A total of 398 cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disease were phenotypically characterised by membrane mouse red blood cell (MRBC) receptor, surface immunoglobulin, common acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (CALLA), and FMC7 and T1 monoclonal antibody studies. Relations between chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (PLL), and "prolymphocytoid" CLL variants were examined with particular reference to the expression of FMC7. In addition, the reactivity of TU1 monoclonal antibody with B cell disorders was established. The results suggest that despite some heterogeneity most cases may be characterised by their phenotypic patterns and that these investigations provide a reproducible basis for classification.
Scott, C S; Limbert, H J; MacKarill, I D; Roberts, B E
Leukemic B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPDs) are generally be- lieved to derive from a monoclonal B cell; biclonality has only occasionally been reported. In this study, we have explored the incidence of B-CLPD cases with 2 or more B-cell clones and established both the phenotypic differences between the coexisting clones and the clinicobiologic features of these patients. In total, 53 B-CLPD
Maria-Luz Sanchez; Julia Almeida; David Gonzalez; Marcos Gonzalez; Maria-Antonia Garcia-Marcos; Ana Balanzategui; Maria-Consuelo Lopez-Berges; Josep Nomdedeu; Teresa Vallespi; Marcos Barbon; Alejandro Martin; Pilar de la Fuente; Guillermo Martin-Nunez; Javier Fernandez-Calvo; Jesus-Maria Hernandez; Jesus F. San Miguel; Alberto Orfao
Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes.
Henriques, Ana; Rodriguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lecrevisse, Quentin; Gonzalez, Marcos; Cortesao, Emilia; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto
Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564
Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W; Nieto, Wendy G; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesão, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto
Twenty-two Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) without predisposing immunodeficiencies were evaluated clinically and pathologically. All patients were Japanese and negative for anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody. They were all more than 60 years old with a median age of 75.5 years. Eighteen (82%) patients showed extranodal involvement. Biopsied specimens contained variable numbers of centroblasts, immunoblasts, and Reed-Sternberg-like giant cells often with necrosis and an angiocentric pattern. The 13 cases showing polymorphous composition and inflammatory background were categorized as polymorphic LPD subtype. The other nine cases contained diffuse proliferative lesions of large lymphoid cells and were categorized as large cell lymphoma subtype. Tumor cells expressed CD20 and/or CD79a, and in situ hybridization showed them to be associated with Epstein-Barr virus. LMP1 was detected in all cases and EBNA2 in seven. Eighteen patients initially received combination chemotherapy, and 12 achieved complete remission. However, six patients were refractory to chemotherapy and four patients with complete remission later relapsed. Eight of the 18 patients who received chemotherapy showed an aggressive disease course within a year after the diagnosis. There was a significant difference in prognosis between the group with polymorphic LPDs and the one with large cell lymphomas (p = 0.003). Although the disease profile of the 22 cases was analogous to that of immunodeficiency-associated B-cell LPDs, none of the patients showed evidence of underlying immunodeficiency-related diseases. These findings suggest that Epstein-Barr virus-associated LPD without immunodeficiency mainly occurs in elderly patients. Further investigations are needed to clarify the pathogenesis of this disease and to determine the optimal treatment strategy. PMID:12502924
Oyama, Takashi; Ichimura, Koichi; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Suzumiya, Junji; Ohshima, Koichi; Yatabe, Yasushi; Yokoi, Takio; Kojima, Masaru; Kamiya, Yoshikazu; Taji, Hirofumi; Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Ogura, Michinori; Saito, Hidehiko; Morishima, Yasuo; Nakamura, Shigeo
This study was purpose to investigate the clinical characteristics of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPD) complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) so as to improve the understanding of this disease. The clinical characteristics, laboratory data, therapy and outcome of 14 patients suffering from B-CLPD complicated by AIHA were retrospectively analyzed in Wuxi People Hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that 9 cases of the 14 patients were patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 5 cases were patients with lymphoma, at time of hemolysis the median level of hemoglobin was 61 (33 - 84)g/L, the median ratio of reticulocytes was 12.0 (3.1 - 35.0)%, the positive rate of Coombs test was 100%. 1 case received corticosteroid alone, 5 cases were treated with chemotherapy combined with corticosteroid, 8 cases were treated with immunochemotherapy rituximab combined with corticosteroid. Overall response rate was 100%, in which CR was 78.6% (11/14), PR was 21.4% (3/14). The follow-up for these patients were performed to now, 35.7% (5/14) patients relapsed with hemolysis again, but they showed therapeutic response to treatment with above-mentioned therapy. From patients treated with rituximab alone, only 1 patient relapsed. Among 14 patients, 6 cases died, 1 case was lost, the other cases are still alive. It is concluded that the AIHA is the commonest complication of B-CLPD, it can be observed at different stages of B-CLPD, the treatment with corticosteroids can give well therapeutic effect for these patients, but the long time CR is lower, the rituximab has been confirmed to be effective for B-CLPD complicated by AIHA. PMID:23815912
Zhuang, Yun; Fan, Lei; Shen, Yun-Feng; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian-Yong
Next-generation sequencing techniques are powerful high-throughput methods that have enabled the comprehensive documentation of genetic lesions in numerous hematological malignancies. In recent times, the genomes of multiple different B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders including chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia and Waldenström macroglobulinemia have been documented. Between them, these studies have reinforced and provided insight into the mechanisms for the dysregulation of known pathways (e.g. nuclear factor-?B [NF-?B]), uncovered the importance of new pathways for oncogenesis (e.g. mRNA processing), identified disease-defining mutations and provided meaningful new targets which are already being translated into therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the molecular lesions that have been discovered in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders thus far by studies utilizing high-throughput sequencing techniques and the aberrations in the numerous intracellular pathways that have been shown to be involved. PMID:23550993
Blombery, Piers A; Dickinson, Michael; Westerman, David A
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) may occur as a complication of immunosuppression in patients who have received solid organ or bone marrow allografts. Most PTLDs are of B-cell lineage, whereas T-cell proliferations are rare. The majority of B-cell lesions are associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. The occurrence of both B-cell and T-cell PTLDs in the same patient is extremely rare and only 6 cases have been previously published. We report a case of a 63-year-old man who developed 2 metachronous Epstein-Barr virus-related PTLDs beginning 10 years after heart transplantation. A polymorphic B-cell PTLD developed first that completely regressed after immunosuppressive therapy was partially withdrawn. Then, a monomorphic T-cell PTLD developed 31 months later. The patient died 17 months later owing to disease progression. We highlight the diagnostic challenge of this case that required numerous ancillary studies for lineage assessment and classification. Such studies are often needed in patients with a history of immunosuppression. PMID:18941401
Morovic, Anamarija; Jaffe, Elaine S; Raffeld, Mark; Schrager, Jeffrey A
Methotrexate (MTX)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (B-LPD) may first present in the skin, but their clinicopathologic features are still ill defined. Differentiation from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is important, as MTX-associated B-LPD may show spontaneous regression after withdrawal of MTX therapy. In the present study, the clinicopathologic and phenotypical features of 10 patients with MTX-associated B-LPD first presenting in the skin, including 5 EBV and 5 EBV cases, were investigated. Six patients had skin-limited disease. Clinically, abrogation of MTX therapy resulted in a complete response in 4 cases and a partial response in another 2. The 5-year disease-specific survival was 90%. MTX-associated B-LPD differed from primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma by the presence of ulcerating and/or generalized skin lesions, an infiltrate composed of centroblasts/immunoblasts rather than large centrocytes, reduced staining for CD79a, and expression of BCL2, IRF4, and FOXP1 in most cases. EBV MTX-associated B-LPD differed from PCLBCL-LT by the presence ulcerative skin lesions, marked tumor cell polymorphism, reduced staining for CD79a, and expression of CD30 and EBV. EBV cases showed morphologic and immunophenotypical similarities to PCLBCL-LT but differed by presentation with generalized skin lesions in 4 of 5 cases. The results of this study, showing a relatively good clinical outcome and spontaneous disease regression after only withdrawal of MTX in a considerable proportion of patients, underscores the importance of a careful wait-and-see policy before considering more aggressive therapies in patients with MTX-associated B-LPD of the skin. PMID:24805861
Koens, Lianne; Senff, Nancy J; Vermeer, Maarten H; Willemze, Rein; Jansen, Patty M
Age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder is a highly aggressive lymphoma, and a standard therapy for this disease has not yet been established. A 58-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of fever and lymphadenopathy across the whole body. Neck lymph node biopsy showed hemorrhagic and geographic necrosis with Hodgkin-like large cells against a background of small lymphocytes. The large cells were positive for CD30 and EBER. The patient was diagnosed as having age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there was no response to CHOP therapy, he obtained partial response after 3 courses of DeVIC therapy. Because his lymphoma was highly aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant, he underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with a conditioning regimen including ranimustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan. After stem cell transplantation and subsequent radiotherapy to the residual lesion, the patient achieved complete remission. This is the first report of successful autologous stem cell transplantation for a patient with age-related EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:21471700
Sugino, Noriko; Nakamura, Chishiho; Fujii, Sumie; Matsui, Yusuke; Kaneko, Hitomi; Watanabe, Mitsumasa; Miura, Yasuo; Wakasa, Tomoko; Tsudo, Mitsuru
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with the progressive and often fatal lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) in post bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and immunocompromised hosts. The incidence increases significantly when alternative donors or manipulation of marrow graft are used. A total of 318 consecutive BMT from partially mismatched related family donors (PMRD) were performed between February 1993 and June 1998. Known
K-Y Chiang; LJ Hazlett; KT Godder; SH Abhyankar; NP Christiansen; F van Rhee; CG Lee; K Bridges; RS Parrish; PJ Henslee-Downey
This report concerns a patient with IgM AL amyloidosis due to a B cell lymphoproliferative disorder who was successfully treated with VAD and subsequent high-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell support. After this chemotherapeutic regimen, the patient showed complete hematological remission and improvement in nephrotic syndrome. These findings suggest that high-dose melphalan may also be effective for lymphoplasmacytoid cells producing monoclonal IgM which are phenotypically distinct from plasma cells. Myeloablative therapies, such as high-dose melphalan, should definitely be considered as a treatment option for AL amyloidosis, irrespective of the type of precursor immunoglobulin. PMID:15478470
Gono, Takahisa; Matsuda, Masayuki; Shimojima, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Wataru; Yamamoto, Kanji; Koyama, Jun; Sakashita, Kazuo; Koike, Kenichi; Itoh, Susumu; Isaka, Toshifumi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi
In 1968, Starzl reported the clinical observation that transplant patients are prone to develop lymphomatous growths (1).\\u000a The term posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is applied to a group of lymphoproliferative disorders arising in a pharmacologically immunocompromised host after\\u000a solid-organ or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Among iatrogenic immune deficiency states, PTLD is quite common (2).\\u000a PTLDs are the most serious complications
Thomas M. Habermann
\\u000a The increased risk of malignancy, especially of lymphoid tumors, in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HST)\\u000a recipients has been recognized for many years [1-3]. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) represents a heterogeneous\\u000a group of abnormal lymphoid proliferations, generally of B-cell origin, that occur in the setting of ineffective T-cell function\\u000a due to pharmacologic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. Unlike most other
Ran Reshef; Alicia K. Morgans; Donald E. Tsai
We compared the E2-HVR1 region in HCV-1b positive B-NHL cases from a multicenter study with sequences from studies related to lymphoproliferative disorders and B cell compartmentalisation. We found rare and unique mutations both in B-NHL isolates and in cases with lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphocyte infection. These rare mutations could have an important effect on HVR1 region and, as a consequence, on the binding of E2 on CD81, with a possible implication for both antigenic stimulation and HCV entry. In conclusion, the HCV predominants circulating in B-NHL cases seem to be associated with clonal selection of rare variants. PMID:17802906
Dettori, Stefano; Argentini, Claudio; Marcucci, Fabrizio; Spada, Enea; Chionne, Paola; Candido, Angela; Madonna, Elisabetta; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Bianco, Elvira; Iannitto, Emilio; Musto, Pellegrino; Liso, Vincenzo; De Renzo, Amalia; Pagano, Livio; Nieddu, Grazia; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Mele, Alfonso; Rapicetta, Maria
Although major advancements in antitumor treatment have been observed, several B cell-derived malignancies still remain incurable. A promising approach that involves targeting RNA either by the use of specific antisense oligonucleotides or cytostatic/cytotoxic ribonucleases (RNases) is being promoted. Two amphibian RNases, onconase (ONC; ranpirnase) and, more recently, r-amphinase (r-Amph), have already been tested, but thus far, mostly on solid tumors. In this study, for the first time we provide comprehensive data on ex vivo and in vivo cytotoxic activity of ONC or r-Amph against cancer cells from different B cell lymphoid malignancies, together with their detailed mode of antitumor action. Our data revealed strong pro-apoptotic activity of ONC and r-Amph in both chronic lymphocytic leukemia and aggressive B cell lymphomas, with less impact on acute lymphoblastic leukemia or multiple myeloma cells. Moreover, the antitumor action of ONC and r-Amph was markedly selective against neoplastic cells sparing normal, healthy control?derived lymphocytes. PMID:24789756
Smolewski, Piotr; Witkowska, Magdalena; Zwolinska, Malgorzata; Cebula-Obrzut, Barbara; Majchrzak, Agata; Jeske, Aleksandra; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Ardelt, Wojciech; Ardelt, Barbara; Robak, Tadeusz
Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients.
Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with the development of lymphomas in immunocompromised patients. Recently, age-related immune impairment has been recognized as a predisposing factor in the development of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in elderly patients without any known immunodeficiency or prior lymphoma. In approximately 70% of reported cases, the affected sites have been extranodal, such as the skin, lung, tonsil and stomach. However, age-related EBV-associated B cell (EBV + B cell) LPD is extremely rare in the oral cavity. Here we report a 71-year-old Japanese man who developed an EBV + B cell LPD resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL)--so-called polymorphous subtype-of the mandible. Histopathologically, infiltration of large atypical lymphoid cells including Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells into granulation tissue with marked necrosis was found in the mandibular bone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the large atypical Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells were CD3-, CD15-, CD20+, CD30+ and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-latent infection membrane protein-1 (LMP-1)+. In situ hybridization (ISH) demonstrated EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) + in numerous Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells. EBNA-2 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using an extract from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the polymorphous subtype of age-related EBV + B cell LPD affecting the mandible. PMID:22869357
Kikuchi, Kentaro; Fukunaga, Shuichi; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kojima, Masaru; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru
A 68-year-old man was referred to our hospital in August 2003 with a high fever, a prominent inflammatory reaction in blood test and also bicytopenia (anemia and thrombocytopenia) with marked hepatosplenomegaly. He was temporarily diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma considering the elevated levels of LDH and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, following which treatment with the CHOP regimen was started. Thereafter, based on the pathological findings from a bone marrow biopsy and a quite high viral load revealed by real-time PCR analysis, the diagnosis was changed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related B-lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD) complicated with reticulin fibrosis. A total of 2 courses of the CHOP regimen together with anti-viral reagents almost resolved the clinical symptoms and abnormal findings of laboratory tests. This unique case was considered to be "a senile EBV positive B-LPD" complicated with a secondary myelofibrosis, a category of the disorder which has recently been proposed by Shigeo Nakamura at the Aichi Cancer Center. PMID:16440776
Hagihara, Masao; Watanabe, Shigeki; Suyama, Takahiro; Sato, Koji
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a well-recognised and potentially fatal complication after solid organ transplantation. They include a spectrum of disorders ranging from benign hyperplasia to invasive malignant lymphoma. The majority of cases are associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-driven tumour formation in B cells and are a consequence of the detrimental effect of immunosuppressive agents on the immune-control of
Anna L. Taylor; Robert Marcus; J. Andrew Bradley
Rheumatic manifestations may be the presenting features of dysproteinemias and lymphoproliferative disorders. Disease or therapy-related complications may mimic a number of primary rheumatic syndromes. This article emphasizes clinical aspects pertaining to prompt diagnosis and therapy. PMID:8907064
Duna, G F; Cash, J M
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health problem affecting 3% of the world's population (about 180 million) and a cause of both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, whose prototype is mixed cryoglobulinemia, represent the most closely related as well as the most investigated HCV-related extrahepatic disorder. The association between extrahepatic (lymphoma) as well as hepatic malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma) has justified the inclusion of HCV among human cancer viruses. HCV-associated manifestations also include porphyria cutanea tarda, lichen planus, nephropathies, thyreopathies, sicca syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, diabetes, chronic polyarthritis, sexual dysfunctions, cardiopathy/atherosclerosis, and psychopathological disorders. A pathogenetic link between HCV virus and some lymphoproliferative disorders was confirmed by their responsiveness to antiviral therapy, which is now considered the first choice treatment. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection with particular attention to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Available pathogenetic hypotheses and suggestions about the most appropriate, currently available, therapeutic approaches will also be discussed. PMID:17552031
Zignego, Anna-Linda; Giannini, Carlo; Ferri, Clodoveo
Similarly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a ?-herpesvirus, recently recognized to be associated with the occurrence of rare B cell lymphomas and atypical lymphoproliferations, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects. Moreover, the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a ?-herpesvirus, has been shown to be implicated in some non-malignant lymph node proliferations, such as the Rosai Dorfman disease, and in a proportion of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases. HHV-6 has a wide cellular tropism and it might play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases, but given its ubiquity, disease associations are difficult to prove and its role in hematological malignancies is still controversial. The involvement of another ?-herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has not yet been proven in human cancer, even though recent findings have suggested its potential role in the development of CD4+ large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathogenetic role of HHV-8 and human ?-herpesviruses in human lymphoproliferative disorders.
Quadrelli, C.; Barozzi, P.; Riva, G.; Vallerini, D.; Zanetti, E.; Potenza, L.; Forghieri, F.; Luppi, M.
We report a case of Epstein Barr virus-associated large B cell lymphoproliferative disorder, with an abdominal cutaneous localization, in an adult treated for 10 years with immunosuppressive agents for a dermatomyositis. This is the third case of immunosuppressive induced lymphoproliferative disorder localized to skin in a patient with dermatomyositis. Diagnosis was unexpectedly obtained by the histologic examination of surgical samples of skin necrosis possibly induced by edetate calcium disodium subcutaneous injections in calcinosis cutis. PMID:19027995
Steff, M; Le Corre, Y; Penisson-Besnier, I; Michalak, S; Drossard, G; Lebrun-Vignes, B; Le Clec'h, C
Summary: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder complicates approximately 1% of all renal transplants (1). The usual site of occurrence is within the abdomen, thorax, allograft, or head and neck. Central nervous system in- volvement is uncommon but, when present, occurs in iso- lation, sparing other organ systems. Few articles in the radiology literature have focused on the acute and fol- low-up central
Kimberly C. Brennan; Lisa H. Lowe; Gabrielle A. Yeaney
The results of the analysis of suspected lymphoproliferative disorders using flow cytometry (FACS II) over the past 12 months have been evaluated and assessed with respect to “conventional” microscopical examination. The major advantages in using these methods is the speed, the number of parameters which are capable of measurement, the sensitivity, and the ability to quantitate large numbers of cells
Ian G. Barr; Ban-Hock Toh
Composite mature B-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasms are rare entities characterized by the simultaneous presence of two or more distinctive B-cell derived monoclonal malignancies. This retrospective study used multiparametric flow cytometric analysis aimed at immunophenotypic profiling of composite mature B-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasms in a cohort of 413 subsequent patients with de novo leukemic B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders diagnosed in our institution during a 30-month period. Biclonality was found in 16 (3.9 %) patients. The vast majority (88 %) of the cases had one of the clones phenotypically corresponding to chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL). Only when composite cases were categorized by phenotype of the non-CLL/SLL malignant population did we find a statistically significant (P = 0.001) higher frequency of biclonality among cases with hairy cell leukemia (22 %). Biclonal cases had the overall B-cell membrane ? to ? ratio within the normal range (median, 1.9; reference interval 0.5-4.0), making recognition of malignancy somewhat challenging. Our analysis strategy was therefore based on the detection of aberrant B-cell phenotypes, with subsequent confirmation of the monoclonal nature of neoplastic clones with regards to light chain restriction analysis. Discrimination of the coexisting clones in biclonal cases was possible on the basis of the expression of other antigen(s) (63 %), light scatter properties (44 %), different surface light chain restriction (69 %) and/or pattern of expression (44 %). The most informative cell surface antigens proved to be CD22, CD20, surface IgM, and CD23. In conclusion, historic ?/? ratio is not a reliable approach and is a poor measurement for the detection of composite lymphomas. More creative analysis techniques should be utilized for this purpose. PMID:24061774
Perkovi?, Sanja; Baši?-Kinda, Sandra; Aurer, Igor; Ugrina, Ivo; Duleti?-Na?inovi?, Antica; Lozi?, Dominik; Batini?, Drago
CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders are the most common group of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas after mycosis fungoides and its subtypes. This group includes lymphomatoid papulosis and CD30+ anaplastic large-cell lymphoma; these 2 entities are the extremes of a spectrum with numerous intermediate varieties in which it is not possible to establish a clear diagnosis based on clinical and histopathologic criteria. CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders must be differentiated from other lymphoproliferative diseases with CD30+ cells in the tumor infiltrates, such as mycosis fungoides or Hodgkin disease, and also from other inflammatory conditions or nonhematological neoplasms that can include this cell type, such as pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta or certain mesenchymal tumors (CD30+ pseudolymphomas). In contrast to their systemic homologues, which arise in the lymph nodes, CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders generally have a good prognosis. It is very important to exclude the presence of a lymphoma of systemic origin with extralymphatic spread, as the prognosis and treatment are different. PMID:20223154
Calzado-Villarreal, L; Polo-Rodríguez, I; Ortiz-Romero, P L
INTRODUCTION: The differential diagnosis of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes remains a challenge for pathologists, dermatologists and oncologists, despite advances in histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate aid and limitations of clonality analysis in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and B-cell pseudolymphomas. METHODS: This study included 29 cases of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes classified as primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (13), B-cell pseudolymphomas (6) and inconclusive cases (10) using histology and immunohistochemistry. The clonality analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of immunoglobulin light chain and heavy chain rearrangements. RESULTS: DNA quality was shown to be generally poor; eight samples were inadequate for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed monoclonality in eight of the primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and polyclonality in four of the B-cell pseudolymphomas. In addition, monoclonality was shown in two of the inconclusive cases by histology and immunohistochemistry, demonstrating the utility of polymerase chain reaction as an ancillary diagnostic tool for primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. DISCUSSION: The low quality DNA extracted from these cases demanded the use of an IgH protocol that yielded small fragments and IgK. Both methods used together improved detection. CONCLUSION: Use of the two protocols, immunoglobulin heavy chain FR3-trad and immunoglobulin light chain-Kappa Biomed protocols for clonality analysis improved diagnostic accuracy.
Melotti, Claudia Z; Amary, Maria Fernanda Carriel; Sotto, Miriam Nacagami; Diss, Timothy; Sanches, Jose Antonio
Salivary gland lymphoproliferative disorders (SGLD) are very rare tumors and clinicopathological data is sparse. In a Canadian series of 30 cases, extracted from the surgical pathology files of The Ottawa Hospital between 1990 and 2010, a clinical, histopathological, and immunophenotypic analysis was conducted. Tumors were staged using the Ann Arbor staging and classified using the World Health Organization 2008 classification. There were 15 salivary gland (SG) primary lymphomas with localized disease, predominantly mucosa associated lymphoid tissue type marginal zone lymphoma (MALT-L), but with a significant incidence of low grade follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B cell phenotype as well. There were 7 systemic SG lymphomas and 5 patients were diagnosed with lymphoproliferative disorders originating from intra-parotid lymph nodes. Finally, the remaining 3 cases represented reactive sialadenitis. A literature review was conducted and our primary lymphoma group was compared to those from other countries. SGLDs are predominantly B cell lymphomas that develop in older adults. Primary tumors, which have MALT-L and low grade FL characteristics, have a favorable survival, however MALT-L have a high rate of relapse. A minority of SG lesions are excised secondary to lymphomas that definitely arose from intra-parotid lymph nodes. PMID:23821219
Paliga, A; Farmer, J; Bence-Bruckler, I; Lamba, M
Defective lymphocyte apoptosis results in chronic lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune phenomena. The prototype for human apoptosis disorders is the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is caused by mutations in the FAS apoptotic pathway. Recently, patients with an ALPS-like disease called RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder, in which somatic mutations in NRAS or KRAS are found, also were described. Despite this progress, many patients with ALPS-like disease remain undefined genetically. We identified a homozygous, loss-of-function mutation in PRKCD (PKC?) in a patient who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulins and natural killer dysfunction associated with chronic, low-grade Epstein-Barr virus infection. This mutation markedly decreased protein expression and resulted in ex vivo B-cell hyperproliferation, a phenotype similar to that of the PKC? knockout mouse. Lymph nodes showed intense follicular hyperplasia, also mirroring the mouse model. Immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes demonstrated expansion of CD5+CD20+ B cells. Knockdown of PKC? in normal mononuclear cells recapitulated the B-cell hyperproliferative phenotype in vitro. Reconstitution of PKC? in patient-derived EBV-transformed B-cell lines partially restored phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate–induced cell death. In summary, homozygous PRKCD mutation results in B-cell hyperproliferation and defective apoptosis with consequent lymphocyte accumulation and autoantibody production in humans, and disrupts natural killer cell function.
Kuehn, Hye Sun; Niemela, Julie E.; Rangel-Santos, Andreia; Zhang, Mingchang; Pittaluga, Stefania; Stoddard, Jennifer L.; Hussey, Ashleigh A.; Evbuomwan, Moses O.; Priel, Debra A. Long; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Park, C. Lucy; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Uzel, Gulbu
Familial aggregation of lymphoproliferative disorders from the Scandinavian family cancer database Print This Page Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database Our Research
BACKGROUND Primary central nervous system (CNS) post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PCNS-PTLD) is a rare complication of solid organ transplantation. The objectives of this study were to define the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of this disease and to explore the impact of treatment on patient outcomes. METHODS The authors reviewed the databases of participating institutions of the International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group for cases of PCNS-PTLD. Thirty-four patients who had pathologically confirmed PCNS-PTLD without evidence of systemic PTLD were investigated retrospectively. RESULTS The median time from transplantation to diagnosis of PCNS-PTLD was 4.4 years. Disease usually was multifocal and involved any location of the brain but was most common in the cerebral hemispheres, usually in the subcortical white matter or basal ganglia. Radiographically, all lesions enhanced either homogenously or in a ring-enhancing pattern. Cerebral biopsy was required to establish diagnosis in most patients. Most patients had monomorphic, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive disease of B-cell origin. Response rates were high regardless of treatment type, and the median survival was 47 months. Age was the only factor predictive of survival. CONCLUSIONS The current study demonstrated that PCNS-PTLD is typically an EBV-induced B-cell lymphoma that is responsive to treatment with favorable survival in many patients. An aggressive approach to tissue confirmation of diagnosis and treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy should be strongly considered.
Cavaliere, Robert; Petroni, Gina; Lopes, Maria B.; Schiff, David
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are the second most frequent malignancies after solid organ transplantation and cover a wide spectrum ranging from polyclonal early lesions to monomorphic lymphoma. Available treatment modalities include immunosuppression reduction, immunotherapy with anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, cytotoxic T-cell therapy as well as surgery and irradiation. Owing to the small number of cases and the heterogeneity of PTLD, current treatment strategies are mostly based on case reports and small, often retrospective studies. Moreover, many studies on the treatment of PTLD have involved a combination of different treatment options, complicating the evaluation of individual treatment components. However, there has been significant progress over the last few years. Three prospective phase II trials on the efficacy of rituximab monotherapy have shown significant complete remission rates without any relevant toxicity. A prospective, multicenter, international phase II trial evaluating sequential treatment with rituximab and CHOP-based chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) is ongoing and preliminary results have been promising. Cytotoxic T-cell therapy targeting Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells has shown low toxicity and high efficacy in a phase II trial and will be a future therapeutic option at specialized centers. Here, we review the currently available data on the different treatment modalities with a focus on PTLD following solid organ transplantation in adult patients.
We present a series of 15 cases of cutaneous lymphoma and pseudolymphoma with dual lineage rearrangement identified among approximately 1200 cases of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders assessed in our 4 institutions during the last 8 years in which the results of both T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement investigations were available. On the basis of the clinicopathologic information, the cases were retrospectively subdivided into 2 categories: (1) cases with definite features of cutaneous lymphoma or pseudolymphoma (n = 11) and (2) cases with unclassifiable disease (n = 4). The detection of dual genotype in the first group did not influence the final diagnosis; 7 cases represented cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, 3 pseudolymphomas, and 1 case lymphomatoid papulosis. The presence of monoclonal T-cell receptor-gene rearrangements in these cases may be explained either by monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of exuberant T cells (or B cells in case of lymphomatoid papulosis) or by lineage infidelity. Three patients with unclassifiable disease had several clinical and histopathologic features in common. They were elderly, presented with solitary lesions, were in good general health and histopathologically demonstrated a dense multinodular infiltrate containing approximately an equal number of T and B cells and a high number of histiocytes forming granulomas, with prominent granulomatous features in 2 cases. B cells were either scattered with the infiltrate or formed collections vaguely resembling follicles; Reed-Sternberg-like cells were seen in 2 cases. B cells showed expression neither of immunoglobulin light chain. The T-cell component was represented mainly by small, well-differentiated lymphocytes or slightly pleomorphic cells, with some medium-sized convoluted cells. Epstein-Barr virus was not detected by polymerase chain reaction. The exact classification of these cases is unknown; they differ histopathologically from previously published cases of bigenotypic cutaneous lymphomas. They may merely represent a growth or reactive pattern, but, on the other hand, may be low-grade lymphomas. If so, they may be histopathologically related to cutaneous Hodgkin disease, T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, or composite lymphomas. Further reports are needed to identify these lesions to clarify their nature and biologic potential. PMID:17012914
Kazakov, Dmitry V; Kutzner, Heinz; Palmedo, Gabriele; Boudova, Ludmila; Michaelis, Sonja; Michal, Michal; Vanecek, Tomas; Magro, Cynthia M; Mukensnabl, Petr; Dummer, Reinhard; Burg, Günter; Kempf, Werner
AIMS: To determine whether the proliferation rates of tumour cells may relate to prognosis and reflect disease activity. METHODS: Blood mononuclear cells from 155 patients with B cell (n = 120) or T cell (n = 35) chronic lymphoproliferative disorders were tested with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67 by indirect immunoperoxidase or immunoalkaline phosphatase techniques. B cell diseases included chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), CLL in prolymphocytic transformation (CLL/PL), prolymphocytic leukaemia (B-PLL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) in leukaemic phase. The T cell diseases comprised large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia, T-PLL, and T-NHL. RESULTS: These showed significantly higher proportions of Ki-67 positive cells in T cell (11.2%) than in B cell (2.9%) disorders (p < 0.001). The highest values were found in NHL of both B and T cell types, particularly when low grade disease transformed to high grade. The lowest percentages of Ki-67 positive cells were found in CLL (1.4%) and LGL leukaemia (1.7%); intermediate values were seen in B PLL (3.3%) and T PLL (5.8%). CONCLUSIONS: There is a positive correlation between prognosis and proliferation rates in chronic B and T cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Estimation of Ki-67 in circulating leukaemic cells could be used to determine prognosis in low grade malignancies. Images
de Melo, N.; Matutes, E.; Cordone, I.; Morilla, R.; Catovksy, D.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are mostly Epstein–Barr virus-related, B-cell tumors that develop as a consequence of immunosuppressive therapy in recipients of solid organ or bone marrow transplants. These disorders range from reactive, polyclonal plasmacytic hyperplasia to those that are morphologically and genotypically indistinguishable from typical non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Plasma cell myeloma occurring after solid organ transplantation is rare. We report three plasma
Xiaoping Sun; LoAnn C Peterson; Yun Gong; Ann E Traynor; Beverly P Nelson
X-linked lympho-proliferative (XLP) is an immunodeficiency condition caused by mutation or deletion of the gene encoding the adaptor protein SAP\\/SH2D1A. Besides defects in T cell and NK cell function and an absence of NKT cells, XLP can also manifest as lymphomas resulting primarily from uncontrolled B cell proliferation upon acute infection by Epstein–Barr virus. While it has been demonstrated that
Chengjun Li; Brian Chung; Jianping Tao; Cristiana Iosef; Ala Aoukaty; Yefu Wang; Rusung Tan; Shawn Shun-Cheng Li
We evaluated 26?901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21?686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial.
Gilbert, Ethel S.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Socie, Gerard; Banks, Peter M.; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kingma, Douglas W.; Travis, Lois B.; Flowers, Mary E.; Martin, Paul J.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Curtis, Rochelle E.
X-linked lympho-proliferative (XLP) is an immunodeficiency condition caused by mutation or deletion of the gene encoding the adaptor protein SAP/SH2D1A. Besides defects in T cell and NK cell function and an absence of NKT cells, XLP can also manifest as lymphomas resulting primarily from uncontrolled B cell proliferation upon acute infection by Epstein-Barr virus. While it has been demonstrated that SAP regulates the functions of T cells and NK cells through the SLAM family of immunoreceptors, its role in B cells has not been defined. Here we show that SAP forms a ternary complex with the kinase Lyn and the inhibitory IgG Fc receptor FcgammaRIIB to regulate B cell proliferation and survival. SAP binds directly and simultaneously to the Lyn SH3 domain and an Immuno-receptor Tyrosine-based Inhibitory Motif (ITIM) in FcgammaRIIB, resulting in the activation of the latter. Moreover, SAP associates with FcgammaRIIB in mouse splenic B cells and promotes its tyrosine phosphorylation. Expression of SAP in the A20 B cell line led to a marked reduction in Blnk phosphorylation, a decrease in Akt activation, and a near-complete ablation of phosphorylation of the MAP kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK upon colligation of FcgammaRIIB with the B cell receptor (BCR). In contrast, an XLP-causing SAP mutant was much less efficient in eliciting these effects in B cells. Furthermore, compared to A20 cells, SAP transfectants displayed a significantly reduced rate of proliferation and an increased sensitivity to activation-induced cell death. Collectively these data identify an intrinsic function for SAP in inhibitory signaling in B cells and suggests that SAP may play an important role in balancing positive versus negative immune responses. PMID:18662772
Li, Chengjun; Chung, Brian; Tao, Jianping; Iosef, Cristiana; Aoukaty, Ala; Wang, Yefu; Tan, Rusung; Li, Shawn Shun-Cheng
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a rare T and NK cell immune deficiency which most frequently presents as fulminant infectious mononucleosis following infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report the case of a 4-year-old boy from a Spanish family presenting with severe infectious mononucleosis. In the course of the disease he developed hepatic failure, pancytopenia and neurologic impairment, leading to death after less than 2 months. The results of bone marrow biopsy and autopsy indicated a histological diagnosis of both high-grade B-cell lymphoma and virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome, thereby confirming the simultaneous presence of two different manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) in this patient. The family history revealed four close male relatives dying under similar circumstances, one of whom died following a vaccination against measles. Molecular genetic studies identified a novel mutation in the SH2D1A gene in several members of the family, establishing the diagnosis of XLP. Fatal EBV infection in male infants is highly indicative of XLP. Virus-associated haemophagocytic syndrome and B-cell lymphoma can occur concomitantly and may be difficult to distinguish due to their similar histological pictures. PMID:17058098
Hügle, Boris; Astigarraga, Itziar; Henter, Jan-Inge; Porwit-MacDonald, Anna; Meindl, Alfons; Schuster, Volker
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of organ transplantation. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a common site involved, but non-specific signs and symptoms often delay the diagnosis. We report a case of EBV-associated GI-PTLD in a 68-year-old kidney transplant patient who received the kidney ten months earlier. He presented with chronic diarrhea and developed massive pneumo-peritoneum secondary to multiple colonic perforations. PMID:24821162
Singh, Neeraj; Samavedi, Singh; Rajab, Amer
\\u000a Organ transplantations can lead to post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs) as a result of immunosuppressive\\u000a therapy. PT-LPDs clearly differ from non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas occurring in immunocompetent patients, in terms of clinical presentation,\\u000a pathological findings and treatment response. Several studies have tried to establish some prognostic factors but the small\\u000a number of patients hinders the analysis. We studied 61 patients from two transplant
Sylvain Choquet; Marie-France Mamzer Bruneel; Olivier Hermine; Raphaël Porcher; Stephanie Nguyen Quoc; Frédéric Davi; Frédéric Charlotte; Richard Dorent; Benoit Barrou; Jean-Paul Vernant; Martine Raphael; Vincent Levy; Véronique Leblond
Thymic hyperplasia is usually associated with the treatment of malignant tumours and is sometimes linked with endocrine diseases. For the first time, we report a case of thymic hyperplasia in a patient 2 years after bilateral lung transplantation. Contrast-enhanced chest CT scan was highly suspicious for a posttransplant lymphoma or thymoma. Therefore, the patient received total thymectomy. Excised specimens were sent to the Department of Pathology. Unexpectedly, the histological examination revealed hyperplastic thymic tissue without evidence for a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder or malignancy.
Steger, Christina Maria; Semsroth, Severin; Hager, Thomas; Rieker, Ralf; Muller, Ludwig
Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia.
MUNOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJON, Francisco
Abstract Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) seem to be a relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. We studied retrospectively the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 42 patients with lymphoproliferative diseases, treated between January 2004 and February 2012 for probable or proven IFI. In our entire population (1355 patients) of chronic lymphoproliferative malignancies, the incidence of probable/proven IFI was 3% (molds 2.3%, yeasts 0.5%, mixed infections 0.2%). Eight patients developed a yeast infection documented by blood cultures in seven cases and by the microscopic observation of Candida spp. in the vitreum after vitrectomy in one case. Among molds we diagnosed three proven infections by histologic evidence of Aspergillus spp. (n = 2) and Mucor (n = 1) in the lung and 28 probable mycoses. Three mixed infections from both molds and yeasts were also observed. Twenty-two cases showed positivity of galactomannan antigen in the serum (n = 16), in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (n = 4) or in both (n = 2). Cultures were positive in 11 cases. The overall rate of response to therapy was 64%. Fungal-attributable mortality rate was 17%, with a significant difference between molds and yeasts (16% vs. 25%, p = 0.03). At univariate analysis, the only risk factors related to mortality were severe and prolonged neutropenia (p = 0.003) and age (p = 0.03). Among molds, the rapid start of antifungals was probably partially responsible, together with new drugs, for the reduction of mortality, despite the severe immunosuppression of these patients. PMID:24138328
Nosari, Anna Maria; Pioltelli, Maria Luisa; Riva, Marta; Marbello, Laura; Nichelatti, Michele; Greco, Antonino; Molteni, Alfredo; Vismara, Eleonora; Gabutti, Cristina; Volonterio, Alberto; Lombardi, Pierluigi; Morra, Enrica
Immunophenotypes in lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are prognostically significant, yet causative factors for these conditions, and specifically those associated with heritable risk, remain elusive. The full spectrum of LPD seen in humans occurs in dogs, but the incidence and lifetime risk of naturally occurring LPD differs among dog breeds. Taking advantage of the limited genetic heterogeneity that exists within dog breeds, we tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes would differ among different breeds. The sample population included 1,263 dogs representing 87 breeds. Immunophenotype was determined by the presence of clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain or T-cell receptor gamma chain. The probability of observing the number of B-cell or T-cell tumors in a particular breed or breed group was compared with three reference populations. Significance was computed using chi2 test, and logistic regression was used to confirm binomial predictions. The data show that, among 87 breeds tested, 15 showed significant differences from the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes seen across the dog population as a whole. More significantly, elevated risk for T-cell LPD seems to have arisen ancestrally and is retained in related breed groups, whereas increased risk for B-cell disease may stem from different risk factors, or combinations of risk factors, arising during the process of breed derivation and selection. The data show that domestic dogs provide a unique and valuable resource to define factors that mediate risk as well as genes involved in the initiation of B-cell and T-cell LPD. PMID:15994938
Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Burnett, Robert C; Parker, Heidi G; Inusah, Seidu; Thomas, Rachael; Avery, Paul R; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Ostrander, Elaine A; Cutter, Gary C; Avery, Anne C
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a lymphocyte proliferating disease, usually of B cell origin, and rarely of T cell. Involvement of liver itself in liver transplant recipients as the primary organ is not common. Herein we report our experience in two patients who primarily presented in the allografted liver, both of whom were promptly diagnosed after liver biopsy and treated successfully .Now after a few months; both of the patients are alive with normal liver function tests and negative imaging studies.
Geramizadeh, Bita; Nikeghbalian, Sama; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Bahador, Ali; Salahi, Heshmatollah; Malekhosseini, Seyedali
Here, the influence of T vs T and B cell depletion on the incidence of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) is analyzed. From 1982 to 1997 the soy bean agglutinin\\/sheep red blood cell (SBA\\/SRBC) method was used for T cell depletion. This technique is well established, but the use of
E Meijer; ICM Slaper-Cortenbach; SFT Thijsen; AW Dekker; LF Verdonck
Accumulating evidence indicates that bone marrow microenvironment plays an important role in the pathogenesis of some myeloid and lymphoid hematological malignancies (HM). Among different environmental associated parameters, those related to functional, cytogenetic and immunological integrity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are particularly relevant. Functional alterations and immunophenotypic abnormalities have been described in MSC obtained from HM patients. These data seem to confirm the defective biological pattern of MSC especially in myeloid diseases, while MSC cytogenetic profile in HM is still an open question, because it is not clear whether BM stromal cells are "culprit or bystander" displaying or not an abnormal karyotype. Contradictory findings were reported in different HM but the functional implications of altered MSC karyotype need to be further addressed also in light of a clinical use of MSC. A "pathological" in vivo supportive function of endogenous MSC, which provide important survival and drug resistance signals to leukemic cells especially in lymphoproliferative disorders, is suggested. Thus, the mechanisms underlying these protective versus cytotoxic effects exerted by MSC on leukemic cells need further investigations. PMID:24389177
Campioni, Diana; Voltan, Rebecca; Tisato, Veronica; Zauli, Giorgio
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)-associated Epstein Barr virus (EBV)+ B-cell lymphomas are serious complications of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. The EBV protein LMP2a, a B-cell receptor (BCR) mimic, provides survival signals to virally-infected cells through Syk tyrosine kinase. Therefore, we explored whether Syk inhibition is a viable therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated PTLD. We have shown that R406, the active metabolite of the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest while decreasing downstream phosphatidylinositol-3?-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in EBV+ B-cell lymphoma PTLD lines in vitro. However, Syk inhibition did not inhibit or delay the in vivo growth of solid tumors established from EBV-infected B-cell lines. Instead, we observed tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes exclusively in fostamatinib-treated animals. In contrast, direct inhibition of PI3K/Akt significantly reduced tumor burden in a xenogeneic mouse model of PTLD without evidence of tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes. Taken together, our data indicate that Syk activates PI3K/Akt signaling which is required for survival of EBV+ B-cell lymphomas. PI3K/Akt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for PTLD, and other EBV-associated malignancies.
Hatton, O.; Lambert, S. L.; Phillips, L. K.; Vaysberg, M.; Natkunam, Y.; Esquivel, C. O.; Krams, S. M.; Martinez, O. M.
