The wells associated with these units had undergone extensive testing and have since been essentially in constant production. The Los Azufres geothermal reservoir is a complex structural and thermodynamic system, intersected by at least 4 major parallel faults and producing geothermal fluids from almost all water to all steam. The five wellhead generators are associated with wells of about 30%, 60%, and 100% steam fraction. A study to compile existing data on the chemical and reservoir conditions during the first two years of operation has been completed. Data have been compiled on mean values of wellhead and separator pressures, steam and liquid flowrates, steam fraction, enthalpy, and pertinent chemical components. The compilation serves both as a database of conditions during the start-up period and as an initial point to observe changes with continued and increased production. Current plans are to add additional wellhead generators in about two years followed by central power plants when the data have been sufficiently evaluated for optimum plant design. During the next two years, the data acquired at the five 5-MWe wellhead generator units can be compared to this database to observe any significant changes in reservoir behavior at constant production.

  6. Geothermal exploration in Trans-Pecos, Texas/New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, R.; Taylor, B.; Miklas, M.P. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Interest in alternative energy has encouraged the investigation of possible geothermal resources in Trans Pecos, Texas/New Mexico in an area of extensive Cenozoic volcanism with several hot springs. Geochemical analysis of groundwater samples resulted in the definition of two major areas of geothermal interest: the Hueco Bolson in northeastern El Paso County, and the Presidio Bolson. Regional temperature gradient measurements also supported the existence of anomalies in these places, and showed another smaller anomaly in the Finlay Mountains, Hudspeth County. Detailed geophysical and geochemical studies were conducted on these three targets.

  7. Geologic Model of the Baca Geothermal Reservoir, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Hulen, Jeffrey B.

    1983-12-15

    The caldera environment represents a complex interaction of volcanic, structural, and often, hydrothermal processes. As a result calderas are often targets for geothermal exploration and development. From the standpoint of the reservoir engineer, such geothermal systems would be hosted by rocks that display a complex interplay of stratigrphic permeability, structural permeability, and changing permeability which results from the process of hydrothermal alteration and new fracture generation. The purpose of this paper is to present a geolgic model of the Baca geothermal reservoir which is situated in New Mexico. The geologic history of the Valles caldera is presented in Smith and Bailey (1968). The data we present is largely based on our studies of subsurface samples from Union Oil Company's Baca project area. Additional results of our work have been published previously (Hulen and Nielson, 1982, 1983; Nielson and Hulen, in press).

  8. Geothermal space heating for the Senior Citizens Center at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, T.R.; Chaturvedi, L.N.; Gebhard, T.G.

    1982-03-01

    A demonstration project to heat the Senior Citizens Center at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico with geothermal waters is described. There were three phases to the project: Phase I - design and permitting; Phase II - installation of the heating system and well drilling; and Phase III - operation of the system. All three phases went well and there was only one major problem encountered. This was that the well which was drilled to serve as the geothermal source was dry. This could not have been anticipated and there was, as a contingency plan, the option of using an existing sump in the Teen Center adjacent to the Senior Citizens Center as the geothermal source. The system was made operational in August of 1981 and has virtually supplied all of the heat to the Senior Citizens Center during this winter.

  9. Utilization of geothermal energy-feasibility study, Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Company, Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This report investigates the feasibility of a geothermal heating system at the Ojo Caliente Mineral Springs Co. The geothermal energy will be used to preheat hot water for the laundry facilities and to heat the water for a two-pipe fan coil heating system in the hotel. Present annual heating fuel costs of $11,218 for propane will be replaced by electricity to operate fans and pump at an annual cost of $2547, resulting in a net savings of $8671. Installation costs include $10,100 for a well system, $1400 for a laundry system, and $41,100 for a heating system. With the addition of a 10% design fee the total installation cost is $57,860. Ignoring escalating propane fuel prices, tax credits for energy conservation equipment, and potential funding from the State of New Mexico for a geothermal demonstration project, the simple economic payback period for this project is 6.7 years.

  10. Environmental Considerations for a Geothermal Development in the Jemez Mountains of Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sabo, David G.

    1980-12-01

    The demonstration nature of the Baca Geothermal Project and the contractual arrangements between Public Service Company of New Me (PNM) and Union Geothermal Company of New Mexico (Union) with the Department of Energy mandate on environmental monitoring effort previously not seen for an energy development of this size. One of the most often stated goals of the Baca Project is to demonstrate the acceptability and viability of geothermal energy in an environmentally responsible manner. If this statement is to be followed, then a program would have to be developed which would (1) identify all the environmental baseline parameters, (2) monitor them during construction and operation, and (3) alleviate any possible negative impacts. The situation of the Baca project in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico offers a challenging vehicle with which to demonstrate the acceptability of geothermal energy. A few of the reasons for this are: these mountains are one of the most heavily used recreational resource areas in the state, numerous prehistoric people utilized the canyons and have left considerable archeological resources, the mountains are home for a number of individuals who prefer their serenity to the hustle and bustle of urban dwelling, and finally, the mountains are considered sacred by a number of local Indian tribes, a few of which use the mountaintop as religious sites.

  11. One Year Experience with Portable Back-Pressure Turbines in Los Azufres

    SciTech Connect

    Hiriart, Gerardo L.

    1983-12-15

    This paper contains the experience gained after one year operating five 5 MW portable, back-pressure, geothermal power plants at Los Azufres. A brief description of the field and te equipment is given. Cost figures of the whole installation and a list of what they believe are the advantages and disadvantages is also presented. The main conclusion is that the use of this type of turbogenerators is quite attractive in new undeveloped fields and also in countries with financial problems where initial capital cost investments must be kept as low as possible at the expenses of long term steam consumption.

  12. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Lohse, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    Sixty-four shallow temperature gradient holes were drilled on the Mesilla Valley East Mesa (east of Interstate Highways 10 and 25), stretching from US Highway 70 north of Las Cruces to NM Highway 404 adjacent to Anthony, New Mexico. Using these data as part of the site selection process, Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. of Denver, Colorado, drilled two low-temperature geothermal production wells to the immediate north and south of Tortugas Mountain and encountered a significant low-temperature reservoir, with a temperature of about 150{sup 0}F and flow rates of 750 to 1500 gallons per minute at depths from 650 to 1250 feet. These joint exploration activities resulted in the discovery and confirmation of a 30-square-mile low-temperature geothermal anomaly just a few miles to the east of Las Cruces that has been newly named as the Las Cruces east Mesa Geothermal Field. Elevated temperature and heat flow data suggest that the thermal anomaly is fault controlled and extends southward to the Texas border covering a 100-square-mile area. With the exception of some localized perturbations, the anomaly appears to decrease in temperature from the north to the south. Deeper drilling is required in the southern part of the anomaly to confirm the existence of commercially-exploitable geothermal waters.

  13. Evaluation of thermal remote sensing as a low-cost regional geothermal exploration technique in New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Inglis, M.; Budge, T.K.

    1985-03-01

    Airborne and satellite borne thermal infrared scanner data were analyzed for application in the exploration of geothermal resources in New Mexico. The location for this study was the East Mesa Geothermal Field near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Primary sensor was the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) which obtained data at 10-meter resolution. Additional data for comparison came from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) satellite which provided data at 600-meter resolution. These data were compared to the soils, vegetation, and geology of the area, as well as borehole temperature data in an attempt to explain temperature patterns and anomalies. Thermal infrared scanner data were found to be too sensitive to solar-induced temperature anomalies to directly reflect the presence of subsurface geothermal anomalies but may provide valuable supporting information for a geothermal exploration program. 15 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Mercury in freshwater fish and clams from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field of Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Galindo, E.A.; Munoz, G.F.; Flores, A.A.

    1988-08-01

    Several reports have expressed concern about the potential toxicity hazards and environmental contamination of mercury emissions from geothermal fields in Hawaii, New Zealand, Iceland, California and Mexico. Inorganic mercury discharged from the sources may accumulate in the sediments of rivers or lakes and, after microbiological methylation may become concentrated in the edible tissue of fish. This study involves assessment of geothermal mercury pollution arising from Cerro Prieto. For this purpose the fish Tilapia mossambica and the clam Corbicula fluminea were collected from the freshwater courses of the Mexicali Valley. Reports indicated that in 1982, 13 t of T. mossambica were destinated for human consumption. A further aim was to provide base line data and information relevant to the level of mercury contamination for the Mexicali Valley.

  15. Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

  16. Geothermal hydrology of Valles Caldera and the southwestern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, Frank W.; Rogers, Robert J.; Sorey, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains in north-central New Mexico are volcanic in origin and have a large central caldera known as Valles Caldera. The mountains contain the Valles geothermal system, which was investigated during 1970-82 as a source of geothermal energy. This report describes the geothermal hydrology of the Jemez Mountains and presents results of an earlier 1972-75 U.S. Geological Survey study of the area in light of more recent information. Several distinct types of thermal and nonthermal ground water are recognized in the Jemez Mountains. Two types of near-surface thermal water are in the caldera: thermal meteoric water and acid sulfate water. The principal reservoir of geothermal fluids is at depth under the central and western parts of the caldera. Nonthermal ground water in Valles Caldera occurs in diverse perched aquifers and deeper valley-fill aquifers. The geothermal reservoir is recharged by meteorically derived water that moves downward from the aquifers in the caldera fill to depths of 6,500 feet or more and at temperatures reaching about 330 degrees Celsius. The heated geothermal water rises convectively to depths of 2,000 feet or less and mixes with other ground water as it flows away from the geothermal reservoir. A vapor zone containing steam, carbon dioxide, and other gases exists above parts of the liquid-dominated geothermal zone. Two subsystems are generally recognized within the larger geothermal system: the Redondo Creek subsystem and the Sulphur Creek subsystem. The permeability in the Redondo Creek subsystem is controlled by stratigraphy and fault-related structures. Most of the permeability is in the high-angle, normal faults and associated fractures that form the Redondo Creek Graben. Faults and related fractures control the flow of thermal fluids in the subsystem, which is bounded by high-angle faults. The Redondo Creek subsystem has been more extensively studied than other parts of the system. The Sulphur Springs subsystem is not as well

  17. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  18. Geothermal Energy for New Mexico: Assessment of Potential and Exploratory Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Person, Lara Owens, James Witcher

    2010-02-17

    This report summarizes the drilling operations and subsequent interpretation of thermal and geochemical data from the New Mexico Tech NMT-2GT (OSE RG- 05276 POD) test well. This slim hole was drilled along an elongate heat-flow anomaly at the base of the Socorro Mountains to better assess the geothermal resource potential (Socorro Peak geothermal system) on the western side of the New Mexico Tech campus in Socorro, New Mexico. The reservoir depth, hydraulic properties, temperature and chemistry were unknown prior to drilling. The purpose of the NMT-2GT (OSE RG-05276 POD) well was to explore the feasibility of providing geothermal fluids for a proposed district space heating system on the New Mexico Tech campus. With DOE cost over runs funds we completed NMT-2GT to a depth of 1102 feet at the Woods Tunnel drill site. Temperatures were nearly constant (41 oC ) between a depth of 1102 feet. Above this isothermal zone, a strong temperature gradient was observed (210 oC /km) beneath the water table consistent with vertical convective heat transfer. The existence of a groundwater upflow zone was further supported by measured vertical hydraulic head measurements which varied between about 258 feet at the water table to 155 feet at a depth of 1102 feet yielding a vertical hydraulic a gradient of about 0.1. If the upflow zone is 1 km deep, then a vertical flow rate is about 0.6 m/yr could have produced the observed curvature in the thermal profile. This would suggest that the deep bedrock permeability is about 20 mD. This is much lower than the permeability measured in a specific capacity aquifer test completed in 2009 within fracture Paleozoic sandstones near the water table (3000 D). Flow rates measured during drilling were measured using a v-notch weir. Flow rates were consistently around 1000 gpm. While the temperatures are lower than we had anticipated, this geothermal resource can still be developed to heat the NM Tech campus using heat pump technology.

  19. Active and Fossil Geothermal Activity at Lake Chapala, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zârate-del Vall, P.

    2002-12-01

    Geothermal systems are very abundant in the tectonically active zones of the earth's crust and the Citala rift, where Lake Chapala is located, is not the exception. The Lake Chapala basin is characterized by its paleo- and actual geothermal activity that includes: thermal springs, fossil sinter deposits and hydrothermal petroleum manifestations. Thermal springs occur both inside and outside the lake. The spring water in out-shore thermal springs around Lake Chapala is carbonate (Medina-Heredia A, 1986). To the NE area is San Luis Agua Caliente (69°C; ~ 240 mg L-1 [HCO3]1) in the NW at Jocotepec (36°C; ~263mg L-1 [HCO3]-); in the South we find Tuxcueca and Tizap n El Alto (30°C; 193 mg L-1 [HCO3]-). However, there is an exception, the spring water at the San Juan Cosal sector (North), which is sulfate (64-83°C; ~479 mg L-1, [SO4]-2). Examples of in-shore thermal springs are "Los Gorgos" (near South shore) and "El Fuerte" (near East shore and temporary "out-shore" because of actual severe drought); the characterisation of water of this in-shore sites is in progress. On the SE shore and five km NW from Regules village, outcrops a carbonate deposit named "La Calera". This carbonate fossil sinter outcrops 2 km in E-W direction and 600 m in N-S direction and overlays andesitic rock. With a thickness of approximately 5m and a roughly horizontal attitude, the carbonated sinter material is characterized by both massive and banded structure. When massive, it is colored in yellow brownish and grey and elsewhere it shows a pseudo-brecciated structure and when banded, alternated of yellow and dark millimetre bands can be seen; is characterized by vuggy porosity and silica (quartz and chalcedony) vein lets. Under microscope a pseudo-micritic texture is observed; vugs coated by iron oxides, are filled with calcite, and/or quartz, chalcedony and clay minerals. Six samples of carbonate of "La Calera" deposit were analysed for their stable isotopes (LODC-UParis VI). From δ 13

  20. Geologic and preliminary reservoir data on the Los Humeros Geothermal System, Puebla, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory drilling has confirmed the existence of a geothermal system in the Los Humeros volcanic center, located 180 km east of Mexico City. Volcanic activity in the area began with the eruption of andesites, followed by two major caldera-forming pyroclastic eruptions. The younger Los Potreros caldera is nested inside the older Los Humeros caldera. At later stages, basaltic andesite, dacite, and olivine basalt lavas erupted along the ring-fracture zones of both calderas. Geologic interpretation of structural, geophysical, and drilling data suggests that: (1) the water-dominated geothermal reservoir is hosted by the earliest andesitic volcanic pile, is bounded by the ring-fracture zone of the Los Potreros caldera, and is capped by the products of the oldest caldera-forming eruption; (2) permeability within the andesitic pile is provided by faults and fractures related to intracaldera uplift; (3) the geothermal system has potential for a large influx of meteoric water through portions of the ring-fracture zones of both calderas; and (4) volcanic centers with similar magmatic and structural conditions can be found in the eastern Cascades, USA.

  1. Design of a small fruit drier using geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1996-02-01

    A fruit drier was originally proposed for a project at the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. Since the drier was to be used in a demonstration project to interest local fruit growers and processors, the size was minimal to expedite construction and minimize cost. The design was based on preliminary work reported by Herman Guillen. The design is described here, as it can be adapted to many small or experimental situations. The actual design will handle about 900 kg (2000 lbs) of fruit (wet) per drying cycle. Cutting, storing and packaging of the fruit should be done on site in a separate building. A cold-storage facility may be designed to keep fresh fruit when harvest exceeds the capacity of the drier.

  2. Geochemical exploration of a promissory Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS): the Acoculco caldera, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Loic; Romero, Ruben Bernard; Pérez-Zarate, Daniel; Guevara, Mirna; Santoyo Gutiérrez, Edgar

    2014-05-01

    The Acoculco caldera (Puebla, Mexico) has been identified by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (in Spanish 'Comisión Federal de Electricidad', CFE) as a potential Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) candidate. Two exploration wells were drilled and promising temperatures of ~300° C have been measured at a depth of 2000 m with a geothermal gradient of 11oC/100m, which is three times higher than the baseline gradient measured within the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. As usually observed in Hot Dry Rock systems, thermal manifestations in surface are scarce and consist in low-temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing. The goals of this study were to identify the origin of these fluids, to estimate the soil degassing rate and to explore new areas for a future detailed exploration and drilling activities. Water and gas samples were collected for chemical and isotopic analysis (δ18O, δD, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) and a multi-gas (CO2, CH4, H2S) soil survey was carried out using the accumulation chamber method. Springs' compositions indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S-rich gases, while gas compositions reveal a MORB-type origin mixed with some arc-type contribution. Gas geothermometry results are similar to temperatures measured during well drilling (260° C-300° C). Amongst all measured CO2 fluxes, only 5% (mean: 5543 g m-2 day-1) show typical geothermal values, while the remaining fluxes are low and correspond to biogenic degassing (mean: 18 g m-2 day-1). The low degassing rate of the geothermal system is a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of the system which acts as an impermeable caprock. Highest measured CO2 fluxes (above > 600 g m-2 day-1) have corresponding CH4/CO2 flux ratios similar to mass ratios of sampled gases, which suggest an advective fluid transport. To represent field conditions, a numerical model was also applied to simulate the migration of CO2 towards the surface through a

  3. Vegetation ecological restoration during geothermic exploratory perforation: A case study in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega-Rubio, A.; Salinas, F.; Naranjo, A.

    1997-12-31

    At Las Tres Virgenes, B.C.S., Mexico developed the Geothermic exploratory drilling of the area. One of the main recommendations of our Environmental Impact Assessment Study includes transplantation of the plant individuals found in the zones of roads and drilling platforms. In this work we describe the methodologies used to transplant the vegetal individuals found in such zones. We listed the species selected and the survivorship rate obtained for every one of them. From a total of 4,266 transplanted individuals, including many endemic species, a total of 2349 survived. Members of the Agavaceae and Cactaceae families show the maximum survivorship rate, meanwhile the members of the Burseraceae, Euphorbiaceae and Fouqueriaceae families exhibited the minimum survivorship rate (between 12.7% and 20%).

  4. Magnetotelluric/audiomagnetotelluric study of the Zuni Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Prospect, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ander, M.E.; Goss, R.; Strangway, D.; Hillebrand, C.; Laughlin, A.W.; Hudson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been investigating a large area in New Mexico for Hot Dry Rock geothermal potential. The area includes parts of the Jemez volcanic lineament and the central Rio Grande rift. LASL has completed a detailed magnetotelluric/audiomagnetotelluric survey covering 161 square km over an area of high heat flow, south of Zuni, NM. The data collection was collected and preliminary analysis phases of a regional MT survey which suggest the Jemez lineament is associated with a crustal structure of anomalously high electrical conductivity. The detailed MT shows an average tipper strike of N60/sup 0/E above 100 sec period, representing the structural trend within Precambrian basement. The Jemez lineament strikes approximately N55/sup 0/E; this suggests a relationship between the Precambrian structure beneath the Zuni area and the Jemez lineament.

  5. Microbiological and chemical characterization of hydrothermal fluids at Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area, southern New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John F.

    2000-06-01

    The Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area is part of the larger hydrothermal system of the Rio Grande Rift, southern New Mexico, USA. Chemical and microbial parameters indicate that the sampled hydrothermal water derives from a mixture zone of deep, anaerobic water with meteoric water from an adjacent alluvial, non-thermal groundwater flow system. A microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicates that biomass and diversity of hydrothermal groundwater are very low, whereas hydrothermal surface water is diverse and bacteria are in a rapid growth phase. A nucleic acid (DNA) analysis of the hydrothermal groundwater resulted in the identification of one eubacterium and two Archaea (archaebacteria); the eubacterium and one Archaea were previously unknown. The one Archaea that could be related to a known species is an extreme halophilic methanomicrobacterium. The presence of the halophilic Archaea and the other Archaea species supports the hypothesis of the Tortugas Mountain Geothermal Area being the discharge area of deep circulating groundwater within a bedrock-hosted regional groundwater flow system.

  6. Water geochemistry of the Lucero Uplift, New Mexico: geothermal investigation of low-temperature mineralized fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, T.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Vidale, R.; Charles, R.

    1983-04-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 27 waters of the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico, was performed to determine if the fluids originate from a high-temperature geothermal system along the Rio Grande rift. Two types of mineralized water issue from the Lucero region: a relatively saline (high-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type and a relatively dilute (low-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type. Emergence temperatures of both types range from 12 to 26/sup 0/C. Chemical data and thermodynamic and geothermometer calculations all indicate that both water types are in equilibrium with carbonate and evaporite minerals found in local Colorado Plateau rocks at surface temperatures or slightly higher. Stable isotope data do not indicate high-temperature rock-water interaction. Although evidence is seen for mixing between mineralized waters and dilute surface waters, no evidence for mixing of a deep hot fluid and surface waters is seen. Dilute mineral waters, which issue from a large area of Chinle Formation on the west side of the Lucero uplift, may be useful for low-temperature geothermal applications with appropriate design of equipment. Saline mineral waters, which leak from a zone of faulted and folded rocks along the Comanche fault zone, do not appear to have much, if any, geothermal potential due to their low-temperature, restricted distribution, and high concentration of dissolved solids. No evidence that saline mineral waters are associated with Quaternary faults of the Rio Grande rift or Quaternary basaltic volcanism within the immediate area is seen.

  7. Geothermal low-temperature reservoir assessment in northern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lohse, R.L.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1985-07-01

    Fifty-four shallow temperature gradient holes were drilled along Interstate Highway 25 and the Rio Grande, from Las Cruces to Rincon, in northern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. This shallow temperature study (a joint exploration program performed with the cooperation and financial assistance of Trans-Pacific Geothermal, Inc. of Oakland, California) resulted in the discovery and confirmation of new and suspected major low-temperature geothermal resources. Elevated temperature and heat flow data suggest a thermal anomaly which can be generally described as being a nearly continuous linear feature which extends some 25 miles in length in a northwest-southeast direction with the only break being a 5-mile gap near the southern end of the study area. The width of the anomaly is only a few miles but tends to thicken around individual anomalies located within this larger anomaly. There are five main individual anomalies situated within the major anomaly and, listed from north to south, they are the: (1) Rincon Anomaly, (2) San Diego Mountain Anomaly, (3) Radium Springs KGRA, (4) Grande Dome Anomaly, and (5) Goat Mountain Anomaly. The main anomaly is well defined by a 4 HFU contour and the individual anomalies range from about 10 HFU to a high of near 30 HFU, estimated for the Rincon Anomaly. A bottom-hole temperature of 54/sup 0/C at 50 meters was also recorded at Rincon. Deeper drilling is certainly warranted and required in the Rincon Anomaly in order to discover and confirm the true commercially exploitable potential of this geothermal resource. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Ted J. Clutter, Geothermal Resources Council Executive Director

    2005-02-18

    Project Purpose To enhance technological and topical information transfer in support of industry and government efforts to increase geothermal energy use in the United States (power production, direct use, and geothermal groundsource heat pumps). Project Work GRC 2003 Annual Meeting. The GRC convened the meeting on Oct. 12-15, 2003, at Morelia's Centro de Convenciones y ExpoCentro in Mexico under the theme, International Collaboration for Geothermal Energy in the Americas. The event was also sponsored by the Comision Federal de Electricidad. ~600 participants from more than 20 countries attended the event. The GRC convened a Development of Geothermal Projects Workshop and Geothermal Exploration Techniques Workshop. GRC Field Trips included Los Azufres and Paricutin Volcano on Oct. 11. The Geothermal Energy Association (Washington, DC) staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Annual Meeting Opening Session was convened on Oct. 13, and included the governor of Michoacan, the Mexico Assistant Secretary of Energy, CFE Geothermal Division Director, DOE Geothermal Program Manager, and private sector representatives. The 2003 Annual Meeting attracted 160 papers for oral and poster presentations. GRC 2004. Under the theme, Geothermal - The Reliable Renewable, the GRC 2004 Annual Meeting convened on Aug. 29-Sept. 1, 2004, at the Hyatt Grand Champions Resort at Indian Wells, CA. Estimated total attendance (including Trade Show personnel, guests and accompanying persons) was ~700. The event included a workshop, Geothermal Production Well Pump Installation, Operation and Maintenance. Field trips went to Coso/Mammoth and Imperial Valley/Salton Sea geothermal fields. The event Opening Session featured speakers from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of the Interior, and the private sector. The Geothermal Energy Association staged its Geothermal Energy Trade Show. The Geothermal Education Office staged its Geothermal Energy Workshop. Several local radio and TV

  9. Preliminary estimation of the reservoir capacity and the longevity of the Baca Geothermal Field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Vonder Haar, S.; Wilt, M.; Tsang, C.F.

    1980-07-01

    A 50 MW geothermal power plant is currently under development at the Baca site in the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, as a joint venture of the Department of Energy (DOE), Union Oil Company of California, and the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM). To date, over 20 wells have been drilled on the prospect, and the data from these wells indicate the presence of a high-temperature liquid dominated reservoir. Data from open literature on the field are used to estimate the amount of hot water in place (reservoir capacity) and the length of time the reservoir can supply steam for a 50 MW power plant (reservoir longevity). The reservoir capacity is estimated by volumetric calculations using existing geological, geophysical, and well data. The criteria used are described and the sensitivity of the results discussed. The longevity of the field is studied using a two-phase numerical simulator (SHAFT79). A number of cases are studied based upon different boundary conditions, and injection and production criteria. Constant or variable mass production is employed in the simulations with closed, semi-infinite or infinite reservoir boundaries. In one of the cases, a fault zone feeding the production region is modeled. The injection strategy depends on the available waste water. The results of these simulations are discussed and the sensitivity of the results, with respect to mesh size and the relative permeability curves used, are briefly studied.

  10. Anomalously High Geothermal Gradients in the Buckman Well Field, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, A.; Munda, R.; Farrell, T. F.; Kelley, S. A.; Frost, J.; Jiracek, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    . Sediment deformation as modeled in the upper 1 km could generate a local thermal transient and it would modify local thermal conductivity values with attendant changes in temperature gradients. Lastly, the anomaly may be of anthropogenic causes. The Buckman wells used to be the most extensively pumped wells in New Mexico. Discharge temperatures from the wells are high. One of the pumping wells has discharge temperatures of 26°C at only 116 meters depth (a geothermal gradient of 138 °C/km). Though the nearby wells were not pumping on the days of the temperature measurements, the geothermal anomaly may just be remnant heat from warmer waters previously pumped upwards.

  11. Hydrologic Windows and the Formation of Low-Temperature Geothermal Anomalies along the Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, J.; Person, M. A.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.; Owens, L.; Witcher, J. C.; Phillips, F. M.; Gable, C. W.; Coblentz, D. D.; Campbell, A.

