Sample records for b-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

  1. Deciphering leukemic B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Ugo, Valérie; Leporrier, Nathalie; Salaun, Véronique; Letestu, Rémi; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Ramond, Sylvie; Nataf, Joelle; Guesnu, Martine; Picard, Françoise; Brouzes, Chantal; Perrot, Jean-Yves; Valensi, Françoise; Levy, Vincent; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, Florence; Troussard, Xavier

    2006-10-01

    Diagnosis of leukemic B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPD) is a frequent challenge in hematology. In this multicentric study, we prospectively studied 165 new consecutive leukemic patients with B-CLPD selected on the basis of Royal Marsden Hospital scoring system < or =3. The primary aim of the study was to try to decipher the atypical cases and identify homogenous subgroups. Overall, morphological examination contributed to diagnosis in only 20% cases, all of them CD5 negative. Thirty additional cases were CD5 negative suggestive of leukemic marginal zone lymphoma in most cases. The significantly poorer survival of the 26 cyclin D1 positive cases justifies recommending its systematic determination among atypical B-CLPD. CD20 expression segregated clearly two subgroups among CD5 positive cyclin D1 negative B-CLPD. The 17 patients with the CD20 dim profile represent a homogeneous subgroup very close to typical B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) on morphological, phenotypical and cytogenetical criteria. In contrast, the subgroup of 51 patients with a CD20 bright profile is heterogeneous. Their significantly lower p27 expression level suggest the presence of a proliferative component, underlying a more aggressive disease. Further genomic studies are warranted to establish their precise nature. These cases should not be included in the same therapeutic trials as B-CLL. PMID:17071481

  2. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesão, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  3. AL amyloidosis associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: frequency and treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sanchorawala, V; Blanchard, E; Seldin, D C; O'Hara, Carl; Skinner, M; Wright, D G

    2006-09-01

    AL amyloidosis, a systemic disorder characterized by widespread deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from monoclonal Ig light chains in organs and soft tissues, is typically caused by an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia. However, this disease can also be associated rarely with a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. In this report, we describe the presentation and clinical course of 16 patients with this association. Although amyloid-related organ involvement in these patients was typical of AL amyloidosis, the patients in this series were on average older and more likely to be female than patients with disease associated with a plasma cell dyscrasia. They were also more likely to have multisystem involvement. Treatment decisions were based primarily on the dominent hematopathologic features of the associated lymphoproliferative disorder. However, high-dose melphalan and stem cell transplantation was the primary therapy in 5 patients, and each of these patients had prolonged survival, ranging from 36 to 102 months. PMID:16795060

  4. EBV-driven B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders: from biology, classification and differential diagnosis to clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Chi Young; Li, Ling; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, affecting >90% of the adult population. EBV targets B-lymphocytes and achieves latent infection in a circular episomal form. Different latency patterns are recognized based on latent gene expression pattern. Latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) mimics CD40 and, when self-aggregated, provides a proliferation signal via activating the nuclear factor-kappa B, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to promote cellular proliferation. LMP-1 also induces BCL-2 to escape from apoptosis and gives a signal for cell cycle progression by enhancing cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and by inhibiting p16 and p27. LMP-2A blocks the surface immunoglobulin-mediated lytic cycle reactivation. It also activates the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway and induces Bcl-xL expression to promote B-cell survival. Recent studies have shown that ebv-microRNAs can provide extra signals for cellular proliferation, cell cycle progression and anti-apoptosis. EBV is well known for association with various types of B-lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, epithelial cell and mesenchymal cell neoplasms. B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders encompass a broad spectrum of diseases, from benign to malignant. Here we review our current understanding of EBV-induced lymphomagenesis and focus on biology, diagnosis and management of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25613729

  5. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Habermann

    In 1968, Starzl reported the clinical observation that transplant patients are prone to develop lymphomatous growths (1).\\u000a The term posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is applied to a group of lymphoproliferative disorders arising in a pharmacologically immunocompromised host after\\u000a solid-organ or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Among iatrogenic immune deficiency states, PTLD is quite common (2).\\u000a PTLDs are the most serious complications

  6. Folliculocentric B-cell-rich follicular dendritic cells sarcoma: a hitherto unreported morphological variant mimicking lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Luisa; Lonardi, Silvia; Petrilli, Giulia; Tanda, Francesco; Bella, Michelangelo; Laurino, Licia; Rossi, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    We report three cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) showing a hitherto undescribed histological pattern consisting of nodular tumor growth associated with small B lymphocytes. FDCS tumor cells consistently showed large epithelioid features and were intermingled with small lymphocytes in the nodules in two cases, whereas they formed cohesive aggregates surrounded by lymphocyte mantle in the other. These features were easily confused with lymphomatous proliferations and, in particular, subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma, high-grade follicular lymphoma, and germinotropic large B-cell lymphomas. The diagnosis was established by the use of a broad panel of antibodies that showed a variable expression of the FDC markers CD21, CD23, CD35, clusterin, podoplanin, claudin 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CXCL13. The associated B lymphocytes revealed a mantle zone B phenotype, with expression of CD20 and PAX5, together with TCL1 and IgD. Of notice, in all cases, morphological features suggesting hyaline-vascular Castleman disease were recognized in the interfollicular areas, containing scattered epithelioid cells similar to those found in the nodules, thus providing a useful clue for FDCS diagnosis. Of the 3 cases, 1 presented multiple recurrences unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and finally died of disease 14 years after diagnosis. This study further emphasizes the extreme variability of morphological presentation of FDCS and expands the spectrum of lesions showing a nodular growth pattern occurring in human lymph nodes. PMID:21835430

  7. Overexpression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in MTX- and Age-Related Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated B-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Kentaro; Ishige, Toshiyuki; Ide, Fumio; Ito, Yumi; Saito, Ichiro; Hoshino, Miyako; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Nozaki, Tadashige; Kojima, Masaru; Kusama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) triggers somatic hypermutation and recombination, in turn contributing to lymphomagenesis. Such aberrant AID expression is seen in B-cell leukemia/lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma which is associated with c-myc translocation. Moreover, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) increases genomic instability through early growth transcription response-1 (Egr-1) mediated upregulation of AID in B-cell lymphoma. However, few clinicopathological studies have focused on AID expression in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Therefore, we conducted an immunohistochemical study to investigate the relationship between AID and LMP-1 expression in LPDs (MTX-/Age-related EBV-associated), including diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). More intense AID expression was detected in LPDs (89.5%) than in DLBCLs (20.0%), and the expression of LMP-1 and EBER was more intense in LPDs (68.4% and 94.7%) than in DLBCLs (10.0% and 20.0%). Furthermore, stronger Egr-1 expression was found in MTX/Age-EBV-LPDs (83.3%) than in DLBCLs (30.0%). AID expression was significantly constitutively overexpressed in LPDs as compared with DLBCLs. These results suggest that increased AID expression in LPDs may be one of the processes involved in lymphomagenesis, thereby further increasing the survival of genetically destabilized B-cells. AID expression may be a useful indicator for differentiation between LPDs and DLBCLs.

  8. Pediatric post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after cardiac transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Ohta; Norihide Fukushima; Keiichi Ozono

    2009-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well recognized and potentially fatal complication after pediatric\\u000a cardiac transplantation. PTLD encompasses a wide spectrum, ranging from benign hyperplasia to more aggressive lymphoma. Most\\u000a cases are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related B-cell tumors resulting from impaired immunity due to immunosuppressive therapy.\\u000a Pediatric recipients, often seronegative for EBV at transplantation, have a greater risk for PTLD than

  9. ?-HHVs and HHV-8 in Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Quadrelli, C.; Barozzi, P.; Riva, G.; Vallerini, D.; Zanetti, E.; Potenza, L.; Forghieri, F.; Luppi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Similarly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a ?-herpesvirus, recently recognized to be associated with the occurrence of rare B cell lymphomas and atypical lymphoproliferations, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects. Moreover, the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a ?-herpesvirus, has been shown to be implicated in some non-malignant lymph node proliferations, such as the Rosai Dorfman disease, and in a proportion of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases. HHV-6 has a wide cellular tropism and it might play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases, but given its ubiquity, disease associations are difficult to prove and its role in hematological malignancies is still controversial. The involvement of another ?-herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has not yet been proven in human cancer, even though recent findings have suggested its potential role in the development of CD4+ large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathogenetic role of HHV-8 and human ?-herpesviruses in human lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:22110893

  10. Pediatric Central Nervous System Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly C. Brennan; Lisa H. Lowe; Gabrielle A. Yeaney

    Summary: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder complicates approximately 1% of all renal transplants (1). The usual site of occurrence is within the abdomen, thorax, allograft, or head and neck. Central nervous system in- volvement is uncommon but, when present, occurs in iso- lation, sparing other organ systems. Few articles in the radiology literature have focused on the acute and fol- low-up central

  11. Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database

    Cancer.gov

    Familial aggregation of lymphoproliferative disorders from the Scandinavian family cancer database Print This Page Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database Our Research

  12. B- and T-cell markers in lymphoproliferative disorders with blood and bone marrow involvement.

    PubMed

    Katz, J; Lea, R; Livni, N; Lewis, D; Lynch, S R; Skikne, B; Bezwoda, W

    1978-05-20

    B- and T-cell surface markers were determined in 26 adult patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies who had bone marrow and blood involvement. The patients in whom more than 60% of the abnormal cells were immunoglobulin-bearing cells were considered to have B-cell lymphoproliferative malignancy. The diagnosis of a T-cell disorder was made in those patients in whom more than 70% of the cells formed E rosettes (T cells). Those patients in whom 30% and more of the abnormal cells did not show B- and T-cell surface markers were regarded as suffering from "null" cell disorder. The B-cell type of lymphoproliferative malignancy was the most commonly encountered (63%) with an equal male to female ratio. In addition, 4 male patients with "hairy-cell" leukaemia were shown to have a B-cell disorder. T-cell disorders were found in 3 male patients; 1 patient had acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and in the other 2 the histopathological diagnosis was well-differentiated lymphoma and Sternberg sarcoma. Four patients with "null" cell lymphoma were found, the histopathological diagnoses in all were poorly-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma, and 3 of the 4 patients were males. Further haematological investigations of the B-cell and the non-B-cell disorders showed that although the bone marrow was equally extensively infiltrated in both groups, the non-B-cell disroders were more commonly associated with complications of anemia and thrombocytopenia. It is therefore postulated that the abnormal lymphoid cell involved in B-cell disorders is an end-stage cell and not the haemopoietic stem cell. PMID:358421

  13. Primary cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease: a B-cell lymphoma of the bone marrow distinct from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Randen, Ulla; Trøen, Gunhild; Tierens, Anne; Steen, Chloé; Warsame, Abdirashid; Beiske, Klaus; Tjønnfjord, Geir E.; Berentsen, Sigbjørn; Delabie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease is a rare hemolytic disease mediated by monoclonal IGHV4-34-encoded cold agglutinins with a predominant specificity for the blood group antigen I. Bone marrow from 54 patients was studied to type the underlying lymphoproliferative disorder better. Bone marrow biopsies showed circumscribed intra-parenchymatous nodules with small monotonous monoclonal B cells in 40/54 patients (median infiltration: 10% of marrow cells) with a CD20+, IgMs+, IgDs+, CD27+, CD5?/+, CD11c?, CD23?, CD38? immunophenotype. Neither plasmacytoid cytological features nor expression of plasma cell differentiation-associated transcription factors MUM1, XBP1 and BLIMP1 were noted in these B cells. However, a limited number of mature monoclonal IgM+, IgD? plasma cells were present outside the lymphoid nodules and were diffusely scattered throughout the marrow. Of interest, the MYD88 L265P mutation, typical of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, was not detected (17/17 cases). Somatically mutated monoclonal IGHV4-34 gene rearrangement was demonstrated in eight patients with frozen samples (mean sequence homology 95.4%). However, mutations of BCL6 intron 1 were not demonstrated, except in one patient, suggesting that the lymphoma cells had not matured in the germinal center. In conclusion, cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease displays homogeneous histological and immunophenotypic features. The absence of plasmacytoid cells, the presence of plasma cells predominantly outside the nodular lymphoid infiltrates, IGHV4-34 restriction and absence of MYD88 L265P mutation strongly suggest that cold agglutinin-associated lymphoproliferative disease is a distinct entity that is different from lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. PMID:24143001

  14. Risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ethel S.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Socié, Gérard; Banks, Peter M.; Sobocinski, Kathleen A.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kingma, Douglas W.; Travis, Lois B.; Flowers, Mary E.; Martin, Paul J.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Curtis, Rochelle E.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated 26?901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21?686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial. PMID:19264919

  15. HTLV Tax gene expression in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, E A; Miranda, N; Gameiro, P; Frade, M J; Figueiredo, M; Parreira, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To study the expression of the human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) Tax gene in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. METHODS: Blood was collected from 72 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Serum from all patients was assayed for antibodies directed against HTLV-I structural proteins by ELISA and western blotting. RNA was purified from fresh blood cells and amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). After Southern blotting, the PCR products were hybridised with a 32P end-labelled probe specific for the Tax gene. RESULTS: All samples were seronegative. A specific band for the Tax gene was found in five samples. Each of the patients positive for Tax gene expression had a different type of lymphoproliferative disorder. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HTLV-I cannot be assessed solely by immunological assays, particularly when only disrupted virions are used. Sensitive molecular biology assays are essential for detecting viral gene expression in fresh blood cells. Images PMID:8944616

  16. Successful treatment of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) following renal allografting is associated with sustained CD8 T-cell restoration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Porcu; Charles F. Eisenbeis; Ronald P. Pelletier; Elizabeth A. Davies; Robert A. Baiocchi; Sameek Roychowdhury; Srinivas Vourganti; Gerard J. Nuovo; William L. Marsh; Amy K. Ferketich; Mitchell L. Henry; Ronald M. Ferguson; Michael A. Caligiuri

    2002-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening Ep- stein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell malignancy occurring in 1% to 2% of renal transplantation patients. Host- and PTLD-related factors determining the like- lihood of tumor response following reduc- tion of immune suppression (IS) and anti- viral therapy remain largely unknown. Standard therapy for PTLD is not well established. Eleven consecutive renal transplantation patients

  17. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ashok; Nalesnik, Mike; Reyes, Jorge; Pokharna, Renu; Mazariegos, George; Green, Michael; Eghtesad, Bijan; Marsh, Wallis; Cacciarelli, Thomas; Fontes, Paulo; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Sindhi, Rakesh; Demetris, Jake; Fung, John

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the incidence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and the risk factors and the impact of this complication on survival outcomes in a large cohort of liver transplant recipients at a single institution. Summary Background Data Liver transplantation has been accepted as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage liver disease since 1983, in large part due to the availability and reliance on the use of nonspecifically directed immunosuppression. However, as predicted and subsequently verified in 1968, an increased incidence of certain de novo malignancies has been observed, particularly with regards to lymphoid neoplasms. While many reports have confirmed and clarified the nature of PTLD, the literature is fraught with conflicting experience and outcomes with PTLD. Methods Four thousand consecutive patients who underwent liver transplants between February 1981 and April 1998 were included in this analysis and were followed to November 2001. The effect of recipient age at the time of transplant, recipient gender, diagnosis, baseline immunosuppression, grading of PTLD, and association with Epstein-Barr virus were compared. The causes of death were also examined. Treatment for PTLD varied over the 20-year period, but all included massive reduction or elimination of baseline immunosuppression. Results The 1-year patient survival for liver transplant patients with PTLD was 85%, while the overall patient survival for the entire cohort was 53%. The actuarial 20-year survival was estimated at 45%. The overall median time to PTLD presentation was 10 months, and children had an incidence of PTLD that was threefold higher than adults. Patient survival was better in children, in patients transplanted in the era of tacrolimus immunosuppression, in patients with polymorphic PTLD, and in those with limited disease. Interestingly, neither the presence or absence of Epstein-Barr virus nor the timing of PTLD presentation appeared to influence overall patient survival. Patients transplanted for alcohol-related liver disease had a similar incidence of PTLD but had a higher risk of mortality. Conclusions While PTLD continues to pose problems in patients receiving liver transplants, improvements in patient survival have been observed over time. While it is too early to assess the impact of new advances in prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment, such approaches are based on an increased knowledge of the pathophysiology of PTLD. PMID:12368671

  18. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUÑOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJÓN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  19. Development of an Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder in a patient treated with azacitidine for chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Menter, T; Schlageter, M; Bastian, L; Haberthür, R; Rätz Bravo, A E; Tzankov, A

    2014-03-01

    Some chemotherapeutic agents can cause iatrogenic lymphoproliferative disorders. In analogy to what has been observed with other nucleoside analogues such as cladribine and fludarabine, we document the first case of an Epstein-Barr virus-positive, iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated, lymphoproliferative disease, formally resembling polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in a patient treated with azacitidine (Vidaza) for chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML). A 78-year-old female patient was diagnosed with CMML in January 2012, and treatment with azacitidine was initiated, which lasted for five cycles from February until June 2012. The patient was hospitalized in June 2012 under the suspicion of pneumonia. Transformation of the CMML was suspected at that time too. During hospitalization, a generalized enlargement of the lymph nodes and the spleen was noticed. The patient rapidly deteriorated and finally died of respiratory insufficiency. At autopsy, an Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder, resembling polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease with involvement of the lymph nodes, the spleen and the lung and causing necrotizing pneumonia, was diagnosed. Diagnostic criteria for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or infectious mononucleosis-like lymphoproliferative disease were not met. This is the first documented case of an azacitidine-associated lymphoproliferative disease, raising awareness for possible not yet known side effects of this drug, which should be kept in mind by oncologists and pathologists. PMID:23625339

  20. EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer in organ transplant recipients: a localized indolent posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Melissa; Thakral, Beenu; Yohe, Sophia; Balfour, Henry H; Singh, Charanjeet; Spears, Michael; McKenna, Robert W

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV MCU) is a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in elderly or iatrogenic immunocompromised patients. It has not been reported in solid organ transplant recipients. We observed 7 patients with EBV MCU in a cohort of 70 transplant recipients with EBV posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Transplants included: 5 renal, 1 heart, and 1 lung. Median patient age was 61; 5 were male. EBV MCU was observed in oral mucosa in 4 and gastrointestinal tract in 3. Duration of immunosuppressive therapy before EBV MCU was 0.6 to 13 years. Ulcers were undermined by inflammatory cells and polymorphic or monomorphic large cell lymphoproliferation. Reed-Sternberg-like cells were present in 5/7. Large B cells were CD20, CD30, and EBV-encoded RNA positive in all cases. Diagnosis in 3 recent patients was EBV MCU; 4 patients diagnosed before familiarity with EBV MCU were classified as monomorphic large cell (n=3) and polymorphic (n=1) PTLD. None of the patients had EBV DNA in their blood (<1000 copies/mL) at diagnosis or follow-up versus 35/44 transplant patients with systemic PTLD (P<0.001). All lesions resolved with reduced immunosuppression (7/7), change in immunosuppression (2/7), and rituximab (3/7). Five patients are living: 4 healthy, 1 awaiting second renal transplant. Two patients died 3 and 5 years after resolution of EBV MCU. No patient recurred with EBV MCU or other PTLDs. EBV MCU mimics more aggressive categories of PTLD but lacks EBV DNA in blood, which may be a useful distinguishing feature. Lesions are likely to resolve with conservative management. Awareness of EBV MCU in the posttransplant setting is necessary for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25007145