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are potentially fatal, EBV-driven B-cell malignancies that develop in immunocompromised solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell recipients. In PTLD, the expression of EBV proteins, including latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) and LMP2A, viral immune evasion strategies, and impaired host immune surveillance foster the proliferation of EBV-transformed B cells. Current PTLD treatment strategies include reduction of immunosuppression, which increases the risk of graft rejection, anti-CD20 treatment, combination chemotherapy, and administration of EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells. In the present study, we report that EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B-cell lines (LCLs) and primary PTLDs overexpress galectin-1 (Gal1), a carbohydrate-binding lectin that induces tolerogenic dendritic cells and triggers the selective apoptosis of CD4(+) Th1 and Th17 cells and cytotoxic T cells. In transcriptional reporter assays, LMP2A and LMP1 each increased Gal1-driven luciferase expression, and the combination of LMP2A and LMP1 was additive. In addition, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated depletion of LMP2A decreased Gal1 protein abundance in EBV-transformed LCLs. Gal1 expression in LCLs was dependent on both activating protein 1 (AP-1) and PI3K. A newly developed neutralizing Gal1 mAb selectively inhibited Gal1-mediated apoptosis of EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Given the tolerogenic and immunosuppressive function of Gal1, antibody-mediated Gal1 neutralization may represent a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for PTLD and other Gal1-expressing tumors. PMID:21300977
Ouyang, Jing; Juszczynski, Przemyslaw; Rodig, Scott J; Green, Michael R; O'Donnell, Evan; Currie, Treeve; Armant, Myriam; Takeyama, Kunihiko; Monti, Stefano; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Ritz, Jerome; Kutok, Jeffery L; Shipp, Margaret A
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. We present a case of a 28-year-old woman with DC who was admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for aplastic anemia and who developed acute myeloid leukemia with complex genetic karyotype abnormalities including the MLL (11q23) gene, 1q25, and chromosome 8. After transplantation, a monomorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was discovered involving the liver, omental tissue, and peritoneal fluid samples showing additional MLL (11q23) gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Despite treatment, the patient died of complications associated with transplantation and invasive fungal infection. This case represents the first bona fide documented case of EBV-negative monomorphic PTLD host derived, with MLL gene abnormalities in a patient with DC, and shows another possible mechanism for the development of a therapy-related lymphoid neoplasm after transplantation. PMID:23222806
Bohn, Olga L; Whitten, Joseph; Spitzer, Barbara; Kobos, Rachel; Prockop, Susan; Boulad, Farid; Arcila, Maria; Wang, Lu; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie
The conjunction of clinical features, cell morphology and immunological characteristics allows an accurate diagnosis in most cases of B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD). However, the diagnosis remains uncertain in a small percentage of cases, often referred as to unclassified B cell proliferation or atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have studied retrospectively the 192 cases of leukemic CLD seen in our institution over a 3-year period, for which both clinical and routine biological data at presentation were available. Forty cases (20%) did not fit into any of the well-identified categories according to the FAB criteria and remained unclassified. We assessed cyclin D1 expression in all of these cases and found that 10 of them expressed a high level of cyclin D1 protein. We compared the characteristics of these 10 cases with those of the 30 cyclin D1 negative CLD. Despite non-distinctive cytological and phenotypic features, the 10 cyclin D1 positive patients exhibited a strikingly uniform clinical presentation with elevated leukocytosis, massive spleen enlargement and no superficial lymphadenopathy. Their outcome was very poor with a median survival of 10 months, contrasting with the prolonged survival of the cyclin D1 negative patients. The cytological features of tumor cells from these 10 patients with cyclin D1 positive unclassified leukemic CLD were similar to those of the circulating lymphoid cells from 15 patients with histologically proven mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and primary or secondary blood involvement. Therefore, cyclin D1 expression allowed identification among the unclassified CLD, a subset of aggressive disorders which represent a leukemic counterpart of MCL (mantle cell leukemia). We suggest that determination of cyclin D1 expression by any technique available should be systematically included when investigating atypical CLL. PMID:10482984
Levy, V; Ugo, V; Delmer, A; Tang, R; Ramond, S; Perrot, J Y; Vrhovac, R; Marie, J P; Zittoun, R; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, F
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication of solid organ transplantation or, more rarely, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The majority of PTLD is of B-cell origin and associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. PTLD generally display involvement of extranodal sites, aggressive histology and aggressive clinical behavior. The molecular pathogenesis of PTLD involves infection by oncogenic viruses, namely EBV, as well as genetic or epigenetic alterations of several cellular genes. At variance with lymphoma arising in immunocompetent hosts, whose genome is relatively stable, a fraction of PTLD are characterized by microsatellite instability as a consequence of defects in the DNA mismatch repair mechanism. Apart from microsatellite instability, molecular alterations of cellular genes recognized in PTLD include alterations of cMYC, BCL6, TP53, DNA hypermethylation, and aberrant somatic hypermutation of protooncogenes. The occurrence of IGV mutations in the overwhelming majority of PTLD documents that malignant transformation targets germinal centre (GC) B-cells and their descendants both in EBV–positive and EBV–negative cases. Analysis of phenotypic markers of B-cell histogenesis, namely BCL6, MUM1 and CD138, allows further distinction of PTLD histogenetic categories. PTLD expressing the BCL6+/MUM1+/-/CD138? profile reflect B-cells actively experiencing the GC reaction, and comprise diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) centroblastic and Burkitt lymphoma. PTLD expressing the BCL6?/MUM1+/CD138? phenotype putatively derive from B-cells that have concluded the GC reaction, and comprise the majority of polymorphic PTLD and a fraction of DLBCL immunoblastic. A third group of PTLD is reminiscent of post-GC and preterminally differentiated B-cells that show the BCL6?/MUM1+/CD138+ phenotype, and are morphologically represented by either polymorphic PTLD or DLBCL immunoblastic.
Capello, Daniela; Gaidano, Gianluca
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an infrequent, but serious complication of solid organ and bone marrow transplantations. The vast majority of the cases are of B-cell origin and usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The non-B (T and NK cell) PTLDs account for up to 14% of the PTLD cases in Western countries. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who received an orthotopic heart transplant for cardiomyopathy 7 years prior to presentation. He was referred to our institution with a hypermetabolic solitary right lower lobe lung nodule with an SUV of 9.2 on PET scan. The combined histomorphological and immunohistochemical pattern was most consistent with monomorphic PTLD, peripheral T-cell lymphoma with angioimmunoblastic features. Molecular studies showed clonal T-cell gamma receptor gene rearrangement. Primary pulmonary involvement of T-cell PTLD is extremely rare. This is the third reported case of T-cell PTLD after cardiac transplantation, primarily involving the lung. Further, studies will be required to determine the appropriate treatment and prognosis of this rare entity.
Aqil, Barina; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Curry, Choladda V; Elghetany, M Tarek; Szigeti, Reka
Intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy represents the standard treatment for hypogammaglobulinemia secondary to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion is an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment approach in primary immunodeficiencies but no extensive data are available on their use in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, a frequent phenomenon occurring after treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in lymphoproliferative disorders. In this retrospective study we evaluated efficacy (serum IgG trough levels, incidence of infections per year, need for antibiotics) and safety (number of adverse events) of intravenous (300 mg/kg/4 weeks) versus subcutaneous (75 mg/kg/week) immunoglobulin replacement therapy in 61 patients. In addition, the impact of the infusion methods on quality of life was compared. All patients were treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin, and 33 out of them had been previously treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Both treatments appeared to be effective in replacing Ig production deficiency and in reducing the incidence of infectious events and the need for antibiotics. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin obtained a superior benefit when compared to intravenous immunoglobulin achieving higher IgG trough levels, lower incidence of overall infection and need for antibiotics. The incidence of serious bacterial infections was similar with both infusion ways. As expected, a lower number of adverse events was registered with subcutaneous immunoglobulin, compared to intravenous immunoglobulin, with no serious adverse events. Finally, we observed an improvement in health-related quality of life parameters after the switch to subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Our results suggest that subcutaneous immunoglobulin is safe and effective in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia associated to lymphoproliferative disorders.
Compagno, Nicolo; Cinetto, Francesco; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Agostini, Carlo
Intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy represents the standard treatment for hypogammaglobulinemia secondary to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin infusion is an effective, safe and well-tolerated treatment approach in primary immunodeficiencies but no extensive data are available on their use in secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, a frequent phenomenon occurring after treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in lymphoproliferative disorders. In this retrospective study we evaluated efficacy (serum IgG trough levels, incidence of infections per year, need for antibiotics) and safety (number of adverse events) of intravenous (300 mg/kg/4 weeks) versus subcutaneous (75 mg/kg/week) immunoglobulin replacement therapy in 61 patients. In addition, the impact of the infusion methods on quality of life was compared. All patients were treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin, and 33 out of them had been previously treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Both treatments appeared to be effective in replacing Ig production deficiency and in reducing the incidence of infectious events and the need for antibiotics. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin obtained a superior benefit when compared to intravenous immunoglobulin achieving higher IgG trough levels, lower incidence of overall infection and need for antibiotics. The incidence of serious bacterial infections was similar with both infusion ways. As expected, a lower number of adverse events was registered with subcutaneous immunoglobulin, compared to intravenous immunoglobulin, with no serious adverse events. Finally, we observed an improvement in health-related quality of life parameters after the switch to subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Our results suggest that subcutaneous immunoglobulin is safe and effective in patients with hypogammaglobulinemia associated to lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:24682509
Compagno, Nicolò; Cinetto, Francesco; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Agostini, Carlo
The risk of lymphoproliferative disorders (LDs) has become a major concern for clinicians managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet it is difficult to distinguish the possible responsibility of immunosuppressive therapy from the background risk due to the inflammatory disorder itself. LDs are clonal B or T cell proliferation showing considerable heterogeneity and the incidence has increased since the
H Sokol; L Beaugerie
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced polyclonal and monoclonal B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases occurring after renal transplantation. Clinical, pathologic, and virologic findings and implications for therapy.
Nineteen renal allograft recipients developed B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Clinically there were two groups: a) young patients (mean age, 23 years) who presented soon (mean, 9 months) after transplantation or antirejection therapy with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy resembling infectious mononucleosis, and b) older patients (mean age, 48 years) who presented later (mean, 6 years) after transplantation with localized tumor masses. Histologically, the diseases were classified as polymorphic diffuse B-cell hyperplasia (PDBH) or polymorphic B-cell lymphoma (PBL). Immunologic cell typing revealed either polyclonal or monoclonal B-cell proliferations. Malignant transformation of polyclonal proliferations in two patients was suggested by the finding of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) specific serology, staining of biopsy specimens for the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen, and EBV DNA molecular hybridization studies implicated EBV as the cause of both PDBH and PBL. Acyclovir, an antiviral agent that blocks EBV replication in vitro, inhibited oropharyngeal shedding of EBV and caused complete remission in four patients with polyclonal B-cell proliferations. The monoclonal tumors were acyclovir resistant. We suggest that surgical treatment, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy may be more appropriate therapy in selected patients with acyclovir resistant tumors. Therapeutic decisions require not only documentation of the viral etiology of these tumors, but also immunologic and cytogenetic analysis to determine the stage of tumor evolution in individual patients.
Hanto, D W; Gajl-Peczalska, K J; Frizzera, G; Arthur, D C; Balfour, H H; McClain, K; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S
In view of the widespread use of pesticides in Egypt and the increasing incidence of leukaemia and lymphoma we aimed to assess pesticide exposure and other selected variables as risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders (leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma). In a hospital-based, retrospective, case-control study in 2011-2012, adult cases of lymphoproliferative disorders (n = 130) were recruited from outpatient clinics in Menoufia, Egypt, while controls (n = 130) were age- and sex-matched fracture patients. Family history of cancer, exposure to X-rays, smoking and use of hair dyes were not risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders in univariate analysis. History of exposure to pesticides and HCV infection were significant risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders in multivariate analysis (OR = 2.24; 95% CI: 1.22-4.11 and OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.50-4.80 respectively). The risk was significant for cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma but not chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:24960512
Salem, E A; Hegazy, M M; El Khouley, E A
Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Immunophenotypes in lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are prognostically significant, yet causative factors for these conditions, and specifically those associated with heritable risk, remain elusive. The full spectrum of LPD seen in humans occurs in dogs, but the incidence and lifetime risk of naturally occurring LPD differs among dog breeds. Taking advantage of the limited genetic heterogeneity that exists within dog breeds,
Jaime F. Modiano; Matthew Breen; Robert C. Burnett; Heidi G. Parker; Seidu Inusah; Rachael Thomas; Paul R. Avery; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Elaine A. Ostrander; Gary C. Cutter; Anne C. Avery
In up to 5-15% of studies of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), flow cytometry (FCM) or immunomorphologic methods cannot discriminate malignant from reactive processes. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of PCR for solving these diagnostic uncertainties. We analyzed IGH and TCR? genes by PCR in 106 samples with inconclusive FCM results. A clonal result was registered in 36/106 studies, with a LPD being confirmed in 27 (75%) of these cases. Specifically, 9/9 IGH clonal and 16/25 TCR? clonal results were finally diagnosed with LPD. Additionally, two clonal TCR? samples with suspicion of undefined LPD were finally diagnosed with T LPD. Although polyclonal results were obtained in 47 of the cases studied (38 IGH and nine TCR?), hematologic neoplasms were diagnosed in 4/38 IGH polyclonal and in 1/9 TCR? polyclonal studies. There were also 14 PCR polyclonal results (four IGH, 10 TCR?), albeit nonconclusive. Of these, 2/4 were eventually diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma and 3/10 with T-cell LPD. In eight IGH samples, the results of PCR techniques were noninformative but in 3/8 cases a B lymphoma was finally confirmed. We concluded that PCR is a useful technique to identify LPD when FCM is inconclusive. A PCR clonal B result is indicative of malignancy but IGH polyclonal and nonconclusive results do not exclude lymphoid neoplasms. Interpretation of T-cell clonality should be based on all the available clinical and analytical data. PMID:23943305
Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; Juncà, Jordi; Rodríguez, Inés; Marcé, Silvia; Cabezón, Marta; Millá, Fuensanta
Lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection cause significant morbidity and mortality in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients. To gain insight into LPD pathogenesis and to identify potential effective therapeutic approaches, we investigated early molecular events leading to B-cell transformation by gene expression profiling of EBV-infected B-cells from tonsils by Affymetrix microarray 72 hr postinfection when the B-cells hyperproliferation phase starts. Cell cycle and apoptosis were the most significantly affected pathways and enriched gene sets. In particular, we found significantly increased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)1 and CCNB1 (cyclin B1) and of one of their downstream targets BIRC5 (survivin). Importantly, the strong upregulation of the antiapoptotic protein survivin was confirmed in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and 71% of EBV-positive post-transplant EBV-LPD lesions scored positive for survivin. The validity of early transforming events for the identification of therapeutic targets for EBV-LPD was confirmed by the marked antiproliferative effect of the CDK inhibitor flavopiridol on LCLs and by the strong induction of apoptosis by survivin inhibition with YM155 or terameprocol. Our results suggest that targeting of CDKs and/or survivin in post-transplant EBV-LPD by specific inhibitors might be an important approach to control and eliminate EBV-transformed B-cells that should be further considered. PMID:23640782
Bernasconi, Michele; Ueda, Seigo; Krukowski, Patricia; Bornhauser, Beat C; Ladell, Kristin; Dorner, Marcus; Sigrist, Juerg A; Campidelli, Cristina; Aslandogmus, Roberta; Alessi, Davide; Berger, Christoph; Pileri, Stefano A; Speck, Roberto F; Nadal, David
Experiments were performed to examine expression of proto-oncogenes and other related genes in ten cases of chronic T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. The helper vs. suppressor nature of the T-cells was determined using monoclonal antibodies. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and/or lymph node sections and 5'-end labelled with ..gamma..-/sub 32/P-ATP. RNA preparations were hybridized under stringent conditions to an excess of nitrocellulose-bound specific cloned DNA; autoradiographs were analyzed by microdensitometry. Hybridizations of PHA-activated T-cells to various probes as well as hybridizations of RNA samples to parent plasmid were negative in all experiments. Results revealed increased expression of K-ras, B-lym, transferrin receptor, ..cap alpha..-tubulin and ..cap alpha..-interferon in 5/5 helper T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, while 5/5 suppressor T-cell disorders demonstrated levels of hybridization to these clones no higher than background. However, studies of T-suppressor disorders demonstrated enhanced levels of ..beta..-interferon-specific RNA in 5/5 patients, an increase not apparent in T-helper chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. There was no correlation of this pattern of gene expression with the aggressive nature of the disease since T-cells from 2/5 suppressor disorders were actively proliferating.
Doerge, M.J.; Hooper, W.C.; Phyliky, R.L.; Witzig, T.E.; Banks, P.M.; Li, C.Y.; Woloschak, G.E.
Purpose To study the pattern of ocular adnexal lymphoproliferative disorders (OALD) in an ophthalmic referral center in Saudi Arabia and to review their, histopathological characteristics with clinical correlation. Methods Retrospective chart review of 40 cases of patients who underwent incisional biopsy with the suspected diagnosis of periocular and/or adnexal lymphoid lesions over the period: 2000–2012 at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The routine histopathologic slides are reviewed by a single pathologist to identify cases of Benign Reactive Lymphoid Hyperplasia (RLH), Atypical Lymphoid Hyperplasia and probable lymphoma. The identification of the specific types of lymphoma is performed at a tertiary general hospital: King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH&RC). Results Forty patients are included with an age range of 11–91 years and a median of 36 years. The males constitute 70% and females 30% of the cases. The right eye and/or orbit are involved in 48%. The left eye is involved in 45% while a bilateral disease is found in 7.5%. The median duration of symptoms is 5 months. The site distribution is conjunctiva (42.5%), orbit (25%), lacrimal gland (12.5%), eyelid (10%), lacrimal sac (7.5%) and caruncle (2.5%). One case is excluded after histopathologic diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Diagnosis in the remaining 39 cases includes: RLH in 14 cases (35%), atypical lymphoid hyperplasia in three cases (9%), and lymphoma in 22 cases (56%). Classification of the lymphoma group is: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) in 9/22 cases (41%), diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in 4/22 cases (18%), Castelman’s disease in 3/22 cases (14%), Burkitt’s lymphoma in 2/22 cases (9%), follicular lymphoma and T cell-rich B cell lymphoma: one case each (4.5%).Two cases remain unclassified. Conclusion We have a wide age range which is comparable to other studies. Our results show male predominance and the commonest site of involvement is conjunctival, however if RLH cases are excluded, the commonest site for lymphoma is orbit/lacrimal gland in 45% followed by conjunctival in 23%. The commonest type of lymphoma is: EMZL in 41% followed by DLBCL in 18% then other types of lymphoma including follicular lymphoma.
Alkatan, Hind M.; Alaraj, Ahmad; El-khani, Albarah; Al-Sheikh, Osama
We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy.
Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a rare T and NK cell immune deficiency which most frequently presents as fulminant\\u000a infectious mononucleosis following infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We report the case of a 4-year-old boy from\\u000a a Spanish family presenting with severe infectious mononucleosis. In the course of the disease he developed hepatic failure,\\u000a pancytopenia and neurologic impairment, leading to
Boris Hügle; Itziar Astigarraga; Jan-Inge Henter; Anna Porwit-MacDonald; Alfons Meindl; Volker Schuster
Accurate diagnosis of lymphoma includes the assessment of lineage-specific markers. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues express PAX5 exclusively in pro-B-cell to mature B-cell stages. However, some mature PAX5+ T-cell lymphomas have been reported. We report three cases of primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) with PAX5 expression: one cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and two cases of lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP). The three patients were 26 years old and female, 75 years old and female, and 65 years old and male. In all cases, Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg-like large lymphoid cells were present, positive for CD30, fascin, and PAX5, and negative for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD45RO, CD56, cytotoxic markers, and Epstein-Barr virus. The ALCL was accompanied by lymphadenopathy; the patient died of progressive disease 5 months after diagnosis. The LyP cases were localized in the skin with spontaneous regression. One case was diagnosed during pregnancy, transformed to ALCL, and ended in death 32 months after diagnosis despite multi-agent chemotherapy. This study is the first to address the clinical significance of PAX5+ primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell LPDs. These cases were distinct regarding PAX5 expression and a relatively aggressive clinical course versus conventional primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell LPDs. PMID:22449230
Hagiwara, Masahiro; Tomita, Akihiro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Yoshino, Tadashi; Tomita, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shigeo
Approximately 5% of patients with end-stage cirrhosis undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation have occult hepatocellular carcinoma. Careful follow up is required to detect recurrent tumour, and knowledge of the patterns of recurrence may avoid diagnostic confusion with other malignancies, such as post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. This case report illustrates an unusual presentation of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in a 56-year-old man presenting with a para-aortic soft tissue mass, thought clinically and radiologically to represent lymphoma or post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. This case demonstrates that recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma can present late after transplantation as retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, and should alert physicians and radiologists to be aware of the radiological appearances of recurrence and of the need for early biopsy to avoid diagnostic confusion with other malignancies. PMID:16026439
Ho, S G F; Phillips, A J; Browne, R F J; Munk, P L; Legiehn, G M; Yoshida, E M; Davis, J E; Chung, S W; Scudamore, C H
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders(PTLD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are a group of rare, but are grievous complications. The occurrence of these diseases are most associated with EBV infection. The clinical manifestations usually include recurrent fever, lymph node enlargement, progressive decline of three lineage cells of hemogram, EB viremia and response failure to formal broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy, then the disease rapidly deteriorated in the short term, which result in high mortality. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely effective treatment such as rituximab, donor lymphocyte infusion and/or EB virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are needed to improve the prognosis. This review briefly summarized the diagnosis and therapy advance on the lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24763039
Gu, Bin; Chen, Guang-Hua; Wu, De-Pei
Posttransplant malignancy is one of the most important complications of organ transplantation. Immunosuppressive drugs, viral infections such as human herpes virus 8 or Epstein-Barr virus, exposure to carcinogenic factors such as sun, and host factors can be etiologic factors in the development of malignant disease. In this paper we report 2 cases of late posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder with malign behavior. Conflict of interest:None declared.
Paydas, Saime; Paydas, Semra; Balal, Mustafa; Ac?kal?n, Arbil; Ergin, Melek; Gurkan, Emel; Baslam?sl?, Fikri
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Rare cases of PTLD after autologous BMT have been reported only in adults. This case report is the first to describe PTLD in a pediatric patient after autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (PSCT). This 2-year-old male with stage IV neuroblastoma underwent autologous PSCT. The post-PSCT course was
MA Lones; I Kirov; JW Said; IP Shintaku; S Neudorf
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the central nervous system (CNS) has a poor prognosis. New therapeutic approaches should be explored. We report our experience with intrathecal administration of rituximab in a 10-year-old kidney allograft recipient with PTLD in the CNS. After standard treatment had failed, we tried to treat the patient by administering rituximab directly into the cerebral ventricle through
Gretha van de Glind; Siebold de Graaf; Christoph Klein; Marlies Cornelissen; Britta Maecker; Jan Loeffen
Anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody prevalence was investigated in 228 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Twenty-six of 228 (11.40%) patients with LPDs were positive for anti-HCV which was higher than the donor population (P = 0.0007). Nine of 98 cases with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, five of 47 cases with multiple myeloma, seven of 36 cases with Hodgkin’s disease, four of 38
S Paydas; B Kiliç; B Sahin
Gastrointestinal lymphomas can be difficult to diagnose, particularly in small samples, when early in development, or when of unusual types. In this review, we describe lymphoid proliferations in the gastrointestinal tract in a location-based manner, including, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large bowel. For the purpose of differential diagnosis, benign mimics of lymphoma are also described. Lymphoma types that are specifically addressed include plasmablastic, extranodal natural killer/T-cell-nasal type, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (eg, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma), diffuse large B cell, primary follicular of small intestine, enteropathy-associated T cell, and Burkitt and mantle cell. Immunohistochemical markers useful in the diagnostic approach are elaborated in detail. PMID:24613566
O'Malley, Dennis P; Goldstein, Neal S; Banks, Peter M
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a congenital immunodeficiency that is characterized by an abnormal immune response to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. After EBV exposure, affected patients often develop fulminant infectious mononucleosis (FIM), a life-threatening condition marked by the uncontrolled expansion and activation of T and B lymphocytes and macrophages. We hypothesized that the rapid elimination of B cells immediately following EBV exposure might reduce the severity of primary EBV infection in patients with XLP. To test this possibility, we administered the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab to 2 patients who presented with acute infection. Following treatment, both patients exhibited a complete resolution of symptoms and no longer demonstrated detectable EBV DNA within circulating lymphocytes. Moreover, neither patient has developed FIM or lymphoma in more than 2 years of follow-up. These data suggest that the pre-emptive use of B-cell-directed therapy may reduce the morbidity and mortality of primary EBV infection in XLP-affected individuals. PMID:15494422
Milone, Michael C; Tsai, Donald E; Hodinka, Richard L; Silverman, Lewis B; Malbran, Alejandro; Wasik, Mariusz A; Nichols, Kim E
Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) belong to the spectrum of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, an indolent form of T-cell lymphoproliferative disease. We reviewed 21 cases of CD30+ lymphoproliferative lesions expressing cytotoxic profile (CD8+). Seven cases of cutaneous ALCL, 2 cases of systemic ALCL involving the skin, and 12 cases of LyP. The cases of LyP were predominated by small lymphocytes exhibiting a prominent epidermotropic pattern consistent with either type B or type D LyP. Four cases showed co-expression of CD56. The ALCL cases included myxoid features, pseudoepitheliomatous change, and an intravascular component. In all cases that were primary in the skin an indolent clinical course was seen while one patient with systemic myxoid ALCL is in remission following systemic multiagent chemotherapy. The paucity of other neutrophils and eosinophils and concomitant granulomatous inflammation were distinctive features in cases of type B and type D LyP. CD30 and CD45 Ro positivity and a clinical course typical of LyP were useful differentiating features from an aggressive cytotoxic CD8+ T cell lymphoma. In all cases that were primary in the skin an indolent clinical course was observed. CD30 and CD45 Ro positivity and a clinical course typical of LyP were useful in preventing a misdiagnosis of an aggressive cytotoxic CD8+ T cell lymphoma. PMID:23189966
Plaza, Jose A; Feldman, Andrew L; Magro, Cynthia
We report a case of non-sideroblastic refractory anaemia which evolved to a double lymphomyeloproliferative disorder. At presentation, bone marrow appearances and peripheral blood pancytopenia without myelomonocytosis were consistent with a diagnosis of non-sideroblastic refractory anaemia. Subsequently, the patient developed pronounced myelomonocytosis and lymphocytosis with prolymphocytes. Light and transmission electron microscopy as well as surface marker studies were compatible with a diagnosis of prolymphocytic transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/prolymphocytic leukaemia associated with myelomonocytic leukaemia. The pathogenesis of such double lympho-myeloproliferative disorders is discussed in the light of the evidence for common lymphoid and myeloid progenitor cells and some recent advances in the immunology of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Images
Camba, L; Joyner, M V
Occult HCV infection is a form of chronic HCV infection characterized by absence of detectable anti-HCV antibodies or plasma HCV-RNA but presence of HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HCV-RNA in PBMCs of patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. One hundred and four consecutive patients with lymphoproliferative disorders admitted to Firouzgar Hospital from January 2010 to March 2011 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A 6-ml sample of whole blood was taken from the patients, the total RNA was extracted from the samples after the separation of plasma and PBMCs. The HCV-RNA of the samples was amplified by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). The HCV genotypes of the positive samples were tested using the INNO-LiPA™ HCV II kit, and the HCV genotypes were then confirmed by sequencing of the 5'-UTR fragments after the PCR products were cloned into a pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector. The mean age of the patients was 48.3?±?1.76 years (range: 16-83). HCV-RNA was found in PBMCs from 2 (1.9%) of the 104 patients. Genotyping showed that the patients were infected with HCV subtype 1a. One patient suffered non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and the other suffered chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients with lymphoproliferative disorders with negative anti-HCV antibodies and negative plasma HCV-RNA may have occult HCV infection. Therefore, in the absence of a liver biopsy, the testing of PBMCs for the detection of genomic HCV-RNA may be beneficial. PMID:23168913
Farahani, Maryam; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Ghane, Masood; Basi, Ali; Meysami, Parisa; Keyvani, Hossein
Stromal elements present within the tumor microenvironment may suppress host immunity and promote the growth of malignant lymphocytes in B cell–derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In contrast, little is known about the microenvironment's role in T cell–derived NHL. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274), a member of the B7 family of costimulatory/coinhibitory ligands expressed by both malignant cells and stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment, has emerged as an important immune modulator capable of suppressing host immunity. Therefore, B7-H1 expression and function were analyzed in cutaneous and peripheral T-cell NHL. B7-H1 was expressed by tumor cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cells within the tumor microenvironment in T-cell NHL and was found to inhibit T-cell proliferation and promote the induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Collectively, the data presented provide the first evidence implicating B7-H1 in the suppression of host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and suggest that the targeting of B7-H1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach.
Wilcox, Ryan A.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wada, David A.; Yang, Zhi-Zhang; Comfere, Nneka I.; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D.; Novak, Anne J.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Witzig, Thomas E.
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is not uncommon and can occur in 2% to 5% of solid organ recipients on immunosuppression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or reactivation and intensive anti-T lymphocyte treatment are important pathogenetic factors for a large proportion of these disorders. Nonclonal lesions with polymorphous histology have a potential for regressing when the immunosuppressants are reduced or stopped. Clonal
PK Li; K Tsang; CC Szeto; TY Wong; CB Leung; SF Lui; S Yu; FM Lai
Background. Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) was identified as a new form of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), characterized by undetectable HCV antibodies and HCV RNA in serum, while HCV RNA is detectable in liver and peripheral blood cells only. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of OCI in Egyptian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) and to compare its prevalence with that of HCV in those patients. Subjects and Methods. The current study included 100 subjects, 50 of them were newly diagnosed cases having different lymphoproliferative disorders (patients group), and 50 were apparently healthy volunteers (controls group). HCV antibodies were detected by ELISA, HCV RNA was detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), and HCV genotype was detected by INNO-LiPA. Results. OCI was detected in 20% of patients group, compared to only 4% OCI in controls group. HCV was detected in 26% of patients group with a slightly higher prevalence. There was a male predominance in both HCV and OCI. All HCV positive patients were genotype 4. Conclusion. Our data revealed occurrence of occult HCV infection in Egyptian LPD patients at a prevalence of 20% compared to 26% of HCV.
Youssef, Samar Samir; Nasr, Aml S.; El Zanaty, Taher; El Rawi, Rasha Sayed; Mattar, Mervat M.
CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development.
Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A.; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F.; Forster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G.
We investigated the bone phenotype of mice with generalized lymphoproliferative disorder (gld) due to a defect in the Fas ligand-mediated apoptotic pathway. C57BL/6-gld mice had greater whole body bone mineral density and greater trabecular bone volume than their wild-type controls. gld mice lost 5-fold less trabecular bone and had less osteoclasts on bone surfaces after ovariectomy-induced bone resorption. They also formed more bone in a model of osteogenic regeneration after bone marrow ablation, had less osteoclasts on bone surfaces and less apoptotic osteoblasts. gld and wild-type mice had similar numbers of osteoclasts in bone marrow cultures, but marrow stromal fibroblasts from gld mice formed more alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies. Bone diaphyseal shafts and bone marrow stromal fibroblasts produced more osteoprotegerin mRNA and protein than wild-type mice. These findings provide evidence that the disturbance of the bone system is a part of generalized lymphoproliferative syndrome and indicates the possible role of osteoprotegerin as a regulatory link between the bone and immune system. PMID:12538719
Katavi?, Vedran; Luki?, Ivan Kresimir; Kovaci?, Natasa; Grcevi?, Danka; Lorenzo, Joseph A; Marusi?, Ana
Background: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a variety of extrahepatic disorders that may relate to direct or indirect effects of virus infection. Increased levels of soluble forms of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors I and II, found in lymphoproliferative and infectious diseases, can interfere with TNF induced apoptotic cell death. The aim of the present study
Stefano Realdon; Patrizia Pontisso; Fausto Adami; Livio Trentin; Franco Noventa; Alessia Ferrari; Irene Migliorato; Angelo Gatta; Alfredo Alberti
The 13q14 deletion is the most frequent abnormality in chronic lymphocytic leukemias\\/small lymphocytic lymphomas, and this early rearrangement is observed from the start of the disease. The systematic use of a panel of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) may not reveal some probes (targeting chromosomes 11q, 13q, 17p, and chromosome 12) structural abnormalities. In this series, we analyzed metaphases
Stephanie Struski; Catherine Helias; Carine Gervais; Bruno Audhuy; Alina Zamfir; Raoul Herbrecht; Michel Lessard
Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg) and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC) were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and effectiveness may further advance by selectively targeting pathogenic B-cell function.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a neoplastic complication with a potentially fatal outcome that develops as a consequence of immunosuppression, and is mainly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A 70-year-old woman underwent a live unrelated, ABO-incompatible renal transplant for end-stage renal disease. One year after transplantation, protocol biopsy revealed pathological changes indicative of the histological subtype of 'early lesions of PTLD' according to the World Health Organization classification, while the patient showed no clinical signs or symptoms. The patient was finally diagnosed with EBV-positive PTLD by in situ hybridization for EBER (EBV-encoded RNA), and was successfully treated based on the reduction of immunosuppression. Protocol biopsy within the first post-transplant year is the only diagnostic measure to detect asymptomatic early PTLD, which allows for early intervention and leads to better outcomes. PMID:24842822
Kitajima, Kazuki; Sasaki, Hideo; Koike, Junki; Nakazawa, Ryuto; Sato, Yuichi; Yazawa, Masahiko; Tsuruoka, Kayo; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Imai, Naohiko; Shirai, Sayuri; Shibagaki, Yugo; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya
B cell-directed therapies are promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. Besides targeting CD20, newer B cell-directed therapies are in development that target other B cell surface molecules and differentiation factors. An increasing number of B cell-directed therapies are in development for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Like rituximab, which is approved as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many of these newer agents deplete B cells or target pathways essential for B cell development and function; however, many questions remain about their optimal use in the clinic and about the role of B cells in disease pathogenesis. Other therapies besides rituximab that target CD20 are the furthest along in development. Besides targeting CD20, the newer B cell-directed therapies target CD22, CD19, CD40–CD40L, B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). Rituximab is being tested in an ever-increasing number of autoimmune disorders and clinical studies of rituximab combined with other biological therapies are being pursued for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). B cell-directed therapies are being tested in clinical trials for a variety of autoimmune disorders including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), the inflammatory myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis) and the blistering skin diseases pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Despite the plethora of clinical studies related to B cell-directed therapies and wealth of new information from these trials, much still remains to be discovered about the pathophysiological role of B cells in autoimmune disorders.
Levesque, M C
The splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a relatively rare chronic B lymphoproliferative disease, which primarily manifest increase of peripheral blood lymphocyte count and/or scale, and splenomegaly, while the peripheral superficial lymph nodes are often not swollen. Therefore, the splenectomy are usually needed to confirm the diagnosis, but the majority of patients could not accept such management, resulting in early difficult diagnosis. This study was purposed to explore the more prior way for diagnosis based flow cytometry (FCM). Six patients with suspected diagnosis of SMZL were used as research objects, 10 healthy bone marrow donors and 10 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3 cases of hairy cell leukemia (HCL), 3 cases of lymphatic plasma cell lymphoma/Waldenströ's macroglobulinemia (LPL/WM) were selected as control. The immunophenotype of bone marrow cells were analyzed and compared by FCM using a panel of antibodies including CD45, CD5, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD25, CD103, CD11c, CD123, ?,?, Cyclin D1, and combined with bone marrow cell morphology. The results indicated that 6 cases of suspected SMZL showed a large increase of lymphocytes and splenomegaly. Because absence of peripheral lymphadenopathy, 6 patients did not suffer from lymph node biopsy, only 1 patient underwent diagnostic splenectomy. The immunophenotypes of bone marrow in patients and controls were analyzed by FCM, as a result, except for the healthy donors, varying degrees of abnormal mature B cell clones were found in bone marrow of all patients, and the further differentiation from other B-cell tumors was performed through CD5, CD10 expression and combination with other B-cell phenotype. All 6 cases of SMZL patients expressed CD19(+) and CD20(+), but CD10 expression was negative, 4 patients expre-ssed CD5(-), 2 patients expressed CD5(+). The expressions of CD23, CD38, ZAP-70, CD11c, CD103, CD123, Cyclin D1 were negative. The morphological examination of bone marrow cells showed velutinous abnormal lymphocytes. Combined with clinical characteristics, 6 patients were diagnosed as SMZL, 1 patient suffered from splenectomy because of concurrent hypersplenism, and this postoperative pathologic examination confirmed the patient with SMZL. Ten cases of CLL mainly expressed CD5, CD23; 3 cases of HCL had more typical morphology of "hairlike" in addition to CD11c, CD103 and CD123 positive; 3 cases of LPL/WM had significantly increased light chain restriction expression, IgM, plasmacytoid lymphocytes. It is concluded that the FCM immunophenotype analysis can be used as a powerful tools for clinical diagnosis of SMZL. PMID:24763004
Hu, Yang; Chen, Yan; Wang, Li-Hua; Chen, Xue; Fang, Fang; Liu, Shi-Qin; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Zhu, Ping
Abstract Background. Hepatitis B and C viruses’ infections are often associated with hematological disorders in evolution, suggesting that these viruses have a tropism for peripheral blood and/or bone marrow cells. Aim. To analyze the hematological parameters and bone marrow findings in a group of patients diagnosed with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD) and hepatitis viruses B, C, D infections, which were included in the research grant (acronym LIMFO-VIR) between December 2007 and May 2010 in the Hematology Department of the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest. Methods and results. Patients were diagnosed by using immunopathology according to the WHO criteria. The analyzed group included 42 patients (both sexes), with the mean age of 60,35 years. The most frequent hematologic disease was non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma 30/42 (71,42%), followed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (16,66%) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (7,14%). Hepatitis viruses were distributed: 17/42 (40,47%) patients with HBV, 22/42 (52,38%) with HCV and 3/42 (7,14%) had a double/triple association of viruses. Most of the patients had an indolent type of disease - 27/42 (64,28%), whereas 15/42 (35,71%) had an aggressive one, pattern found both in the HBV and HCV infected groups. An abnormal bone marrow result was revealed in 32/42 (76,19%) patients, 19 (59,37%) of them being HCV infected. Myelodysplasia was found in 6/42(14,28%) patients, the majority being HCV infected, all having an indolent form of CLD. The antiviral therapy did not influence the hematological parameters (no significant differences were found between the groups with/without an antiviral therapy). Discussions. Patients with hepatitis virus infections may associate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia; the mechanisms are thought to involve hypersplenism, autoimmune processes and antiviral therapy. We excluded the influence of chemotherapy, as the study was performed before the treatment. In our group, patients whether HBV or HCV infected, presented an isolated cytopenia. The abnormal bone marrow cellularity (increased or decreased) and dysplasia were found especially in the HCV group. There are studies showing no association between myelodysplasia and hepatitis viruses; others found a strong relation of these. One of the mechanisms of myelodysplasia could be a dysregulation of the immune system. Conclusions. Bone marrow/peripheral blood features correlate with the type of viral infection and HCV is more prone to develop additional hematological changes than HBV. The degree of bone marrow involvement by CLDs influences these features. We considered mandatory to perform a bone marrow analysis at the diagnosis of CLDs to stage and to establish if other bone marrow changes were present, a crucial aspect for therapy and outcome of the disease. The association between the hepatitis viruses – myelodysplasia- autoimmunity seems to have a role in the lymphoproliferative disorders etiology. Abbreviations: CLD – chronic lymphoproliferative disorders; NHL- non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, CLL- chronic lymphocytic leukemia, HL- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, MDS – myelodysplastic syndrome, AML – acute myeloid leukemia
Ciufu, C; Arama, V; Bumbea, H; Dobrea, C; Ion, I; Vladareanu, AM
Patient Male, 81 Final Diagnosis: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Symptoms: General weakness • hypoglycemia • metabolic acidosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: B cell lymphoma constitutes 80–85% of cases of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the Untied States. Metabolic complications may arise from the disease itself or through its end organ involvement. Case Report: We describe a case of a diffuse large B cell lymphoma diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography after it initially presented as hypoglycemia not correctable by dextrose infusion that instead resulted in increased anion gap metabolic acidosis with elevated lactate levels. Conclusions: The case illustrates how lymphomas can present unusually with hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis, the latter being an ominous sign that can occur without liver involvement. In this regard, the case demonstrates the metabolic sequelae of lymphoma that should raise suspicion for an underlying process. This has implications for diagnosis, treatment, and patient survival. Attention should be paid especially in the primary care setting in order to minimize delays in diagnosis.
Tanios, Georges; Aranguren, Ines M.; Goldstein, Jack S.; Patel, Chirag B.