    2013-12-01

    Within the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico, gaps in Mesozoic and Tertiary confining units are common geologic features. They are created as a result of fault block rotation, erosion, lithological variations and emplacement of magmatic intrusions. These hydrologic windows were first proposed by Witcher (1988, Geothermal resources of southwestern New Mexico and southeastern Arizona: New Mexico Geological Society 39th Field Conference Guidebook, p. 191-197) as a mechanism to permit relatively hot geothermal fluids to discharge at the surface within the Rio Grande Rift. To explore the role of hydrologic windows in these occurrences, we have developed two-dimensional and three-dimensional hydrothermal models of both the Socorro and the Truth or Consequences geothermal resource areas. These finite-element models simulate groundwater flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and residence times. The 2D cross-sectional models help establish the depth of geothermal fluid circulation and crystalline-basement permeability structure required to account for hot-spring temperature conditions near the surface. The three-dimensional models help to assess the effects of water-table configuration and east-west oriented accommodation zones on shallow heat-flow patterns. We utilized carbon-14 groundwater age dating, salinity, and silica concentrations collected from wells and warm springs to calibrate these models. Apparent carbon-14 ages of groundwater samples collected from the 300-meter deep Woods Tunnel geothermal slim hole near Socorro and a 15-meter deep alluvial well from the Riverbend Spa in Truth or Consequences were 20,000 and 6,000 years old, respectively. Maximum geothermal temperatures based on silica concentrations at these two sites are estimated to range from 60 to 87 degrees Celsius. In order to reproduce observed temperature anomalies and groundwater residence times, groundwater circulation must have been within the crystalline basement, two to six kilometers beneath

  12. A GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL STUDY OF THE BACA GEOTHERMAL FIELD, VALLES CALDERA, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Haar, S.V.

    1982-03-01

    The Baca location {number_sign}1 geothermal field is located in north-central New Mexico within the western half of the Plio-Pleistocene valles Caldera. Steam and hot water are produced primarily from the northeast-trending Redondo Creek graben, where downhole temperatures exceed 500 F. Stratigraphically the reservoir region can be described as a five-layer sequence that includes (1) caldera fill and the upper units of the Bandelier ash flow tuff, (2) the lower members of this tuff, which comprise the main reservoir rock at Baca, (3) the Pliocene Paliza Canyon volcanics, (4) Tertiary sands and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, and (5) Precambrian granitic basement. Production is controlled by fractures and faults that are ultimately related to activity in the Rio Grande Rift system. Geophysically, the caldera is characterized by a gravity minimum and a resistivity low. A 40-mgal gravity minimum over the caldera is due mostly to the relatively low-density volcanics and sediments that fill the caldera and probably bears no relation to deep-seated magmatic sources. Two-dimensional gravity modeling indicates that the depth to Precambrian basement in Redondo Canyon is probably at least 3 km and may exceed 5 km in eastern parts of the caldera. Telluric and magnetotelluric surveys have shown that the reservoir region is associated with low resistivity and that a deep low-resistivity zone correlates well with the depth of the primary reservoir inferred from well data.

  13. A geological and geophysical appraisal of the Baca geothermal field, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Michael; Vonder Haar, Stephen

    1986-03-01

    The Baca location #1 geothermal field is located in north-central New Mexico within the western half of the Plio-Pleistocene Valles Caldera. Steam and hot water are produced primarily from the northeast-trending Redondo Creek graben, where downhole temperatures exceed 260°C at depths of less than 2 km. Stratigraphically the reservoir region can be described as a five-layer sequence that includes Tertiary and Quaternary volcanic rocks, and Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments overlying Precambrian granitic basement. Production is mainly controlled by fractures and faults that are ultimately related to activity in the Rio Grande Rift system. Geophysically, the caldera is characterized by a gravity minimum and a resistivity low in its western half. A 40-mgal gravity minimum over the caldera is due mostly to the relatively low-density volcanics and sediments that fill the caldera and probably bears no relation to deep-seated magmatic sources. Two-dimensional gravity modeling indicates that the depth to Precambrian basement in Redondo Canyon is probably at least 3 km and may exceed 5 km in eastern parts of the caldera. Telluric and magnetotelluric surveys have shown that the reservoir region is associated with low resistivity and that a deep low-resistivity zone correlates well with the depth of the primary reservoir inferred from well data. Telluric and magnetotelluric data have also identified possible fault zones in the eastern and western sections of the production region that may form boundaries to the Redondo Creek reservoir. These data also suggest that the reservoir region is located at the intersection of lineaments that trend north-south and northeast-southwest. Magnetotelluric results indicate deep low resistivity at the western edge of the caldera which may be associated with deep hot fluids. On the basis of geophysical and well data, we make three estimates of reservoir dimensions. The estimates of the areal extent of the reservoir range from 10 to 30 km 2

  14. Geothermal data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the Valles Caldera - southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1982-05-01

    Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico are presented. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, near San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal and derivative waters (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. The object of the data is to help interpret geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and to provide background data for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  15. Consumer-behavorial analysis of alternate-energy adoption: the case of geothermal energy in New Mexico. Final report, 6/1/80-8/1/81

    SciTech Connect

    McDevitt, P.; Pratt, E.; Michie, D.

    1981-08-01

    The overall objectives of the research described here are the determination of the market penetration prospects of geothermal energy in New Mexico and the identification of the key determinants of geothermal adoption by prospective consumers. The resources considered are intermediate temperature (65/sup 0/C less than or equal to T less than or equal to 150/sup 0/C) hydrothermal resources, and the applications examined are direct (non-electric) uses. In order to achieve the overall research objectives, four specific work tasks were undertaken: the design of a marketing research instrument for investigating prospects for the market penetration of geothermal energy; the implementation of the marketing research instrument through a pilot study of adoption behavior of prospective consumers of geothermal energy in the state of New Mexico; the identification and evaluation of market considerations which will affect the commercialization of direct geothermal applications within the state; and the design of a comprehensive marketing program to maximize the commercialization of geothermal energy in New Mexico.

  16. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  17. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  18. Feasibility study for establishing a centralized geothermal data base for New Mexico. Final report, June 1, 1979-October 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Klimowicz, G.; Martin, N.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to catalog the information available and to make recommendations toward improving its accessibility. Existing computerized and non-computerized data sources are identified at both the state and national level. The content and accessibility of each such data base are investigated, as well as its suitability for aiding geothermal development. A catalog of such information is provided for each of the following data sources: GEOTHERM, WATSORE, STORIT, RPPM, GRID, HISS, EID air quality, and EID water quality. The available computing facilities within the state are evaluated for their appropriateness as a central storage facility for the many data sources. Recommendations are made for the establishment of a centralized geothermal/environmental data base. Included are recommendations for the computing facilities to be used by such a data base. How to obtain access to a given data base is described. This includes whether the data base is accessible from within New Mexico, necessary agreements, and contact persons. A glossary of computer-related terms and a brief description of knowledge-based problem-solving are included. (MHR)

  19. Reservoir processes and fluid origins in the Baca Geothermal System, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdell, Alfred H.; Janik, Cathy J.

    1986-02-01

    At the Baca geothermal field in the Valles caldera, New Mexico, 19 deep wells were drilled in an attempt to develop a 50-MWe (megawatts electric) power plant. The chemical and isotopic compositions of steam and water samples have been used to indicate uniquely the origin of reservoir fluids and natural reservoir processes. Two distinct reservoir fluids exist at Baca. These fluids originate from the same deep, high-temperature (335°C), saline (2500 mg/kg Cl) parent water but have had different histories during upflow. One fluid (from wells 4 and 13) is isotopically light, high in radiogenic noble gases, CO2 and HCO3, and low in Ca. It has a temperature of 290°-295°C and a reservoir chloride near 1900 mg/kg. This fluid resulted from rapid upward flow through 1.1- to 1.4-m.y.-old Bandelier Tuff reservoir rocks after long residence in pre-Bandelier (>7 m.y.) sediments and Precambrian basement rocks and 25% dilution with high-altitude cold groundwater from Redondo Peak. The other water (from wells 15, 19, and 24) moved slowly through the Bandelier Tuff and cooled conductively (with minor steam loss for well 19) from 335°C to 280°-260°C. Apparently, short residence in old basement rocks has left this water with low radiogenic gases. Conductive cooling without mixing has kept the original chloride and relatively heavy isotope composition of the deep water. The recharge to the deep parent water is not well understood but may be from lower elevation precipitation outside the Valles caldera area. Gases are in equilibrium in all-liquid reservoir fluids at near reservoir temperatures, and the concentrations of atmospheric gases are similar to those of air-saturated water, indicating little boiling and steam loss. All water, solutes, and gases in the reservoir fluids originate from air-saturated meteoric recharge water, watermineral reactions, and rock leaching, with the possible exception of excess 3He that must have an ultimate mantle source. This gas could originate

  20. Geologic map of the Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera Geothermal System, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Gardner, J.N.

    1980-12-01

    The geologic and tectonic setting and geology of Sulphur Springs Area are described. Geologic faults, sheared or brecciated rock, volcanic vents, geothermal wells, hydrothermal alteration, springs, thermal springs, fumaroles, and geologic deposits are indicated on the map. (MHR)

  1. Photogeologic and thermal infrared reconnaissance surveys of the Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal area, Michoacan, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, Valle R.; Friedman, J.D.; Gawarecki, S.J.; Banwell, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    New techniques, involving interpretation of panchromatic, ektachrome and ektachrome infrared aerographic photogaphs and thermographic infrared imagery recording emission from the earth's surface in middle and far infrared wavelengths (3-5??m and 8-14??m), are being introduced in geothermal investigations in Mexico to identify outstanding structural and geologic features in a rapid and economical manner. The object of this work is to evaluate the new airborne infrared techniques and equipment as a complement to the data obtained from panchromatic aerial photography. This project is part of the Mexican remote sensing program of natural resources carried out under the auspices of the Comision Nacional del Espacio Exterior and in which the Research Institute (Instituto de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica) is actively participating. The present study was made cooperatively with the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Los Negritos-Ixtlan de los Hervores geothermal fields are located east of Lake Chapala at the intersection of the Sierra Madre occidental and the west-central segment of the neovolcanic axis of Mexico. The two principal zones of hydrothermal activity occur in a tectonic trench filled with lake sediments of the Quaternary intercalated with Quaternary and Holocene volcanic rocks and characterized by an intricate system of block-fault tectonics, part of the Chapala-Acambay tectonic system, along which there has been volcanic activity in modern time. Surface manifestations of geothermal activity consist of relatively high heat flow and hot springs, small geysers and small steam vents aligned along an E-W axis at Ixtlan, possibly at the intersection of major fault trends and mud volcanoes and hot pools aligned NE-SW at Los Negritos. More than 20 exit points of thermal waters are shown on infrared imagery to be aligned along an extension of the Ixtlan fault between Ixtlan and El Salitre. A narrow zone of

  2. Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    The text explores Mexico's history, geography, art, religion, and lifestyles in the context of its complex economy. The text focuses on Mexico's economy and reasons for its current situation. Part I of this teaching unit includes: Teacher Overview, Why Study Mexico, Mexico Fact Sheet, Map of Mexico, the Land and Climate, History, Government,…

  3. Session 10: The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico: The Experiences Gained from Its Exploration and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Cerro Prieto case study demonstrated the value of a multidisciplinary effort for exploring and developing a geothermal field. There was no problem in recognizing the geothermal potential of the Cerro Prieto area because of the many obvious surface manifestations. However, the delineation of the geothermal reservoir at depth was not so straightforward. Wells drilled near the abundant surface manifestations only produced fluids of relatively low enthalpy. Later it was determined that these zones of high heat loss corresponded to discharge areas where faults and fractures allowed thermal fluids to leak to the surface, and not to the main geothermal reservoir. The early gravity and seismic refraction surveys provided important information on the general structure of the area. Unaware of the existence of a higher density zone of hydrothermally altered sediments capping the geothermal reservoir, CFE interpreted a basement horst in the western part of the field and hypothesized that the bounding faults were controlling the upward flow of thermal fluids. Attempting to penetrate the sedimentary column to reach the ''basement horst'', CFE discovered the {alpha} geothermal reservoir (in well M-5). The continuation of the geothermal aquifer (actually the {beta} reservoir) east of the original well field was later confirmed by a deep exploration well (M-53). The experience of Cerro Prieto showed the importance of chemical ratios, and geothermometers in general, in establishing the subsurface temperatures and fluid flow patterns. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have also been helpful to determine the origin of the fluids, fluid-production mechanisms and production induced effects on the reservoir.

  4. Engineering and economic evaluation of direct hot-water geothermal energy applications on the University of New Mexico campus. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1980-12-31

    The potential engineering and economic feasibility of low-temperature geothermal energy applications on the campus of the University of New Mexico is studied in detail. This report includes three phases of work: data acquisition and evaluation, system synthesis, and system refinement and implementation. Detailed process designs are presented for a system using 190/sup 0/F geothermal water to substitute for the use of 135 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/y (141 TJ/y) of fossil fuels to provide space and domestic hot water heating for approximately 23% of the campus. Specific areas covered in the report include economic evaluation, environmental impact and program implementation plans.

  5. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Witcher

    2002-01-02

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State.

  6. Thermal history of the Acoculco geothermal system, eastern Mexico: Insights from numerical modeling and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canet, Carles; Trillaud, Frederic; Prol-Ledesma, Rosa María; González-Hernández, Galia; Peláez, Berenice; Hernández-Cruz, Berenice; Sánchez-Córdova, María M.

    2015-10-01

    Acoculco is a geothermal prospective area hosted by a volcanic caldera complex in the eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Surface manifestations are scarce and consist of gas discharges (CO2-rich) and acid-sulfate springs of low temperature, whereas hydrothermal explosive activity is profusely manifested by meter-scale craters and mounds of hydrothermal debris and breccias. Silicic alteration extends for several square kilometers around the zone with gas manifestations and explosive features, affecting surficial volcanic rocks, primarily tuffs and breccias. In the subsurface, an argillic alteration zone (ammonium illite) extends down to a depth of ∼ 600 m, and underneath it a propylitic zone (epidote-calcite-chlorite) occurs down to ∼ 1000 m. Thermal logs from an exploratory borehole (EAC-1, drilled in 1995 down to 1810 m) showed a conductive heat transfer regime under high geothermal gradient (∼ 140 °C/1000 m). In contrast, the thermal profile established from temperatures of homogenization of fluid inclusions-measured on core samples from the same drill hole-suggests that convection occurred in the past through the upper ~ 1400 m of the geothermal system. A drop in permeability due to the precipitation of alteration minerals would have triggered the cessation of the convective heat transfer regime to give place to a conductive one. With the purpose of determining when the transition of heat transfer regime occurred, we developed a 1D model that simulates the time-depth distribution of temperature. According to our numerical simulations, this transition happened ca. 7000 years ago; this date is very recent compared to the lifespan of the geothermal system. In addition, radiocarbon chronology indicates that the hydrothermal explosive activity postdates the end of the convective heat transfer regime, having dated at least three explosive events, at 4867-5295, 1049-1417 and 543-709 y cal. BP. Therefore, hydrothermal explosions arise from the self-sealing of

  7. Assessment of the geothermal potential of southwestern New Mexico. Final report, July 1, 1978-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Results are reported of geologic mapping of geothermal anomalies in the Gila Hot Springs KGRA/Mimbres Hot Springs area, Grant County. They suggest that both hot-spring occurrences are structurally controlled by the intersection of a major Basin and Range fault and the disturbed margin of an ash-flow tuff cauldron. Hydrothermal alteration in both areas is related to mid-Tertiary volcanism, not to modern hot springs. At Gila Hot Springs, the geothermal aquifer is a zone at the contact between the unwelded top of a major ash-flow tuff sheet (Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff) and a succession of interlayered vesicular basaltic andesite flows and thin sandstone beds (Bearwallow Mountain Formation). Scattered groups of natural hot springs occur at intersections of this zone and the faults bordering the northeastern side of the Gila Hot Springs graben. Hydrothermal alteration of Bloodgood Canyon Rhyolite Tuff near major faults seems to have increased its permeability. At Mimbres Hot Springs, a single group of hot springs is controlled by the intersection of the Mimbres Hot Springs fault and a fractured welded ash-flow tuff that fills the Emory cauldron (Kneeling Nun Tuff). Gila Hot Springs and Mimbres Hot Springs do not seem to be connected by throughgoing faults. At both localities, hot spring water is used locally for space heating and domestic hot water; at Gila Hot Springs, water of 65.6/sup 0/C (150/sup 0/F) is used to generate electricity by means of a 10 kw freon Rankine Cycle engine. This is the first such application in New Mexico.

  8. Structural and sedimentological study of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vonder Haar, S.

    1981-06-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well logs from over fifty wells have been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using both manual and computer interpretation techniques. These logs were studied to make stratigraphic correlations throughout the Cerro Prieto field and to interpret the deltaic depositional environment of the field's lithologic units. Dipmeter and seismic data were of great value in making stratigraphic interpretations and extrapolations. Cross sections were constructed to illustrate lithofacies variations throughout the geothermal field. In turn, these sections were used to construct a three-dimensional model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. Petrographic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction analyses of well-bore cuttings and cores were utilized to determine the degree and distribution of hydrothermal alteration by fluids at temperatures up to 350{sup 0}C, the origins of dissolution porosity, and the relative degree of fracture versus dissolution porosity. The results of these analyses were confirmed by log-derived determinations of formation fluid properties, porosity, and petrophysical properties and by studies of Cerro Prieto cores conducted under in-situ conditions. The results of this research were integrated into the Cerro Prieto reservoir model.

  9. Evaluation of the geothermal resource in the area of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jiracek, G.R.; Swanberg, C.A.; Morgan, P.; Parker, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    Factors indicating a potential geothermal resource near Albuquerque are: (1) nearby volcanoes active as recently as 120,000 years ago, (2) gravity interpretation indicating a potential reservoir averaging 1.5 km thickness, (3) high heat flow near the city, (4) warm waters (>30/sup 0/C) in municipal wells, (5) recent seismicity indicating active faulting, thereby, allowing the possibility of deep hydrothermal circulation, (6) high shallow (<30 m) temperature gradients (>100/sup 0/C/km) discovered in our drillholes, (7) deeper (<500 m) gradients from water wells exceeding 80/sup 0/C/km, and (8) chemical analyses of 88 groundwater samples yielding estimated base reservoir temperatures as high as 190/sup 0/C. An area of elevated shallow temperature gradients (less than or equal to 140/sup 0/C/km) was discovered a few kilometers west of Albuquerque by our 69 hole drilling program. Resistivity, magnetic, and gravity measurements combined with computer modeling suggests that heated ground water is forced closer to the surface here by flow over a buried ridge. A well drilled nearby yielded the highest recorded temperature in the Albuquerque area at its maximum depth (32.8/sup 0/C at 364 m). The deep gradient is 35/sup 0/C/km. An oil test well close by reported large volumes of water at 1 km; therefore, the possibility of a low temperature (>50/sup 0/C) geothermal resource exists west of Albuquerque at less than 1 km depth.

  10. Imaging Faults with Reverse-Time Migration for Geothermal Exploration at Jemez Pueblo in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Albrecht, Michael; Kaufman, Greg; Kelley, Shari; Rehfeldt, Kenneth; Zhang, Zhifu

    2011-01-01

    The fault zones at Jemez Pueblo may dominate the flow paths of hot water, or confine the boundaries of the geothermal reservoir. Therefore, it is crucial to image the geometry of these fault zones for geothermal exploration in the area. We use reverse-time migration with a separation imaging condition to image the faults at Jemez Pueblo. A finite-difference full-wave equation method with a perfectly-matching-layer absorbing boundary condition is used for backward propagation of seismic reflection data from receivers and forward propagation of wavefields from sources. In the imaging region, the wavefields are separated into the upgoing and downgoing waves, and leftgoing and rightgoing waves. The upgoing and downgoing waves are used to obtain the downward-looking image, and the leftgoing and rightgoing waves are used to form the left-looking image and right-looking image from sources. The left-looking and right-looking images are normally weaker than the downward-looking image because the reflections from the fault zones are much weaker than those from sedimentary layers, but these migration results contain the images of the faults. We apply our reverse-time migration with a wavefield separation imaging condition to seismic data acquired at Jemez Pueblo, and our preliminary results reveal many faults in the area.

  11. GRAVIMETRIC STUDY OF THE IXTLAN DE LOS HERVORES, GEOTHERMAL AREA, MIDWESTERN MEXICAN VOLCANIC BELT (MVB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, T.; Ortiz, I.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis and interpretation of gravimetric anomalies over the Occidental-Central Mexican Volcanic Belt, sheds new light on the subsurface structure of the Ixtlan de los Hervores, geothermal area. In Mexico, there are several geothermal areas that have been exploited commercially (Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros, Tres Virgenes fields). However, there are many other known fields that have not been exploited. This is the case in the area of "Ixtlan de los Hervores" in the state of Michoacan. The analyzed region covers a rectangular area, aproximality from 20o N to 20.5° N and 102° W to 102.2°W. In the region there are thick basalt flows. The area is characterized by low and elongated hills formed by volcanic flows and on a smaller scale lacustrian sediments and major normal faults with a NW-SE direction particularly, the Ixtlan-Encinal fault which controls the trace of the Duero River and the Pajacuarán fault. The anomaly map was compared with the surface geology and the anomalies were correlated with major volcanic features, since our main interest was in mapping the subsurface faults and volcanic bodies. Two profiles were selected that cross major anomalies and the geothermal zone of Ixtlan. The Talwani algorithm for 2-D polygonal bodies has been used for calculating the theoretical anomalies. The proposed models adequately explain the main observed geological features. The models are made up of two lithostratigraphic units of volcanic rocks, represented by the Tertiary basalts, which adequately reflect the area's volcanic environment. These basaltic units, corresponding to different volcanic events were cut by the Ixtlan well. Both models reflect the existence of the Ixtlan-Encinal fault, the most important feature in the area which is also responsible for the existence of the geothermal area.

  12. Shallow geothermal investigations into the existence of the Valles Caldera outflow plume near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, north-central, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaz, Robert Ezekiel

    Geothermal research within the Jemez Mountains spans several decades and is documented in many papers. This study serves to extend the research boundary to the south and east outside of Valles caldera and Canon de San Diego, where the main occurrences of geothermal activity are located. The focus of this investigation is to test for a deep ~900 m, stratigraphically-bound thermal aquifer within the Madera Limestone along the western margin of the Santo Domingo basin transition zone near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, in north-central New Mexico. Numerous springs were sampled for aqueous geochemistry to identify leakage of a deeper geothermal aquifer into shallow aquifers. Wells were sampled for temperature anomalies. In addition, two travertine deposits were analyzed for stable isotope composition and one deposit was dated using U-Series techniques to assess the timing and origin of deposition. This study is important because researchers in other extensional basins have identified reasonably good geothermal reservoirs in deep carbonate aquifers that are similar in geologic setting to the Madera Limestone aquifer of this study. The existence of a deep geothermal aquifer near Ponderosa and Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico could prove to be another prospect for geothermal exploration in the Jemez Mountains. Aqueous geochemistry of springs are plotted on ternary Piper diagrams to help classify similar geochemical trends and group these trends into recognizable patterns. These data indicate calcium carbonate rich waters in the north that may gradationally change to alkaline type waters as they flow south through the study area. Contrasting this data, SiO2 and TDS concentrations show two separate systems that may indicate separate confined aquifers. Two distinct TDS regions are observed, one with higher concentrations (>1000 ppm) shows a decrease from N-S and one with lower concentrations (<600 ppm) shows an increase from N-S. The data indicate that the waters can be classified as

  13. Dynamics of a geothermal field traced by noble gases: Cerro Prieto, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazor, E.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1981-01-01

    Noble gases have been measured mass spectrometrically in samples collected during 1977 from producing wells at Cerro Prieto. Positive correlations between concentrations of radiogenic (He, /sup 40/Ar) and atmospheric noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) suggest the following dynamic model: the geothermal fluids originated from meteoric water penetrated to more than 2500 m depth (below the level of first boiling) and mixed with radiogenic helium and argon-40 formed in the aquifer rocks. Subsequently, small amounts of steam were lost by a Raleigh process (0 to 3%) and mixing with shallow cold water occurred (0 to 30%). Noble gases are sensitive tracers of boiling in the initial stages of 0 to 3% steam separation and complement other tracers, such as Cl or temperature, which are effective only beyond this range.

  14. Los Humeros Volcanic Center, Puebla, Mexico: geology, petrology, geothermal system, and geoarchaeology

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriz-Dominguez, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Los Humeros volcanic center located 180 km east of Mexico City, is the surface manifestation of a magma chamber zoned from rhyolitic uppermost levels to andesitic and perhaps basaltic lower levels. Compositional zonation of major and most trace elements seems to have been controlled largely by crystal-liquid equilibria. Partial melting of young crustal lithologies accounts best for volume relations, but must be complemented by fractional crystallization coupled with assimilation to explain compositional and isotopic variations. Systematic trends in Cr, Ni, Rb, and Ba, however, further suggest episodic magma mixing.