  1. Lymphoma and other lymphoproliferative disorders in inflammatory bowel disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Kavitha; D'Rozario, James; Pavli, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The lymphoproliferative disorders (LDs) are a heterogeneous group of at least 70 conditions that result from the clonal proliferation of B, T, and NK cells. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated lymphomas are typically B-cell LD, while T-cell or Hodgkin's lymphomas are rare. In IBD patients not on immunosuppression, the risk of LD seems to be similar or slightly higher than the background population risk. Thiopurine therapy is associated with an increased risk: the relative risk is increased four- to sixfold and the absolute risk varies between 1 in 4000-5000 for those aged 20-29 to 1 in 300-400 in those over 70. It is difficult to quantify the risk of anti- tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy alone; however, it appears to be less than for thiopurines alone. There is particular concern regarding the development of post-transplant-like LD in those with latent epstein-barr virus (EBV) infection exposed to immunosuppressives, the occurrence of hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma in patients treated with combination anti-TNF and thiopurine therapy, and the development of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in those who acquire a primary EBV or other infections while on immunosuppressive medication. There are currently no guidelines for monitoring EBV (or other virus) status in patients on immunosuppression, although it could be used to monitor those who have a prior history of lymphoma and are about to start a thiopurine or anti-TNF agent. In discussing the risks of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with agents used for the treatment of IBD, patients can often be reassured that the benefits of such therapy still outweigh the small, but real, risks. PMID:23094824

  2. Increased incidence of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors due to a change of T cell depletion technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Meijer; ICM Slaper-Cortenbach; SFT Thijsen; AW Dekker; LF Verdonck

    2002-01-01

    Here, the influence of T vs T and B cell depletion on the incidence of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) is analyzed. From 1982 to 1997 the soy bean agglutinin\\/sheep red blood cell (SBA\\/SRBC) method was used for T cell depletion. This technique is well established, but the use of

  3. Rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) for the treatment of patients with clonal lymphoproliferative disorders after orthotopic liver transplantation: a report of three cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simona Zompi; Micheline Tulliez; Filoména Conti; Véronique Leblond; Philippe Gaulard; Philippe Blanche; François Durand; Damaj Ghandi; François Dreyfus; Albert Louvel; Yvon Calmus; Didier Bouscary

    2000-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPD) are a well-known complication of organ transplantation. Their incidence after liver transplantation in adults ranges from 1.8 to 4%. Reduction of immunosuppression led to remission in a few cases. Other treatments include chemotherapy, interferon alpha therapy and\\/or intravenous-immunoglobulins, or antiviral drugs. However, monoclonal antibodies directed against B-cell specific antigens have rarely been used in those

  4. Distinct B-cell and T-cell lymphoproliferative disease prevalence among dog breeds indicates heritable risk.

    PubMed

    Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew; Burnett, Robert C; Parker, Heidi G; Inusah, Seidu; Thomas, Rachael; Avery, Paul R; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Ostrander, Elaine A; Cutter, Gary C; Avery, Anne C

    2005-07-01

    Immunophenotypes in lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) are prognostically significant, yet causative factors for these conditions, and specifically those associated with heritable risk, remain elusive. The full spectrum of LPD seen in humans occurs in dogs, but the incidence and lifetime risk of naturally occurring LPD differs among dog breeds. Taking advantage of the limited genetic heterogeneity that exists within dog breeds, we tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes would differ among different breeds. The sample population included 1,263 dogs representing 87 breeds. Immunophenotype was determined by the presence of clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain or T-cell receptor gamma chain. The probability of observing the number of B-cell or T-cell tumors in a particular breed or breed group was compared with three reference populations. Significance was computed using chi2 test, and logistic regression was used to confirm binomial predictions. The data show that, among 87 breeds tested, 15 showed significant differences from the prevalence of LPD immunophenotypes seen across the dog population as a whole. More significantly, elevated risk for T-cell LPD seems to have arisen ancestrally and is retained in related breed groups, whereas increased risk for B-cell disease may stem from different risk factors, or combinations of risk factors, arising during the process of breed derivation and selection. The data show that domestic dogs provide a unique and valuable resource to define factors that mediate risk as well as genes involved in the initiation of B-cell and T-cell LPD. PMID:15994938

  5. Epstein-Barr virus infection and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Green, M; Michaels, M G

    2013-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important pathogen in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT). Infection with EBV manifests as a spectrum of diseases/malignancies ranging from asymptomatic viremia through infectious mononucleosis to posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). EBV disease and its associated PTLD is more frequently seen when primary EBV infection occurs after transplant, a common scenario in pediatric SOT recipients. Intensity of immunosuppressive therapies also influences the risk for PTLD. The use of EBV viral load monitoring facilitates the diagnosis and management of EBV/PTLD as well as being used to inform preemptive therapy with reduction of immunosuppression, the most effective intervention for prevention of and treatment for PTLD. Other therapies, including the rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) and traditional chemotherapy, are also useful in the treatment of established PTLD. The future development of standards for management based on EBV viral load and routine monitoring of EBV-specific CTL responses promise further improvement in outcomes with EBV and PTLD. PMID:23347213

  6. Syk-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Activation in Epstein-Barr Virus Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, O.; Lambert, S. L.; Phillips, L. K.; Vaysberg, M.; Natkunam, Y.; Esquivel, C. O.; Krams, S. M.; Martinez, O. M.

    2012-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)-associated Epstein Barr virus (EBV)+ B-cell lymphomas are serious complications of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. The EBV protein LMP2a, a B-cell receptor (BCR) mimic, provides survival signals to virally-infected cells through Syk tyrosine kinase. Therefore, we explored whether Syk inhibition is a viable therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated PTLD. We have shown that R406, the active metabolite of the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest while decreasing downstream phosphatidylinositol-3?-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in EBV+ B-cell lymphoma PTLD lines in vitro. However, Syk inhibition did not inhibit or delay the in vivo growth of solid tumors established from EBV-infected B-cell lines. Instead, we observed tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes exclusively in fostamatinib-treated animals. In contrast, direct inhibition of PI3K/Akt significantly reduced tumor burden in a xenogeneic mouse model of PTLD without evidence of tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes. Taken together, our data indicate that Syk activates PI3K/Akt signaling which is required for survival of EBV+ B-cell lymphomas. PI3K/Akt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for PTLD, and other EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:23398911

  7. Rare presentation of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder isolated to gastroesophageal junction

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, Brad M; Oza, Veeral M; Johnson, Andrea; Walker, Jon; Shana’ah, Arwa

    2013-01-01

    Post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) represents a life threatening disorder occurring after transplantation, ranging from a polyclonal mononucleosis like illness to a monomorphic high grade neoplasm with cytologic and histopathologic evidence indicative of transformation to lymphoma. PTLD of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subtype, isolated to the esophagus is a rare diagnosis. We describe the first case of an immunocompromised adult patient diagnosed with DLBCL-PTLD limited to his esophagus without an associated mass or locoregional lymphadenopathy on imaging since the institution of the revised Cheson criteria, which includes positron emission tomography-computed tomography as the standard staging modality. Even more unique to our case was the suggestion of underlying cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastritis leading to a hypothesis about a less well understood relationship between CMV and Epstein Barr virus (EBV). In the post transplant setting, immunocompromised state, or EBV positive state, upper gastrointestinal symptoms should prompt investigation with an upper endoscopy (EGD). Additionally, specific to our case, the fact that the patients’ presentation was suspicious for CMV gastritis raises the possibility that the CMV infection predated his PTLD increasing his risk of acquiring PTLD. This reemphasizes the importance and diagnostic utility of early screening with EGD in patients after transplantation. PMID:24363831

  8. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder complicating hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with dyskeratosis congenita.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Olga L; Whitten, Joseph; Spitzer, Barbara; Kobos, Rachel; Prockop, Susan; Boulad, Farid; Arcila, Maria; Wang, Lu; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. We present a case of a 28-year-old woman with DC who was admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for aplastic anemia and who developed acute myeloid leukemia with complex genetic karyotype abnormalities including the MLL (11q23) gene, 1q25, and chromosome 8. After transplantation, a monomorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was discovered involving the liver, omental tissue, and peritoneal fluid samples showing additional MLL (11q23) gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Despite treatment, the patient died of complications associated with transplantation and invasive fungal infection. This case represents the first bona fide documented case of EBV-negative monomorphic PTLD host derived, with MLL gene abnormalities in a patient with DC, and shows another possible mechanism for the development of a therapy-related lymphoid neoplasm after transplantation. PMID:23222806

  9. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vahap Okan; Mehmet Yilmaz; Aysen Bayram; Cem Kis; Sami Cifci; Hakan Buyukhatipoglu; Mustafa Pehlivan

    2008-01-01

    The etiology of most lymphoproliferative disorders remains unclear, though several hypotheses have been proposed. One of the\\u000a conjectured mechanisms is infection of a tumor clone by an oncologic virus. Recently, evidence has arisen implicating both\\u000a hepatitis B and, even more so, hepatitis C viruses in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disease. Based on this information,\\u000a we surveyed the prevalence of hepatitis

  10. Cyclin D1 overexpression allows identification of an aggressive subset of leukemic lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Levy, V; Ugo, V; Delmer, A; Tang, R; Ramond, S; Perrot, J Y; Vrhovac, R; Marie, J P; Zittoun, R; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, F

    1999-09-01

    The conjunction of clinical features, cell morphology and immunological characteristics allows an accurate diagnosis in most cases of B cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLD). However, the diagnosis remains uncertain in a small percentage of cases, often referred as to unclassified B cell proliferation or atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have studied retrospectively the 192 cases of leukemic CLD seen in our institution over a 3-year period, for which both clinical and routine biological data at presentation were available. Forty cases (20%) did not fit into any of the well-identified categories according to the FAB criteria and remained unclassified. We assessed cyclin D1 expression in all of these cases and found that 10 of them expressed a high level of cyclin D1 protein. We compared the characteristics of these 10 cases with those of the 30 cyclin D1 negative CLD. Despite non-distinctive cytological and phenotypic features, the 10 cyclin D1 positive patients exhibited a strikingly uniform clinical presentation with elevated leukocytosis, massive spleen enlargement and no superficial lymphadenopathy. Their outcome was very poor with a median survival of 10 months, contrasting with the prolonged survival of the cyclin D1 negative patients. The cytological features of tumor cells from these 10 patients with cyclin D1 positive unclassified leukemic CLD were similar to those of the circulating lymphoid cells from 15 patients with histologically proven mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and primary or secondary blood involvement. Therefore, cyclin D1 expression allowed identification among the unclassified CLD, a subset of aggressive disorders which represent a leukemic counterpart of MCL (mantle cell leukemia). We suggest that determination of cyclin D1 expression by any technique available should be systematically included when investigating atypical CLL. PMID:10482984

  11. Outcome of Rapamycin Therapy for Post-Transplant-Lymphoproliferative Disorder after Kidney Transplantation: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Mortazavi, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a complication of chronic immunosuppressive therapy in solid organ transplantation with a high mortality rate. Alternative treatments such as rapamycin have been explored. Methods: A detailed retrospective analysis was performed according to data collected from 13 patients with PTLD. At the time of PTLD diagnosis, immunosuppressive therapy was decreased and rapamycin administered. Overall survival, disease-free survival of patients and graft survival were determined. Results: Among 590 kidney transplant recipients, 13 adult patients with PTLD were included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 42.15 (range: 25–58) years at the time of PTLD diagnosis, and 9 patients were male. Histology was distributed in 9 diffuse large B cell, 1 Malt lymphoma, 1 Burkitt lymphoma, 2 Hodgkin-like PTLD. The response rate to rapamycin alone was 30.8%. The mean overall survival period was 23.38 months and 11 patients are still alive. In total, 10 patients (76.9%) achieved a complete remission with functioning graft in 11 (84.6%) patients. Conclusion: Despite the retrospective focus and limited number of patients, this study provides promising results regarding the effectiveness of stopping calcineurin inhibitors and switching to rapamycin for patients with PTLD. PMID:25802698

  12. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder resembling Wilms tumor. Diagnostic dilemma: renal biopsy or nephrectomy?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Edaire; Fustino, Nicholas; Klesse, Laura; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Sanghavi, Rinarani

    2011-12-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a life-threatening neoplasm that can occur after orthotopic liver transplant. We report a 14-month-old female status-post OLT with an atypical presentation of PTLD as a solitary renal mass. At eight-wk post-transplant, she presented with elevated transaminases, CMV counts (73,000 copies/mL), and EBV counts (35,000 copies/mL). CT scan revealed a solid heterogeneously enhancing right renal mass measuring 2.6 × 2.4 × 3.3 cm. The radiological diagnosis was Wilms tumor, although PTLD could not be excluded. Complete resection of a Wilms tumor is potentially curative. A needle biopsy would upstage the malignancy and result in radiochemotherapy that is deleterious to a liver graft. The mass was not amenable to partial nephrectomy. A total nephrectomy, given life-long nephrotoxic immunosuppressants, was an unfavorable option. Thus, needle biopsy was performed. Histology confirmed monoclonal, EBV-associated PTLD and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Her therapy included immunosuppression reduction, cyclophosphamide, steroids, and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. Concomitantly, she received Cytogam and gancyclovir. Complete remission was achieved three months after chemotherapy. This case illustrates that young age, CMV infection, and EBV infection are strong risk factors for PTLD. With such risk factors present, any mass or lesion in a solid organ transplant patient should be considered PTLD until proven otherwise. PMID:20670357

  13. Inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoproliferative disorders: the dust is starting to settle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Sokol; L Beaugerie

    2009-01-01

    The risk of lymphoproliferative disorders (LDs) has become a major concern for clinicians managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet it is difficult to distinguish the possible responsibility of immunosuppressive therapy from the background risk due to the inflammatory disorder itself. LDs are clonal B or T cell proliferation showing considerable heterogeneity and the incidence has increased since the

  14. Epstein–Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein–Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein–Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein–Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein–Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25613730

  15. Epstein-Barr virus-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Chen, Kailin; Young, Ken H

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, can induce both lytic and latent infections that result in a variety of human diseases, including lymphoproliferative disorders. The oncogenic potential of Epstein-Barr virus is related to its ability to infect and transform B lymphocytes into continuously proliferating lymphoblastoid cells. However, Epstein-Barr virus has also been implicated in the development of T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Epstein-Barr virus encodes a series of products that mimic several growth, transcription and anti-apoptotic factors, thus usurping control of pathways that regulate diverse homeostatic cellular functions and the microenvironment. However, the exact mechanism by which Epstein-Barr virus promotes oncogenesis and inflammatory lesion development remains unclear. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases often have overlapping clinical symptoms as well as histologic and immunophenotypic features because both lymphoid cell types derive from a common precursor. Accurate classification of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is a prerequisite for appropriate clinical management. Currently, the treatment of most T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases is less than satisfactory. Novel and targeted therapies are strongly required to satisfy clinical demands. This review describes our current knowledge of the genetics, oncogenesis, biology, diagnosis and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer cell lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25613730

  16. Necrotic lymphoma in a patient with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: ultrasonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen months after kidney transplantation for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, a retroperitoneal mass was incidentally detected in a 30-year-old man during routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a mass measuring 5.5 cm×4.3 cm located between the liver and the atrophic right kidney, which showed markedly heterogeneous internal echogenicity. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography displayed a mild degree of enhancement only at the periphery of the mass, while the center lacked perceivable intensification. The patient underwent surgical resection. The final pathological diagnosis was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), and extensive necrosis was observed on microscopic examination. We found that the prominent heterogeneous echogenicity of the mass (an unusual finding of lymphoma) demonstrated on ultrasonography is a result of extensive necrosis, which may sometimes occur in patients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:25541069

  17. Necrotic lymphoma in a patient with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder: ultrasonography and CT findings with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minsu; Kim, Sang Kyum; Chung, Yong Eun; Choi, Jin-Young; Park, Mi-Suk; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Kim, Honsoul

    2015-04-01

    Seventeen months after kidney transplantation for the treatment of nephrotic syndrome, a retroperitoneal mass was incidentally detected in a 30-year-old man during routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a mass measuring 5.5 cm×4.3 cm located between the liver and the atrophic right kidney, which showed markedly heterogeneous internal echogenicity. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography displayed a mild degree of enhancement only at the periphery of the mass, while the center lacked perceivable intensification. The patient underwent surgical resection. The final pathological diagnosis was non-Hodgkin lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma), and extensive necrosis was observed on microscopic examination. We found that the prominent heterogeneous echogenicity of the mass (an unusual finding of lymphoma) demonstrated on ultrasonography is a result of extensive necrosis, which may sometimes occur in patients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. PMID:25541069

  18. Atypical hydroa vacciniforme-like epstein-barr virus associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Young; Baek, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Rok; Park, Sang Hui; Jeon, In Sang; Roh, Joo Young

    2012-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPDs) accompany severe chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or comprise the CAEBV disease entity. The CAEBV disease entity has the common feature of lymphoproliferation of T or NK cells (primarily), and B cells (rarely), with chronic activation of EBV infection. The disease is rare and seems to be more prevalent in East Asian countries. The CAEBV disease entity encompasses heterogenous disorders, including hydroa vacciniforme (HV), hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and NK-cell leukemia. Atypical HV-like eruptions are present on sun-exposed and nonexposed areas with facial edema, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, unlike classic HV. Recently, it has been suggested that classic HV and atypical HV-like eruptions are variants within the same disease spectrum of EBV-T/NK-LPD. We report a Korean boy with an atypical HV-like eruption and various systemic manifestations, including fever, sore throat, abdominal pain, headaches, seizures, and hematologic abnormalities for 2 years. After the initial mild eruption, which resembled a viral exanthem, ulceronecrotic skin lesions gradually developed and were associated with a high-grade fever and constitutional symptoms. He had a CAEBV infection, which showed a predominant proliferation of NK cells with high EBV DNA levels in the peripheral blood. However, in the skin lesions, there were nonneoplastic CD4 T-cell infiltrations predominantly showing a monoclonal T-cell receptor-? gene rearrangement and positive EBV in situ hybridization. PMID:23169419

  19. Immunophenotypic characterization of acute leukemias and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders: practical recommendations and classifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Garand; N. Robillard

    1997-01-01

    Immunophenotypic characterization of leukemic cells has become essential for the diagnosis of acute leukemias (AL) and chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD). Immunophenotyping allows to classify AL according to (i) lineage assignement of the leukemic clone based on the degree of specificity (or “score”) of expressed markers, (ii) the différentiation level of the clone and (iii) the presence of irrelevant markers. In

  20. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder—the potential of proliferation signal inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Pascual

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by abnormal lymphoid proliferation following transplan- tation. These lymphomas, in particular, have been shown to have a higher incidence in renal transplant recipients compared with the general age-matched population. The effect of different immunosuppressive regimens on the incidence of PTLD has been assessed in a number of studies. Although

  1. Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-24

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  2. Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Heart and Kidney Transplant Patients: A Single-Center Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Wasson; Mohammad N. Zafar; John Best; Hanumanth K. Reddy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after heart transplantation is a fatal complication, and standard treatment is either ineffective or too toxic. We have studied the incidence, clinical course, prognostic factors, and different treatment regimens pertaining to PTLD in 110 heart and 80 kidney transplant recipients.Methods: Information was abstracted from chart review of 110 heart transplant recipients and 80 kidney transplant

  3. Post-transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Heart and Kidney Transplant Patients: A Single-Center Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Wasson; Mohammad N. Zafar; John Best; Hanumanth K. Reddy

    Background: Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after heart trans- plantation is a fatal complication, and standard treatment is either ineffective or too toxic. We have studied the incidence, clinical course, prognostic factors, and different treatment regi- mens pertaining to PTLD in 110 heart and 80 kidney transplant recipients. Methods: Information was abstracted from chart review of 110 heart transplant recipients and

  4. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare genetic disorder ...

  5. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a patient with pancreas transplantation alone

    PubMed Central

    Kruel, Cleber R.; Shiller, S. Michelle; Anthony, Tiffany L.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Kim, Peter T. W.; Levy, Marlon F.; McKenna, Gregory J.; Onaca, Nicholas; Testa, Giuliano; Klintmalm, Goran B.