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) belongs to a very rare, mild, lymphoproliferative disease of unestablished aetiology historically included in the group of pseudolymphomas. Its existence was controversial for many years, until modern techniques of pathomorphological diagnosis approved it as a separate entity of lung disease. It manifests in the form of well limited nodules localized in the lungs, which are mostly identified accidentally. Clinical symptoms are rare and nonspecific; the disease usually occupies only one lung. Pathomorphological diagnosis requires immunohistochemical designation of expressions of numerous antigens in order to exclude malignant lymphoma of the lungs. Surgical resection is used in cases of larger nodules; the smaller ones require periodic observation, and the prognosis is good. The authors describe the case of 65-year-old woman with pulmonary nodules which were detected accidentally in the right lung. The patient was qualified for right-sided videothoracoscopy and removal of the lung nodule. In classic HE staining of the histological material, the presence of lymphoid infiltration of the lungs was revealed, which formed lymph follicles with reactive germinal centres. In order to differentiate from the malignant lymphatic expansion, immunohistochemical designations were made, which showed positive expression of CD20 antigen in the B cell zone, positive expression of the CD3 antigen in the T cells zone, positive expression of CD23 antigen in the lymph follicles, negative expression of bcl-2 in the lymph follicles, and positive expression of MIB-1 in the germinal centres of lymph follicles. Such a histopathological and immunohistochemical picture provided the basis for diagnosis of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the lung. PMID:23258474
Rogozi?ski, Pawe?; Bruli?ski, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Eugeniusz; Wandzel, Piotr; Kucharzewski, Marek
Primary cutaneous (PC) CD30-positive large cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) represent the spectrum of PC CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) associated with a favorable prognosis. Noncutaneous CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), although morphologically similar to PC CD30-positive LPDs, seems to be a biologically distinct entity. Cell lines derived from noncutaneous ALCL express CD95 and undergo CD95-induced apoptosis. Little is
Jessica E. Sigel; Eric D. Hsi
Aplastic anemia (AA) may precede, co-occur, or follow a lymphoproliferative neoplasm. The best molecularly clarified scenario is that of concurrent AA and unsuspected (occult) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Several reported cases of AA and concurrent small B-cell lymphomas/leukemias and Hodgkin lymphomas suggest also a possible link to simultaneous or preceding AA that might be sought in an antineoplastic immunological attempt to 'eradicate' the underlying malignant clone. The 'immuno-deregulatory' potential and the direct cytotoxicity of regimens used for lymphoma therapy might be able to trigger AA in cases evolving after lymphoma treatment too. Alternative explanations of AA associated with lymphoproliferative disorders might be particular (immuno-)genetic patient backgrounds predisposing to both AA and lymphoid neoplasms or exposures to environmental factors, increasing the risk for both diseases. Finally, the most common causal relationship of AA and lymphoma is that of immunosuppression- or allogeneous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated posttransplantational lymphoproliferative disorders in AA patients, who are treated in the respective manner. As all above scenarios are differently (specifically) therapeutically approachable and accompanied by diverse outcomes, they should be actively sought for and diagnosed as precisely as possible. This review summarizes the current knowledge on associations between AA and lymphoproliferative neoplasms. PMID:24750685
Tzankov, A; Medinger, M
Rituximab is a humanized chimeric monoclonal antibody, targeted against the pan B cell marker CD20. It is frequently used to treat a variety of B cell lymphomas and immunosuppression associated lymphoproliferations such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). The response rate of rituximab treatment is 65%, but the exact in vivo mechanism of action is not yet fully understood, although antibody-dependent
Laszlo Markasz; Bruno Vanherberghen; Emilie Flaberg; Rita Otvos; Gyorgy Stuber; Eva Olah; Henriette Skribek; Laszlo Szekely
Objective and Importance Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Clinical presentations Among 263 individuals treated with allo-HSCT for severe aplastic anemia, pure white cell aplasia, T-prolymphocytic leukemia, and relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma, we diagnosed EBV-PTLD in 5 patients. Median age was 29 years (range 19-70 years) and four of five patients were EBV-seropositive prior to HSCT. All five had unrelated EBV-positive donors. In all cases, PTLD occurred within the first year post-transplant (median 4 months). Intervention There were two rapidly fatal courses with extensive organ involvement. Both patients showed lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. In contrast, the three surviving patients had higher lymphocytes and normal platelet counts, while PTLD was restricted to one site and resolved after 2-4 cycles of rituximab. Conclusion In this case series courses of PTLD showed substantial diversity. PMID:24074746
Meyer, Sara C; Medinger, Michael; Halter, Jörg P; Baldomero, Helen; Hirsch, Hans H; Tzankov, Alexandar; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Passweg, Jakob R; Tichelli, André
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a major complication caused by immune-suppression after transplantation. Survival outcome is known to be poor and the characteristics are not fully understood because of its rare incidence. This single center retrospective study enrolled 41 adult PTLD patients after kidney-transplantation (KT, n = 28) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, n = 13) from 1992 to 2012. We compared the characteristics and estimated the survival outcomes according to several factors [age-adjusted-IPI (aaIPI), pathologic subtype, viral status, extranodal manifestation] and added some significant parameters to aaIPI scoring system. Post-HSCT-PTLD patients were younger and showed earlier onset, and viral status was more frequently identified. Ten-year OS of the entire group was 44% but the 10-year OS was not significantly different between post-KT-PTLD and post-HSCT-PTLD (39% vs. 56%, P = 0.860). The time onset of PTLD and viral statuses were not meaningful, however, aaIPI, age > 50, extranodal manifestation and monomorphic subtype were predictive for OS. We used those factors for PTLD-specific scoring which showed intermediate-risk (HR = 7.1, P = 0.019) and high-risk (HR = 16.5, P = 0.001) presented worse OS compared to low-risk subgroup. Although the treatment strategies were heterogenous, this study showed comprehensive PTLD data between KT versus HSCT, and our PTLD-specific scoring might be validated by another larger studies. PMID:24684689
Yoon, Jae-Ho; Lee, Seok; Kim, Hee-Je; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ji-Il; Moon, In Sung; Oh, Eun Ji; Park, Gyeong-Sin; Cho, Seok-Goo
Up to 35% of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) cases occur within 1 year of transplantation, and over 50% are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV primary infection and reactivation are PTLD predictive factors, but there is no consensus for their treatment. We conducted a prospective single-center study on 299 consecutive heart-transplant patients treated with the same immunosuppressive regimen and monitored by repetitive EBV viral-load measurements and endomyocardial biopsies to detect graft rejection. Immunosuppression was tapered on EBV reactivation with EBV viral loads >10(5) ?copies/mL or primary infection. In the absence of response at 1 month or a viral load >10(6) ?copies/mL, patients received one rituximab infusion (375?mg/m(2) ). All patients responded to treatment without increased graft rejection. One primary infection case developed a possible PTLD, which completely responded to diminution of immunosuppression, and one patient, whose EBV load was unevaluable, died of respiratory complications secondary to PTLD. Compared with a historical cohort of 820 patients, PTLD incidence was decreased (p?=?0.033) by a per-protocol analysis. This is the largest study on EBV primary infection/reactivation treatment, the first using rituximab following solid organ transplantation to prevent PTLD and the first to demonstrate an acceptable tolerability profile in this setting. PMID:24666832
Choquet, S; Varnous, S; Deback, C; Golmard, J L; Leblond, V
Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cell line (lymphoblastoid cell lines; LCL)-stimulated T-cell preparations have been successfully used to treat EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in transplant recipients, but function and specificity of the CD4+ component are still poorly defined. Here, we assessed the tumor-protective potential of different CD4+ T-cell specificities in a PTLD-SCID mouse model. Injection of different virus-specific CD4+ T-cell clones showed that single specificities were capable of prolonging mouse survival and that the degree of tumor protection directly correlated with recognition of target cells in vitro. Surprisingly, some CD4+ T-cell clones promoted tumor development, suggesting that besides antigen recognition, still elusive functional differences exist among virus-specific T cells. Of several EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell clones tested, those directed against virion antigens proved most tumor-protective. However, enriching these specificities in LCL-stimulated preparations conferred no additional survival benefit. Instead, CD4+ T cells specific for unknown, probably self-antigens were identified as principal antitumoral effectors in LCL-stimulated T-cell lines. These results indicate that virion and still unidentified cellular antigens are crucial targets of the CD4+ T-cell response in this preclinical PTLD-model and that enriching the corresponding T-cell specificities in therapeutic preparations may enhance their clinical efficacy. Moreover, the expression in several EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell lines implies that these putative autoantigen(s) might also qualify as targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of virus-negative B cell malignancies.
Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Behrends, Uta; Adhikary, Dinesh; Witter, Klaus; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Mautner, Josef
Polyclonal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cell line (lymphoblastoid cell lines; LCL)-stimulated T-cell preparations have been successfully used to treat EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in transplant recipients, but function and specificity of the CD4+ component are still poorly defined. Here, we assessed the tumor-protective potential of different CD4+ T-cell specificities in a PTLD-SCID mouse model. Injection of different virus-specific CD4+ T-cell clones showed that single specificities were capable of prolonging mouse survival and that the degree of tumor protection directly correlated with recognition of target cells in vitro. Surprisingly, some CD4+ T-cell clones promoted tumor development, suggesting that besides antigen recognition, still elusive functional differences exist among virus-specific T cells. Of several EBV-specific CD4+ T-cell clones tested, those directed against virion antigens proved most tumor-protective. However, enriching these specificities in LCL-stimulated preparations conferred no additional survival benefit. Instead, CD4+ T cells specific for unknown, probably self-antigens were identified as principal antitumoral effectors in LCL-stimulated T-cell lines. These results indicate that virion and still unidentified cellular antigens are crucial targets of the CD4+ T-cell response in this preclinical PTLD-model and that enriching the corresponding T-cell specificities in therapeutic preparations may enhance their clinical efficacy. Moreover, the expression in several EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma cell lines implies that these putative autoantigen(s) might also qualify as targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of virus-negative B cell malignancies. PMID:24853673
Linnerbauer, Stefanie; Behrends, Uta; Adhikary, Dinesh; Witter, Klaus; Bornkamm, Georg W; Mautner, Josef
It is well established that patients with immunosuppression have a higher risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with development of LPDs. Aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated hematological disorder, and immunosuppression therapy (IST), such as antithymocyte globulin (ATG), is widely used for treatment of AA. However, occurrence of LPD without bone marrow transplantation has been extremely rarely documented in patients with IST for AA. Herein, we report the 6th documented case of EBV-associated LPD after IST for AA and review the clinicopathological features of this extremely rare complication. A 46-year-old Japanese female was admitted for evaluation of progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed fatty marrow with marked decrease of trilineage cells, and bone marrow aspiration demonstrated no dysplastic changes. IST with rabbit ATG was administered, after which, she developed high fever. Bone marrow aspiration showed increase of atypical plasma cells with mildly enlarged nuclei and irregular nuclear contour. These atypical plasma cells were EBER-positive. Accordingly, a diagnosis of EBV-positive plasmacytic LPD was made. Most cases of LPDs are B-cell origin, and plasmacytic LPD is a rare subtype. The current report is the second case of plasmacytic LPD in patients with IST for AA. Therefore, detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses are needed for correct diagnosis and treatment, and additional studies are needed to clarify the clinicopathological features of EBV-LPD after IST for AA.
Nakanishi, Ryota; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Okuno, Hiroko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Horinouchi, Akiko; Shirakawa, Ayaka; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
It was recently demonstrated that classification of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs) into morphological and molecular categories is clinically relevant. It was also reported that PT-LPD not associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) had a more aggressive course than most lesions associated with EBV. Because the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16/INK4a has been reported to be frequently inactivated in high-grade lymphomas, we evaluated 17 PT-LPD to determine whether p16/INK4a expression could be correlated to morphology, EBV detection, and a Ki-67 labeling index. We demonstrated that tumors with no p16/INK4a expression (n = 8) had a predominantly monomorphic appearance, and most were EBV negative (respectively, 7/8 and 5/8), whereas lesions with p16/INK4a expression (n = 9) were mostly polymorphic PT-LPD (6/9) (P = 0.049) and associated with EBV (9/9) (P = 0.015). In particular, strong p16/INK4a expression was observed in atypical immunoblasts and Reed-Sternberg-like cells. Furthermore, the proliferation index was significantly higher in tumors lacking p16/INK4a expression than in other lesions (P = 0.0008). In conclusion, down-regulation of p16/INK4a was mostly observed in PT-LPD lesions known to follow more aggressive courses: monomorphic tumors and EBV-negative PT-neoplasms. Conversely, overexpression of p16/INK4a was associated with EBV-positive PT-LPD. While p16/INK4a might play a role in the proliferative rate of LP-LPD, further investigations are needed to assess the clinical relevance of p16/INK4a expression in predicting the evolution of tumors and to explain how EBV could favor p16/INK4a protein accumulation in lesions.
Martin, Antoine; Baran-Marzak, Fanny; El Mansouri, Said; Legendre, Christophe; Leblond, Veronique; Charlotte, Frederic; Davi, Frederic; Canioni, Danielle; Raphael, Martine
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) were diagnosed in 43 patients from the Pittsburgh-Denver series between June 1980 and March 1987. This constitutes a detection rate of 1.7%. Major categories of clinical presentation included a mononucleosislike syndrome, gastrointestinal/abdominal disease, and solid organ disease. The median time of onset in patients initially immunosuppressed with cyclosporine-A (CsA)-containing regimens was 4.4 months after transplant, regardless of tumor clonality. A strong association of PTLD with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was observed. A histologic spectrum of lesions from polymorphic to monomorphic was observed. Whereas polymorphic lesions could be either clonal or nonclonal, monomorphic lesions appeared to be clonal in composition. The presence of large atypical cells (atypical immunoblasts) or necrosis did not appreciably worsen the prognosis. Twelve patients had clonal, 13 had nonclonal, and five had both clonal and nonclonal tumors. Clonality was indeterminate in 13 cases. Most patients were treated with a regimen based on reduced immunosuppression and supportive surgery. Almost all nonclonal and about half of the clonal lesions respond to this conservative therapy, indicating that it is an appropriate first line of treatment. This behavior suggests that a spectrum of lesions ranging from infectious mononucleosis to malignant lymphoma constitutes the entity known as PTLD. Some monoclonal tumors can undergo regression, however, apparently in response to host immune control mechanisms. Because of its short latency and strong association with EBV, PTLD is an important model for the study of virus-associated tumor progression in humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2A Figure 2B Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6
Nalesnik, M. A.; Jaffe, R.; Starzl, T. E.; Demetris, A. J.; Porter, K.; Burnham, J. A.; Makowka, L.; Ho, M.; Locker, J.
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) represent a spectrum of lymphoid diseases complicating the clinical course of transplant recipients. Most PTLD are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated with viral latency type III. Several in vitro studies have revealed an interaction between EBV latency proteins and molecules of the apoptosis pathway. Data on human PTLD regarding an association between Bcl-2 family proteins and EBV are scarce. We analyzed 60 primary PTLD for expression of 8 anti- (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1) and proapoptotic proteins (Bak and Bax), the so-called BH3-only proteins (Bad, Bid, Bim, and Puma), as well as the apoptosis effector cleaved PARP by immunohistochemistry. Bim and cleaved PARP were both significantly (p = 0.001 and p = 5.251e-6) downregulated in EBV-positive compared to EBV-negative PTLD [Bim: 6/40 (15%), cleaved PARP: 10/43 (23%), vs. Bim: 13/16 (81%), cleaved PARP: 12/17 (71%)]. Additionally, we observed a tendency toward increased Bcl-2 protein expression (p = 0.24) in EBV-positive PTLD. Hence, we provide evidence of a distinct regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins in EBV-positive versus negative PTLD. The low-expression pattern of the proapoptotic proteins Bim and cleaved PARP together with the high-expression pattern of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 by trend in EBV-positive tumor cells suggests disruption of the apoptotic pathway by EBV in PTLD, promoting survival signals in the host cells. PMID:22868923
Ghigna, Maria-Rosa; Reineke, Tanja; Rincé, Patricia; Schüffler, Peter; El Mchichi, Bouchra; Fabre, Monique; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Durrbach, Antoine; Samuel, Didier; Joab, Irène; Guettier, Catherine; Lucioni, Marco; Paulli, Marco; Tinguely, Marianne; Raphael, Martine
A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578
Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E
CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders represent a spectrum of diseases with distinct clinical phenotypes ranging from reactive conditions to aggressive systemic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)? anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). In January 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced a possible association between breast implants and ALCL, which was likened to systemic ALCL and treated accordingly. We analyzed existing data to see if implant-associated ALCL (iALCL) may represent a distinct entity, different from aggressive ALCL. We conducted a systematic review of publications regarding ALCL and breast implantation for 1990–2012 and contacted corresponding authors to obtain long-term follow-up where available. We identified 44 unique cases of iALCL, the majority of which were associated with seroma, had an ALK? phenotype (97%), and had a good prognosis, different from the expected 40% 5-year survival rate of patients with ALK? nodal ALCL (one case remitted spontaneously following implant removal; only two deaths have been reported to the FDA or in the scientific literature since 1990). The majority of these patients received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone with or without radiation, but radiation alone also resulted in complete clinical responses. It appears that iALCL demonstrates a strong association with breast implants, a waxing and waning course, and an overall good prognosis, with morphology, cytokine profile, and biological behavior similar to those of primary cutaneous ALCL. Taken together, these data are suggestive that iALCL may start as a reactive process with the potential to progress and acquire an aggressive phenotype typical of its systemic counterpart. A larger analysis and prospective evaluation and follow-up of iALCL patients are necessary to definitively resolve the issue of the natural course of the disease and best therapeutic approaches for these patients.
Story, Sara K.; Schowalter, Michael K.
The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is characterized by a combined variable immunodeficiency with vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced fatal or chronic infectious mononucleosis, acquired agammaglobulinemia, aplastic anemia, or malignant B cell lymphomas. Diagnosis of XLP requires documentation of two or more maternally related males with these phenotypes. Epstein-Barr virus must be demonstrated in circulating blood, lymphoid tissues, or saliva of infected males. Characteristically, the patients have low-titer antibodies to EBV and often lack anti-EB nuclear-associated antibody due to T cell defects. Thymus gland is often depleted and epithelium may be destroyed. Thymic-dependent regions in lymph nodes and spleen are depleted and immunoblastic transformation with plasma cell differentiation is seen. The carrier females exhibit partial immune deficiency and have paradoxically elevated antibodies to EBV. Our registry of XLP provides consultation and comprehensive study of persons and families with the syndrome. PMID:6894075
Purtilo, D T
Primary cutaneous CD30 (Ki-1)+ large cell lymphoma (KiL) and lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) type A are collectively termed as primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. We examined the cytokine profile of skin-infiltrating cells and the therapeutic efficacy of recombinant interferon-? (rIFN-?) in primary cutaneous KiL and LyP type A. By reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, mRNAs for interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-b were detected
Hiroaki Yagi; Yoshiki Tokura; Fukumi Furukawa; Masahiro Takigawa
B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia is a relatively rare lymphoproliferative disorder. No specific cytogenetic abnormality has yet been associated with it. The most common translocation reported in patients with this disease is t(11;14)(q13;q32). We describe the case of a patient with B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia and a hitherto unreported genetic translocation (8;14)(q24;q32) as the sole genetic abnormality, classically seen in patients with B-cell
Philip Kuriakose; Nusrat Perveen; Koichi Maeda; Anne Wiktor; Daniel L Van Dyke
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of children and young adults are sometimes termed as severe chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and are associated with an aggressive clinical course. However, these clinicopathological states and the role of EBV have not been clarified. A retrospective study was performed on 43 children and adult patients, who manifested EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPD) and most of whom had experienced general illness with CAEBV for several months or years. Clinicopathologically, 43 patients were classified into four groups: group A (smoldering state) (n=7), morphological non-neoplastic LPD with chronic clinical course (several years); group B (chronic state) (n=10), non-neoplastic LPD with clonal EBV-infected cells and a chronic course; group C (leukemia/lymphoma state) (n=22), neoplastic LPD with a subacute course (years to months); group D (fulminant state) (n=4), neoplastic LPD with a fulminant course (weeks to days). The 43 patients comprised 21 males and 22 females. The median age of group A was 14 years, group B 12 years, group C 17 years, and group D 1 year. Four of 7 patients in group A, 3 of 10 in group B, 12 of 22 in group C, and all 4 in group D have died. Causes of death included hemophagocytic syndrome and/or tumor death. Genotypically and phenotypically, group C was composed of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), and NK-cell leukemia/lymphoma (NKLL), and group D comprised cases of PTCL. Groups A and B exhibited increased NK- or T-cells (CD8>CD4), and rare B-cells. Serologic titers of EBV were only modestly elevated or not elevated in almost all cases. EBV early RNA-1 (EBER-1)-expressing EBV-infected cells were frequently encountered in each group, but the number of infected cells varied between the cases. The EBV genotype did not differ between the groups. Our findings support an important pathogenic role for EBV-infected T/NK-cell infection, rather than the EBV state, in CAEBV and consequent EBV-associated NK/T-neoplasia. PMID:15067338
Suzuki, Keiko; Ohshima, Koichi; Karube, Kennosuke; Suzumiya, Junji; Ohga, Shouichi; Ishihara, Shigehiko; Tamura, Kazuo; Kikuchi, Masahiro
Hydroa vacciniforme-like lymphoma (HVLL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of childhood that occurs mainly in Central and South America and Asia. We present the clinicopathological features of 20 Mexican children with HVLL with a median age of 8 years at diagnosis (range, 1-15). All patients presented with skin lesions involving sun-exposed areas, but not exclusively. Fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly were often observed. Most patients were treated with immunomodulators and/or immunosuppressive agents, resulting in temporary remission. For 13 patients follow-up was available for a median of 3 years (range, 1 month-13 years). Three patients with long follow-up (9-13 years) are alive with disease. Four patients died, 2 after developing systemic lymphoma. Histologically, the skin showed a predominantly angiocentric and periadnexal Epstein-Barr early RNA+ lymphoid infiltrate with variable atypia and subcutaneous involvement. Fifteen patients showed a T-cell phenotype (12, ??; 2, ??; 1, silent phenotype) and monoclonal T-cell receptor-? rearrangements, whereas 6 exhibited a natural killer (NK)-cell phenotype. Four patients had hypersensitivity to mosquito bites. One patient showed both phenotypes. HVLL is an EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder of ??-, ??-, or NK-cell phenotype with a broad clinical spectrum, usually prolonged clinical course, and risk for progression to systemic disease. PMID:23982171
Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Ridaura, Cecilia; Nagl, Florian; Sáez-de-Ocariz, Marimar; Durán-McKinster, Carola; Ruiz-Maldonado, Ramon; Alderete, Georgia; Grube, Peter; Lome-Maldonado, Carmen; Bonzheim, Irina; Fend, Falko
Primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (PC-CD30+ LPD) as a group are one of the more common types of T-cell lymphoma. More specifically primary cutaneous anaplastic lymphoma (PC-ALCL), one of these lymphoproliferative disorders, is the second most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We report an unusual presentation of PC-ALCL. A 90-year-old, uncircumcised male presented with a 3-week history of painful penile swelling and discharge. The patient was treated with cephalexin and underwent emergent circumcision for paraphimosis. The diagnosis of ALCL was made on microscopic evaluation of the foreskin along with follow-up staging studies. A literature review revealed 31 previously reported cases of penile lymphoma, one of which reported a primary penile CD30+ T-cell lymphoma similar to ours. Only one case report described a lymphoma presenting as paraphimosis. Our case is the second reported case of PC-ALCL of the penis and the first of its kind to present as paraphimosis. Lymphomas must be included in the differential diagnosis of penile lesions and paraphimosis. When present, clinicians should be able to differentiate primary cutaneous lymphoma from lymphomas with secondary skin involvement. All foreskins should be submitted to pathology for proper evaluation of penile lesions. PMID:21810388
McNab, Patricia Moody; Jukic, Drazen M; Mills, Omie; Browarsky, Irwin
We investigated age-related EBV(+) B-cell lymphoproliferations in the Western population. The clinical features, histology, immunophenotype, EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridization, and clonality by PCR of T-cell receptor gamma and immunoglobulin genes were categorized in 122 EBV(+) lesions as follows: (1) reactive lymphoid hyperplasia; (2) polymorphic extranodal or (3) polymorphic nodal lymphoproliferative disease (LPD); and (4) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Interphase FISH for IG and PAX5 gene rearrangements was performed on 17 cases of DLBCL. The overall median age was 75 years (range, 45-101 years; 67 men, 55 women), and 67, 79, 73, and 77 years, respectively, for groups 1 through 4. Sixteen of 21 cases of polymorphic extranodal LPD were classified as EBV(+) mucocutaneous ulcer. PCR for immunoglobulin genes was polyclonal in reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (84%) and monoclonal in 33%, 63%, and 56% of polymorphic extranodal and nodal LPD cases and DLBCL, respectively. All groups showed restricted/clonal T-cell receptor responses (27%-70%). By FISH, 19% of DLBCLs showed IGH@ rearrangements, but PAX5 was unaffected. Disease-specific 5-year survival was 100%, 93%, 57%, and 25% for groups 1-4, respectively, and 100% for patients with EBV(+) mucocutaneous ulcer. Disease volume was predictive of therapy response (P = .0002), and pathologic subtype was predictive of overall outcome (P = .001). Age-related EBV(+) B-cell LPD encompasses a wider disease spectrum than previously recognized and includes both reactive and neoplastic conditions. Reduction in the T-cell repertoire may contribute to decreased immune surveillance. PMID:21385849
Dojcinov, Stefan D; Venkataraman, Girish; Pittaluga, Stefania; Wlodarska, Iwona; Schrager, Jeffrey A; Raffeld, Mark; Hills, Robert K; Jaffe, Elaine S
The occurrence of smooth muscle neoplasms and lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients is well recognized. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) status post-bone marrow transplant (BMT), in whom Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in innumerable leiomyomas involving the gallbladder (leiomyomatosis), and multifocal leiomyomas in liver, spleen, pancreas, intestinal tract, and lung. The leiomyomas of the gallbladder, liver, spleen, and lung were asymptomatic, while those located in the colon became clinically manifest by recurrent lower intestinal hemorrhage. The patient also developed extensive EBV-associated polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in nodal and extranodal sites. In addition, there were pulmonary and gastric adenovirus and small and large intestine cryptosporidum infections. Our case appears to be the first example of leiomyomatosis of the gallbladder coexisting with multifocal leiomyomas of the liver, spleen, pancreas, intestinal tract, and lung, as well as EBV-derived lymphoproliferative disorder in a young girl with ADA-deficient SCID. Awareness of the pattern of involvement and of the coexistence of benign leiomyomatous proliferations with lymphoproliferative disorder is of value when gallbladder, pancreatic, biliary tree, lung, and intestinal lesions become clinically manifest in these patients. The demonstration of EBV infection in both leiomyomata and the PTLD suggests a common pathogenesis that may have therapeutic and prognostic implications. PMID:14708738
Monforte-Muñoz, Hector; Kapoor, Neena; Saavedra, Jorge Albores
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) and IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) deficiency are rare immunodeficiencies with a spectrum of clinical manifestations. Although there are no official guidelines for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in these patients, previous reports have shown that reduced intensity conditioning regimens provide successful engraftment with limited toxicity. Here, we report on three children with XLP and one with ITK deficiency, who underwent successful HSCT using a rituximab containing conditioning regimen, and review the current literature. PMID:24584040
Shamriz, Oded; Vilk, Shoshana Revel; Wolf, Dana G; Ta-Shma, Asaf; Averbuch, Diana; Weintraub, Michael; Stepensky, Polina
Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a complication of solid organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); following autologous HSCT only rare cases of PTLD have been reported. Here, a case of Hodgkin's disease (HD), as unusual presentation of PTLD after autologous HSCT for malignant glioma is described. Case presentation 60-years old man affected by cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma underwent subtotal neurosurgical excision and subsequent high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous HSCT. During the post HSCT course, cranial irradiation and corticosteroids were administered as completion of therapeutic program. At day +105 after HSCT, the patient developed HD, nodular sclerosis type, with polymorphic HD-like skin infiltration. Conclusion The clinical and pathological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of PTLD.
Zambelli, Alberto; Lilleri, Daniele; Baldanti, Fausto; Scelsi, Mario; Villani, Laura; Da Prada, Gian Antonio
CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs) are usually characterized by a benign clinical course. The prognostic value of cytotoxic markers in these lymphomas has not been evaluated in large series. We describe a case of borderline CD30+ CLPD with cytotoxic phenotype, presenting in a 22-year-old male patient as an ulcer on the forearm. He reported having had similar ulcers on the buttock and thigh that spontaneously regressed over the course of 1 year. The lesion resolved with a single course of clarithromycin; a subsequent lesion, too, responded to clarithromycin, and no recurrences or systemic involvement have been documented in the 9-month follow-up. A conservative approach in the management of CD30+ CLPD is recommended. We believe that the anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of clarithromycin on T cells may have hastened the remission process. PMID:19922478
Ponte, Pedro; Serrão, Vasco; Viana, Isabel; Vale, Esmeralda; João, Alexandre; Cerroni, Lorenzo
Four cases of CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (CD30+ LPD) of the oral mucosa are described. This article aims to draw attention to this entity and to emphasize its usual benign clinical behavior despite its resemblance to T-cell lymphoma. All the patients were adults. Three of the lesions were on the dorsal surface of the tongue and 1 affected the buccal mucosa. All biopsies showed a dense lymphoid infiltrate composed of CD30+ atypical T cells with a polymorphous infiltrate in the background, which included eosinophils. In 1 case, monoclonal T-cell expansion was detected by molecular techniques. Three cases tested for Epstein-Barr virus were all negative. It is concluded that primary CD30+ T-cell LPD of the oral mucosa can be regarded as the oral counterpart of cutaneous CD30+ LPD such as lymphomatoid papulosis or anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Recognition of the condition is important to avoid overtreatment. PMID:18387994
Agarwal, Monica; Shenjere, Patrick; Blewitt, Robert W; Hall, Gillian; Sloan, Philip; Pigadas, N; Banerjee, S Sankar
Monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a preclinical hematologic condition wherein small numbers of clonal B cells can be detected in the blood of otherwise healthy individuals. Most MBL have a surface immunophenotype nearly identical to that of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), though other phenotypes can also be identified. MBL has been shown to be a precursor state for CLL, but most MBL clones are quite small and apparently have minimal potential to progress of CLL or other B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD). The investigation of MBL as a precursor state for CLL will likely lead to important insights into mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. The review will cover clinical and translational aspects of MBL, with a particular emphasis on the prevalence of MBL; the relationship between MBL, CLL, and other B-LPDs; and the capacity of MBL to modulate the normal B and T cell compartments.
Lanasa, Mark C.; Weinberg, J. Brice
Background: Flow cytometry has come to occupy the vanguard of the high through put diagnostic techniques that have been used to differentiate between various chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD). However, economic considerations have created the need for minimal consensus panels that can yield maximum information at reasonable costs. Aims: To collect, analyse and correlate the morphologic, immunophenotypic, and the cytogenetic data from the cases of chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, which were diagnosed at an Indian speciality cancer centre. Methods and Material: The morphology was recorded after staining the samples with the Leishman or the MGG stains. The lineage assignment was done by using three colour flow cytometry with a primary panel of antibodies. For the cytogenetic studies, the short term culture of the sample cells were arrested by using colcemid and they were G-banded by using trypsin and Giemsa stain. FISH studies were conducted by using a CLL-specific diagnostic kit. Results and Conclusions: A total of 66 cases were evaluated, which had a median age of 64.5 years and a sex ratio of 2.3:1. Of these 66 cases, 40 cases were of CLL and 9 cases were of atypical CLL. 17 cases were classified as CLPD and these included 13 cases of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, two cases of Hairy Cell Leukaemia, one case of Follicular Lymphoma and one case of Prolymphocytic Leukaemia. In immunophenotyping, the lack of expression of CD22 had the highest correlation with a definitive diagnosis of CLL. Cytogenetics demonstrated a classical follicular lymphoma abnormality, t (14; 18) (q32; q21), in one case. A basic minimal panel is sufficient for the routine diagnosis of CLL. However, the stratification of CLPD requires the use of more extensive panels. PMID:23998067
Okaly, Geeta V Patil; Nargund, Ashwini R; E, Venkataswamy; Jayanna, Prashanth K; Juvva, Chandra Rao; Prabhudesai, Shilpa
Biogen Idec Inc, Genentech Inc, Roche Holding AG and Chugai Pharmaceutical Co Ltd are developing ocrelizumab, a humanized mAb against CD20, for the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders and B-cell malignancies. Ocrelizumab is undergoing phase III clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis, and phase II trials for multiple sclerosis and hematological cancer. Previously, ocrelizumab was also being developed for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuromyelitis optica; however, development for SLE has been discontinued. No development has been reported for neuromyelitis optica and as of January 2007, this indication had been removed from the company pipeline. PMID:18951300
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a condition associated with mutations in the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP; SH2D1A). SAP functions as an adaptor, binding to and recruiting signaling molecules to SLAM family receptors expressed on T and natural killer cells. XLP is associated with extreme sensitivity to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, often leading to a lethal infectious mononucleosis. To investigate EBV-specific immunity in XLP patients, we studied 5 individuals who had survived EBV infection and found CD8(+) T-cell responses numerically comparable with healthy donors. However, further investigation of in vitro-derived CD8(+) T-cell clones established from 2 of these donors showed they efficiently recognized SLAM ligand-negative target cells expressing EBV antigens, but showed impaired recognition of EBV-transformed, SLAM ligand-positive, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Importantly, LCL recognition was restored when interactions between the SLAM receptors CD244 and natural killer-, T-, and B-cell antigen (NTBA) and their ligands on LCLs were blocked. We propose that XLP patients' particular sensitivity to EBV, and not to other viruses, reflects at least in part EBV's strict tropism for B lymphocytes and the often inability of the CD8(+) T-cell response to contain the primary infection of SLAM ligand-expressing target cells. PMID:20644117
Hislop, Andrew D; Palendira, Umaimainthan; Leese, Alison M; Arkwright, Peter D; Rohrlich, Pierre S; Tangye, Stuart G; Gaspar, H Bobby; Lankester, Arjan C; Moretta, Alessandro; Rickinson, Alan B
We elaborate on the diagnosis of CD30 positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative conditions including the various clinical and pathological presentations, our understanding of its pathomechanisms and prognostic implications. The most common reactive conditions that can simulate CD30 lymphoproliferative conditions, including arthropod bite reactions, various viral infections, pityriasis lichenoides and lymphocytic papules in myelodysplastic syndrome, are discussed in detail. PMID:20043512
Guitart, Joan; Querfeld, Christiane
De novo malignancies represent an increasing concern in the transplant population, particularly as long-term graft and patient survival improves. EBV-associated B-cell lymphoma in the setting of PTLD is the leading malignancy in children following solid organ transplantation. Therapeutic strategies can be categorized as pharmacologic, biologic, and cell-based but the variable efficacy of these approaches and the complexity of PTLD suggest that new treatment options are warranted. Here, we review current therapeutic strategies for treatment of PTLD. We also describe the life cycle of EBV, addressing the viral mechanisms that contribute to the genesis and persistence of EBV+ B-cell lymphomas. Specifically, we focus on the oncogenic signaling pathways activated by the EBV LMP1 and LMP2a to understand the underlying mechanisms and mediators of lymphomagenesis with the goal of identifying novel, rational therapeutic targets for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies.
Hatton, Olivia; Martinez, Olivia M.; Esquivel, Carlos O.
B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Aberrations of the long arm of chromosome 11 are among the most common chromosome abnormalities in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). Translocations involving BCL1 at 11q13 are strongly associated with mantle cell lymphoma. Other nonrandom aberrations, especially deletions and, less frequently, translocations, involving bands 11q21-923 have been identified by chromosome banding analysis. To date, the critical genomic segment and candidate genes involved
Stephan Stilgenbauer; Peter Liebisch; Michael R. James; Martin Schroder; Brigitte Schlegelberger; Konstanze Fischer; Martin Bentz; Peter Lichter; Hartmut Dohner
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at risk for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-associated, post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Studies have suggested that early treatment may improve the outcome of patients with PTLD. Thus, significant attention has been focused on PCR-based approaches for preemptive (i.e., prior to clinical presentation) diagnosis. Reports from several transplant centers have demonstrated that HSCT recipients with
D M Weinstock; G G Ambrossi; C Brennan; T E Kiehn; A Jakubowski
In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the third annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in October 2012 in Lille. Here the SFGM-TC addressed the issue of post-transplant CMV and EBV reactivation, and EBV-related Lymphoproliferative Disorders. PMID:24011961
Bay, J-O; Peffault de Latour, R; Bruno, B; Coiteux, V; Guillaume, T; Hicheri, Y; Paillard, C; Suarez, F; Turlure, P; Alain, S; Bulabois, C-E; Socié, G; Bauters, F; Yakoub-Agha, I
Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) is rare and most patients are of Asian origin. The disease usually develops shortly after primary acute EBV infection and the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report such a rare case in a 28-year-old Caucasian female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunophenotypic and molecular studies revealed that the proliferating lymphoid
Ken H. Young; Dahua Zhang; Jeffery T. Malik; Eliot C. Williams
The CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD) include lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (cALCL). Despite the malign-appearing histology, an excellent prognosis and spontaneous regression of single lesions characterize LyP. Even after years of clinical remission newly erupting lesions often harbor a T-cell clone identical to the initial one. This fact raises the question whether the clonal
Daniel Humme; Ansgar Lukowsky; Matthias Steinhoff; Marc Beyer; Peter Walden; Wolfram Sterry; Chalid Assaf
SummaryBackground: Febrile neutropenia\\/leukopenia (FN\\/FL) is the most frequent dose-limiting toxicity of myelosuppressive chemotherapy, but German data on economic consequences are limited. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicentre, longitudinal, observational study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of FN\\/FL and its impact on health resource utilization and costs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD), and primary breast
Angela Ihbe-Heffinger; Bernadette J. Paessens; Christoph von Schilling; Margarita Shlaen; Nina Gottschalk; Karin Berger; Rudolf Bernard; Marion Kiechle; Christian Peschel; Volker R. Jacobs
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency, partially characterized by a defect in cytotoxicity to Epstein-Barr virus. This viral infection is therefore often fatal in affected boys, whilst a variety of immune disorders or proliferative diseases may occur in surviving patients.We report an atypical case of a 41year-old male who presented with a primitive B-cell cerebral lymphoma, revealing an
B. Hervier; S. Latour; D. Loussouarn; M. Rimbert; G De-Saint-Basile; C. Picard; M. Hamidou
The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), also known as Duncan's disease, is an X-linked recessive disorder that is characterized by the inability of affected individuals to mount a sufficient immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). After EBV primary infection, male family members suffer from severe infectious mononucleosis (IM), aplastic anemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and a spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases. Autosomal mode of inheritance with similar symptoms as in XLP has been reported. We have studied two families with EBV-associated syndromes and an X-linked and an autosomal mode of inheritance, respectively. Affected family members presented with severe IM, hemophagocytosis, aplastic anemia, acquired hypogammaglobulinemia, and B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:1646073
Schuster, V; Dohrmann, E; Kreth, H W
Transplant patients are at high risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). A strong correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and PTLD is observed in pediatric patients with primary infection after transplant. Because many patients have responded to reversal of immunosuppressive therapy, an early identification of EBV is essential for the reduction of immunosuppression and/or introduction of antiviral therapy to prevent PTLD. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a specific and sensitive method to identify EBV DNA in blood. The aim of our study was to establish a protocol for monitoring EBV infection in transplanted patients for early identification those at high risk of PTLD. Viral presence in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and serum samples was revealed by Nested PCR; positive specimens were quantified with Real Time PCR (RT-PCR). DNA in PBL was observed in 12 cases and 6 showed EBV in sera. Quantitative analysis showed a wide range of EBV DNA copies in leukocytes that were higher than in sera. Two patients displayed high viral load values in both PBL and sera associated with clinical evidence of PTLD. Our data suggest that the study of the EBV load represents an essential approach in the diagnosis of PTLD and the analysis of serum samples could provide useful information in the post-transplant monitoring of high-risk patients. PMID:17201089
Gaeta, Aurelia; Nazzari, Cristina; Verzaro, Simona; Latte, Maria Cristina; Fabri, Giovanni; Scateni, Simona; Raggi, Claudia; Lubrano, Riccardo; Mancini, Carlo
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency, partially characterized by a defect in cytotoxicity to Epstein-Barr virus. This viral infection is therefore often fatal in affected boys, whilst a variety of immune disorders or proliferative diseases may occur in surviving patients. We report an atypical case of a 41year-old male who presented with a primitive B-cell cerebral lymphoma, revealing an XLP. This presentation was unusual because of its late onset, the broad spectrum of the familial characteristics, its initial presentation as a cerebral lymphoma, and the occurrence of B-cell alymphocytosis associated with a-gamma-globulinemia. PMID:19906447
Hervier, B; Latour, S; Loussouarn, D; Rimbert, M; De-Saint-Basile, G; Picard, C; Hamidou, M
Background: Myeloproliferative neoplasms likely involve both myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Nevertheless, the coincidence of chronic myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative diseases in the same patient is a rare phenomenon. Methods: We report a case of a patient having essential thrombocythemia (ET) and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). In this patient and in 2 relatives with lymphoproliferative disorders, we searched for JAK2V617F mutation in
Caterina Musolino; Alessandro Allegra; Giuseppa Penna; Raffaella Centorrino; Maria Cuzzola; Arianna D’Angelo; Pasquale Iacopino; Andrea Alonci
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
Wang, Ren-Ching; Chang, Sheng-Tsung; Hsieh, Yen-Chuan; Huang, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Jeng-Dong; Tseng, Chih-En; Wang, Ming-Chung; Hwang, Wei-Shou; Wang, John; Chuang, Shih-Sung
Summary.? We investigated the pathogenetic relevance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) with or without\\u000a complicating B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in comparison with other immunological and lymphoproliferative disorders.\\u000a The following groups of patients were studied: A) 25 patients with MC in 7 cases evolved into B-cell NHL; B) 25 healthy subjects;\\u000a C) 22 patients with different systemic
A. L. Zignego; C. Ferri; C. Giannini; L. La Civita; G. Careccia; G. Longombardo; G. Bellesi; F. Caracciolo; V. Thiers; P. Gentilini
Bleeding and thrombosis are important complications in patients with malignant lymphomas. They may be due to direct actions of the lymphoma, such as venous compression or bone marrow infiltration, but they may also be caused by paraneoplastic phenomena, which are immune-mediated in most of the cases. The most important paraneoplastic immune-mediated disorders in lymphomas causing bleeding are autoimmune thrombocytopenia, acquired hemophilia A and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. In addition, there are a variety of other less common immune-mediated bleeding conditions, such as acquired thrombasthenia, acquired factor X-, V-, XI-, XII-, or prothrombin deficiency. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is a rare condition predisposing to venous and arterial thrombosis and there are other very uncommon conditions, which predispose exclusively to arterial thrombosis such as hyperlipidemic xanthomatosis. Interestingly, there is hardly any correlation between the histological type and the aggressiveness of lymphoma and the type and prevalence of the immune-mediated conditions. Successful treatment of the underlying lymphoma is often associated with definite and sustained resolution of the immune-mediated disorder. PMID:24615692
Lechner, Klaus; Pabinger, Ingrid; Obermeier, Hanna Lena; Knoebl, Paul
Lymphomas were studied in kindreds with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syn- drome (ALPS; Canale-Smith syndrome), a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis usually associated with germline Fas mu- tations. Fas (CD95\\/APO-1) is a cell sur- face receptor that initiates programmed cell death, or apoptosis, of activated lym- phocytes. Lymphoma phenotype was de- termined by immunohistochemistry, fre- quency of CD31CD42CD82 T-cell-receptor a\\/b cells by flow
Stephen E. Straus; Elaine S. Jaffe; Jennifer M. Puck; Janet K. Dale; Keith B. Elkon; Angela Rosen-Wolff; Anke M. J. Peters; Michael C. Sneller; Claire W. Hallahan; Jin Wang; Roxanne E. Fischer; Christine M. Jackson; Albert Y. Lin; Caroline Baumler; Elke Siegert; Alexander Marx; Akshay K. Vaishnaw; Tamara Grodzicky; Thomas A. Fleisher; Michael J. Lenardo
Chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of natural killer cells (CLPD-NKs) and T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemias (T-LGLs) are clonal lymphoproliferations arising from either natural killer cells or cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We have investigated for distribution and functional significance of mutations in 50 CLPD-NKs and 120 T-LGL patients by direct sequencing, allele-specific PCR, and microarray analysis. STAT3 gene mutations are present in both T and NK diseases: approximately one-third of patients with each type of disorder convey these mutations. Mutations were found in exons 21 and 20, encoding the Src homology 2 domain. Patients with mutations are characterized by symptomatic disease (75%), history of multiple treatments, and a specific pattern of STAT3 activation and gene deregulation, including increased expression of genes activated by STAT3. Many of these features are also found in patients with wild-type STAT3, indicating that other mechanisms of STAT3 activation can be operative in these chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. Treatment with STAT3 inhibitors, both in wild-type and mutant cases, resulted in accelerated apoptosis. STAT3 mutations are frequent in large granular lymphocytes suggesting a similar molecular dysregulation in malignant chronic expansions of NK and CTL origin. STAT3 mutations may distinguish truly malignant lymphoproliferations involving T and NK cells from reactive expansions.
Jerez, Andres; Clemente, Michael J.; Makishima, Hideki; Koskela, Hanna; LeBlanc, Francis; Peng Ng, Kwok; Olson, Thomas; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Afable, Manuel; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Guinta, Kathryn; Durkin, Lisa; Hsi, Eric D.; McGraw, Kathy; Zhang, Dan; Wlodarski, Marcin W.; Porkka, Kimmo; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; List, Alan; Mustjoki, Satu; Loughran, Thomas P.