  15. Evaluation of the solute geothermometry of thermal springs and drilled wells of La Primavera (Cerritos Colorados) geothermal field, Mexico: A geochemometrics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandarinath, Kailasa; Domínguez-Domínguez, Humberto

    2015-10-01

    A detailed study on the solute geothermometry of thermal water (18 springs and 8 drilled wells) of La Primavera geothermal field (LPGF) in Mexico has been carried out by employing a geochemical database compiled from the literature and by applying all the available solute geothermometers. The performance of these geothermometers in predicting the reservoir temperatures has been evaluated by applying a geochemometrics (geochemical and statistical) method. The springs of the LPGF are of bicarbonate type and the majority have attained partial-equilibrium chemical conditions and the remaining have shown non-equilibrium conditions. In the case of geothermal wells, water is dominantly of chloride-type and, among the studied eight geothermal wells, four have shown full-equilibrium chemical conditions and another four have indicated partial-equilibrium conditions. All springs of HCO3-​ type water have provided unreliable reservoir temperatures, whereas the only one available spring of SO42- type water has provided the reservoir temperature nearer to the average BHT of the wells. Contrary to the general expected behavior, spring water of non-equilibrium and geothermal well water of partial-equilibrium chemical conditions have indicated more reliable reservoir temperatures than those of partially-equilibrated and fully-equilibrated water, respectively. Among the chemical concentration data, Li and SiO2 of two springs, SO42- and Mg of four springs, and HCO3 and Na concentrations of two geothermal wells were identified as outliers and this has been reflected in very low reservoir temperatures predicted by the geothermometers associated with them (Li-Mg, Na-Li, Na-K-Mg, SiO2 etc.). Identification of the outlier data points may be useful in differentiating the chemical characteristics, lithology and the physico-chemical and geological processes at the sample locations of the study area. In general, the solute geothermometry of the spring waters of LPGF indicated a dominantly

  16. Deep Groundwater Circulation within Crystalline Basement Rocks and the Role of Hydrologic Windows in the Formation of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico Low-Temperature Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepin, J.; Person, M. A.; Phillips, F. M.; Kelley, S.; Timmons, S.; Owens, L.; Witcher, J. C.; Gable, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Hot Springs are common in amagmatic settings, but the mechanisms of heating are often obscure. We have investigated the origin of the Truth or Consequences, New Mexico low-temperature (~ 41 °C) hot springs in the southern Rio Grande rift. We tested two mechanisms that could account for the geothermal anomaly. The first scenario is that the anomaly is the result of lateral forced convection associated with a gently-dipping carbonate aquifer. The second scenario is that high permeability of crystalline basement rocks permits circulation of groundwater down to depths of 8 km prior to discharging in Truth or Consequences. To test these hypotheses, we constructed a two-dimensional hydrothermal model of the region using FEMOC. Model parameters were constrained by calibrating to measured temperatures, specific discharge rates and groundwater residence times. We collected 16 temperature profiles, 11 geochemistry samples and 6 carbon-14 samples within the study area. The geothermal waters are Na+/Cl- dominated and have apparent groundwater ages ranging from 5,500 to 11,500 years. Hot Springs geochemistry is consistent with water/rock interaction in a silicate geothermal reservoir, rather than a carbonate system. Peclet-number analysis of temperature profiles suggests specific discharge rates beneath Truth or Consequences range from 2 to 4 m/year. Geothermometry indicates maximum reservoir temperatures are around 167 °C. We were able to reasonably reproduce observed measurements using the permeable-basement scenario (10-12 m2). The carbonate-aquifer scenario failed to match observations. Our findings imply that the Truth or Consequences geothermal system formed as a result of deep groundwater circulation within permeable crystalline basement rocks. Focused geothermal discharge is the result of localized faulting, which has created a hydrologic window through a regional confining unit. In tectonically active areas, deep groundwater circulation within fractured crystalline

  17. New Mexico State University campus geothermal demonstration project: an engineering construction design and economic evaluation. Final technical report, February 25, 1980-April 24, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cunniff, R.A.; Ferguson, E.; Archey, J.

    1981-07-01

    A detailed engineering construction cost estimate and economic evaluation of low temperature geothermal energy application for the New Mexico State University Campus are provided. Included are results from controlled experiments to acquire design data, design calculations and parameters, detailed cost estimates, and a comprehensive cost and benefit analysis. Detailed designs are given for a system using 140 to 145{sup 0}F geothermal water to displace 79 billion Btu per year of natural gas now being burned to generate steam. This savings represents a displacement of 44 to 46 percent of NMSU central plant natural gas consumption, or 32 to 35 percent of total NMSU natural gas consumption. The report forms the basis for the system construction phase with work scheduled to commence in July 1981, and target on-stream data of February 1982.

  18. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Stallard, M. L.; Nehring, N. L.; Truesdell, A. H.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330 degrees C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher delta 13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400 degrees C) and higher (600 degrees C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments.

  19. Hydrothermal flow regime and magmatic heat source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Schiffman, P.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    This detailed three-dimensional model of the natural flow regime of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, before steam production began, is based on patterns of hydrothermal mineral zones and light stable isotopic ratios observed in rock samples from more than 50 deep wells, together with temperature gradients, wireline logs and other data. At the level so far penetrated by drilling, this hydrothermal system was heated by a thermal plume of water close to boiling, inclined at 45/sup 0/, rising from the northeast and discharging to the west. To the east a zone of cold water recharge overlies the inclined thermal plume. Fission track annealing studies show the reservoir reached 170/sup 0/C only 10/sup 4/ years ago. Oxygen isotope exchange data indicate that a 12 km/sup 3/ volume of rock subsequently reacted with three times its volume of water hotter than 200/sup 0/C. Averaged over the duration of the heating event this would require a flow velocity through a typical cross-section of the reservoir of about 6 m/year. The heat in storage in that part of the reservoir hotter than 200/sup 0/C and shallower than 3 km depth is equivalent to that which would be released by the cooling of about 1 or 2 km/sup 3/ of basalt or gabbro magma.

  20. Carbon isotope geochemistry of hydrocarbons in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California Norte, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Des Marais, D.J.; Stallard, M.L.; Nehring, N.L.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrocarbon abundances and stable-isotopic compositions were measured in wells M5, M26, M35 and M102, which represent a range of depths (1270-2000 m) and temperatures (275-330??C) in the field. In order to simulate the production of the geothermal hydrocarbons, gases were collected from the pyrolysis of lignite in the laboratory. This lignite was obtained from a well which sampled rock strata which are identical to those occurring in the field, but which have experienced much lower subsurface temperatures. In both the well and the laboratory observations, high-temperature environments favored higher relative concentrations of methane, ethane and benzene and generally higher ??13C-values in the individual hydrocarbons. The best correlation between the laboratory and well data is obtained when laboratory-produced gases from experiments conducted at lower (400??C) and higher (600??C) temperatures are mixed. This improved correlation suggests that the wells are sampling hydrocarbons produced from a spectrum of depths and temperatures in the sediments. ?? 1988.

  1. Geothermal potential on Kirtland Air Force Base lands, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, P.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    Extensive sampling and geochemical analysis of groundwater in and near the base disclosed no significant geothermal parameters. However, structural conditions and current hydrologic regimes strongly suggest that thermal waters would be masked by near surface, low temperature meteoric water originating as rain and snowfall in the nearby mountains. Controlled source audio-magnetotelluric (CSAMT) electromagnetic techniques, refraction seismic experiments, and gravity traverses were utilized on the base. These, together with published geohysical information that presents evidence for a shallow magma body beneath the Albuquerque Basin; favorable terrestrial heat flow, water chemistry, and shallow temperature gradient holes on the nearby mesa west of the Rio Grande; interpretation of regional gravity data; and geological data from nearby deep wells tend to confirm structural, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions favorable for developing an extensive intermediate to high-temperature hydrothermal regime on portions of Kirtland AFB lands where intensive land use occurs. Two possible exploration and development scenarios are presented. One involves drilling a well to a depth of 3000 to 5000 ft (914 to 1524 m) to test the possibility of encountering higher than normal water temperatures on the basinward side of the faults underlying the travertine deposits. The other is to conduct limited reflection seismograph surveys in defined areas on the base to determine the depth to basement (granite) and thickness of the overyling, unconfined, water filled, relatively unconsolidated sand and gravel aquifer.

  2. Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Mexico was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. In areal extent, Mexico is the third largest country on the continent of North America (not counting Greenland, which is a province of Denmark), comprised of almost 2 million square kilometers (756,000 square miles) of land. Home to roughly 100 million people, Mexico is second only to the United States in population, making it the world's largest Spanish-speaking nation. To the north, Mexico shares its border with the United States-a line that runs some 3,100 kilometers (1,900 miles) east to west. About half of this border is defined by the Rio Grande River, which runs southeast to the Gulf of Mexico (partially obscured by clouds in this image) and marks the dividing line between Texas and Mexico. Toward the upper left (northwest) corner of this image is the Baja California peninsula, which provides the western land boundary for the Gulf of California. Toward the northwestern side of the Mexican mainland, you can see the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains (brownish pixels) running southeast toward Lake Chapala and the city of Guadalajara. About 400 km (250 miles) east and slightly south of Lake Chapala is the capital, Mexico City. Extending northward from Mexico City is the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains, the irregular line of brownish pixels that seem to frame the western edges of the bright white cumulus clouds in this image. Between these two large mountain ranges is a large, relatively dry highland region. To the south, Mexico shares borders with Guatemala and Belize, both of which are located south of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Image courtesy Reto Stockli, Brian Montgomery, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  3. A Brief History With Lessons Learned From The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program At Fenton Hill, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, S.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Rehfeldt, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Important lessons were learned that continue to be relevant today from the world’s first successful demonstration of a Hot Dry Rock (HDR) system for extracting underground geothermal energy conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. This experiment, conducted in hot, low-permeability, low-water context, crystalline basement rock was fundamentally different from the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development currently underway at several sites in the U.S. and world. The HDR concept was developed in 1970’s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Two HDR reservoirs with two wells each were created and tested at the Fenton Hill site. In spite of its proximity to the Valles caldera and the Rio Grande rift, geological information and heat-flow data were used successfully to select the Fenton Hill experimental site within a block of intact crystalline basement rocks. Deep crystalline basement rocks marginal to active fault/recent volcanic centers were good candidates for HDR systems: these rocks had high heat content, and low matrix permeability leading to low water losses. Reconnaissance surveys indicated significant potential HDR geothermal resources through out the USA. Drilling and completion operations in hot crystalline rocks were challenging requiring further R&D. Hydraulic stimulation activities were carried out successfully in deep, hot crystalline rocks. Logging tools and instruments were developed that could operate successfully in the ~250oC environment. Development of techniques and tools for microseismic data monitoring, analysis, and interpretation was found to be enormously valuable. It was found that the systematic process that should be followed in developing HDR reservoirs is to drill and stimulate the first well, use the microseismic data to locate the target zone, and then complete the additional wells. The largest fraction of the flow impedance was found to be near the production well. Combined interpretation of the pressure testing, microseismic

  4. A reconnaissance geochemical study of La Primavera geothermal area, Jalisco, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahood, G.A.; Truesdell, A.H.; Templos, M.L.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Sierra La Primavera, a late Pleistocene rhyolitic caldera complex in Jalisco, Me??xico, contains fumaroles and large-discharge 65??C hot springs that are associated with faults related to caldera collapse and to later magma insurgence. The nearly-neutral, sodium bicarbonate, hot springs occur at low elevations at the margins of the complex, whereas the water-rich fumaroles are high and central. The Comisio??n Federal de Electricidad de Me??xico (CFE) has recently drilled two deep holes at the center of the Sierra (PR-1 and Pr-2) and one deep hole at the western margin. Temperatures as high as 285??C were encountered at 1160 m in PR-1, which produced fluids with 820 to 865 mg/kg chloride after flashing to one atmosphere. Nearby, PR-2 encountered temperatures to 307??C at 2000 m and yielded fluids with chloride contents fluctuating between 1100 and 1560 mg/kg after flashing. Neither of the high-temperature wells produced steam in commercial quantities. The well at the western margin of the Sierra produced fluids similar to those from the hot springs. The temperature reached a maximum of 100??C near the surface and decreased to 80??C at 2000 m. Various geothermometers (quartz conductive, Na/K, Na-K-Ca, ??18O(SO4-H2O) and D/H (steam-water) all yield temperatures of 170 ?? 20??C when applied to the hot spring waters, suggesting that these spring waters flow from a large shallow reservoir at this temperature. Because the hot springs are much less saline than the fluids recovered in PR-1 and PR-2, the mixed fluid in the shallow reservoir can contain no more than 10-20% deep fluid. This requires that most of the heat is transferred by steam. There is probably a thin vapor-dominated zone in the central part of the Sierra, through which steam and gases are transferred to the overlying shallow reservoir. Fluids from this reservoir cool from ???170??C to 65??C by conduction during the 5-7 km of lateral flow to the hot springs. ?? 1983.

  5. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of Mexico is on the following: geography; the people; history; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Mexico. As of July 1987, the population of Mexico numbered 81.9 million with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.09%. 60% of the population is Indian-Spanish (mestizo), 30% American Indian, 9% white, and 1% other. Mexico is the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the 2nd most populous country in Latin America. Education is decentralized and expanded. Mexico's topography ranges from low desert plains and jungle-like coastal strips to high plateaus and rugged mountains. Hernan Cortes conquered Mexico in 1919-21 and founded a Spanish colony that lasted for almost 300 years. Independence from Spain was proclaimed by Father Miguel Hidalgo on September 16, 1810; the republic was established on December 6, 1822. Mexico's constitution of 1917 provides for a federal republic with a separation of powers into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. Significant political themes of the administration of President Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado, who began his 6-year term in 1982, have been restructuring the economy, liberalizing trade practices, decentralizing government services, and eliminating corruption among public servants. In 1987, estimates put the real growth of the Mexican economy at 1.5%; the gross domestic product (GDP) had shrunk by 3.5% in 1986. Yet, on the positive side, Mexico's international reserves increased to record levels in 1987 (to about $15 billion), and its current account surplus reached more than $3 billion. Mexico has made considerable progress in moving to restructure its economy. It has substantially reduced impediments to international trade and has moved to reduce the number of parastatal firms. 1987 was the 2nd consecutive year in which Mexico recorded triple-digit inflation; inflation reached 158.8%. Other problems include

  6. Preliminary assessment of the geologic setting, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Hueco Tanks geothermal area, Texas and New Mexico. Geological Circular 81-1

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.D.; Gluck, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Hueco Tanks geothermal area contains five known but now inactive hot wells (50/sup 0/ to 71/sup 0/C). The area trends north-south along the east side of Tularosa-Hueco Bolson astride the Texas-New Mexico border approximately 40 km northeast of El Paso. Because of its proximity to El Paso, geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area could be a significant resource. Hueco Bolson is an asymmetric graben. Greatest displacement along boundary faults is on the west side adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. Faults, probably with less displacement, also form an irregular boundary on the east side of the bolson. Several probable faults may allow the rise of thermal waters from depth. Ground water in the central part of Hueco Bolson flows southward to the Rio Grande. However, four of the five hot wells occur in a ground-water trough along the eastern margin of the bolson. The trough may be bounded by one of the postulated faults serving as a barrier to ground-water flow. Data on permeability of potential reservoir rocks, including basin fill and fractured bedrock, suggest that they may be sufficiently permeable for development of geothermal water. The concentration of dissolved solids in the geothermal waters varies from 1100 to at least 12,500 mg/L, but most waters show high concentrations. They are Na-Cl-(SO/sub 4/) waters similar in composition to nonthermal waters in basin fill. The composition probably results from contact with evaporite deposits either in basin fill or in Paleozoic bedrock. Shallow reservoirs reach maximum temperatures of about 80/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/C. Available data are too limited to evaluate adequately the resource potential of geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area. A complete exploration program, including geological, hydrological, and geochemical investigation, is recommended.

  7. Preliminary assessment of the geologic setting, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Hueco Tanks geothermal area, Texas and New Mexico. Geological Circular 81-1

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.D.; Gluck, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Hueco Tanks geothermal area contains five known but now inactive hot wells (50/sup 0/ to 71/sup 0/C). The area trends north-south along the east side of Tularosa-Hueco Bolson astride the Texas-New Mexico border approximately 40 km northeast of El Paso. Because of its proximity to El Paso, geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area could be a significant resource. Hueco Bolson is an asymmetric graben. Greatest displacement along boundary faults is on the west side adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. Faults, probably with less displacement, also form an irregular boundary on the east side of the bolson. Several probable faults may allow the rise of thermal waters from depth. Ground water in the central part of Hueco Bolson flows southward to the Rio Grande. However, four of the five hot wells occur in a ground-water trough along the eastern margin of the bolson. The trough may be bounded by one of the postulated faults serving as a barrier to ground-water flow. Data on permeability of potential reservoir rocks, including basin fill and fractured bedrock, suggest that they may be sufficiently permeable for development of geothermal water. The concentration of dissolved solids in the geothermal waters varies from 1100 to at least 12,500 mg/L, but most waters show high concentrations. They are Na-Cl-(SO/sub 4/) waters similar in composition to nonthermal waters in basin fill. The composition probably results from contact with evaporite deposits either in basin fill or in Paleozoic bedrock. Shallow reservoirs reach maximum temperatures of about 80/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/C. Available data are too limited to evaluate adequately the resource potential of geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area.

  8. Prospects for the commercial development of hot dry rock geothermal energy in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.; Goff, F.

    1992-01-01

    A vast store of energy is available to the world in the form of hot dry rock (HDR) which exists almost everywhere beneath the surface of the earth. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed technology to mine the heat from HDR by using techniques developed in the petroleum industry. In practice, an artificial reservoir is created in the hot rock and water is circulated through the reservoir to extract the thermal energy and bring it to the surface. There are virtually no adverse environmental effects from an HDR plant when the system is operated in a closed-loop mode with the process water continually recirculated. An experimental plant at Fenton Hill, NM is now undergoing long-term testing to demonstrate that energy can be obtained from HDR on a sustained basis with operational procedures which are readily adaptable to industry. Significant HDR resources exist in the state of New Mexico. Resources in the Valles Caldera, Zuni Uplift, and Rio Grande Rift have been evaluated in detail. Studies indicate that it should be possible to economically develop high grade HDR resources with technology available today. As advanced concepts for developing and operating HDR systems are investigated, even more widespread utilization of the technology will be commercially feasible.

  9. The Significance of Acid Alteration in the Los Humeros High-Temperature Geothermal Field, Puebla, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Izquierdo, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Humeros geothermal field is a high-enthalpy hydrothermal system with more than 40 drilled deep wells, mostly producing high steam fractions at > 300oC. However, although it has a large resource potential, low permeability and corrosive acid fluids have hampered development so that it currently has an installed electrical generating capacity of only 40 MWe. The widespread production of low pH fluids from the reservoir is inconsistent with the marked absence in the reservoir rocks of hydrothermal minerals typical of acid alteration. Instead the hydrothermal alteration observed is typical of that due to neutral to alkaline pH waters reacting with the volcanic rocks of the production zones. Thus it appears that since the reservoir has recently suffered a marked drop in fluid pressure and is in process of transitioning from being water-dominated to being vapor-dominated. However sparse examples of acid leaching are observed locally at depths of about 2 km in the form of bleached, intensely silicified zones, in low permeability and very hot (>350oC) parts of reservoir. Although these leached rocks retain their primary volcanic and pyroclastic textures, they are altered almost entirely to microcrystalline quartz, with some relict pseudomorphs of plagioclase phenocrysts and traces of earlier-formed hydrothermal chlorite and pyrite. These acid-altered zones are usually only some tens of meters thick and deeper rocks lack such silicification. The acid fluids responsible for their formation could either be magmatic volatiles, or could be formed during production (e.g. reaction of water and salts forming hydrogen chloride by hydrolysis at high temperatures). The very high boron content of the fluids produced by the Los Humeros wells suggests that their ultimate source is most likely magmatic gases. However, these acid gases did not react widely with the rocks. We suggest that the silicified zones are forming locally where colder descending waters are encountering

  10. Arsenic and fluoride in the groundwater of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Armienta, M A; Segovia, N

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and fluoride above Mexican drinking water standards have been detected in aquifers of various areas of Mexico. This contamination has been found to be mainly caused by natural sources. However, the specific processes releasing these toxic elements into groundwater have been determined in a few zones only. Many studies, focused on arsenic-related health effects, have been performed at Comarca Lagunera in northern México. High concentrations of fluoride in water were also found in this area. The origin of the arsenic there is still controversial. Groundwater in active mining areas has been polluted by both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic-rich minerals contaminate the fractured limestone aquifer at Zimapán, Central México. Tailings and deposits smelter-rich fumes polluted the shallow granular aquifer. Arsenic contamination has also been reported in the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining zone, southern Baja California, and Santa María de la Paz, in San Luis Potosí state. Even in the absence of mining activities, hydrogeochemistry and statistical techniques showed that arsenopyrite oxidation may also contaminate water, as in the case of the Independencia aquifer in the Mexican Altiplano. High concentrations of arsenic have also been detected in geothermal areas like Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Acoculco. Prevalence of dental fluorosis was revealed by epidemiological studies in Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosí states. Presence of fluoride in water results from dissolution of acid-volcanic rocks. In Mexico, groundwater supplies most drinking water. Current knowledge and the geology of Mexico indicate the need to include arsenic and fluoride determinations in groundwater on a routine basis, and to develop interdisciplinary studies to assess the contaminant's sources in all enriched areas. PMID:18335171

  11. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1984-09-01

    Although Mexico has serious economic and population growth problems, the country is making progress toward solving both of these problems. Mexico has a population of 77.7 million and a population density of 102 persons/square mile. The country has a birth rate of 32/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The estimated infant mortality rate is 55/1000. The median age of the population is 17.4. Mexico City, with a population of 15 million, is the 3rd largest city in the world, and by 1995, it is expected to be the largest city in the world, with a projected population of 25.2 million. The government vigorously promotes family planning, and the annual population growth rate slowed down from a high of 3.2% in 1970-75 to the current rate of 2.6%. Mexico hopes to achieve replacement level fertility by the year 2000. Other government policies promote income equality, agricultural development, and regional equalization of population growth. In 1982 Mexico's per capita income was US$2270, exports totaled US$21 billion, and imports totaled US$15 billion. By 1976, Mexico's international debt was US$30.2 billion, and inflation was rampant. Recently, the newly elected president, Miguel de la Madrid of the Partido Revolucionario Institutional, obtained a grant of US$39 million from the International Monetary Fund and removed price controls. These efforts should help stabilize Mexico's economy. The country will also need to expand its exports and increase its cultivatable acreage. PMID:12339665

  12. Geothermal activity at continental rift Citala, Western Mexico, where Lake Chapala is emplaced: past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-del Valle, P. F.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Chapala is a tectonic lake developed on a continental rift named Citala (CRC) which belongs to a tectonically active zone in Western Mexico: the so-called Jalisco continental triple junction. Fossil sinter deposit, thermal spring, hydrothermal (hy) petroleum manifestation and hy alteration halo characterized the Lake Chapala basin. On the SE shore, outcrops a carbonate deposit named ``La Calera" (LC) which consists of a carbonate fossil sinter that measures 2 km in E-W direction and 600 m in N-S direction and overlays andesitic rock. With a thickness of approximately 5 m and a roughly horizontal attitude, the LC is characterized by a two-fold structure: when massive, it is colored in yellow brownish and grey and elsewhere it shows a pseudo-brecciated structure and when banded, yellow and dark millimetre alternated bands can be seen. The LC is marked by vuggy porosity and silica (quartz and chalcedony) vein lets. Under microscope a pseudo-micritic texture is observed; vugs coated by iron oxides, are filled with calcite, and/or quartz, chalcedony and clay minerals. Six samples of LC were analysed (LODC-UParis VI) for their stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C): From δ13C{PDB} values we have two sets of data: -8.03 to -8.69 ppm that means a no contribution of organic carbon (oc) and -0.35 to -0.75 ppm meaning an important contribution of oc; from δ18O{PDB} values: -8.5 to -10.27 ppm we deduced a deposit in meteoric water with a temperature deposition higher than the surface. The CRC is characterized also by the presence of hydrothermal petroleum (hp): Inside the Chapala and ˜2 km from SE shore (Los Arcos) there are some small spots made of hp which look like islands (<3-4 m^2) linked to the bottom of the lake which consist of solid bitumen. Thermal springs (ths) occur both inside and outside the lake Chapala: the water in out-shore ths is of carbonate type (69^oC; ˜ 240 mg L-1 [HCO_3]^-; with one exception: the ths at the San Juan Cosalá spa (N shore), which is

  13. Evaluation of geothermal potential of Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1977-May 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Callender, J.F.

    1985-04-01

    A study was made of the geological, geochemical and geophysical characteristics of potential geothermal areas in the Rio Grande rift and Basin and Range province of New Mexico. Both regional and site-specific information is presented. Data was collected by: (1) reconnaissance and detailed geologic mapping, emphasizing Neogene stratigraphy and structure; (2) petrologic studies of Neogene igneous rocks; (3) radiometric age-dating; (4) geochemical surveying, including regional and site-specific water chemistry, stable isotopic analyses of thermal waters, whole-rock and mineral isotopic studies, and whole-rock chemical analyses; and (5) detailed geophysical surveys, using electrical, gravity and magnetic techniques, with electrical resistivity playing a major role. Regional geochemical water studies were conducted for the whole state. Integrated site-specific studies included the Animas Valley, Las Cruces area (Radium Springs and Las Alturas Estates), Truth or Consequences region, the Albuquerque basin, the San Ysidro area, and the Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente region. The Animas Valley and Las Cruces areas have the most significant geothermal potential of the areas studied. The Truth or Consequences and Albuquerque areas need further study. The San Ysidro and Abiquiu-Ojo Caliente regions have less significant geothermal potential. 78 figs., 16 tabs.

  14. Mexico.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The background notes on Mexico provide text and recent statistical information on the geography, population, government, economy, and foreign relations, specifically the North American Free Trade Agreement with US. The 1992 population is estimated at 89 million of which 60% are mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% are American Indian, 9% are Caucasian, and 1% are other. 90% are Roman Catholic. There are 8 years of compulsory education. Infant mortality is 30/1000 live births. Life expectancy for males is 68 years and 76 years for females. The labor force is comprised of 30% in services, 24% in agriculture and fishing, 19% in manufacturing, 13% in commerce, 7% in construction, 4% in transportation and communication, and .4% in mining. There are 31 states and a federal district. Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was $3200 in 1991. Military expenditures were .5% of GDP in 1991. The average inflation rate is 19%. Mexico City with 20 million is the largest urban center in the world. In recent years, the economy has been restructured with market oriented reforms; the result has been a growth of GDP of 3.6% in 1991 from 2% in 1987. Dependence on oil exports has decreased. There has been privatization and deregulation of state-owned companies. Subsidies to inefficient companies have been stopped. Tariff rates were reduced. The financial debt has been reduced and turned into a surplus of .8% in 1992. Mexico's foreign debt has been reduced from its high in 1987 of $107 billion. Agricultural reforms have been ongoing for 50 years. Land was redistributed, but standards of living and productivity have improved only slightly. Rural land tenure regulations have been changed, and other economic reforms are expected. Mexico engages in ad hoc international groups and is selective about membership in international organizations. PMID:12178052

  15. An integrated multidisciplinary re-evaluation of the geothermal system at Valles Caldera, New Mexico, using an immersive three-dimensional (3D) visualization environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A.; Bennett, S. E.; Wildgoose, M.; Cantwell, C.; Elliott, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    We describe an approach to explore the spatial relationships of a geothermal resource by examining diverse geological, geophysical, and geochemical data sets using the immersive 3-dimensional (3D) visualization capabilities of the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES). The KeckCAVES is a facility where stereoscopic images are projected onto four, surfaces (three walls and a floor), which the user perceives as a seamless 3D image of the data. The user can manipulate and interact with the data, allowing a more intuitive interpretation of data set relationships than is possible with traditional 2-dimensional techniques. We incorporate multiple data sets of the geothermal system at Valles Caldera, New Mexico: topography, lithology, faults, temperature, alteration mineralogy, and magnetotellurics. With the ability to rapidly and intuitively observe data relationships, we are able to efficiently and rapidly draw conclusions about the subsurface architecture of the Valles Caldera geothermal system. We identify two high-temperature anomalies, one that corresponds with normal faults along the western caldera ring fracture, and one that with the resurgent dome. A cold-temperature anomaly identified adjacent to the resurgent dome high-temperature anomaly appears to relate to a fault controlled graben valley that acts as a recharge zone, likely funneling cold meteoric water into the subsurface along normal faults observed on published maps and cross sections. These high-temperature anomalies broadly correspond to subsurface regions where previous magnetotelluric studies have identified low apparent resistivity. Existing hot springs in the Sulfur Springs area correspond to the only location where our modeled 100°C isotherm intersects the ground surface. Correlation between the first occurrence of key alteration minerals (pyrite, chlorite, epidote) in previously drilled boreholes and our temperature model vary, with chlorite showing a

  16. Geothermal test-well drilling program for the Village of Jemez Springs, New Mexico. Final technical report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Armenta, E.; Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.H.