    2014-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication associated with the transplant recipient. We chronicle a case of PTLD in a failed graft presenting as a small bowel obstruction in a pancreas-only transplant patient. While typical symptoms may be elusive in the complex immunosuppressed patient, graft pain along with persistent graft pancreatitis and a positive Epstein-Barr viremia should raise suspicion for an underlying PTLD. PMID:25484508

  6. Effects of oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Di Bisceglie, Cataldo; Bertagna, Angela; Composto, Emanuela R; Lanfranco, Fabio; Baldi, Matteo; Motta, Giovanna; Barberis, Anna M; Napolitano, Emanuela; Castellano, Elena; Manieri, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Pretherapy sperm cryopreservation in young men is currently included in good clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to outline the effects of different oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders, based on an 8-year experience of the Cryopreservation Centre of a large public hospital. Two hundred and sixty-one patients with testicular neoplasia and 219 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders who underwent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and pretherapy semen cryopreservation were evaluated. Sperm and hormonal parameters (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, inhibin B levels) were assessed prior to and 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after the end of cancer treatment. At the time of sperm collection, baseline FSH level and sperm concentration were impaired to a greater extent in patients with malignant testicular neoplasias than in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Toxic effects on spermatogenesis were still evident at 6 and 12 months after the end of cancer therapies, while an improvement of seminal parameters was observed after 18 months. In conclusion, an overall increase in sperm concentration was recorded about 18 months after the end of cancer treatments in the majority of patients, even if it was not possible to predict the evolution of each single case ‘a priori'. For this reason, pretherapy semen cryopreservation should be considered in all young cancer patients. PMID:23542137

  7. T cell lymphoproliferative disorders associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody therapy for ulcerative colitis: literature summary.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Lindsay A; Lim, Megan S

    2009-07-01

    The enhanced risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with inflammatory bowel disease has been attributed to immunosuppressive/immunomodulatory therapies. Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998 as an effective therapeutic agent against inflammatory bowel disease. Malignant lymphomas of both B and T cell lineage have been described in patients undergoing therapy involving TNF-? blockade. To date, eight cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma associated with infliximab have been reported to the FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System, as well as several other T cell lymphoproliferative disorders with aggressive clinical outcomes. We present the histologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular features of a T cell lymphoproliferative disorder involving the axillary lymph node of a 33-year-old male following infliximab treatment for ulcerative colitis. These EBV-negative lymphomas suggest that lymphoproliferative disorders following infliximab treatment for inflammatory bowel disease may involve EBV-independent immune dysregulation. The spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with infliximab and the potential mechanisms by which they occur are discussed. PMID:19669196

  8. Waldenström's macroglobulinemia harbors a unique proteome where Ku70 is severely underexpressed as compared with other B-lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, A; Pionneau, C; Azar, N; Baillou, C; Lemoine, F M; Leblond, V; Merle-Béral, H; Béné, M-C; Herbrecht, R; Bahram, S; Vallat, L

    2012-01-01

    Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a clonal B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of post-germinal center nature. Despite the fact that the precise molecular pathway(s) leading to WM remain(s) to be elucidated, a hallmark of the disease is the absence of the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we compared proteomic profiles of WM cells with that of other LPDs. We were able to demonstrate that WM constitutes a unique proteomic entity as compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and marginal zone lymphoma. Statistical comparisons of protein expression levels revealed that a few proteins are distinctly expressed in WM in comparison with other LPDs. In particular we observed a major downregulation of the double strand repair protein Ku70 (XRCC6); confirmed at both the protein and RNA levels in an independent cohort of patients. Hence, we define a distinctive proteomic profile for WM where the downregulation of Ku70—a component of the non homologous end-joining pathway—might be relevant in disease pathophysiology. PMID:22961060

  9. Effective treatment of high-grade lymphoproliferative disorder after renal transplantation using autologous lymphocyte activated killer cell therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PK Li; K Tsang; CC Szeto; TY Wong; CB Leung; SF Lui; S Yu; FM Lai

    1998-01-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is not uncommon and can occur in 2% to 5% of solid organ recipients on immunosuppression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection or reactivation and intensive anti-T lymphocyte treatment are important pathogenetic factors for a large proportion of these disorders. Nonclonal lesions with polymorphous histology have a potential for regressing when the immunosuppressants are reduced or stopped. Clonal

  10. [KHSV/EBV associated germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder: a rare entity, case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Taris, Michaël; de Mascarel, Antoine; Riols, Mercédès; Delwail, Vincent; Milpied, Noël; Dubus, Pierre; Parrens, Marie

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of KSHV/EBV associated germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder (LPG) in a 49-year-old African patient, without immunosuppression. LPG is a rare entity arising in immunocompetent patients in opposition to other lymphoproliferative disorders associated to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV). The disease presents itself as localized lymphadenopathy with an infiltration of germinal centers by plasmablastic cells coinfected by KSHV and EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus). After treatment, the outcome is favorable. Differential diagnosis in our case, due to the presence of clusters of Hodgkin-like cells in the mantle zone, included lymphocyte rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma (LHCRL) and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (LHNPL). Finally, we highlight the differential diagnostic criteria of KSHV lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25439990

  11. Acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency and lymphoproliferative disorders: a tight relationship.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Roberto; Zanichelli, Andrea; Cicardi, Marco; Cugno, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    Angioedema due to the acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor is a rare disease known as acquired angioedema (AAE), which was first described in a patient with high-grade lymphoma and is frequently associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, including expansion of B cell clones producing anti-C1-INH autoantibodies, monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). AAE is clinically similar to hereditary angioedema (HAE), and is characterized by recurrent episodes of sub-cutaneous and sub-mucosal edema. It may affect the face, tongue, extremities, trunk and genitals. The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract causes bowel sub-occlusion with severe pain, vomiting and diarrhea, whereas laryngeal edema can be life-threatening. Unlike those with HAE, AAE patients usually have late-onset symptoms, do not have a family history of angioedema and present variable response to treatment due to the hyper-catabolism of C1-inhibitor. Reduced C1-inhibitor function leads to activation of the classic complement pathway with its consumption and activation of the contact system leading to the generation of the vasoactive peptide bradykinin, which increases vascular permeability and induces angioedema. Lymphoprolipherative diseases and AAE are tightly linked with either angioedema or limphoprolyferation being the first symptom. Experimental data indicate that neoplastic tissue and/or anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies induce C1-inhibitor consumption, and this is further supported by the observation that cytotoxic treatment of the lymphoproliferative diseases associated with AAE variably reverses the complement impairment and leads to a clinical improvement in angioedema symptoms. PMID:23490322

  12. Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders after Heart or Kidney Transplantation at a Single Centre: Presentation and Response to Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. L. Aversa; S. Stragliotto; D. Marino; F. Calabrese; P. Rigotti; F. Marchini; A. Gambino; G. Feltrin; C. Boso; F. Canova; C. Soldà; R. Mazzarotto; P. Burra

    2008-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ transplantation. Reduction of immunosuppression (RI) alone is not able to control the disease. We report a prospective analysis of 30 patients with PTLD after heart or kidney transplantation. Only 5 of 30 patients, treated solely with RI, obtained a complete response. Five patients were treated heterogeneously; in the remaining

  13. Are T-LGL Leukemia and NK-Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disorder Really Two Distinct Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Zambello, Renato; Teramo, Antonella; Gattazzo, Cristina; Semenzato, Gianpietro

    2014-01-01

    Mature Large Granular lymphocytes (LGL) disorders include a spectrum of conditions, ranging from polyclonal to clonal indolent and/or overt leukemic LGL proliferations. Most cases are represented by clonal expansions of TCR?/?+ LGL displaying a CD8+ phenotype with expression of cytotoxic T-cell antigens (CD57, CD16, TIA-1, perforin and granzyme B). Proliferations of CD3-CD16+ NK cells with a restricted patter of NK receptors are less common, usually comprising 15% of the cases. Main features are cytopenias, splenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Morphology, immunophenotyping and molecular analyses are crucial to establish a correct diagnosis of disease. According to the 2008 WHO classification, two separate entities account for the majority of cases, T-LGL leukemia and Chronic Lymphoproliferative Disease of NK cell (this latter still provisional). Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cells types i.e. T and NK cells, with specific genetic features and abnormalities, compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that a common pathogenic mechanism would be involved in both disorders. As a matter of fact, a foreign antigen driven clonal selection is considered the initial step in the mechanism ultimately leading to generation of both conditions. In this chapter we will discuss recent advances on the pathogenesis of chronic T and NK disorders of granular lymphocytes, challenging the current WHO classification on the opportunity to separate T and NK disorders, which are likely to represent two sides of the same coin. PMID:24778993

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-associated T/natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghui; Ko, Young H

    2014-01-01

    Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is usually asymptomatic and, in a normal host, EBV remains latent in B cells after primary infection for the remainder of life. Uncommonly, EBV can infect T or natural killer (NK) cells in a person with a defect in innate immunity, and EBV infection can cause unique systemic lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD) of childhood. Primary infection in young children can be complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or fulminant systemic T-cell LPD of childhood. Uncommonly, patients can develop chronic active EBV (CAEBV) disease-type T/NK LPD, which includes CAEBV infection of the systemic form, hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell LPD, and mosquito-bite hypersensitivity. The clinical course of CAEBV disease-type T/NK LPD can be smoldering, persistent or progressive, depending on the balance between viral factors and host immunity. Aggressive NK-cell leukemia, hydroa vacciniforme-like T-cell lymphoma, or uncommonly extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma can develop in children and young adults with CAEBV disease-type T/NK-cell LPD. Extranodal T/NK-cell lymphoma is a disease of adults, and its incidence begins to increase in the third decade and comprises the major subtype of T/NK LPD throughout life. Aggressive NK-cell leukemia and nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma of the elderly are fulminant diseases, and immune senescence may be an important pathogenetic factor. This review describes the current progress in identifying different types of EBV-associated T/NK-cell LPD and includes a brief presentation of data from Korea. PMID:24438142

  15. Notch-Deficient Skin Induces a Lethal Systemic B-Lymphoproliferative Disorder by Secreting TSLP, a Sentinel for Epidermal Integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shadmehr Demehri; Zhenyi Liu; Jonghyeob Lee; Meei-Hua Lin; Seth D Crosby; Christopher J Roberts; Perry W Grigsby; Jeffrey H Miner; Andrew G Farr; Raphael Kopan

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes form a highly organized stratified epithelium and sustain a competent barrier function together with dermal and hematopoietic cells. The Notch signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epidermal integrity. Here, we show that keratinocyte-specific deletion of total Notch signaling triggered a severe systemic B-lymphoproliferative disorder, causing death. RBP-j is the DNA binding partner of Notch, but both RBP-j–dependent

  16. KU HAPLOINSUFFIENCY CAUSES A LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDER OF IMMATURE T-CELL PRECURSORS DUE TO IKAROS MALFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Zahide; Qazi, Sanjive; Ishkhanian, Rita; Hasty, Paul; Ma, Hong; Uckun, Fatih M.

    2013-01-01

    Ikaros (IK) malfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common form of childhood cancer. Therefore, a stringent regulation of IK activity is very important. Here we provide unique genetic and biochemical evidence that the Ku protein components Ku70 and Ku80 act as positive regulators of IK function via formation of IK-Ku70 and IK-Ku80 heterodimers with augmented sequence-specific DNA binding activity. siRNA-mediated depletion of Ku70 or Ku80 reduced the sequence-specific DNA binding activity of IK in EMSA as well as the RT-PCR measured IK target gene expression levels in human cells. The interaction of Ku components with IK likely contributes to the anti-leukemic effects of IK as a tumor suppressor, because Ku70 as well as Ku80 haploinsuffiency in mice caused development of a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) involving CD2+CD4+CD8+CD1+IL7R+ thymic T-cell precursors with functional IK deficiency. PMID:24478815

  17. Peripheral T-cell and NK cell lymphoproliferative disorders: cell of origin, clinical and pathological implications.

    PubMed

    Inghirami, Giorgio; Chan, Wing C; Pileri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical-biological properties. The normal cellular counterpart of these processes has been postulated based on functional and immunophenotypic analyses. However, T lymphocytes have been proven to be remarkably capable of modulating their properties, adapting their function in relationship with multiple stimuli and to the microenvironment. This impressive plasticity is determined by the equilibrium among a pool of transcription factors and by DNA chromatin regulators. It is now proven that the acquisition of specific genomic defects leads to the enforcement/activation of distinct pathways, which ultimately alter the preferential activation of defined regulators, forcing the neoplastic cells to acquire features and phenotypes distant from their original fate. Thus, dissecting the landscape of the genetic defects and their functional consequences in T-cell neoplasms is critical not only to pinpoint the origin of these tumors but also to define innovative mechanisms to re-adjust an unbalanced state to which the tumor cells have become addicted and make them vulnerable to therapies and targetable by the immune system. In our review, we briefly describe the pathological and clinical aspects of the T-cell lymphoma subtypes as well as NK-cell lymphomas and then focus on the current understanding of their pathogenesis and the implications on diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25510275

  18. A novel recurrent NPM1-TYK2 gene fusion in cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Kiel, Mark J; Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A; Rolland, Delphine; Dixon, Catherine A; Bailey, Nathanael G; Betz, Bryan L; Brown, Noah A; Hristov, Alexandra C; Wilcox, Ryan A; Miranda, Roberto N; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Jeon, Yoon K; Inamdar, Kedar V; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2014-12-11

    The spectrum of cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) includes lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Chromosomal translocations targeting tyrosine kinases in CD30-positive LPDs have not been described. Using whole-transcriptome sequencing, we identified a chimeric fusion involving NPM1 (5q35) and TYK2 (19p13) that encodes an NPM1-TYK2 protein containing the oligomerization domain of NPM1 and an intact catalytic domain in TYK2. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed NPM1-TYK2 fusions in 2 of 47 (4%) primary cases of CD30-positive LPDs and was absent in other mature T-cell neoplasms (n = 151). Functionally, NPM1-TYK2 induced constitutive TYK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT3, and STAT5 activation. Conversely, a kinase-defective NPM1-TYK2 mutant abrogated STAT1/3/5 signaling. Finally, short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of TYK2 abrogated lymphoma cell growth. This is the first report of recurrent translocations involving TYK2, and it highlights the novel therapeutic opportunities in the treatment of CD30-positive LPDs with TYK2 translocations. PMID:25349176

  19. Severe post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Kaori; Fukumoto, Takumi; Fukushima, Kenji; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Tominaga, Masahiro; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Kawakami, Fumi; Itoh, Tomoo; Ku, Yonson

    2015-03-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known complication after transplantation. A living donor liver transplantation was performed on a 31-year-old man for fulminant hepatitis. He again developed liver dysfunction after 7?months. He was diagnosed as having acute cellular rejection and the steroid pulse therapy introduced resulted in little improvement. He gradually developed a high fever and right axillary lymphadenopathy appeared. Chest computed tomography (CT) was performed revealing small lung nodules and axillary lymphadenopathy. Because his serological status for Epstein-Barr virus was positive, PTLD was highly suspected and immunosuppression treatment was withdrawn with little improvement. One week later, he developed tachycardia. Chest CT was re-performed revealing an infiltration to the left cardiac chamber. For diagnosis, axillary lymph node biopsy was performed and during the procedure, he developed ventricular tachycardia (VT). Immunohistological staining revealed PTLD of T lymphocytes, and chemotherapy was introduced on the same day he developed VT. After two cycles of tetrahydropyranyl, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone and etoposide treatment, he completely recovered. This is a first case report of severe PTLD with VT, and our case implies the feasibility of chemotherapy after the appearance of dissemination symptoms. PMID:24750572

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoproliferative disorders: the dust is starting to settle.

    PubMed

    Sokol, H; Beaugerie, L

    2009-10-01

    The risk of lymphoproliferative disorders (LDs) has become a major concern for clinicians managing patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Yet it is difficult to distinguish the possible responsibility of immunosuppressive therapy from the background risk due to the inflammatory disorder itself. LDs are clonal B or T cell proliferation showing considerable heterogeneity and the incidence has increased since the 1970s. The strongest and best-established risk factors for LDs are primary and acquired immunodeficiency (HIV, immunosuppressant), notably via defective immune surveillance of Epstein-Barr virus. In many auto-immune diseases (eg, Sjögren's syndrome), inflammatory diseases (eg, rheumatoid arthritis) or chronic suppuration (chronic pyothorax), the risk of LD is increased. In IBD patients, in general, the risk of LD seems to be similar to or very slightly higher than in the general population. The role of immunosuppressants in lymphomagenesis is difficult to individualise because other factors potentially involved are inter-linked. Concordant data suggest that thiopurine therapy is associated with a moderately increased risk of LD. Data regarding methotrexate are scarce and come from diseases other than IBD but the risk seems low. Data regarding risk of LD in IBD patients receiving anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) agents are insufficient at this time, mainly because most of the patients are co-treated with thiopurines. The recently individualised risks of hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma and fatal post-mononucleosis LD, in young male patients with IBD who are co-treated with anti-TNFalpha and thiopurines, and EBV-seronegative IBD males, respectively, are probably low but remain to be better quantified. PMID:19749141

  1. Detection of monoclonal T populations in patients with KIR-restricted chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Gattazzo, Cristina; Teramo, Antonella; Passeri, Francesca; De March, Elena; Carraro, Samuela; Trimarco, Valentina; Frezzato, Federica; Berno, Tamara; Barilà, Gregorio; Martini, Veronica; Piazza, Francesco; Trentin, Livio; Facco, Monica; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Zambello, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of chronic large granular lymphocyte proliferations is largely unknown. Although these disorders are characterized by the expansion of different cell types (T and natural killer) with specific genetic features and abnormalities, several lines of evidence suggest a common pathogenetic mechanism. According to this interpretation, we speculated that in patients with natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder, together with natural killer cells, also T lymphocytes undergo a persistent antigenic pressure, possibly resulting in an ultimate clonal T-cell selection. To strengthen this hypothesis, we evaluated whether clonal T-cell populations were detectable in 48 patients with killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type chronic lymphoproliferative disorder. At diagnosis, in half of the patients studied, we found a clearly defined clonal T-cell population, despite the fact that all cases presented with a well-characterized natural killer disorder. Follow-up analysis confirmed that the TCR gamma rearrangements were stable over the time period evaluated; furthermore, in 7 patients we demonstrated the appearance of a clonal T subset that progressively matures, leading to a switch between killer immunoglobulin-like receptor-restricted natural killer-type disorder to a monoclonal T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Our results support the hypothesis that a common mechanism is involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. PMID:25193965

  2. Anti-CD20 B-cell depletion enhances monocyte reactivity in neuroimmunological disorders

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical trials evaluating anti-CD20-mediated B-cell depletion in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) generated encouraging results. Our recent studies in the MS model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) attributed clinical benefit to extinction of activated B-cells, but cautioned that depletion of naïve B-cells may be undesirable. We elucidated the regulatory role of un-activated B-cells in EAE and investigated whether anti-CD20 may collaterally diminish regulatory B-cell properties in treatment of neuroimmunological disorders. Methods Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-immunized C57Bl/6 mice were depleted of B-cells. Functional consequences for regulatory T-cells (Treg) and cytokine production of CD11b+ antigen presenting cells (APC) were assessed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 22 patients receiving anti-CD20 and 23 untreated neuroimmunological patients were evaluated for frequencies of B-cells, T-cells and monocytes; monocytic reactivity was determined by TNF-production and expression of signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). Results We observed that EAE-exacerbation upon depletion of un-activated B-cells closely correlated with an enhanced production of pro-inflammatory TNF by CD11b+ APC. Paralleling this pre-clinical finding, anti-CD20 treatment of human neuroimmunological disorders increased the relative frequency of monocytes and accentuated pro-inflammatory monocyte function; when reactivated ex vivo, a higher frequency of monocytes from B-cell depleted patients produced TNF and expressed the activation marker SLAM. Conclusions These data suggest that in neuroimmunological disorders, pro-inflammatory APC activity is controlled by a subset of B-cells which is eliminated concomitantly upon anti-CD20 treatment. While this observation does not conflict with the general concept of B-cell depletion in human autoimmunity, it implies that its safety and effectiveness may further advance by selectively targeting pathogenic B-cell function. PMID:22027448