Several recent studies have reported detection of HTLV-I genetic sequences in patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) including mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HTLV-I was detectable in lesional tissues of patients suffering from diseases known to be associated with CTCL. Thirty-five cases were obtained from diverse geographical locations including Ohio, California, Switzerland, and Japan. Six of them had concurrent CTCL. Cases were analyzed using a combination of genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/ Southern blot, dot blot, and Southern blot analyses. All assays were specific for HTLV-I provirus. Sensitivity ranged from approximately 10(-6) for PCR-based studies to 10(-2) for unamplified genomic blotting. Lesional DNA from patients with lymphomatoid papulosis (fourteen cases), Hodgkin's disease (twelve cases), and CD30+ large-cell lymphoma (nine cases) was tested for the HTLV-I proviral pX region using a genomic PCR assay followed by confirmatory Southern blot analysis with a nested oligonucleotide pX probe. All cases were uniformly negative. All of the Hodgkin's disease cases, eight of the large-cell lymphoma cases, and six of the lymphomatoid papulosis cases were then subjected to dot blot analysis of genomic DNA using a full-length HTLV-I proviral DNA probe that spans all regions of the HTLV-I genome. Again, all cases were negative. Finally, eleven of the Hodgkin's disease cases were also subjected to Southern blot analysis of EcoRI-digested genomic DNA using the same full-length HTLV-I probe. Once again, all cases were negative. These findings indicated that, despite utilization of a variety of sensitive and specific molecular biological methods, HTLV-I genetic sequences were not detectable in patients with CTCL-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. These results strongly suggest that the HTLV-I retrovirus is not involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Wood, G. S.; Schaffer, J. M.; Boni, R.; Dummer, R.; Burg, G.; Takeshita, M.; Kikuchi, M.
The diagnostic term monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is used to characterise individuals with a circulating population of clonal B-cells, a total B-cell count of <5 x 10(9)/L, and no other features of a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. The clinical implications of MBL may differ depending on whether an individual with a normal lymphocyte count is identified via a screening assay (screening MBL) or identified through clinical evaluation of lymphocytosis (clinical MBL). The B-cell count used to distinguish between clinical MBL (<5 x 10(9)/L) and CLL (> or = 5 x 10(9)/L) was selected largely based on tradition and technological advances and it is unknown whether the natural history of 'clinical MBL' differs from that of patients with Rai stage 0 CLL. Since, a diagnosis of 'leukemia' may lead to profound psychologic distress for patients, we believe the diagnosis of CLL should be based on an individual's risk of developing symptoms, requiring chemotherapeutic treatment and/or dying of disease. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the clinical outcome of patients with MBL differs from that of patients with Rai stage 0 CLL and to identify what B-cell threshold optimally distinguishes between these conditions. PMID:19347733
Shanafelt, Tait; Hanson, Curtis A
Current laboratory technics, clinicopathologic findings cannot always reliably distinguish primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), such as lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), primary cutaneous CD30(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (PCALCL), transformed mycosis fungoides (T-MF) and systemic ALK(-) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with skin involvement. We investigated the presence of IRF4 translocation with break apart DNA-FISH method of these entities according to the recent studies of Feldman et al. In our study group with 53 cases, the detection of IRF4 translocation had a specificity and positive predictive value for PCALCL of 100%. In contrast MUM1/IRF4 protein expression was distributed widely without any predictive value. PMID:23332472
Kiran, Tugce; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Eker, Candan; Kumusoglu, Hakki; Tuzuner, Nukhet
Purpose Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule expressed on antigen-presenting cells that engages the PD-1 receptor on T cells and inhibits T-cell receptor signaling. The PD-1 axis can be exploited by tumor cells to dampen host anti-tumor immune responses and foster tumor cell survival. PD-1 blockade has shown promise in multiple malignancies but should be directed towards patients in whom it will be most effective. In recent studies, we found that the chromosome 9p24.1 amplification increased the gene dosage of PD-L1 and its induction by JAK2 in a subset of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). However, cHLs with normal 9p24.1 copy numbers also expressed detectable PD-L1, prompting analyses of additional PD-L1 regulatory mechanisms. Experimental Design Herein, we utilized immunohistochemical, genomic and functional analyses to define alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 activation in cHL and additional EBV+ lymphoproliferative disorders. Results We identified an AP-1-responsive enhancer in the PD-L1 gene. In cHL Reed Sternberg cells, which exhibit constitutive AP-1 activation, the PD-L1 enhancer binds AP-1 components and increases PD-L1 promoter activity. In addition, we defined EBV infection as an alternative mechanism for PD-L1 induction in cHLs with diploid 9p24.1. PD-L1 was also expressed by EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines as a result of latent membrane protein 1-mediated, JAK/STAT-dependent promoter and AP-1-associated enhancer activity. In addition, over 70% of EBV+ post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders expressed detectable PD-L1. Conclusions AP-1 signaling and EBV infection represent alternative mechanisms of PD-L1 induction and extend the spectrum of tumors in which to consider PD-1 blockade.
Green, Michael R.; Rodig, Scott; Juszczynski, Przemyslaw; Ouyang, Jing; Sinha, Papiya; O'Donnell, Evan; Neuberg, Donna; Shipp, Margaret A.
Analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in 16 B-cell lineages clonally propagated from two mononucleosis patients supported the notion that mononucleosis is a polyclonal B-lymphoproliferative disorder. Three of seven cell clones from a patient with a fatal B lymphoma revealed the same pattern of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, indicating that this patient's disease was oligoclonal. The three similar clones were propagated from two sites (blood and spleen), indicating that they represent a metastatic cell lineage which arose during the patient's fatal B lymphoproliferation. Images
Brown, N A; Liu, C; Garcia, C R; Wang, Y F; Griffith, A; Sparkes, R S; Calame, K L
We have studied the thrombocytopenia of IgG. Five of the patients with CIL had lymphoproliferative disorders using a mea- positive direct antiglobulin (Coombs) tests surement of membrane-bound IgG by an on red cells; of these, 3 patients had hemo- antiglobulin consumption assay. Nine pa- lytic anemia. In eight of the 9 patients with tients with chronic Iymphocytic leukemia CLI, thrombocytopenia,
Bruce R. Kaden; Wendell F. Rosse; Thomas W. Hauch
Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) is a systemic vasculitis involving small vessels (arterioles, capillaries, venules). The histological hallmark of the disease is the leukocytoclastic vasculitis secondary to the vascular deposition of circulating immune-complexes (CIC), mainly cryoglobulins and complement. The immune-mediated vasculitic lesions are responsible for different MC clinical features, including cutaneous and visceral organ involvement. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents the triggering factor in the large majority of MC patients (>90%). Moreover, several epidemiological, clinico-pathological and laboratory investigations suggested a possible role for HCV in a wide spectrum of immuno-lymphoproliferative disorders; namely, porphyria cutanea tarda, diabetes, polyarthritis, lung fibrosis, poly-dermatomyositis, thyroiditis, thyroid cancer, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL), etc. Renal involvement with or without MC syndrome can be observed in HCV-infected individuals. There is great geographical etherogeneity in the prevalence of HCV-related disorders. This epidemiological observation suggests a multifactorial and multistep process in the pathogenesis of these conditions, involving other unknown genetic and/or environmental factors. HCV lymphotropism may explain the mono-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion observed in HCV-infected individuals, particularly in MC patients. The 'benign' lymphoproliferative disorder, classified as monotypic lymphoproliferative disorders of undetermined significance (MLDUS), may be responsible for the wide production of CIC, including cryoglobulins, rheumatoid factor and different organ and non-organ specific autoantibodies. The consequence is the appearance of various HCV-related autoimmune diseases, including MC syndrome. This latter may be complicated by B-NHL in 10% of the cases; moreover, HCV infection has been confirmed in a significant percentage of 'idiopathic B-NHL. For a correct therapeutic approach to cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis, as well as to other HCV-related disorders, we should deal with concomitant, conflicting conditions: HCV infection, autoimmune and lymphoproliferative alterations. In this scenario, we can treat the diseases at three different levels by means of etiologic, pathogenetic and/or symptomatic therapies. The eradication of HCV by combined interferon and ribavirin therapy can be achieved in only a minority of cases. On the contrary, severe complications such as glomerulonephritis, sensory-motor neuropathy or diffuse vasculitis can be effectively treated by a combination of corticosteroids, plasma exchange and cyclophosphamide. More recently, a pathogenetic treatment with rituximab, a monoclonal chimeric antibody that binds to the B-cell surface antigen CD20 with selective B-cell blockade, was proposed in patients with HCV-related MC syndrome. PMID:15285001
Ghinoi, A; Mascia, M T; Puccini, R; Ferri, C
SH2D1A gene defects are the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (XLP-1), a rare condition characterized by severe immune dysregulation. We present a patient lacking the typical symptoms of XLP-1, but experiencing a severe unusual skin condition encompassing features of dermatosclerosis and vesiculobullous skin disease. A maternal cousin of the patient was diagnosed with XLP-1 and found to carry a deletion of the SH2D1A gene. SH2D1A deletion was also identified in our patient, which offered a possible explanation for his skin symptoms. Subsequent analysis showed that the deletion in both cousins was identical and involved the whole SH2D1A gene and a part of the adjacent ODZ1 gene. High phenotypic variability of XLP-1 observed in this family prompted us to analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation of 2 different-sized deletions involving SH2D1A and ODZ1 in 5 patients from 2 families, and we report the clinical and laboratory data on these individuals. Our findings illustrate the wide clinical variability of XLP-1, both inter- and intrafamilial, which may complicate the diagnosis of this condition. The comparison of phenotypes of our patients argues against a strong involvement of the ODZ1 gene in the skin disorder and other symptoms observed in our index patient. His hitherto not described severe skin condition extends the phenotypic range of XLP-1. PMID:22271700
Mejstríková, Ester; Janda, Ales; Hrusák, Ondrej; Bucková, Hana; Vlcková, Markéta; Hancárová, Miroslava; Freiberger, Tomás; Ravcuková, Barbora; Vesely, Karel; Fajkusová, Lenka; Kopecková, Lenka; Sumerauer, David; Kabícková, Edita; Sedivá, Anna; Stary, Jan; Sedlácek, Zdenek
Background Several interventions can cure posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD); a sequential approach is usual, starting with reduction in immunosuppressives (RI). The efficacy of RI remains poorly defined, particularly in adults. We assessed an algorithm starting with a defined course of RI in all patients, escalating to interferon (IFN) alpha2b, and finally to chemotherapy, in a prospective multicenter phase II study of adult solid organ transplant recipients. The design predated rituximab. Methods Reduction in immunosuppressives: cyclosporine or tacrolimus reduction by 50% for 2 weeks; a further 50% reduction for 1 week if not in complete remission (CR). Intravenous acyclovir was given for the duration of all RI. Patients with less than CR, or any rejection, resumed immunosuppressives and proceeded to IFN 3 MIU/m2/day for up to 3 months; if less than CR, ProMACE-CytaBOM chemotherapy. Results Twenty patients were registered over 60 months; 16 patients with biopsy-proven PTLD were eligible (13 heart, 3 kidney recipients). Median age was 47 (24–75) years. Reduction in immunosuppressives resulted in only 1 of 16 partial responses (12.5%), no CR. Progressive disease occurred in 8 of 16 (50%) and 6 of 16 (38%) experienced rejection. Only 1 of 13 (7%) patients achieved durable CR with IFN. Seven eligible patients received ProMACE-CytaBOM chemotherapy, five of seven (67%) achieving CR, four of five durable beyond 2 years. Conclusions Reduction in immunosuppressives produced no CR, progressive disease and rejection were frequent; response to IFN was rare. A strong case can be made for adding rituximab to RI as initial therapy. Chemotherapy resulted in 57% durable CR, data that are relevant for the up to two thirds of PTLD patients who are refractory to rituximab.
Swinnen, Lode J.; LeBlanc, Michael; Grogan, Thomas M.; Gordon, Leo I.; Stiff, Patrick J.; Miller, Alan M.; Kasamon, Yvette; Miller, Thomas P.; Fisher, Richard I.
CD-30 Positive Anaplastic Large T-cell Cutaneous Lymphoma; Lymphoma, Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell; Lymphomatoid Papulosis; Mycosis Fungoides; Skin Lymphoma; Cutaneous Lymphomas; Lymphoma; Hematologic Disorder
The largest study on post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) epidemiology showed a cumulative incidence of 1.7% in patients receiving antithymocyte globulin (ATG). We had noted an apparently higher incidence in our transplant recipients whose conditioning included ATG. Therefore, we formally determined the incidence of PTLD through chart review. We also evaluated whether counts of EBV-specific T lymphocytes measured by cytokine flow cytometry could identify patients at risk of developing PTLD. Among 307 allogeneic transplant recipients, 25 (8.1%) developed PTLD. This was biopsy proven in 11 patients, and was fatal in seven patients. Patient age, EBV serostatus, donor type/match or GVHD did not influence PTLD risk significantly. Median onset of PTLD was 55 (range, 28-770) days post transplant. Day 28 EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts were not significantly different in 11 patients who developed PTLD and 31 non-PTLD patients matched for published risk factors for PTLD. In summary, when using conditioning with thymoglobulin 4.5 mg/kg, the incidence of PTLD is relatively high and cannot be predicted by day 28 cytokine flow cytometry-determined EBV-specific T lymphocyte counts. Thus, in this scenario PTLD prevention may be warranted, for example, using EBV DNAemia monitoring with preemptive therapy. PMID:21057556
Hoegh-Petersen, M; Goodyear, D; Geddes, M N; Liu, S; Ugarte-Torres, A; Liu, Y; Walker, J T; Fonseca, K; Daly, A; Duggan, P; Stewart, D; Russell, J A; Storek, J
Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) is rare and most patients are of Asian origin. The disease usually develops shortly after primary acute EBV infection and the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report such a rare case in a 28-year-old Caucasian female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunophenotypic and molecular studies revealed that the proliferating lymphoid cells displayed a CD8+ T-cell phenotype with clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gamma gene. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was also observed in the clonal lymphoid cells by in situ hybridization. The patient subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome one month after the primary acute EBV infection. The case represents the first report of fulminant EBV-driven CD8+ T-LPD occurring in an immunocompromised Caucasian SLE patient. This study, along with studies of similar Asian cases reported in the literature, suggests that dysregulated immunity due to either acquired or genetically determined susceptibility may result in an abnormal response to primary EBV infection and contribute to the pathogenesis of EBV-mediated fatal T-LPD.
Young, Ken H; Zhang, Dahua; Malik, Jeffery T; Williams, Eliot C
EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma*
Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30+ LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30+ LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30+ LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30+ LPDs.
Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H.; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H. Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, Jose A.; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein
The World Health Organization (WHO) recently defined systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) of childhood as a life-threatening illness. However, this rare disease has not been extensively studied. Here we report a case of systemic EBV-positive T-cell LPD in a previously healthy middle-aged man with a chief complaint of chronic diarrhea. The initial colon biopsy showed focal infiltration of EBV-positive small lymphocytes without any atypia. However, the disease rapidly progressed and the patient required a total colectomy due to severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Three and half months after admission, the patient died from a complication of disseminated intravascular coagulation. The resected colon showed diffuse infiltration of EBV-positive atypical lymphocytes with ischemic change. Most atypical lymphocytes were CD3+ or CD5+. The monoclonality of EBV was demonstrated by sequence variation analysis of the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene in the colectomy specimen as well as in the initial biopsy.
Abdul-Ghafar, Jamshid; Kim, Jae Woo; Park, Kwang Hwa
We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who underwent heart transplantation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Two months after the transplant she developed mild fever and dyspnea with a marked drop in left ventricle ejection fraction of 31%. Coronary angiography was negative for cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed ischemic damage with no evidence of acute cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection or viral myocarditis. A neoplastic process was suspected even though full-body computerized tomography was negative for malignancy. The patient died 4 months after transplantation. The autopsy showed acute antero-septal myocardial infarction due to a nodular epicardial EBV-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) infiltrating the left anterior descending coronary artery with occlusive neoplastic thrombosis. We highlight two major aspects of this case: (1) the unusual occurrence of early PTLD involving the cardiac allograft and causing a fatal outcome, (2) the application of an immunological technique for HLA-DRB1 typing to posttransplant paraffin-embedded autopsy material to identify the recipient origin of this early malignancy, thus excluding a possible donor-transmitted neoplasm. PMID:23331771
Fedrigo, M; Poli, F; Esposito, G; Feltrin, G; Toscano, G; d'Agostino, C; Schiavon, B; Gerosa, G; Amadori, A; Valente, M; Thiene, G; Angelini, A
Aim of the study Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-PTLD) is a serious complication after stem cell transplantation (SCT) and the number of patients at risk is increasing over time. Available data do not reflect general practice of diagnosis and treatment of this complication. Material and methods In 2009 a survey on management of the pre-emptive strategy of EBV infection was done and results from 74 European transplant centers were registered and analyzed. Results Regular monitoring for EBV after SCT is done by most of the participating centers (73%). In 68% of them the monitoring is performed in all alloSCT patients, while in remaining centers it is done in high-risk patients only. Quantitative EBV-DNA is performed in 97% of centers, mainly in whole blood (78%) and usually repeated once a week (60.9%). The monitoring for EBV reactivation is performed for a period of 3 months (37%) to 6 months (30%) or adjusted to risk factors (20%). Rituximab as a pre-emptive therapy for EBV-PTLD is routinely administered in 80% of responding centers. The number of EBV-DNA copies as an indicator for pre-emptive therapy with rituximab varies between the centers. Conclusions The strategy of management of EBV infection exists in most of the responding centers. Different approaches regarding indications for preemptive therapy are seen between centers: rituximab is administered as pre-emptive therapy in most participating transplant centers.
Styczynski, Jan; Komarnicki, Mieczyslaw
The CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD) include lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma (cALCL). Despite the malign-appearing histology, an excellent prognosis and spontaneous regression of single lesions characterize LyP. Even after years of clinical remission newly erupting lesions often harbor a T-cell clone identical to the initial one. This fact raises the question whether the clonal T-cell population persists in the peripheral blood. Therefore we investigated genomic DNA of 126 samples of lesional skin and peripheral blood from 31 patients with CLPD, obtained during both active disease and clinical remission. We performed molecular genetic analysis by combining T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma PCR with the GeneScan technique and assessed the TCR repertoire in selected blood samples by beta-variable complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) spectratyping qualitatively and quantitatively. We were able to detect a clonal T-cell population in 36/43 (84%) skin samples and in 35/83 (42%) blood samples. Comparison of the compartments in each patient demonstrated different T-cell clones in skin and blood, suggesting a reactive nature of the clonal T cells in the blood. Moreover, CDR3 spectratyping revealed a restricted T-cell repertoire in the blood, suggesting T-cell stimulation by an unknown antigen. PMID:18633437
Humme, Daniel; Lukowsky, Ansgar; Steinhoff, Matthias; Beyer, Marc; Walden, Peter; Sterry, Wolfram; Assaf, Chalid
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been identified as one of the major risk factors for type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC), during the clinical evolution of chronic hepatitis, which may lead to development of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). We have previously shown that the candidate idiotype vaccine, based on the IGKV3-20 light chain protein, is able to induce activation and maturation of circulating antigen presenting cells (APCs) in both HCV-positive and HCV-negative healthy control subjects, with production of Th2-type cytokines. Here, the effect of the recombinant IGKV3-20 protein on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HCV-positive subjects, with known blood levels of cryoglobulins, is shown via gene expression profiling analysis combined to multiparameter flow cytometry and multiplex analyses of cytokines.
Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Napolitano, Maria; D'Alessio, Giovanna; Salomone Megna, Angelo; Dolcetti, Riccardo; De Re, Valli; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Franco M.; Buonaguro, Franco M.; Buonaguro, Luigi
The skin immune system is characterized by the presence of two types of CD1a expressing cells: langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, which are professional antigen processing and presenting cells. It is well established that several dermatoses are associated with T-cell mediated immune responses. In these pathological skin conditions, T-cells are activated by professional antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells are the most potent antigen presenting cells for both T-helper cells and T-cytotoxic cells. Therefore, it is plausible that dendritic cells are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative skin conditions characterized by the presence of a T-cell infiltrate. In this study, we examined the frequency and distribution of CD1a expressing cells and CD3+ cells in both the dermal and epidermal compartment in a wide range of lymphoproliferative dermatoses with a T-lymphoid infiltrate. In the skin conditions investigated, the CD1a molecule was highly expressed in mycosis fungoides, T-cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, lymphomatoid papulosis and parapsoriasis, whereas few CD1a-positive cells were observed in cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. Our study demonstrates a distinct pattern of CD1a staining in the infiltrates of cutaneous lympho-proliferative disorders which may reflect different immunoregulatory events involving T-lymphocytes and CD1a-positive dermal and epidermal dendritic cells. PMID:16391853
Pigozzi, Barbara; Bordignon, Matteo; Belloni Fortina, Anna; Michelotto, Giorgio; Alaibac, Mauro
Intrinsically disordered proteins are found extensively in cell signaling pathways where they often are targets of posttranslational modifications e.g. phosphorylation. Such modifications can sometimes induce or disrupt secondary structure elements present in the modified protein. CD79a and CD79b are membrane-spanning, signal-transducing components of the B-cell receptor. The cytosolic domains of these proteins are intrinsically disordered and each has an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). When an antigen binds to the receptor, conserved tyrosines located in the ITAMs are phosphorylated which initiate further downstream signaling. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to examine the secondary structure propensity of the cytosolic domains of CD79a and CD79b in vitro before and after phosphorylation. The phosphorylation patterns are identified through analysis of changes of backbone chemical shifts found for the affected tyrosines and neighboring residues. The number of the phosphorylated sites is confirmed by mass spectrometry. The secondary structure propensities are calculated using the method of intrinsic referencing, where the reference random coil chemical shifts are measured for the same protein under denaturing conditions. Our analysis revealed that CD79a and CD79b both have an overall propensity for ?-helical structure that is greatest in the C-terminal region of the ITAM. Phosphorylation of CD79a caused a decrease in helical propensity in the C-terminal ITAM region. For CD79b, the opposite was observed and phosphorylation resulted in an increase of helical propensity in the C-terminal part.
Rosenlow, Joakim; Isaksson, Linnea; Mayzel, Maxim; Lengqvist, Johan; Orekhov, Vladislav Y.
Lymphopenic hosts offer propitious microenvironments for expansion of autoreactive B and T cells. Despite this, many lymphopenic hosts do not develop autoimmune disease, suggesting that additional factors are required for breaching self-tolerance in the setting of lymphopenia. Mice deficient in guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rasgrp1 develop a lymphoproliferative disorder with features of human systemic lupus erythematosus. Early in life, Rasgrp1-deficient mice have normal B cell numbers but are T lymphopenic, leading to defective homeostatic expansion of CD4 T cells. To investigate whether B cell-intrinsic mechanisms also contribute to autoimmunity, Rasgrp1-deficient mice were bred to mice containing a knockin autoreactive BCR transgene (564Igi), thereby allowing the fate of autoreactive B cells to be assessed. During B cell development, the frequency of receptor-edited 564Igi B cells was reduced in Rasrp1-deficient mice compared with Rasgrp1-sufficient littermate control mice, suggesting that tolerance was impaired. In addition, the number of 564Igi transitional B cells was increased in Rasgrp1-deficient mice compared with control mice. Immature 564Igi B cells in bone marrow and spleen lacking RasGRP1 expressed lower levels of Bim mRNA and protein, suggesting that autoreactive B cells elude clonal deletion during development. Concomitant with increased serum autoantibodies, Rasgrp1-deficient mice developed spontaneous germinal centers at 8-10 wk of age. The frequency and number of 564Igi B cells within these germinal centers were significantly increased in Rasgrp1-deficient mice relative to control mice. Taken together, these studies suggest that autoreactive B cells lacking Rasgrp1 break central and peripheral tolerance through both T cell-independent and -dependent mechanisms. PMID:23997211
Bartlett, Amber; Buhlmann, Janet E; Stone, James; Lim, Bing; Barrington, Robert A
A high percentage of extracutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphomas (nodal ALCL) carry a specific chromosomal translocation, t(2;5) (p23;q35), that results in abnormal expression of p80 NPM/ALK chimeric protein (p80). The protein p80 may be detected by immunohistochemistry using polyclonal (anti-p80) or monoclonal (ALK1) antibody directed against the ALK epitope. Although nodal ALCL, primary cutaneous ALCL, and lymphomatoid papulosis type A (lyp A) have similar histologic and immunohistochemical features, the expression of p80 in these cutaneous lesions has not been extensively studied. We immunostained tissues from 10 nodal ALCL, 8 primary cutaneous ALCL, 24 lyp A, and positive and negative controls using polyclonal rabbit anti-p80 and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase labeling method. Reactivity was determined by comparing staining intensity to positive controls [4 nodal ALCL with t(2;5)] and negative controls (21 non-ALCL lymphomas). Only cutaneous lesions staining positively with anti-p80 were further studied with the monoclonal antibody ALK1 and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for p80 messenger RNA. All positive controls (4/4), but none of the negative controls (0/21) nor lyp A (0/24), were immunoreactive for anti-p80. Sixty percent (6/10) of nodal ALCL and a single case (12%) of primary cutaneous ALCL were immunoreactive for anti-p80. In this exceptional cutaneous lesion, although we did not find NPM/ALK by RT-PCR, we detected strong expression of ALK using ALK1. We conclude that t(2;5) is rarely involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:9449486
Su, L D; Schnitzer, B; Ross, C W; Vasef, M; Mori, S; Shiota, M; Mason, D Y; Pulford, K; Headington, J T; Singleton, T P
A registry of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) was set up for the entire population of adult kidney transplant recipients in France. Cases of PTLD were prospectively enrolled between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2007. Ten-year cumulative incidence was analyzed in patients transplanted after January 1, 1989. PTLD risk factors were analyzed in patients transplanted after January 1, 1998 by Cox analysis. Cumulative incidence was 1% after 5 years, 2.1% after 10 years. Multivariate analysis showed that PTLD was significantly associated with: older age of the recipient 47-60 years and >60 years (vs. 33-46 years, adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 1.87, CI = 1.22-2.86 and AHR = 2.80, CI = 1.73-4.55, respectively, p < 0.0001), simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation (AHR = 2.52, CI = 1.27-5.01 p = 0.008), year of transplant 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 (vs. 2006-2007, AHR = 3.36, CI = 1.64-6.87 and AHR = 3.08, CI = 1.55-6.15, respectively, p = 0.003), EBV mismatch (HR = 5.31, CI = 3.36-8.39, p < 0.001), 5 or 6 HLA mismatches (vs. 0-4, AHR = 1.54, CI = 1.12-2.12, p = 0.008), and induction therapy (AHR = 1.42, CI = 1-2.02, p = 0.05). Analyses of subgroups of PTLD provided new information about PTLD risk factors for early, late, EBV positive and negative, polymorphic, monomorphic, graft and cerebral lymphomas. This nationwide study highlights the increased risk of PTLD as long as 10 years after transplantation and the role of cofactors in modifying PTLD risk, particularly in specific PTLD subgroups. PMID:22226336
Caillard, S; Lamy, F X; Quelen, C; Dantal, J; Lebranchu, Y; Lang, P; Velten, M; Moulin, B
The X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome is characterized by a selective immunodeficiency to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) manifested by severe or fatal infectious mononucleosis and acquired immunodeficiency. Prospective studies in males prior to EBV infection have demonstrate vigorous cytotoxic cellular responses, which are predominantly polyclonally activated alloreactive cytotoxic T cells. Cytotoxic T cells that recognize EBV-infected autologous B cells have been demonstrated. Fatal EBV infections in males with XLP usually result from extensive liver necrosis. Males who survive acute EBV infection demonstrate global cellular immune defects with deficient T-, B- and NK-cell responses. It is hypothesized that uncontrolled alloreactive T-cell responses triggered by EBV-transformed B cells result in the immunopathy of XLP. Genetic studies have demonstrated XLP to be genetically linked to restriction fragment length polymorphisms detected with the DXS42 and DXS37 probes (from Xq26-q27). These probes make detection of carrier females and presymptomatic (EBV-seronegative) XLP males possible. Treatment of males with XLP experiencing acute EBV infection has not been successful, and current efforts are directed at prophylaxis with intravenous gammaglobulin. PMID:2561059
Sullivan, J L; Woda, B A
We report the occurrence of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) in two brothers in a Malaysian family. In this disorder, a primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is followed by an abnormal proliferation of transformed B-cells that cannot be controlled by suppressor T-cells, leading to the development of deranged immune function. This results in fatal infectious mononucleosis, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia, virus-infected haemophagocytic syndrome and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The diagnosis should be considered when there is a family history of any male having a fulminant course of infectious mononucleosis, an otherwise benign disease. Early diagnosis is important as bone marrow transplantation is the only curative option in this disorder. PMID:8942243
Hany, A; Thong, M K; Lin, H P
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with the B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We have previously reported that HCV+MC+ patients have clonal expansions of hypermutated, rheumatoid factor–bearing marginal zone-like IgM+CD27+ peripheral B cells using the VH1-69 gene. Here we coupled transcriptional profiling with immunophenotypic and functional studies to ascertain these cells' role in MC pathogenesis. Despite their fundamental role in MC disease, these B cells have overall transcriptional features of anergy and apoptosis instead of neoplastic transformation. Highly up-regulated genes include SOX5, CD11C, galectin-1, and FGR, similar to a previously described FCRL4+ memory B-cell subset and to an “exhausted,” anergic CD21low memory B-cell subset in HIV+ patients. Moreover, HCV+MC+ patients' clonal peripheral B cells are enriched with CD21low, CD11c+, FCRL4high, IL-4Rlow memory B cells. In contrast to the functional, rheumatoid factor–secreting CD27+CD21high subset, the CD27+CD21low subpopulation exhibits decreased calcium mobilization and does not efficiently differentiate into rheumatoid factor–secreting plasmablasts, suggesting that a large proportion of HCV+MC+ patients' clonally expanded peripheral B cells is prone to anergy and/or apoptosis. Down-regulation of multiple activation pathways may represent a homeostatic mechanism attenuating otherwise uncontrolled stimulation of circulating HCV-containing immune complexes. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00435201.
Charles, Edgar D.; Brunetti, Claudia; Marukian, Svetlana; Ritola, Kimberly D.; Talal, Andrew H.; Marks, Kristen; Jacobson, Ira M.; Rice, Charles M.
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is closely linked to primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. A defect of EBV specific cellular immunity is postulated to play a pivotal role in the etiology of PTLD, but there is some debate as to whether EBV load in the peripheral blood of transplant patients predicts onset of PTLD or relapse after treatment. The current prospective,
Stephan Oertel; Ralf Ulrich Trappe; Kristin Zeidler; Nina Babel; Petra Reinke; Manfred Hummel; Sven Jonas; Matthias Papp-Vary; Marion Subklewe; Bernd Dörken; Hanno Riess; Barbara Gärtner
In the last few years, it has been suggested that the involvement of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in several tumoral processes and its likely participation as a factor of immune tolerance in malignant cells. Recently, positive HLA-G surface expression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a small group of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a heterogeneous clinical course. In the present work, 169 patients suffering from B-CLL were analyzed for the expression of HLA-G by flow cytometry in order to verify its prognostic value in a larger cohort. We observed a low expression of this molecule on leukemic B cells and no significant relation to clinical data or progression-free survival time, indicating that this molecule is not as good immunologic prognostic marker for B-CLL as suggested. PMID:18241213
Perez-Chacon, G; Rosado, S; Rebolleda, N; Losada-Fernandez, I; Vargas, J A; Morado, M; Jorda, J; Perez-Aciego, P
Introduction: We analyse data for the use of obinutuzumab in the treatment of CD20(+) lymphoproliferative disorders with a focus on chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Targeted therapy against CD20 with the mAb rituximab led to significant improvements in survival for patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is the current mainstay of treatment for CD20(+) malignancies. Despite this, many patients relapse or become refractory after rituximab-containing therapies, so efforts have been made to develop better anti-CD20 mAbs. Obinutuzumab recently demonstrated superiority over rituximab in the only published Phase III study comparing the two antibodies. Areas covered: Obinutuzumab is a humanised, anti-CD20 mAb being compared to rituximab in several Phase III studies. An overview of obinutuzumab, its mechanisms of action and results of Phase I-III studies are presented. Expert opinion: The demonstration of superiority of obinutuzumab over rituximab in the CLL11 Phase III study is potentially practice-changing. Obinutuzumab has also proven safe and efficacious in CD20(+) NHL in Phase I/II studies and results of Phase III studies in NHL are eagerly awaited. The potential implications of improved outcomes for CLL and NHL with the introduction of this more potent anti-CD20 antibody are tremendous given the impressive results obtained after the introduction of rituximab over a decade ago. PMID:24856933
Owen, Carolyn J; Stewart, Douglas A
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causatively linked to two B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Latently infected B cells are a major KSHV reservoir, and virus activation from tonsillar B cells can result in salivary shedding and virus transmission. Paradoxically, human B cells (primary and continuous) are notoriously refractory to infection, thus posing a major obstacle to the study of KSHV in this cell type. By performing a strategic search of human B cell lymphoma lines, we found that MC116 cells were efficiently infected by cell-free KSHV. Upon exposure to recombinant KSHV.219, enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter expression was detected in 17 to 20% of MC116 cells. Latent-phase transcription and protein synthesis were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and detection of latency-associated nuclear antigen expression, respectively, in cell lysates and individual cells. Selection based on the puromycin resistance gene in KSHV.219 yielded cultures with all cells infected. After repeated passaging of the selected KSHV-infected cells without puromycin, latent KSHV was maintained in a small fraction of cells. Infected MC116 cells could be induced into lytic phase with histone deacetylase inhibitors, as is known for latently infected non-B cell lines, and also selectively by the B cell-specific pathway involving B cell receptor cross-linking. Lytic-phase transition was documented by red fluorescent protein reporter expression, late structural glycoprotein (K8.1A, gH) detection, and infectious KSHV production. MC116 cells were CD27(-)/CD10(+), characteristic of transitional B cells. These findings represent an important step in the establishment of an efficient continuous B cell line model to study the biologically relevant steps of KSHV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes two serious pathologies of B cells, the antibody-producing cells of the immune system. B cells are a major reservoir for KSHV persistence in the body. Paradoxically, in the laboratory, B cells are extremely difficult to infect with KSHV; this problem greatly hinders scientific analysis of B cell infection. We describe our search for and successful identification of a stable human B cell line that can be efficiently infected by KSHV. Upon infection of these cells, the virus goes into a quiet latent phase, a characteristic feature of many herpesvirus infections. The virus can be triggered to enter an active lytic phase by treatments known to stimulate normal B cell functions. These findings suggest that the new B cell line will be a valuable model in which to study KSHV infection of this major target cell type. PMID:24257608
Dollery, Stephen J; Santiago-Crespo, Rey J; Kardava, Lela; Moir, Susan; Berger, Edward A
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in vitro causes transformation of B cells and generates B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These LCLs have been widely used for the diagnostic of several genetic metabolic disorders. However, up to now, efficiency of LCL generation has been based on misleading subjective analysis. In this study, quantitative analyses have been performed to indicate efficiency of B-cell transformation to measuring human lysosomal acid hydrolases associated with: GM1-gangliosidosis type I, Gaucher disease and mucopolysaccharidosis type I. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 13 subjects, and LCLs were produced by culturing them with EBV for 12 days. Activities of the enzymes beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase and alpha-iduronidase were measured before and after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for 30 days. Efficiency of the B-cell transformation was screened every 4 days by the enumeration of cell proliferation, cell counts and changes in granularity estimated by flow cytometry. We observed the generation of 13 LCLs. Cell transformation was confirmed by the gradual increase of cellular clusters, cell size and granularity. In addition, we determined that the activity of the enzymes mentioned above did not change following cryopreservation. These data suggest that our enumerative approach for screening of EBV-LCLs is efficient for the enzymatic determination of human lysosomal acid hydrolases and may thus replace misleading subjective analyses. PMID:16426420
Mello, A S; Burin, M G; Michellin, K; Viapiana, M; Giugliani, R; Coelho, J C; Bauer, M E
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare familial disorder resulting in selective immunodeficiency to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Phenotypes of this disease are variable and include fulminant infectious mononucleosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, and malignant lymphoma. In this article, we describe a case of a previously healthy 4-year-old boy with serologic evidence of acute EBV infection who died of fulminant hepatic failure. Histopathological examination of tissue obtained postmortem showed hemophagocytosis and prominent polymorphous infiltrates associated with necrosis in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilizing primers complementary to the EBV gene LMP2a performed on samples of liver tissue demonstrated approximately 0.6 copies of the EBV gene per cell. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated light chain restriction and PCR studies of the immunoglobulin V-D-J region revealed two strong bands, consistent with a clonal B cell proliferation. Extended family history revealed that the boy's family was followed by the XLP Registry, which was established in 1978 to follow kindreds with XLP. The genetic abnormality associated with XLP has been localized to the Xq25, allowing RFLP analysis to identify female carriers and affected boys. PMID:9841710
Maia, D M; Garwacki, C P
: Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCL) are the second most common form of primary cutaneous lymphomas and account for approximately 25%-30% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. Both forms of low-grade malignant PCBCL, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) and primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (MALT lymphoma) (PCMZL) represent the vast majority of PCBCL and show an indolent slowly progressive course and an excellent prognosis despite a high recurrence rate. Genetic analysis indicates that PCMZL differ from other forms of extranodal MALT lymphomas. The more common class-switched and the non-class-switched form of PCMZL can be distinguished as two distinctive subsets that differ in the cellular composition, IgM expression, and biological behavior with extracutaneous involvement found in the non-class-switched form. Recently, unusual clinical and histological forms of PCMZL and PCFCL manifesting with miliary or agminated lesions have been described that are diagnostically challenging. In contrast to PCMZL and PCFCL, primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, and other rare forms of large B-cell lymphomas such as intravascular large B-cell lymphoma have an unfavorable prognosis. There is an emerging group of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoproliferations including posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders and mucocutaneous ulcer occurring in immunocompromised patients and EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly arising in the setting of senescence-linked immunodeficiency. This review reports on recent findings expanding the spectrum of clinicopathological features, differential diagnostic aspects, and the pathogenesis of PCBCL and discusses the group of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferations involving the skin. PMID:24658377
Kempf, Werner; Kazakov, Dmitry V; Mitteldorf, Christina
Background Sjögren’s syndrome is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, together with polyclonal B-cell activation, and lung diseases are well-known complications of the disease. Therefore, in most cases associated with Sjögren’s syndrome, infiltrating lymphocytes in the lung specimen exhibit the features of B-cells. We herein report an atypical case of lymphoproliferative pulmonary involvement in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome. Case presentation A 46-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of an abnormal chest roentgenogram finding on a medical checkup. Chest computed tomography showed randomly-distributed micronodules and patchy ground-glass opacities. A surgical biopsied specimen showed an atypical pattern of interstitial pneumonia with numerous lymphoid follicles. Among the infiltrating lymphocytes in the lung, only the monoclonality of the T-cells was proven by a gene rearrangement analysis, but there was no cytological atypicality or genetic disorder revealed by testing the bone marrow aspirate. A diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome was made based on the patient’s other symptoms and these negative findings. The patient’s pulmonary lesions have been successfully treated and remission has been maintained for over three years with corticosteroid treatment alone. Conclusion The present patient was an atypical case of lymphoproliferative pulmonary involvement in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome. Although monoclonality of the infiltrating T-cells was proven, the clinical course and the findings of the imaging and laboratory examinations were inconsistent with the previously-reported cases of primary pulmonary T-cell lymphoma. This suggests that the monoclonality of lymphocytes does not always define malignancy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma or lymphoproliferative diseases should be made clinically, pathologically and cytogenetically to rule out other similar diseases.
Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a well characterized etiopathogenic factor for a variety of immune-related conditions, including lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases. EBV-mediated transformation of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblastoid cells occurs in early stages of infection and is an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms associated with acquisition of unlimited growth. Results We investigated the effects of experimental EBV infection of B cells on DNA methylation profiles by using high-throughput analysis. Remarkably, we observed hypomethylation of around 250 genes, but no hypermethylation. Hypomethylation did not occur at repetitive sequences, consistent with the absence of genomic instability in lymphoproliferative cells. Changes in methylation only occurred after cell divisions started, without the participation of the active demethylation machinery, and were concomitant with acquisition by B cells of the ability to proliferate. Gene Ontology analysis, expression profiling, and high-throughput analysis of the presence of transcription factor binding motifs and occupancy revealed that most genes undergoing hypomethylation are active and display the presence of NF-?B p65 and other B cell-specific transcription factors. Promoter hypomethylation was associated with upregulation of genes relevant for the phenotype of proliferating lymphoblasts. Interestingly, pharmacologically induced demethylation increased the efficiency of transformation of resting B cells to lymphoblastoid cells, consistent with productive cooperation between hypomethylation and lymphocyte proliferation. Conclusions Our data provide novel clues on the role of the B cell transcription program leading to DNA methylation changes, which we find to be key to the EBV-associated conversion of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblasts.