    1981-09-01

    The geothermal resources located during test drilling at Jemez Springs, New Mexico are described and the feasibility of utilizing this low-temperature resource for a space heating demonstration project at the Town Hall and Fire Department Building is discussed. A test well was drilled to a depth of 824 feet that penetrated water-producing zones at 80 feet with a water temperature of approximately 150 to 155/sup 0/F and at 500 feet with waters of approximately 120 to 125/sup 0/F. After a number of repairs to the Jemez Springs Well Number 1, the project was ended having completed a well capable of producing a flow of approximately 20 gpm at 150 to 155/sup 0/F. A follow-up demonstration heating project is planned.

  17. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  18. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document is a Progress and Development Update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor. It contains brief descriptions of progress made on varying projects involving the use of geothermal resources or research about geothermal systems. This article describes the following projects: Conversion of waste water to geothermal energy in Northern California, Hydrogen sulfide study in Hawaii, a new program at the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Mexico, geothermal heating of a Nevadan school, development of a geothermal fluid standard, and the broadcasting of geothermal teleconferences.

  19. Geothermal: Energy for development - The World Bank and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsmeier, W.

    1986-01-01

    The World Bank views geothermal energy as one of a variety of natural resources which can be developed to supply the energy needs of a country. Since the World Bank Group finances projects in developing countries. This paper discusses geothermal energy only in that context. Geothermal power is generated in nine developing countries today, which represent nearly 40% of worldwide geothermal generating capacity. The World Bank has helped finance geothermal investments in six of these countries-the Phillippines, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Kenya.

  20. Orientation of minimum principal stress in the hot dry rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The stress field at the source of microearthquakes in the interior of the hot dry rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill appears to be different to the far field stress outside the reservoir. The stress field seems to be re-oriented prior to failure, during the course of processes that inflate the reservoir. The state of stress, both inside and outside, the hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, is important in predicting the course of stress-dependent processes, and in transferring HDR technology developed at Fenton Hill, to sites, such as at Clearlake in California, where the stress field is expected to be substantially different. The state of stress at Fenton Hill is not well known because of limitations in stress measuring technology. It is necessary to use a variety of indirect methods and seek an estimate of the stress. 5 refs.

  1. Hydrothermal alteration of sediments associated with surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja, California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, J.N.; Esquer-Patino, I.; Elders, W.A.; Collier, P.C.; Hoagland, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Surface emissions from the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir are restricted to a 100 km/sup 2/ area on the western side of the field, near the volcano Cerro Prieto and the lake Laguna Vulcano. Some 57 surface emissions, explored in 1979, were classified into hot springs, mud pots, pools, fumaroles and geysers (Valette and Esquer-Patino, 1979). A study of the mineralogical changes associated with these hydrothermal vents was initiated with the aim of developing possible exploration tools for geothermal resources. The Cerro Prieto reservoir has already been explored by extensive deep drilling so that relationships between surface manifestations and deeper hydrothermal processes could be established directly. Approximately 120 samples of surface sediments were collected both inside and outside of the vents. The mineralogy of the altered sediments studied appears to be controlled by the type of emission. A comparison between the changes in mineralogy due to low temperature hydrothermal activity in the reservoir, seen in samples from boreholes, and mineralogical changes in the surface emission samples shows similar general trends below 180/sup 0/C: increase of quartz, feldspar and illite, with subsequent disappearance of kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite and dolomite. These mineral assemblages seem to be characteristics of the discharge from high intensity geothermal fields.

  2. Receiver Function Analyses of Uturuncu Volcano, Bolivia and Lastarria/Cordon Del Azufre Volcanoes, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcfarlin, H. L.; Christensen, D. H.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.; Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Uturuncu Volcano and a zone between Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre Volcanoes (also calledLazufre), have seen much attention lately because of significant and rapid inflation of one to twocentimeters per year over large areas. Uturuncu is located near the Bolivian-Chilean border, andLazufre is located near the Chilean-Argentine border. The PLUTONS Project deployed 28broadband seismic stations around Uturuncu Volcano, from April 2009 to Octobor 2012, and alsodeployed 9 stations around Lastarria and Cordon del Azufre volcanoes, from November, 2011 toApril 2013. Teleseismic receiver functions were generated using the time-domain iterativedeconvolution algorithm of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for each volcanic area. These receiverfunctions were used to better constrain the depths of magma bodies under Uturuncu and Lazufre,as well as the ultra low velocity layer within the Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB). Thelow velocity zone under Uturuncu is shown to have a top around 10 km depth b.s.l and isgenerally around 20 km thick with regional variations. Tomographic inversion shows a well resolved,near vertical, high Vp/Vs anomaly directly beneath Uturuncu that correlates well with adisruption in the receiver function results; which is inferred to be a magmatic intrusion causing alocal thickening of the APMB. Preliminary results at Lazufre show the top of a low velocityzone around 5-10 km b.s.l with a thickness of 15-30 km.

  3. Geothermal development in the Pacific rim. Transactions, Volume 20

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This document entitled Geothermal Development in the Pacific Rim contains the Transactions, Volume 20 of the Geothermal Resources Council, 1996 Annual Meeting. Topics of the presentations include: Air quality assessment and mitigation, District heating and other direct-uses of geothermal energy, Environmental permitting in the Pacific Rim, Geothermal exploration strategies, tools and techniques, and Focus of IEA Geothermal programs. Geothermal resources and resource development in the USA, Indonesia, Mexico, Japan, and the Philippines are highlighted. Also included is a section on Geothermal power plant design, construction, and operation, and Geothermal reservoir assessment, the key to international financing.

  4. Geology and geothermal waters of Lightning Dock region, Animas Valley and Pyramid Mountains, Hidalgo County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elston, W.E.; Deal, E.G.; Logsdon, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    This circular covers the geology of the Pyramid Peak, Swallow Fork Peak, Table Top Mountain, and South Pyramid Peak 7-1/2-min quadrangles, which include the Lightning Dock KGRA. Hot wells (70 to 115.5/sup 0/C) seem to be structurally controlled by intersections of the ring-fracture zone of an Oligocene ash-flow tuff cauldron (Muir cauldron), a Miocene-to-Holocene north-trending basin-and-range fault (Animas Valley fault), and a northeast-trending lineament that appears to control anomalously heated underground waters and Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt cones in the San Bernardino, San Simon, and Animas Valleys. The Muir cauldron, approximately 20 km in diameter, collapsed in two stages, each associated with the eruption of a rhyolite ash-flow-tuff sheet and of ring-fracture domes. Most of the hydrothermal alteration of the Lightning Dock KGRA is related to the first stage of eruption and collapse, not to the modern geothermal system. Contrary to previous reports, no silicic volcanic rocks younger than basin-and-range faulting are known; unconformities beneath rhyolite ring-fracture domes are caused by Oligocene caldera collapse, not by basin-and-range faulting. The Animas Valley is the site of widespread post-20 My travertine deposits and near-surface veins of calcite, fluorite, and/or psilomelane, controlled by north- or northwest-trending basin-and-range faults. The fluoride-bearing waters of the Lightning Dock KGRA may be a late stage of this hydrothermal activity. Distribution of Pliocene-Pleistocene basalt suggests that deep-seated basalt near the solids may be the ultimate heat source.

  5. Hydrothermal-flow regime and magmatic heat source of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Bird, D.K.; Williams, A.E.; Schiffman, P.

    1982-01-01

    This detailed three-dimensional model of the natural flow regime of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, before steam production began, is based on patterns of hydrothermal mineral zones and light stable isotopic ratios observed in rock samples from more than fifty deep wells, together with temperature gradients, wireline logs and other data. At the level so far penetrated by drilling, this hydrothermal system was heated by a thermal plume of water close to boiling, inclined at 45/sup 0/, rising from the northeast and discharging to the west. To the east a zone of cold water recharge overlies the inclined thermal plume. Fission track annealing studies shows that the reservoir reached 170/sup 0/C only 10/sup 4/ years ago. Oxygen isotope exchange data indicate that a 12 km/sup 3/ volume of rock subsequently reacted with three times its volume of water hotter than 200/sup 0/C. Averaged over the duration of the heating event this would require a flow velocity of about 6 m/year through the pores of a typical cross section of the reservoir having an average porosity of 10%. Although this is an extensional tectonic environment of leaky transform faulting in which repeated intrusions of basalt magma are likely, for simplicity of computation possible heat sources were modelled as simple two dimensional basalt intrusions of various sizes, shapes and locations. We have calculated a series of two-dimensional convective heat transfer models, with different heat sources and permeability distributions. The models which produce the best fit for the temperature distributions observed in the field today have in common a heat source which is a funnel-shaped basalt intrusion, 4 km wide at the top, emplaced at a depth of 5 km to 6 km about 40,000 to 50,000 years ago.

  6. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  7. Comprehensive planning for the development of geothermal energy in Las Cruces and Dona Ana County, New Mexico. Final report, January 1-December 3, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, A.H.; Gebhard, T.G.

    1981-03-01

    The key commercialization projects components are described: creation of a charter, a policy committee, use of technical expertise, the staff role and the formed adoption of policy recommendations, and their interrelationships. A technical state-of-the-art report for geothermal resources in Dona Ana County is presented including a geothermal evaluation and an environmental impact assessment. (MHR)

  8. Mapping the edge of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field, New Mexico: a piece of the puzzle to understanding a potential geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, L.; Gallegos, M.; Goebel, M.; Murphy, B. S.; Smith, J.; Soto, D.; Swiatlowski, J.; Volk, C.; Welch, M.; Feucht, D. W.; Hollingshaus, B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; McPhee, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Cerros del Rio volcanic field located west of Santa Fe, New Mexico spans the southwestern part of the Espanola Basin with the Rio Grande to the west. Underlying the volcanics are the Santa Fe Group sediments, which contain the Ancha Formation, an important aquifer in the region. High temperature gradients in water wells reveal a potential geothermal prospect. In 2012 the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program acquired transient electromagnetic (TEM), audiomagnetotelluric (AMT), gravity and ground magnetic data to determine the buried eastern margin of the volcanic field and the connectivity related to the underlying sediments. The roughly EW 5-km long transect was sited from USGS aeromagnetic data to cross the boundary of the Cerros del Rio volcanic field. TEM data collected at ten stations, at 200-400 m spacing, along the transect employed an in-loop configuration with a square 100 m x 100 m transmitter loop and both a Zonge receiver coil and a 5 m square receiver loop. The 5 m loop allowed for the recovery of early-time data that was saturated when using the Zonge coil. AMT data were acquired at eight stations, at 400-500 m spacing, using the Geometric Stratagem system recording from 92 kHz to 10 Hz; a horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter was used to augment low signal strength at around 1 kHz. Gravity data along the profile were acquired using CG-3 and CG-5 Scintrex gravimeters with a station interval >250 m. Magnetic data were acquired with a Geometrics Cesium vapor G-858 magnetometer for about 3500 m along the profile at a 0.5 second sampling rate. Two volcanic flows interbedded with Ancha Formation and overlying Santa Fe Group sediments were identified in both the TEM and AMT modeling. High surface resistivity zones (>300 ohm-m) with depths ranging from ~100 to 300 m define the volcanic flows and correspond to high densities (2.3 to 2.55 g/cm3), while low resistivity zones (<30 ohm-m) correspond to lower densities (~2.1 g/cm3). High

  9. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvado, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included.

  10. Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

  11. Numerical models for the evaluation of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1986-08-01

    We have carried out detailed simulations of various fields in the USA (Bada, New Mexico; Heber, California); Mexico (Cerro Prieto); Iceland (Krafla); and Kenya (Olkaria). These simulation studies have illustrated the usefulness of numerical models for the overall evaluation of geothermal systems. The methodology for modeling the behavior of geothermal systems, different approaches to geothermal reservoir modeling and how they can be applied in comprehensive evaluation work are discussed.

  12. 76 FR 38648 - Availability of the Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Report and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ...The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Geothermal Technologies Program (the Program) assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel (the Panel) on March 22/23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report......

  13. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  14. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  15. Geothermal Energy Summary

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Renner

    2007-08-01

    Following is complete draft.Geothermal Summary for AAPG Explorer J. L. Renner, Idaho National Laboratory Geothermal energy is used to produce electricity in 24 countries. The United States has the largest capacity (2,544 MWe) followed by Philippines (1,931 MWe), Mexico (953 MWe), Indonesia (797 MWe), and Italy (791 MWe) (Bertani, 2005). When Chevron Corporation purchased Unocal Corporation they became the leading producer of geothermal energy worldwide with projects in Indonesia and the Philippines. The U. S. geothermal industry is booming thanks to increasing energy prices, renewable portfolio standards, and a production tax credit. California (2,244 MWe) is the leading producer, followed by Nevada (243 MWe), Utah (26 MWe) and Hawaii (30 MWe) and Alaska (0.4 MWe) (Bertani, 2005). Alaska joined the producing states with two 0.4 KWe power plants placed on line at Chena Hot Springs during 2006. The plant uses 30 liters per second of 75°C water from shallow wells. Power production is assisted by the availability of gravity fed, 7°C cooling water (http://www.yourownpower.com/) A 13 MWe binary power plant is expected to begin production in the fall of 2007 at Raft River in southeastern Idaho. Idaho also is a leader in direct use of geothermal energy with the state capital building and several other state and Boise City buildings as well as commercial and residential space heated using fluids from several, interconnected geothermal systems. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 modified leasing provisions and royalty rates for both geothermal electrical production and direct use. Pursuant to the legislation the Bureau of Land management and Minerals Management Service published final regulations for continued geothermal leasing, operations and royalty collection in the Federal Register (Vol. 72, No. 84 Wednesday May 2, 2007, BLM p. 24358-24446, MMS p. 24448-24469). Existing U. S. plants focus on high-grade geothermal systems located in the west. However, interest in non

  16. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  17. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  18. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  19. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  20. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  1. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  2. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  3. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  5. Land subsidence in the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, 1 Baja California, Mexico, from 1994 to 2005. An integrated analysis of DInSAR, levelingand geological data.

    SciTech Connect

    Sarychikhina, O; Glowacka, E; Mellors, R; Vidal, F S

    2011-03-03

    Cerro Prieto is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field. The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. In this paper, the technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) is applied using C-band ENVISAR ASAR data acquired between 2003 and 2006 to determine the extent and amount of land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The DInSAR results were compared with published data from precise leveling surveys (1994- 1997 and 1997-2006) and detailed geological information in order to improve the understanding of temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic subsidence in the Mexicali Valley. The leveling and DInSAR data were modeled to characterize the observed deformation in terms of fluid extraction. The results confirm that the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. These faults likely act as groundwater flow barriers for aquifers and reservoirs. The shape of the subsiding area coincides with the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. In addition, the spatial pattern of the subsidence as well as changes in rate are highly correlated with the development of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field.

  6. Advanced geothermal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Murphy, H.D.; Hanold, R.J.; Myers, C.W.; Dunn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the US Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was producing 10 MW thermal - and still climbing - proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction has been demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive. Noteworthy among these technological advances are techniques in computer simulation of geothermal reservoirs, new means for well stimulation, new high-temperature logging tools and packers, new hard-rock penetration techniques, and new methods for mapping fracture flow paths across large underground areas in reservoirs. In addition, many of these same technological advances can be applied by the petroleum industry to help lower production costs in domestic oil and gas fields. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Symposium in the field of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Miguel; Mock, John E.

    1989-04-01

    Mexico and the US are nations with abundant sources of geothermal energy, and both countries have progressed rapidly in developing their more accessible resources. For example, Mexico has developed over 600 MWe at Cerro Prieto, while US developers have brought in over 2000 MWe at the Geysers. These successes, however, are only a prologue to an exciting future. All forms of energy face technical and economic barriers that must be overcome if the resources are to play a significant role in satisfying national energy needs. Geothermal energy--except for the very highest grade resources--face a number of barriers, which must be surmounted through research and development. Sharing a common interest in solving the problems that impede the rapid utilization of geothermal energy, Mexico and the US agreed to exchange information and participate in joint research. An excellent example of this close and continuing collaboration is the geothermal research program conducted under the auspices of the 3-year agreement signed on April 7, 1986 by the US DOE and the Mexican Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The major objectives of this bilateral agreement are: (1) to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary and fractured igneous rocks; (2) to investigate how the geothermal resources of both nations can best be explored and utilized; and (3) to exchange information on geothermal topics of mutual interest.

  8. Development of a Plan to Implement Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) in the Animas Valley, New Mexico - Final Report - 07/26/2000 - 02/01/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Schochet, Daniel N.; Cunniff, Roy A.

    2001-02-01

    The concept of producing energy from hot dry rock (HDR), originally proposed in 1971 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, contemplated the generation of electric power by injecting water into artificially created fractures in subsurface rock formations with high heat flow. Recognizing the inherent difficulties associated with HDR, the concept of Enhanced Geothermal Systems was proposed. This embraces the idea that the amount of permeability and fluid in geothermal resources varies across a spectrum, with HDR at one end, and conventional hydrothermal systems at the other. This report provides a concept for development of a ''Combined Technologies Project'' with construction and operation of a 6 MW (net) binary-cycle geothermal power plant that uses both the intermediate-depth hydrothermal system at 1,200 to 3,300 feet and a deeper EGS capable system at 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Two production/injection well pairs will be drilled, one couplet for the hydrothermal system, and one for the E GS system. High-pressure injection may be required to drive fluid through the EGS reservoir from the injection to the production well.

  9. Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research. Fourth annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.

    1984-09-01

    Reservoir definition research consisted of well test analysis and bench-scale experiments. Well testing included both single-well pressure drawdown and buildup testing, and multiple-well interference testing. The development of new well testing methods continued to receive major emphasis during the year. Work included a project on multiphase compressibility, including the thermal content of the rock. Several projects on double-porosity systems were completed, and work was done on relative-permeability. Heat extraction from rock will determine the long-term response of geothermal reservoirs to development. The work in this task area involved a combination of physical and mathematical modeling of heat extraction from fractured geothermal reservoirs. International cooperative research dealt with adsorption of water on reservoir cores, the planning of tracer surveys, and an injection and tracer test in the Los Azufres fields. 32 refs.

  10. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  11. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  12. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource assessment program, Fiscal Year 1979. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N.

    1980-10-01

    The results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 June 1980 are summarized. The results of the efforts to extend the inventory of geothermal energy resources in New Mexico to low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications are given. These efforts focused on compiling basic geothermal data and new hydrology and temperature gradient data throughout New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and for preparation of New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources maps. The results of geothermal reservoir confirmation studies are presented. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  14. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  15. Analysis of production decline in geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zais, Elliot J.; Bodvarsson, Gunnar

    1980-09-01

    The major objectives of the Decline Curve project were to: (1) test the decline analysis methods used in the petroleum industry on geothermal production data; (2) examine and/or develop new analysis methods; and (3) develop a standard operating procedure for analyzing geothermal production data. Various analysis methods have long been available but they have not been tested on geothermal data because of the lack of publicly available data. The recent release to publication of substantial data sets from Wairakei, New Zealand, Cerro Prieto, Mexico and The Geysers, USA has made this study possible. Geothermal reservoirs are quite different from petroleum reservoirs in many ways so the analysis methods must be tested using geothermal data.

  16. Spatio-temporal evolution of anthropogenic deformation around Cerro Prieto geothermal field in the Mexicali Valley, B.C., Mexico, between 1993 and 2009 from DInSAR and leveling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarychikhina, Olga; Glowacka, Ewa; Robles, Braulio; Mojarro, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is an environmental hazard which could be caused by withdrawal of large amounts of fluid from beneath the earth's surface. Land subsidence is an issue in several geothermal fields worldwide (e.g., Geysers, USA (Mossop and Segall, 1997), Wairakei-Tauhara, New Zealand (Allis et al., 2009)). Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF), located in the Mexicali Valley, northwest Mexico, is the oldest and largest Mexican geothermal field in operation and has been producing electricity since 1973. The large amount of geothermal fluids extracted to supply steam to the power plants has resulted in considerable deformation in and around the field (e.g. Glowacka et al., 1996, 1999; Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). The deformation includes land subsidence and related ground fissuring and faulting. These phenomena have produced severe damages to the local infrastructure such as roads, irrigation canals and other facilities. Detection of land subsidence and monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of its pattern and magnitude can provide important information about the dynamics of this process and controlling geological structures. The technique of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) has been demonstrated to be a very effective technique for measuring ground deformation. This study presents an application of DInSAR interferogram stacking technique to investigate the land subsidence in the Mexicali Valley near CPGF. C-band ENVISAR ASAR images acquired between 2003 and 2009 from the ascending (track 306, frame 639) and descending track (track 84, frame 2961), obtained from the European Space Agency (ESA), as part of ESA CAT-1 project (ID - C1P3508), were used. Gamma ISP and DIFF/GEO software packages were used to calculate differential interferograms from SLC data and for differential interferograms stacking (Wegmüller and Werner, 1997). Eight average annual deformation rate maps were generated for 2005 (descending

  17. Gas geochemistry of the Valles caldera region, New Mexico and comparisons with gases at Yellowstone, Long Valley and other geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Noncondensible gases from hot springs, fumaroles, and deep wells within the Valles caldera geothermal system (210-300??C) consist of roughly 98.5 mo1% CO2, 0.5 mol% H2S, and 1 mol% other components. 3He/4He ratios indicate a deep magmatic source (R/Ra up to 6) whereas ??13C-CO2 values (-3 to -5???) do not discriminate between a mantle/magmatic source and a source from subjacent, hydrothermally altered Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Regional gases from sites within a 50-km radius beyond Valles caldera are relatively enriched in CO2 and He, but depleted in H2S compared to Valles gases. Regional gases have R/Ra values ???1.2 due to more interaction with the crust and/or less contribution from the mantle. Carbon sources for regional CO2 are varied. During 1982-1998, repeat analyses of gases from intracaldera sites at Sulphur Springs showed relatively constant CH4, H2, and H2S contents. The only exception was gas from Footbath Spring (1987-1993), which experienced increases in these three components during drilling and testing of scientific wells VC-2a and VC-2b. Present-day Valles gases contain substantially less N2 than fluid inclusion gases trapped in deep, early-stage, post-caldera vein minerals. This suggests that the long-lived Valles hydrothermal system (ca. 1 Myr) has depleted subsurface Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of nitrogen. When compared with gases from many other geothermal systems, Valles caldera gases are relatively enriched in He but depleted in CH4, N2 and Ar. In this respect, Valles gases resemble end-member hydrothermal and magmatic gases discharged at hot spots (Galapagos, Kilauea, and Yellowstone). Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. State-coupled low temperature geothermal resource assessment program, fiscal year 1982. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, Larry

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from June 15, 1981 through September 30, 1983, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contract DE-AS07-78ID01717). The report is divided into four chapters which correspond to the tasks delineated in the contract. Chapter 5 is a brief summary of the tasks performed under this contract during the period October 1, 1978, through June 30, 1983. This work extends the knowledge of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications in New Mexico. The research effort focused on compiling basic geothermal data throughout selected areas in New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for use with New Mexico geothermal resources maps.

  19. Stress control of seismicity patterns observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill hot dry rock geothermal energy site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Fehler, M.C.

    1987-04-13

    Seismicity accompanying hydraulic injections into granitic rock is often diffuse rather than falling along a single plane. This diffuse zone of seismicity cannot be attributed to systematic errors in locations of the events. It has often been asserted that seismicity occurs along preexisting joints in the rock that are favorably aligned with the stress field so that slip can occur along them when effective stress is reduced by increasing pore fluid pressure. A new scheme for determining orientations and locations of planes along which the microearthquakes occurred was recently developed. The basic assumption of the method, called the three point method, is that many of the events fall along well defined planes; these planes are often difficult to identify visually in the data because planes of many orientations are present. The method has been applied to four hydraulic fracturing experiments conducted at Fenton Hill as part of a hot dry rock geothermal energy project. While multiple planes are found for each experiment; one plane is common to all experiments. The ratio of shear to normal stress along planes of all orientations is calculated using a best estimate of the current stress state at Fenton Hill. The plane common to all experiments has the highest ratio of shear to normal stress acting along it, so it is the plane most likely to slip. The other planes found by the three point method all have orientations with respect to current principal stresses that are favorable for slip to occur along preexisting planes of weakness. These results are consistent with the assertion that the rock contains pre-existing joints which slip when the effective stress is reduced by the increased pore fluid pressure accompanying the hydraulic injection. Microearthquakes occur along those planes that are favorably aligned with respect to the current stress field.

  20. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N.

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  1. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  2. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  3. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  4. Circum-Pacific geothermal energy use in 1990

    SciTech Connect

    D'Olier, W.L.

    1990-06-01

    Geothermal energy utilization in Pacific Ocean nations is conveniently measured by installed electrical generating capacity in gross megawatts (MW). Better perception of comparative achievements and outlook in 1990 is obtained by separately considering California's large Geysers installation of 2,044 MW. On this basis, the US, Mexico, El Salvador, and Nicaragua have approximately 1,630 MW of geothermal electric power established. In the western Pacific, the Philippines, New Zealand, Japan, and Indonesia have approximately 1,470 MW of power generation. Geothermal energy now provides about 3% of the electric power supply in California and Mexico and 8% in the Philippines. The 1990s will see continued growth of geothermal electric power especially in the Philippines and Mexico, which are pushing beyond existing capacities of 890 and 700 MW, respectively. Costa Rica has substantial initial geothermal power capacity under construction. In California a development surge closed the 1980 decade with 240 MW of new capacity at Coso Hot Springs and 242 MW of additional capacity in Imperial Valley. The US geothermal industry is now contending with a constrained power market and negative impacts of overdevelopment at The Geysers. However, several US geothermal companies now qualified in integrated resource development, electrical generation, and marketing are advantageously positioned for the next opening in the power market. Where sound production, injection, and reservoir management are practiced, geothermal reservoirs are supporting reliable, high performance electric power generation. New technologies are further reducing geothermal's low environmental profile, particularly minimizing emissions to atmosphere. Geothermal energy utilization should continue its steady growth in the Circum-Pacific during the 1990 decade.

  5. Mexico Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico     View Larger Image ... southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  6. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  7. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-01-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    SciTech Connect

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  9. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  10. ENERGY FROM THE WEST: ENERGY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS REPORT. VOLUME VI: GEOTHERMAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the technologies likely to be used for development of geothermal resources in eight western states (Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming). It provides information on input materials and labor requirements, out...