  3. Occurrence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated plasmacytic lymphoproliferative disorder after antithymocyte globulin therapy for aplastic anemia: a case report with review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Ryota; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Okuno, Hiroko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Horinouchi, Akiko; Shirakawa, Ayaka; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that patients with immunosuppression have a higher risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with development of LPDs. Aplastic anemia (AA) is an immune-mediated hematological disorder, and immunosuppression therapy (IST), such as antithymocyte globulin (ATG), is widely used for treatment of AA. However, occurrence of LPD without bone marrow transplantation has been extremely rarely documented in patients with IST for AA. Herein, we report the 6th documented case of EBV-associated LPD after IST for AA and review the clinicopathological features of this extremely rare complication. A 46-year-old Japanese female was admitted for evaluation of progressive pancytopenia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed fatty marrow with marked decrease of trilineage cells, and bone marrow aspiration demonstrated no dysplastic changes. IST with rabbit ATG was administered, after which, she developed high fever. Bone marrow aspiration showed increase of atypical plasma cells with mildly enlarged nuclei and irregular nuclear contour. These atypical plasma cells were EBER-positive. Accordingly, a diagnosis of EBV-positive plasmacytic LPD was made. Most cases of LPDs are B-cell origin, and plasmacytic LPD is a rare subtype. The current report is the second case of plasmacytic LPD in patients with IST for AA. Therefore, detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses are needed for correct diagnosis and treatment, and additional studies are needed to clarify the clinicopathological features of EBV-LPD after IST for AA. PMID:24817974

  4. Translational Mini-Review Series on B Cell-Directed Therapies: Recent advances in B cell-directed biological therapies for autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, M C

    2009-01-01

    B cell-directed therapies are promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. Besides targeting CD20, newer B cell-directed therapies are in development that target other B cell surface molecules and differentiation factors. An increasing number of B cell-directed therapies are in development for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Like rituximab, which is approved as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many of these newer agents deplete B cells or target pathways essential for B cell development and function; however, many questions remain about their optimal use in the clinic and about the role of B cells in disease pathogenesis. Other therapies besides rituximab that target CD20 are the furthest along in development. Besides targeting CD20, the newer B cell-directed therapies target CD22, CD19, CD40–CD40L, B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). Rituximab is being tested in an ever-increasing number of autoimmune disorders and clinical studies of rituximab combined with other biological therapies are being pursued for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). B cell-directed therapies are being tested in clinical trials for a variety of autoimmune disorders including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), the inflammatory myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis) and the blistering skin diseases pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Despite the plethora of clinical studies related to B cell-directed therapies and wealth of new information from these trials, much still remains to be discovered about the pathophysiological role of B cells in autoimmune disorders. PMID:19604259

  5. PCR Analysis of IgH and TCR-? Gene Rearrangements as a Confirmatory Diagnostic Tool for Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Poopak, Behzad; Valeshabad, Ali Kord; Elahi, Fazel; Rezvani, Hamid; Khosravipour, Gelareh; Jahangirpour, Mohammad Ali; Bolouri, Shirin; Golkar, Tolou; Salari, Fatemeh; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates PCR analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements on paraffin-embedded tissue sections and bone marrow aspirates of patients suspected to have lymphoproliferative disorders but with inconclusive diagnosis in histopathological examination. 130 samples of patients with inconclusive immunohistochemistry results were evaluated for clonal rearrangement of IgH and TCR genes. Based on histopathology examination, the patients were divided into three groups: the first group without any definite diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders (60 cases, 46.2 %), the second group suspected to have a lymphoproliferative disorder but in favor of benign disorders (19 cases, 14.6 %) and the third group suspect to lymphoproliferative disorders but relatively in favor of malignant disorders (51 cases, 39.2 %). After DNA extraction and quality control, semi-nested PCR was performed using consensus primers for amplification of TCR-? and CDR-3 regions of IgH genes. PCR products were analyzed after heteroduplex analysis using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and were subject to silver staining. Totally, in over half of the cases (55.4 %), a monoclonal pattern was found in IgH or TCR-? genes rearrangements. Monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement was detected in 48.1 % of patients, whereas monoclonal TCR-? gene rearrangement was found in 33.6 % of them, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.008). Only in 32 patients (24.6 %) were the results of TCR-? and IgH gene rearrangements consistent with respect to the presence (2.3 %) or absence (22.3 %) of monoclonality. Finally, PCR analysis of TCR-? and IgH gene rearrangements led to definite diagnosis in 105 patients (80.8 %), and only 25 cases (19.2 %) remained inconclusive. Our results emphasize the usefulness of gene rearrangement study in cases without a definite diagnosis in immunohistochemistry studies. Multiple PCR analysis results when combined with patient's clinical course and immunohistochemistry can lead to early diagnosis and subsequent therapy. PMID:25548443

  6. Renal involvement in myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. A study of autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J C; Walz-Mattmüller, R; Ruck, P; Horny, H P; Kaiserling, E

    1997-02-01

    A considerable proportion of cases of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders exhibit renal involvement. However, it is unclear whether the cytologic features, immunophenotype or grade of malignancy of the cells infiltrating the kidney differ from those of the primary tumor. This study was performed on 120 autopsy cases with the following diagnoses: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML, n = 22; subtypes M1 + M2, n = 12, subtype M4, n = 10), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML, n = 7), agnogenic myeloid metaplasia/myelofibrosis (AMM/MF, n = 6), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, n = 6), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, n = 9), other low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (low-grade NHL, n = 24), high-grade NHL (n = 21) and multiple myeloma (MM, n = 25). Renal involvement was investigated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. It was found in 34% of the cases, and was most common in ALL (83%) and low-grade NHL (50%) and least common in high-grade NHL (10%) and MM (12%). Dense infiltration of almost the entire kidney was most commonly seen in AML, low-grade NHL and ALL. Infiltration was bilateral and involved both the cortex and medulla in the majority of cases. When involvement of other organs was compared with that of the kidney, the lung was found to be involved in approximately the same number of cases, but liver involvement was more common and heart involvement less common. Reactive lymphocytic infiltration of the kidney was found in 18 of the 120 cases (15%), and was distinguished from scanty tumorous infiltration by immunohistochemical staining. No major phenotypical differences were found between the tumor cells infiltrating the kidney and those of the primary tumors in the bone marrow or lymph nodes. However, in one case of CML, the cells infiltrating the kidney were negative for KP1 and chloroacetate esterase, but could be identified by reactivity for CD34. The grade of malignancy in NHL was similar in both the nodal and renal manifestations. PMID:9065578

  7. Treatment of recurrent posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder of the central nervous system with high-dose methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Twist, Clare J; Castillo, Ricardo O

    2013-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a frequent complication of intestinal transplantation and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is currently no consensus on optimal therapy. Recurrent PTLD involving the central nervous system (CNS) represents a particularly difficult therapeutic challenge. We report the successful treatment of CNS PTLD in a pediatric patient after liver/small bowel transplantation. Initial immunosuppression (IS) was with thymoglobulin, solucortef, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. EBV viremia developed 8 weeks posttransplantation, and despite treatment with cytogam and valganciclovir the patient developed a polymorphic, CD20+, EBV+ PTLD with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Following treatment with rituximab, the lymphadenopathy resolved, but a new monomorphic CD20-, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD mesenteric mass emerged. Complete response of this PTLD was achieved with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy; however, 4 months off therapy he developed CNS PTLD (monomorphic CD20-, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD) of the brain and spine. IS was discontinued and HD-MTX (2.5-5?gm/m(2)/dose) followed by intrathecal HD-MTX (2?mg/dose ×2-3 days Q 7-10 days per cycle) was administered Q 4-7 weeks. After 3 cycles of HD-MTX, the CSF was negative for malignant cells, MRI of head/spine showed near-complete response, and PET/CT was negative. The patient remains in complete remission now for 3.5 years after completion of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Conclusion. HD-MTX is an effective therapy for CNS PTLD and recurrent PTLD that have failed rituximab and CHOP chemotherapy. PMID:23984169

  8. Treatment of Recurrent Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder of the Central Nervous System with High-Dose Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Twist, Clare J.; Castillo, Ricardo O.

    2013-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a frequent complication of intestinal transplantation and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is currently no consensus on optimal therapy. Recurrent PTLD involving the central nervous system (CNS) represents a particularly difficult therapeutic challenge. We report the successful treatment of CNS PTLD in a pediatric patient after liver/small bowel transplantation. Initial immunosuppression (IS) was with thymoglobulin, solucortef, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. EBV viremia developed 8 weeks posttransplantation, and despite treatment with cytogam and valganciclovir the patient developed a polymorphic, CD20+, EBV+ PTLD with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Following treatment with rituximab, the lymphadenopathy resolved, but a new monomorphic CD20?, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD mesenteric mass emerged. Complete response of this PTLD was achieved with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy; however, 4 months off therapy he developed CNS PTLD (monomorphic CD20?, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD) of the brain and spine. IS was discontinued and HD-MTX (2.5–5?gm/m2/dose) followed by intrathecal HD-MTX (2?mg/dose ×2-3 days Q 7–10 days per cycle) was administered Q 4–7 weeks. After 3 cycles of HD-MTX, the CSF was negative for malignant cells, MRI of head/spine showed near-complete response, and PET/CT was negative. The patient remains in complete remission now for 3.5 years after completion of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Conclusion. HD-MTX is an effective therapy for CNS PTLD and recurrent PTLD that have failed rituximab and CHOP chemotherapy. PMID:23984169

  9. Cell lineage in lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, A C

    1983-04-01

    Surface marker techniques have made a major contribution to the understanding and classification of lymphoproliferative disorders by permitting the determination of B- and T-cell lineage. The frequent malignant proliferations of B lymphocytes are identified by the presence of surface immunoglobulin of a single light-chain type; Ia-like (HLA-DR) antigen is present as well. While most T-cell proliferations exhibit the classic receptor for sheep erythrocytes, commercially available monoclonal antisera permit the secure identification of T cells and their subclassification into inducer-helper and cytotoxic-suppressor subsets. Surface markers have also allowed the separation of a fraction of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia whose cells have T-lymphocyte markers from the majority whose cells show subtle evidence of early B-cell differentiation. PMID:6340492

  10. Treatment of rare co-occurrence of Epstein-Barr virus-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weber, T; Wickenhauser, C; Monecke, A; Gläser, C; Stadler, M; Desole, M; Ligeti, K; Behrmann, C; Müller-Tidow, C; Müller, L P

    2014-12-01

    In both conditions, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a key mechanism: almost all PTLD in allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is caused by EBV-related neoplastic lymphoproliferation, and secondary HLH is most frequently triggered by EBV infection. Therefore, concomitant EBV-driven PTLD and HLH early after alloSCT require an approach to eliminate EBV and balance immune activation simultaneously. We report on a patient who developed simultaneous PTLD and signs of HLH on day 64 after alloSCT. Treatment was comprised of stopping cyclosporine, short-course dexamethasone, and 3 courses of rituximab. The patient showed full recovery and complete remission of lymphadenopathy. This result indicates that immediate reduction in EBV-carrying B cells by rituximab, suppression of general inflammation, and parallel support of reconstitution of long-term T-cell function, might be an appropriate therapeutic approach in this rare situation. PMID:25179757

  11. Methotrexate-related Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disorder occurring in the gingiva of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that patients with immunodeficiency have a high risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the occurrence of LPDs. Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the common cause of iatrogenic-associated LPD, and approximately 40-50% of MTX-related LPD cases occur in extranodal sites. However, the occurrence of MTX-related LPD in the gingiva is extremely rare. Herein, we report the fourth documented case of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD occurring in the gingiva of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 76-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of RA, who was treated with MTX and infliximab, presented with a tumorous lesion in the gingiva. Biopsy of the gingiva tumor revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with cleaved nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. These lymphoid cells were CD20- and EBER-positive. Therefore, a diagnosis of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD showing features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that occurred in the gingiva was made. Although the occurrence of LPD in the oral region, as seen in the present case, is rare, the prevalence of this disorder may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. Moreover, immunosenescence can also be a cause of EBV-associated LPD. Therefore, recognition of the occurrence of this disorder in the oral cavity and consideration of the clinical history can facilitate the correct diagnosis. PMID:24133604

  12. Hepatitis C infection and lymphoproliferative disease: accidental comorbidities?

    PubMed

    Khoury, Tawfik; Chen, Shmuel; Adar, Tomer; Jacob, E Ollech; Mizrahi, Meir

    2014-11-21

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver cancer and cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders such as thyroiditis and mixed cryoglobulinema, and alterations in immune function and chronic inflammation, both implicated in B cell lymphoproliferative diseases that may progress to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). HCV bound to B cell surface receptors can induce lymphoproliferation, leading to DNA mutations and/or lower antigen response thresholds. These findings and epidemiological reports suggest an association between HCV infection and NHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature to clarify this potential relationship. We searched the English-language literature utilizing Medline, Embase, Paper First, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with search terms broadly defined to capture discussions of HCV and its relationship with NHL and/or lymphoproliferative diseases. References were screened to further identify relevant studies and literature in the basic sciences. A total of 62 reports discussing the relationship between HCV, NHL, and lymphoproliferative diseases were identified. Epidemiological studies suggest that at least a portion of NHL may be etiologically attributable to HCV, particularly in areas with high HCV prevalence. Studies that showed a lack of association between HCV infection and lymphoma may have been influenced by small sample size, short follow-up periods, and database limitations. The association appears strongest with the B-cell lymphomas relative to other lymphoproliferative diseases. Mechanisms by which chronic HCV infection promotes lymphoproliferative disease remains unclear. Lymphomagenesis is a multifactorial process involving genetic, environmental, and infectious factors. HCV most probably have a role in the lymphomagenesis but further study to clarify the association and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25473174

  13. Hepatitis C infection and lymphoproliferative disease: Accidental comorbidities?

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Tawfik; Chen, Shmuel; Adar, Tomer; Jacob, E Ollech; Mizrahi, Meir

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with liver cancer and cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders such as thyroiditis and mixed cryoglobulinema, and alterations in immune function and chronic inflammation, both implicated in B cell lymphoproliferative diseases that may progress to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). HCV bound to B cell surface receptors can induce lymphoproliferation, leading to DNA mutations and/or lower antigen response thresholds. These findings and epidemiological reports suggest an association between HCV infection and NHL. We performed a systematic review of the literature to clarify this potential relationship. We searched the English-language literature utilizing Medline, Embase, Paper First, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, with search terms broadly defined to capture discussions of HCV and its relationship with NHL and/or lymphoproliferative diseases. References were screened to further identify relevant studies and literature in the basic sciences. A total of 62 reports discussing the relationship between HCV, NHL, and lymphoproliferative diseases were identified. Epidemiological studies suggest that at least a portion of NHL may be etiologically attributable to HCV, particularly in areas with high HCV prevalence. Studies that showed a lack of association between HCV infection and lymphoma may have been influenced by small sample size, short follow-up periods, and database limitations. The association appears strongest with the B-cell lymphomas relative to other lymphoproliferative diseases. Mechanisms by which chronic HCV infection promotes lymphoproliferative disease remains unclear. Lymphomagenesis is a multifactorial process involving genetic, environmental, and infectious factors. HCV most probably have a role in the lymphomagenesis but further study to clarify the association and underlying mechanisms is warranted. PMID:25473174

  14. Posttransplant Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative disorder with a primary cutaneous presentation

    E-print Network

    Snavely, Nicholas R; Sonabend, Michael; Rosen, Ted

    2007-01-01

    et al. 14 cases of pseudo-B-cell lymphoma in which all, byB and T-cell lineages, ranging from plasma-cell overgrowth to aggressive lymphomas.B-cell lineages [ 10 ]. CD30 has classically been expressed in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

  15. A unique case of rituximab-related posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a heart transplant recipient with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, A; Sabnani, I; Baran, D A; Zucker, M J

    2015-03-01

    Rituximab is commonly used as a first line therapy to treat posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). It has also proved useful in the management of refractory antibody mediated graft rejection. We report an unusual case in which a heart transplant recipient being treated with rituximab for PTLD developed altered mental status, hallucinations and visual symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of symmetrical enhancement suggestive of posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Resolution of these clinical symptoms and radiological findings after discontinuation of therapy confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first case of PRES seen due to rituximab in a heart transplant recipient. Another unique feature of the case is the development of PRES after second cycle of rituximab as compared to prior reports in nonheart transplant patients in which the syndrome developed after first dose administration. The objective of this case report is to increase the awareness of this rare entity amongst immunocompromised transplant patients. PMID:25648447

  16. Methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder arising in the retromolar triangle and lung of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Masanori; Harada, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Koshi; Sato, Yuriko; Omura, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa

    2014-10-01

    We report an extremely rare case of massive methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) arising in the retromolar triangle and lung of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. The patient was a 75-year-old woman who was referred to our department because of severe pain associated with a unilateral ulcer on the left retromolar triangle. The tumor had an extranodal location in the retromolar triangle and in the right lung. A clinicopathologic examination found a lymphocytic infiltrate with increasingly atypical histopathologic features. Atypical large cells were strongly positive in Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization and in staining with CD20 antibodies. MTX-LPD was diagnosed based on the medical history and histopathologic results. The lesion responded well to withdrawal of MTX followed by R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) chemotherapy. There have been no signs of recurrence for 4 years since withdrawal of MTX. PMID:24811204

  17. Molecular cytogenetic delineation of a novel critical genomic region in chromosome bands 11q22.3-923.1 in lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Stilgenbauer, S; Liebisch, P; James, M R; Schröder, M; Schlegelberger, B; Fischer, K; Bentz, M; Lichter, P; Döhner, H

    1996-01-01

    Aberrations of the long arm of chromosome 11 are among the most common chromosome abnormalities in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). Translocations involving BCL1 at 11q13 are strongly associated with mantle cell lymphoma. other nonrandom aberrations, especially deletions and, less frequently, translocations, involving bands 11q21-923 have been identified by chromosome banding analysis. To date, the critical genomic segment and candidate genes involved in these deletions have not been identified. In the present study, we have analyzed tumors from 43 patients with LPD (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, n = 40; mantle cell lymphoma, n = 3) showing aberrations of bands 11q21-923 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. As probes we used Alu-PCR products from 17 yeast artificial chromosome clones spanning chromosome bands 11q14.3-923.3, including a panel of yeast artificial chromosome clones recognizing a contiguous genomic DNA fragment of approximately 9-10 Mb in bands 11q22.3-923.3. In the 41 tumors exhibiting deletions, we identified a commonly deleted segment in band 11q22.3-923.1; this region is approximately 2-3 Mb in size and contains the genes coding for ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated), RDX (radixin), and FDX1 (ferredoxin 1). Furthermore, two translocation break-points were localized to a 1.8-Mb genomic fragment contained within the commonly deleted segment. Thus, we have identified a single critical region of 2-3 Mb in size in which 11q14-923 aberrations in LPD cluster. This provides the basis for the identification of the gene(s) at 11q22.3-923.1 that are involved in the pathogenesis of LPD. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8876224

  18. Titrating Rituximab to Circulating B Cells to Optimize Lymphocytolytic Therapy in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Cravedi; Piero Ruggenenti; Maria Chiara Sghirlanzoni; Giuseppe Remuzzi; Mario Negri; Villa Camozzi

    Background and Objectives: Rituximab, given in four weekly doses, is a promising treatment for idiopathic membranous nephropathy and other immune-mediated diseases and lymphoproliferative disorders. This multidose regimen, however, may cause hypersensitivity reactions and is extremely expensive. This study was aimed at evaluating whether titrating rituximab to circulating CD20 B cells may improve safety and limit costs of treatment. Design, Setting,

  19. The ambiguous boundary between EBV-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and systemic EBV-driven T cell lymphoproliferative disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan C; Cohen, Daniel N; Greig, Bruce; Yenamandra, Ashwini; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy; Thompson, Mary Ann; Kim, Annette S

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH) is a form of acquired, infection-related HLH which typically represents a fulminant presentation of an acute EBV infection of CD8+ T cells with 30-50% mortality rate. Systemic EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease of childhood (SE-LPD) is a rare T cell lymphoproliferative disorder predominantly arising in the setting of acute EBV infection, often presenting with HLH. Since both entities have been associated with clonal T cell populations, the discrimination between these diseases is often ambiguous. We report a unique case of a 21 years old female who presented with clinical and laboratory findings of florid HLH in the setting of markedly elevated EBV titers (>1 million) and an aberrant T cell population shown to be clonal by flow cytometry, karyotype, and molecular studies. This case raises the differential of EBV-HLH versus SE-LPD. Review of the literature identified 74 cases of reported EBV-HLH and 21 cases of SE-LPD with associated HLH in 25 studies. Of those cases with available outcome data, 62 of 92 cases (67%) were fatal. Of 60 cases in which molecular clonality was demonstrated, 37 (62%) were fatal, while all 14 cases (100%) demonstrating karyotypic abnormalities were fatal. Given the karyotypic findings in this sentinel case, a diagnosis of SE-LPD was rendered. The overlapping clinical and pathologic findings suggest that EBV-HLH and SE-LPD are a biologic continuum, rather than discrete entities. The most clinically useful marker of mortality was an abnormal karyotype rather than other standards of clonality assessment. PMID:25337215

  20. Alvocidib, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Lymphoproliferative Disorders or Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Untreated Hairy Cell Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Comparison of two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation in lymphoproliferative disorders: correlation between immunoglobulin gene mutation load and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction performance.