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a well characterized etiopathogenic factor for a variety of immune-related conditions, including lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases. EBV-mediated transformation of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblastoid cells occurs in early stages of infection and is an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms associated with acquisition of unlimited growth. RESULTS: We investigated the effects of experimental EBV infection of B cells on DNA methylation profiles by using high-throughput analysis. Remarkably, we observed hypomethylation of around 250 genes, but no hypermethylation. Hypomethylation did not occur at repetitive sequences, consistent with the absence of genomic instability in lymphoproliferative cells. Changes in methylation only occurred after cell divisions started, without the participation of the active demethylation machinery, and were concomitant with acquisition by B cells of the ability to proliferate. Gene Ontology analysis, expression profiling, and high-throughput analysis of the presence of transcription factor binding motifs and occupancy revealed that most genes undergoing hypomethylation are active and display the presence of NF-?B p65 and other B cell-specific transcription factors. Promoter hypomethylation was associated with upregulation of genes relevant for the phenotype of proliferating lymphoblasts. Interestingly, pharmacologically induced demethylation increased the efficiency of transformation of resting B cells to lymphoblastoid cells, consistent with productive cooperation between hypomethylation and lymphocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide novel clues on the role of the B cell transcription program leading to DNA methylation changes, which we find to be key to the EBV-associated conversion of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblasts. PMID:23320978
Hernando, Henar; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Islam, Abul B; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C; Javierre, Biola M; Mangas, Cristina; Fernández, Agustín F; Parra, Maribel; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Esteller, Manel; López-Granados, Eduardo; Fraga, Mario F; López-Bigas, Nuria; Ballestar, Esteban
: Development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with immunosuppression has become more frequently reported. A patient with acute myeloid leukemia was treated to remission, when on follow-up 9 months after his initial diagnosis, he was noted to have a generalized rash and lymphadenopathy. Evaluation of skin and bone marrow biopsies was suggestive of a relapsed leukemia, and treatment was initiated. Fever evaluation revealed a high load of EBV in his blood. A lymph node biopsy and retrospective examination of his skin and bone marrow revealed an EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with no recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia. His chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression likely predisposed him to develop this EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This case highlights the need to consider a broader differential and immunohistochemical profiling of these neoplasms to avoid misdiagnosing complex oncology patients. PMID:24950422
Ririe, Marnie R; Florell, Scott R; Miles, Rodney R; Duffy, Keith L
Although there is increasing evidence that the majority of cases of hairy cell leukemia represent B-lymphoproliferative disorders, the exact subset of B-cells from which hairy cells are derived, is still unclear. On the basis of results obtained in previous studies, and data collected from the literature, it is suggested that B-lymphocytes normally residing in the marginal zone of the splenic
J. J. van den Oord; C. de Wolf-Peeters; V. J. Desmet
X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP; Duncan’s disease) is a rare disorder affecting boys and characterised by a defective immune response to Epstein- Barr virus caused by a mutation in a gene located at chromosome Xq25. Three siblings with XLP in a single UK family are reported and the variation in phenotypic expression of the disease in these siblings described. One
Peter D Arkwright; Guy Makin; Andrew M Will; Michelle Ayres; David A Gokhale; William D Fergusson; G Malcolm Taylor
Fas (also known as Apo1 and CD95) is a cell surface receptor involved in apoptotic cell death. Fas expression and function were analyzed in three children (including two siblings) with a lymphoproliferative syndrome, two of whom also had autoimmune disorders. A large deletion in the gene encoding Fas and no detectable cell surface expression characterized the most affected patient. Clinical
F. Rieux-Laucat; F. Le Deist; C. Hivroz; I. A. G. Roberts; K. M. Debatin; A. Fischer; J. P. de Villartay
Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCBL) of the elderly is a newly described lymphoproliferative disorder that arises in elderly patients without a predisposing immunodeficiency. Clinical features at presentation may include lymphadenopathy, B-symptoms and extranodal involvement. The main sites of extranodal involvement are the skin, lung, tonsil and stomach. Histopathological findings include atypical large lymphoid cells with variable amounts of reactive cells, such as small lymphocytes, plasma cells and histiocytes. The neoplastic cells are positive for CD20, and in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA is positive in the majority of neoplastic cells. We present a new case of EBV-positive DLBCL in an 85-year-old man, who presented to our clinic with a 2-month history of asymptomatic cutaneous lesions involving his face and scalp. PMID:24758493
De Unamuno Bustos, B; Zaragoza Ninet, V; Ballester Sánchez, R; García Rabasco, A; Alegre de Miquel, V
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by an extreme susceptibility to\\u000a Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Patients with XLP mainly present with the 3 clinical manifestations of fulminant infectious\\u000a mononucleosis, lymphoproliferative disorder, and dysgammaglobulinemia and in rare cases have aplastic anemia and lymphocytic\\u000a vasculitis.The causative gene for XLP was identified asSH2D1A\\/DSHP\\/SLAM-associated protein (SAP) in 1998, and genetic analysis
Takumi Hoshino; Hirokazu Kanegane; Noriko Doki; Hiroyuki Irisawa; Tohru Sakura; Yoshihisa Nojima; Shuichi Miyawaki; Toshio Miyawaki
Immunosuppression-associated lymphoproliferative disorders can be related to primary as well as acquired immune disorders. Interferon gamma receptor (IFN-?R) deficiency is a rare primary immune disorder, characterized by increased susceptibility to mycobacterial infections. Here we report the first case of an Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) related B-cell lymphoma in a patient with complete IFN-?R1 deficiency. The patient was a 20-year-old man with homozygous 22Cdel in IFNGR1 resulting in complete absence of IFN-?R1 surface expression and complete lack of responsiveness to IFN-? in vitro. He had disseminated refractory Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus infections. At age 18 he presented with new spiking fever and weight loss that was due to an EBV-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Two years later he died of progressive lymphoma. IFN-? plays an important role in tumor protection and rejection. Patients with IFN-?R deficiencies and other immune deficits predisposing to mycobacterial disease seem to have an increased risk of malignancies, especially those related to viral infections. As more of these patients survive their early infections, cancer awareness and tumor surveillance may need to become a more routine part of management.
Bax, Hannelore I.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Vesterhus, Per; Laerum, Dan; Pittaluga, Stefania; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Holland, Steven M.
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) constitute a small subset of cells involved in antitumour immunity and are generally increased in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). No data is available on Tregs in monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), a disease entity characterized by less than 5000/microL circulating clonal B-cells in absence of other features of lymphoproliferative disorders. We used multicolour flow cytometry to evaluate the number of circulating Tregs in 56 patients with "clinical" MBL, 74 patients with previously untreated CLL and 40 healthy subjects. MBL patients showed a lower absolute number of Tregs, compared to CLL patients, but slightly higher than controls. Moreover, the absolute cell number of Tregs directly correlated both with more advanced Rai/Binet clinical stages and peripheral blood B-cell lymphocytosis. Of note, the absolute number of Tregs was found lower in MBL patients than in CLL patients staged as 0/A Rai/Binet. The study showed that Treg increase gradually from normal subjects to "clinical" MBL patients and are significantly higher in CLL patients as compared to MBL patients. Moreover, a significant direct relationship was found between higher Treg values and a higher tumor burden expressed by B-lymphocytosis or more advanced clinical stages. In light of this data, MBL seems to be a preliminary phase preceding CLL. The progressive increase of Treg numbers might contribute both to the clinical evolution of MBL to overt CLL and to CLL progression. PMID:22230398
D'Arena, G; Rossi, G; Minervini, M M; Savino, L; D'Auria, F; Laurenti, L; Del Principe, M I; Deaglio, S; Biagi, A; De Martino, L; De Feo, V; Statuto, T; Musto, P; Del Poeta, G
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is probably the most common chronic viral infection and affects an estimated 180 million people worldwide, accounting for 3% of the global population. Although the liver is considered to be the primary target, extrahepatic manifestations are well recognized among patients with chronic HCV infection. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a correlation between chronic HCV infection and occurrence of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL). The clinical evidence that antiviral therapy has a significant role in the treatment at least of some HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, especially indolent B-NHL, further supports the existence of an etiopathogenetic link. However, the mechanisms exploited by HCV to induce B-cell lymphoproliferation have so far not completely clarified. It is conceivable that different biological mechanisms, namely, chronic antigen stimulation, high-affinity interaction between HCV-E2 protein and its cellular receptors, direct HCV infection of B-cells, and “hit and run” transforming events, may be combined themselves and cooperate in a multifactorial model of HCV-associated lymphomagenesis.
Forghieri, Fabio; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Maffei, Rossana; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Marasca, Roberto
We retrospectively analyzed the p.V158F polymorphism of Fc?-receptor IIIA (FCGR3A, CD16) in patients with PTLD treated with rituximab monotherapy. Previous reports had indicated that the lower affinity F allele affects rituximab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and is linked to inferior outcome of rituximab monotherapy in B cell malignancies. 25 patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation were included in this analysis. They had received 4 weekly doses of rituximab as part of two clinical trials, which had a rituximab monotherapy induction regimen in common. 16/25 patients received further treatment with CHOP-21 after rituximab monotherapy (PTLD-1, NCT01458548). The FCGR3A status was correlated to the response after 4 cycles of rituximab monotherapy. Response to rituximab monotherapy was not affected by F carrier status. This is in contrast to previous findings in B cell malignancies where investigators found a predictive impact of FCGR3A status on outcome to rituximab monotherapy. One explanation for this finding could be that ADCC is impaired in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression. These results suggest that carrying a FCRG3A F allele does not negatively affect rituximab therapy in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:24741582
Zimmermann, Heiner; Weiland, Theresa; Nourse, Jamie P; Gandhi, Maher K; Reinke, Petra; Neuhaus, Ruth; Karbasiyan, Mohsen; Gärtner, Barbara; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Riess, Hanno; Trappe, Ralf U; Oertel, Stephan
A 30-year-old female patient presented with intestinal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma (EBV+ CTL), which was surgically resected. Fourteen years later, she returned to our hospital with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites and was diagnosed with chronic active EBV infection-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (CAEBV/TNK-LPD). She developed systemic EBV+ CTL at age 47 years during the 2.5-year clinical course of CAEBV/TNK-LPD, despite multiagent chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Afterward, she had a rapidly deteriorating clinical course and died at age 48 years. The immunophenotype of the EBV+ CTL was consistently a CD3, CD8, and cytotoxic molecule-positive type with the same clonality in polymerase chain reaction analysis of T-cell receptor-? chain gene rearrangement. This is the first reported case of EBV+ CTL preceding the clinical presentation of CAEBV/TNK-LPD. The present case was unique in suggesting a close relationship between EBV+ CTL and chronic active EBV infection. PMID:24012167
Kato, Seiichi; Miyata, Tomoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Shimada, Satoko; Ito, Yoshinori; Tomita, Akihiro; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Takahashi, Emiko; Asano, Naoko; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigeo
The Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is an impairment of lymphocyte apoptosis expressed by generalized non-malignant lymphoproliferation, lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly. This article describes a seven and 14 year old males. The first one was admitted at 3 years of age with fever, bicytopenia and generalized lymphadenopathy. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed reactive follicular hyperplasia and marked paracortical expansion. He was readmitted three years later presenting herpes zoster and similar clinical features. High levels of IL-10 and increasing tendency of Fas-L in plasma and serum. The second child was admitted at 13 years of age presenting thigh and gluteus cellulitis, anemia and neutropenia. T lymphocytes aß+CD4-CD8- 3,1%. Hystopathological analysis of lymph nodes showed marked paracortical hyperplasia. Both children are treated with mycophenolate mofetil with good response. ALPS is an underestimated entity that must be considered in non malign lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and expansion of an unusual population of a/ßCD3+CD4-CD8-(double-negative T cells>1%). PMID:22525637
Rodrigues, Vera; Conde, Marta; Figueiredo, António; Vasconcelos, Júlia; Dias, Alexandra
Sulforaphane is a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables showing antileukemic activity. With the purpose of extending the potential clinical impact of sulforaphane in the oncological field, we investigated the antileukemic effect of sulforaphane on blasts from patients affected by different types of leukemia and, taking into account the intrinsically hypoxic nature of bone marrow, on a leukemia cell line (REH) maintained in hypoxic conditions. In particular, we tested sulforaphane on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and blastic NK cell leukemia. Sulforaphane caused a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in blasts from patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia. Moreover, it was able to cause apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation in hypoxic conditions on REH cells. As to its cytotoxic mechanism, we found that sulforaphane creates an oxidative cellular environment that induces DNA damage and Bax and p53 gene activation, which in turn helps trigger apoptosis. On the whole, our results raise hopes that sulforaphane might set the stage for a novel therapeutic principle complementing our growing armature against malignancies and advocate the exploration of sulforaphane in a broader population of leukemic patients.
Fimognari, Carmela; Turrini, Eleonora; Sestili, Piero; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Carulli, Giovanni; Fontanelli, Giulia; Rousseau, Martina; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio; Hrelia, Patrizia
Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (XLP) was first described almost 30 years ago; remarkably, the three major manifestations\\u000a of XLP, fulminant infectious mononucleosis (FIM), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia, are all described in the report of the\\u000a initial kindred. Subsequent establishment of an XLP registry has led to recognition of more unusual phenotypes in affected\\u000a males; concurrently, much progress has been made in caring
Andrew J. MacGinnitie; Raif Geha
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare familial disorder resulting in selective immunodeficiency to the Epstein-Barr\\u000a virus (EBV), characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Phenotypes of this disease are variable\\u000a and include fulminant infectious mononucleosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, and malignant lymphoma. In this article, we describe\\u000a a case of a previously healthy 4-year-old boy with serologic evidence of acute EBV infection
Diane M. Maia; Christopher P. Garwacki
HE LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE disease of granular T lymphocytes (LDGL) results from a chronic prolifer- ation of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) that may have either a CD3+ or CD3- phenotype.'-' It is conceivable that LDGL could encompass both neoplastic or reactive condi- tion~.',~ Most patients with a CD3+ LGL disorder have clonal rearrangements of the T-cell receptor (TCR) \\/3 gene, sup- porting
Richard Nash; Peter McSweeney; Renato Zambello; Gianpietro Semenzato; Thomas P. Loughran
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] accounts for about 30% of all lymphoproliferative disorders. In over 95% of these cases, the leukemia is caused by B-cells, rarely T-cells. Fifty percent of B-CLL have chromosomal aberrations and of such cases, one-third have trisomy 12. Malignant B-cells have a very low mitotic index and those metaphases that can be analyzed usually represent the normal T-cell population. Retrospectively, we decided to identify the additional chromosome 12 (trisomy 12) directly at interphase by the FISH-technique using centrometric 12 specific alphoid probe (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD). Preparations were made from 9 patients with B-CLL. All cultures except one failed to produce metaphases for conventional karyotyping. Eighty percent of the cells have two dots (normal cells) over the interphase nuclei while the remaining 20% have three dots (trisomy 12). The clinical implication of trisomy 12 in the pathogenesis of CLL including age, staging and duration of disease, differentials and immunological markers are correlated with interphase cytogenetic data. The loss and/or gain of specific chromosomes in human neoplasia is common and rapid evaluation of such cases should be considered as a routine approach.
Peddanna, N.; Gogineni, S.K.; Rosenthal, C.J. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others
Systemic autoimmunity such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with the loss of B-cell tolerance, B-cell dysregulation and autoantibody production. While some autoantibodies may contribute to the pathology seen with SLE, numerous studies have shown that dysregulation of T-cell function is another critical aspect driving disease. The positive results obtained in clinical trials using T-cell- or B-cell-specific treatments have
Joanna Groom; Fabienne Mackay
A 4-year-old boy with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) developed life-threatening acute lymphoproliferative crisis and failed to respond to conventional treatment of dexamethasone and etoposide. With the knowledge that uncontrolled alloreactive cytotoxic T-cell responses triggered by EBV-transformed B cells is the main cause of XLP, anti-CD20 monoclonocal antibody (Rituximab) which directed against B lymphocytes was use to damp down the patient's
Almost 50% of cutaneous B-cell lymphoproliferative infiltrates are derived from follicular center cells. Among these, about 25% show a rapidly progressive course, whereas about 75% account for flattening of the survival curve after about 7 years. This group is referred to as semimalignant ("pseudolymphomatous") cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (SM-CBCL). Clinical, histologic, and phenotypical criteria for their differentiation from B-cell pseudolymphoma and from CBCL have been investigated in 60 patients (11 CBCL, 30 SM-CBCL, 19 PSL). Semimalignant CBCL are different from malignant CBCL because they do not tend to disseminate to extracutaneous sites or to transform into high-grade malignant blast-type lymphomas; follicular center cell formation with CD21 positive dendritic reticulum cells is usually present; and normal survival time is not affected. On the other hand, SM-CBCL differ from PSL in that complete cure of the usually multiple and disseminated skin manifestations is not possible and that follicular center formation and the network of CD21-positive cells in conjunction with a kappa or lambda light chain restriction of cellular surface immunoglobulins is seen. If these and other criteria are taken together, differentiation of these various nosologic entities demanding different therapeutic approaches can be achieved with significant reliability. PMID:8045051
Burg, G; Schmid, M H; Küng, E; Dommann, S; Dummer, R
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) emerged in the mid-1990s as a major graft- and life-threatening complication\\u000a of pediatric kidney transplantation. This condition, usually involving uncontrolled B lymphocyte proliferation, straddles\\u000a the border between infection and malignancy, since Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is intimately associated with the pathogenesis.\\u000a PTLD is seen more in younger children (more likely to be EBV seronegative), Caucasian race, and in
Vikas R. Dharnidharka; Carlos E. Araya
Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders.
Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafo, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marin, Gustavo H.; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Nunez, Luis; Macor, Paolo
This Flash animation shows intracellular and extracellular interactions that illustrate the maturation stages of B cells in the bone marrow. It uses sound and mouse-over identification to help students learn more and retain the information.
American Society For Microbiology;
Infusion of autologous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T cells for prevention of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplant recipients with evidence of active virus replication
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post- transplantation lymphoproliferative disor- ders (PTLDs) are a well-recognized compli- cation of immunosuppression in solid organ transplant recipients. The reported therapeu- tic approaches are frequently complicated by rejection, toxicity, and other infectious pathologies, and overall mortality in pa- tients with unresponsive PTLD remains high. Thus, low-toxicity treatment options or, pref- erably, some form of prophylactic\\/preemp- tive intervention
Patrizia Comoli; Massimo Labirio; Sabrina Basso; Fausto Baldanti; Paolo Grossi; Milena Furione; Mario Vigano; Roberto Fiocchi; Giorgio Rossi; Fabrizio Ginevri; Bruno Gridelli; Antonia Moretta; Daniela Montagna; Franco Locatelli; Giuseppe Gerna; Rita Maccario
The many features that link autoimmune disorders (AD) and lymphoma are reviewed herein. Firstly, the epidemiology indicates the increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) development in many AD, and especially in Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In these AD, the relative risk of NHL occurrence varies between 2 and 4 up to 40 fold higher than in the general population, according to various surveys. Factors favouring or predicting NHL have been reported in detail. B-cell activation and proliferation are part of AD and are essential factors for the onset of malignant cell clones in a deregulated immunological environment. Targeting deregulated or malignant B-cells is the goal of some newly developed treatments. The prototype is anti-CD20 rituximab that has substantially modified the prognosis of B-cell NHL and is also an effective new treatment opportunity for some AD. Similarly, intensified treatments with autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplant (ASCT) that were developed for high-risk lymphoma are now under advanced investigation for use in some refractory AD. Thus, the successful use of rituximab and ASCT in both AD and NHL further emphasizes the close link between these two entities. This review provides details on the main epidemiological features regarding NHL incidence in AD, the pathogenetic factors that favour lymphoma onset and some recent advances in therapeutic approaches that are effective in both autoimmune and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:23219771
Tarella, C; Gueli, A; Ruella, M; Cignetti, A
This is the first reported case of lymphoproliferative disease presenting with adrenal insufficiency after liver transplantation. A 38-year-old white man was admitted 8 months after transplantation for cryptogenic cirrhosis with fever (38-39 degrees C), chills, cough, and dyspnea. His blood pressure was 100/70 mm Hg, there was pallor of the conjunctiva, and a lymph node was palpable in the left groin. Laboratory analyses revealed the following values: serum sodium concentration (112 mmol/L), potassium (5.4 mmol/L), hemoglobin (7.8 g/L), white blood cell count (7.7 x 10(9)/L), glucose 3.9 (mmol/L), and mildly elevated liver functions. Abdominal ultrasound showed multiple hypoechoic solid-appearing lesions throughout the liver and spleen. Results of a biopsy specimen of the groin node confirmed polymorphic B-cell lymphoma. A negative Epstein- Barr virus screen before transplant became positive. The patient's fever increased to 40 degrees C. He subsequently developed sepsis and later, multiple organ failure. Autopsy confirmed extensive abdominal disease. The adrenal glands had been completely replaced by the tumor. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Replacement of the adrenal glands with a tumor produces a clinical picture of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:15989681
Khan, Abdaal; Ortiz, Jorge; Jacobson, Laura; Reich, David; Manzarbeitia, Cosme
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of immunosuppression associated lymphoproliferations such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), AIDS related immunoblastic lymphomas (ARL) and immunoblastic lymphomas in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). The reported overall mortality for PTLD often exceeds 50%. Reducing the immunosuppression in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) or using highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients leads
Laszlo Markasz; György Stuber; Emilie Flaberg; Åsa Gustafsson Jernberg; Staffan Eksborg; Eva Olah; Henriette Skribek; Laszlo Szekely
The JAK2 V617F mutation has been observed in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-MPNs), including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and idiopathic myelofibrosis. This mutation has also been observed in a small number of other myeloid malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. The JAK2 V617F allele has rarely been evaluated in lymphoproliferative disorders. In total, 28 JAK2 V617F-positive B-cell lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients have previously been reported and all presented with Ph-MPN concomitantly. However, following investigation of the JAK2 V617F mutation in 63 B-CLL patients at the Shanghai First People’s Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 2008 and December 2012 via allele-specific polymerase chain reaction, two B-CLL patients without a history of Ph-MPN were identified to carry the JAK2 V617F allele.
YANG, YI-NING; QIN, YOU-WEN; WANG, CHUN
The immunopathogenesis of 25 kindreds affecting 100 males with the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is being studied comprehensively by our registry and laboratory group. XLP is a combined variable immune deficiency with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induced phenotypes of: (1) fatal infectious mononucleosis (IM), (2) chronic IM progressive to malignant lymphoma, (3) acute IM progressive to acquired agammaglobulinemia or (4) malignant lymphoma. Cytogenetic studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 15 surviving males and 21 carrier females reveal random karyotype errors in several kindreds. Often polyclonal Ig or selective IgM increases and lymphocytosis with plasmacytoid forms typifies the IM phenotypes. Weakly reactive EBV-specific antibodies are found and anti-EB nuclear antigen is lacking. Antibodies to EBV are paradoxically elevated in female carriers. Initially all lymphoid tissues show immunoblastic proliferation with plasma cell differentiation and focal to extensive necrosis. Thymus gland and other lymphoid organs become depleted in T cell regions and Hassall's corpuscles may become destroyed. Multinucleated giant cells may be seen destroying the corpuscles or calcified corpuscles are found. The lymphoid infiltrates and lesions resemble graft-versus-host response in the fatal IM phenotype. Extensive necrosis in lymph nodes and deficient Ig secretion of B-cells characterize acquired agammaglobulinemia phenotypes. The malignant lymphomas span the spectrum of B cell differentiation with most being immunoblastic sarcomas. One case probably was monoclonal thus far, others are being studied. EBV DNA hybridization of tissues from 7 patients with fatal IM revealed 1 to 20 EBV genome equivalents per cell. The patients lacked appropriate EBV antibody responses. Our studies of XLP support the hypothesis that immune deficiency the EBV permits chronic and fatal lymphoproliferative diseases in XLP following EBV infections. Owing to this knowledge, rational bases for prevention by genetic counseling and by providing high titer gammaglobulin and antiviral therapy is being attempted. PMID:6274747
Purtilo, D T
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). We have characterized the role of KSHV-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) K13 in the modulation of anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells. We demonstrate that K13 protects WEHI 231, an immature B-cell line, against anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis. The protective effect of K13 was associated with the activation of the NF-?B pathway and was deficient in a mutant K13 with three alanine substitutions at positions 58 to 60 (K13-58AAA) and a structural homolog, vFLIP E8, both of which lack NF-?B activity. K13 upregulated the expression of NF-?B subunit RelB and blocked the anti-IgM-induced decline in c-Myc and rise in p27Kip1 that have been associated with growth arrest and apoptosis. K13 also upregulated the expression of Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl2 family. Finally, K13 protected the mature B-cell line Ramos against anti-IgM-induced apoptosis through NF-?B activation. Inhibition of anti-IgM-induced apoptosis by K13 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.
Graham, Ciaren; Matta, Hittu; Yang, Yanqiang; Yi, Han; Suo, Yulan; Tolani, Bhairavi
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). We have characterized the role of KSHV-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) K13 in the modulation of anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells. We demonstrate that K13 protects WEHI 231, an immature B-cell line, against anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis. The protective effect of K13 was associated with the activation of the NF-?B pathway and was deficient in a mutant K13 with three alanine substitutions at positions 58 to 60 (K13-58AAA) and a structural homolog, vFLIP E8, both of which lack NF-?B activity. K13 upregulated the expression of NF-?B subunit RelB and blocked the anti-IgM-induced decline in c-Myc and rise in p27(Kip1) that have been associated with growth arrest and apoptosis. K13 also upregulated the expression of Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl2 family. Finally, K13 protected the mature B-cell line Ramos against anti-IgM-induced apoptosis through NF-?B activation. Inhibition of anti-IgM-induced apoptosis by K13 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:23236068
Graham, Ciaren; Matta, Hittu; Yang, Yanqiang; Yi, Han; Suo, Yulan; Tolani, Bhairavi; Chaudhary, Preet M
B cell lymphoma survival requires tonic or ligand-independent signals through activation of Syk by the B cell receptor. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) protein latent membrane 2a (LMP2a), a mimic of the B cell receptor, provides constitutive survival signals for latently infected cells through Syk activation; however, the precise downstream mechanisms coordinating this survival response in EBV+ B cell lymphomas remain to be elucidated. Herein, we assess the mechanism of Syk survival signaling in EBV+ B cell lymphomas from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) to discover virally controlled therapeutic targets involved in lymphomagenesis and tumor progression. Using small molecule inhibition and siRNA strategies, we show that Syk inhibition reduces proliferation and induces apoptosis of PTLD-derived EBV+ B cell lines. Syk inhibition also reduces autocrine IL-10 production. Although Syk inhibition attenuates signaling through both the PI3K/Akt and Erk pathways, only PI3K/Akt inhibition causes apoptosis of PTLD-derived cell lines. Loss of the endogenous caspase inhibitor XIAP is observed after Syk or PI3K/Akt inhibition. The loss of XIAP and apoptosis that results from Syk or PI3K/Akt inhibition is reversed by inhibition of the mitochondrial protease HtrA2. Thus, Syk drives EBV+ B cell lymphoma survival through PI3K/Akt activation, which prevents the HtrA2-dependent loss of XIAP. Syk, Akt, and XIAP antagonists may present potential new therapeutic strategies for PTLD through targeting of EBV-driven survival signals. PMID:21908615
Hatton, Olivia; Phillips, Lori K; Vaysberg, Maria; Hurwich, Jordan; Krams, Sheri M; Martinez, Olivia M
We describe 2 cases of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is a rare disorder of auto-immunity, chronic persistent or recurrent lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and hyper gamma globulinemia (1gG, 1gA). Both cases presented in neonatal period which is a rare age of presentation in this disease. A 20 days old female neonate presented with respiratory symptoms which rapidly progressed needing ventilatory support. There was hepatomegaly and no auscultatory findings in the chest. Serial CBCs (complete blood counts) showed persistent leucocytosis with predominant lymphocytosis. Her chest X-ray showed left sided consolidation which responded poorly to antibiotics. Her prompt clinical response to steroids raised the suspicion of autoimmunity and the diagnosis was established after a negative bone marrow examination for leukemia and a positive result for ALPS on flow cytometry. The second case presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia starting in neonatal period followed by persistent lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent infections which responded poorly to antibiotics. Diagnosis was delayed due to low index of suspicion, and finally achieved with multiple radiological studies, histopathology and flow cytometry. PMID:24906264
Naveed, Muhammad; Khamis Butt, Umar Bin; Mannan, Jovaria
Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. PMID:23806511
Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox
Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP?/? CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP?/? animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP?/? mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP?/? mice and in Rag?/? mice into which B cells derived from SAP?/? mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP?/? mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP?/? mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP?/? mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients.
Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M.; Terhorst, Cox
The homeostasis of the immune response requires tight regulation of the proliferation and apoptosis of activated lymphocytes. In humans, defects in immune homeostasis result in lymphoproliferation disorders including autoimmunity, haemophagocytic lymphohystiocytosis and lymphomas. The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a rare, inherited immunodeficiency that is characterized by lymphohystiocytosis, hypogammaglobulinaemia and lymphomas, and that usually develops in response to infection with
Stéphanie Rigaud; Marie-Claude Fondanèche; Nathalie Lambert; Benoit Pasquier; Véronique Mateo; Pauline Soulas; Lionel Galicier; Françoise Le Deist; Frédéric Rieux-Laucat; Patrick Revy; Alain Fischer; Geneviève de Saint Basile; Sylvain Latour
B-cell-activating factor of the tumour-necrosis-factor family (BAFF) enhances B-cell survival — a function that is indispensable for B-cell maturation — and has a role in enhancing immune responses. Moreover, the overexpression of BAFF results in severe autoimmune disorders in mice, and elevated serum levels of BAFF occur in some patients who have autoimmune diseases. The elucidation of the role of
Jeffrey L. Browning; Fabienne Mackay
Initially suggested by the presence of rheumatoid factor autoantibodies, multiple pathogenic roles for B cells (both antibody-mediated and antibody-independent) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) now are supported by a growing body of experimental observations and human studies. The pathogenic significance of B cells in this disease also has been established conclusively by the proven benefit of Rituximab-induced B cell depletion in RA patients refractory to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockade. This article reviews the rationale for the use of B cell-targeting therapies in RA and discusses the caveats and limitations of indiscriminate B cell depletion as currently applied, ncluding incomplete depletion of pathogenic B cells and elimination of protective B cells. Finally, it presents alternative therapeutic strategies that exploit current knowledge of B cell activation, survival, and differentiation to provide more selective B cell and plasma cell targeting. PMID:20510237
Calero, Ismael; Nieto, Jose Antonio; Sanz, Iñaki
Prolymphocytic leukemia (LPL) is a well defined entity with a relatively low incidence in our country. This disease usually is seen in patients over 50 years of age, and there is a very definite male preponderance. This lymphoproliferative disorder is characterized by very high white cells counts, massive splenomegaly, poor response to therapy and short term survival. The neoplastic cell in prolymphocytic leukemia usually is of B-cell origin (80% of cases). In our patient, affected by B-lineage prolymphocytic leukemia, a acute hepatic failure occurred, leading him to death in a short time. Autoptic findings evidenced a massive leukemic infiltration of the liver with parenchymal necrosis that caused fatal hepatic failure. Autoptic findings did not show histological patterns of acute viral infections or of any other infectious or systemic disease which could have induced a so massive liver injury. In literature there are no evidences of such a massive and lethal involvement of the liver during prolymphocytic leukemia or chronic lymphocytic leukemia and patients affected by LPL generally come to death because of other causes. PMID:8184202
Steidl, L; Rossi, A; Cornaggia, M; Crippa, G; Venco, A
B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated antigen recognition is thought to regulate B cell differentiation. BCR signal strength may also influence B cell fate decisions. Here, we used the Epstein-Barr virus protein LMP2A as a constitutively active BCR surrogate to study the contribution of BCR signal strength in B cell differentiation. Mice carrying a targeted replacement of Igh by LMP2A leading to
Kevin L Otipoby; Marat Alimzhanov; Sibille Humme; Nathalie Uyttersprot; Jeffery L Kutok; Michael C Carroll; Stefano Casola; Klaus Rajewsky
SAP (also named SH2D1A) is an intracellular adaptor molecule expressed in T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and some B cells. The SAP gene is mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease, a human immunodeficiency characterized by a faulty immune response to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Previous reports documented severe defects in antibody production and germinal center (GC) formation in SAP-deficient humans
André Veillette; Shaohua Zhang; Xiaochu Shi; Zhongjun Dong; Dominique Davidson; Ming-Chao Zhong
The B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway plays an essential role in the survival, proliferation, differentiation and trafficking of lymphocytic. Recent findings associate aberrant BCR signaling with specific disease pathologies, including B-cell malignancies and autoimmune disorders. Inhibition of the BCR signaling pathway may therefore provide promising new strategies for the treatment of B-cell diseases. This special issue of International Reviews of Immunology focuses on atypical B-cell receptor signaling, its role in immune diseases and cancer, and its implications for potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:23848467
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects most of the human population and is strongly associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. EBV encodes several latency proteins affecting B cell proliferation and survival, including latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and the EBV oncoprotein LMP1. LMP1 and LMP2A signaling mimics CD40 and BCR signaling, respectively, and has been proposed to alter B cell functions including the ability of latently-infected B cells to access and transit the germinal center. In addition, several studies suggested a role for LMP2A modulation of LMP1 signaling in cell lines by alteration of TRAFs, signaling molecules used by LMP1. In this study, we investigated whether LMP1 and LMP2A co-expression in a transgenic mouse model alters B cell maturation and the response to antigen, and whether LMP2A modulates LMP1 function. Naïve LMP1/2A mice had similar lymphocyte populations and antibody production by flow cytometry and ELISA compared to controls. In the response to antigen, LMP2A expression in LMP1/2A animals rescued the impairment in germinal center generation promoted by LMP1. LMP1/2A animals produced high-affinity, class-switched antibody and plasma cells at levels similar to controls. In vitro, LMP1 upregulated activation markers and promoted B cell hyperproliferation, and co-expression of LMP2A restored a wild-type phenotype. By RT-PCR and immunoblot, LMP1 B cells demonstrated TRAF2 levels four-fold higher than non-transgenic controls, and co-expression of LMP2A restored TRAF2 levels to wild-type levels. No difference in TRAF3 levels was detected. While modulation of other TRAF family members remains to be assessed, normalization of the LMP1-induced B cell phenotype through LMP2A modulation of TRAF2 may be a pathway by which LMP2A controls B cell function. These findings identify an advance in the understanding of how Epstein-Barr virus can access the germinal center in vivo, a site critical for both the genesis of immunological memory and of virus-associated tumors.
Vrazo, Alexandra C.; Chauchard, Maria; Raab-Traub, Nancy; Longnecker, Richard
149 patients with non Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) were observed at the III. Medical Department of the Hanusch Hospital during 1972--1978. 15 out of 106 patients with low malignant NHL had autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA). None of the patients with high malignant NHL showed evidence of hemolysis. In 10 cases AHA was diagnosed together with the lymphoproliferative disease. In 4 cases diagnosis of AHA and NHL was established at the same time and in only 1 patient diagnosis of AHA preceded the lymphatic disease. All patients had distinct signs of hemolysis with moderate to severe anemia. 4 patients with immunocytic lymphomas had IgM paraproteins and an elevation of gamma-globulins, all other patients had mild to severe hypogammaglobulinemia. Therapy in all cases consisted of corticosteroids and cytostatics (Chlorambucil, Cyclophosphamide). In none of our cases splenectomy was performed. AHA seems to be a bad prognostic factor in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Survival time in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and AHA was 18 months shorter than in all other patients suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:555212
Banihashemi, A; Heinz, R
Vitamin D seems to be implicated in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders as a natural immune modulator. Beneficial effects of vitamin D have been associated with different cells of the immune system; however, thus far, B cells seem to be somewhat neglected. In this paper, we describe the possible direct effects of vitamin D on B cells, with a focus on antibody production and the more recently identified regulatory B (Breg ) cells. B cells upregulate the vitamin D receptor (VDR) upon activation. Furthermore, due to regulated expression of the metabolizing enzymes CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, B cells have the potential to control the local availability of active vitamin D. B cells, therefore, may participate in vitamin D-mediated immune homeostasis, including plasma cell generation. Whether or not other B cell subsets, such as Breg cells, are equally responsive to vitamin D remains to be established. PMID:24761763
Rolf, Linda; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Hupperts, Raymond; Damoiseaux, Jan
B linage cells are versatile players in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO). New potential targets of autoantibodies have been described recently. Pathogenic mechanisms extend further to antigen presentation and cytokine production, which are increasingly recognized as therapeutic targets. In addition to pro-inflammatory effects of B cells, they may act also as anti-inflammatory via production of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-35, and other mechanisms. Definition of regulatory B cell subsets is an ongoing issue. Recent studies have provided evidence for a loss of B cell self-tolerance in MS. An immunogenetic approach demonstrated exchange of B cell clones between CSF and blood. The central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients fosters B cell survival, at least partly via BAFF and APRIL. The unexpected increase of relapses in a trial with a soluble BAFF/APRIL receptor (atacicept) suggests that this system is involved in MS, but with features that are not yet understood. In this review, we further discuss evidence for B cell and Ig contribution to human MS and NMO pathogenesis, pro-inflammatory and regulatory B cell effector functions, impaired B cell immune tolerance, the B cell-fostering microenvironment in the CNS, and B cell-targeted therapeutic interventions for MS and NMO, including CD20 depletion (rituximab, ocrelizumab, and ofatumumab), anti-IL6-R (tocilizumab), complement-blocking (eculizumab), inhibitors of AQP4-Ig binding (aquaporumab, small molecular compounds), and BAFF/BAFF-R-targeting agents. PMID:24832354
Krumbholz, Markus; Meinl, Edgar
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a successful treatment for hematologic malignancies and a variety of genetic and metabolic disorders. In the period following stem cell transplantation, the immune-compromised milieu allows opportunistic pathogens to thrive. Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease can be a life-threatening complication for transplanted patients because of suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. We analyzed possible risk factors associated with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in a cohort of over 1,000 patients. The incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 4%. Significant risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were: human leukocyte antigen-mismatch (P<0.001), serological Epstein-Barr virus mismatch recipient?/donor+ (P<0.001), use of reduced intensity conditioning (P=0.002), acute graft-versus-host disease grade II to IV (P=0.006), pre-transplant splenectomy (P=0.008) and infusion of mesenchymal stromal cells (P=0.015). The risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease has increased in more recent years, from less than 2% before 1998 to more than 6% after 2011. Additionally, we show that long-term survival of patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease is poor despite initial successful treatment. The 3-year survival rate among the 40 patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease was 20% as opposed to 62% among patients without post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (P<0.001). The study identifies patients at risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after transplantation in need of pre-emptive measures.
Uhlin, Michael; Wikell, Helena; Sundin, Mikael; Blennow, Ola; Maeurer, Markus; Ringden, Olle; Winiarski, Jacek; Ljungman, Per; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency, involving primarily T and natural killer (NK) cells, which in the majority of cases exacerbates following exposure to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Prior to EBV infection, most boys with the defective XLP gene appear to be clinically healthy EBV infection in males with the defective XLP gene leads to three main phenotypes: severe and mostly fatal infectious mononucleosis (58%), lymphoproliferative disorders mostly of B-cell origin (30%) and/or dysgammaglobulinemia (31%). Later in life, dysgammaglobulinemia and malignant lymphoma may also develop in about 53% and 56% of EBV-negative XLP males, respectively This fact suggests that EBV may only act as a potent trigger of the earliest and most serious clinical phenotype of XLP, i.e. fatal infectious mononucleosis. XLP has an unfavorable prognosis. Successful transplanta tion of hematopoietic stem cells can cure this immunodeficiency In the future, gene therapy may eventually become an additional option to prevent XLP. The gene responsible for XLP, SH2-domain containing gene 1A (SH2D1A) has recently been identified and sequenced. SH2D1A encodes a polypeptide of 128 amino acids containing a single SH2 domain. Until now, 45 different SH2D1A gene mutations have been identified in patients with XLP SH2D1A is thought to play an important role in signal transduction in T and NK cells. In vitro, SH2D1A has been shown to interact as an adaptor protein with the signaling pathways through SLAM, a T-cell co-stimulatory molecule, and 2B4, an NK-cell-activating receptor. Further functional studies of the SH2D1A protein will probably provide new insights into the pathogenesis of severe infectious mononucleosis, malignant lymphomas and immunodeficiency in patients with XLP. PMID:11213803
Schuster, V; Kreth, H W
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a rare, often fatal, primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by an abnormal response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The gene responsible for XLP has been identified as SH2D1A/DSHP/SLAM-associated protein (SAP). The major clinical manifestations include fulminant infectious mononucleosis, lymphoproliferative disorder, and dysgammaglobulinemia. Affected males uncommonly present with lymphocytic vasculitis in addition to aplastic anemia. In this study, we describe a Japanese XLP patient who presented with hypogammaglobulinemia following acute EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis in the infancy and later had systemic lymphocytic vasculitis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the adulthood, which resolved by steroid pulse therapy. The patient's SAP gene was found to harbor a missense mutation (His8Asp), presumably resulting in defective expression of SAP in T cells. Biopsy specimens of lung and skin disclosed that CD8+ T cells predominantly infiltrated vascular vessels. However, immunohistochemical examination showed that EBV-infected cells were not identifiable in the vessels. We propose that T-cell-mediated immune dysregulation in XLP can cause vasculitis by EBV infection-unrelated mechanism. PMID:15682426
Kanegane, Hirokazu; Ito, Yoshikiyo; Ohshima, Koichi; Shichijo, Takeshi; Tomimasu, Kunio; Nomura, Keiko; Futatani, Takeshi; Sumazaki, Ryo; Miyawaki, Toshio
Research over the role of Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized.
Research over the role of Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371
Novero, Aileen; Ravella, Pavan M; Chen, Yamei; Dous, George; Liu, Delong
Summary of recent advances While evidence of dysregulation of the B-cell compartment was first demonstrated with the identification of autoantibodies, other functional roles of B lymphocytes in autoimmune pathogenesis have generally been underappreciated or completely overlooked. With the recent approval of the first B-cell targeting agent in rheumatoid arthritis, new strategies are being developed to target B cells through a range of membrane-associated lineage-specific molecules, and also by interfering with B-cell specific pro-survival signals. B-cell directed agents are therefore providing an effective new mechanistic approach to treatment, and also enabling new perspectives from the dissection of the contributions of B cells in physiologic and pathologic immune responses.
Silverman, Gregg J.; Khanna, Sahil
Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, combined with the facilitated generation and analysis of transgenic and gene-knockout animals, have revealed new complexities in classical biological systems, including the B-cell compartment. Studies on an 'old', but poorly characterized, B-cell subset — the naive, marginal-zone (MZ) B-cell subset — over the past two years have spawned an avalanche of data that encompass
Flavius Martin; John F. Kearney
As a main actor in humoral immunity, B cells participate in various antibody-related disorders. However, a deeper understanding of B-cell differentiation and function is needed in order to decipher their immune-modulatory roles, notably with the recent highlighting of regulatory B cells. microRNAs (miRNAs), key factors in various biological and pathological processes, have been shown to be essential for B-cell homeostasis, and therefore understanding their participation in B-cell biology could help identify biomarkers and contribute toward curing B-cell-related immune disorders. This review aims to report studies casting light on the roles played by miRNAs in B-cell lineage and function and B-cell-related immune pathologies.
Danger, Richard; Braza, Faouzi; Giral, Magali; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Brouard, Sophie
X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP; Duncan's disease) is a rare disorder affecting boys and characterised by a defective immune response to Epstein-Barr virus caused by a mutation in a gene located at chromosome Xq25. Three siblings with XLP in a single UK family are reported and the variation in phenotypic expression of the disease in these siblings described. One of the siblings with life threatening fulminant infectious mononucleosis was successfully treated by chemotherapy, followed by bone marrow transplantation using an unaffected brother as the donor. A healthy baby boy recently born into the family was identified as carrying the defective maternal X chromosome using molecular genetic linkage analysis. This family illustrates the extent of present understanding of this often fatal condition. PMID:9771253
Arkwright, P D; Makin, G; Will, A M; Ayres, M; Gokhale, D A; Fergusson, W D; Taylor, G M
X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (XLP) was first described almost 30 years ago; remarkably, the three major manifestations of XLP, fulminant infectious mononucleosis (FIM), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia, are all described in the report of the initial kindred. Subsequent establishment of an XLP registry has led to recognition of more unusual phenotypes in affected males; concurrently, much progress has been made in caring for boys with XLP, including treatment for the three major phenotypes, and curative bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The immunologic and genetic mechanisms resulting in XLP have also been intensively studied. Several years ago, the gene defective in XLP was identified as SAP (SLAM-associated protein), and recent data suggest that SAP plays a broad role in immune signaling. Here, we review the clinical manifestations and therapy of XLP, and briefly summarize recent research into the structure and function of SAP. PMID:12165201
MacGinnitie, Andrew J; Geha, Raif
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare, often fatal genetic disorder characterized by extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a known presentation in XLP. In EBV-induced HLH in XLP, the brain imaging findings in the acute phase include a non specific pattern. In this report, we highlight the magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in a child with EBV induced HLH in XLP.