  11. New Mexico GPW Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    N e w M e x i c o New Mexico holds considerable reserves of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped. New Mexico has more acres of geothermally heated greenhouses than any other state, and aquaculture, or fish farming, is a burgeoning enterprise for state residents. Several electric power generation opportunities also have been identified. G e o t h e r m a l ? W h y Homegrown Energy It's here, right beneath our feet! No need to import! Current Development New Mex

  12. Geothermal in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-10-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii.

  13. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  14. Geothermal Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the renewed market interest in using geothermal for power generation including a concise look at what's driving interest in geothermal power generation, the current status of geothermal power generation, and plans for the future. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of geothermal power generation including its history, the current market environment, and its future prospects; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving renewed interest in geothermal power generation; an analysis of the challenges that are hindering the implementation of geothermal power generation projects; a description of geothermal power generation technologies; a review of the economic drivers of geothermal power generation project success; profiles of the major geothermal power producing countries; and, profiles of the major geothermal power project developers.

  15. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  16. Critiquing ';pore connectivity' as basis for in situ flow in geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenedi, C. L.; Leary, P.; Malin, P.

    2013-12-01

    indications that geothermal system flow essentially obeys the same ';universal' in situ flow rules as does clastic rock: Well-log data from Los Azufres, MX, show power-law scaling S(k) ~ 1/k^β, 1.2 < β < 1.4, for spatial frequency range 2cycles/km to 0.5cycle/m; higher β-values are likely due to the relatively fresh nature of geothermal systems; Well-core at Bulalo (PH) and Ohaaki (NZ) show statistically significant spatial correlation, δφ ~ δlog(κ) Well productivity at Ohaaki/Ngawha (NZ) and in geothermal systems elsewhere are lognormally distributed; K/Th/U abundances lognormally distributed in Los Azufres well-logs We therefore caution that small-scale evidence for in situ flow fabric in geothermal systems that is interpreted in terms of ';pore connectivity' may in fact not reflect how small-scale chemical processes are integrated into a large-scale geothermal flow structure. Rather such small scale studies should (perhaps) be considered in term of the above flow rules. These flow rules are easily incorporated into standard flow simulation codes, in particular the OPM = Open Porous Media open-source industry-standard flow code. Geochemical transport data relevant to geothermal systems can thus be expected to be well modeled by OPM or equivalent (e.g., INL/LANL) codes.

  17. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  18. Microbial and Chemical Characterization of Geothermal Ground Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Kennedy, John

    Subsurface geothermal sites are commonly colonized by chemolithotrophic bacteria which use rock minerals and CO_2 as sole nutrients. This type of ``life cradle'' may not only be common on Earth but may also be a likely scenario on many other planets. Three geothermal sites in southern New Mexico have been chosen to characterize geothermal waters for microbial diversity and chemical content. All sites of this on-going study are located on or near the Rio Grande Rift and are tapped into fractured reservoir systems of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Tertiary volcanic rocks or consolidated basin-fill sediments. Geothermal fluids were analyzed for major cations and anions, selected trace elements, TOC, phosphate, fluoride and dissolved gases. The microbial analysis included phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and DNA sequencing. Geothermal ground water was high in dissolved solids, had high concentrations of carbon dioxide and was more acidic than adjacent ground water not affected by geothermal activity. Geothermal ground-water samples contained very low amounts of biomass composed of relatively simple microbial communities. Several species of Archaebacteria were detected in some of the ground water that was derived from wells tapping into deep fractured systems. The analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) images indicated distinct differences of the types of microbes present in geothermal water compared to an adjacent deep non-thermal flow system.

  19. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  20. Comparison of theoretical and observed pressure profiles in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Marquez M, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two-phase water-steam flow conditions in geothermal wells are studied aimed at predicting pressure drops in these wells. Five prediction methods were selected to be analyzed and compared with each other and with actual pressure measurements. These five correlations were tested on five wells: three in New Zealand, one in Mexico, and one in the Philippines.

  1. Geothermal direct heat program: roundup technical conference proceedings. Volume II. Bibliography of publications. State-coupled geothermal resource assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    Lists of publications are presented for the Geothermal Resource Assessment Program for the Utah Earth Science Laboratory and the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  2. GEOTHERM Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeAngelo, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. Geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, E.W.; Pick, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This book studies the impact of geothermal energy development in Imperial County, California. An integrated assessment model for public policy is presented. Geothermal energy resources in Imperial County are identified. Population and employment studies project the impact of geothermal on demography and population movement in the county. A public opinion, and a leadership opinion survey indicate support for well-regulated geothermal development. Actual development events are updated. Finally, research conclusions and policy recommendations are presented.

  4. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  5. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  6. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  7. Geothermal monitor report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part 2 of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  8. Hawaii geothermal project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  9. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Goyal, K.P.

    1982-10-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the U.S. and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of upto 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up t o 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. Observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant therma mechanisms. Although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  10. Subsidence due to geothermal fluid withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T. N.; Goyal, K. P.

    1984-12-01

    Single-phase and two-phase geothermal reservoirs are currently being exploited for power production in Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, the United States, and elsewhere. Vertical ground displacements of up to 4.5 m and horizontal ground displacements of up to 0.5 m have been observed at Wairakei, New Zealand, that are clearly attributable to the resource exploitation. Similarly, vertical displacements of about 0.13 m have been recorded at The Geysers, California. No significant ground displacements that are attributable to large-scale fluid production have been observed at Larderello, Italy, and Cerro Prieto, Mexico. In this paper, observations show that subsidence due to geothermal fluid production is characterized by such features as an offset of the subsidence bowl from the main area of production, time-lag between production and subsidence, and nonlinear stress-strain relationships. Several plausible conceptual models, of varying degrees of sophistication, have been proposed to explain the observed features. At present, relatively more is known about the physical mechanisms that govern subsidence than the relevant thermal mechanisms. Finally, although attempts have been made to simulate observed geothermal subsidence, the modeling efforts have been seriously limited by a lack of relevant field data needed to sufficiently characterize the complex field system.

  11. Sixteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1991-01-25

    The Sixteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23-25, 1991. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Mohinder Gulati of UNOCAL Geothermal. Dr. Gulati gave an inspiring talk on the impact of numerical simulation on development of geothermal energy both in The Geysers and the Philippines. Dr. Gulati was the first recipient of The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award. The registered attendance figure of one hundred fifteen participants was up slightly from last year. There were seven foreign countries represented: Iceland, Italy, Philippines, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Japan. As last year, papers on about a dozen geothermal fields outside the United States were presented. There were thirty-six papers presented at the Workshop, and two papers were submitted for publication only. Attendees were welcomed by Dr. Khalid Aziz, Chairman of the Petroleum Engineering Department at Stanford. Opening remarks were presented by Dr. Roland Horne, followed by a discussion of the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Activities by Barbara Crowley, Vice Chairman; and J.E. ''Ted'' Mock's presentation of the DOE Geothermal Program: New Emphasis on Industrial Participation. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: hot dry rock, geochemistry, tracer injection, field performance, modeling, and chemistry/gas. As in previous workshops, session chairpersons made major contributions to the program. Special thanks are due to Joel Renner, Jeff Tester, Jim Combs, Kathy Enedy, Elwood Baldwin, Sabodh Garg, Marcel0 Lippman, John Counsil, and Eduardo Iglesias. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Angharad Jones, Rosalee Benelli, Jeanne Mankinen, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes

  12. Twelfth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Rivera, J.

    1987-01-22

    Preface The Twelfth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 20-22, 1987. The year ending December 1986 was very difficult for the domestic geothermal industry. Low oil prices caused a sharp drop in geothermal steam prices. We expected to see some effect upon attendance at the Twelfth Workshop. To our surprise, the attendance was up by thirteen from previous years, with one hundred and fifty-seven registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and Turkey. Despite a worldwide surplus of oil, international geothermal interest and development is growing at a remarkable pace. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Seven technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published; they concern geothermal developments and research in Iceland, Italy, and New Zealand. In addition to these forty-eight technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was John R. Berg from the Department of Energy. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants his thoughts on the expectations of this agency in the role of alternative energy resources, specifically geothermal, within the country???s energy framework. His talk is represented as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, K. Goyal, G.S. Bodvarsson, A.S. Batchelor, H. Dykstra, M.J. Reed, A. Truesdell, J.S. Gudmundsson, and J.R. Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank Jean Cook, Marilyn King, Amy Osugi, Terri Ramey, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting

  13. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  14. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  15. Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.; Sinclair, A.R.; Nicholson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Fracturing and completing deep wells in hot, nonporous crystalline basement rock challenges conventional equipment use, procedures, and techniques common in oil and gas and normal geothermal completions. Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh down-hole environment. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the 2 wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in isolation liners, and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of 3-dimensional fracture growth that requires large volumes of injected water. 20 references.

  16. Geothermal power development: 1984 overview and update

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, R.

    1984-10-01

    The status of geothermal power plants as of mid-1984 is given. There are 15 countries with active plants, and France (Guadeloupe) is expected to join the roster in the near future. The total number of operating units (defined as individual turbo-generator sets) is 145; the total installed capacity is somewhat less than 3770 MW. If plans for additional plants are met, the total could jump by more than 200 MW over the next two years. Recent growth is presented and the worldwide installed capacity is traced. A graphic portrayal of the growth pattern is presented. The countries that will be most responsible for sustaining this growth are the US, the Philippines, Mexico, and Indonesia. Other countries that will contribute significantly include Italy, Japan, Kenya, Nicaragua, and Turkey. The following countries do not now have any geothermal plants but may bring some online by 1990: Guatemala, Costa Rica, Greece, St. Lucia, Thailand, and Ethiopia.

  17. Another Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Carlin

    2009-01-01

    A Mexican saying holds that "Como Mexico no hay dos"--There is only one Mexico. American media these days interpret that notion with a vengeance. Story after story depicts a country overrun by out-of-control drug wars and murder, where corrupt police officers trip over beheaded victims more often than they nab perpetrators. South of the border, a…

  18. Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2006-04-06

    The ?Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing? project substantially added to the understanding of geothermal resources, technology, and small business development by both the general public as well as those in the geothermal community.

  19. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  20. Geothermal Direct Heat Applications Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-25

    Because of the undefined risk in the development and use of geothermal energy as a thermal energy source, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal Energy solicited competitive proposals for field experiments in the direct use of geothermal energy. Twenty-two proposals were selected for cost-shared funding with one additional project co-funded by the State of New Mexico. As expected, the critical parameter was developing a viable resource. So far, of the twenty resources drilled, fourteen have proved to be useful resources. These are: Boise, Idaho; Elko heating Company in Nevada; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Philip School, Philip, South Dakota; St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota; Utah Roses near Salt Lake City; Utah State Prison, Utah; Warm Springs State Hospital, Montana; T-H-S Hospital, Marlin, Texas; Aquafarms International in the Cochella Valley, California; Klamath County YMCA and Klamath Falls in Oregon; Susanville, California and Monroe, utah. Monroe's 164 F and 600 gpm peak flow was inadequate for the planned project, but is expected to be used in a private development. Three wells encountered a resource insufficient for an economical project. These were Madison County at Rexburg, Idaho; Ore-Ida Foods at Ontario, Oregon and Holly Sugar at Brawley, California. Three projects have yet to confirm their resource. The Navarro College well in Corsicana, Texas is being tested; the Reno, Moana, Nevada well is being drilled and the El Centro, California well is scheduled to be drilled in January 1982. The agribusiness project at Kelly Hot Springs was terminated because a significant archeological find was encountered at the proposed site. The Diamond Ring Ranch in South Dakota, and the additional project, Carrie Tingley Hospital in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico both used existing wells. The projects that encountered viable resources have proceeded to design, construct, and in the most advanced projects, to operate geothermal systems for district

  1. The geothermal power organization

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  2. Geothermal Today - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  3. Geothermal drilling technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories conducts a comprehensive geothermal drilling research program for the US Department of Energy, Office of Geothermal Technologies. The program currently includes seven areas: lost circulation technology, hard-rock drill bit technology, high-temperature instrumentation, wireless data telemetry, slimhole drilling technology, Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) projects, and drilling systems studies. This paper describes the current status of the projects under way in each of these program areas.

  4. Geothermal Today - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  5. Fractured Geothermal Growth Induced by Heat Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Potter, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.

    1989-02-01

    Field testing of a hydraulically stimulated, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations that caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir hear-production capacity in an HDR system may be possible. [DJE 2005

  6. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  7. South Dakota geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    South Dakota is normally not thought of as a geothermal state. However, geothermal direct use is probably one of the best kept secrets outside the state. At present there are two geothermal district heating systems in place and operating successfully, a resort community using the water in a large swimming pool, a hospital being supplied with part of its heat, numerous geothermal heat pumps, and many individual uses by ranchers, especially in the winter months for heating residences, barns and other outbuildings, and for stock watering.

  8. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  9. Geothermal energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  10. CABALLO AND POLVADERA ROADLESS AREAS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Kim; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey has been conducted for the Caballo and Polvadera Roadless Areas, Los Alamos and Rio Arriba Counties, New Mexico. The rocks in the study areas are chiefly volcanic with minor volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or fossil fuel resources in the areas. There has been no mining activity within the roadless areas and chemical analyses of stream-sediment samples show no significant anomalous concentrations of metals. There has been some interest in geothermal resources near the Polvadera Roadless Area and a KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area) extends into the southwestern corner of the area. This area has been classified as having probable geothermal-resource potential.

  11. Hydraulic fracture stimulation treatment of Well Baca 23. Geothermal Reservoir Well-Stimulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Well Stimulation Experiment No. 5 of the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) was performed on March 22, 1981 in Baca 23, located in Union's Redondo Creek Project Area in Sandoval County, New Mexico. The treatment selected was a large hydraulic fracture job designed specifically for, and utilizing frac materials chosen for, the high temperature geothermal environment. The well selection, fracture treatment, experiment evaluation, and summary of the job costs are presented herein.

  12. Eleventh workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Counsil, J.R.

    1986-01-23

    The Eleventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 21-23, 1986. The attendance was up compared to previous years, with 144 registered participants. Ten foreign countries were represented: Canada, England, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand and Turkey. There were 38 technical presentations at the Workshop which are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Six technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published and one presentation is not published. In addition to these 45 technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by J. E. Mock from the Department of Energy. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Jim Combs of Geothermal Resources International, Inc. We thank him for his presentation on GEO geothermal developments at The Geysers. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the Workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: M. Gulati, E. Iglesias, A. Moench, S. Prestwich, and K. Pruess. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and students. We would like to thank J.W. Cook, J.R. Hartford, M.C. King, A.E. Osugi, P. Pettit, J. Arroyo, J. Thorne, and T.A. Ramey for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment. The Eleventh Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract DE-AS03-80SF11459. We deeply appreciate this continued support. January 1986 H.J. Ramey, Jr. P. Kruger R.N. Horne W.E. Brigham F.G. Miller J.R. Counsil

  13. Eighteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1993-01-28

    PREFACE The Eighteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 26-28, 1993. There were one hundred and seventeen registered participants which was greater than the attendance last year. Participants were from eight foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, Guatemala, and Iceland. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Dean Gary Ernst opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Mock who also spoke at the banquet. Thirty-nine papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: field operations, The Geysers, geoscience, hot-dry-rock, injection, modeling, slim hole wells, geochemistry, well test and wellbore. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: John Counsil, Kathleen Enedy, Harry Olson, Eduardo Iglesias, Marcelo Lippmann, Paul Atkinson, Jim Lovekin, Marshall Reed, Antonio Correa, and David Faulder. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to John Hornbrook who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook

  14. Geothermal energy development in the Philippines: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, D.; Javellana, S.P.; Benavidez, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippines is the third largest producer of geothermal electricity after the US and Mexico. Geothermal exploration was started in 1962, and the first large commercial power plants came on-line in 1979 in two fields. By 1984, four geothermal fields had a combined installed capacity of 890 MWe and in 1992 these plants supplied about 20% of the country`s electric needs. Geothermal energy development was stimulated in the mid-1970s by the oil crisis and rapidly growing power demand, government support, available foreign funding, and a combination of private and government investment and technical expertise. However, no new geothermal capacity has been added since 1984, despite the growing demand for energy and the continuing uncertainty in the supply of crude oil. The Philippines` geothermal capacity is expected to expand by 270--1,100 MWe by the end of 1999. Factors that will affect the rate growth in this decade include suitable legislation, environmental requirements, financing, degree of private involvement, politics, inter-island electric grid connections, and viability of the remaining prospects.

  15. TEMLOPI/V.2: a computer program for estimation of fully transient temperatures in geothermal wells during circulation and shut-in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Garcia, A.; Santoyo, E.; Hernandez, I.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the development, validation and application of the TEMLOPI/V.2 computer program. This program is a useful tool for estimating in-situ the transient temperature distribution of the fluids employed for drilling geothermal wells. TEMLOPI/V.2 is based on a mathematical model which is developed to consider two-dimensional transient heat transfer during drilling and shut-in conditions in and around a geothermal well. The solution of the partial differential equations is based on the finite-difference technique with an implicit scheme. This scheme serves to demonstrate the numerical solution procedure. Each radial grid node is placed in a different thermal region: flow inside the pipe, metal pipe wall, flow inside annulus, and the surrounding formation. The program was written in FORTRAN 77 using modular programming and runs on most IBM compatible personal computers. The software code, its architecture, input and output files, the solution algorithm, flow diagrams and source programs are described in detail. From validation tests, computed temperatures differ by less than 5°C from analytically obtained temperatures. Comparison of results from the fully transient TEMLOPI/V.2 simulator and the pseudo-transient version, TEMLOPI/V.1, with measured data shows that the fully transient model provides better results. Application of TEMLOPI/V.2 is demonstrated in a practical application study of well EAZ-2 from Los Azufres Mexican geothermal field.

  16. Egade, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubany, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a business school design in Mexico, whose spiral building sits atop a parking structure creating a compact, symbolic form for an arid urban landscape. Includes seven photographs, a floor plan, and sectional drawing. (GR)

  17. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document reviews Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research. 16 figs. (FSD)

  18. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  19. Volcanology and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this book is to demonstrate how volcanological concepts can be applied to the evaluation and exploration of geothermal energy resources. In regard to the geothermal content of the book, some of the information comes from the first-hand experience gained during the authors' exploration work in Middle America and with the Los Alamos Hot Dry Rock program. Other cases discussed come from classic geothermal systems in many regions and settings. The book begins with a summary of recent practical advances in volcanology, and then moves on to describe the considerable importance of pyroclastic rocks as a took to evaluate geothermal systems, including an in-depth treatment of hydrovolcanism. Following chapters deal with surface manifestations of geothermal systems, and systems associated with calderas, silicic lava domes, and basaltic volcanoes. The last chapter is on geothermal systems in maturing composite volcanoes. The Appendices include a broad overview of field methods in volcanic regions, volcanic rock classifications and properties, thermodynamic properties of water vapor (steam tables), and the use of cuttings in geothermal well logs. A two-dimensional heat flow code used for estimating geothermal resources is also given. The book makes two significant contributions: first, in its treatment of eruption dynamics, focusing on quantitative and theoretical analysis of volcanic processes, and second, in its comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of hydrovolcanism, including fuel-coolant interactions and hydrofracturing.

  20. Fort Bliss Geothermal Area Data: Temperature profile, logs, schematic model and cross section

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This dataset contains a variety of data about the Fort Bliss geothermal area, part of the southern portion of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The dataset contains schematic models for the McGregor Geothermal System, a shallow temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area. The dataset also contains Century OH logs, a full temperature profile, and complete logs from well RMI 56-5, including resistivity and porosity data, drill logs with drill rate, depth, lithology, mineralogy, fractures, temperature, pit total, gases, and descriptions among other measurements as well as CDL, CNL, DIL, GR Caliper and Temperature files. A shallow (2 meter depth) temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area with 63 data points is also included. Two cross sections through the Fort Bliss area, also included, show well position and depth. The surface map included shows faults and well spatial distribution. Inferred and observed fault distributions from gravity surveys around the Fort Bliss geothermal area.

  1. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D.

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  2. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1988-01-21

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones

  3. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  4. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  5. Utilization of geothermal resources at United States Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Grogger, P.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Air Force installations on the continental United States as well as Alaska and Hawaii, were evaluated as to the possibility of utilizing geothermal energy to develop electricity, produce process steam, or heat and/or cool buildings. Twenty-five bases have suspected geothermal resources available. Because of either need or available technology seven installations were rated priority I, six were rated priority II and priority III and IV totaled ten. Geological and geophysical data indicated further investigation of the priority I installations, Saylor Creek Range, Idaho, Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota, Charleston AFB, South Carolina, Kirkland AFB, New Mexico, Vandenberg AFB, California, Luke AFB, Arizona, and Williams AFB, Arizona, should be accomplished as soon as possible. The use of geothermal energy will decrease the need for fossil fuels by the USAF and during times of short supply allow such fuels to be used for the Air Force's primary mission, military defense.

  6. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America. PMID:22285066

  7. Twentieth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-26

    PREFACE The Twentieth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, dedicated to the memory of Professor Hank Ramey, was held at Stanford University on January 24-26, 1995. There were ninety-five registered participants. Participants came from six foreign countries: Japan, Mexico, England, Italy, New Zealand and Iceland. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Thirty-two papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into eleven sessions concerning: field development, modeling, well tesubore, injection, geoscience, geochemistry and field operations. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bob Fournier, Mark Walters, John Counsil, Marcelo Lippmann, Keshav Goyal, Joel Renner and Mike Shook. In addition to the technical sessions, a panel discussion was held on ''What have we learned in 20 years?'' Panel speakers included Patrick Muffler, George Frye, Alfred Truesdell and John Pritchett. The subject was further discussed by Subir Sanyal, who gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager

  8. Navy Geothermal Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  9. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  10. New Zealand geothermal: Wairakei -- 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This quarterly bulletin highlights the geothermal developments in New Zealand with the following articles: A brief history of the Wairakei geothermal power project; Geothermal resources in New Zealand -- An overview; Domestic and commercial heating and bathing -- Rotorua area; Kawerau geothermal development: A case study; Timber drying at Kawerau; Geothermal greenhouses at Kawerau; Drying of fibrous crops using geothermal steam and hot water at the Taupo Lucerne Company; Prawn Park -- Taupo, New Zealand; Geothermal orchids; Miranda hot springs; and Geothermal pipeline.

  11. National Geothermal Academy. Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 2 (Complete Bulletin). A Quarterly Progress and Development Report on the Direct Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya; Maddi, Phillip

    2012-08-01

    The National Geothermal Academy (NGA) is an intensive 8-week overview of the different aspects involved in developing a geothermal project, hosted at University of Nevada, Reno. The class of 2012 was the second graduating class from the academy and included 21 students from nine states, as well as Saudi Arabia, Dominica, India, Trinidad, Mexico. The class consisted of people from a wide range of scholastic abilities from students pursuing a Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees, to entrepreneurs and professionals looking to improve their knowledge in the geothermal field. Students earned 6 credits, either undergraduate or graduate, in engineering or geology. Overall, the students of the NGA, although having diverse backgrounds in engineering, geology, finance, and other sciences, came together with a common passion to learn more about geothermal.

  12. Geothermal drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Livesay, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The report discusses the current state of geothermal drilling technology with reference to how individual technology items are influenced by the following problem areas: high temperature; lost circulation; abrasive rocks; and corrosive gases. (ACR)

  13. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  14. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  15. GEOTHERMAL EFFLUENT SAMPLING WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the major recommendations resulting from a workshop to identify gaps in existing geothermal effluent sampling methodologies, define needed research to fill those gaps, and recommend strategies to lead to a standardized sampling methodology.

  16. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  17. Nineteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Horne, R.J.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1994-01-20

    PREFACE The Nineteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 18-20, 1994. This workshop opened on a sad note because of the death of Prof. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. on November 19, 1993. Hank had been fighting leukemia for a long time and finally lost the battle. Many of the workshop participants were present for the celebration of his life on January 21 at Stanford's Memorial Church. Hank was one of the founders of the Stanford Geothermal Program and the Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Workshop. His energy, kindness, quick wit, and knowledge will long be missed at future workshops. Following the Preface we have included a copy of the Memorial Resolution passed by the Stanford University Senate. There were one hundred and four registered participants. Participants were from ten foreign countries: Costa Rica, England, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines and Turkey. Workshop papers described the performance of fourteen geothermal fields outside the United States. Roland N. Home opened the meeting and welcomed the visitors to the campus. The key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who gave a presentation about the future of geothermal development. The banquet speaker was Jesus Rivera and he spoke about Energy Sources of Central American Countries. Forty two papers were presented at the Workshop. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: sciences, injection, production, modeling, and adsorption. Session chairmen are an important part of the workshop and our thanks go to: John Counsil, Mark Walters, Dave Duchane, David Faulder, Gudmundur Bodvarsson, Jim Lovekin, Joel Renner, and Iraj Ershaghi. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual

  18. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  19. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  20. Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

  1. Geothermal Field Developments in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Hirakawa, Seiichi

    1983-12-15

    The present situation of the geothermal field developments in Japan is such that eight geothermal power stations are being operated, while there are sill many geothermal areas to be explored. Up to this day, the target of geothermal exploration has mainly been the areas by surface geological survey and the existing geothermal reservoirs are located not deeper than 1,500m depth. Recent geothermal energy development shows a trend from the study on vapor dominated of liquid dominated hydrothermal resources in shallow zones to that on hydrothermal resources in deeper zones. Exploration wells of 3,000m depth class have been drilled in Japan.

  2. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  3. Mexico's Oxbridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1979-01-01

    For 400 years the National Autonomous University of Mexico has remained at the hub of the country's intellectual and political life. The history of the University from the Mayas and the Aztecs, University expansion, upward mobility of students, and student pressure groups and politics are described. (MLW)

  4. Workshop on CSDP data needs for the BACA geothermal field: a summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mangold, D.C.; Tsang, C.F.

    1984-06-01

    These workshop summaries discuss the data needs of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) community and provide an introduction to the available geological, geophysical, geochemical and reservoir engineering data of the Baca geothermal field, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the presentations. (ACR)

  5. The National Geothermal Collaborative, EERE-Geothermal Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Erikson

    2006-05-26

    Summary of the work conducted by the National Geothermal Collaborative (a consensus organization) to identify impediments to geothermal development and catalyze events and dialogues among stakeholders to over those impediments.

  6. Why geothermal energy? Geothermal utilization in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Gazo, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the advantages of choosing geothermal energy as a resource option in the Philippine energy program. The government mandates the full-scale development of geothermal energy resources to meet increased power demand brought by rapid industrialization and economic growth, and to reduce fossil fuel importation. It also aims to realize these additional geothermal capacities by tapping private sector investments in the exploration, development, exploitation, construction, operation and management of various geothermal areas in the country.