    PubMed

    Della Starza, Irene; Cavalli, Marzia; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Barbero, Daniela; Mantoan, Barbara; Genuardi, Elisa; Urbano, Marina; Mannu, Claudia; Gazzola, Anna; Ciabatti, Elena; Guarini, Anna; Foà, Robin; Galimberti, Sara; Piccaluga, Pierpaolo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Ladetto, Marco; Monitillo, Luigia

    2014-09-01

    We compared two strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by a variable immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes mutation load. Twenty-five samples from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (n?=?18) or mantle cell lymphoma (n?=?7) patients were analyzed. Based on IGH variable region genes, 22/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 20/25?>?5%. In the IGH joining region genes, 23/25 samples carried > 2% mutations, 18/25?>?5%. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on IGH genes using two strategies: method A utilizes two patient-specific primers, whereas method B employs one patient-specific and one germline primer, with different positions on the variable, diversity and joining regions. Twenty-three samples (92%) resulted evaluable using method A, only six (24%) by method B. Method B poor performance was specifically evident among mutated IGH variable/joining region cases, although no specific mutation load above, which the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction failed was found. The molecular strategies for minimal residual disease evaluation should be adapted to the B-cell receptor features of the disease investigated. PMID:24254547

  2. High Fatality Rate of Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder Occurring after Bone Marrow Transplantation with Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Conditioning Regimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Peres; S. Savasan; J. Klein; M. Abidi; R. Dansey; E. Abella

    2005-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (EBV-LPD) following bone marrow transplantation can be fatal. The major risk factors for the development of EBV-LPD are ex vivo T-cell depletion or in vivo T-cell depletion with either antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or monoclonal anti-T-cell antibodies. Between March 1999 and January 2001, a total of 23 transplants with ATG of equine source (20 transplants) and

  3. Case Report Fulminant EBV-driven CD8 T-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder Following Primary Acute EBV Infection: A Unique Spectrum of T-Cell Malignancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken H. Young; Dahua Zhang; Jeffery T. Malik; Eliot C. Williams

    Fulminant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven clonal T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) is rare and most patients are of Asian origin. The disease usually develops shortly after primary acute EBV infection and the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we report such a rare case in a 28-year-old Caucasian female with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunophenotypic and molecular studies revealed that the proliferating lymphoid

  4. Hodgkin lymphoma post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder following pediatric renal transplant: serial imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; Lisbona, Robert; Derbekyan, Vilma

    2010-09-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurs in 1.2% of pediatric renal transplant patients, and is frequently Epstein-Barr Virus mediated. Hodgkin Lymphoma PTLD is the rarest of the 4 types of PTLDs recognized by the World Health Organization, with an incidence of <4% of all PTLD patients. It has a distinct clinical course and treatment from all other types of PTLD. This is a case of a 16-year-old girl who had a renal transplant in 2000 due to Moya Moya disease. Her first F-18 FDG PET/CT done in 2006 showed mildly FDG-avid mediastinal adenopathy (histologically nonspecific reactive nodes), however in 2009, after presenting with fevers, a repeat PET/CT showed extensive intensely FDG-avid disease. Biopsy of a supraclavicular node identified Hodgkin Lymphoma PTLD. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and reimaged, showing excellent response to therapy. In contrast, classic PTLD is treated by withdrawal of immunosuppression and administration of Rituximab. F-18 FDG PET/CT is known to be very useful in the staging and monitoring of response to therapy in the setting of classic PTLD. In this case, serial F-18 FDG PET/CT scans proved very useful in the evaluation and follow-up of the rare and distinct Hodgkin Lymphoma PTLD subtype. PMID:20706047

  5. Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard A; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E; Bowen, James D; Holmberg, Leona A; Kraft, George H; Mayes, Maureen D; McDonagh, Kevin T; Chen, Chien-Shing; Dipersio, John; Lemaistre, C Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E; McSweeney, Peter A

    2003-09-01

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23-61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2-60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/microL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/microL; P =.001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited, the time course and similarity of the 2 cases of EBV-PTLD and the effect on day 28 T-cell counts support a relationship between the development of EBV-PTLD and the administration of rabbit ATG. The differences between equine and rabbit ATG are not yet clearly defined, and they should not be considered interchangeable in this regimen without further study. PMID:14506660

  6. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a tumor adjacent to the renal allograft: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    GAO, CHEN; PENG, LONGKAI; PENG, FENGHUA; TUO, TING; LI, DAIQIANG

    2014-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potentially fatal complication of solid organ transplantation. The current report presents the case of a 42-year-old male who developed PTLD within the first year following renal transplantation. The disorder manifested as a tumor adjacent to the lower pole of the renal allograft and resulted in urinary obstruction. Durable complete remission was achieved as a result of surgical resection followed by a reduction in immunosuppression and low-dose rituximab-based chemotherapy, indicating that this therapeutic strategy may be safe and effective for the treatment of specific cases of localized and resectable PTLD. PMID:25364435

  7. Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection causing both benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kwun, Yoojin; Hong, Soo-Jong; Lee, Jin Seong; Son, Da Hye

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is oncogenic and can transform B cells from a benign to a malignant phenotype. EBV infection is also associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with a latent EBV infection and underlying LIP, without any associated immunodeficiency. He had been EBV-seropositive for 8 years. The first clinical presentations were chronic respiratory symptoms and recurrent pneumonia. The symptoms worsened in the following 2 years. The results of in situ hybridization were positive for EBV, which led to a diagnosis of LIP. The diagnosis was confirmed by the results of a thoracoscopic lung biopsy. The EBV titer of the bronchoalveolar lavage specimens obtained after acyclovir treatment was found to be fluctuating. The patient had latent EBV infection for 8 years, until presented at the hospital with intermittent abdominal pain and distension. Physical examination and pelvic computed tomography revealed a large mesenteric mass. A biopsy of the excised mass led to a diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL). The patient received combination chemotherapy for 4 months, consisting of vincristine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisolone. He is now tumor-free, with the LIP under control, and is being followed-up at the outpatient clinic. This is the first report of a Korean case of chronic latent EBV infection that developed into LIP and BL in a nonimmunocompromised child. PMID:25324869

  8. Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2015-01-01

    The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients’ populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases. PMID:25848462

  9. Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2015-03-27

    The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients' populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases. PMID:25848462

  10. High-Dose Y-90-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Added to Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Regimen for Relapsed or Refractory Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-04

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in mixed cryoglobulinemia and B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: evidence for a pathogenetic role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Zignego; C. Ferri; C. Giannini; L. La Civita; G. Careccia; G. Longombardo; G. Bellesi; F. Caracciolo; V. Thiers; P. Gentilini

    1997-01-01

    Summary.?  We investigated the pathogenetic relevance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) with or without\\u000a complicating B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) in comparison with other immunological and lymphoproliferative disorders.\\u000a The following groups of patients were studied: A) 25 patients with MC in 7 cases evolved into B-cell NHL; B) 25 healthy subjects;\\u000a C) 22 patients with different systemic

  12. Extranodal large B cell lymphoma of the anterior maxilla. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Webber, Brian; Webber, Mariel; Keinan, David

    2015-01-01

    In the oral cavity, lymphoproliferative disorders can manifest in various ways, often as an extranodal externalization. In the case presented here, it was a B cell lymphoma originating in the periapical bone of the anterior maxilla. X-ray revealed a periapical radiolucency associated with an intact tooth with no decay, fillings or history of trauma. The tooth tested non-vital. After root canal treatment, an apicoectomy was performed with a biopsy. The most common diagnosis would be of dental etiology. The pathology report revealed a non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. Most often, this disease appears as localized dental or oral pathology. Non-specific signs and symptoms present in association with lymphoproliferative disorders include lymphadenopathy, trismus, pain, swelling, sinusitis, fever, sepsis, prosthetic instability and paresthesia. Early detection results in decreased morbidity and a better prognosis for the patient. PMID:25707167

  13. Leukemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a patient with myeloproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Bociek, R Gregory; Yuan, Ji; Fu, Kai; Greiner, Timothy C; Dave, Bhavana J; Rajan, Sandeep K; Armitage, James O

    2015-03-01

    Essential thrombocythemia is well-known to transform to other myeloid disorders, such as leukemia; however, the risk for development of lymphoma is not as well studied. This case report discusses a 76-year-old man with a history of prefibrotic post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis on ruxolitinib, who developed anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis with peripheral blasts. Results of a bone marrow biopsy and PET and CT scans revealed stage IV leukemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Several days after cessation of ruxolitinib, the patient developed fevers, hypotension, and low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation, and subsequently developed spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome, which resulted in death. This case is unique in several aspects: it highlights the rare possibility of lymphomatous transformation of myeloproliferative disorders, an unusual presentation of lymphoma masquerading as leukemia, and the possibility of ruxolitinib withdrawal syndrome. Additionally, this case serves as a reminder that the use of novel therapies should be adopted after a thorough assessment of long-term risks, including those associated with abrupt withdrawal. PMID:25736004

  14. Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia: a lymphoproliferative continuum with lymphomatous potential.

    PubMed

    Nihal, Minakshi; Mikkola, Debra; Horvath, Nancy; Gilliam, Anita C; Stevens, Seth R; Spiro, Timothy P; Cooper, Kevin D; Wood, Gary S

    2003-06-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) has been proposed to be the benign end of a continuum of lymphoproliferative disorders with cutaneous lymphoma at its malignant extreme. An intermediate condition, known as "clonal CLH," was first recognized by us and shown to be a transitional state capable of eventuating in overt lymphoma. To better determine the prevalence of dominant clonality and risk of lymphoma among CLH cases, we studied the immunohistology and clonality of fresh-frozen samples from 44 CLH patients referred to a multidisciplinary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders program. Using a large panel of lymphoid markers, the cases were divided into 38 typical mixed B-cell/T-cell type CLH and 6 T-cell-rich type (T-CLH), the latter containing > 90% T cells. Of the 44 patients, 38 had solitary or localized lesions (4 cases of T-CLH), and 6 had regional/generalized lesions (2 cases of T-CLH). Forty cases were of idiopathic etiology. Suspected etiologies among 4 other cases included mercuric tattoo pigment, doxepin, clozapine, and bacterial infection. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell receptor (TCR)-gamma gene rearrangements (GR) were studied using polymerase chain reaction assays, which are approximately 80% sensitive. Overall, 27 cases (61%) showed clonal CLH: 12 IgH+ (27%; 3 cases of T-CLH); 13 TCR+ (30%; 1 case of T-CLH); and 2 IgH+/TCR+ (4%; neither case was T-CLH). Two cases (4%; 1 case of T-CLH) progressed to cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. Both of these patients presented with regional lesions. Our findings indicate that clonal overgrowth is common in CLH, links CLH to lymphoma, and probably involves both B- and T-cell lineages (although TCR GR by B cells and vice versa could not be ruled out). The high prevalence of dominant clonality in our series may have resulted from the sensitivity of our PCR assays as well as patient selection. PMID:12827617

  15. Blood microvesicles during chronic lymphoproliferative diseases.

    PubMed

    Domnikova, N P; Dolgikh, T Yu; Sholenberg, E V; Vorontsova, E V; Goreva, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Gorbachenko, E A; Grishanova, A Yu

    2013-11-01

    The levels of CD19 (+) and CD20(+) microvesicles were estimated in the blood of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma by flow cytometry method. It was found that the number of B cell microvesicles is several times higher in patients than in volunteers. The level of CD20 (+) microvesicles directly correlated with the number of CD20(+) lymphocytes in patients with chronic lymphoproliferative diseases. Extramedullary tumors cells can be a source of CD19 (+) microvesicles. PMID:24319739

  16. Development of B-lineage Predominant Lentiviral Vectors for Use in Genetic Therapies for B Cell Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sather, Blythe D; Ryu, Byoung Y; Stirling, Brigid V; Garibov, Mikhail; Kerns, Hannah M; Humblet-Baron, Stéphanie; Astrakhan, Alexander; Rawlings, David J

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, targeted, high-level transgene expression in primary B lymphocytes may be useful for gene therapy in B cell disorders. We developed several candidate B-lineage predominant self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (LV) containing alternative enhancer/promoter elements including: the immunoglobulin ? (Ig?) (B29) promoter combined with the immunoglobulin µ enhancer (EµB29); and the endogenous BTK promoter with or without Eµ (EµBtkp or Btkp). LV-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter expression was evaluated in cell lines and primary cells derived from human or murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In murine primary cells, EµB29 and EµBtkp LV-mediated high-level expression in immature and mature B cells compared with all other lineages. Expression increased with B cell maturation and was maintained in peripheral subsets. Expression in T and myeloid cells was much lower in percentage and intensity. Similarly, both EµB29 and EµBtkp LV exhibited high-level activity in human primary B cells. In contrast to EµB29, Btkp and EµBtkp LV also exhibited modest activity in myeloid cells, consistent with the expression profile of endogenous Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Notably, EµB29 and EµBtkp activity was superior in all expression models to an alternative, B-lineage targeted vector containing the EµS.CD19 enhancer/promoter. In summary, EµB29 and EµBtkp LV comprise efficient delivery platforms for gene expression in B-lineage cells. PMID:21139568

  17. Rituximab is highly effective for pure red cell aplasia and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kopi?ska, Anna; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Grygoruk-Wi?niowska, Iwona; Kyrcz-Krzemie?, S?awomira

    2012-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) constitute rare complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AlloHSCT). The incidence of EBV-PTLD is above 1%, but it may increase in patients with well-known risk factors such as EBV seronegativity at the time of transplantation, T-cell depletion of donor grafts, HLA mismatch and use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for prophylaxis of graft versus host disease. The risk factors for PRCA were defined and they include: 1) elevated post-transplant anti-donor isohemagglutinin titers, 2) reduced-intensity conditioning before transplant, 3) the presence of anti-A agglutinin and 4) ciclosporin for graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and 5) transplant from sibling donor. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab remains the first line treatment for PTLD following AlloHSCT, but its efficacy in PRCA is limited. Reduction of immunosuppression is also strongly advised. This is the first report on an adult patient who simultaneously developed PRCA and PTLD after ABO-mismatched AlloHSCT. The early introduction of rituximab resulted in prompt resolution of clinical symptoms with subsequent full recovery. PMID:23788882

  18. Normalized Quantification by Real-Time PCR of Epstein-Barr Virus Load in Patients at Risk for Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Wolfram J.; Hennig, Holger; Kittel, Michael; Pethig, Klaus; Smets, Françoise; Bucsky, Peter; Kirchner, Holger; Wagner, Hans J.

    2001-01-01

    The load of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transplant recipients represents a predictive parameter for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD). The aim of our work was to develop a rapid and reliable PCR protocol for the quantification of cell-associated EBV DNA in transplant recipients. In contrast to previous studies, a protocol that facilitated quantification independent of photometric nucleic acid analysis was established. We took advantage of the real-time PCR technology which allows for single-tube coamplification of EBV and genomic C-reactive protein (CRP) DNA. EBV copy numbers were normalized by division by the amount of CRP DNA, with the quotient representing the actual amount of amplifiable genomic DNA per reaction. Coamplification of CRP DNA did not result in a diminished detection limit for EBV. By using the protocol without normalization, EBV copy numbers in 4 out of 10 PTLD patients were within the normal range determined with data for 114 transplant recipients that served as controls. After normalization, however, all of the PTLD patients had a higher viral load than the control population, indicating an increased sensitivity of the assay. Moreover, EBV copy numbers obtained for one patient by conventional quantification and suggestive of relapsing PTLD were within normal range after normalization. We conclude that normalization of PCR signals to coamplified genomic DNA allows a more accurate quantification of cell-bound EBV. PMID:11158107

  19. Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder occurring after bone marrow transplantation for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Aya; Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that Down's syndrome exhibits a predisposition to development of leukemia, however, association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome is exceptional. Herein, we describe a case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome following post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). A 27-year-old Japanese male with Down's syndrome presented with a headache. Laboratory tests revealed severe pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hypocellular bone marrow with decrease of trilineage cells, which led to a diagnosis of aplastic anemia. One year after diagnosis, he was incidentally found to have an anterior mediastinal tumor, which was histopathologically diagnosed as seminoma. Subsequently, he received BMT from a female donor, and engraftment was observed. Three months after transplantation, he experienced cough and high fever. Biopsy specimen from the lung revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells expressing CD20 and EBER. These lymphoid cells had XY chromosomes. Thus, a diagnosis of EBV-associated PTLD was made. This is the seventh documented case of aplastic anemia occurring in Down's syndrome. Association between aplastic anemia and Down's syndrome has not been established, therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are needed. Moreover, this is the first case to undergo BMT for aplastic anemia in Down's syndrome. Although engraftment was observed, he developed EBV-positive PTLD. The neoplastic cells of the present case were considered to be of recipient origin, although the majority of PTLD cases with BMT are of donor origin. PMID:24427369

  20. B cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical hodgkin lymphoma: diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Lynnhtun, Kyaw; Varikatt, Winny; Pathmanathan, Nirmala

    2014-08-01

    A 58-year-old lady presented with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. A thoracoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration showed large atypical epithelioid cells arranged in cohesive sheets and dispersed as single cells with intact cytoplasm amid a background of lymphocytes and histiocytes. A cytological diagnosis of "a malignant neoplasm" was made, raising a broad list of differential diagnoses. A broad panel of immunocytochemical stains performed on the cell block was indicative of a lymphoproliferative disorder, but the immunophenotype was intermediate between diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Diffuse and strong reactivity to CD20, CD79a, and PAX-5, and weak reactivity to CD30, was in favor of a DLBCL, or more precisely mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphoma (MLBL). However, there were negative staining for LCA, OCT-2, and BOB-1 as well as positive staining for EBV-encoded RNA, which were against a diagnosis of MLBL and raised the possibility of cHL. The absence of RS cells and the typical mileu, the negativity for CD15 and the strong positivity of CD20 and PAX-5 were against a diagnosis of cHL. On this basis, the diagnosis of "B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder with features intermediate between DLBCL and cHL" was rendered. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed on excisional biopsy. This case report demonstrates broad differential diagnoses raised by this diagnostic entity and the importance of an adequate cell block for accurate designation. PMID:23630122

  1. Immunophenotypic features by multiparameter flow cytometry can help distinguish low grade B-cell lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation from plasma cell proliferative disorders with an unrelated clonal B-cell process.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Flavia G; Morice, William G; He, Rong; Howard, Matthew T; Timm, Michael; McPhail, Ellen D

    2015-05-01

    Highly sensitive flow cytometry studies may incidentally identify B cell clones when used to assess plasma cell clonality in bone marrows. Clinical history, which can help differentiate related clones (low grade B cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation/LBCL-PD) from unrelated ones (plasma cell proliferative disorder (PCPD) with an unrelated B cell clone), is often unavailable in referred specimens. We sought to identify morphologic or phenotypic features that would help predict the significance of these clones in the absence of history. We included only cases with identical light chain B and plasma cell clones, as determined by 6-color flow cytometry with additional DNA ploidy analysis, in which the relationship between clones could be established by review of medical records. There were 26 cases; 18 were related (14 were Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia) and eight were unrelated (seven multiple myeloma). Features seen exclusively in LBCL-PD include CD19+/CD45+ clonal plasma cell phenotype (66·7%, P = 0·0022) and morphologic features such as paratrabecular bone marrow involvement, increased mast cells, and plasma cells surrounding B-cell nodules. Aneuploidy was identified exclusively in PCPD cases (75%, P = 0·000028). We conclude that CD19+/CD45+ clonal plasma cell phenotype and aneuploidy are useful in distinguishing related clones (LBCL-PD) from unrelated clones (PCPD). PMID:25644063