Sankararaman, Senthilkumar; Riel-Romero, Rosario Maria; Jeroudi, Majed; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo
Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCLs) are made up of a heterogenous group of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases confined to the skin at the time of diagnosis with no evidence of extracutaneous involvement. With early diagnosis and adequate treatment, PCBCLs as a group has excellent prognosis, with about a 95% survival rate at five years. We report a case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a 52-year-old woman presenting as a fungating skin ulcer mimicking advanced basal cell carcinoma. Review of available literature showed most studies of PCBCLs being done on Europeans with no universally acceptable system of classification. Clinical findings, diagnostic evaluations and treatment outcomes of PCBCLs are discussed with emphasis on comparison of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Neoplasms of the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue classification systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Mai, Le; Matin, Abu; Maini, Archana
Nearly 70% of newly produced B cells express autoreactive antigen receptors and must be silenced to prevent autoimmunity. Failure of silencing mechanisms is apparent in type 1 diabetes (T1D), where islet antigen-specific B cells appear critical for development of disease. Evidence for a B cell role in T1D includes success of B cell targeted anti-CD20 therapy, which delays T1D progression in both NOD mice and new onset patients. Demonstrating the importance of specificity, NOD mice whose B cell repertoire is biased toward insulin reactivity show increased disease development, while bias away from insulin reactivity largely prevents disease. Finally, though not required for illness, high affinity insulin autoantibodies are often the first harbingers of T1D. B cell cytokine production and auto-antigen presentation to self-reactive T cells are likely important in pathogenesis. Here we review B cell function, as described above, in T1D in humans and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. We will discuss recent broad-based B cell depletion studies and how they may provide the basis for refinement of future treatments for the disorder. PMID:24472603
Hinman, Rochelle M; Smith, Mia J; Cambier, John C
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of resting lymphocytes. The identification of p27(kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that contributes to cell cycle arrest and represents a link between extracellular signals and cell cycle, prompted us to study p27 protein in the lymphocytes from 88 patients with B-CLL and 32 patients with other chronic B-lymphoproliferative disorders. The expression of p27 protein was higher in B-CLL samples with variations among them. In B-CLL, p27 levels were independent of absolute number of circulating lymphocytes, but strongly correlated with both lymphocyte and total tumor mass (TTM) doubling time. High p27 expression was associated with a poorer overall prognosis. In vitro, there was an increased spontaneous survival of B-CLL cells expressing high p27 levels. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) upregulated p27 levels in B-CLL cells, while fludarabine decreased p27 levels. Thus, our results indicate that p27 may be a valuable kinetic marker in B-CLL by providing instantaneous estimation of the disease doubling time. In addition, these results suggest that there is a link between p27 expression and the ability of CLL cells to undergo apoptosis. PMID:9616167
Vrhovac, R; Delmer, A; Tang, R; Marie, J P; Zittoun, R; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, F
Purpose Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an immunomodulatory molecule expressed by antigen-presenting cells and select tumors that engage receptors on T cells to inhibit T-cell immunity. Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway have shown durable anti-tumor effects in a subset of patients with solid tumors. PD-L1 can be expressed by Reed-Sternberg cells comprising classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHLs) and by malignant B cells comprising EBV-positive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). We sought to determine whether the expression of PD-L1 represents a general strategy of immune evasion among aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus- and immunodeficiency-associated tumors. Experimental Design Using novel antibodies and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue biopsies, we examined 237 primary tumors for expression of PD-L1 protein. Results Robust PD-L1 protein expression was found in the majority of nodular sclerosis CHL, mixed cellularity CHL, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, T-cell/histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma, EBV-positive and -negative PTLD, and EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), plasmablastic lymphoma, extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and HHV8-associated primary effusion lymphoma. Within these tumors, PD-L1 was highly expressed by malignant cells and tumor-infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, neither the malignant nor the non-malignant cells comprising nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, DLBCL-not otherwise specified, Burkitt lymphoma, and HHV8-associated Kaposi sarcoma expressed detectable PD-L1. Conclusion Certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas and virus- and immunodeficiency-associated malignancies associated with an ineffective T-cell immune response express PD-L1 on tumor cells and infiltrating macrophages. These results identify a group of neoplasms that should be considered for PD-1/PD-L1-directed therapies, and validate a method to detect PD-L1 in FFPE tissue biopsies.
Chen, Benjamin J; Chapuy, Bjoern; Ouyang, Jing; Sun, Heather H; Roemer, Margaretha GM; Xu, Mina L; Yu, Hongbo; Fletcher, Christopher DM; Freeman, Gordon J.; Shipp, Margaret A; Rodig, Scott J
In immunodeficient hosts, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) often induces extensive B-cell lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoma. Without effective in vitro immune surveillance, B cells infected by the virus readily form immortalized cell lines. In the regression assay, memory T cells inhibit the formation of foci of EBV-transformed B cells that follows recent in vitro infection by EBV. No one has yet addressed which T cell regulates the early proliferative phase of B cells newly infected by EBV. Using new quantitative methods, we analyzed T-cell surveillance of EBV-mediated B-cell proliferation. We found that CD4+ T cells play a significant role in limiting proliferation of newly infected, activated CD23+ B cells. In the absence of T cells, EBV-infected CD23+ B cells divided rapidly during the first 3 weeks after infection. Removal of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells also abrogated immune control. Purified CD4+ T cells eliminated outgrowth when added to EBV-infected B cells. Thus, unlike the killing of EBV-infected lymphoblastoid cell lines, in which CD8+ cytolytic T cells play an essential role, prevention of early-phase EBV-induced B-cell proliferation requires CD4+ effector T cells.
Nikiforow, Sarah; Bottomly, Kim; Miller, George
Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease.
Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a B-cell-tropic virus associated with KS and B-cell lymphomas, encodes 12 miRNA genes that are highly expressed in these tumor cells. One viral miRNA, miR-K12-11, shares 100% seed sequence homology with hsa-miR-155, an oncogenic human miRNA that functions as a key regulator of hematopoiesis and B-cell differentiation. So far, in vitro studies have shown that both miRNAs can regulate a common set of cellular target genes, suggesting that miR-K12-11 may mimic miR-155 function. To comparatively study miR-K12-11 and miR-155 function in vivo, we used a foamy virus vector to express the miRNAs in human hematopoietic progenitors and performed immune reconstitutions in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R?null mice. We found that ectopic expression of miR-K12-11 or miR-155 leads to a significant expansion of the CD19+ B-cell population in the spleen. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of these splenic B cells revealed that C/EBP?, a transcriptional regulator of interleukin-6 that is linked to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, is downregulated when either miR-K12-11 or miR-155 is ectopically expressed. In addition, inhibition of miR-K12-11 function using antagomirs in KSHV-infected human primary effusion lymphoma B cells resulted in derepression of C/EBP? transcript levels. This in vivo study validates miR-K12-11 as a functional ortholog of miR-155 in the context of hematopoiesis and suggests a novel mechanism by which KSHV miR-K12-11 induces splenic B-cell expansion and potentially KSHV-associated lymphomagenesis by targeting C/EBP?.
Boss, Isaac W.; Nadeau, Peter E.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Yang, Yajie; Mergia, Ayalew; Renne, Rolf
ObjectiveLymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa were analyzed to examine (1) the suitability of the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification for the subtyping of the lymphomas in these sites; (2) the predictive value of the REAL classification for the evolution of these tumors; and (3) the frequency and prognostic impact of tumor type, location, proliferation rate (Ki-67 index), p53, and
Sarah E Coupland; Lothar Krause; Henri-Jacques Delecluse; Ioannis Anagnostopoulos; Hans-Dieter Foss; Michael Hummel; Norbert Bornfeld; William R Lee; Harald Stein
B-cell stimulatory factor 1 (BSF-1) is a T-cell-derived lymphokine that acts together with low concentrations of anti-IgM antibodies to stimulate resting B cells to enter the G1 phase of the cell cycle and to synthesize DNA. We show here that supernatants from EL-4 cells, rich in BSF-1 activity, and BSF-1 purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC-BSF-1) act on resting B cells, in the absence of anti-IgM antibodies, to prepare them to respond to anti-IgM and BSF-1. A 24-hour preculture with BSF-1 speeds the entry into S phase of B cells subsequently cultured with anti-IgM and BSF-1 by approximately equal to 12 hours and causes substantial increase in cell volume of all resting B cells. Both of these effects, stimulated either by EL-4 supernatants or by HPLC-BSF-1, are inhibited by a monoclonal anti-BSF-1 antibody. These results lead us to propose that BSF-1 should be regarded as a B-cell activation factor.
Rabin, E M; Ohara, J; Paul, W E
SAP, the gene that is altered or absent in the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), encodes a small protein that comprises a single SH2 domain and binds to the cell-surface protein SLAM which is present on activated or memory T and B cells. Because defective NK cell activity also has been reported in XLP patients, we studied the SAP gene in
Joan Sayos; Khuong B. Nguyen; Chengbin Wu; Susan E. Stepp; Duncan Howie; John D. Schatzle; Vinay Kumar; Christine A. Biron; Cox Terhorst
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is characterized by a marked vulnerability in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Infection of XLP patients with EBV invariably results in fatal mononucleosis, agammaglobulinemia or B-cell lymphoma. The XLP gene lies within a 10 cM region in Xq25 between DXS42 and DXS10. Initial chromosome studies revealed an interstitial, cytogenetically visible deletion in Xq25 in one XLP family
A. Lanyi; B. F. Li; S. Li
Severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice develop EBV (+)B cell tumors after infusion of EBV(+)B cells or of B cells and EBV. In this study, scid mice were infused with B cell lines derived from three patients who developed a B lymphocyte proliferative disorder after bone marrow or organ transplantation. Intraperitoneal injection of 5 x 10(6) B cells induced tumor growth in all mice, leading to death within 60 d. Human B cells were identified in spleen and bone marrow by means of immunofluorescence or EBV genome amplification, and human IgM was detected in serum. Infusion of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for human B cell membrane antigens CD21, CD24, and CD23 was effective in 80% of animals, against two of the three cell lines preventing tumor development or inducing remission according to the time of treatment. The effect was antibody dose dependent and was optimal with four intravenous infusions of at least 0.1 mg 4 d apart. Human IgM in serum and human B cells in spleen and bone marrow became undetectable when peritoneal tumors regressed completely. Infusions of IgG1 isotype-matched anti-CD4 antibody or anti-CD3 antibody had no effect. Tumors developed or recurred in 50% of these animals injected with one of the B cell line 3 mo after treatment was stopped. The same anti-CD21 and anti-CD24 antibodies had been used to treat the three patients, and shown similar degrees of effectiveness as in the scid mouse model. These results indicate that scid mice may be suitable for assessing therapeutic approaches to human B cell proliferation. Images
Durandy, A; Brousse, N; Rozenberg, F; De Saint Basile, G; Fischer, A M; Fischer, A
Our understanding of the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) has advanced significantly in the last two years. The gene that is altered in the condition (SAP/SH2D1A) has been cloned and its protein crystal structure solved. At least two sets of target molecules for this small SH2 domain-containing protein have been identified: A family of hematopoietic cell surface receptors, i.e. the SLAM family, and a second molecule, which is a phosphorylated adapter. A SAP-like protein, EAT-2, has also been found to interact with this family of surface receptors. Several lines of evidence, including structural studies and analyses of missense mutations in XLP patients, support the notion that SAP/SH2D1A is a natural inhibitor of SH2-domain-dependent interactions with members of the SLAM family. However, details of its role in signaling mechanisms are yet to be unravelled. Further analyses of the SAP/SH2D1A gene in XLP patients have made it clear that the development of dys-gammaglobulinemia and B cell lymphoma can occur without evidence of prior EBV infection. Moreover, preliminary results of virus infections of a mouse in which the SAP/SH2D1A gene has been disrupted suggest that EBV infection is not per se critical for the development of XLP phenotypes. It appears therefore that the SAP/SH2D1A gene controls signaling via the SLAM family of surface receptors and thus may play a fundamental role in T cell and APC interactions during viral infections. PMID:11244050
Morra, M; Howie, D; Grande, M S; Sayos, J; Wang, N; Wu, C; Engel, P; Terhorst, C
Numerous studies in several species have shown that certain subsets of T and B lymphocytes express antigen receptors which are either semi-invariant, or germline encoded, and often autoreactive. In the case of B cells they appear to use a distinct immune recognition strategy during developmental selection and functional activation. These B cells respond to foreign antigens, and have the ability to protect against a variety of infections; however, they can also react with self or neoself antigens. They appear to use the latter as positively selecting ligands facilitating their entry into and maintenance in a functional repertoire, as well as providing cues for positioning themselves in strategic microenvironmental niches in the immune system and at interfaces with the environment. These innate-like B cell subsets form a bridge between the rapidly occurring innate immune responses, and the slower acting primary, T cell-dependent, adaptive antibody response by providing a rapid T cell-independent antibody response. PMID:15645296
Kearney, John F
B-cell depletion can improve disease in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis, indicating the pathogenic contribution of B cells to autoimmunity. However, studies in mice have demonstrated that B cells have immunosuppressive functions as well, with IL-10 being a critical mediator of B-cell-mediated suppression. IL-10-secreting B cells have been shown to promote disease remission in some mouse models of autoimmune disorders. Human B cells also produce IL-10, and evidence is accumulating that human IL-10-producing B cells might inhibit immunity. There is considerable interest in identifying the phenotype of B cells providing IL-10 in a suppressive manner, which would facilitate the analysis of the molecular mechanisms controlling this B-cell property. Here, we review current knowledge on the B-cell subpopulations found to provide suppressive functions in mice, considering both the pathological context in which they were identified and the signals that control their induction. We discuss the phenotype of B cells that have IL-10-dependent regulatory activities in mice, which leads us to propose that antibody-secreting cells are, in some cases at least, the major source of B-cell-derived regulatory IL-10 in vivo. Anti-inflammatory cytokine production by antibody-secreting cells offers a novel mechanism for the coordination of innate and humoral immune responses. PMID:24615065
Ries, Stefanie; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Lampropoulou, Vicky; Shen, Ping; Dang, Van Duc; Wilantri, Siska; Sakwa, Imme; Fillatreau, Simon
B cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and type I diabetes mellitus, as indicated by the efficacy of B cell-targeted therapies in these diseases. Therapeutic effects of the most commonly used B cell-targeted therapy, anti-CD20 mAb, are contingent upon long-term depletion of peripheral B cells. In this article, we describe an alternative approach involving the targeting of CD79, the transducer subunit of the B cell AgR. Unlike anti-CD20 mAbs, the protective effects of CD79-targeted mAbs do not require cell depletion; rather, they act by inducing an anergic-like state. Thus, we describe a novel B cell-targeted approach predicated on the induction of B cell anergy. PMID:24442438
Hardy, Ian R; Anceriz, Nadia; Rousseau, François; Seefeldt, Matt B; Hatterer, Eric; Irla, Magali; Buatois, Vanessa; Chatel, Laurence E; Getahun, Andrew; Fletcher, Ashley; Cons, Laura; Pontini, Guillemette; Hertzberg, Nicole A; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Malinge, Pauline; Smith, Mia J; Reith, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie H; Ferlin, Walter G; Cambier, John C
B cells are critical to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is substantial evidence of the efficacy of depletion\\u000a of B cells in many patients with RA using the first licensed agent, rituximab. Recent research has focused on enhancing efficacy\\u000a using other targets to inhibit B cell function, including other B cell-depleting antibodies and cytokines critical to B cell
Edward M. Vital; Shouvik Dass; Paul Emery
Increasing awareness of the importance of aberrant B cell regulation in autoimmunity has driven the clinical development of\\u000a novel B cell-directed biologic therapies with the potential to treat a range of autoimmune disorders. The first of these drugs—rituximab,\\u000a a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the B cell-specific surface marker CD20—was recently approved for treating rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis in patients with an inadequate
D. G. Arkfeld
B-cell-targeted therapy for autoimmune disease emerged from theoretical proposition to practical reality between 1997 and 1998, with the availability of the B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody rituximab. Since then, a score of autoantibody-associated disorders have been treated, with most convincing evidence of efficacy seen in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. Several classes of B-cell-targeted agent are now under investigation. From the outset, a
Geraldine Cambridge; Jonathan C. W. Edwards
BackgroundB cell depletion immunotherapy has been successfully employed to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In recent years, increasing attention has been directed towards also using B-cell depletion therapy as a treatment option in autoimmune disorders. However, it appears that the further development of these approaches will depend on a methodology to determine the relation of B-cell depletion to clinical response and how
Daniel L. J. Thorek; Patricia Y. Tsao; Vaishali Arora; Lanlan Zhou; Robert A. Eisenberg; Andrew Tsourkas; Derya Unutmaz
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by specific pathological features. A hallmark of pSS is B-cell hyperactivity as manifested by the production of autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, formation of ectopic lymphoid structures within the inflamed tissues, and enhanced risk of B-cell lymphoma. Changes in the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets and differences in post-recombination processes of immunoglobulin variable region
Arne Hansen; Peter E Lipsky; Thomas Dörner
Cold agglutinin disease (CAD) is a well-recognized complication of lymphoproliferative disorders. It has been previously recognized that cases of primary CAD frequently exhibit underlying malignant lymphoma in the bone marrow. Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma is the most common subtype of malignant lymphoma; however, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has also been documented, albeit extremely rare. The current report presents a case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. A 76-year-old male presented with fever and fatigue. Laboratory tests revealed anemia and elevated bilirubin and cold agglutinins with a titer of 8,192 at 4°C. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated DLBCL and systemic surveillance failed to detect tumorous lesions or lymphadenopathy. Following R-THP-COP therapy, cold agglutinins titer was markedly decreased (by <4); however, malignant lymphoma relapsed and cold agglutinin levels increased again (4,096). This is the second documented case of primary bone marrow DLBCL accompanying CAD. Previously, malignant lymphoma exclusively involving the bone marrow, namely primary bone marrow lymphoma (PBML), has been recognized as a rare and aggressive subtype. The analyses of the present study revealed that the incidence of hemolytic anemia in primary bone marrow DLBCL may be high compared with conventional DLBCL. Therefore, additional analyses are required to clarify the clinicopathological features of PBML.
YAMASHITA, TOMOKO; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; MORO, HIROKO; YUMOTO, HIROFUMI; UCHIBAYASHI, SACHIKO; YOSHII, MIYUKI; NAKANISHI, RYOTA; OKUNO, HIROKO; YOSHIDA, TAKASHI; OKUNO, TAKAFUMI; HODOHARA, KEIKO; OKABE, HIDETOSHI
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an often-fatal immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, fulminant infectious mononucleosis, and/or lymphoma. The genetic lesion in XLP, SH2D1A, encodes the adaptor protein SAP (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule–associated [SLAM-associated] protein); however, the mechanism(s) by which mutations in SH2D1A causes hypogammaglobulinemia is unknown. Our analysis of 14 XLP patients revealed normal B cell development but a marked reduction in the number of memory B cells. The few memory cells detected were IgM+, revealing deficient isotype switching in vivo. However, XLP B cells underwent proliferation and differentiation in vitro as efficiently as control B cells, which indicates that the block in differentiation in vivo is B cell extrinsic. This possibility is supported by the finding that XLP CD4+ T cells did not efficiently differentiate into IL-10+ effector cells or provide optimal B cell help in vitro. Importantly, the B cell help provided by SAP-deficient CD4+ T cells was improved by provision of exogenous IL-10 or ectopic expression of SAP, which resulted in increased IL-10 production by T cells. XLP CD4+ T cells also failed to efficiently upregulate expression of inducible costimulator (ICOS), a potent inducer of IL-10 production by CD4+ T cells. Thus, insufficient IL-10 production may contribute to hypogammaglobulinemia in XLP. This finding suggests new strategies for treating this immunodeficiency.
Ma, Cindy S.; Hare, Nathan J.; Nichols, Kim E.; Dupre, Loic; Andolfi, Grazia; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia; Adelstein, Stephen; Hodgkin, Philip D.; Tangye, Stuart G.
Systemic vasculitis is an uncommon manifestation of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a disorder in which there is a selective immune deficiency to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The molecular basis for XLP has recently been ascribed to mutations within SLAM-associated protein (SAP), an SH2 domain-containing protein expressed primarily in T cells. The authors describe a patient who died as a result of chronic systemic vasculitis and fulfilled clinical criteria for the diagnosis of XLP. Sequencing of this patient's SAP gene uncovered a novel point mutation affecting the SH2 domain. The patient presented with virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (VAHS) and later had chorioretinitis, bronchiectasis, and hypogammaglobulinemia develop. He further developed mononeuritis and fatal respiratory failure. Evidence of widespread small and medium vessel vasculitis was noted at autopsy with involvement of retinal, cerebral, and coronary arteries as well as the segmental vessels of the kidneys, testes, and pancreas. Immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies to CD20, CD45RO, and CD8 revealed that the vessel wall infiltrates consisted primarily of CD8(+) T cells, implying a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response to antigen. EBV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in arterial wall tissue microdissected from infiltrated vessels further suggesting that the CD8(+) T cells were targeting EBV antigens within the endothelium. The authors propose that functional inactivation of the SAP protein can impair the immunologic response to EBV, resulting in systemic vasculitis. PMID:11133747
Dutz, J P; Benoit, L; Wang, X; Demetrick, D J; Junker, A; de Sa, D; Tan, R
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1), described in the mid-1970s and molecularly defined in 1998, and XLP2, reported in 2006, are prematurely lethal genetic immunodeficiencies that share susceptibility to overwhelming inflammatory responses to certain infectious triggers. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP; encoded by SH2D1A) is mutated in XLP1, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP; encoded by BIRC4) is mutated in XLP2. XLP1 is a disease with multiple and variable clinical consequences, including fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) triggered predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus, lymphomas, antibody deficiency, and rarer consequences of immune dysregulation. To date, XLP2 has been found to cause HLH with and without exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, and HLH is commonly recurrent in these patients. For both forms of XLP, the only curative therapy at present is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Beyond their common X-linked locus and their requirement for normal immune responses to certain viral infections, SAP and XIAP demonstrate no obvious structural or functional similarity, are not coordinately regulated with respect to their expression, and do not appear to directly interact. In this review, we describe the genetic, clinical, and immunopathologic features of these 2 disorders and discuss current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:20660790
Filipovich, Alexandra H; Zhang, Kejian; Snow, Andrew L; Marsh, Rebecca A
High resolution chromosome analysis was done on lymphoblastoid cell lines, established during the past decade from affected males with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) or from obligate female carriers, from 14 families. One cell line, from a male with XLP, has a partial deletion of band Xq25. The constitutional nature of the deletion is confirmed in chromosome studies of peripheral blood from the affected individual and represents the first such structural defect to be described in this disorder. Cell lines from the remaining 13 families do not have cytogenetically detectable deletions. This observation will facilitate precise localization, cloning and sequencing of the gene causing XLP. PMID:2801783
Wyandt, H E; Grierson, H L; Sanger, W G; Skare, J C; Milunsky, A; Purtilo, D T
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a genetic disorder of the immune system caused by inadequate induction of apoptosis via the Fas pathway, mainly characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias, as well as increased risk of lymphoma. Although the clinical course of ALPS is highly variable, without treatment long-term prognosis is unsatisfactory for most patients. ALPS has been treated with most of the existing immunosuppressive agents, with variable success. We hereby present a case of a child with ALPS whose greatly enlarged lymph nodes rapidly regressed upon initiation of rapamycin, a novel potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of ALPS. PMID:19588524
Jani?, Mihailo Dragana; Brasanac, Cedomir Dimitrije; Jankovi?, Jovan Srda; Dokmanovi?, Bogdan Lidija; Krstovski, Radmio Nada; Kraguljac Kurtovi?, Janko Nada
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is an asymptomatic hematologic condition defined by the presence of a small (<5 x 10(9)/L) clonal B-cell population in the peripheral blood in the absence of lymph-node enlargement, cytopenias or autoimmune diseases. It is found in approximately 3-12% of normal persons depending on the accuracy of analytical techniques applied. According to the immunophenotypic profile of clonal B-cells, the majority of MBL cases (75%) are classified as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like. This form may progress into CLL at a rate of 1-2% per year. It is thought that CLL is always preceded by MBL. The remaining MBL cases are defined as atypical CLL-like (CD5+/CD20(bright)) and CD5(-) MBL. The MBL clone size is quite heterogenous. Accordingly, two forms of MBL are identified: i) high-count, or 'clinical' MBL, in which an evidence of lymphocytosis (<5 x 10(9)/L clonal B-cells) is seen, and ii) a low-count MBL, in which a normal leukocyte count is found and that is identified only in population-screening studies. Both forms of MBL may carry the cytogenetic abnormalities that are the hallmark of CLL, including 13q-, 17p- and trisomy 12. Consistent with the indolent phenotype of this condition, genetic lesions, such as TP53, ATM, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations, usually associated with high-risk CLL, are rarely seen. Overall, no prognostic indicator of evolution of MBL to overt CLL has been found at present time. However, taking into account this possibility, a clinical and lab monitoring (at least annually), is recommended. PMID:24779000
D'Arena, G; Musto, P
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is an asymptomatic hematologic condition defined by the presence of a small (<5 x 109/L) clonal B-cell population in the peripheral blood in the absence of lymph-node enlargement, cytopenias or autoimmune diseases. It is found in approximately 3-12% of normal persons depending on the accuracy of analytical techniques applied. According to the immunophenotypic profile of clonal B-cells, the majority of MBL cases (75%) are classified as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like. This form may progress into CLL at a rate of 1–2% per year. It is thought that CLL is always preceded by MBL. The remaining MBL cases are defined as atypical CLL-like (CD5+/CD20bright) and CD5- MBL. The MBL clone size is quite heterogenous. Accordingly, two forms of MBL are identified: i) high-count, or ‘clinical’ MBL, in which an evidence of lymphocytosis (<5 x 109/L clonal B-cells) is seen, and ii) a low-count MBL, in which a normal leukocyte count is found and that is identified only in population-screening studies. Both forms of MBL may carry the cytogenetic abnormalities that are the hallmark of CLL, including 13q-, 17p- and trisomy 12. Consistent with the indolent phenotype of this condition, genetic lesions, such as TP53, ATM, NOTCH1 and SF3B1 mutations, usually associated with high-risk CLL, are rarely seen. Overall, no prognostic indicator of evolution of MBL to overt CLL has been found at present time. However, taking into account this possibility, a clinical and lab monitoring (at least annually), is recommended.
D'Arena, G.; Musto, P.
A number of risk factors for the occurrence of neutropaenic fever after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been proposed. We were interested in whether these factors remain valid for several early infection-related outcomes when applied to a homogeneous group of patients in uni- and multivariate analyses. Therefore, we analysed 144 consecutive patients with lymphoproliferative disorders receiving autologous peripheral blood
H. W. Auner; A. Zebisch; P. Ofner; H. Sill; W. Linkesch; R. Krause
Though its etiology remains unknown thus far, the role that autoimmune processes play in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis has been widely proven. Given the easier accessibility of humoral components, the first feature of this contribution to be recognized has been the occurrence of the so-called rheumatoid factor in a large proportion of RA patients. This antibody recognizes the Fc portion of human IgG. By investigating RA pathologic processes and also through experimental models where immune complexes play a fundamental role, many other autoantibodies have then come to our knowledge to be associated with the disease. Their presence and persistence implies that clones of autoreactive B cells survive and proliferate in RA patients under a continuous stimulation. Whether this is a mechanism of disease initiation or just an epiphenomenon is still unclear but no doubt exists that autoantibodies represent a very useful tool in both diagnostic and prognostic terms. Being much more than simple autoantibody producers, B cells are able to secrete many important cytokines and to efficiently present antigens to T lymphocytes in the synovial environment. All of these functions are essential in the development of RA, and lately have claimed attention as B cell depletion has become a common and effective strategy of treatment in RA. PMID:18035324
Bugatti, Serena; Codullo, Veronica; Caporali, Roberto; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio
Regulatory B cells (Bregs), a newly described subset of B cells, have been proved to play a suppressive role in immune system. Bregs can inhibit other immune cells through cytokines secretion and antigen presentation, which give them the role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancers. There are no clear criteria to identify Bregs; different markers were used in the different experimental conditions. Massive researches had described the functions of immune cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells in the autoimmune disorder diseases and cancers. More and more researches focused on the roles of Bregs and the cytokines such as Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) secreted by Bregs. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of Bregs and the roles of Bregs in cancer.
Qian, Hongyan; Liu, Yuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Guixiu
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is caused by mutations in SH2D1A, and is associated with overwhelming infectious mononucleosis, aplastic anemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and B-cell lymphomas. However, the frequency of SH2D1A mutations in males who present with B NHL is unknown. Five cases of XLP were diagnosed among 158 males presenting with B NHL (approximately 3.2%). Four of the patients had two episodes of B NHL and one had a single episode of B NHL followed by aggressive infectious mononucleosis. Prospective screening for XLP in males with B-cell lymphoma at the time of initial diagnosis should be considered. PMID:23589280
Sandlund, J T; Shurtleff, S A; Onciu, M; Horwitz, E; Leung, W; Howard, V; Rencher, R; Conley, M E
Summary Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is an asymptomatic haematological condition characterized by low absolute levels of B-cell clones with a surface immunophenotype similar to that of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). In the general population, MBL increases with age with a prevalence of 5–9% in individuals over age 60 years. It has been reported to be higher among first-degree relatives from CLL families. We report results of multi-parameter flow cytometry among 505 first-degree relatives with no personal history of lymphoproliferative disease from 140 families having at least two cases of CLL. Seventeen percent of relatives had MBL. Age was the most important determinant where the probability for developing MBL by age 90 years was 61%. MBL clustered in certain families but clustering was independent of the number of known CLL cases in a family. As is the case with CLL, males had a significantly higher risk for MBL than did females (p=0.04). MBL patients had significantly higher mean absolute lymphocyte counts (2.4 × 109/l) and B-cell counts (0.53 × 109/l) than those with a normal B-cell immunophenotype. Our findings show that MBL occurs at a very high rate in high risk CLL families. Both the age and gender distribution of MBL are parallel to CLL, implying a shared inherited risk.
Goldin, Lynn R.; Lanasa, Mark C.; Slager, Susan L.; Cerhan, James R.; Vachon, Celine M.; Strom, Sara S.; Camp, Nicola J.; Spector, Logan G.; Leis, Jose F.; Morrison, Vicki A.; Glenn, Martha; Rabe, Kari G.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Algood, Sallie D.; Abbasi, Fatima; Fontaine, Laura; Yau, Michelle; Rassenti, Laura Z.; Kay, Neil E.; Call, Timothy G.; Hanson, Curtis A.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Marti, Gerald E.; Caporaso, Neil E.
Generation of long-term antibody-mediated immunity depends on the germinal centre (GC) reaction, which requires cooperation between antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes. In the human X-linked lymphoproliferative disease and its gene-targeted mouse model, loss-of-function mutations in signalling lymphocyte activation molecule-associated protein (SAP, encoded by SH2D1a) cause a profound defect in GC formation by an as yet unknown mechanism. Using two-photon intravital imaging, here we show that SAP deficiency selectively impairs the ability of CD4+ T cells to stably interact with cognate B cells but not antigen-presenting dendritic cells. This selective defect results in a failure of antigen-specific B cells to receive adequate levels of contact-dependent T cell help to expand normally, despite sap?/? T cells exhibiting the known characteristics of otherwise competent helper T cells. Furthermore, lack of stable interactions with B cells renders sap?/? T cells unable to be efficiently recruited to and retained in a nascent GC to sustain the GC reaction. These results offer a compelling explanation for the GC defect due to SAP deficiency and provide novel insights into the bi-directional communication between cognate T and B cells in vivo.
Qi, Hai; Cannons, Jennifer L.; Klauschen, Frederick; Schwartzberg, Pamela L.; Germain, Ronald N.
The use of B-cell targeted therapies for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has generated great interest owing to the multiple pathogenic roles carried out by B cells in this disease. Strong support for targeting B cells is provided by genetic, immunological and clinical observations that place these cells at the center of SLE pathogenesis, as initiating, amplifying and
F. Eun-Hyung Lee; Iñaki Sanz
Celiac disease (CD) is associated with both lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM) and increased death from LPM. Research suggests that co-existing autoimmune disease may influence survival in LPM. Through Cox regression we examined overall and cause-specific mortality in 316 individuals with CD+LPM versus 689 individuals with LPM only. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to biopsy reports at any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments, and LPM as having a relevant disease code in the Swedish Cancer Register. During follow-up, there were 551 deaths (CD: n = 200; non-CD: n = 351). Individuals with CD+LPM were at an increased risk of death compared with LPM-only individuals [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.48]. However, this excess risk was only seen in the first year after LPM diagnosis (aHR = 1.76), with HRs decreasing to 1.09 in years 2-5 after LPM diagnosis and to 0.90 thereafter. Individuals with CD and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were at a higher risk of any death as compared with NHL-only individuals (aHR = 1.23; 95% CI = 0.97-1.56). This excess risk was due to a higher proportion of T cell lymphoma in CD patients. Stratifying for T- and B cell status, the HR for death in individuals with CD+NHL was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.46-1.31). In conclusion, we found no evidence that co-existing CD influences survival in individuals with LPM. The increased mortality in the first year after LPM diagnosis is related to the predominance of T-NHL in CD individuals. Individuals with CD+LPM should be informed that their prognosis is similar to that of individuals with LPM only. However, this study had low statistical power to rule our excess mortality in patients with CD and certain LPM subtypes. PMID:23463575
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A; Green, Peter H R; Ekbom, Anders; Granath, Fredrik
Celiac disease (CD) is associated with both lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM) and increased death from LPM. Research suggests that co-existing autoimmune disease may influence survival in LPM. Through Cox regression we examined overall and cause-specific mortality in 316 individuals with CD+LPM vs. 689 individuals with LPM only. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to biopsy reports at any of Sweden’s 28 pathology departments, and LPM as having a relevant disease code in the Swedish Cancer Register. During follow-up, there were 551 deaths (CD: n=200; non-CD: n=351). Individuals with CD+LPM were at an increased risk of death compared with LPM-only individuals (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02–1.48). However, this excess risk was only seen in the first year after LPM diagnosis (aHR=1.76), with HRs decreasing to 1.09 in years 2–5 after LPM diagnosis and to 0.90 thereafter. Individuals with CD and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were at a higher risk of any death as compared with NHL-only individuals (aHR=1.23; 95%CI=0.97–1.56). This excess risk was due to a higher proportion of T-cell lymphoma in CD patients. Stratifying for T- and B-cell status, the HR for death in individuals with CD+NHL was 0.77 (95%CI=0.46–1.31 In conclusion, we found no evidence that co-existing CD influences survival in individuals with LPM. The increased mortality in the first year after LPM diagnosis is related to the predominance of T-NHL in CD individuals. Individuals with CD+LPM should be informed that their prognosis is similar to that of individuals with LPM only. However, this study had low statistical power to rule our excess mortality in patients with CD and certain LPM subtypes.
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A.; Green, Peter HR; Ekbom, Anders; Granath, Fredrik
X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the slam associated protein (SAP). One of the defining characteristics of XLP is extreme susceptibility to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gammaherpesvirus belonging to the genus Lymphocryptovirus, often resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM). However, infection of SAP deficient mice with the related Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Rhadinovirus, does not recapitulate XLP. Here we show that MHV68 inefficiently establishes latency in B cells in SAP deficient mice due to insufficient CD4 T cell help during the germinal center response. Although MHV68 infected B cells can be found in SAP-deficient mice, significantly fewer of these cells had a germinal center phenotype compared to SAP-sufficient mice. Furthermore, we show that infected germinal center B cells in SAP-deficient mice fail to proliferate. This failure to proliferate resulted in significantly lower viral loads, and likely accounts for the inability of MHV68 to induce a FIM-like syndrome. Finally, inhibiting differentiation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells in SAP-sufficient C57Bl/6 mice resulted in decreased B cell latency, and the magnitude of the TFH response directly correlated with the level of infection in B cells. This requirement for CD4 T cell help during the germinal center reaction by MHV68 is in contrast with EBV, which is thought to be capable of bypassing this requirement by expressing viral proteins that mimic signals provided by TFH cells. In conclusion, the outcome of MHV68 infection in mice in the setting of loss of SAP function is distinct from that observed in SAP-deficient patients infected with EBV, and may identify a fundamental difference between the strategies employed by the rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses to expand B cell latency during the early phase of infection. PMID:24789087
Collins, Christopher M; Speck, Samuel H
X linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency resulting from mutations in the gene encoding the slam associated protein (SAP). One of the defining characteristics of XLP is extreme susceptibility to infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a gammaherpesvirus belonging to the genus Lymphocryptovirus, often resulting in fatal infectious mononucleosis (FIM). However, infection of SAP deficient mice with the related Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), a gammaherpesvirus in the genus Rhadinovirus, does not recapitulate XLP. Here we show that MHV68 inefficiently establishes latency in B cells in SAP deficient mice due to insufficient CD4 T cell help during the germinal center response. Although MHV68 infected B cells can be found in SAP-deficient mice, significantly fewer of these cells had a germinal center phenotype compared to SAP-sufficient mice. Furthermore, we show that infected germinal center B cells in SAP-deficient mice fail to proliferate. This failure to proliferate resulted in significantly lower viral loads, and likely accounts for the inability of MHV68 to induce a FIM-like syndrome. Finally, inhibiting differentiation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells in SAP-sufficient C57Bl/6 mice resulted in decreased B cell latency, and the magnitude of the TFH response directly correlated with the level of infection in B cells. This requirement for CD4 T cell help during the germinal center reaction by MHV68 is in contrast with EBV, which is thought to be capable of bypassing this requirement by expressing viral proteins that mimic signals provided by TFH cells. In conclusion, the outcome of MHV68 infection in mice in the setting of loss of SAP function is distinct from that observed in SAP-deficient patients infected with EBV, and may identify a fundamental difference between the strategies employed by the rhadinoviruses and lymphocryptoviruses to expand B cell latency during the early phase of infection.
Collins, Christopher M.; Speck, Samuel H.
Antigen binding to the B cell receptor (BCR) induces receptor desensitization, a condition characterized by cellular unresponsiveness to subsequent Ag stimulation despite the continued ability to bind Ag. To better understand the molecular mechanism of this unresponsiveness, we have used complementary lymphoma (K46 ?) and Ig transgenic (3-83 ??) mouse models to study regulation of BCR signaling. Our findings in the lymphoma model show that an initial Ag encounter renders receptors unresponsive to subsequent Ag challenge, as measured by their inability to mobilize Ca2+ and to mediate phosphorylation of receptor-proximal kinases, including Lyn, Blk, and Syk. Most importantly, the Ig? and Ig? components of desensitized receptors are not phosphorylated, and receptor-associated kinases are not activated upon Ag challenge. The molecular defect does not appear to result from Lyn inactivation, sequestration, or repression, since Lyn from desensitized cell lysates is activated in vitro by synthetic doubly phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif peptides. A similar deficit in Ag-induced receptor phosphorylation was observed in desensitized B cells from 3-83 ?? transgenic mice. These studies indicate that Ag receptor desensitization reflects an inability to initiate activation of receptor-associated kinases that normally phosphorylate receptor Ig?? subunits, leading to signal propagation.
Vilen, Barbara J.; Famiglietti, Sara J.; Carbone, Amy M.; Kay, Brian K.; Cambier, John C.
Understanding the pathogenesis of complex immunologic disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging. Abnormalities in many different cell types are observed in the immune system and CNS of patients with MS and the identification of the primary and secondary events is difficult. Recent studies suggest that the model of MS as a disorder mediated only by T cells is overly simplistic and propose an important role for B cells in the propagation of the disease. B-cell activation in the form of oligoclonal bands (OCB) production is the most consistent immunologic finding in patients with MS. Notably, markers of B-cell activation within the CSF of patients with MS predict conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to clinically definite MS and correlate with MRI activity, onset of relapses, and disability progression. In addition, the main genetic risk factor in MS is associated with OCB production, and environmental agents associated with MS susceptibility (vitamin D and the Epstein-Barr virus) influence B-cell proliferation and function. Finally, the only cell-specific treatments that are effective in patients with MS are monoclonal antibodies targeting the B-cell antigen CD20, suggesting a potentially causative role for B cells. Based on current evidence there is no longer doubt that B cells are relevant to the etiology and pathogenesis of MS. Elucidating the role of B cells in MS will be a fruitful strategy for disease prevention and treatment.Neurology® 2012;78:823–832
Disanto, G.; Morahan, J.M.; Barnett, M.H.; Giovannoni, G.
B cells are generally considered to positively regulate immune responses by producing antigen-specific antibodies. B cells are classified into classical CD5(-) conventional B cells and CD5(+) B1 cells. The latter produce multi-specific autoantibodies and are thought to be involved in autoimmune diseases. However, evidence supporting a B cell negative regulatory function has accumulated over the past 30 years. Multiple reports have suggested that absence, or loss, of regulatory B cells exacerbates symptoms of both allergic (including contact hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis) and autoimmune (such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, chronic colitis, and collagen-induced arthritis) diseases, and in lupus-like models of autoimmunity. Regulatory B cells are characterized by production of the negative regulatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-?. IL-10-producing B cells were the first regulatory B cells to be recognized and were termed 'B10' cells. IL-10-producing regulatory B cells are of the CD19(+)CD5(+)IgM(hi)IgD(lo)CD1d(hi) type. Recently, a TGF-?-producing regulatory B cell subset, Br3, has been shown to be related to immune tolerance in food allergies. Moreover, forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-expressing B cells have also been identified in humans and may act as regulatory B cells (Bregs). The functional image of regulatory B cells is similar to that of regulatory T cells. Because of the proliferative and apoptotic responses of Br1 and Br3 cells in immune tolerance in non-IgE-mediated food allergy, reciprocal roles and counter-regulatory mechanisms of Br1 and Br3 responses are also suspected. Additionally, different roles for regulatory B and T cells at different time points during initiation and progression of autoimmune disease are described. PMID:21738882
Noh, Geunwoong; Lee, Jae Ho
B cells are generally considered to positively regulate immune responses by producing antigen-specific antibodies. B cells are classified into classical CD5- conventional B cells and CD5+ B1 cells. The latter produce multi-specific autoantibodies and are thought to be involved in autoimmune diseases. However, evidence supporting a B cell negative regulatory function has accumulated over the past 30 years. Multiple reports have suggested that absence, or loss, of regulatory B cells exacerbates symptoms of both allergic (including contact hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis) and autoimmune (such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, chronic colitis, and collagen-induced arthritis) diseases, and in lupus-like models of autoimmunity. Regulatory B cells are characterized by production of the negative regulatory cytokines, IL-10 and TGF-?. IL-10-producing B cells were the first regulatory B cells to be recognized and were termed 'B10' cells. IL-10-producing regulatory B cells are of the CD19+CD5+IgMhiIgDloCD1dhi type. Recently, a TGF-?-producing regulatory B cell subset, Br3, has been shown to be related to immune tolerance in food allergies. Moreover, forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-expressing B cells have also been identified in humans and may act as regulatory B cells (Bregs). The functional image of regulatory B cells is similar to that of regulatory T cells. Because of the proliferative and apoptotic responses of Br1 and Br3 cells in immune tolerance in non-IgE-mediated food allergy, reciprocal roles and counter-regulatory mechanisms of Br1 and Br3 responses are also suspected. Additionally, different roles for regulatory B and T cells at different time points during initiation and progression of autoimmune disease are described.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene, which encodes a transcription factor critical for Treg function, result in a severe autoimmune disorder and the production of various autoantibodies in mice and in IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) patients. However, it is unknown whether Tregs normally suppress autoreactive B cells. To investigate a role for Tregs in maintaining human B-cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells isolated from IPEX patients. Characteristics and reactivity of antibodies expressed by new emigrant/transitional B cells from IPEX patients were similar to those from healthy donors, demonstrating that defective Treg function does not impact central B-cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from IPEX patients often expressed autoreactive antibodies, suggesting an important role for Tregs in maintaining peripheral B-cell tolerance. T cells displayed an activated phenotype in IPEX patients, including their Treg-like cells, and showed up-regulation of CD40L, PD-1, and inducibl T-cell costimulator (ICOS), which may favor the accumulation of autoreactive mature naive B cells in these patients. Hence, our data demonstrate an essential role for Tregs in the establishment and the maintenance of peripheral B-cell tolerance in humans. PMID:23223361
Kinnunen, Tuure; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Morbach, Henner; Choi, Jinyoung; Kim, Sangtaek; Craft, Joseph; Mayer, Lloyd; Cancrini, Caterina; Passerini, Laura; Bacchetta, Rosa; Ochs, Hans D; Torgerson, Troy R; Meffre, Eric
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder of B cell differentiation or function with inadequate antibody production. Our laboratory studies a natural form of CVID in horses characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia due to impaired B cell production in the bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess the status of B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of CVID-affected horses by measuring the expression of genes essential for early B cell commitment and development. Standard RT-PCR revealed that most of the transcription factors and key signaling molecules that directly regulate B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and precede PAX5 are expressed in the affected horses. Yet, the expression of PAX5 and relevant target genes was variable. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA expression of E2A, PAX5, CD19, and IGHD was significantly reduced in equine CVID patients when compared to healthy horses (p < 0.05). In addition, the PAX5/EBF1 and PAX5/B220 ratios were significantly reduced in CVID patients (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the absence of PAX5-BSAP expression in the bone marrow of affected horses. Our data suggest that B cell development seems to be impaired at the transition between pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells in equine CVID patients.