  7. National Geothermal Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. F.; Cuyler, D.; Snyder, W. S.; Allison, M. L.; Blackwell, D. D.; Williams, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System is to design, build, implement, deploy and populate a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers. These providers will develop, collect, serve, and maintain geothermal-relevant data that operates as an integral component of NGDS. As a result the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. Five separate NGDS projects provide the data support, acquisition, and access to cyber infrastructure necessary to reduce cost and risk of the nation's geothermal energy strategy and US DOE program goals focused on the production and utilization of geothermal energy. The U.S DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Technologies Program is developing the knowledge and data foundation necessary for discovery and development of large-scale energy production while the Buildings Technology Program is focused on other practical applications such as direct use and residential/commercial ground source heat pumps. The NGDS provides expanded reference and resource data for research and development activities (a subset of the US DOE goals) and includes data from across all fifty states and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers. Thus, the project incorporates not only high-temperature potential but also moderate and low-temperature locations incorporating US DOE's goal of adding more geothermal electricity to the grid. The program, through its development of data integration cyberinfrastructure, will help lead to innovative exploration technologies through increased data availability on geothermal energy capacity. Finally

  8. Geothermal energy: 1992 program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Geothermal energy is described in general terms with drawings illustrating the technology. A map of known and potential geothermal resources in the US is included. The 1992 program activities are described briefly. (MHR)

  9. Geothermal resources of Utah, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This map shows heat flow, Known Geothermal Resources Areas, thermal springs and wells, and areas of low-temperature geothermal waters. Also shown are Indian reservations, military reservation, national or state forests, and parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas, etc. (MHR)

  10. Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fortuna, Raymond; Jelacic, Allan

    1989-04-01

    The geopressured-geothermal resource consists of deeply buried reservoirs of hot brine, under abnormally high pressures, that contain dissolved methane. Geopressured brine reservoirs with pressures approaching the lithostatic load are known to occur both onshore and offshore beneath the Gulf of Mexico coast, along the Pacific west coast, in Appalachia, as well as in deep sedimentary basins elsewhere in the United States. The Department of Energy (DOE) has concentrated its research on the northern Gulf of Mexico sedimentary basin (Figure 1) which consists largely of Tertiary interbedded sandstones and shales deposited in alternating deltaic, fluvial, and marine environments. Thorsen (1964) and Norwood and Holland (1974) describe three generalized depositional facies in sedimentary beds of the Gulf Coast Geosyncline (Figure 2 ): (1) a massive sandstone facies in which sandstone constitutes 50 percent o r more of the sedimentary volume; (2) an alternating sandstone and shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 to 35 percent of the sedimentary volume. (3) a massive shale facies in which sandstone constitutes 15 percent or less of the sedimentary volume. In general, at any given location the volume of sandstone decreases with increasing depth. The datum of higher-than-normal fluid pressures is associated with the alternating sandstone and shale facies and the massive shale facies. Faulting and salt tectonics have complicated the depositional patterns and influenced the distribution of geopressured reservoirs (Wallace et a1 1978). The sandstones in the alternating sandstone and shale facies have the greatest potential for geopressured-geothermal energy development. Due to the insulating effect of surrounding shales, temperatures of the geopressured-geothermal brines typically range from 250 F to over 350 F, and under prevailing temperature, pressure, and salinity conditions, the brine contains 20 or more cubic feet of methane per barrel. Wallace et al (1978

  11. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  12. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  13. Geothermal pipeline - progress and development update, geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is a progress and development update and geothermal progress monitor prepared by the Geo-Heat Center at the Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Oregon. Several upcoming meetings in the field of geothermal energy and resource development are announced. Proposed and past geothermal activities within the Glass Mountain Known Geothermal Resource Area are also discussed. As of this date, there has been limited geothermal exploration in this area, however, two projects located in the near vicinity have been proposed within the last two years.

  14. Geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford University. First annual report, October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W.E.; Horne, R.N.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

    1981-09-01

    The work on energy extraction experiments concerns the efficiency with which the in-place heat and fluids can be produced. The work on noncondensable gas reservoir engineering covers both the completed and continuing work in these two interrelated research areas: radon emanation from the rock matrix of geothermal reservoirs, and radon and ammonia variations with time and space over geothermal reservoirs. Cooperative research programs with Italy and Mexico are described. The bench-scale experiments and well test analysis section covers both experimental and theoretical studies. The small core model continues to be used for the study of temperature effects on absolute permeability. The unconsolidated sand study was completed at the beginning of this contract period. The Appendices describe some of the Stanford Geothermal program activities that results in interactions with the geothermal community. These occur in the form of SGP Technical Reports, presentations at technical meetings and publications in the open literature.

  15. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Zachritz, W.H. II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1995-12-04

    Aquaculture, the farming and husbandry of freshwater and marine organisms, is the newest and fastest growing US agricultural sector. In New Mexico, low winter temperatures and limited freshwater sources narrow culture production possibilities; however, it has long been recognized that the state has abundant supplies of both saline and geothermal ground waters. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the achievable energy savings and value enhancement of the byproduct geothermal energy by cascading fluids for the production of commercial aquaculture species. Specifically the project involved evaluating the heating systems performance in terms of heating budget for the geothermal assist, determine the total quantity of water used for culture and heating, amount of geothermal byproduct heat extracted, and ability of the system to maintain culture water temperatures during critical heating periods of the year. In addition, an analysis was conducted to determine the compatibility of this new system with existing greenhouse heating requirements.

  16. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  17. Geohydrologic data from the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, Frank W.

    1978-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic region, on the west margin of the Rio Grande rift in north-central New Mexico, is the site of studies for power development from geothermal heat. This report summarizes geohydrologic data to provide background information relative to the geothermal exploration and to investigate the usefulness of hydrology in assessment of the geothermal resource. Eleven tables present chemical, temperature, discharge , and other data for springs, wells, and streams. Accompanying figures show locations of the data points and present temperature profiles and geophysical logs for selected wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  19. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  20. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  1. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  2. Geothermal well stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

  3. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  4. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  5. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  6. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  7. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  8. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  9. Analysis of Production Decline in Geothermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Byrns, R.

    1980-09-01

    Data and analysis methods were gathered from the petroleum, geothermal, and hydrological literature. The data sets examined include: Wairakei, New Zealand -141 wells; Cerro Prieto, Mexico - 18 wells; The Geysers, USA - 27 wells; Larderello, Italy - 9 wells and groups; Matsukawa and Otake, Japan - 8 wells; and Olkaria, Kenya - 1 well. The analysis methods tested were; Arps's equations, Fetkovich type curves, Slider's method for Arps, Gentry's method for Arps, Gentry's and McCray's method, other type curves, P/z vs. Q method, Coats' influence function method, and Bodvarsson's Linearized Free Surface Green's Function method. The conclusions are: (1) The exponential equation fit is satisfactory for geothermal data. (2) The hyperbolic equation should be used only if the data fit well on a hyperbolic type curve. (3) The type curve methods are useful if the data are not too scattered. They work well for vapor dominated systems and poorly for liquid dominated systems. (4) Coats' influence function method can be used even with very scattered data. (5) Bodvarsson's method is still experimental but it shows much promise as a useful tool.

  10. Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Nicholson, R.W.; Pettitt, R.A.; Sinclair, A.R.

    1983-10-01

    Fracturing and completing deep wells in hot, non-porous crystalline basement rock challenges conventional equipment use, procedures, and techniques common in oil and gas and normal geothermal completions. Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh downhole environment. Two deep wells were drilled to approximately 15,000 ft (4.6 km); formation temperatures are in excess of 600/sup 0/F (315/sup 0/C). The wells were drilled during 1979-1981, inclined at 35 degrees, one above the other, and directionally drilled in an azimuthal direction orthogonal to the least principal in-situ crustal stress field. The pair of wells form the injection and production wells of an energy extraction system which will be unique in reservoir development. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the two wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in isolation liners and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of three-dimensional fracture growth that requires very large volumes of injected water. Two fractured zones have been formed by hydraulic fracturing and defined by close-in, borehole deployed, microseismic detectors.

  11. OIT geothermal system improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-08-01

    Three geothermal wells drilled during the original campus construction vary from 396 m (1,300 ft) to 550 m (1,800 ft). These wells supply all of the heating and part of the cooling needs of the 11-building, 62,200 m{sup 2} (670,000 ft{sup 2}) campus. The combined capacity of the well pumps is 62 L/s(980 gpm) of 89{degrees}C (192{degrees}F) geothermal fluids. Swimming pool and domestic hot water heating impose a small but nearly constant year-round flow requirement. In addition to heating, a portion of the campus is also cooled using the geothermal resource. This is accomplished through the use of an absorption chiller. The chiller, which operates on the same principle as a gas refrigerator, requires a flow of 38 L/s (600 gpm) of geothermal fluid and produces 541 kW (154 tons) of cooling capacity (Rafferty, 1989). The annual operating costs for the system is about $35,000 including maintenance salary, equipment replacement and cost of pumping. This amounts to about $0.05 per square foot per year.

  12. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  13. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  14. Geothermal industry assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  15. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-27

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  16. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-06-23

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  17. Geothermal Systems for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  18. Geothermal Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  19. Simulation of geothermal subsidence

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.; Dershowitz, W.; Jones, K.; Myer, L.; Roman, K.; Schauer, M.

    1980-03-01

    The results of an assessment of existing mathematical models for subsidence simulation and prediction are summarized. The following subjects are discussed: the prediction process, physical processes of geothermal subsidence, computational models for reservoir flow, computational models for deformation, proficiency assessment, and real and idealized case studies. (MHR)

  20. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a DOE-funded distributed network of databases and data sites. Much of the risk of geothermal energy development is associated with exploring for, confirming and characterizing the available geothermal resources. The overriding purpose of the NGDS is to help mitigate this up-front risk by serving as a central gateway for geothermal and relevant related data as well as a link to distributed data sources. Assessing and categorizing the nation's geothermal resources and consolidating all geothermal data through a publicly accessible data system will support research, stimulate public interest, promote market acceptance and investment, and, in turn, the growth of the geothermal industry. Major participants in the NGDS to date include universities, laboratories, the Arizona Geological Survey and Association of American State Geologists (Arizona Geological Survey, lead), the Geothermal Resources Council, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Geothermal Energy Association is collaborating with the NGDS to insure that it meets the needs of the geothermal industry.

  1. Geothermal Energy Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Kuide, Xin; Qilong, Yang

    1983-12-15

    China's geothermal resources are mainly of low - medium temperature. More than 30 geothermal areas have been or are being explorated. According to the geology, economy and technology of geothermal energy development main efforts are concentrated in some places with better conditions and can be exploited effectively in the near future, such as low temperature geothermal fields in Beijing and Tianjin, Yangbajain and Dengchong high temperature geothermal fields respectively in Tibet and Ynnan province. In Beijing and Tianjin the geothermal water is used for space heating, bathing, medical treatment, greenhouse, raising tropical fish, industry and so on. In Beijing now more than 200 thousand sq. m. of indoor floor is being heated with geothermal water and about 50 thousand persons per day use it to take bath. In future, the low temperature geothermal water utilization in these big citites would flourish. In 1970 the first experimental geothermal power plant using the flashing method was built in Dengwu, Guangdong province. In 1977 one MW experimental wet steam power plant was built in Yangbajain, Tibet, a 6 MW power plant in 1981, and another 3 MW generator is expected to complete in 1985. This paper is intended to summarize some important results of exploration, particularly in the geothermal reservoir engineering.

  2. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  4. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill at the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.

  5. Final Technical Report; Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definitioni (GRED) Program-Phases I, II, and III for the Animas Valley, NM Geothermal Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Cunniff, Roy A.; Bowers, Roger L.

    2005-08-01

    This report contains a detailed summary of a methodical and comprehensive assessment of the potential of the Animas Valley, New Mexico geothermal resource leasehold owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. Work described herein was completed under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC04-00AL66977, Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definition (GRED) Program, and the work covers the time span from June 2001 through June 2004. Included in this new report are detailed results from the GRED Program, including: geophysical and geochemical surveys, reflection seismic surveys, aeromagnetic surveys, gravity and electrical resistivity surveys, soil thermal ion and soil carbon dioxide flux surveys, four temperature gradient holes, and one deep exploratory well.

  6. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  7. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  8. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  9. Fractured geothermal reservoir growth induced by heat extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Robinson, B.A.; Potter, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Field testing of a hydraulically-stimulated, hot dry rock geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico has indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for documenting the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations which caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir heat production capacity in hot dry rock systems may be possible.

  10. Validation of a Geothermal Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, G.M.; Faulder, D.D.

    1991-10-01

    A geothermal simulator, TETRAD, is validated against the Stanford Geothermal Problem Set. The governing equations, formulation, and solution technique employed by TETRAD are first outlined. Each problem in the Stanford Problem Set is then discussed in detail, and results from the simulations are presented. The results obtained using TETRAD are compared against several other geothermal simulators. Favorable comparison between results indicates that TETRAD is capable of solving the highly non-linear equations describing the flow of mass and energy in porous media. This validation exercise allows for the use of TETRAD in studying geothermal problems with a high degree of confidence.

  11. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  12. Direct application of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  13. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy; Boyd, Toni; Horne, Roland; MacKenzie, Matthew; Moore, Joseph; Nickull, Duane; Richard, Stephen; Shevenell, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  14. Hawaii's geothermal program

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpette, G.

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports that in a forest on the island of Hawaii, legal and regulatory activity has postponed the start-up of a small new power plant and imperilled the design and construction of several facilities like it. The same old story Hardly. The power plants at stake are not nuclear or coal- or even oil-fired, but geothermal, widely considered one of the more environmentally benign ways of generating electricity. In a further twist, the opposition is coming not only from the usual citizens; and environmental groups, but also from worshippers of a native good and, it has been alleged, growers of marijuana, a lucrative local crop. The clash occurs just as geothermal power sources have finally proven commercially viable, experts say, adding that technological advances and industry trends in the United States and elsewhere seem to factor great expansion in its use.

  15. Making geothermal power competitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    The near-term supply curve for the electrical applications of geothermal energy is presented, and the impacts of technological improvements are illustrated. The curve is derived using the subsurface temperature, reservoir thickness, and heat content estimates made by the U.S. Geological Survey for the identified high-temperature and intermediate-temperature hydrothermal resources of the western U.S. Each step in the curve is composed of one or more geothermal resources identified by the USGS. Both high- and intermediate-temperature resources were included up to an arbitrary cost ceiling of 100 mills/kWh. Curves are drawn to show the impacts of combinations of technological advances expected to be achieved by 1982 and 1985. It is shown that most of the identified hydrothermal resources could become competitive with conventional energy sources for electrical power production by 1985.

  16. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  17. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  18. Molecular identification and description of the female of Nothoaspis reddelli (Ixodida: Argasidae) from a cave in southeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Paredes-León, Ricardo; Labruna, Marcelo B; Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M

    2012-10-01

    Nothoaspis reddelli Keirans and Clifford, 1975 , was described from 3 males collected in Grutas de Xtacumbilxunaán, Campeche, Mexico, although females have remained undescribed for 37 yr. Recently adult females of this species were collected from Cueva de Villa Luz ( =  Cueva de las Sardinas, Cueva del Azufre), in Tapijulapa, Tabasco, Mexico. Here we present a morphological description of the female stage, together with 16S rDNA sequences that confirm the conspecificity of our female, male, and nymphal specimens. The female integument of the anterior portion of the dorsal surface is smooth (nothoaspis), appearing to consist of 3 large "subunits," 1 anterior and 2 posterior, each with a small sublateral "subunit" on either side. The remaining dorsal covered integument is a cell-like configuration. The hood is large and bluntly rounded, and visible dorsally. The spiracular plate is oval. It possesses 1 pair of posthypostomal setae. The palpal trochanter has 1 pair of setae and a 5/5 hypostome decreasing to 4/4 at the apex. There is a single central pore at the base of the hypostome. PMID:22559313

  19. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  20. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  1. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Prencipe, Loretta; Todaro, Richard M.; Cuyler, David; Eide, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  2. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  3. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  4. Stanford Geothermal Program

    SciTech Connect

    R. Horn

    1999-06-30

    Reliable measurement of steam-water relative permeability functions is of great importance for geothermal reservoir performance simulation. Despite their importance, these functions are poorly known due to the lack of fundamental understanding of steam-water flows, and the difficulty of making direct measurements. The Stanford Geothermal Program has used an X-ray CT (Computer Tomography) scanner to obtain accurate saturation profiles by direct measurement. During the last five years, the authors have carried out experiments with nitrogen-water flow and with steam-water flow, and examined the effects of heat transfer and phase change by comparing these sets of results. In porous rocks, it was found that the steam-water relative permeabilities follow Corey type relationships similar to those in nitrogen-water flow, but that the irreducible gas phase saturation is smaller for steam than for nitrogen. The irreducible saturations represent substantial fractions of the recoverable energy in place yet are hard to determine in the field. Understanding the typical magnitude of irreducible saturations will lead to a much clearer forecast of geothermal field performance. In fracture flow, indirect measurements suggested that the relative permeabilities follow a linear (or ''X-curve'') behavior - but there is still considerable uncertainty in the knowledge of this behavior.

  5. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  6. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, J. D.; Rapport, A.

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request.

  7. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  8. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  9. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jessie; Spaziani, Gina

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  10. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  11. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  12. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  13. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  14. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  15. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1981-06-15

    The focus is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150/sup 0/C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of noncondensing gases such as hydrogen sulfide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. It is shown that hydrogen sulfide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odor annoyances among members of the exposed public - some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 parts per million by volume. A risk assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. The risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic is also assessed. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry are summarized briefly.

  16. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  17. Geothermal development in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Elizagaque, R.F.; Tolentino, B.S.

    1982-06-01

    The development of geothermal resources and energy in the Philippines is discussed. Philippine National Oil Company-Energy Development Corporation initiated the first semi-commercial generation of geothermal power in July 1977 with the installation of a 3MWe plant. By 1980 the country had 440 MWe on line at Mak-Ban and Tiwi. This placed the Philippines second after the US among countries using geothermal energy for power generation. Before the end of 1981, PNOC-EDC added 6 additional MWe of geothermal power generating capacity to increase the total to 446 MWe. As part of the five-year National Energy Development Programme covering the period 1981-1985, additional power plants will be installed in various project areas to increase the share of geothermal power generation from the present 9.8% to 18.6% of the nationwide power-generation total, or the equivalent of 16.6 million barrels of oil per year. (MJF)

  18. Geothermal resource data base: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in Arizona up to 1993. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction. In recent years, the primary growth in geothermal use in Arizona has occurred in aquaculture. Other uses include minor space heating and supply of warm mineral waters for health spas.

  19. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Treis, Tania

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  20. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  1. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  2. Geothermal developments in the Philippines, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, D.F.X.

    1980-09-01

    The Philippines installed a 3MW geothermal in 1977, 55 MW in 1978, and 165 MW in 1979 and proposes to install 223 MW during 1980 to bring it's total installed geothermal generating capacity to 446 MW. An additional 223 MW geothermal has been proven and a goal of 1261 MW has been set for 1989 from eight geothermal fields.

  3. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    SciTech Connect

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  4. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or

  5. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  6. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  7. Direct-flash-steam geothermal-power-plant assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. The analysis was to include consideration of system and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  8. Materials for geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the geothermal materials project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved.

  9. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  10. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  11. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  12. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  13. Ninth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

    1983-12-15

    The attendance at the Workshop was similar to last year's with 123 registered participants of which 22 represented 8 foreign countries. A record number of technical papers (about 60) were submitted for presentation at the Workshop. The Program Committee, therefore, decided to have several parallel sessions to accommodate most of the papers. This format proved unpopular and will not be repeated. Many of the participants felt that the Workshop lost some of its unique qualities by having parallel sessions. The Workshop has always been held near the middle of December during examination week at Stanford. This timing was reviewed in an open discussion at the Workshop. The Program Committee subsequently decided to move the Workshop to January. The Tenth Workshop will be held on January 22-24, 1985. The theme of the Workshop this year was ''field developments worldwide''. The Program Committee addressed this theme by encouraging participants to submit field development papers, and by inviting several international authorities to give presentations at the Workshop. Field developments in at least twelve countries were reported: China, El Salvador, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, the Philippines, and the United States. There were 58 technical presentations at the Workshop, of which 4 were not made available for publication. Several authors submitted papers not presented at the Workshop. However, these are included in the 60 papers of these Proceedings. The introductory address was given by Ron Toms of the U.S. Department of Energy, and the banquet speaker was A1 Cooper of Chevron Resources Company. An important contribution was made to the Workshop by the chairmen of the technical sessions. Other than Stanford Geothermal Program faculty members, they included: Don White (Field Developments), Bill D'Olier (Hydrothermal Systems), Herman Dykstra (Well Testing), Karsten Pruess (Well Testing), John Counsil (Reservoir Chemistry), Malcolm Mossman

  14. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  15. NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This document highlights the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site, including the five steps to effective geothermal policy development for geothermal electricity generation and geothermal heating and cooling technologies.

  16. What is an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS)? Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-09-14

    This Geothermal Technologies Office fact sheet explains how engineered geothermal reservoirs called Enhanced Geothermal Systems are used to produce energy from geothermal resources that are otherwise not economical due to a lack of fluid and/or permeability.

  17. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  18. Geothermal Data from the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a distributed data system providing access to information resources related to geothermal energy from a network of data providers. Data are contributed by academic researchers, private industry, and state and federal agencies. Built on a scalable and open platform through the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN), NGDS respects data provenance while promoting shared resources.Since NGDS is built using a set of open protocols and standards, relying on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), members of the community may access the data in a variety of proprietary and open-source applications and software. In addition, developers can add functionality to the system by creating new applications based on the open protocols and standards of the NGDS. The NGDS, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Program, is intended to provide access to all types of geothermal data to enable geothermal analysis and widespread public use in an effort to reduce the risk of geothermal energy development [copied from http://www.geothermaldata.org/page/about]. See the long list of data contributors at http://geothermaldata.org/page/data-types-and-contributors#data-contributors.

  19. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-26

    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  20. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  1. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  2. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  3. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, L. H.

    1985-12-03

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight monoor copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  4. SURFACE CONTAINMENT FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report examines the probability of significant releases of geothermal brine to the surface environment through unplanned or accidental events. It then evaluates the containment measures that may be used to prevent environmental damage. The results indicate that major spills ...

  5. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  6. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.

    1993-03-30

    CHC (Geo-Heated Center) staff provided assistance to 103 requests from 26 states, and from Canada, Egypt, Mexico, China, Poland and Greece. A breakdown of the requests according to application include: space and district heating (19), geothermal heat pumps (24), greenhouses (10), aquaculture (4), industrial (4), equipment (3), resources (27), electric power (2) and other (20). Progress is reported on: (1) evaluation of lineshaft turbine pump problems, (2) pilot fruit drier and (3) geothermal district heating marketing tools and equipment investigation. Four presentations and two tours were conducted during the quarter, GHC Quarterly Bulletin Vol. 14, No. 4 was prepared, 14 volumes were added to the library and information was disseminated to 45 requests. Progress reports are on: (1) GHP Teleconference 93, (2) California Energy Buys Glass Mountain Prospect from Unocal and Makes Deal for Newberry Caldera, (3) New Power Plant Planned, (4) Vale to Get Power Plant, (5) BPA Approves Geothermal Project, (6) Update: San Bernardino Reservoir Study, (7) Twenty-nine Palms Geothermal Resources, (8) Geo-Ag Heat Center, Lake County, and (9) Update: Geothermal Wells at Alturas.

  7. Tongonani geothermal power development, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Minson, A.A.C.; Fry, T.J.; Kivell, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the features, design and construction of a 112 MWe geothermal power project, representing the first stage development of the substantial geothermal resources of the central Philippine region. The project has been undertaken by the Philippine Government. The National Powe Corporation is responsible for generation and distribution facilities and the Philippine National Oil Company Energy Development Corporation is responsible for controlled delivery of steam to the powe station.

  8. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcspadden, W. R.; Stewart, D. H.; Kuwada, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Drilling the first geothermal well in Montana presented many challenges, not only in securing materials and planning strategies for drilling the wildcat well but also in addressing the environmental, legal, and institutional issues raised by the request for permission to explore a resource which lacked legal definition. The Marysville Geothermal Project was to investigate a dry hot rock heat anomaly. The well was drilled to a total depth of 6790 feet and many fractured water bearing zones were encountered below 1800 feet.

  9. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  10. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  11. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development plans. (5) Formulation and

  12. Geothermal greenhouses in Kyushu, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-05-01

    The New Energy Foundation (NEF) invited two members of the Geo-Heat Center staff of Tokyo to present two workshops on the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Prior to the meetings, a field trip was arranged by NEF to visit geothermal power plants and direct use sites on Kyushu. Seven areas were toured on February 27 and 28th, including the Sensui Rose Garden greenhouse, a demonstration greenhouse at the Hatchobaru power station and the Kokonoe Bio Center.

  13. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing

  14. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanloz, R.; Stone, H.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  15. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  16. Geothermal innovative technologies catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.

    1988-09-01

    The technology items in this report were selected on the basis of technological readiness and applicability to current technology transfer thrusts. The items include technologies that are considered to be within 2 to 3 years of being transferred. While the catalog does not profess to be entirely complete, it does represent an initial attempt at archiving innovative geothermal technologies with ample room for additions as they occur. The catalog itself is divided into five major functional areas: Exploration; Drilling, Well Completion, and Reservoir Production; Materials and Brine Chemistry; Direct Use; and Economics. Within these major divisions are sub-categories identifying specific types of technological advances: Hardware; Software; Data Base; Process/Procedure; Test Facility; and Handbook.

  17. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Resources Assessment in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program. The island of Kauai was not studied during the current phase of investigation. Geothermal field studies were not considered to be warranted due to the absence of significant geochemical or geophysical indications of a geothermal resource. The great age of volcanism on this island would further suggest that should a thermal resource be present, it would be of low temperature. The geothermal field studies conducted on Oahu focused on the caldera complexes of the two volcanic systems which form the island: Waianae volcano and Koolau volcano. The results of these studies and the interpreted probability for a resource are presented.