  2. Checking whether there is an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other cancers with specific modern immunosuppression regimens in renal transplantation: Protocol for a network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing renal transplant procedures require multi-agent immunosuppressive regimens both short term (induction phase) and long term (maintenance phase) to minimize the risk of organ rejection. There are several drug classes and agents for immunosuppression. Use of these agents may increase the risk of different harms including not only infections, but also malignancies including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. There is a need to identify which regimens minimize the risk of such outcomes. The objective of this systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies is to explore whether certain modern regimens of immunosuppression used to prevent organ rejection in renal transplant patients are associated with an increased risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other malignancies. Methods/design ‘Modern’ regimens were defined to be those evaluated in controlled studies beginning in 1990 or later. An electronic literature search of Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials has been designed by an experienced information specialist and peer reviewed by a second information specialist. Study selection and data collection will be performed by two reviewers. The outcomes of interest will include post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder and other incident forms of malignancy occurring in adult renal transplant patients. Network meta-analyses of data from randomized and observational studies will be performed where judged appropriate based on a review of the clinical and methodological features of included studies. A sequential approach to meta-analysis will be used to combine data from different designs. Discussion Our systematic review will include both single-agent and multi-agent modern pharmacotherapy regimens in patients undergoing renal transplantation. It will synthesize malignancy outcomes. Our work will also add to the development of methods for network meta-analysis across study designs to assess treatment safety. Trial registration PROSPERO Registration Number: CRD42013006951 PMID:24559430

  3. Regression of lymphoproliferative disorder after treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in a patient with partial trisomy 3, Bcl2 overexpression, and type II cryoglobulinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milvia Casato; Cristina Mecucci; Vincent Agnello; Massimo Fiorilli; Glenn B. Knight; Caterina Matteucci; Lei Gao; Jonathan Kay

    2010-01-01

    A patient with type II cryoglobulinemic vas- culitis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presented with a leukemiclike proliferation of B cells bearing marginal zone B-cell phe- notypic markers. A partial trisomy 3 (bands 3q11-29) and overexpression of Bcl-2 with- out t(14;18) translocation was detected in the monoclonal B cells that were classic rheumatoid factor-producing B cells bear- ing the

  4. A lymphoproliferative disease in Manx cats with similarities to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Aberdein; JS Munday; KG Thompson; RA Fairley

    2011-01-01

    In 2009–2010, an unusual lymphoproliferative disease was identified in multiple siblings from successive litters of Manx cats, suggesting a genetic predisposition to development of this disease. Presentation of disease in the cats had multiple similarities with the human disease ALPS, a rare inherited disorder that causes persistent lymphoproliferation, together with variable manifestations of autoimmunity and increased susceptibility to neoplasia. The

  5. Systemic lymphoproliferative responses to rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Totterdell, B M; Banatvala, J E; Chrystie, I L; Ball, G; Cubitt, W D

    1988-05-01

    In comparison with healthy adults, elderly patients and patients who had received renal transplants had significantly lower lymphoproliferative responses to rotavirus (P = 0.04, P = 0.002, respectively) and phytohaemagglutinin (P = 0.001). However, following acute rotavirus infection, elderly persons mounted good lymphoproliferative and specific antibody responses to rotavirus. No lymphoproliferative response or specific antibody to rotavirus was detected in a child with cartilage hair hypoplasia. In cord blood samples, specific antibodies were detected in the absence of a lymphoproliferative response to rotavirus. Increases in lymphoproliferative responses as well as specific antibodies were not detected in immune adult recipients of a human rotavirus vaccine (RIT 4375), but a recipient of a bovine vaccine (RIT 4237) had an increase in lymphoproliferative response to rotavirus between 13 and 28 days postvaccination. Stimulation indices for both rotavirus and phytohaemagglutinin within the vaccine groups were comparable to the healthy laboratory personnel group. PMID:2842446

  6. [Systemic EBV+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood].

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Anne-Sophie; Daussay, Dorothée; Bouchindhomme, Brigitte; Grardel, Nathalie; Botte, Astrid; Copin, Marie-Christine

    2014-08-01

    Systemic EBV+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood is a recent entity described in the 2008 World Health Organisation tumours of haematopoietic system and lymphoid tissues as a clonal T-cell EBV+ systemic proliferation. It occurs after acute or chronic active EBV infection. We report the case of a caucasian, immunocompetent 12-year-old girl, with no particular history, who presented with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the aftermath of an infectious mononucleosis. Main symptoms were multiple organ failure, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Histopathology of peripheral lymph node and bone marrow revealed a T-cell, CD8+, EBV+ lymphoproliferation. An elevated viral load was detected in blood by PCR. The patient died within 3 weeks. Since most of the cases have been reported in Asia and South America, few cases still have been described in Europe. Unlike B-cell lymphoproliferation in immunocompromised individuals, T-cell EBV+ lymphoproliferation occurs in immunocompetent patients and seems to be the consequence of a proliferative disorder of EBV-infected T-cells, attributed to a cytotoxic T-cell response deficiency. These T-cell proliferations are more frequently immunoreactive for CD8 than CD4. A key feature of the diagnosis might be EBV viral load. PMID:25132446

  7. Polyangiitis with Granulomatosis as a Paraneoplastic Syndrome of B-Cell Lymphoma of the Lacrimal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Wills Sanín, Beatriz; Bolivar, Yenny R. Cárdenas; Carvajal, Jose J.; Quintero, Guillermo E.; Andrade, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The clinical course of an autoimmune paraneoplastic syndrome parallels the natural history of the primary malignancy. In most cases, such paraneoplastic are syndromes hardly distinguishable from idiopathic autoimmune diseases. A case of polyangiitis with granulomatosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with B-cell Lymphoma of the lacrimal gland has not yet been reported. Case Presentation. We present the case of a male patient with a B-cell Lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, who debuted with symptoms similar to rheumatoid arthritis and acute renal failure, secondary to polyangiitis with granulomatosis. The current pathophysiological hypotheses explaining the relationship between a lymphoproliferative disease and an autoimmune paraneoplastic disorder are discussed. Conclusion. Tumor-associated segmental necrotizing glomerulopathy is a very rare manifestation of glomerular diseases. Some atypical clinical features should increase the suspicion of an underlying tumor, in which case it is essential to treat the primary neoplasia, in order to control the autoimmune manifestations. PMID:25580314

  8. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rudman Spergel, Amanda; Walkovich, Kelly; Price, Susan; Niemela, Julie E.; Wright, Dowain; Fleisher, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of apoptosis, most commonly due to mutations in the FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. It presents with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and symptomatic multilineage cytopenias in an otherwise healthy child. Unfortunately, these clinical findings are also noted in other childhood lymphoproliferative conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which can confound the diagnosis. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with symptoms misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with chemotherapy before the recognition that her symptoms and laboratory values were consistent with a somatic FAS mutation leading to ALPS. This case should alert pediatricians to include ALPS in the differential diagnosis of a child with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias; obtain discriminating screening laboratory biomarkers, such as serum vitamin B-12 and ferritin levels; and, in the setting of a highly suspicious clinical scenario for ALPS, pursue testing for somatic FAS mutations when germ-line mutation testing is negative. PMID:24101757

  9. Mycobacterium haemophilum as the Initial Presentation of a B-Cell Lymphoma in a Liver Transplant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, T.; Lynn, M.; Cavazza, A.; Sames, E.; Hughes, R.

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman presented with pustular lesions of her face, trunk, and limbs and an acute arthritis of the knees and elbows. She had a complex medical background and had been on immunosuppressants for three years after a liver transplant. Tissue samples from her skin lesions and synovial fluid showed acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium haemophilum, an atypical mycobacteria, was later grown on culture. During her treatment with combination antibiotic therapy, she developed a pronounced generalised lymphadenopathy. Histology showed features of a diffuse B-cell lymphoma, a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). PMID:24523979

  10. Efficient Infection of a Human B Cell Line with Cell-Free Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Dollery, Stephen J.; Santiago-Crespo, Rey J.; Kardava, Lela; Moir, Susan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is causatively linked to two B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, multicentric Castleman's disease and primary effusion lymphoma. Latently infected B cells are a major KSHV reservoir, and virus activation from tonsillar B cells can result in salivary shedding and virus transmission. Paradoxically, human B cells (primary and continuous) are notoriously refractory to infection, thus posing a major obstacle to the study of KSHV in this cell type. By performing a strategic search of human B cell lymphoma lines, we found that MC116 cells were efficiently infected by cell-free KSHV. Upon exposure to recombinant KSHV.219, enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter expression was detected in 17 to 20% of MC116 cells. Latent-phase transcription and protein synthesis were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and detection of latency-associated nuclear antigen expression, respectively, in cell lysates and individual cells. Selection based on the puromycin resistance gene in KSHV.219 yielded cultures with all cells infected. After repeated passaging of the selected KSHV-infected cells without puromycin, latent KSHV was maintained in a small fraction of cells. Infected MC116 cells could be induced into lytic phase with histone deacetylase inhibitors, as is known for latently infected non-B cell lines, and also selectively by the B cell-specific pathway involving B cell receptor cross-linking. Lytic-phase transition was documented by red fluorescent protein reporter expression, late structural glycoprotein (K8.1A, gH) detection, and infectious KSHV production. MC116 cells were CD27?/CD10+, characteristic of transitional B cells. These findings represent an important step in the establishment of an efficient continuous B cell line model to study the biologically relevant steps of KSHV infection. IMPORTANCE PMID:24257608

  11. Rapamycin improves lymphoproliferative disease in murine autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    PubMed

    Teachey, David T; Obzut, Dana A; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S; Maris, John M; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Brown, Valerie I; Grupp, Stephan A

    2006-09-15

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans. PMID:16757690

  12. Rapamycin improves lymphoproliferative disease in murine autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)

    PubMed Central

    Teachey, David T.; Obzut, Dana A.; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S.; Maris, John M.; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Brown, Valerie I.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans. PMID:16757690

  13. Rituximab in Treating Patients Undergoing Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant for Relapsed or Refractory B-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-26

    B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. Secondary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma after chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia: looking for the unexpected diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ririe, Marnie R; Florell, Scott R; Miles, Rodney R; Duffy, Keith L

    2014-07-01

    Development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with immunosuppression has become more frequently reported. A patient with acute myeloid leukemia was treated to remission, when on follow-up 9 months after his initial diagnosis, he was noted to have a generalized rash and lymphadenopathy. Evaluation of skin and bone marrow biopsies was suggestive of a relapsed leukemia, and treatment was initiated. Fever evaluation revealed a high load of EBV in his blood. A lymph node biopsy and retrospective examination of his skin and bone marrow revealed an EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with no recurrence of acute myeloid leukemia. His chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression likely predisposed him to develop this EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This case highlights the need to consider a broader differential and immunohistochemical profiling of these neoplasms to avoid misdiagnosing complex oncology patients. PMID:24950422

  15. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement as a diagnostic criterion of B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cleary, M L; Chao, J; Warnke, R; Sklar, J

    1984-01-01

    We describe the use of the Southern blot hybridization technique to diagnose B-cell lymphoma by detecting clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in lymph node and other biopsy tissues. DNA was isolated from a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic specimens and analyzed for the presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes using radiolabeled DNA probes specific for the heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin constant region genes. Among the specimens examined, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were found only in biopsy samples of B-cell lymphoma and not in samples containing reactive lymphoid processes or non-B-cell cancers. In lymphomas, the presence of rearrangements for either the kappa or lambda light-chain gene correlated with expression of one or the other of these chains when cellular immunoglobulins could be detected by frozen-section immunophenotyping techniques. The analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements offers several advantages over conventional diagnostic methods for lymphomas, including improved sensitivity in detecting minor populations of neoplastic lymphocytes composing as little as 1% of the total cell population. In addition, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements are demonstrable in a subset of lymphomas that lack detectable surface or cytoplasmic immunoglobulin, thus offering positive evidence for both malignancy and the B-cell origin of these tumors. Our studies indicate that detection of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements is a valuable method for diagnosis and classification of various lymphoproliferative disorders that are difficult to evaluate histologically or that lack distinctive antigenic markers. PMID:6607475

  16. Transformation of hairy cell leukemia to EBV genome-containing aggressive B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, A T; Silverstein, L; Gonias, S L; Rundles, R W; Raab-Traub, N

    1987-04-01

    Hairy cell leukemia is a preplasmacytic B cell leukemia which is not EBV associated, although elevated titers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibodies have been seen in this leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Hairy cells are not readily susceptible to EBV infection in vitro, even though they are EBV receptor-positive B cells. We have observed a 59-year-old patient who after 9 years of hairy cell leukemia developed a well-differentiated IgG-kappa monoclonal B cell lymphoma without further evidence of hairy cell leukemia. Pathologically, the lymphoma showed plasmacytic differentiation, and in the patient's serum, a 2 g/dl monoclonal IgG-kappa component was present. DNA extracted from the lymphomatous lymph node hybridized with DNA fragments of a reiterated sequence of EBV, IR1. The transformation, with no chemotherapy involved, from a preplasmacytic leukemia into a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with monoclonal gammopathy may be related to the entry of EBV into these cells. Studies at the molecular level may help understand mechanisms of malignant transformation or interconversion in lymphoproliferative disorders of the B cell type. PMID:2823016

  17. Molecular signature of Epstein Barr virus-positive Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder suggest different roles for Epstein Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Mohsen; Fuligni, Fabio; Laginestra, Maria A.; Etebari, Maryam; Ambrosio, Maria R.; Sapienza, Maria R.; Rossi, Maura; De Falco, Giulia; Gibellini, Davide; Tripodo, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano A.; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Piccaluga, Pier P.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection is commonly associated with human cancer and, in particular, with lymphoid malignancies. Although the precise role of the virus in the pathogenesis of different lymphomas is largely unknown, it is well recognized that the expression of viral latent proteins and miRNA can contribute to its pathogenetic role. In this study, we compared the gene and miRNA expression profile of two EBV-associated aggressive B non-Hodgkin lymphomas known to be characterized by differential expression of the viral latent proteins aiming to dissect the possible different contribution of such proteins and EBV-encoded miRNAs. By applying extensive bioinformatic inferring and an experimental model, we found that EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma presented with significant over-expression of EBV-encoded miRNAs that were likely to contribute to its global molecular profile. On the other hand, EBV+ post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas presented a significant enrichment in genes regulated by the viral latent proteins. Based on these different viral and cellular gene expression patterns, a clear distinction between EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma and post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphomas was made. In this regard, the different viral and cellular expression patterns seemed to depend on each other, at least partially, and the latency type most probably played a significant role in their regulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that EBV influence over B-cell malignant clones may act through different mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and suggest that potentially different pathogenetic mechanisms may depend upon the conditions of the interaction between EBV and the host that finally determine the latency pattern. PMID:25566237

  18. Revised diagnostic criteria and classification for the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS): report from the 2009 NIH International Workshop.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joao B; Bleesing, Jack J; Dianzani, Umberto; Fleisher, Thomas A; Jaffe, Elaine S; Lenardo, Michael J; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic; Siegel, Richard M; Su, Helen C; Teachey, David T; Rao, V Koneti

    2010-10-01

    Lymphadenopathy in children for which no infectious or malignant cause can be ascertained constitutes a challenging diagnostic dilemma. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human genetic disorder of lymphocyte apoptosis resulting in an accumulation of lymphocytes and childhood onset chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, multilineage cytopenias, and an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. In 1999, investigators at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggested criteria to establish the diagnosis of ALPS. Since then, with approximately 500 patients with ALPS studied worldwide, significant advances in our understanding of the disease have prompted the need for revisions to the existing diagnostic criteria and classification scheme. The rationale and recommendations outlined here stem from an international workshop held at NIH on September 21 and 22, 2009, attended by investigators from the United States, Europe, and Australia engaged in clinical and basic science research on ALPS and related disorders. It is hoped that harmonizing the diagnosis and classification of ALPS will foster collaborative research and better understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune cytopenias and B-cell lymphomas. PMID:20538792

  19. Antileukemic Activity of Sulforaphane in Primary Blasts from Patients Affected by Myelo- and Lympho-Proliferative Disorders and in Hypoxic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fimognari, Carmela; Turrini, Eleonora; Sestili, Piero; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Carulli, Giovanni; Fontanelli, Giulia; Rousseau, Martina; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Sulforaphane is a dietary isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables showing antileukemic activity. With the purpose of extending the potential clinical impact of sulforaphane in the oncological field, we investigated the antileukemic effect of sulforaphane on blasts from patients affected by different types of leukemia and, taking into account the intrinsically hypoxic nature of bone marrow, on a leukemia cell line (REH) maintained in hypoxic conditions. In particular, we tested sulforaphane on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and blastic NK cell leukemia. Sulforaphane caused a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis in blasts from patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic or myeloid leukemia. Moreover, it was able to cause apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation in hypoxic conditions on REH cells. As to its cytotoxic mechanism, we found that sulforaphane creates an oxidative cellular environment that induces DNA damage and Bax and p53 gene activation, which in turn helps trigger apoptosis. On the whole, our results raise hopes that sulforaphane might set the stage for a novel therapeutic principle complementing our growing armature against malignancies and advocate the exploration of sulforaphane in a broader population of leukemic patients. PMID:25019218

  20. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  1. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Neuringer, Isabel P

    2013-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after lung transplantation occurs due to immunosuppressant therapy which limits antiviral host immunity and permits Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) replication and transformation of B cells. Mechanistically, EBV survives due to latency, escape from cytotoxic T cell responses, and downregulation of host immunity to EBV. Clinical presentation of EBV may occur within the lung allograft early posttransplantation or later onset which is more likely to be disseminated. Improvements in monitoring through EBV viral load have provided a means of earlier detection; yet, sensitivity and specificity of EBV load monitoring after lung transplantation may require further optimization. Once PTLD develops, staging and tissue diagnosis are essential to appropriate histopathological classification, prognosis, and guidance for therapy. The overall paradigm to treat PTLD has evolved over the past several years and depends upon assessment of risk such as EBV-naïve status, clinical presentation, and stage and sites of disease. In general, clinical practice involves reduction in immunosuppression, anti-CD20 biologic therapy, and/or use of plasma cell inhibition, followed by chemotherapy for refractory PTLD. This paper focuses upon the immunobiology of EBV and PTLD, as well as the clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and emerging treatments for PTLD after lung transplantation. PMID:23533455

  2. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease: Genetic lesions and clinical consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. MacGinnitie; Raif Geha

    2002-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disorder (XLP) was first described almost 30 years ago; remarkably, the three major manifestations\\u000a of XLP, fulminant infectious mononucleosis (FIM), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia, are all described in the report of the\\u000a initial kindred. Subsequent establishment of an XLP registry has led to recognition of more unusual phenotypes in affected\\u000a males; concurrently, much progress has been made in caring

  3. Systemic Epstein-Barr virus positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood with hemophagocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoshu; Chen, Li; Qin, Xiaohua; Huang, Zhuoya; Xie, Xiaoling; Li, Guowei; Xu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) are commonly derived from B-cells, however, it is becoming more and more apparently that EBV can also infect T-lymphocytes. Systemic EBV positive T-cell LPD of childhood is rare and characterized by an extremely aggressive course and poor prognosis. Here, we report a 22-year-old female of systemic EBV positive TLPD with acute EBV infection and review the clinical features of this disorder. A 22-year-old previously healthy female without immunocompromised status presented with persisting coach and fever resistant to conventional therapies. Physical examination showed hemorrhage and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory examinations revealed severe pancytopenia, disseminated intra-vascular coagulopathy (DIC), and anti-EBV-IgM positivity. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow investigation identified a number of atypical lymphocytes. Flow cytometry (FCM) did not show any significant evidence of leukemia or lymphoma. The lymph node biopsy showed apparent infiltration of lymphocytes, which expressed CD2+, CD3+, CD7+ and TIA1+. There was no CD20+ or CD56+ cells. EBV early RNA (EBER) was positive. Cytogenetic analysis showed a normal karyotype. T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement revealed a polyclonal pattern. The patient received prednisolone and IVIG therapy with a transient good condition, and then died of multiorgan failure one week after diagnosis. PMID:25400806