Tallmadge, R.L.; Such, K.A.; Miller, K.C.; Matychak, M.B.; Felippe, M.J.B.
Hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndromes are primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defects of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. HIGM patients who carry mutations in the CD40-ligand (CD40L) gene expressed by CD4+ T cells suffer from recurrent infections and often develop autoimmune disorders. To investigate the impact of CD40L–CD40 interactions on human B cell tolerance, we tested by ELISA the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells from three CD40L-deficient patients. Antibody characteristics and reactivity from CD40L-deficient new emigrant B cells were similar to those from healthy donors, suggesting that CD40L–CD40 interactions do not regulate central B cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from CD40L-deficient patients expressed a high proportion of autoreactive antibodies, including antinuclear antibodies. Thus, CD40L–CD40 interactions are essential for peripheral B cell tolerance. In addition, a patient with the bare lymphocyte syndrome who could not express MHC class II molecules failed to counterselect autoreactive mature naive B cells, suggesting that peripheral B cell tolerance also depends on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–T cell receptor (TCR) interactions. The decreased frequency of MHC class II–restricted CD4+ regulatory T cells in CD40L-deficient patients suggests that these T cells may mediate peripheral B cell tolerance through CD40L–CD40 and MHC class II–TCR interactions.
Herve, Maxime; Isnardi, Isabelle; Ng, Yen-shing; Bussel, James B.; Ochs, Hans D.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Meffre, Eric
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder of B cell differentiation or function with inadequate antibody production. Our laboratory studies a natural form of CVID in horses characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia due to impaired B cell production in the bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess the status of B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of CVID-affected horses by measuring the expression of genes essential for early B cell commitment and development. Standard RT-PCR revealed that most of the transcription factors and key signaling molecules that directly regulate B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and precede PAX5 are expressed in the affected horses. Yet, the expression of PAX5 and relevant target genes was variable. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA expression of E2A, PAX5, CD19, and IGHD was significantly reduced in equine CVID patients when compared to healthy horses (p<0.05). In addition, the PAX5/EBF1 and PAX5/B220 ratios were significantly reduced in CVID patients (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the absence of PAX5-BSAP expression in the bone marrow of affected horses. Our data suggest that B cell development seems to be impaired at the transition between pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells in equine CVID patients. PMID:22464097
Tallmadge, R L; Such, K A; Miller, K C; Matychak, M B; Felippe, M J B
Lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes (LDGL) is a heterogeneous disorder and the pathogenesis is likely to be complex. Some patients with chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection also have LDGL. To investigate the relationship between EBV infection and the pathogenesis of LDGL, we conducted a survey for EBV DNA sequences by Southern blot analysis of DNA obtained from the peripheral blood of seven patients with LDGL, including one with CAEBV infection. Interestingly, EBV DNA was detected in the sample from the patient with CAEBV infection, and in the samples from four other patients with CD3-LDGL. Moreover, a single band for the joined termini of the EBV genome was demonstrated in two samples, suggesting a clonal disorder of those LDGL. These findings strongly suggest that EBV may play a pathogenic role in some cases of LDGL. Images
Kawa-Ha, K; Ishihara, S; Ninomiya, T; Yumura-Yagi, K; Hara, J; Murayama, F; Tawa, A; Hirai, K
The unique manifestation of the inherited immunodeficiency, X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), is the impaired control of EBV infection. The gene, which carries mutations or is deleted in the patients, has been identified (Xq25). The encoded protein (SAP, 128 aa) contains a single SH2 domain and binds to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) and to other related surface molecules that are expressed on activated T, B and NK cells. SAP modifies signal transduction through its association with these molecules. Initially it was assumed that SAP acts passively by interfering and blocking active interactions involving other SH2 carrying molecules. We demonstrated that SAP protein is expressed in activated T and NK, but not in activated B cells. This finding is in line with the fact that in vitro performance of effector cells derived from XLP patients is impaired. However, it is still not known why the severe symptoms (fatal mononucleosis or malignant lymphoproliferation in the survivors of the primary infection) are elicited by EBV. We studied SAP expression in several Burkitt lymphoma (BL) derived lines. In contrast to normal B cells, certain lines expressed SAP. These were all type I cells in the Burkitt line nomenclature: they expressed only one of the EBV encoded proteins (EBNA-1) and their phenotype corresponded to resting B cells. Lymphoblastoid cell lines and type III BLs, whose phenotype resembled activated B cells and expressed all nine EBV encoded proteins, were devoid of SAP. The relationship between cell activation and SAP expression is reciprocal in T and B cells i.e. BL lines, activated T and NK cells express SAP, while BL blasts do not express SAP. This opposite relationship may be exploited for studies about the function of SAP. PMID:12008045
Nagy, Noémi; Mattsson, Karin; Maeda, Akihiko; Liu, Anquan; Székely, László; Klein, Eva
Malignant B-1 cells derived from NZB mice, a murine model of spontaneous autoimmunity and B cell lymphoproliferative disease, produce significantly higher levels of IL-10 mRNA than normal B-1 or B cells. IL-10 may act as an autocrine growth factor for the expansion of malignant B-1 cells. In order to determine if elevated endogenous production of IL-10 was a required element for the malignant transformation of B-1 cells in NZB mice, backcross animals were studied for the linkage between elevated IL-10 expression and the presence of lymphoid malignancy. The phenotypes of aged (NZB x DBA/2)F1 x NZB animals were determined and a strong correlation was found between the elevated levels of IL-10 mRNA and the development of B-1 malignant clones. In contrast, an increased level of IL-10 message was not associated with elevated serum IgM or the presence of anemia or reticulocytosis which is mainly seen in response to autoantibody production. These results indicate that, at least in NZB, the autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation phenotypes are not linked genetically. IL-10 may enhance proliferation and the development of B-1 cell malignancy rather than antibody production by the B-1 cell subpopulation. Thus, IL-10 plays an important role in B-1 malignancies, and downregulation of IL-10 could be a likely site for intervention in B cell malignancies.
Ramachandra, S; Metcalf, R A; Fredrickson, T; Marti, G E; Raveche, E
Effective humoral responses to protein antigens require the precise execution of carefully timed differentiation programs in both T and B cell compartments. Disturbances in this process underlie the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is induced upon the activation of T and B cells and serves critical functions. In CD4+ T helper cells, IRF4 plays an essential role in the regulation of IL-21 production, whereas in B cells it controls class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation. IRF4 function in T helper cells can be modulated by its interaction with regulatory protein DEF6, a molecule that shares a high degree of homology with only one other protein, SWAP-70. Here, we demonstrate that on a C57BL/6 background the absence of both DEF6 and SWAP-70 leads to the development of a lupus-like disease in female mice, marked by simultaneous deregulation of CD4+ T cell IL-21 production and increased IL-21 B cell responsiveness. We furthermore show that DEF6 and SWAP-70 are differentially used at distinct stages of B cell differentiation to selectively control the ability of IRF4 to regulate IL-21 responsiveness in a stage-specific manner. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms that normally couple and coordinately regulate T and B cell responses to ensure tight control of productive T–B cell interactions.
Biswas, Partha S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Stirzaker, Roslynn A.; Kumar, Varsha; Jessberger, Rolf; Lu, Theresa T.; Bhagat, Govind
Three cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease that occurred 6 to 8 years after renal transplantation are reported. The patients respectively had gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and atypical Burkitt lymphoma. Absence of EBV in the tissue samples was demonstrated by both in situ hybridization for EBV early RNA and polymerase chain reaction for EBV DNA. Patients were treated with reduction in immunosuppression and combined chemotherapy plus an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab. Despite the reduction in immunosuppression, patients had stable renal functions without loss of graft functions. The patient with atypical Burkitt lymphoma had an abnormal karyotype, did not respond to treatment completely, and died due to disease progression. The other patients are still alive and in remission 5 and 3 years after diagnosis, respectively. EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases are usually late-onset and are reported to have poor prognosis. Thus, reduction in immunosuppression is usually not sufficient for treatment and more aggressive approaches like rituximab with combined chemotherapy are required.
Bakanay, Sule Mine; Kaygusuz, Gulsah; Topcuoglu, Pervin; Sengul, Sule; Tuncal?, Timur; Keven, Kenan; Kuzu, Is?nsu; Uysal, Ak?n; Arat, Mutlu
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis for detecting immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) rearrangements in lymphoproliferative disorders is well established. The presence of one or two discrete bands is interpreted as a monoclonal proliferation, whereas a smear pattern represents a polyclonal pop- ulation. Prompted by our observation of discrete bands in histologically reactive processes with a rel- ative paucity of B
Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson; Sandra D. Bohling; Rebecca S. Mitchell; Michael S. Brown; Ryan S. Robetorye
Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Expression patterns of eight transcription factors involved in different stages of B-cell development were investigated in a large group of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and compared with expression patterns during normal B-cell development. The following transcription factors were investigated: Pax-5, PU.1, Oct2, BOB.1, Bcl-6, Mum1\\/IRF4, Blimp-1 and FOXP1. Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas, leg type showed aberrant coexpression of Bcl-6
Juliette J Hoefnagel; Marÿn M S Mulder; Enno Dreef; Patty M Jansen; Steven T Pals; Chris J L M Meijer; Rein Willemze; Maarten H Vermeer
There is a growing interest in the evaluation of non-myeloablative conditioning therapy for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Such regimens are expected to produce less toxicity while allowing both engraftment and a graft-versus-disease effect from the large number of donor-derived immunocompetent T lymphocytes given with the stem cells. Heavy immunosuppression used in recipients may have unexpected consequences. We describe the occurrence
N Milpied; M Coste-Burel; F Accard; A Moreau; P Moreau; R Garand; J-L Harousseau
Maturation as well as antigen-dependent activation of B cells is accompanied by alternating phases of proliferation and quiescence. We and others have previously shown that Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a regulator of T cell quiescence and migration, is upregulated in small resting precursor (pre)-B cells after assembly of the immature pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) and is downregulated upon antigen-induced proliferation of mature B cells. These findings suggest that KLF2, besides its function in maintaining follicular B cell identity, peripheral B cell homeostasis and homing of antigen-specific plasma cells to the bone marrow, also controls clonal expansion phases in the B cell lineage. Here, we demonstrate that enforced expression of KLF2 in primary pre-B cells results in a severe block of pre-BCR-induced proliferation, upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 and downregulation of c-myc. Furthermore, retroviral KLF2 transduction of primary B cells impairs LPS-induced activation, favors apoptosis and results in reduced abundance of factors, such as AID, IRF4 and BLIMP1, that control the antigen-dependent phase of B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Hence, we conclude that KLF2 is not only a key player in terminating pre-B cell clonal expansion but also a potent suppressor of B cell activation. PMID:24874925
Winkelmann, Rebecca; Sandrock, Lena; Kirberg, Jörg; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Schuh, Wolfgang
Maturation as well as antigen-dependent activation of B cells is accompanied by alternating phases of proliferation and quiescence. We and others have previously shown that Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a regulator of T cell quiescence and migration, is upregulated in small resting precursor (pre)-B cells after assembly of the immature pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) and is downregulated upon antigen-induced proliferation of mature B cells. These findings suggest that KLF2, besides its function in maintaining follicular B cell identity, peripheral B cell homeostasis and homing of antigen-specific plasma cells to the bone marrow, also controls clonal expansion phases in the B cell lineage. Here, we demonstrate that enforced expression of KLF2 in primary pre-B cells results in a severe block of pre-BCR-induced proliferation, upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 and downregulation of c-myc. Furthermore, retroviral KLF2 transduction of primary B cells impairs LPS-induced activation, favors apoptosis and results in reduced abundance of factors, such as AID, IRF4 and BLIMP1, that control the antigen-dependent phase of B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Hence, we conclude that KLF2 is not only a key player in terminating pre-B cell clonal expansion but also a potent suppressor of B cell activation.
Winkelmann, Rebecca; Sandrock, Lena; Kirberg, Jorg; Jack, Hans-Martin; Schuh, Wolfgang
Inhibition of B cells constitutes a rational approach for treating B cell-mediated disorders. We demonstrate in this article that the engagement of the surface Ig-like transcript 2 (ILT2) inhibitory receptor with its preferential ligand HLA-G is critical to inhibit B cell functions. Indeed, ILT2-HLA-G interaction impedes both naive and memory B cell functions in vitro and in vivo. Particularly, HLA-G inhibits B cell proliferation, differentiation, and Ig secretion in both T cell-dependent and -independent models of B cell activation. HLA-G mediates phenotypic and functional downregulation of CXCR4 and CXCR5 chemokine receptors on germinal center B cells. In-depth analysis of the molecular mechanisms mediated by ILT2-HLA-G interaction showed a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest through dephosphorylation of AKT, GSK-3?, c-Raf, and Foxo proteins. Crucially, we provide in vivo evidence that HLA-G acts as a negative B cell regulator in modulating B cell Ab secretion in a xenograft mouse model. This B cell regulatory mechanism involving ILT2-HLA-G interaction brings important insight to design future B cell-targeted therapies aimed at reducing inappropriate immune reaction in allotransplantation and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24453251
Naji, Abderrahim; Menier, Catherine; Morandi, Fabio; Agaugué, Sophie; Maki, Guitta; Ferretti, Elisa; Bruel, Sylvie; Pistoia, Vito; Carosella, Edgardo D; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie
For many years, central dogma defined multiple sclerosis (MS) as a T cell-driven autoimmune disorder; however, over the past decade there has been a burgeoning recognition that B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of certain MS disease subtypes. B cells may contribute to MS pathogenesis through production of autoantibodies (or antibodies directed at foreign bodies, which unfortunately cross-react with self-antigens), through promotion of T cell activation via antigen presentation, or through production of cytokines. This review highlights evidence for antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell involvement in MS pathogenesis. PMID:22690126
Wilson, Heather L
Introduction In chronic inflammatory disorders, B cells can contribute to tissue damage by autoantibody production and antigen presentation\\u000a to T cells. Here, we have characterized synovial fluid and tissue B-cell subsets in patients with oligoarticular juvenile\\u000a idiopathic arthritis (JIA), an issue not addressed before in detail.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods B cells from synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood (PB) of 25 JIA patients, as
Anna Corcione; Francesca Ferlito; Marco Gattorno; Andrea Gregorio; Angela Pistorio; Roberto Gastaldi; Claudio Gambini; Alberto Martini; Elisabetta Traggiai; Vito Pistoia
For many years, central dogma defined multiple sclerosis (MS) as a T cell-driven autoimmune disorder; however, over the past decade there has been a burgeoning recognition that B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of certain MS disease subtypes. B cells may contribute to MS pathogenesis through production of autoantibodies (or antibodies directed at foreign bodies, which unfortunately cross-react with self-antigens), through promotion of T cell activation via antigen presentation, or through production of cytokines. This review highlights evidence for antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell involvement in MS pathogenesis.
Wilson, Heather L
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by disabling fatigue, headaches, sleep disturbance and several other symptoms. The onset of CFS may follow a viral infection or period of stress. Patients with CFS do not have hypogammaglobulinaemia, predisposition to recurrent bacterial infections or symptoms of autoimmunity. To date, defects in B cell numbers or function have not been shown in the literature. However, treatment with anti-B cell therapy using Rituximab has recently shown benefit to CFS patients. We therefore postulated that patients with CFS had a subtle humoral immune dysfunction, and performed extended B cell immunophenotyping. We undertook a detailed characterization of the proportions of the different B cell subsets in 33 patients with CFS fulfilling the Canadian and Fukada criteria for CFS and compared these with 24 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). CFS patients had greater numbers of naive B cells as a percentage of lymphocytes: 6·3 versus 3·9% in HC (P = 0·034), greater numbers of naive B cells as a percentage of B cells: 65 versus 47% in controls (P = 0·003), greater numbers of transitional B cells: 1·8 versus 0·8% in controls (P = 0·025) and reduced numbers of plasmablasts: 0·5 versus 0·9% in controls (P = 0·013). While the cause of these changes is unclear, we speculate whether they may suggest a subtle tendency to autoimmunity.
Bradley, A S; Ford, B; Bansal, A S
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used for treatment of a variety of immunological disorders and in transplantation. As one of its applications in transplantation is the reduction of donor specific antibodies in the circulation, we examined the direct effect of IVIg on essential parameters of human B cell responses in vitro. Purified human B cells, human B cell hybridomas and T cells were cultured in the presence of graded concentrations of IVIg to test its effect on their proliferative capacity. To address the effect of IVIg on immunoglobulin production, we designed a novel technique making use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction to assess IgM and IgG levels. IVIg failed to inhibit proliferation of human B cells and human B cell hybridomas. In contrast, when IVIg was added to T cell cultures, a dose-dependent reduction of the proliferative capacity was observed. IVIg did not affect the levels of IgM and IgG mRNA of activated B cells. Our data show that IVIg is not capable of directly inhibiting key B cell responses. Direct B cell inhibition by IVIg seems therefore unlikely, implying that alteration in humoral immunity by IVIg is due to indirect effects on T cells and/or interactions with circulating antibodies and complement factors.
Heidt, S; Roelen, D L; Eijsink, C; Eikmans, M; Claas, F H J; Mulder, A
The microtubule associated tumor suppressor gene 1 (MTUS1) is a recently published tumor suppressor gene, which has also been shown to act as an early component in the growth inhibitory signaling cascade of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). In this study we report the generation of MTUS1 knock-out (KO) mice, which develop normally but reveal higher body weights and slightly decreased blood pressure levels. Twenty-eight percent of the studied MTUS1 KO mice also developed heart hypertrophy and 12% developed nephritis, independent of blood pressure levels. Forty-three percent of the MTUS1 KO mice revealed lymphoid hyperplasia affecting spleen (20%), kidney (37%), lung (23%), lymph nodes (17%), and liver (17%) accompanied with leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, and mild anemia. One animal (3%) developed a marginal zone B-cell lymphoma affecting submandibular salivary gland and regional lymph nodes. The symptoms of all mentioned animals are consistent with a B-cell lymphoproliferative disease with features of systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, body weight of the MTUS1 KO mice was significantly increased and isolated skin fibroblasts showed increased cell proliferation and decreased cell size, compared to wild-type (WT) fibroblasts in response to depleted FCS concentration and lack of growth factors. In conclusion we herein report the first generation of a MTUS1 KO mouse, developing spontaneous heart hypertrophy and increased cell proliferation, confirming once more the anti-proliferative effect of MTUS1, and a SLE-like lymphoproliferative disease suggesting crucial role in regulation of inflammation. These MTUS1 KO mice can therefore serve as a model for further investigations in cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease and carcinogenesis. PMID:22200760
Zuern, Christina; Krenacs, Laszlo; Starke, Stephanie; Heimrich, Jutta; Palmetshofer, Alois; Holtmann, Bettina; Sendtner, Michael; Fischer, Tobias; Galle, Jan; Wanner, Christoph; Seibold, Stefan
Prevention of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases in immune deficient individuals is preferred; however, standard therapy for the B cell lymphomas has been successful. Chemotherapy must be given cautiously lest further immune compromise result in opportunistic infections. Recently, Acyclovir has decreased morbidity of patients with acute infectious mononucleosis in immune competent persons. In contrast, immunodeficient patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome do not seem to respond favorably. Hence, a prospective study is underway using prophylactic immunoglobulin containing (EBV)-specific antibodies. The mortality rate is 85% following EBV infection in XLP due to fatal infectious mononucleosis associated with fulminant hepatitis and virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, acquired hypogammaglobulinemia or malignant B cell lymphoma. We can detect XLP by noting failure of switching from IgM to IgG antibody production on secondary challenge with bacteriophage phi X174. Also, linkage studies with the XLP locus using restriction fragment length polymorphisms are being done to detect affected males pre-EBV infection. Our rationale for prevention of phenotypes of XLP is based on observations that infants in tropical Africa and males with XLP do not develop EBV-induced diseases while neutralizing maternal antibodies are present. An EBV vaccine will be used, when available, in seronegative males with XLP. Prevention of acquired immune deficiency by screening blood for human immune deficiency virus, encouraging prudent life styles, development of specific immunosuppressive agents, development of new antiviral agents (i.e., DHPG), and identification of high risk seronegative patients offer possibilities for preventing life-threatening EBV-induced diseases. PMID:2435295
Purtilo, D T
... and flexibility to structures throughout the body (systemic lupus erythematosus). Individuals with ALPS may develop skin rashes ... involves lymphoproliferation and the tendency to develop systemic lupus erythematosus. Individuals with this form of the disorder ...
Debate has surrounded the subject of B cell life span since it was first measured in mice in the early 1970s. In the 25 years which have passed since then, it has become increasingly apparent that the methods employed to measure rates of B cell turnover, such as [3H]-thymidine labelling, cell transfer or cell ablation, brought about significant disruptions to normal physiology which in themselves might have affected B cell turnover. More recently the use of bromodeoxyuridine has overcome many of these methodological difficulties and has allowed rates of B cell renewal to be measured within B cell subpopulations defined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Such studies have largely resolved the issue, concluding that about 85% of peripheral B cells are phenotypically mature and display first-order exponential kinetics defined by a half-life of 5-6 weeks, whilst the remainder are short-lived with a life span of several days. This review examines both traditional and recent methods and discusses the influence of age, self-tolerance and randomness in the overall shaping of a kinetically stable mature B cell population. PMID:9429891
Fulcher, D A; Basten, A
In an attempt to characterize early B cell development including the commitment of progenitor cells to the B cell lineage, we generated and compared genomewide gene expression profiles of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and pre-B cells (PBCs) by using serial analysis of gene expression. From more than 100,000 serial analysis of gene expression tags collected from human CD34(+) HSCs and CD10(+) CD19(+) PBCs, 42,399 unique transcripts were identified in HSCs but only 16,786 in PBCs, suggesting that more than 60% of transcripts expressed in HSCs were silenced during or after commitment to the B cell lineage. On the other hand, mRNAs of pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR)-associated genes are virtually missing in HSCs but account for more than 10% of the transcriptome of PBCs, which also show increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Both concentration of the transcriptional repertoire on pre-BCR-related genes together with marked up-regulation of apoptosis mediators in PBC might reflect selection for the expression of a functional pre-BCR within the bone marrow. Besides known regulator genes of early B cell development such as PAX5, E2A, and EBF, the most abundantly expressed genes in PBCs include ATM, PDGFRA, SIAH1, PIM2, C/EBPB, WNT16, and TCL1, the role of which has not been established yet in early B cell development. PMID:12119411
Müschen, Markus; Lee, Sanggyu; Zhou, Guolin; Feldhahn, Niklas; Barath, Varun Singh; Chen, Jianjun; Moers, Cordula; Krönke, Martin; Rowley, Janet D; Wang, San Ming
Individuals with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease lack invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and are exquisitely susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To determine whether iNKT cells recognize or regulate EBV, resting B cells were infected with EBV in the presence or absence of iNKT cells. The depletion of iNKT cells increased both viral titers and the frequency of EBV-infected B cells. However, EBV-infected B cells rapidly lost expression of the iNKT cell receptor ligand CD1d, abrogating iNKT cell recognition. To determine whether induced CD1d expression could restore iNKT recognition in EBV-infected cells, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were treated with AM580, a synthetic retinoic acid receptor-? agonist that upregulates CD1d expression via the nuclear protein, lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1). AM580 significantly reduced LEF-1 association at the CD1d promoter region, induced CD1d expression on LCL, and restored iNKT recognition of LCL. CD1d-expressing LCL elicited interferon ? secretion and cytotoxicity by iNKT cells even in the absence of exogenous antigen, suggesting an endogenous iNKT antigen is expressed during EBV infection. These data indicate that iNKT cells may be important for early, innate control of B cell infection by EBV and that downregulation of CD1d may allow EBV to circumvent iNKT cell-mediated immune recognition. PMID:23974196
Chung, Brian K; Tsai, Kevin; Allan, Lenka L; Zheng, Dong Jun; Nie, Johnny C; Biggs, Catherine M; Hasan, Mohammad R; Kozak, Frederick K; van den Elzen, Peter; Priatel, John J; Tan, Rusung
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine with chemokine-like functions that plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases by promoting leukocyte recruitment. We showed that MIF promotes the atherogenic recruitment of monocytes and T cells through its receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4. Effects of MIF on B cell recruitment have not been addressed. In this study, we tested the involvement of MIF in B cell chemotaxis and studied the underlying mechanism. We show that MIF promotes primary murine B cell chemotaxis in a dose-dependent manner, comparable to the B cell chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL12. Splenic B cells express CXCR4 and the receptor CD74 but not CXCR2. Inhibition of CXCR4 or CD74 or a genetic deficiency of Cd74 in primary B cells fully abrogated MIF-mediated B cell migration, implying cooperative involvement of both receptors. MIF stimulation of B cells resulted in a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and F-actin polymerization. Intriguingly, the tyrosine kinase ZAP-70 was activated upon MIF and CXCL12 treatment in a CXCR4- and CD74-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition of ZAP-70 resulted in abrogation of primary B cell migration. Functional involvement of ZAP-70 was confirmed by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown in Ramos B cell migration. Finally, primary B cells from ZAP-70 gene-deficient mice exhibited ablated transmigration in response to MIF or CXCL12. We conclude that MIF promotes the migration of B cells through a ZAP-70-dependent pathway mediated by cooperative engagement of CXCR4 and CD74. The data also suggest that MIF may contribute to B cell recruitment in vivo (e.g., in B cell-related immune disorders). PMID:24760155
Klasen, Christina; Ohl, Kim; Sternkopf, Marieke; Shachar, Idit; Schmitz, Corinna; Heussen, Nicole; Hobeika, Elias; Levit-Zerdoun, Ella; Tenbrock, Klaus; Reth, Michael; Bernhagen, Jürgen; El Bounkari, Omar
While the outcome for pediatric patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) or lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has improved dramatically, patients often suffer from therapeutic sequelae. Additionally, despite intensified treatment, the prognosis remains dismal for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Thus, novel biologically targeted treatment approaches are needed. These targets can be identified by understanding how a loss of lymphocyte homeostasis can result in LPD or ALL. Herein, we review potential molecular and cellular therapeutic strategies that (i) target key signaling networks (e.g., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, Notch1, and SRC kinase family-containing pathways) which regulate lymphocyte growth, survival, and function; (ii) block the interaction of ALL cells with stromal cells or lymphoid growth factors secreted by the bone marrow microenvironment; or (iii) stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses.
Seif, Alix E.; Reid, Gregor S. D.; Teachey, David T.; Grupp, Stephan A.
DAP-IV activity (Gly-Pro-MCA hydrolysis, pH 7.8) was found in lysates of peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with T- and B-cell forms of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. The highest DAP-IV activity was seen in the cells of patients with a rare variant of T-cell lymphocytic leukemia (T-CLL); these cells expressed simultaneously the antigens of T helpers and T suppressors (Th and Ts) (OKT4+ and OKT8+). The DAP-IV activity about ten times less was found in the pathological cells with a phenotype of mature Th (Sezary disease), as well as in the cells expressing antigens of both Ts and natural killers (a rare variant of T-CLL). The same activity was also found in Ts (T gamma-lymphocytosis). The data obtained show that the differences in DAP-IV expression are connected with the differentiation step rather than with the belonging to a particular subpopulation of T-cells. DAP-IV activity, which was somewhat lower than that of T-cells, was found in B-lymphocytes of patients with B-CLL, hair-cellular leukemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. No correlation of DAP-IV activity with the level of E-cellular differentiation was observed. PMID:2572281
Bylinkina, V S; Golubeva, N V; Gureeva, T A; Lokshina, L A; Polianskaia, A M; Samo?lova, R S
BACKGROUND:: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis and immunological tolerance due primarily to genetic defects in Fas (CD95\\/APO-1; TNFRSF6), a cell surface receptor that regulates apoptosis and its signaling apparatus. METHODS:: Fas ligand gene mutations from ALPS patients were identified through cDNA and genomic DNA sequencing. Molecular and biochemical assessment of these mutant Fas ligand proteins
Lilia L Bi; George Pan; T Prescott Atkinson; Lixin Zheng; Janet K Dale; Christopher Makris; Vishnu Reddy; Jay M McDonald; Richard M Siegel; Jennifer M Puck; Michael J Lenardo; Stephen E Straus
The function of intestinal immunity is to provide protection toward pathogens while preserving the composition of the microflora and tolerance to orally fed nutrients. This is achieved via a number of tightly regulated mechanisms including production of IgA antibodies by intestinal plasma cells. Celiac disease is a common gut disorder caused by a dysfunctional immune regulation as signified, among other features, by a massive intestinal IgA autoantibody response. Here we review the current knowledge of this B-cell response and how it is induced, and we discuss key questions to be addressed in future research.
Mesin, Luka; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Niro, Roberto Di
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by specific pathological features. A hallmark of pSS is B-cell hyperactivity as manifested by the production of autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, formation of ectopic lymphoid structures within the inflamed tissues, and enhanced risk of B-cell lymphoma. Changes in the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets and differences in post-recombination processes of immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) gene usage are also characteristic features of pSS. Comparison of B cells from the peripheral blood and salivary glands of patients with pSS with regard to their expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR5, and their migratory capacity towards the corresponding ligands, CXCL12 and CXCL13, provide a mechanism for the prominent accumulation of CXCR4+CXCR5+ memory B cells in the inflamed glands. Glandular B cells expressing distinct features of IgV light and heavy chain rearrangements, (re)circulating B cells with increased mutations of c? transcripts in both CD27- and CD27+ memory B-cell subsets, and enhanced frequencies of individual peripheral B cells containing IgV heavy chain transcripts of multiple isotypes indicate disordered selection and incomplete differentiation processes of B cells in the inflamed tissues in pSS. This may possibly be related to a lack of appropriate censoring mechanisms or different B-cell activation pathways within the ectopic lymphoid structures of the inflamed tissues. These findings add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this autoimmune inflammatory disorder and may result in new therapeutic approaches.
Hansen, Arne; Lipsky, Peter E; Dorner, Thomas
Amongst the many ploys used by microbial pathogens to interfere with host immune responses is the production of proteins with the properties of superantigens. These properties enable superantigens to interact with conserved variable region framework subdomains of the antigen receptors of lymphocytes rather than the complementarity determining region involved in the binding of conventional antigens. To understand how a B cell superantigen affects the host immune system, we infused protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) and followed the fate of peripheral B cells expressing B cell receptors (BCRs) with VH regions capable of binding SpA. Within hours, a sequence of events was initiated in SpA-binding splenic B cells, with rapid down-regulation of BCRs and coreceptors, CD19 and CD21, the induction of an activation phenotype, and limited rounds of proliferation. Apoptosis followed through a process heralded by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, the induction of the caspase pathway, and DNA fragmentation. After exposure, B cell apoptotic bodies were deposited in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. Although in vivo apoptosis did not require the Fas death receptor, B cells were protected by interleukin (IL)-4 or CD40L, or overexpression of Bcl-2. These studies define a pathway for BCR-mediated programmed cell death that is VH region targeted by a superantigen.
Goodyear, Carl S.; Silverman, Gregg J.
B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs), fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgG?1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti-c-myc antibodies in culture of native splenocytes, suggesting their highest therapeutic potential as targeted B cell killing agents.
Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Stremovskiy, Oleg A.; Kozlov, Leonid V.; Bichucher, Anna M.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Shamborant, Olga G.; Balabashin, Dmitry S.; Sashchenko, Lidia P.; Tonevitsky, Alexander G.; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G.; Deyev, Sergey M.
Dendritic cells (DCs) modulate B-cell differentiation, activation, and survival mainly through production of growth factors such as B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF). DC populations have been reported to be affected in number, phenotype and function during HIV infection and such alterations may contribute to the dysregulation of the B-cell compartment. Herein, we reflect on the potential impact of DC on the pathogenesis of HIV-related B cell disorders, and how DC status may modulate the outcome of mucosal B cell responses against HIV, which are pivotal to the control of disease. A concept that could be extrapolated to the overall outcome of HIV disease, whereby control versus progression may reside in the host's capacity to maintain DC homeostasis at mucosal sites, where DC populations present an inherent capacity of modulating the balance between tolerance and protection, and are amongst the earliest cell types to be exposed to the virus.
Poudrier, Johanne; Chagnon-Choquet, Josiane; Roger, Michel
Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a lymphoproliferative disease characterized by a heterogeneous lymphoplasmacytic bone marrow infiltrate and monoclonal immunoglobulin M production. WM shows similarities in presentations with related B-cell malignancies, sometimes making it difficult to distinguish them. To better characterize the genetic basis of WM, we performed a comparative genomic analysis with the related entities, lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas without monoclonal immunoglobulin M protein, marginal zone lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Overall, WM shows a very stable karyotype and shares most of the chromosomal abnormalities with most of the indolent B-cell malignancies. Trisomy 4 is unique to WM; however, no candidate genes have been identified in the chromosome. Abnormalities that affect myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88)--interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathways were found in a significant proportion of WM cases, which suggest their relevance in the pathogenesis of the disease and opening new avenues that may be a guide to design novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:23477936
Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael
Influenza A virus-specific B lymphocytes and the antibodies they produce protect against infection. However, the outcome of interactions between an influenza haemagglutinin-specific B cell via its receptor (BCR) and virus is unclear. Through somatic cell nuclear transfer we generated mice that harbour B cells with a BCR specific for the haemagglutinin of influenza A/WSN/33 virus (FluBI mice). Their B cells secrete an immunoglobulin gamma 2b that neutralizes infectious virus. Whereas B cells from FluBI and control mice bind equivalent amounts of virus through interaction of haemagglutinin with surface-disposed sialic acids, the A/WSN/33 virus infects only the haemagglutinin-specific B cells. Mere binding of virus is not sufficient for infection of B cells: this requires interactions of the BCR with haemagglutinin, causing both disruption of antibody secretion and FluBI B-cell death within 18?h. In mice infected with A/WSN/33, lung-resident FluBI B cells are infected by the virus, thus delaying the onset of protective antibody release into the lungs, whereas FluBI cells in the draining lymph node are not infected and proliferate. We propose that influenza targets and kills influenza-specific B cells in the lung, thus allowing the virus to gain purchase before the initiation of an effective adaptive response. PMID:24141948
Dougan, Stephanie K; Ashour, Joseph; Karssemeijer, Roos A; Popp, Maximilian W; Avalos, Ana M; Barisa, Marta; Altenburg, Arwen F; Ingram, Jessica R; Cragnolini, Juan Jose; Guo, Chunguang; Alt, Frederick W; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Ploegh, Hidde L
Influenza A virus-specific B lymphocytes and the antibodies they produce protect against infection 1. However, the outcome of interactions between a flu hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cell via its receptor (BCR) and virus is unclear. Through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) we generated mice that harbor B cells with a BCR specific for the HA of A/WSN/33 (FluBI mice). Their B cells secrete an IgG2b that neutralizes infectious virus. While B cells from FluBI and control mice bind equivalent amounts of virus through interactions of HA with surface-disposed sialic acids, the A/WSN/33 virus infects only the HA-specific B cells. Mere binding of virus is not sufficient for infection of B cells: this requires interactions of the BCR with HA, causing both disruption of antibody secretion and FluBI B cell death within 18 hours. In mice infected with A/WSN/33, lung-resident FluBI B cells are infected by the virus, thus delaying the onset of protective antibody release into the lungs, while FluBI cells in the draining lymph node are not infected and proliferate. We propose that influenza targets and kills influenza-specific B cells in the lung, thus allowing the virus to gain purchase prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive response.
Dougan, Stephanie K.; Ashour, Joseph; Karssemeijer, Roos A.; Popp, Maximilian W.; Avalos, Ana M.; Barisa, Marta; Altenburg, Arwen F.; Ingram, Jessica R.; Cragnolini, Juan Jose; Guo, Chunguang; Alt, Frederick W.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Ploegh, Hidde L.
A family study was performed in order to diagnose X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease in a fetus. The molecular genetic analysis indicated that the fetus, as well as its healthy 7-year-old brother, inherited XLP. Analysis of immunoglobulin subclasses from the 7-year-old brother supported the DNA-based diagnosis. This is the first XLP family of African descent. PMID:1355632
Skare, J; Madan, S; Glaser, J; Purtilo, D; Nitowsky, H; Pulijaal, V; Milunsky, A
Linkage studies have been carried out with 28 X-linked polymorphic probes to try to locate the gene for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). DNA from three families has been analysed, including three affected boys among 21 family members. None of the probes tested has been found to be linked to XLP. However, the data are recorded for the use of other workers on this rare disease. PMID:2896078
Harris, A; Lenoir, G M; Lankester, S A
Patients with autoimmune lymphoprolif- erative syndrome (ALPS) and systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) have T-cell dysregulation and produce abnormal, activated T lymphocytes and an atypical peripheral T-cell population, termed double negative T cells (DNTs). T-cell functions, including DNT transition in T- cell development and T-cell activation, are critically dependent on Notch signal- ing. We hypothesized that inhibiting Notch signaling would be
David T. Teachey; Alix E. Seif; Valerie I. Brown; Marlo Bruno; Ralph M. Bunte; Yueh J. Chang; John K. Choi; Jonathan D. Fish; Gregor S. Reid; Theresa Ryan; Cecilia Sheen; Patrick Zweidler-McKay; Stephan A. Grupp
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system. Autoimmunity appears to play a key role in both susceptibility to MS and development of disease, and pathogenesis has been linked to defects in distinct regulatory cell subsets. B cells are known for their capacity to produce antibodies. Recent advances in B cell biology, however, have demonstrated that regulatory B cells, a functional subset of B cells, contribute to tolerance development. Regulatory B cells were originally described in mouse autoimmunity and inflammation models where they dampen inflammation, but have also been found in several helminth infection models. We recently demonstrated that helminth-infected MS patients show a significantly lower clinical and radiological disease activity. Parasite-driven protection was associated with regulatory T cell induction and secretion of suppressive cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-?. In addition, helminth infections in MS patients induced regulatory B cell populations producing high levels of IL-10, dampening harmful immune responses through a mechanism mediated, at least in part, by the ICOS-B/RP-1 pathway. More importantly, production of IL-10 by B cells in this study was restricted to helminth-infected individuals exclusively.The first part of this chapter will detail the criteria used in this study for selection of helminth-infected MS patients, MS patients without infection, and patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods for isolation of peripheral blood CD19(+) cells and in particular for their stimulation with heat-inactivated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain, CDw32L cells, and CD40 antibody will also be described in detail. Finally, we will illustrate the procedures used to analyze phenotypic surface markers on these cells and characterize them in terms of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, lymphotoxin, and TGF-? secretion. PMID:25015286
Correale, Jorge; Equiza, Tomas Rivero
Long-term bone marrow cultures have been useful in determining gene expression patterns in pre-B cells and in the identification of cytokines such as interleukin 7 (IL-7). We have developed a culture system to selectively grow populations of B lineage restricted progenitors (pro-B cells) from murine bone marrow. Pro-B cells do not grow in response to IL-7, Steel locus factor (SLF), or a combination of the two. c-kit, the SLF receptor, and the IL-7 receptor are both expressed by pro-B cells, indicating that the lack of response is not simply due to the absence of receptors. Furthermore, SLF is not necessary for the growth of pro-B cells since they could be expanded on a stromal line derived from Steel mice that produces no SLF. IL-7 responsiveness in pre-B cells is associated with an increase in n-myc expression and is correlated with immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements. Although members of the ets family of transcription factors and the Pim-1 kinase are expressed by pro-B cells, n-myc is not expressed. Pro-B cells maintain Ig genes in the germline configuration, which is correlated with a low level of recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (Rag-1 and 2) mRNA expression, but high expression of sterile mu and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Pro-B cells are unable to grow separated from the stromal layer by a porous membrane, indicating that stromal contact is required for growth. These results suggest that pro-B cells are dependent on alternative growth signals derived from bone marrow stroma and can be distinguished from pre-B cells by specific patterns of gene expression.
X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome is a rare primary immune-deficiency disorder caused by mutations of the SH2D1A or XIAP genes. Males with the disorder are usually in good health until contracting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) whereupon the majority of patients die from fulminant infectious mononucleosis, lymphoma or hypogammaglobulinaemia. This report describes a female carrier with an XLP phenotype who was retrospectively identified after her grandson died from the disorder. Subsequent genetic testing identified the patient's mother and affected maternal grandmother as XLP carriers. The family's medical records were significant. The proband had lymphoma at ages 2 and 8 and made a full recovery following treatment. Both the maternal grandmother and uncle died of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We were concerned that the XLP carrier mother may be predisposed to lymphoma if the normal X chromosome is skewed towards inactivation. The human androgen receptor assay detected random X chromosome inactivation in the carrier mother. EBV was not detected in the lymphoma tissues of the proband and his grandmother, confirming previous findings that EBV is not always associated with lymphoma in XLP. More significantly, our study highlights the importance of identifying XLP in families with a high incidence of lymphoma. PMID:18702745
Woon, S-T; Ameratunga, R; Croxson, M; Taylor, G; Neas, K; Edkins, E; Browett, P; Gane, E; Munn, S
Using response to four different BCDF preparations as a model of B cell maturation, we have shown that induction of B cell proliferation abrogates terminal maturation of these cells. In fact, response to some BCDFs can occur in the presence of inhibitors of DNA replication, suggesting that there are proliferation-independent as well as proliferation-dependent BCDFs. These findings cannot be explained by changes in the kinetics of the BCDF response, nor can they be reversed by repletion of media or changing cell densities. Proliferation- independent BCDFs appear to exert their effects on dense, resting 4F2- B cells rather than more activated B cells. This is in contrast to B cell differentiation signals of IL-2 alone or SAC and IL-2 in concert. These data suggest that the current models of B cell activation and maturation may require some reorganization, relegating the proliferative phase of B cell maturation to a lesser role. In addition, evidence is provided for the fact that the resting B cell may have the full complement of receptors for BCDF as well as BCGF and BCPF and may help account for the inherent nonspecificity of the immune response.