  19. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  20. Dental education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, David; Komabayashi, Takashi; Reyes-Vela, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information about dental education in Mexico, including its history, the dental school system, curriculum and dental licensure. In 1977, there were only 59 Mexican dental schools; however, there were 83 schools registered in the last official national count in 2007. Forty-one dental schools are public, and the other 42 are private. Every year the number of private dental schools increases. Admission to dental schools in Mexico requires a high school diploma. All classes are conducted in Spanish. To obtain licensure in Mexico, dental students must complete a 3 to 5-year program plus a year of community service. No formal nationwide standard clinical/didactic curriculum exists in Mexico. There are approximately 153,000 dentists in Mexico, a number that increases each year. The dentist-patient ratio is approximately 1:700. However, the high percentage of inactive licensed dentists in Mexico points to a serious problem. PMID:24984634

  1. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  3. Estimating the Prospectivity of Geothermal Resources Using the Concept of Hydrogeologic Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Blackwell, David; Harp, Dylan; Karra, Satish; Kelley, Richard; Kelley, Shari; Middleton, Richard; Person, Mark; Sutula, Glenn; Witcher, James

    2016-04-01

    In this Geothermal Play Fairways Analysis project we sought to develop new ways to analyze geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data to reduce the risk and increase the prospects of successful geothermal exploration and development. We collected, organized, and analyzed data from southwest New Mexico in the context of an integrated framework that combines the data for various signatures of a geothermal resource into a cohesive analysis of the presence of heat, fluid, and permeability. We incorporated data on structural characteristics (earthquakes, geophysical logs, fault location and age, basement depth), topographic and water table elevations, conservative ion concentrations, and thermal information (heat flow, bottom hole temperature, discharge temperature, and basement heat generation). These data were combined to create maps that indicate structural analysis, slope, geothermometry, and heat. We also mapped discharge areas (to constrain elevations where groundwater may be discharged through modern thermal springs or paleo-thermal springs) and subcrops: possible erosionally- or structurally-controlled breaches in regional-scale aquitards that form the basis of our hydrogeologic windows concept. These two maps were particularly useful in identifying known geothermal systems and narrowing the search for unknown geothermal prospects. We further refined the "prospectivity" of the areas within the subcrops and discharge areas by developing and applying a new method for spatial association analysis to data on known and inferred faults, earthquakes, geochemical thermometers, and heat flow. This new methodology determines the relationships of the location and magnitudes of observations of these data with known geothermal sites. The results of each of the six spatial association analyses were weighted between 0 and 1 and summed to produce a prospectivity score between 0 and 6, with 6 indicating highest geothermal potential. The mean value of prospectivity for all

  4. Geothermal Energy Program Overview: Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    In FY 1990-1991, the Geothermal Energy Program made significant strides in hydrothermal, geopressured brine, hot dry rock, and magma research, continuing a 20-year tradition of advances in geothermal technology.

  5. POLLUTION CONTROL GUIDANCE FOR GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pol...

  6. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  7. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  8. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jelacic, Allan; Fortuna, Raymond; LaSala, Raymond; Nathwani, Jay; Nix, Gerald; Visser, Charles; Green, Bruce; Renner, Joel; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; Bruton, Carol

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  9. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  10. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  11. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  12. ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

  13. Geothermal Heat Pumps for Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    OFFICE OF GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES Geothermal Heat Pumps for Federal Buildings The U.S. Government spends approximately $8 billion annually on its energy needs. To reduce energy use in Federal buildings, President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 13123 in June 1999, which calls for a 35% reduction in Federal energy use from 1985 levels by 2010. Geothermal heat pumps--when installed in virtually any type of building--can help accomplish this goal with energy savings of up to 40%. Geothermal he.

  14. Modeling discharge requirements for deep geothermal wells at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, MX

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, Anthony J.; Granados, Eduardo E.; Puente, Hector Gutierrez; Pierres, Luis Ortega

    1995-01-26

    During the mid-l980's, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) drilled a number of deep wells (M-200 series) at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico to investigate the continuation of the geothermal reservoir to the east of the Cerro Prieto-II and III production areas. The wells encountered permeability at depths ranging from 2,800 to 4,400 m but due to the reservoir depth and the relatively cold temperatures encountered in the upper 1,000 to 2,000 m of the wells, it was not possible to discharge some of the wells. The wells at Cerro Prieto are generally discharged by injecting compressed air below the water level using 2-3/8-inch tubing installed with either a crane or workover rig. The objective of this technique is to lift sufficient water out of the well to stimulate flow from the reservoir into the wellbore. However, in the case of the M-200 series wells, the temperatures in the upper 1,000 to 2,000 m are generally below 50 C and the heat loss to the formation is therefore significant. The impact of heat loss on the stimulation process was evaluated using both a numerical model of the reservoir/wellbore system and steady-state wellbore modeling. The results from the study indicate that if a flow rate of at least 300 liters/minute can be sustained, the well can probably be successfully stimulated. This is consistent with the flow rates obtained during the successful stimulations of wells M-202 and M-203. If the flow rate is closer to 60 liters/minute, the heat loss is significant and it is unlikely that the well can be successfully discharged. These results are consistent with the unsuccessful discharge attempts in wells M-201 and M-205.

  15. Utilization of geothermal energy in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Rivero, L.U.; De La Salle Univ, M.

    1981-01-01

    A history of the exploration of the geothermal resources as well as the construction of the geothermal power plants in the Philippines is given. The cost and the viability of such plants under Philippine conditions are presented. The necessity of a planned development around the geothermal plant, such as heat-consuming industries, is stressed. 15 refs.

  16. A corrosivity classification system for geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, Marshall F.

    1982-10-08

    The most important difference between traditional steam systems and those that utilize geothermal fluids is the potential for corrosion of metals. The recently developed sourcebook ''Materials Selection Guidelines for Geothermal Energy Utilization Systems'' is expected to facilitate corrosion engineering decision making and reduce the cost of geothermal systems where new resources are similar to those presented by the corrosivity classification system.

  17. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A state-by-state review of major geothermal-development activities during 1982 is presented. It also inlcudes a summary of recent drilling and exploration efforts and the results of the 1982 leasing program. Two complementary sections feature an update of geothermal direct-use applications and a site-by-site summary of US geothermal electric-power development.

  20. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  1. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  2. Gulf of Mexico

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... article title:  Continued Spread of Gulf of Mexico Oil Slick       View Larger ... on NASA's Terra spacecraft passed over the Deepwater Horizon oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico on May 8, 2010, at approximately 16:50 UTC ...

  3. Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico (26.5N, 102.0W) west of Monclova, shows a mining region of northern Mexico. Mine tailings can be seen on the mountain slopes and in the valley floor. In addition to mining activity, several irrigated agricultural areas supporting the local communities can be seen in the area.

  4. Maintaining a competitive geothermal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zodiaco, V.P.

    1996-04-10

    I come to this geothermal business with over 30 years of experience in the power generation industry. I have earned my spurs (so to speak) in the electric utility, nuclear power, coal and the gas-fired cogeneration power businesses. I have been employed by Oxbow Power for the past seven years and for the past 18 months I have been based in Reno and responsible for the operation, maintenance and management of Oxbow`s domestic power projects which include three geothermal and two gas-fired facilities. The Oxbow Power Group (consisting principally of Oxbow Power Corporation, Oxbow Geothermal Corporation, Oxbow Power of Beowawe, Oxbow Power International and Oxbow Power Services, Inc.) is based in West Palm Beach, Florida, and has regional offices in Reno, Hong Kong and Manila to support on-line geothermal projects in Nevada, other domestic power projects and a geothermal plant under construction in the Philippines. Oxbow Power employs approximately 30 professionals in the development and management of power projects and over 100 supervisors and technicians in the operation and maintenance of power facilities. Current ownership in independent power projects total 340 MW in the United States and 47 MW under construction in the Philippines. Oxbow is currently negotiating additional projects in several Asian and Central American countries.

  5. Petroleum and Mexico's future

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Addressing the effects of the 1982 crisis, through the late 1980s, on Mexico's economic and political systems and assessing the country's potential for entering a period of strong economic growth, contributors to this volume focus on oil, the primary source of Mexico's foreign exchange earnings, and on trade with the U.S., the primary means for earning foreign exchange. The authors argue that the problems Mexico faced during the crisis period are not over; indeed, the most difficult challenges lie ahead. For the remainder of the century Mexico must earn adequate revenue to service a substantial debt and to permit the economy to grow at a rate that provides opportunity for a labor force already enduring a high rate of unemployment and rising inflation. Contributors agree that the key to Mexico's economic and political stability will be control of inflation, unemployment, and large public sector deficits.

  6. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, M.P. . Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi . Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  7. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  8. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  9. Lassen geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Nehring, N.L.; Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.; Clynne, M.A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Lassen geothermal system consists of a central vapor-dominated reservoir underlain by hot water that discharges peripherally at lower elevations. The major thermal upflow at Bumpass Hell (elevation 2500 m) displays numerour superheated fumaroles, one of which in 1976 was 159/sup 0/C. Gas geothermometers from the fumarole areas and water geothermometers from boiling Cl-bearing waters at Morgan Hot Springs (elevation 1530 m; 8 km south of Bumpass Hell) and from 176/sup 0/C waters in a well 12 km southeast of Bumpass Hell both indicate 230 to 240/sup 0/C for the deep thermal water. With increasing distance from Bumpass Hell, gases are progressively depleted in H/sub 2/S relative to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/, owing to oxidation of H/sub 2/S to pyrite, sulfur, and sulfates and to dilution with atmospheric N/sub 2/. H/sub 2/O/gas ratios and degree of superheat of fumaroles can be explained by mixing of steam of maximum enthalpy (2804 J g/sup -1/) with near-surface water and with the condensate layer overlying the vapor-dominated reservoir.

  10. Environmental problems and geothermal permitting

    SciTech Connect

    Windrem, P.F.; Marr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of geothermal development, the attendant environmental hazards, and the jurisdictions of the various government agencies. Most examples of environmental hazards are drawn from the electric-power production in the geysers of northern California. The major enviromental effects of geothermal development are observed on air quality (including noise), land (including soil erosion, seismic activity and subsidence, wildlife habitat, and visual quality), and water quality. Ownership determines which agencies have jurisdiction, with the preparation of an environmental impact statement at the heart of the federal regulatory process and an environmental-impact report required at the state level. Environmental rules also cover power-plant construction and geothermal field abandonment. 58 references.

  11. Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

  12. Geothermometer calculations for geothermal assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Geothermal exploration programs have relied on the calculation of geothermometers from hot spring chemistry as an early estimation of geothermal reservoir temperatures. Calibration of the geothermometers has evolved from experimental determinations of mineral solubility as a function of temperature to calibration from analyses of water chemistry from known depths and temperatures in thermal wells. Most of the geothermometers were calibrated from analyses of sodium-chloride type waters, and the application of some geothermometers should be restricted to waters of the chemical types that were used in their calibration. Chemical analyses must be determined to be reliable before they are used to calculate geothermometers. The USGS Geothermal Resource Assessment will rely on the silica geothermometer developed by Giggenbach that approximates the transition between chalcedony at 20??C and quartz at 200??C. Above 200??C, the assessment will rely on the quartz geothermometer. In addition, the assessment will also rely on the potassium-magnesium geothermometer.

  13. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Geothermal energy projects - Planning and management

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, L.J.; Love, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A presentation is made of management requirements for the development of geothermal resources by citing three major, and successful, projects: the Wairakei geothermal power project of New Zealand, the Hawaii geothermal project of the United States, and the Tiwi geothermal project of the Philippines. The three case studies are presented according to a format in which the history of each project falls into four phases: (1) planning, appraisal and design (2) section, approval and activation (3) operation, control and handover and (4) evaluation and refinement. Each case study furnishes extensive performance and economic figures, along with consideration of such related issues as geothermal effluent chemical content, infrastructural requirements, and environmental impact.

  15. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  16. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the NGC

  17. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  18. Design and construction of the NMSU Geothermally Heated Greenhouse Research Facility: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenmackers, R.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and performance of the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Geothermal Greenhouse Research Facility. Two 6000-square-foot greenhouses were built on the NMSU campus and supplied with geothermal energy for heating. The geothermal water is pumped from one of three wells producing water at temperatures from 141/degree/F to 148/degree/F. Heat is delivered to the greenhouse space by means of overhead fan-coil unit heaters. The two greenhouses are double-glazed on roof and wall surfaces employing a total of four different film materials: Tedlar/Reg Sign/, Melinex/Reg Sign/, Softglass/Reg Sign/, and Agrifilm/Reg Sign/. One greenhouse is cooled using a traditional fan and pad cooling system. The second greenhouse is cooled with a high-pressure fog system and natural ventilation through roof and side vents. A 2400-square-foot metal building next to the greenhouses provides office, work, and storage space for the facility. The greenhouse facility was leased to two commerical tenants who produced a variety of crops. The performance of the greenhouses was monitored and reported both qualitatively and quantitatively. Results from the tenant's pilot-scale studies in the NMSU greenhouse facility were transferred and applied to two commercial greenhouse ranges that were built in southern New Mexico during 1986/87. 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  20. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Particle characterization for geothermal operations

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1981-01-06

    A detailed summary of an ongoing evaluation of existing particle measuring methodology with emphasis on (a) adapting of existing methods in geothermal operations and (b) further development of existing instrumentation for field use is presented. The various instruments and methods used and/or suggested for particle characterization are described in detail. Theoretical and practical aspects of particle characterizations are outlined. A plan for further laboratory and field experiments is outlined. The instrumentations to be selected after some additional lab and field tests will be used in the studies on (a) formation damage through particle invasion and (b) characterizing and monitoring of particle suspensions in geothermal operations.

  2. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  3. Geothermal Project Data and Personnel Resumes

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Rogers Engineering Co., Inc. is one of the original engineering companies in the US to become involved in geothermal well testing and design of geothermal power plants. Rogers geothermal energy development activities began almost twenty years ago with flow testing of the O'Neill well in Imperial Valley, California and well tests at Tiwi in the Philippines; a geothermal project for the Commission on Volcanology, Republic of the Philippines, and preparation of a feasibility study on the use of geothermal hot water for electric power generation at Casa Diablo, a geothermal area near Mammouth. This report has brief write-ups of recent geothermal resources development and power plant consulting engineering projects undertaken by Rogers in the US and abroad.

  4. Peer Review of the Hot Dry Rock Project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the hot dry rock experiment project conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Laboratory at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, from about 1971 through 1995. The authors identify the primary lessons learned and techniques developed during the course of the Fenton Hill project, and summarize the extent to which these technologies have been transferred to the U.S. geothermal industry.

  5. Investigating ultra high-enthalpy geothermal systems: a collaborative initiative to promote scientific opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Nielson, D.; Schiffman, P.; Schriener, A., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists, engineers, and policy makers gathered at a workshop in the San Bernardino Mountains of southern California in October 2013 to discuss the science and technology involved in developing high-enthalpy geothermal fields. A typical high-enthalpy geothermal well between 2000 and 3000 m deep produces a mixture of hot water and steam at 200-300 °C that can be used to generate about 5-10 MWe of electric power. The theme of the workshop was to explore the feasibility and economic potential of increasing the power output of geothermal wells by an order of magnitude by drilling deeper to reach much higher pressures and temperatures. Development of higher enthalpy geothermal systems for power production has obvious advantages; specifically higher temperatures yield higher power outputs per well so that fewer wells are needed, leading to smaller environmental footprints for a given size of power plant. Plans for resource assessment and drilling in such higher enthalpy areas are already underway in Iceland, New Zealand, and Japan. There is considerable potential for similar developments in other countries that already have a large production of electricity from geothermal steam, such as Mexico, the Philippines, Indonesia, Italy, and the USA. However drilling deeper involves technical and economic challenges. One approach to mitigating the cost issue is to form a consortium of industry, government and academia to share the costs and broaden the scope of investigation. An excellent example of such collaboration is the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP), which is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs, and this approach could serve as model for future developments elsewhere. A planning committee was formed to explore creating a similar initiative in the USA.

  6. Geothermal direct use in the United States update: 1990-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Culver, G.G.

    1995-02-01

    Geothermal energy is estimated to currently supply approximately 13,885 TJ/yr (13,180 x 10{sup 9} BTU/yr) of heat energy through direct heat applications in the United States. Table 1 summarizes the U.S. geothermal direct heat uses. It should be noted that Table 1 does not contain enhanced oil recovery, which was included in the 1990 update report. In the oil fields of the upper midwest (Montana, North Dakota and Wyoming), thermal waters are not being injected at higher temperatures than the oil producing zones. This means that there is no benefit to reducing oil viscosity, which would have increased production rates; therefore, resulting in this use being deleted from direct uses in the table. In the 1990 report two geothermal district heating systems were listed as under construction, Mammoth Lakes and Bridgeport, these systems have not been built although exploratory wells have been drilled. They are not included in the current summary of direct uses. There have been no new geothermal district heating systems started; however, San Bernardino and Klamath Falls have expanded their systems. Annual energy use of direct heat applications reported for both the 1990 and 1994 updates are shown. All of the categories experienced some increase in use, however the largest growth has been in geothermal heat pumps. From 1985 to 1990 the highest growth rate in geothermal heat pumps occurred, then tapered off some from 1990 to 1994. In the other five categories there has been a steady growth with the largest occurring in space heating, greenhouses and industrial plants. Greenhouse development has been significant in New Mexico and Utah and a new onion and garlic dehydration plant was built in Nevada.

  7. Geothermal Pumping and Induced Seismicity in Southern California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jones, L.

    2013-12-01

    Induced earthquakes have been recognized for decades and observed in New Zealand, Switzerland, the US and elsewhere. Many factors can induce seismicity, including changes in pore pressure, temperature, volume, and chemistry. When fractured rock is injected with fluid, the effective normal stress and coefficient of friction are lowered and the rock is brought closer to failure. In this study, we examine the relationship between seismicity and geothermal pumping. We have obtained monthly injection and production data from the CA Department of Conservation for the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Brawley Geothermal Field, and other California geothermal fields. We compare the temporal distribution of injection, production, fluid volume change (injection volume - production volume), and seismicity to determine if there are changes in the pumping rates that correspond to changes in seismicity rates. We observe a qualitative correlation between times of maximum fluid volume change and high seismicity levels, in particular, contemporaneous with the 2005 Obsidian Butte earthquake swarm. We also examine how changes in injection and production rates affect the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, earthquake depth, and focal mechanisms.

  8. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update, geothermal program monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This paper is a progress and development update describing three projects in the U.S. which involve the use of geothermal energy and ground-source heat pumps. The first project is located at Fort Polk Army Base in Louisiana. Four thousand government housing units are being retrofitted with efficient ground-soured near Bend, Oregon.

  9. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  10. Updated cost estimates of meeting geothermal hydrogen sulfide emission regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Weakley, S.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1981-08-01

    A means of estimating the cost of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emission control was investigated. This study was designed to derive H/sub 2/S emission abatement cost functions and illustrate the cost of H/sub 2/S emission abatement at a hydrothermal site. Four tasks were undertaken: document the release of H/sub 2/S associated with geothermal development; review H/sub 2/S environmental standards; develop functional relationships that may be used to estimate the most cose-effective available H/sub 2/S abatement process; and use the cost functions to generate abatement cost estimates for a specific site. The conclusions and recommendations derived from the research are presented. The definition of the term impacts as used in this research is discussed and current estimates of the highest expected H/sub 2/S concentrations of in geothermal reservoirs are provided. Regulations governing H/sub 2/S emissions are reviewed and a review of H/sub 2/S control technology and a summary of the control cost functions are included. A case study is presented to illustrate H/sub 2/S abatement costs at the Baca KGRA in New Mexico.

  11. Mining earth's heat: Development of hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, R.A.; Becker, N.A.

    1983-07-01

    Geothermal energy is commonly considered to be available only in areas characterized by hot springs and geysers. However, the rock of the earth is hot at accessible depths everywhere, and this energy source is present beneath the surface in almost any location. The energy-extraction concept of the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Program as initially developed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, is to ''mine'' this heat by creating a man-made reservoir in low-permeability, hot basement rock. This concept has been successfully proven at Fenton Hill in northern New Mexico by drilling two holes to a depth of approximately 3 km (10,000 ft) and a bottom temperature of 200/sup 0/C (392/sup 0/F), then connecting the boreholes with a large diameter, vertical hydraulic fracture. Water is circulated down one borehole, heated by the hot rock, and rises up the second borehole to the surface where the heat is extracted and the cooled water is reinjected into the underground circulation loop. This system has operated for a cumulative 416 days during engineering and reservoir testing. An energy equivalent of 3 to 5 MW(t) was produced without adverse environmental problems. During one test, a generator was installed in the circulation loop and produced 60 kw of electricity.

  12. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  13. Hot dry rock heat mining: An advanced geothermal energy technology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    The conventional geothermal industry relies on naturally occurring fluids, either liquids or gases to transport the internal heat of the earth to the surface where it is applied to useful purposes, but there are only a relatively few places where these hydrothermal resources exist at temperatures high enough to generate electric power. Over most of the world, the hot rock beneath the surface is relatively dry. Geothermal energy in the form of hot dry rock (HDR) is abundant, widely distributed, and accessible. Energy extraction from HDR promises to be economically competitive and can be accomplished with essentially no adverse environmental effects. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology which is being developed to gain access to, mine, and utilize the thermal energy existing in HDR. For the last two decades, the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop techniques for mining HDR energy. Early worked proved that it is feasible to extract thermal energy using drilling and fracturing techniques adapted from the petroleum and geothermal industries. Recently, results have demonstrated that it should be possible to operate HDR plants in a closed-loop mode with minimal water use. Long-term testing is about to begin at the HDR facility operated by Los Alamos at Fenton Hill in the Mountains of northern New Mexico. The goal of this test will be to demonstrate that useful amounts of energy can be produced from HDR on a sustainable basis. Results of this work will form the basis for design, construction, and operation of economic HDR plants in the future. Significant HDR programs are now underway in a number of countries. As the technology matures, HDR should take its place as a clean, economically competitive energy source for the world. 11 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Geothermal test hints at oil potential in eastern Arizona volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Rauzi, S.L. )

    1993-01-03

    A recently drilled geothermal well, funded by the US Department of Energy and the Arizona Department of Commerce, has provided information about the geology of east-central Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Tonto Drilling Services in cooperation with New Mexico State University completed the well, the 1 Alpine-Federal, at a total depth of 4,505 ft. The well is located among volcanic rocks in the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest about 6 miles north of the town of Alpine and 6.2 miles west of the Arizona-New Mexico line. The well was drilled to determine the hot dry rock geothermal potential of Precambrian rocks. The operator expected to penetrate Precambrian at about 4,200 ft, but the hole was still in Permian rocks at that depth and was in a mafic dike that intruded the Permian rocks at the total depth of 4,505 ft. The hole did show that Cretaceous and Permian strata contain potentially important source rocks for oil and gas that are apparently unaffected by nearby volcanism. These potential oil source rocks are the focus of this article.

  15. Uranium disequilibrium investigation of the Las Cruces East Mesa Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, J.; Cochran, J.; Icerman, L.

    1985-03-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium in 33 thermal and nonthermal groundwaters was found to vary from less than 1 part per billion to 285 parts per billion. The uranium-234 to uranium-238 alpha activity ratio of the 33 samples varied from 0.8 to 4.6. Young waters in the recharge area of the Jornada del Muerto Basin are characterized by low uranium concentrations and high activity ratios. Uranium concentrations of groundwaters increase down hydraulic gradient. Concentrations and activity ratios of dissolved uranium in Mesilla Valley groundwater exhibit wide variation and appear to be related to both short-term and long-term removal of groundwater from storage. Geothermal waters exhibit low uranium concentrations and activity ratios. The water produced from New Mexico State University geothermal wells appears to be a mixture of deep upwelling geothermal water and shallow Jornada del Muerto Basin water. The low activity ratio of water from an 800 meter geothermal well may be the result of thermally-induced isotopic equilibration. Isotopic equilibration suggests that higher temperatures may be found deeper within the reservoir.

  16. Geoelectrical Characterization of the Punta Banda System: A Possible Structural Control for the Geothermal Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango-Galvan, C.; Flores-Marquez, E.; Prol-Ledesma, R.; Working Group, I.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of sufficient drinking water in México has become a very serious problem, especially in the northern desert regions of the country. In order to give a real solution to this phenomenon the IMPULSA research program has been created to develope novel technologies based on desalination of sea and brackish water using renewable sources of energy to face the problem. The Punta Banda geothermal anomaly is located towards the northern part of Baja California Peninsula (Mexico). High water temperatures in some wells along the coast depicted a geothermal anomaly. An audiomagnetotelluric survey was carried out in the area as a preliminary study, both to understand the process generating these anomalous temperatures and to assess its potential exploitation to supply hot water to desalination plants. Among the electromagnetic methods, the audiomagnetotellurics (AMT) method is appropriated for deep groundwater and geothermal studies. The survey consisted of 27 AMT stations covering a 5 km profile along the Agua Blanca Fault. The employed array allowed us to characterize the geoelectrical properties of the main structures up to 500 m depth. Two main geoelectrical zones were identified: 1) a shallow low resistivity media located at the central portion of the profile, coinciding with the Maneadero valley and 2) two high resitivity structures bordering the conductive zone possibly related to NS faulting, already identified by previous geophysical studies. These results suggest that the main geothermal anomalies are controlled by the dominant structural regime in the zone.

  17. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  18. Leasing of federal geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    Pursuant to the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 and the regulations published on December 21, 1973, the first Federal geothermal competitive lease sale was held on January 22, 1974, by the Department of the Interior, offering 33 tracts totalling over 50,000 acres in three Known Geothermal Resource Areas in California. On January 1, 1974, Federal lands outside Known Geothermal Resource Areas were opened to noncompetitive lease applications, of which, 3,763 had been received by June 1, 1974. During fiscal year 1974, a total of 22 competitive leases had been issued in California and Oregon. The principal components in the Department involved in the leasing program are the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management. The former has jurisdiction over drilling and production operations and other activities in the immediate area of operations. The latter receives applications and issues leases and is responsible for managing leased lands under its jurisdiction outside the area of operations. The interrelationships of the above agencies and the procedures in the leasing program are discussed.

  19. Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy has been viewed by the author in two locations in the world: Klamath Falls, Oregon and Oradea, Romania. The former is not longer in operation; but, the latter has been operating since 1981. A third dairy using geothermal energy has been reported in Iceland which was established in 1930 to pasteurize milk and evaporate whey to produce brown whey cheese. This dairy merged with another co-op dairy in 1938 and was shut down. A description of the first two of these installations is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation in other geothermal locations. These two reported savings in energy costs by using geothermal heat; the Klamath Falls installation producing 7,600 L/day (2,000 gals/day) for a savings of $12,000 per year and the Oradea plant producing 70,000 L/day (18,500 gals/day) (winter) and 200,000 L/day (52,800 gals/day) (summer) for savings of $120,000 per year (savings 800 TOE - tonnes of oil equivalent).

  20. Geothermal Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-25

    Results are reported on adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks, physics of injection of water into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs, earth-tide effects on downhole pressures, injection optimization at the Geysers, effects of salinity in adsorption experiments, interpreting multiwell pressure data from Ohaaki, and estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments.