  4. Unmasking Evans syndrome: T-cell phenotype and apoptotic response reveal autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Teachey; Catherine S. Manno; Kelly M. Axsom; Timothy Andrews; John K. Choi; Barbara H. Greenbaum; Joseph M. McMann; Kathleen E. Sullivan; Susan F. Travis; Stephan A. Grupp

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syn- drome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of dis- rupted lymphocyte homeostasis. Clinical manifestations of ALPS vary but typically include autoimmune cytopenias, organo- megaly, lymphadenopathy, and increased risk of malignancies. A similar spectrum of symptoms may be seen in some pa- tients with Evans syndrome (ES), a hema- tologic disorder defined by autoimmune destruction of at least 2

  5. Utilization of monoclonal antibody L26 in the identification and confirmation of B-cell lymphomas. A sensitive and specific marker applicable to formalin-and B5-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Cartun, R. W.; Coles, F. B.; Pastuszak, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    Immunophenotypic analysis of paraffin-embedded tissues of lymphoproliferative disorders has been facilitated by recent developments of monoclonal antibodies that react with epitopes that survive histologic processing. Leukocyte common antigen (LCA) antibody has made a significant contribution to the immunocytochemical separation of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas from nonlymphoid neoplasms. However, a small percentage of lymphomas, particularly some large cell or immunoblastic B-cell tumors, will not label with LCA antibody. Other antibodies, directed against B lymphocytes, experience problems of specificity and a lack of sensitivity when applied to formalin-fixed specimens. The authors recently investigated a monoclonal antibody (L26) that demonstrates excellent specificity and sensitivity for B lymphocytes, and tumors derived from them, in formalin- and B5-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The avidin-biotin peroxidase complex (ABC) technique was utilized for immunostaining 95 cases of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders and a variety of normal and neoplastic nonlymphoid tissues. When applied to sections of benign lymphoid tissue, the L26 antibody labeled germinal center cells, mantle zone and scattered interfollicular lymphocytes, but not histiocytes or plasma cells. L26 marked 100% (44/44) of the large cell and immunoblastic B-cell lymphomas, along with 1 case of pre-B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. This included 8 cases that were LCA-negative. None of the T-cell lymphomas or plasma cell tumors studied demonstrated L26 immunostaining. No normal, benign, or neoplastic nonlymphoid tissues examined stained with this antibody. L26 successfully labels B lymphocytes and B-cell lymphomas in routinely processed tissues, often with greater sensitivity and intensity than LCA. This antibody should prove invaluable in the investigation of atypical lymphoid proliferations and the identification of B-cell derived lymphomas, when fresh or frozen tissue is unavailable for analysis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3322020

  6. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  7. Over-expression of cyclin D1 in chronic B-cell malignancies with abnormality of chromosome 11q13.

    PubMed

    Delmer, A; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, F; Tang, R; Ramond, S; Faussat, A M; Marie, J P; Zittoun, R

    1995-04-01

    Accurate identification of B-cell chronic malignancies is sometimes uncertain, despite careful cytologic and immunophenotypic evaluation. Cytogenetics and molecular biology studies may therefore prove useful, because some of these disorders are associated with non-random abnormalities, such as the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation and bcl-1 rearrangement mainly observed in mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL). We studied the expression of cyclin D1 in malignant lymphoid cells from the peripheral blood of 32 patients with various B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, using Northern blot (NB) and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH). Cytogenetic analysis was informative in 18 cases, and most of the missing karyotype data were from typical B-CLL cases where a t(11;14) is unlikely to be found. Over-expression of cyclin D1 mRNA was observed by both NB and ISH in four samples (MCL; two cases; lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: one case, unclassified B-cell chronic disorder: one case). In each of these cases there was an abnormality of chromosome 11q13, either a t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation (three cases) or a del(11)(q13) without evidence of chromosome 14 involvement (one case). Cytogenetic and gene rearrangement studies are not available in all institutions and have some technical pitfalls. Because of its close association with bcl-1 rearrangement and/or t(11;14), the demonstration of cyclin D1 mRNA over-expression either by NB, or, more conveniently, by ISH, may represent additional information which could be of help for the identification of B-cell malignancies. PMID:7772515

  8. Interphase cytogenetics of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia by FISH-technique

    SciTech Connect

    Peddanna, N.; Gogineni, S.K.; Rosenthal, C.J. [Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] accounts for about 30% of all lymphoproliferative disorders. In over 95% of these cases, the leukemia is caused by B-cells, rarely T-cells. Fifty percent of B-CLL have chromosomal aberrations and of such cases, one-third have trisomy 12. Malignant B-cells have a very low mitotic index and those metaphases that can be analyzed usually represent the normal T-cell population. Retrospectively, we decided to identify the additional chromosome 12 (trisomy 12) directly at interphase by the FISH-technique using centrometric 12 specific alphoid probe (Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD). Preparations were made from 9 patients with B-CLL. All cultures except one failed to produce metaphases for conventional karyotyping. Eighty percent of the cells have two dots (normal cells) over the interphase nuclei while the remaining 20% have three dots (trisomy 12). The clinical implication of trisomy 12 in the pathogenesis of CLL including age, staging and duration of disease, differentials and immunological markers are correlated with interphase cytogenetic data. The loss and/or gain of specific chromosomes in human neoplasia is common and rapid evaluation of such cases should be considered as a routine approach.

  9. Acute inflammatory neuropathy with monoclonal anti-GM2 IgM antibodies, IgM-? paraprotein and additional autoimmune processes in association with a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Milnik, Annette; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Conrad, Karsten; Bartels, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are often associated with autoimmune processes preceding or following the occurrence of a lymphoma. Here, we describe a patient with a history of recurrent diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who suffered from an acute inflammatory neuropathy with specific monoclonal anti-GM2 IgM antibodies and associated IgM-? paraprotein. It was possible in this case to prove that both, anti-GM2 IgM antibodies and IgM-? paraprotein, share the same binding characteristic. In addition, the patient possibly suffered from an immune thrombocytopenia and an early-stage bullous pemphigoid with anti-BP-230 IgG antibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis alleviated the acute neuropathy and thrombocytopenia, while the bullous pemphigoid has been aggravated. In summary, the simultaneous occurrence of multiple autoimmune processes was a sign of a dysfunctional immune system preceding the relapse of a B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23341581

  10. New potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-Cell malignancies using chlorambucil/hydroxychloroquine-loaded anti-CD20 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafò, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marín, Gustavo H; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Núñez, Luis; Macor, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders. PMID:24098639

  11. New Potential Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of B-Cell Malignancies Using Chlorambucil/Hydroxychloroquine-Loaded Anti-CD20 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafò, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marín, Gustavo H.; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Núñez, Luis; Macor, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders. PMID:24098639

  12. Persistent Polyclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis B Cells Can Be Activated through CD40-CD154 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Néron, Sonia; Darveau, André; Delage, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Persistent polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis (PPBL) is a rare disorder, diagnosed primarily in adult female smokers and characterized by an expansion of CD19+CD27+IgM+ memory B cells, by the presence of binucleated lymphocytes, and by a moderate elevation of serum IgM. The clinical course is usually benign, but it is not known whether or not PPBL might be part of a process leading to the emergence of a malignant proliferative disorder. In this study we sought to investigate the functional response of B cells from patients with PPBL by use of an optimal memory B cell culture model based on the CD40-CD154 interaction. We found that the proliferation of PPBL B cells was almost as important as that of B cells from normal controls, resulting in high immunoglobulin secretion with in vitro isotypic switching. We conclude that the CD40-CD154 activation pathway is functional in the memory B cell population of PPBL patients, suggesting that the disorder may be due to either a dysfunction of other cells in the microenvironment or a possible defect in another B cell activation pathway. PMID:25580126

  13. Lymphoproliferative disease in mice infected with murine gammaherpesvirus 68.

    PubMed Central

    Sunil-Chandra, N. P.; Arno, J.; Fazakerley, J.; Nash, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus is a natural pathogen of wild rodents. In the laboratory it establishes an infection of epithelial cells and persists in B lymphocytes in a latent form. Inbred mice chronically infected with the virus develop a lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) similar to that seen in patients infected with Epstein-Barr virus. The frequency of LPD over a period of 3 years was 9% of all infected animals, with 50% of these displaying high grade lymphomas. The incidence of LPD was greatly increased when infected mice were treated with cyclosporin A. The majority of mice used in the experiments were BALB/c, although lymphomas were detected in mice on other genetic backgrounds, ie, CBA and B10Br. Lymphomas were associated with both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues (liver, lung, and kidney). In all cases of lymphomas studied thus far, there was a mixed B cell (B220+ve) and T cell (CD3+ve) phenotype. The B cells were light chain restricted, indicative of a clonal origin. Variable numbers of virus genome-positive cells were detected by in situ hybridization in and around the lymphomas. In contrast, no lytic antigen-positive cells were detected, indicating that genome-positive cells were either latently infected or undergoing an abortive infection. These observations suggest that murine gammaherpesvirus-infected mice may be an important model to study the pathogenesis of LPD associated with other gammaherpesviruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7943173

  14. Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly complicated by the onset of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kunitomi, Akane; Kotani, Shinichi; Ukyo, Naoya; Ono, Kazuo; Nakamine, Hirokazu; Nohgawa, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe the case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with anemia and an 8-month history of weight loss. Bone marrow aspiration showed increased myeloblasts. The histopathology findings of biopsy specimens of the right cervical lymph node and intestinal mass indicated B-lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD) with Hodgkin lymphoma-like morphologic features and polymorphous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), respectively. In addition, both types of lymphoma cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA-1. The patient was diagnosed with EBV-associated B-LPD and simultaneous acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This is the first case of a patient diagnosed with simultaneous EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly and AML. PMID:24390529

  15. B cell lymphoma with lung involvement: what is it about?

    PubMed

    Mian, Michael; Wasle, Ines; Gritsch, Stefan; Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Fiegl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Primary lymphoma of the lung or pleural is a very rare condition. Due to the outdated literature data, the approximate occurrence of primary and secondary lung and/or pleural involvement according to the most common B cell lymphoma entities is unknown. To answer this open question in Austria, we screened the Tyrolean registry for B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas regarding primary and secondary lung involvement. Of 854 patients affected by B cell lymphoma, 7.5% had lung/pleural disease. This organ was the primary site in only 0.7%, while a secondary involvement was registered in 6.8%. Most of them were affected by diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 29/368, 8%) followed by follicular lymphoma (7/188, 4%), mantle cell lymphoma (7/57, 12%), mucosa-associated tissue lymphoma (10/37, 27%), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (6/24, 25%), Burkitt lymphoma (3/19, 16%), other lymphomas (1/32, 3%) and Richter transformation (1/11, 9%). Moreover, primary lung/pleural lymphoma is one of the rarest neoplasias affecting the lung, accounting for only 0.4% of cases. Lung/pleural involvement is a very rare condition among B cell lymphomas since it mainly occurs in the setting of a generalized disease. A large majority of patients with secondary organ involvement are affected by DLBCL and have similar clinical features at diagnosis to others with advanced-stage disease. PMID:25376208

  16. Reversible methotrexate associated lymphoproliferative disease evolving into Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Moseley, A C; Lindsley, H B; Skikne, B S; Tawfik, O

    2000-03-01

    We describe a case of nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease (NSHD) developing in a 61-year-old woman with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis treated with oral methotrexate (MTX) 5 to 15 mg/week for 5 years. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed splenomegaly and marked abdominal and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy. MTX was discontinued; several weeks later prednisone 10 mg/day was added to control worsening polyarthralgia. Repeat CT at 3 months showed almost complete regression of the splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. However, CT studies at 10 months showed asymptomatic progression of lymphadenopathy, which on biopsy revealed NSHD. Patients with apparently reversible MTX associated lymphoproliferative disorder require periodic monitoring for asymptomatic development of malignant lymphoma. PMID:10743830

  17. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A reduces hyperactivation induced by LMP1 to restore normal B cell phenotype in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Vrazo, Alexandra C; Chauchard, Maria; Raab-Traub, Nancy; Longnecker, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects most of the human population and is strongly associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. EBV encodes several latency proteins affecting B cell proliferation and survival, including latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and the EBV oncoprotein LMP1. LMP1 and LMP2A signaling mimics CD40 and BCR signaling, respectively, and has been proposed to alter B cell functions including the ability of latently-infected B cells to access and transit the germinal center. In addition, several studies suggested a role for LMP2A modulation of LMP1 signaling in cell lines by alteration of TRAFs, signaling molecules used by LMP1. In this study, we investigated whether LMP1 and LMP2A co-expression in a transgenic mouse model alters B cell maturation and the response to antigen, and whether LMP2A modulates LMP1 function. Naïve LMP1/2A mice had similar lymphocyte populations and antibody production by flow cytometry and ELISA compared to controls. In the response to antigen, LMP2A expression in LMP1/2A animals rescued the impairment in germinal center generation promoted by LMP1. LMP1/2A animals produced high-affinity, class-switched antibody and plasma cells at levels similar to controls. In vitro, LMP1 upregulated activation markers and promoted B cell hyperproliferation, and co-expression of LMP2A restored a wild-type phenotype. By RT-PCR and immunoblot, LMP1 B cells demonstrated TRAF2 levels four-fold higher than non-transgenic controls, and co-expression of LMP2A restored TRAF2 levels to wild-type levels. No difference in TRAF3 levels was detected. While modulation of other TRAF family members remains to be assessed, normalization of the LMP1-induced B cell phenotype through LMP2A modulation of TRAF2 may be a pathway by which LMP2A controls B cell function. These findings identify an advance in the understanding of how Epstein-Barr virus can access the germinal center in vivo, a site critical for both the genesis of immunological memory and of virus-associated tumors. PMID:22536156

  18. Familial Lymphoproliferative Malignancies and Tandem Duplication of NF1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Gustavo; Souto, Mirela; Costa, Frederico; Oliveira, Edite; Garicochea, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in a tumor suppressor gene (NF1) which codifies the protein neurofibromin. The frequent genetic alterations that modify neurofibromin function are deletions and insertions. Duplications are rare and phenotype in patients bearing duplication of NF1 gene is thought to be restricted to developmental abnormalities, with no reference to cancer susceptibility in these patients. We evaluated a patient who presented with few clinical signs of neurofibromatosis type 1 and a conspicuous personal and familiar history of different types of cancer, especially lymphoproliferative malignancies. The coding region of the NF-1 gene was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed to detect the number of mutant copies. The NF1 gene analysis showed the following alterations: mosaic duplication of NF1, TRAF4, and MYO1D. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes (RP5-1002G3 and RP5-92689) flanking NF1 gene in 17q11.2 and CEP17 for 17q11.11.1 was performed. There were three signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in the interphases analyzed and two signals (RP5-1002G3conRP5-92689) in 93% of cells. These findings show a tandem duplication of 17q11.2. Conclusion. The case suggests the possibility that NF1 gene duplication may be associated with a phenotype characterized by lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:25580325

  19. Restoring balance to B cells in ADA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luning Prak, Eline T

    2012-06-01

    It is paradoxical that immunodeficiency disorders are associated with autoimmunity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, a cause of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is a case in point. In this issue of the JCI, Sauer and colleagues investigate the B cell defects in ADA-deficient patients. They demonstrate that ADA patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy had B cell tolerance checkpoint defects. Remarkably, gene therapy with a retrovirus that expresses ADA resulted in the apparent correction of these defects, with normalization of peripheral B cell autoantibody frequencies. In vitro, agents that either block ADA or overexpress adenosine resulted in altered B cell receptor and TLR signaling. Collectively, these data implicate a B cell-intrinsic mechanism for alterations in B cell tolerance in the setting of partial ADA deficiency that is corrected by gene therapy. PMID:22622034

  20. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like syndrome presented as lupus-like syndrome with mycobacterial joint infection evolved into the lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Hoon; Lee, Choong Ki

    2009-03-01

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and ALPS-like syndrome are variable clinical conditions characterized by lymphoproliferative disease, autoimmune cytopenias and susceptibility to malignancy. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital for intractable generalized pain and stiffness with multiple swollen joints for 2 weeks. A low-grade fever, intermittent hypotension and confusion were associated with the pain. The evaluation revealed multiple joint bony erosions with effusion and a ruptured Baker's cyst and positive AFB testing on the joint biopsy of the right wrist. In addition, there were a macular skin rash with telangiectasia and perivascular lymphocyte infiltration, a cytopenia without abnormal cells, a hepatosplenomegaly, a pericardial thickness with effusion and pleural effusion. The patient was treated with anti-mycobacterial drugs, NSAIDs and glucocorticoids for 10 months. But with the symptoms worsening, the patient developed cervical lymph node enlargements and was diagnosed as a diffuse large B cell lymphoma with hemophagocytosis on biopsy. PMID:18820932

  1. Prevalence of targetable oncogenic mutations and genomic alterations in Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, Niklas; Gebauer, Judith; Hardel, Tim Tristan; Bernard, Veronica; Biersack, Harald; Lehnert, Hendrik; Rades, Dirk; Feller, Alfred Christian; Thorns, Christoph

    2014-08-21

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly constitutes a provisional clinicopathological entity in the current World Health Organization (WHO) classification and its genomic features remain sparsely characterized. We investigated a cohort of 26 cases of untreated de novo EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly by high-resolution array-based comparative genomic profiling and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Moreover, we screened for activating mutations affecting nuclear factor (NF)-?B pathway signaling and chromatin remodeling (EZH2, CD79B, CARD11 and MYD88) due to their impact of gene expression signatures and postulated upcoming therapeutic targetability. We identified an overlap between genomic aberrations previously described to be exclusive features of plasmablastic lymphoma (PL), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and DLBCL, respectively, indicating a close cytogenetic relationship between these entities. Few mutations affecting CD79B and CARD11 and no MYD88 mutations were detectable, hinting at EBV-mediated activation of NF-?B as an alternative to pathologically enforced B-cell receptor signaling in this rare entity. PMID:25030036

  2. Potential pathways for regulation of NK and T cell responses: differential X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome gene product SAP interactions with SLAM and 2B4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Sayos; Khuong B. Nguyen; Chengbin Wu; Susan E. Stepp; Duncan Howie; John D. Schatzle; Vinay Kumar; Christine A. Biron; Cox Terhorst

    2000-01-01

    SAP, the gene that is altered or absent in the X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP), encodes a small protein that comprises a single SH2 domain and binds to the cell-surface protein SLAM which is present on activated or memory T and B cells. Because defective NK cell activity also has been reported in XLP patients, we studied the SAP gene in

  3. Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research over the role of Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

  4. Causes and consequences of the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti; Straus, Stephen E

    2006-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is the first autoimmune hematological disease whose genetic basis has been defined. It is a disorder of apoptosis in which the inability of lymphocytes to die leads to lymphadenopathy, hypersplenism, and autoimmune cytopenias of childhood onset. More than 200 ALPS patients have been studied over the last 15 years and followed by our colleagues and ourselves at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Based upon this experience we have determined that patients with germline mutations of the intracellular domain of Fas protein, the most frequent single genetic cause of ALPS, have a significantly increased risk of developing Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), underscoring the critical role played by cell surface receptor-mediated apoptosis in eliminating redundant proliferating lymphocytes with autoreactive and oncogenic potential. The major determinants of morbidity and mortality in ALPS are the severity of the autoimmune disease, hypersplenism, asplenia-related sepsis, and the risk of lymphoma, which in itself requires long-term surveillance. Though most episodes of cytopenias respond to courses of conventional immunomodulatory agents, some ALPS patients, especially those with massive splenomegaly and hypersplenism, may require splenectomy and/or ongoing immunosuppressive treatment. Thus, ALPS highlights the importance of cell death pathways in health and disease. PMID:16522544

  5. Lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys in southeast United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, retroviral neoplasms reported in wild upland game birds in the United States of America have typically been associated with reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection. The information presented herein described the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in ...