Developing B cells must pass a series of checkpoints that are regulated by membrane-bound Ig? through the Ig?-Ig? signal transducers. To determine how Ig? expression affects B cell development and Ab selection in humans we analyzed Ig gene rearrangements in pro-B cells from two patients who are unable to produce Ig? proteins. We find that Ig? expression does not affect VH, D, or JH segment usage and is not required for human Ig? and Ig? recombination or expression. However, the heavy and light chains found in pro-B cells differed from those in peripheral B cells in that they showed unusually long CDR3s. In addition, the Ig? repertoire in Ig?-deficient pro-B cells was skewed to downstream J?s and upstream V?s, consistent with persistent secondary V(D)J rearrangements. Thus, Ig? expression is not required for secondary V(D)J recombination in pro-B cells. However, B cell receptor expression shapes the Ab repertoire in humans and is essential for selection against Ab’s with long CDR3s.
Meffre, Eric; Milili, Michele; Blanco-Betancourt, Carla; Antunes, Henedina; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Schiff, Claudine
Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I (HIV-1) infection is associated with a high incidence of B-cell lymphomas. The role of HIV in these lymphomas is unclear and currently there are no valid in vivo models for better understanding HIV-related lymphomagenesis. Transgenic (Tg) 26 mice have a 7.4-kb pNL4-3 HIV-1 provirus lacking a 3.1-kb sequence encompassing parts of the gag-pol region. Approximately 15% of these HIV Tg mice spontaneously develop lymphoma with hallmark pre-diagnostic markers including skin lesions, diffuse lymphadenopathy and an increase in pro-inflammatory serum cytokines. Here we describe the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the B cell leukemia/lymphoma in the Tg mice. Results The transformed B cell population consists of CD19+pre-BCR+CD127+CD43+CD93+ precursor B cells. The tumor cells are clonal and characterized by an increased expression of several cellular oncogenes. Expression of B cell-stimulatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-13 and TNF? and HIV proteins p17, gp120 and nef were elevated in the Tg mice with lymphoma. Conclusions Increased expression of HIV proteins and the B-cell stimulatory factors is consistent with the interpretation that one or more of these factors play a role in lymphoma development. The lymphomas share many similarities with those occurring in HIV/AIDS+ patients and may provide a valuable model for understanding AIDS-related lymphomagenesis and elucidating the role played by HIV-1.
The B-cell receptor (BCR) complex and its associated protein-tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the development, proliferation, and survival of normal or malignant B cells. Regulated activity of the BCR complex promotes the expansion of selected B cells and the deletion of unwanted or self-reactive ones. Compounds that inhibit various components of this pathway, including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), and phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), have been developed. Herein we summarize the rationale for use of agents that can inhibit BCR-signaling to treat patients with either indolent or aggressive B-cell lymphomas, highlight early clinical results, and speculate on the future application of such agents in the treatment of patients with various B-cell lymphomas.
Choi, Michael Y.; Kipps, Thomas J.
A subset of patients with severe hemophilia B, the X-linked bleeding disorder resulting from absence of coagulation factor IX (FIX), develop pathogenic antibody responses during replacement therapy. These inhibitors block standard therapy and are often associated with anaphylactic reactions to FIX. Established clinical immune tolerance induction protocols often fail for FIX inhibitors. In a murine model of this immune complication, retrovirally transduced primary B cells expressing FIX antigen fused with immunoglobulin-G heavy chain prevented antibody formation to FIX and was also highly effective in desensitizing animals with preexisting response. In contrast, transplant of B cells that received the identical expression cassette via nucleofection of plasmid vector substantially heightened antibody formation against FIX, a response that could be blocked by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) inhibition. While innate responses to TLR4 activation or to retrovirus were minimal in B cells, plasmid DNA activated TLR9, resulting in CpG-dependent NF-?B activation/IL-6 expression and adaptor protein 3 dependent, CpG-independent induction of IFN-I. Neither response was seen in TLR9-deficient B cells. Therefore, TLR9 signaling in B cells, in particular in response to plasmid vector, is highly immunogenic and has to be avoided in design of tolerance protocols. PMID:24609143
Wang, Xiaomei; Moghimi, Babak; Zolotukhin, Irene; Morel, Laurence M; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W
One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia. PMID:22613797
Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox
One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell–dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP?/?.B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP?/?.BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAPfl/fl.tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell–mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.
Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F.; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Carroll, Michael C.; Tsokos, George C.; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.; Terhorst, Cox
The deregulation of B cell differentiation has been shown to contribute to autoimmune disorders, hematological cancers, and aging. We provide evidence that the retinoic acid-producing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (Aldh1a1) is an oncogene suppressor in specific splenic IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and IgG1(+)/CD19(+) B cell populations. Aldh1a1 regulated transcription factors during B cell differentiation in a sequential manner: 1) retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) in IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and 2) zinc finger protein Zfp423 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) in IgG1(+)/CD19(+) splenocytes. In Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, splenic IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and IgG1(+)/CD19(+) B cells acquired expression of proto-oncogenic genes c-Fos, c-Jun, and Hoxa10 that resulted in splenomegaly. Human multiple myeloma B cell lines also lack Aldh1a1 expression; however, ectopic Aldh1a1 expression rescued Rara and Znf423 expressions in these cells. Our data highlight a mechanism by which an enzyme involved in vitamin A metabolism can improve B cell resistance to oncogenesis. PMID:24080087
Yasmeen, R; Meyers, J M; Alvarez, C E; Thomas, J L; Bonnegarde-Bernard, A; Alder, H; Papenfuss, T L; Benson, D M; Boyaka, P N; Ziouzenkova, O
My favored treatment approach for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma continues to evolve. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can now be cured in more than 50% of patients. This is a result of improved definitions of the disease, improved diagnostic capabilities, better staging and restaging techniques, a useful prognostic index to guide therapeutic decisions, and the development of increasingly effective therapies. Positron emission tomographic scans have improved the accuracy of both staging and restaging. Findings on a positron emission tomographic scan at the end of therapy are the best predictors of a good treatment outcome. Numerous subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been identified that require specific treatment approaches. For example, plasmablastic lymphoma typically lacks CD20 and does not benefit from treatment with rituximab. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma originating in specific extranodal sites such as the central nervous system, testes, and skin presents special problems and requires specific treatment approaches. A subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a very high proliferative rate seems to have a poor outcome when treated with CHOP-R and does better with regimens used for patients with Burkitt lymphoma. New insights into the biology of these disorders are likely to further change treatment approaches. Recognition that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is not one disease, but a variety of clinicopathologic syndromes provides the opportunity to further improve our ability to benefit patients.
Armitage, James O.
Insights into the important contribution of inflammation and immune functions in the development and progression of atherosclerosis have greatly improved our understanding of this disease. Although the role of T cells has been extensively studied for decades, only recently has the role of B cells gained more attention. Recent studies have identified differential effects of different B-cell subsets and helped to clarify the still poorly understood mechanisms by which these act. B1 cells have been shown to prevent lesion formation, whereas B2 cells have been suggested to promote it. Natural IgM antibodies, mainly derived from B1 cells, have been shown to mediate atheroprotective effects, but the functional role of other immunoglobulin classes, particularly IgG, still remains elusive. In this review, we will focus on recent insights on the role of B cells and various immunoglobulin classes and how these may mediate their effects in atherosclerotic lesion formation. Moreover, we will highlight potential therapeutic approaches focusing on B-cell depletion that could be used to translate experimental evidence to human disease.
Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Diehl, Cody J.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Binder, Christoph J.
The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is characterized by immunodeficiency to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) manifested by severe or fatal infectious mononucleosis and acquired immunodeficiency. We studied immune responses in six males of a well-characterized kindred with the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Two males were studied before and during acute fatal EBV infection. Both individuals demonstrated normal cellular and humoral immunity before EBV infection. During acute EBV infection, both individuals developed vigorous cytotoxic cellular responses against EBV-infected and -uninfected target cells. Anomalous killer and natural killer T cell activity was demonstrated against a variety of lymphoid cell lines, autologous fibroblasts and autologous hepatocytes. Effector cells responsible for anomalous killing reacted with a pan-T cell monoclonal antibody, and belonged to the OKT.8 T cell subset. Death in each case was caused by liver failure, but one patient developed extensive liver necrosis, whereas the other developed a massive infiltration of the liver with EBV-infected immunoblasts after aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. Immunological studies were performed on four males who had survived EBV infection years previously. They demonstrated global cellular immune defects with deficiencies of lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens and antigens, humoral immune deficiencies, abnormalities of regulatory T cell subsets and deficient natural killer cell activity. We propose that an aberrant immune response triggered by acute EBV infection results in unregulated anomalous killer and natural killer cell activity against EBV infected and uninfected cells. These studies suggest that global immune defects appearing in males with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome who survive EBV infection are epiphenomenon. Images
Sullivan, J L; Byron, K S; Brewster, F E; Baker, S M; Ochs, H D
Purpose of Review Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of disrupted lymphocyte homeostasis, resulting from mutations in the Fas apoptotic pathway. Clinical manifestations include lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoimmune cytopenias. A number of new insights have improved the understanding of the genetics and biology of ALPS. These will be discussed in this review. Recent Findings A number of key observations have been made recently that better define the pathophysiology of ALPS, including the characterization of somatic FAS variant ALPS, the identification of haploinsufficiency as a mechanism of decreased Fas expression, and the description of multiple genetic hits in FAS in some families that may explain the variable penetrance of the disease. In addition, ALPS has been shown to be a more common condition, as patients diagnosed with other disorders, including Evans syndrome and common variable immune deficiency have been found to have ALPS. Finally, the treatment of the disease has changed as splenectomy and rituximab have been shown to have unexpected ALPS specific toxicities, and mycophenolate mofetil and sirolimus have been demonstrated to have marked activity against the disease. Summary Based on novel advances the diagnostic algorithm and recommended treatment for ALPS have changed significantly, improving quality of life for many patients.
Teachey, David T.
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare worldwide occurring inherited immunodeficiency which is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Clinical phenotypes in 21 affected males from 5 German families with XLP ranged from severe and fatal infectious mononucleosis (57%) to acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia (28%), malignant lymphoma (28%), aplastic anaemia (19%) and hypergammaglobulinaemia M (19%). Molecular genetic studies with various polymorphic X-chromosomal DNA markers in 14 XLP families mapped the XLP gene locus to Xq25-q26. Haplotype analysis enables detection of XLP-positive and XLP-negative males already before EBV-infection as well as diagnosis of healthy female carriers within XLP families. PMID:7500602
Schuster, V; Grimm, T; Kress, W; Seidenspinner, S; Belohradsky, B H; Müller, P; Kreth, H W
Only a subpopulation of relatively large pre-B cells express pre-B cell receptors (preBCR) that can be seen with very sensitive immunofluorescence methods. Inefficient assembly of the multicomponent preBCR coupled with their ligand-induced endocytosis may account for the remarkably low in vivo levels of preBCR expression. Signaling initiated via the preBCR promotes cellular proliferation and RAG-1 and RAG-2 downregulation to interrupt the immunoglobulin V(D)J gene rearrangement process. Silencing of the surrogate light chain genes, VpreB and lambda5, then terminates preBCR expression to permit cell cycle exit, recombinase gene upregulation, and VJ(L) rearrangement by small pre-B cells destined to become B cells. PMID:12220935
Burrows, Peter D; Stephan, Robert P; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Lassoued, Kaïss; Zhang, Zhixin; Cooper, Max D
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by sudden cramps and spasms. High titers of enzyme-inhibiting IgG autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) are a hallmark of SPS, implicating an autoimmune component in the pathology of the syndrome. Studying the B cell compartment and the anti-GAD65 B cell response in two monozygotic
Marta Rizzi; Rolf Knoth; Christiane S. Hampe; Peter Lorenz; Marie-Lise Gougeon; Brigitte Lemercier; Nils Venhoff; Francesca Ferrera; Ulrich Salzer; Hans-Jürgen Thiesen; Hans-Hartmut Peter; Ulrich A. Walker; Hermann Eibel; Jacques Zimmer
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in a variety of human diseases, some of which have fatal outcomes. Some EBV related diseases are considered to be candidates for the treatment of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome is one of the representative diseases in which more than half of affected males die of infectious mononucleosis (IM) within a few weeks of primary infection, whereas the minority who survive have an increased risk of acquired hypogammaglobulinemia and lymphoma. Patients with XLP usually die by the age 40. Similarly, the majority of patients with chronic active EBV infection develop hemophagocytic syndrome, organ failure, opportunistic infection, and/or lymphoma and die within 5-10 years from onset. Recently, HSCT has provided successful outcomes in these patients. In this review, progress in the new therapeutic strategy is summarized, focusing on EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), which is one of the heterogeneous EBV-associated disorder. PMID:12467965
Kawa, Keisei; Okamura, Takayuki; Yasui, Masahiro; Sato, Emiko; Inoue, Masami
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that leads to an extreme, usually fatal increase in the number of lymphocytes upon infection with EBV. It is most commonly defined molecularly by loss of expression of SLAM-associated protein (SAP). Despite this, there is little understanding of how SAP deficiency causes lymphocytosis following EBV infection. Here we show that T cells from individuals with XLP are specifically resistant to apoptosis mediated by TCR restimulation, a process that normally constrains T cell expansion during immune responses. Expression of SAP and the SLAM family receptor NK, T, and B cell antigen (NTB-A) were required for TCR-induced upregulation of key pro-apoptotic molecules and subsequent apoptosis. Further, SAP/NTB-A signaling augmented the strength of the proximal TCR signal to achieve the threshold required for restimulation-induced cell death (RICD). Strikingly, TCR ligation in activated T cells triggered increased recruitment of SAP to NTB-A, dissociation of the phosphatase SHP-1, and colocalization of NTB-A with CD3 aggregates. In contrast, NTB-A and SHP-1 contributed to RICD resistance in XLP T cells. Our results reveal what we believe to be novel roles for NTB-A and SAP in regulating T cell homeostasis through apoptosis and provide mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disease in XLP. PMID:19759517
Snow, Andrew L; Marsh, Rebecca A; Krummey, Scott M; Roehrs, Philip; Young, Lisa R; Zhang, Kejian; van Hoff, Jack; Dhar, Deepali; Nichols, Kim E; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Su, Helen C; Bleesing, Jack J; Lenardo, Michael J
Association between trisomy 8 and myeloid disorders/malignancies has been well documented. We report on two patients with a known history of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) with bone marrow involvement. In addition to the classic B-CLL cytogenetic abnormalities in one of the patients, both showed a trisomy 8 clone in their bone marrow specimens. Using a BioView Duet automated scanning system, which allowed us to combine histology with fluorescence in situ hybridization, we showed that the trisomy 8 clone was restricted to the myeloid lineage. We believe that this finding signifies the development of myelodysplastic syndrome (de novo or therapy related), rather than progression of B-CLL with the occurrence of a new clone, and that in general, it has implications for the finding of trisomy 8 in CLL. PMID:18474297
Pozdnyakova, Olga; Stachurski, Dariusz; Hutchinson, Lloyd; Ramakrishnan, Sapna; Miron, Patricia Minehart
To advance our understanding and treatment of disease, research immunologists have been called-upon to place more centralized emphasis on impactful human studies. Such endeavors will inevitably require large-scale study execution and data management regulation (“Big Biology”), necessitating standardized and reliable metrics of immune status and function. A well-known example setting this large-scale effort in-motion is identifying correlations between eventual disease outcome and T lymphocyte phenotype in large HIV-patient cohorts using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity are also characterized by correlative and functional contributions of B lymphocytes, which to-date have received much less attention in the human Big Biology enterprise. Here, we review progress in human B cell phenotyping, analysis, and bioinformatics tools that constitute valuable resources for the B cell research community to effectively join in this effort.
Kaminski, Denise A.; Wei, Chungwen; Qian, Yu; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Sanz, Ignacio
Regulatory B cells (Breg) are a subpopulation of B cells that play a suppressive role in the immune system. The mechanism of how these immune cells perform their effects has been explored by experiments in mice and in humans. Intracellular staining for interleukin 10 continues to be a consistent and reproducible method of identifying Breg in mouse and human studies. The lack of Breg is associated with a worsening of several autoimmune diseases such as collagen-induced arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in murine studies. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise summary of the role of Breg in the immune system, including the most recently studied cell surface markers associated with Breg, and to describe the role of Breg in the etiology of several autoimmune diseases, the current understanding of Breg development, their role in the development of autoimmune diseases, and their role in inducing tolerance after transplantation. PMID:24216174
Goode, I; Xu, H; Ildstad, S T
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine whose actions are closely related to B cell differentiation into plasma cells as well as to CD8+ cytolytic T cell effector and memory generation, influencing the T lymphocyte response to different viruses. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1) is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by a high susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. We observed in a pediatric patient with XLP-1 that IL-21 was expressed in nearly all peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, IL-21 could not be found in the lymph nodes, suggesting massive mobilization of activated cells toward the infection's target organs, where IL-21-producing cells were detected, resulting in large areas of tissue damage.
Ortega, Consuelo; Estevez, Orlando A.; Fernandez, Silvia; Aguado, Rocio; Rumbao, Jose M.; Gonzalez, Teresa; Perez-Navero, Juan L.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally impaired. In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer), resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from ?-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-? following ?-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. These data demonstrate an important role for NKT cells in the immune response to an aggressive hematologic malignancy like mantle cell lymphoma.
Li, Junxin; Sun, Wenji; Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B.; Page, Carly; Younger, Kenisha M.; Tiper, Irina V.; Frieman, Matthew; Kimball, Amy S.; Webb, Tonya J.
Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is rare and intriguing hematological disorder predominantly reported in young to middle- aged smoking women. It is characterized by persistent moderate polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with circulating hallmark binucleated lymphocytes and elevated polyclonal serum IgM. Most patients have benign clinical course on long-term follow-up. Some pathologic features of PPBL may resemble malignant lymphoma, including morphology as well as frequent cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities. Significant symptomatic splenomegaly requiring splenectomy is very unusual for this disorder; therefore there is a lack of descriptions of the morphologic features of the spleen in the literature. We present here one of the first detailed descriptions of the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of the spleen from a young female with PPBL who developed massive splenomegaly during 6-year follow up. Splenectomy was performed for symptomatic relief and suspicion of malignant process. The morphological and immunohistochemical features of the spleen closely mimicked involvement by B-cell lymphoma, however there was no monotypic surface light chain restriction seen by flow cytometry and no clonal rearrangement of IgH gene was detected by molecular analysis. Evaluating a splenectomy sample in cases like this may present a diagnostic challenge to pathologists. Therefore, correlation with B cell clonality studies (by flow cytometry and molecular analysis), clinical findings and peripheral blood morphology searching for characteristic binucleated lymphocytes is essential to avoid misdiagnosing this benign process as B-cell lymphoma. We also present here a literature review on pathogenesis of PPBL. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5329558967545656
Indolent B-cell lymphomas include follicular lymphoma (FL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs). They are a diverse group of disorders with different clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic and genetic features. However, because of several histological similarities, such as in cell size and nodular structure, it may sometimes be difficult to differentiate them and to make a definitive diagnosis. In this review article, we summarize the histopathology of indolent B-cell neoplasms excluding FL and including hairy cell leukemia, and briefly mention recent genetic findings useful for their differential diagnosis. In addition, a provisional subtype of low-grade B-cell lymphoma, "prolymphocytic/paraimmunoblastic lymphoma", is described. [J Clin Exp Hematop 54(1): 11-22, 2014]. PMID:24942942
Sakata, Seiji; Tsuyama, Naoko; Takeuchi, Kengo
In many B-cell lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are biologic and diagnostic hallmarks of disease. An intriguing subset is formed by the so-called double- hit (DH) lymphomas that are defined by a chromosomal breakpoint affecting the MYC/8q24 locus in combination with another recurrent breakpoint, mainly a t(14;18)(q32;q21) involving BCL2. Recently, these lymphomas have received increased attention, which contributed to the introduction of a novel category of lymphomas in the 2008 WHO classification, "B cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL." In this review we explore the existing literature for the most recurrent types of DH B-cell lymphomas and the involved genes with their functions, as well as their pathology and clinical aspects including therapy and prognosis. The incidence of aggressive B-cell lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma with a MYC breakpoint and in particular a double hit is difficult to assess, because screening by methods like FISH has not been applied on large, unselected series, and the published cytogenetic data may be biased to specific categories of lymphomas. DH lymphomas have been classified heterogeneously but mostly as DLBCL, the majority having a germinal center phenotype and expression of BCL2. Patients with DH lymphomas often present with poor prognostic parameters, including elevated LDH, bone marrow and CNS involvement, and a high IPI score. All studies on larger series of patients suggest a poor prognosis, also if treated with RCHOP or high-intensity treatment modalities. Importantly, this poor outcome cannot be accounted for by the mere presence of a MYC/8q24 breakpoint. Likely, the combination of MYC and BCL2 expression and/or a related high genomic complexity are more important. Compared to these DH lymphomas, BCL6(+)/MYC(+) DH lymphomas are far less common, and in fact most of these cases represent BCL2(+)/BCL6(+)/MYC(+) triple-hit lymphomas with involvement of BCL2 as well. CCND1(+)/MYC(+) DH lymphomas with involvement of 11q13 may also be relatively frequent, the great majority being classified as aggressive variants of mantle cell lymphoma. This suggests that activation of MYC might be an important progression pathway in mantle cell lymphoma as well. Based on clinical significance and the fact that no other solid diagnostic tools are available to identify DH lymphomas, it seems advisable to test all diffuse large B-cell and related lymphomas for MYC and other breakpoints. PMID:21119107
Aukema, Sietse M; Siebert, Reiner; Schuuring, Ed; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Boerma, Evert-Jan; Kluin, Philip M
MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and play critical roles in B cell development and malignancy. miRNA expression is important globally, as B cell specific knockouts of Dicer show profound defects in B cell development; and is also critical at the level of specific miRNAs. In this review, we discuss miRNAs that are involved in normal B cell development in the bone marrow and during B cell activation and terminal differentiation in the periphery. Next, we turn to miRNAs that are dysregulated during diseases of B cells, including malignant diseases and autoimmunity. Further study of miRNAs and their targets will lead to a better understanding of B cell development, and should also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against B cell diseases.
Cyclin D2 affects B cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo. It is rate-limiting for B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent proliferation of B cells, and cyclin D2\\/ mice lack CD5(B1) B lymphocytes. We show here that the bone marrow (BM) of cyclin D2\\/ mice contains half the num- bers of Sca1B220 B cell progenitors but nor- mal levels of Sca1 progenitor cells
Azim Mohamedali; Ines Soeiro; Nicholas C. Lea; Janet Glassford; Lolita Banerji; Ghulam J. Mufti; Eric W.-F. Lam; N. Shaun; B. Thomas
To assess the importance of B cell control of T cell differentiation, we analyzed the course of the T helper type 1 (TH1)-driven disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice with an altered B cell compartment. We found that recovery was dependent on the presence of autoantigen-reactive B cells. B cells from recovered mice produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to
Simon Fillatreau; Claire H. Sweenie; Mandy J. McGeachy; David Gray; Stephen M. Anderton
Although B cells play important roles in the humoral immune response and the regulation of adaptive immunity, B cell subpopulations with unique phenotypes, particularly those with non-classical immune functions, should be further investigated. By challenging mice with Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, vesicular stomatitis virus and Toll-like receptor ligands, we identified an inducible CD11ahiFc?RIIIhi B cell subpopulation that is significantly expanded and produces high levels of IFN-? during the early stage of the immune response. This subpopulation of B cells can promote macrophage activation via generating IFN-?, thereby facilitating the innate immune response against intracellular bacterial infection. As this new subpopulation is of B cell origin and exhibits the phenotypic characteristics of B cells, we designated these cells as IFN-?-producing innate B cells. Dendritic cells were essential for the inducible generation of these innate B cells from the follicular B cells via CD40L-CD40 ligation. Increased Bruton's tyrosine kinase activation was found to be responsible for the increased activation of non-canonical NF-?B pathway in these innate B cells after CD40 ligation, with the consequent induction of additional IFN-? production. The identification of this new population of innate B cells may contribute to a better understanding of B cell functions in anti-infection immune responses and immune regulation.
Bao, Yan; Liu, Xingguang; Han, Chaofeng; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Bin; Zhang, Qian; Gu, Yan; Hou, Jin; Qian, Li; Qian, Cheng; Han, Huanxing; Cao, Xuetao
There is much evidence to implicate B cells, plasma cells, and their products in the pathogenesis of MS. Despite unequivocal evidence that the animal model for MS, EAE, is initiated by myelin-specific T cells, there is accumulating evidence of a role for B cells, plasma cells, and their products in EAE pathogenesis. The role(s) played by B cells, plasma cells,
Anne H. Cross; John L. Trotter; Jeri-Anne Lyons
Recent data derived from animal studies and clinical studies in humans provide evidence supporting a central role of B cells in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis. The recent development of biologic agents that can deplete B cells or block their function provide evidence that targeting B cells may be an effective
Jane A. Gross; Stacey R. Dillon; Rafael Ponce; Micah J. Benson; Randolph J. Noelle
B cells infiltrate the skin in many chronic inflammatory diseases caused by autoimmunity or infection. Despite potential contribution to disease, skin-associated B cells remain poorly characterized. Using an ovine model of granulomatous skin inflammation, we demonstrate that B cells increase in the skin and skin-draining afferent lymph during inflammation. Surprisingly, skin B cells are a heterogeneous population that is distinct from lymph node B cells, with more large lymphocytes as well as B-1-like B cells that co-express high levels IgM and CD11b. Skin B cells have increased MHCII, CD1, and CD80/86 expression compared with lymph node B cells, suggesting that they are well-suited for T cell activation at the site of inflammation. Furthermore, we show that skin accumulation of B cells and antibody-secreting cells during inflammation increases local antibody titers, which could augment host defense and autoimmunity. While skin B cells express typical skin homing receptors such as E-selectin ligand and alpha-4 and beta-1 integrins, they are unresponsive to ligands for chemokine receptors associated with T cell homing into skin. Instead, skin B cells migrate toward the cutaneously expressed CCR6 ligand CCL20. Our data support a model in which B cells use CCR6-CCL20 to recirculate through the skin, fulfilling a novel role in skin immunity and inflammation.
Geherin, Skye A.; Fintushel, Sarah R.; Lee, Michael H.; Wilson, R. Paul; Patel, Reema T.; Alt, Carsten; Young, Alan J.; Hay, John B.; Debes, Gudrun F.
The B-1 subpopulation of B lymphocytes differs phenotypically and functionally from conventional B-2 B cells. B-1 B cells are proposed to derive from a distinct progenitor, but such a population has not been isolated. Here we identify and characterize a B-1 B cell progenitor whose numbers peaked in fetal bone marrow but were less abundant in postnatal bone marrow. These
Encarnacion Montecino-Rodriguez; Hyosuk Leathers; Kenneth Dorshkind
Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), EBV-positive systemic T-cell lymphoproliferative disease (STLPD) of childhood, and chronic active EBV (CAEBV) infection may develop after primary EBV infection. This study reviewed the clinicopathological spectrum of EBV-associated T- and natural killer (NK)-cell LPD, including STLPD and CAEBV infection, with an analysis of T-cell clonality. Methods Clinicopathological features of seven patients with EBV-associated HLH or STLPD and 12 patients with CAEBV infection were reviewed. Immunohistochemical staining and a T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement study were performed. Results STLPD and EBV-positive HLH showed significantly overlapping clinicopathological findings. One patient with STLPD and one patient with EBV-positive HLH demonstrated moderate to severe atypia of the infiltrating lymphocytes, whereas the remaining patients lacked significant atypia. Twelve patients had CAEBV infection, four of whom suffered mosquito-bite hypersensitivity, five showed NK lymphocytosis, and one suffered hydroa vacciniforme. Infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly small and devoid of atypia. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was found in seven of 11 patients. Monoclonality was detected in three (50%) of the six patients with successful TCR gene analysis. Conclusions EBV-positive HLH and STLPD share similar clinicopathological findings and may constitute a continuous spectrum of acute EBV-associated T- or NK-cell proliferative disorders. The distinction of EBV-positive T-cell LPD from EBV-positive HLH may be difficult during routine diagnoses because of the technical limitations of clonality assessment.
Hong, Mineui; Yoo, Keon Hee; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Won Seog
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of dysregulated lymphocyte homeostasis. Biomarkers including elevated CD3+TCR??+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells (TCR??+ DNT), IL-10, sCD95L and vitamin B12 can be used to differentiate between ALPS and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients with an overlapping clinical phenotype. We investigated the utility of ALPS biomarkers in 13 CVID patients with lymphoproliferation and/or autoimmune cytopaenia with comparison to 33 healthy controls. Vitamin B12 (P < 0.01) and IL-10 (P < 0.0001), but not sCD95L or TCR??+ DNT, were increased in CVID compared to controls. The 95th percentile for TCR??+ DNT in healthy controls was used to define a normal range up to 2.3% of total lymphocytes or 3.4% of T cells. These frequencies lie markedly beyond the cut offs used in current ALPS diagnostic criteria (? 1.5% of total lymphocytes or 2.5% of CD3+ lymphocytes), suggesting these limits may have poor specificity for ALPS. PMID:23993982
Roberts, C A; Ayers, L; Bateman, E A L; Sadler, R; Magerus-Chatinet, A; Rieux-Laucat, F; Misbah, S A; Ferry, B L
A major focus of our research is to understand the molecular and cellular basis of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare and often fatal immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene, which encodes the adaptor molecule SAP. Recently, we observed that SAP is essential for the development of natural killer T (NKT) cells, a lymphocyte population that participates in protection against certain tumors, infections, and autoimmune states. In this review, we describe the approaches that we are taking to understand the role of SAP in immune cells, including NKT cells. By using SAP as the focal point of our studies, we hope to identify novel signaling pathways that could be targeted to improve the treatment for patients with XLP as well as more common disorders, such as autoimmunity and cancer. PMID:18815745
Bassiri, Hamid; Janice Yeo, W C; Rothman, Jennifer; Koretzky, Gary A; Nichols, Kim E
Despite tremendous advances in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there remains interest in oral agents that may offer benefits that are similar to, or better than, those of biologic therapies. In their paper, Chang and colleagues demonstrate the effectiveness of a Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor in two models of RA. Btk inhibition impacts several pathways affecting both B-cell and macrophage activation, making it a promising target in RA. However, other kinase inhibitors have failed to transition from animal models to human therapy, so it remains to be seen whether a Btk inhibitor will have a role in the RA treatment armamentarium.
Synopsis Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) remains a curable lymphoma, with improved outcome due in large part to incorporation of rituximab in standard regimens. The disease is heterogeneous clinically, morphologically, and molecularly. Recent insights into the molecular heterogeneity of DLBCL are beginning to yield novel therapeutics with significant promise for key subsets of patients. Although CHOP chemotherapy with rituximab remains a standard therapeutic approach for most patients with DLBCL, we anticipate that novel agents will be included in treatment regimens for many patients in the near future.
Friedberg, Jonathan W.
B cells undergo a complex series of maturation and selection steps in the bone marrow and spleen during differentiation into mature immune effector cells. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family member B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) (BLyS\\/TALL-1) plays an important role in B cell homeostasis. BAFF and its close homologue a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) have both
Pascal Schneider; Hisakazu Takatsuka; Anne Wilson; Fabienne Mackay; Aubry Tardivel; Susanne Lens; Teresa G. Cachero; Daniela Finke; Friedrich Beermann; Jürg Tschopp
We describe regulatory effects that a novel neurotrophin-1\\/B cell-stimulating factor-3 (NNT-1\\/BSF-3; also reported as cardiotro- phin-like cytokine) has on B cell function. NNT-1\\/BSF-3 stimulates B cell proliferation and Ig production in vitro. NNT-1\\/BSF- 3-transgenic mice, engineered to express NNT-1\\/BSF-3 in the liver under control of the apolipoprotein E promoter, show B cell hyperplasia with particular expansion of the mature follicular
Giorgio Senaldi; Marina Stolina; Jane Guo; Raffaella Faggioni; Susan McCabe; Stephen A. Kaufman; Gwyneth Van; Weilong Xu; Frederick A. Fletcher; Thomas Boone; Ming-Shi Chang; Ulla Sarmiento; Russell C. Cattley
Patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) carry a substantially increased risk to develop malignant lymphomas. This is in part due to the immunosuppression required to maintain the function of the organ graft. Depending on the transplanted organ, up to 15% of pediatric transplant recipients acquire posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), and eventually 20% of those succumb to the disease. Early diagnosis of PTLD is often hampered by the unspecific symptoms and the difficult differential diagnosis, which includes atypical infections as well as graft rejection. Treatment of PTLD is limited by the high vulnerability towards antineoplastic chemotherapy in transplanted children. However, new treatment strategies and especially the introduction of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab have dramatically improved outcomes of PTLD. This review discusses risk factors for the development of PTLD in children, summarizes current approaches to therapy, and gives an outlook on developing new treatment modalities like targeted therapy with virus-specific T cells. Finally, monitoring strategies are evaluated.
Hypogammaglobulinemia is a common symptom in different immunodeficiencies. It is, however, not usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. The X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) on the other hand shows immunological changes in response to the EBV. Here we report three previously healthy boys, all of which developed persistent hypogammaglobulinemia following severe acute infectious mononucleosis. All three patients revealed T-cell abnormalities including inverted CD4/CD8 and increased CD8(+) T-cell numbers. The number of IFN-gamma-producing T cells were markedly increased in the two patients studied so far. In addition, patient 2 showed mainly T cells, instead of B cells, to be infected with the EBV. Apart from an uncle of patient 3, who died of malignant lymphoma, family history was unremarkable in all cases. All three patients exhibited mutations in the SH2D1A gene, establishing the diagnosis of XLP. Protein expression was found on immunoblot analysis in one patient with a missense mutation. Development of persistent hypogammaglobulinemia after severe primary EBV infection seems to be a specific diagnostic sign for XLP even in males with unremarkable family history. PMID:15359110
Hügle, B; Suchowerskyj, P; Hellebrand, H; Adler, B; Borte, M; Sack, U; Overberg-Schmidt, U Schulte; Strnad, N; Otto, J; Meindl, A; Schuster, V
Phosphoinositide kinase (PI3K) is activated by various receptors on lymphocytes and regulates development, activation, and tolerance. Genetic ablation of PI3K function in T cells leads to the appearance of autoimmune disorders. In B cells, loss of the class IA regulatory subunit p85alpha causes a partial defect in B cell development and proliferation, whereas loss of p85beta alone causes no apparent changes in B cell function. Here we investigate further the consequences of p85beta deletion in B cells, in the presence or absence of p85alpha. We demonstrate that p85beta partially compensates for loss of p85alpha in B cell development and peripheral survival, with greater defects observed when both isoforms are absent. BCR-mediated AKT phosphorylation is partially reduced in p85alpha-deficient B cells and further diminished with concomitant loss of p85beta. Unexpectedly, loss of p85beta results in increased BCR-mediated proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. These results indicate that the p85beta regulatory isoform has partially overlapping functions with p85alpha in B cells as well as a unique role in opposing BCR responses. PMID:19811262
Oak, Jean S; Chen, Jing; Peralta, Raechel Q; Deane, Jonathan A; Fruman, David A
Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorder (CVID) is a complex disorder that predisposes patients to recurrent and severe infections. Immunophenotypic classification schemes were developed to categorize patients with CVID into phenotypic and prognostic groups based on different memory B cell subsets. Whether the B cell subset analysis is stable over time has not been investigated. B cell phenotyping in patients with CVID (n = 15) and sex- and age-matched controls (n = 26) were carried out according to the three B cell classifications. Patients with CVID were evaluated monthly over 6 months. Controls were assessed once during the study. We scored how often each patient was assigned to the same group within each classification. The Freiburg classification assigned patients to the same group at a rate of 73% and the Paris classification at 88%. The EUROclass classification of smB- versus smB+ was at 90%. The two subclassifications [(smB-21low or smB-21norm) and transitional B] were at 87% and 97%, respectively. The level of naïve B cells measured in all patients with CVID during the 6-month evaluation was the most stable B cell subset. We conclude that all classifications systems show considerable variability, but the EUROclass classification was the most reliable scheme for our 15 CVID and 26 healthy cohorts. Our results indicate that phenotypic classifications within CVID will be difficult while there is variability of commonly used assays. PMID:23360162
Koopmans, W; Woon, S-T; Zeng, I S L; Jordan, A; Brothers, S; Browett, P; Ameratunga, R
Abstract Recent findings have suggested biological classification of B-cell malignancies as exemplified by the "activated B-cell-like" (ABC), the "germinal-center B-cell-like" (GCB) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and "recurrent translocation and cyclin D" (TC) classification of multiple myeloma. Biological classification of B-cell derived cancers may be refined by a direct and systematic strategy where identification and characterization of normal B-cell differentiation subsets are used to define the cancer cell of origin phenotype. Here we propose a strategy combining multiparametric flow cytometry, global gene expression profiling and biostatistical modeling to generate B-cell subset specific gene signatures from sorted normal human immature, naive, germinal centrocytes and centroblasts, post-germinal memory B-cells, plasmablasts and plasma cells from available lymphoid tissues including lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, peripheral blood and bone marrow. This strategy will provide an accurate image of the stage of differentiation, which prospectively can be used to classify any B-cell malignancy and eventually purify tumor cells. This report briefly describes the current models of the normal B-cell subset differentiation in multiple tissues and the pathogenesis of malignancies originating from the normal germinal B-cell hierarchy. PMID:23998255
Johnsen, Hans Erik; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Hansen, Steen Møller; Gaihede, Michael; Nørgaard, Martin Agge; Bæch, John; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Frank Svendsen; Johansen, Preben; Bødker, Julie Støve; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen
Background Multiparameter flow cytometry allows the detection of minor monoclonal B-cell populations. Using this technique combined with morphology, we were struck by the presence of minor populations of small monoclonal B cells in bone marrows of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in routine diagnostic samples and performed a systematic retrospective study. Design and Methods Bone marrows of 165 patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma without histological evidence of concurrent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma were studied by routine microscopy of trephines and smears, immunohistochemistry and multiparameter flow cytometry. Results Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma infiltration in marrows was documented in 11 of 165 patients. Morphological examination consistently revealed a higher tumor load than evidenced by flow cytometry. Of interest, only 3 of 119 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified, the largest subtype, showed marrow infiltration. By contrast, flow cytometry revealed a minor monoclonal B-cell population in 24 of 165 patients, none of whom showed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma infiltration by morphology. Of interest, morphological examination revealed the presence of small B cells in the marrows of those patients. Moreover, 11 of 39 (28.2%) of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified of ABC subtype and only 3 of 80 (3.7%) with the GCB subtype showed these monoclonal small B cells (P=0.0002). In addition 4 of 8 (50%), 4 of 15 (26.7%) and 2 of 3 (66.7%) patients with primary testicular, primary central nervous system and leg-type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, respectively, showed monoclonal small B cells. Conclusions Bone marrow infiltration with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified is rare at diagnosis. By contrast, a high number of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified of the ABC subtype but not of GCB subtype is associated with monoclonal small B cells in the marrow. Whether these monoclonal small B cells are precursors of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the ABC type or arise in a common background that favors clonal B-cell expansion remains to be demonstrated.
Tierens, Anne M.; Holte, Harald; Warsame, Abdirashid; Ikonomou, Ida M.; Wang, Junbai; Chan, Wing C.; Delabie, Jan
Recognition and clearance of bacterial infection is a fundamental property of innate immunity. Here we describe an effector B cell population that protects against microbial sepsis. Innate response activator (IRA)-B cells are phenotypically and functionally distinct, develop and diverge from B1a B cells, depend on pattern recognition receptors, and produce GM-CSF. Specific deletion of IRA-B cell activity impairs bacterial clearance, elicits a cytokine storm, and precipitates septic shock. These observations enrich our understanding of innate immunity, position IRA-B cells as gatekeepers of bacterial infection, and identify new treatment avenues for infectious diseases.
Rauch, Philipp J.; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Robbins, Clinton S.; Weber, Georg F.; Etzrodt, Martin; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Tiglao, Elizabeth; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Theurl, Igor; Gorbatov, Rostic; Waring, Michael T.; Chicoine, Adam T.; Mouded, Majd; Pittet, Mikael J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K.
Recognition and clearance of a bacterial infection are a fundamental properties of innate immunity. Here, we describe an effector B cell population that protects against microbial sepsis. Innate response activator (IRA) B cells are phenotypically and functionally distinct, develop and diverge from B1a B cells, depend on pattern-recognition receptors, and produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Specific deletion of IRA B cell activity impairs bacterial clearance, elicits a cytokine storm, and precipitates septic shock. These observations enrich our understanding of innate immunity, position IRA B cells as gatekeepers of bacterial infection, and identify new treatment avenues for infectious diseases. PMID:22245738
Rauch, Philipp J; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Robbins, Clinton S; Weber, Georg F; Etzrodt, Martin; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Tiglao, Elizabeth; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Theurl, Igor; Gorbatov, Rostic; Waring, Michael T; Chicoine, Adam T; Mouded, Majd; Pittet, Mikael J; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K
We report here a 47-year-old male with the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytosis accompanying disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS) is a life-threatening disorder, and LAHS secondary to B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare compared to that secondary to T- or NK/T-cell lymphoma in Western countries. T- or NK/T-cell LAHS is sometimes combined with DIC, which makes patients' outcomes even worse, but few reports of B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC has been published so far. We successfully treated a patient with this condition with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), a novel agent for DIC. We believe that rTM is a therapeutic option in cases with B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC. PMID:23696942
Uni, Masahiro; Yoshimi, Akihide; Maki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Daichi; Nakazaki, Kumi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo
We report here a 47-year-old male with the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytosis accompanying disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS) is a life-threatening disorder, and LAHS secondary to B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare compared to that secondary to T- or NK/T-cell lymphoma in Western countries. T- or NK/T-cell LAHS is sometimes combined with DIC, which makes patients’ outcomes even worse, but few reports of B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC has been published so far. We successfully treated a patient with this condition with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), a novel agent for DIC. We believe that rTM is a therapeutic option in cases with B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC.
Uni, Masahiro; Yoshimi, Akihide; Maki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Daichi; Nakazaki, Kumi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo
Cell surface beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) densities of malignant B cells were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 97 cases of immunologically defined lymphoproliferative disease. Absolute beta 2m densities were found to depend on disease category with the lowest levels found on cells from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (mean = 5.6 ng/10(6) cells, n = 27); atypical chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (mean = 5.9 ng/10(6) cells, n = 8); and prolymphocytoid chronic lymphocytic leukaemia variant (mean = 6.0 ng/10(6) cells, n = 16). beta 2m densities for B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 14) and B prolymphocytic leukaemia (n = 17) cases were 8.1 and 10.0 ng/10(6) cells, respectively, and the highest densities were found on cells from "late-B cell" tumours (mean = 14.3 ng/10(6) cells). Plasma cells from cases of Ig secreting tumours expressed unexpectedly low beta 2m densities (mean = 9.3 ng/10(6) cells; n = 6).
Jones, R A; Scott, C S; Norfolk, D R; Stark, A N; Child, J A
In fibrosis fibroblasts are activated and overproduce collagen in a process with unknown drivers and equally unknown brakes that recently implicated a novel and surprising player, the B cell. B cells may be crucially involved in fibrosis in several ways: B cells may produce autoantibodies that can directly stimulate fibroblasts; B cells can produce profibrotic cytokines such as IL-6 or transforming growth factor beta; and, finally, B cells could directly stimulate fibroblasts by a contact-dependent mechanism. Recent experimental evidence sugge