  1. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  2. Turbodrilling in the Geothermal Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, P.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal drilling, historically, has presented what seemed to be insurmountable barriers to the efficient and extended use of downhole drilling motors, especially those containing elastomeric bearing or motor components. In addition to being damaging to rubber, the typical temperatures of 177 to 371 C (350 to 700 F) create other operating problems as well. Recent innovations, specifically in turbodrill design, have opened heretofore unrealized potentials and allowed, for the first time, extended downhole drilling of geothermal wells. A considerable amount of experience has been obtained both in The Geysers and Imperial County areas of California primarily in directional drilling applications using insert, diamond, and polycrystallines diamond compact bits. Other hot-hole applications are currently being drilled successfully or planned in other states, both onshore and offshore. The turbodrill is devoid of any elastomers or other temperature-sensitive materials, hence, its capabilities are closely matched to the requirements of the industry. The bearing assembly can withstand the rigors found in the drilling of typical geothermal formations and provide the performance necessary to stay in the hole, thus providing increased penetration rates and, hence, more economical drilling. This paper presents case histories of recent turbodrill performances in all areas where used. Furthermore, data will be presented showing the performance of insert, diamond, and polycrystalline diamond bits as they relate to the turbodrill, together with forecasts as to the potential that turbodrills have to offer in accelerating and controlling the drilling of geothermal wells.

  3. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  4. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  5. Geothermal heat pumps in Pierre

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1997-12-01

    There are two municipal connected heat pumps in Pierre, South Dakota: the South Dakota Discovery Center and Pierre City Hall.Both systems now utilize plate heat exchanger between the city water loop and the building loop. This article describes the geothermal system used in Pierre for both space heating and cooling of municipal buildings.

  6. Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.; Sinclair, A.R.; Nicholson, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh downhole environment. Two deep wells were drilled to approximately 15,000 ft (4.6 km); formation temperatures are in excess of 600/sup 0/F (315/sup 0/C). The wells were drilled during 1979 to 1981, inclined at 35 degrees, one above the other, and directionally drilled in an azimuthal direction orthogonal to the least principal in-situ crustal stress field. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the two wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in insolation liners and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of three-dimensional fracture growth that requires very large volumes of injected water. Two fractured zones have been formed by hydraulic fracturing and defined by close-in, borehole deployed, microseismic detectors. Initial operations were focused in the injection wellbore near total depth, where water injection treatments totalling 51,000 bbls (8100 m/sup 3/) were accomplished by pumping through a cemented-in 4-1/2 in. liner/PBR assembly. Retrievable casing packers were used to inject 26,000 bbls (4100 m/sup 3/) in the upper section of the open hole. Surface injection pressures (ISIP) varied from 4000 to 5900 psi (27 to 41 MPa) and the fracture gradient ranged from 0.7 to 0.96 psi/ft.

  7. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  8. Field trip guide to the Valles Caldera and its geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Bolivar, S.L.

    1983-12-01

    This field trip guide has been compiled from extensive field trips led at Los Alamos National Laboratory during the past six years. The original version of this guide was designed to augment a workshop on the Valles Caldera for the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). This workshop was held at Los Alamos, New Mexico, 5-7 October 1982. More stops were added to this guide to display the volcanic and geothermal features at the Valles Caldera. The trip covers about 90 miles (one way) and takes two days to complete; however, those who wish to compress the trip into one day are advised to use the designated stops listed in the Introduction. Valles Caldera and vicinity comprise both one of the most exciting geothermal areas in the United States and one of the best preserved Quaternary caldera complexes in the world.

  9. Occupational health in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carreón, Tania; Santos-Burgoa, Carlos; Baron, Sherry; Hernández, Sendy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss the maquiladoras and child labor, and offer an overview of the history of occupational safety and health in Mexico that covers laws and regulations, social security, unions, and enforcement of legislation. The organization and structure of the various institutions responsible for occupational safety and health (OSH), as well as administrative procedures, are described. This article concludes with a list of the new challenges for OSH in Mexico. PMID:12028953

  10. Forests of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Dirzo, R.; Zadroga, F.

    1995-07-01

    Forest of Mexico as elsewhere provide essential goods and services for both local citizens and the international community. Benefits include climate regulation, biodiversity, and wood and nonwood products for local consumption and economic activity. Deforestation is a matter of great environmental and economic concern. This article assesses rates of deforestation, the present status of forest in Mexico, and the major factors responsible for deforestation in the tropical southeastern region.

  11. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  12. Geothermal Technologies Program - Geothermal Energy: Putting Creative Ideas to Work (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Rapid expansion of U.S. geothermal capacity is opening new job opportunities across the nation. With more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) already installed, the United States leads the world in existing geothermal capacity.

  13. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) Geothermal Data: Community Requirements and Information Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy; Boyd, Toni; Horne, Roland; MacKenzie, Matthew; Moore, Joseph; Nickull, Duane; Richard, Stephen; Shevenell, Lisa A.

    2013-10-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to advance geothermal energy as a viable renewable energy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is investing in the development of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to supply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are discussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geothermal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS includes a work plan that addresses data assets and resources of interest to users, a survey of data providers, data content models, and how data will be exchanged and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  14. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  15. Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources, Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This document highlights the applications of low-temperature geothermal resources and the potential for future uses as well as current Geothermal Technologies Program-funded projects related to low-temperature resources.

  16. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: GROUND WATER MONITORING GUIDELINES FOR GEOTHERMAL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses potential ground water pollution from geothermal resource development, conversion, and waste disposal, and proposes guidelines for developing a ground water monitoring plan for any such development. Geothermal processes, borehole logging, and injection well ...

  17. Geothermal pipeline: Progress and development update from the geothermal progress monitor

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    This article is a progress and development update of new prospects for the utilization of geothermal energy. The city of San Bernadino, California uses high-quality geothermal fluids for laundry processes without the need for water softening or heating. Four geothermal prospects in Oregon including exploration work by Amadarko, CE Exploration Company, Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, and Vulcan Power Company are also reviewed.

  18. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  19. New Mexico's energy resources '81. Annual report of Bureau of Geology in the Mining and Minerals Division of New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, E.C.; Hill, J.M.

    1981-09-03

    Although production of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ declined only slightly in 1980, New Mexico's share of domestic production has declined from 48% in 1976 to 35% in 1980. Production projections indicate a continued decline in 1981 and lower production until at least 1984. New Mexico has 41% of total domestic reserves producible in the $50-per-lb cost category. In keeping with the anticipated steady depletion of reserves, production of crude oil in New Mexico was 69.9 million bls, a 6.3% decline in production from 1979. Condensate production of 5.4 million bbls in 1980, however, represented an increase of 7% from 1979 production. Although natural gas production was the lowest since 1970 and declined by 2.6% from 1979 production, 1980 was the 15th year that production exceeded 1 trillion cu ft. Despite declines in production, the valuation of oil and gas production has increased significantly with oil sales doubling from the previous year and gas sales increasing by $409 million because of higher prices. Reserves have been estimated to be 959 million bbls of crude oil and 17.667 trillion cu ft of natural gas. Production of 19.5 million short tons of coal in 1980 represented a 33% increase over 1979 production and an increase of 157% since 1970. Coal resources in New Mexico are estimated to be 180.79 billion short tons, and production is projected to incease to 39.61 million tons in 1985 and 67.53 million tons in 1990. The most notable developments in geothermal energy have been in technical advances in drilling, testing, and applications, especially in the area of hot dry rock systems. The US Bureau of Land Management has issued 113 geothermal leases that remain active. Recent geothermal exploration activity has been detailed for 21 companies.

  20. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  1. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, O. ); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. ); Cooper, L. ); Caicedo, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1979-12-27

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carryover through the turbine causing corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  3. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  4. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  5. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  6. Geothermal fracture stimulation technology. Volume III. Geothermal fracture fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A detailed study of all available and experimental frac fluid systems is presented. They have been examined and tested for physical properties that are important in the stimulation of hot water geothermal wells. These fluids consist of water-based systems containing high molecular weight polymers in the uncrosslinked and crosslinked state. The results of fluid testing for many systems are summarized specifically at geothermal conditions or until breakdown occurs. Some of the standard tests are ambient viscosity, static aging, high temperature viscosity, fluid-loss testing, and falling ball viscosity at elevated temperatures and pressures. Results of these tests show that unalterable breakdown of the polymer solutions begins above 300/sup 0/F. This continues at higher temperatures with time even if stabilizers or other high temperature additives are included.

  7. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States. Papers presented: Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Topic areas covered include: technical assistance (hydrothermal resource application in the eastern United States); GRITS - a computer model for economic evaluation of direct-uses of geothermal energy; geothermal market penetration in the residential sector - capital stock impediments and compensatory incentives; an analysis of benefits and costs of accelerated market penetration by a geothermal community heating system.

  8. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program, Status Report: Foreign Research on Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McLarty, Lynn; Entingh, Daniel

    2000-09-29

    This report reviews enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) research outside the United States. The term ''enhanced geothermal systems'' refers to the use of advanced technology to extract heat energy from underground in areas with higher than average heat flow but where the natural permeability or fluid content is limited. EGS covers the spectrum of geothermal resources from low permeability hydrothermal to hot dry rock.

  9. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  10. Materials for Geothermal Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1992-03-24

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved. Laboratory testing of BNL-developed phosphate modified calcium aluminate cements confirmed their hydrolytic stability in 300 C brine and their resistance to chemical attack by CO{sub 2}. Specimens were found to be >20 times more resistant to carbonation than Class H cement and twice as resistant as unmodified calcium aluminate cements. Testing of thermally conductive polymer cements as potential corrosion resistant liner materials for use in heat exchanger applications was continued. Field test were conducted in flowing hypersaline brine and the results indicated scale deposition rates lower than those on a high alloy steel. Additional tests for bottoming cycle heat exchange use are planned for FY 1992. Progress was also made with chemical systems for lost circulation control. If materials placement is to be performed by pumping through an open drillpipe or through a drillable straddle packer, a bentonite-ammonium polyphosphate-borax-magnesium oxide formulation, containing fibers or particulates when large fissures are encountered, can be used. This system was ready for demonstration in FY 1991, but a suitable test site did not become available. Optimization of this and three other formulations for use with other Sandia National Laboratories

  11. Geothermal Power Development in the Phillippines

    SciTech Connect

    Jovellanos, Jose U.; Alcaraz, Arturo; Datuin, Rogelio

    1980-12-01

    The generation of electric power to meet the needs of industrial growth and dispersal in the Philippines is aimed at attaining self-reliance through availment of indigenous energy resources. The Philippines by virtue of her position in the high-heat flow region has in abundance a number of exploitable geothermal fields located all over the country. Results indicate that the geothermal areas of the Philippines presently in various stages of exploration and development are of such magnitude that they can be relied on to meet a significant portion of the country's power need. Large scale geothermal energy for electric power generation was put into operation last year with the inauguration of two 55-MW geothermal generating units at Tiwi, Albay in Southern Luzon. Another two 55-MW units were added to the Luzon Grid in the same year from Makiling-Banahaw field about 70 kilometers south of Manila. For 1979 alone, therefore, 220-MW of generating capacity was added to the power supply coming from geothermal energy. This year a total of 220-MW power is programmed for both areas. This will bring to 443-MW of installed generating capacity from geothermal energy with 3-MW contributed by the Tongonan Geothermal pilot plant in Tongonan, Leyte, Central Philippines in operation since July 1977. Financial consideration of Philippine experience showed that electric power derived from geothermal energy is competitive with other sources of energy and is a viable source of baseload electric power. Findings have proven the technical and economic acceptability of geothermal energy resources development. To realize the benefits that stem from the utilization of indigenous geothermal resources and in the light of the country's ever increasing electric power demand and in the absence of large commercial oil discovery in the Philippines, geothermal energy resource development has been accelerated anew. The program includes development of eight fields by 1989 by adding five more fields to the

  12. Geothermal programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P.W.; Younker, L.W.

    1987-07-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a number of geothermal programs supported through two offices in the Department of Energy: the Office of Renewable Technologies, Geothermal Technologies Division, and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Engineering, Mathematics and Geosciences. Within these programs, we are carrying out research in injection monitoring, optical instrumentation for geothermal wells, seismic imaging methods, geophysical and drilling investigations of young volcanic systems in California, and fundamental studies of the rock and mineral properties.

  13. The LBL geothermal reservoir technology program

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1991-03-01

    The main objective of the DOE/GD-funded Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is the development and testing of new and improved methods and tools needed by industry in its effort to delineate, characterize, evaluate, and exploit hydrothermal systems for geothermal energy. This paper summarizes the recent and ongoing field, laboratory, and theoretical research activities being conducted as part of the Geothermal Reservoir Technology Program. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Geothermal drilling research in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Varnado, S.G.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    The high cost of drilling and completing geothermal wells is an impediment to the development of this resource. The Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE), is conducting an R and D program directed at reducing well costs through improvements in geothermal drilling and completion technology. This program includes R and D activities in high temperature drilling hardware, drilling fluids, lost circulation control methods, completion technology, and advanced drilling systems. An overview of the program is presented.

  15. The geothermal program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    The main purpose of the geothermal program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is to develop, improve and validate methods and instrumentation to: (1) determine geothermal reservoir parameters; (2) detect and characterize reservoir fractures and boundaries; and (3) identify and evaluate the importance of reservoir processes. The ultimate objective of the program, which includes field, theoretical and modeling activities, is to advance the state-of-the-art for characterizing geothermal systems and evaluating their productive capacity and longevity under commercial exploitation.

  16. Plant support capabilities of a geothermal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, F.E.; Singh, K.; Berry, W.; Thomas, T.R.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal fluids and shallow groundwater from Republic Geothermal, Inc. lease area of East Mesa in Imperial County, California were used successfully to irrigate sugar beet, alfalfa, asparagus, date palm, tamarisk, and desert climax vegetation. Chemical characteristics of the two irrigation fluids differed, but total dissolved solids content of the fluids were similar and within the 2000 mg/l range. The geothermal fluid contains elements which could be harmful to irrigated plants or plant consumers.

  17. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  18. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, January-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Toth, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. For each state (Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North and South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming), prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are also covered, and findings and recommendations are given for each state. Some background information about the program is provided. (LEW)

  19. Review of water resource potential for developing geothermal resource sites in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnichsen, J.C. Jr.

    1980-07-01

    Water resources at 28 known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in the western United States are reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed upon examination of the waer resources, both surface and ground, that exist in the vicinity of the KGRAs located in the southwestern states of California, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and New Mexico. In most of these regions water has been in short supply for many years and consequently a discussion of competing demands is included to provide an appropriate perspective on overall usage. A discussion of the water resources in the vicinity of KGRAs in the States of Montana, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington are also included.

  20. State geothermal commercialization programs in seven Rocky Mountain states. Semiannual progress report, July-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B. C.; Toth, W. J.

    1981-10-01

    The activities and findings of the seven state commercialization teams participating in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range commercialization program are described. Background information is provided; program objectives and the technical approach that is used are discussed; and the benefits of the program are described. The summary of findings is presented. Prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analyses, time-phased project plans, the aggregated prospective geothermal energy use, and institutional analyses are discussed. Public outreach activities are covered and findings and recommendations are summarized. The commercialization activities carried out by the respective state teams are described for the following: Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.

  1. Degassing of different magma batches as the main controlling factor for fumarolic fluid chemistry at the Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex (Argentina-Chile) in 2010-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, Franco; Aguilera, Felipe; Benavente, Oscar; Paonita, Antonio; Chiodini, Giovanni; Caliro, Stefano; Agusto, Mariano; Gutierrez, Francisco; Capaccioni, Bruno; Vaselli, Orlando; Caselli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the first geochemical data of gas discharges collected during five sampling campaigns (February 2010 to March 2015), from the NNE-oriented Planchón-Peteroa-Azufre Volcanic Complex (PPAVC), located in the Transitional Southern Volcanic Zone (TSVZ) at the border between Argentina and Chile. In 2012, the acidic gas species of the low temperature (up to 102 °C) fumaroles from the Peteroa summit showed a huge increase (SO2>CO2) with respect to the 2010-2011 period, whereas the typical hydrothermal compounds (CH4 and light hydrocarbons) decreased. Such a dramatic compositional change was apparently indicating a pulse of magmatic fluids. By contrast, the temporal evolution of the δ18O-H2O, δD-H2O, R/Ra and 13C-CO2 values suggested an enhanced fluid contribution from a shallow source. In 2014-2015, the dominant hydrothermal signature characterizing the 2010-2011 fumaroles was almost completely restored. The temporary decoupling of the chemical and isotopic parameters can only be reconciled by admitting the occurrence of a double source of magmatic fluids: a basaltic batch, controlling the fumarolic chemistry in 2010-2011 and 2014-2015, and a small, shallower dacitic batch, likely affected by a significant crustal contamination, whose contribution to the fumarolic fluid emissions achieved its maximum in 2012. It cannot be ruled out that the phreatic to phreatomagmatic eruptions (VEI ≤2) that have affected Peteroa volcano from January 2010 to July 2011 have played a significant role for the modification of the deep feeding source of the fumarolic gases. The disturbance created by the volcanic events and the related seismic activity (MW<3), possibly related to the devastating Maule earthquake occurred on February 27 2010, could have activated a silent dacitic magma batch that in 2012 imposed over that of basaltic composition. Although this scenario provides a reliable explanation for the peculiar compositional changes that affected the Peteroa

  2. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  3. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, J.E. ); Bloomquist, R.G. )

    1994-11-01

    USDOE awarded a contract, by way of the University of Utah Research Institute and the Oregon Institute of Technology Geo-Heat Center, to the Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DGER) to update the geothermal database for Washington. DGER with the Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) now assess and encourage geothermal energy uses, especially in the Columbia River basin where shallow geothermal sources are abundant. DGER and WSEO recommend developing existing thermal wells, do further exploration, and institute a long term effort to inform the public of the advantages economic value of utilizing geothermal resources over fossil fuels.

  4. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  5. Geothermal Progress Monitor. Report No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Two themes dominate this issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 15th since its inception in 1980. The first of these is the significance of the government/industry partnership role in geothermal development. This joint effort is reflected in the continued, measured growth in the use of geothermal energy, for both power generation and direct use applications, in this country and abroad, as well as in the development of new, innovative technologies to ensure a bright future for the resource. The second theme is the growing popularity of geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) among utilities, their customers, and federal agencies, all with disparate interests in the technology.

  6. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  7. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  8. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  9. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  11. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-17

    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  12. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  13. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.

    1980-04-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment of solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  14. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  15. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  16. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  17. Geothermal Prospector: Supporting Geothermal Analysis Through Spatial Data Visualization and Querying Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Getman, Daniel; Anderson, Arlene; Augustine, Chad

    2015-09-02

    Determining opportunities for geothermal energy can involve a significant investment in data collection and analysis. Analysts within a variety of industry and research domains collect and use these data; however, determining the existence and availability of data needed for a specific analysis activity can be challenging and represents one of the initial barriers to geothermal development [2]. This paper describes the motivating factors involved in designing and building the Geothermal Prospector application, how it can be used to reduce risks and costs related to geothermal exploration, and where it fits within the larger collection of tools that is the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) [5].

  18. Archean geotherms and supracrustal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Kent C.

    1984-06-01

    Metamorphic mineral assemblages suggest the existence of variable geotherms and lithospheric thicknesses beneath late Archean continental crust. Archean granite-greenstone terranes reflect steep geotherms (50-70°C/km) while high-grade terranes reflect moderate geotherms similar to present continental crust with high heat flow (25-40°C/km). Corresponding lithosphere thicknesses for each terrane during the late Archean are 35-50 km and 50-75 km, respectively. Early Archean (⩾ 3.0 b.y.) greenstones differ from late Archean (˜ 2.7 b.y.) greenstones by the rarity or absence of andesite and graywacke and the relative abundance of pelite, quartzite, and komatiite. Mature clastic sediments in early greenstones reflect shallow-water, stable-basin deposition. Such rocks, together with granite-bearing conglomerate and felsic volcanics imply the existence of still older granitic source terranes. The absence or rarity of andesite in early greenstones reflects the absence of tectonic conditions in which basaltic and tonalitic magmas are modified to produce andesite. A model is presented in which early Archean greenstones form at the interface between tonalite islands and oceanic lithosphere, over convective downcurrents; high-grade supracrustals form on stable continental edges or interiors; and late Archean greenstones form in intracontinental rifts over mantle plumes.

  19. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  1. Gila Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ratte, J.C.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical indicators delineated during a study of the Gila Wilderness by the USGS and USBM from 1968 to 1971 indicate that there are areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, tellurium, molybdenum, copper, lead, zinc, and fluorite. The areas which have resource potential lie along both sides of the western and southwestern boundaries of the wilderness, and adjacent to the access corridor to the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in the eastern part of the wilderness. Areas marked by geothermal springs along Turkey Creek and the Middle Fork of the Gila River have a probable potential for geothermal energy. No other energy-resource potential was identified within the study area.

  2. Update and assessment of geothermal economic models, geothermal fluid flow and heat distribution models, and geothermal data bases

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.

    1985-05-01

    Numerical simulation models and data bases that were developed for DOE as part of a number of geothermal programs have been assessed with respect to their overall stage of development and usefulness. This report combines three separate studies that focus attention upon: (1) economic models related to geothermal energy; (2) physical geothermal system models pertaining to thermal energy and the fluid medium; and (3) geothermal energy data bases. Computerized numerical models pertaining to the economics of extracting and utilizing geothermal energy have been summarized and catalogued with respect to their availability, utility and function. The 19 models that are discussed in detail were developed for use by geothermal operators, public utilities, and lending institutions who require a means to estimate the value of a given resource, total project costs, and the sensitivity of these values to specific variables. A number of the models are capable of economically assessing engineering aspects of geothermal projects. Computerized simulations of heat distribution and fluid flow have been assessed and are presented for ten models. Five of the models are identified as wellbore simulators and five are described as reservoir simulators. Each model is described in terms of its operational characteristics, input, output, and other pertinent attributes. Geothermal energy data bases are reviewed with respect to their current usefulness and availability. Summaries of eight data bases are provided in catalogue format, and an overall comparison of the elements of each data base is included.

  3. Mexico's first domestic satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, M. E.; Elbert, B. R.

    The principal features of the Morelos communications satellite program, providing Mexico with C-band and Ku-band TV and telephone services beginning in 1985, are reviewed. Two satellites, modified versions of the Hughes HS-376 dual-spin bus, will be launched by STS and controlled from a tracking, telemetery, and command station near Mexico City; the 184-station ground network currently operating with Intelsat-IV will be expanded to about 1000 C-band stations (plus numerous small Ku-band receivers) by 1990. The spacecraft design, communications-subsystem performance, repeater equipment, antennas, and coverage pattern are presented in tables, drawings, diagrams, photographs and maps and discussed.

  4. Avian influenza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, C

    2009-04-01

    The outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N2 in Mexico in 1994 led to a clear increase in biosecurity measures and improvement of intensive poultry production systems. The control and eradication measures implemented were based on active surveillance, disease detection, depopulation of infected farms and prevention of possible contacts (identified by epidemiological investigations), improvement of biosecurity measures, and restriction of the movement of live birds, poultry products, by-products and infected material. In addition, Mexico introduced a massive vaccination programme, which resulted in the eradication of HPAI in a relatively short time in two affected areas that had a high density of commercial poultry. PMID:19618630

  5. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is the 11th since the inception of the publication in 1980. It continues to synthesize information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this energy technology. In addition, the GPM is a mechanism for transferring current information on geothermal technology development to the private sector, and, over time, provides a historical record for those interested in the development pathway of the resource. In sum, the Department of Energy makes the GPM available to the many diverse interests that make up the geothermal community for the multiple uses it may serve. This issue of the GPM points up very clearly how closely knit many of those diverse interests have become. It might well be called an international issue'' since many of its pages are devoted to news of geothermal development abroad, to the efforts of the US industry to participate in overseas development, to the support given those efforts by federal and state agencies, and to the formation of the International Geothermal Association (IGA). All of these events indicate that the geothermal community has become truly international in character, an occurrence that can only enhance the future of geothermal energy as a major source of energy supply worldwide. 15 figs.

  6. Geothermal progress monitor: Report Number 19

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    Short articles are presented related to activities in the federal government and the geothermal industry, international developments, state and local government activities, technology development, and technology transfer. Power plant tables and a directory of organizations involved in geothermal resource development are included.

  7. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  8. State Geothermal Data data delivery tools

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-08-01

    This web site provides a single online system for AASG State Geothermal Data participants to integrate their data into the NGDS, discovering how to digitize at-risk, legacy, geothermal-relevant data and combine it with existing digital data to create a publicly accessible system.

  9. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  10. Civil litigation and the geothermal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, George M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper offers some reflections on the interactions between the legal profession and the realm of the geothermal scientist and engineer. The author, now a litigation attorney, became an attorney after about fifteen years as an engineer and physicist. Over the past several years the author was involved in litigation related to geothermal contracts.

  11. Geothermal industry employment: Survey results & analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    The Geothermal Energy Association (GEA) is ofteh asked about the socioeconomic and employment impact of the industry. Since available literature dealing with employment involved in the geothermal sector appeared relatively outdated, unduly focused on certain activities of the industry (e.g. operation and maintenance of geothermal power plants) or poorly reliable, GEA, in consultation with the DOE, decided to conduct a new employment survey to provide better answers to these questions. The main objective of this survey is to assess and characterize the current workforce involved in geothermal activities in the US. Several initiatives have therefore been undertaken to reach as many organizations involved in geothermal activities as possible and assess their current workforce. The first section of this document describes the methodology used to contact the companies involved in the geothermal sector. The second section presents the survey results and analyzes them. This analysis includes two major parts. The first part analyzes the survey responses, presents employment numbers that were captured and describes the major characteristics of the industry that have been identified. The second part of the analysis estimates the number of workers involved in companies that are active in the geothermal business but did not respond to the survey or could not be reached. Preliminary conclusions and the study limits and restrictions are then presented. The third section addresses the potential employment impact related to manufacturing and construction of new geothermal power facilities. Indirect and induced economic impacts related with such investment are also investigated.

  12. Geothermal Power/Oil & Gas Coproduction Opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2012-02-01

    Coproduced geothermal resources can deliver near-term energy savings, diminish greenhouse gas emissions, extend the economic life of oil and gas fields, and profitably utilize oil and gas field infrastructure. This two-pager provides an overview of geothermal coproduced resources.

  13. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  14. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  15. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  16. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  17. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The following are included: geothermal power plants proposed and on-line; direct heat applications proposed and operational; trends in drilling activities; exploration; leases; outreach and technical assistance; feasibility studies and application demonstrations; geothermal loan guaranty program; research and development activities; legal, institutional, and regulatory activities; environmental activities; reports and publications; and a directory. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  19. Careers in Geothermal Energy: Power from below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Geothermal power plants use the Earth's natural underground heat to provide clean, renewable energy. The geothermal energy industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as interest in renewable energy has grown. In 2011,…

  20. Forecast of geothermal-drilling activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.; Brown, G.L.

    1982-07-01

    The number of geothermal wells that will be drilled to support electric power production in the United States through 2000 A.D. are forecasted. Results of the forecast are presented by 5-year periods for the five most significant geothermal resources.