  6. B Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease. PMID:23248624

  7. Molecular programming of B cell memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinji Okitsu; Nathaniel Wang; Louise McHeyzer-Williams; Michael McHeyzer-Williams

    2011-01-01

    The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition by specific B cells and cognate T helper cells. Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. Once in the germinal centre, B cells with variant B cell receptors must access antigens

  8. Anti-CD79 Antibody Induces B cell Anergy That Protects Against Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Ian R.; Anceriz, Nadia; Rousseau, François; Seefeldt, Matt B.; Hatterer, Eric; Irla, Magali; Buatois, Vanessa; Chatel, Laurence E.; Getahun, Andrew; Fletcher, Ashley; Cons, Laura; Pontini, Guillemette; Hertzberg, Nicole A.; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Malinge, Pauline; Smith, Mia J.; Reith, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie H.; Ferlin, Walter G.; Cambier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    B cells play a major role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis and type I diabetes mellitus, as indicated by the efficacy of B cell-targeted therapies in these diseases. Therapeutic effects of the most commonly used B cell-targeted therapy, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, are contingent upon long-term depletion of peripheral B cells. Here, we describe an alternative approach involving the targeting of CD79, the transducer subunit of the B cell antigen receptor. Unlike anti-CD20 mAbs, the protective effects of CD79-targeted mAb are do not require cell depletion, but rather act by inducing an anergic-like state. Thus, we describe a novel B cell-targeted approach predicated on the induction of B cell anergy. PMID:24442438

  9. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with defective Fas: genotype influences penetrance.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C E; Fischer, R E; Hsu, A P; Anderson, S M; Choi, Y; Wang, J; Dale, J K; Fleisher, T A; Middelton, L A; Sneller, M C; Lenardo, M J; Straus, S E; Puck, J M

    1999-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis and immunological tolerance. Most patients have a heterozygous mutation in the APT1 gene, which encodes Fas (CD95, APO-1), mediator of an apoptotic pathway crucial to lymphocyte homeostasis. Of 17 unique APT1 mutations in unrelated ALPS probands, 12 (71%) occurred in exons 7-9, which encode the intracellular portion of Fas. In vitro, activated lymphocytes from all 17 patients showed apoptotic defects when exposed to an anti-Fas agonist monoclonal antibody. Similar defects were found in a Fas-negative cell line transfected with cDNAs bearing each of the mutations. In cotransfection experiments, Fas constructs with either intra- or extracellular mutations caused dominant inhibition of apoptosis mediated by wild-type Fas. Two missense Fas variants, not restricted to patients with ALPS, were identified. Variant A(-1)T at the Fas signal-sequence cleavage site, which mediates apoptosis less well than wild-type Fas and is partially inhibitory, was present in 13% of African American alleles. Among the ALPS-associated Fas mutants, dominant inhibition of apoptosis was much more pronounced in mutants affecting the intracellular, versus extracellular, portion of the Fas receptor. Mutations causing disruption of the intracellular Fas death domain also showed a higher penetrance of ALPS phenotype features in mutation-bearing relatives. Significant ALPS-related morbidity occurred in 44% of relatives with intracellular mutations, versus 0% of relatives with extracellular mutations. Thus, the location of mutations within APT1 strongly influences the development and the severity of ALPS. PMID:10090885

  10. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease of donor origin, following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Piccin, Andrea; Morello, Enrico; Svaldi, Mirija; Haferlach, Torsten; Facchetti, Fabio; Negri, Giovanni; Vecchiato, Cinzia; Fisogni, Simona; Pusceddu, Irene; Cortelazzo, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an extremely rare condition that originates from dendritic cells. We report on the first case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) of donor origin in a BPDC patient post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Flow cytometry study identified a cell population CD4+/CD56+/CD45RA+/CD123+/TCL1+ suggestive of BPDCN diagnosis, which was confirmed by a lymph node biopsy (cells positive for BCL11a, BDCA-2, CD2AP, CD123, TCL1 and S100). Cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype: (19 metaphase) 47,XX,t(1;6)(q21;q2?5),-13?+?2mar[11]/47, XX, +21 [3]/46,XX [5]. The patient was started on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) induction schedule, and subsequently an allogeneic HSCT was performed. On day +36 post-HSCT, bone marrow biopsy/aspirate showed complete morphological remission, and chimerism study showed 100% donor chimera. However, on day +37, the patient was found to have enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymphoadenopathy, splenomegaly and raised lactic dehydrogenase. EBV-DNA copies in blood were elevated, consistent with a lytic cycle. A lymph node biopsy showed EBV encoded RNA and large atypical B cells (CD45dim-, CD4+/CD56+, monoclonal for k-chain, CD19+/CD20+/CD21+/CD22+/CD38+/CD43+/CD79?-/CD5-/CD10-), consistent with PTLD monomorphic type. Chimerism study showed that PTLD was of donor origin. This case together with the recent literature findings on BPDCN and PTLD are discussed. PMID:22915052

  11. NMDA-receptor antagonists block B-cell function but foster IL-10 production in BCR/CD40-activated B cells.

    PubMed

    Simma, Narasimhulu; Bose, Tanima; Kahlfuß, Sascha; Mankiewicz, Judith; Lowinus, Theresa; Lühder, Fred; Schüler, Thomas; Schraven, Burkhart; Heine, Martin; Bommhardt, Ursula

    2014-12-01

    BackgroundB cells are important effectors and regulators of adaptive and innate immune responses, inflammation and autoimmunity, for instance in anti-NMDA-receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. Thus, pharmacological modulation of B-cell function could be an effective regimen in therapeutic strategies. Since the non-competitive NMDAR antagonist memantine is clinically applied to treat advanced Alzheimer`s disease and ketamine is supposed to improve the course of resistant depression, it is important to know how these drugs affect B-cell function.ResultsNon-competitive NMDAR antagonists impaired B-cell receptor (BCR)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced B-cell proliferation, reduced B-cell migration towards the chemokines SDF-1¿ and CCL21 and downregulated IgM and IgG secretion. Mechanistically, these effects were mediated through a blockade of Kv1.3 and KCa3.1 potassium channels and resulted in an attenuated Ca2+-flux and activation of Erk1/2, Akt and NFATc1. Interestingly, NMDAR antagonist treatment increased the frequency of IL-10 producing B cells after BCR/CD40 stimulation.ConclusionsNon-competitive NMDAR antagonists attenuate BCR and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) B-cell signaling and effector function and can foster IL-10 production. Consequently, NMDAR antagonists may be useful to target B cells in autoimmune diseases or pathological systemic inflammation. The drugs¿ additional side effects on B cells should be considered in treatments of neuronal disorders with NMDAR antagonists. PMID:25477292

  12. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral-associated lymphoproliferative neoplasia in domestic poultry is caused by infection with a herpesvirus (Marek’s disease virus) or three species of retroviruses [Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), Avian leukosis/sarcoma virus, lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV)]. Previously, retroviral n...

  13. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

  14. CD20+ B cell depletion alters T cell homing.

    PubMed

    Kap, Yolanda S; van Driel, Nikki; Laman, Jon D; Tak, Paul P; 't Hart, Bert A

    2014-05-01

    Depleting mAbs against the pan B cell marker CD20 are remarkably effective in the treatment of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The primary objective of this study was to find a mechanistic explanation for the remarkable clinical effect of the anti-CD20 mAbs in a representative nonhuman primate autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disorder model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in common marmosets, allowing detailed analysis of secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). We observed that the depletion of CD20(+) B cells creates a less immunostimulatory environment in the SLO reflected by reduced expression of MHC class II, CD40, CD83, and CD80/CD86. APCs isolated from SLO of B cell-depleted EAE monkeys were also less responsive to mitogenic stimulation. The depleted B cell areas were replenished by T cells, of which the majority expressed CD127 (IL-7R) and CCR7. Such effects were not detected in EAE marmosets treated with mAb against BLyS or APRIL, where B cell depletion via withdrawal of essential survival cytokines was not associated with a marked clinical effect. We propose that at least part of the efficacy of anti-CD20 mAb therapy is attributable to the sustained CCR7 expression on T cells within SLO, limiting their release into the circulation. PMID:24696233

  15. The B-cell receptor orchestrates environment-mediated lymphoma survival and drug resistance in B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shain, K H; Tao, J

    2014-08-01

    Specific niches within the lymphoma tumor microenvironment (TME) provide sanctuary for subpopulations of tumor cells through stromal cell-tumor cell interactions. These interactions notably dictate growth, response to therapy and resistance of residual malignant B cells to therapeutic agents. This minimal residual disease (MRD) remains a major challenge in the treatment of B-cell malignancies and contributes to subsequent disease relapse. B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling has emerged as essential mediator of B-cell homing, survival and environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR). Central to EMDR are chemokine- and integrin-mediated interactions between lymphoma and the TME. Further, stromal cell-B cell adhesion confers a sustained BCR signaling leading to chemokine and integrin activation. Recently, the inhibitors of BCR signaling have garnered a substantial clinical interest because of their effectiveness in B-cell disorders. The efficacy of these agents is, at least in part, attributed to attenuation of BCR-dependent lymphoma-TME interactions. In this review, we discuss the pivotal role of BCR signaling in the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of TME-mediated lymphoma survival and drug resistance. PMID:24037527

  16. Mechanisms of B-cell lymphoma pathogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Küppers

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci are a hallmark of many types of B-cell lymphoma. Other factors, however, also have important roles in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Most B-cell lymphomas depend on the expression of a B-cell receptor (BCR) for survival, and in several B-cell malignancies antigen activation of lymphoma cells through BCR signalling seems to be an important

  17. The Roles of Regulatory B Cells in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hongyan; Liu, Yuan; Li, Yan; Shi, Guixiu

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs), a newly described subset of B cells, have been proved to play a suppressive role in immune system. Bregs can inhibit other immune cells through cytokines secretion and antigen presentation, which give them the role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancers. There are no clear criteria to identify Bregs; different markers were used in the different experimental conditions. Massive researches had described the functions of immune cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs), dendritic cells (DCs), and B cells in the autoimmune disorder diseases and cancers. More and more researches focused on the roles of Bregs and the cytokines such as Interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) secreted by Bregs. The aim of this review is to summarize the characteristics of Bregs and the roles of Bregs in cancer. PMID:24991577

  18. VR09 Cell Line: An EBV-Positive Lymphoblastoid Cell Line with In Vivo Characteristics of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Activated B-Cell Type

    PubMed Central

    Nichele, Ilaria; Zamò, Alberto; Bertolaso, Anna; Bifari, Francesco; Tinelli, Martina; Franchini, Marta; Stradoni, Roberta; Aprili, Fiorenza; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Krampera, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Background small B-cell neoplasms can show plasmacytic differentiation and may potentially progress to aggressive lymphoma (DLBCL). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection may cause the transformation of malignant cells in vitro. Design and Method we established VR09 cell line with plasmacytic differentiation, obtained from a case of atypical, non-CLL B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disease with plasmacytic features. We used flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, cytogenetic analysis and florescence in situ hybridization in the attempt at thoroughly characterizing the cell line. We showed VR09 tumorigenic potential in vivo, leading to the development of activated DLBCL with plasmacytic features. Results VR09 cells displayed plasmacytic appearance and grew as spherical tumors when inoculated subcutaneously into immunodeficient Rag2?/? ?-chain?/? mice. VR09 cell line and tumors displayed the phenotype of activated stage of B cell maturation, with secretory differentiation (CD19+ CD20+ CD79a+ CD79b+/? CD138+ cyclin D1- Ki67 80% IgM+ IgD+ MUM1+ MNDA+ CD10- CD22+ CD23+ CD43+ K+, ?- Bcl2+ Bcl6-) and they presented episomal EBV genome, chromosome 12 trisomy, lack of c-MYC rearrangement and Myd88 gene mutation, presence of somatic hypermutation in the VH region, and wild-type p53. Conclusion This new EBV-positive cell line may be useful to further characterize in vivo activated DLBCL with plasmacytic features. PMID:23285191

  19. B-B cell interactions in the spontaneous activation of B cells in autoimmune NZB mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Tanaka, Y; Ota, T; Eto, S; Yamashita, U

    1991-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism of spontaneous B cell activation in lupus mice by using anticlass-II antibody in vitro. The in vitro culture of B cells from old NZB mice markedly produced Ig without any stimulation, while B cells from NZW mice did not. The addition of anticlass-II antibody (anti-Iad antibody) to the culture inhibited Ig production of NZB B cells in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the addition of anticlass-I antibody (anti-H-2Dd antibody) and anticlass-II antibody with different specificity (anti-Iak) gave no effect on the Ig production of NZB B cells. When mitomycin C-treated B cells were added to in vitro culture of responder B cells as a stimulator, Ig production of responder B cells was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the enhancing effect of the stimulator B cells was abrogated by the pretreatment with anticlass-II antibody. The stimulator B-cell activity to NZB B cells was marked in NZB B cells, moderate in NZB/W F1 B cells, and weak in NZW B cells. Furthermore, the stimulator B-cell activity with regard to NZB B cells was marked in old female NZB B cells, moderate in old male NZB B cells, and weak in young NZB B cells. The expression of class II antigens on the surface of old female NZB B cells was significantly higher than that of old male NZB and young NZB B cells. These results suggest that in lupus mice the spontaneous B-cell activation is induced by an abnormal B-B cell interaction mediated by class II antigens. PMID:1808470

  20. The cellular origins of memory B cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman R. Klinman

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that memory B cells may originate from a precursor cell subset that is distinct from AFC precursors. Most convincing is the finding that fractionation of naive peripheral B-cell populations on the basis of surface heat stable antigen (HSA) expression yields two populations; one greatly enriched for progenitors of memory B cells (HSAlo), and the other enriched for

  1. IL-17 Enhances Chemotaxis of Primary Human B Cells during Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Halwani, Rabih; Al-Kufaidy, Roua; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Pureza, Mary Angeline; BaHammam, Ahmed S.; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Alnassar, Sami A.; Hamid, Qutayba; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is believed to play a critical role in regulating tissue inflammation during asthma, COPD, as well as other inflammatory disorders. The level of expression of IL-17 has been shown to be upregulated in lung bronchial tissue of asthmatic patients. Several reports have provided further evidence that this cytokine could play a key role in enhancing the migration of inflammatory as well as structural cells of the bronchial lung tissue during asthma and COPD. B cell infiltration to sites of inflammation during inflammatory disorders such as bowel disease, asthma and COPD has been reported. Accordingly, in this study we hypothesized that IL-17 may exert a chemotactic effect on primary B cells during asthma. We observed that B cells from asthmatic patients expressed significantly higher levels of IL-17RA and IL-17RC, compared to those of healthy subjects. Using an in-vitro migration assay, B cells were shown to migrate towards both IL-17A and IL-17F. Interestingly, blocking IL-17A and IL-17F signaling using either anti-IL-17R antibodies or MAP kinase inhibitors prevented in vitro migration of B cell towards IL-17. These observations indicate a direct chemotactic effect of IL-17 cytokines on primary peripheral blood B cells with higher effect being on asthmatic B cells. These findings revealed a key role for IL-17 in enhancing the migration of B cells to the lung tissue during asthma or COPD. PMID:25494178

  2. Expression of essential B cell development genes in horses with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Tallmadge, R L; Such, K A; Miller, K C; Matychak, M B; Felippe, M J B

    2012-06-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder of B cell differentiation or function with inadequate antibody production. Our laboratory studies a natural form of CVID in horses characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia due to impaired B cell production in the bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess the status of B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of CVID-affected horses by measuring the expression of genes essential for early B cell commitment and development. Standard RT-PCR revealed that most of the transcription factors and key signaling molecules that directly regulate B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and precede PAX5 are expressed in the affected horses. Yet, the expression of PAX5 and relevant target genes was variable. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA expression of E2A, PAX5, CD19, and IGHD was significantly reduced in equine CVID patients when compared to healthy horses (p<0.05). In addition, the PAX5/EBF1 and PAX5/B220 ratios were significantly reduced in CVID patients (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the absence of PAX5-BSAP expression in the bone marrow of affected horses. Our data suggest that B cell development seems to be impaired at the transition between pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells in equine CVID patients. PMID:22464097

  3. Reduced numbers of switched memory B cells with high terminal differentiation potential in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carsetti, Rita; Valentini, Diletta; Marcellini, Valentina; Scarsella, Marco; Marasco, Emiliano; Giustini, Ferruccio; Bartuli, Andrea; Villani, Alberto; Ugazio, Alberto G

    2015-03-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have increased susceptibility to infections and a high frequency of leukemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that immunodeficiency and immune dysfunction are integral parts of the syndrome. A reduction in B-cell numbers has been reported, associated with moderate immunodeficiency and normal immunoglobulin levels. Here, we compared B-cell populations of 19 children with DS with those in healthy age-matched controls. We found that all steps of peripheral B-cell development are altered in DS, with a more severe defect during the later stages of B-cell development. Transitional and mature-naïve B-cell numbers are reduced by 50% whereas switched memory B cells represent 10-15% of the numbers in age-matched controls. Serum IgM levels were slightly reduced, but all other immunoglobulin isotypes were in the normal range. The frequency of switched memory B cells specific for vaccine antigens was significantly lower in affected children than in their equivalently vaccinated siblings. In vitro switched memory B cells of patients with DS have an increased ability to differentiate into antibody-forming cells in response to TLR9 signals. Tailored vaccination schedules increasing the number of switched memory B cells may improve protection and reduce the risk of death from infection in DS. PMID:25472482

  4. Regulatory B-cell induction by helminths: implications for allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Hussaarts, Leonie; van der Vlugt, Luciën E P M; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2011-10-01

    Chronic helminth infections are often associated with a reduced prevalence of inflammatory disorders, including allergic diseases. Helminths influence the host immune system by downregulating T-cell responses; the cytokine IL-10 appears to play a central role in this process. Over the last decade, evidence has emerged toward a new regulatory cell type: IL-10-producing B cells, capable of regulating immunity and therefore termed regulatory B cells. Initially, regulatory B cells have been described in autoimmunity models where they dampen inflammation, but recently they were also found in several helminth infection models. Importantly, regulatory B cells have recently been identified in humans, and it has been suggested that patients suffering from autoimmunity have an impaired regulatory B-cell function. As such, it is of therapeutic interest to study the conditions in which IL-10-producing B cells can be induced. Chronic helminth infections appear to hold promise in this context as emerging evidence suggests that helminth-induced regulatory B cells strongly suppress allergic inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the conditions under which regulatory B cells are present, leading to a state of tolerance, as well as the conditions where their absence or functional impairment leads to exacerbated disease. We will summarize their phenotypic characteristics and their mechanisms of action and elaborate on possible mechanisms whereby regulatory B cells can be induced or expanded, as this may open novel avenues for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic asthma. PMID:21684587

  5. Cellular Immunotherapy Following Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas, Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-29

    Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  6. B cell–specific lentiviral gene therapy leads to sustained B-cell functional recovery in a murine model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Hannah M.; Ryu, Byoung Y.; Stirling, Brigid V.; Sather, Blythe D.; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny

    2010-01-01

    The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (E?) and Ig? (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage–specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec?/? mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of E?B29-Btk-LV–transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage–targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406

  7. Dual regulation of IRF4 function in T and B cells is required for the coordination of T–B cell interactions and the prevention of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Partha S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Stirzaker, Roslynn A.; Kumar, Varsha; Jessberger, Rolf; Lu, Theresa T.; Bhagat, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Effective humoral responses to protein antigens require the precise execution of carefully timed differentiation programs in both T and B cell compartments. Disturbances in this process underlie the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is induced upon the activation of T and B cells and serves critical functions. In CD4+ T helper cells, IRF4 plays an essential role in the regulation of IL-21 production, whereas in B cells it controls class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation. IRF4 function in T helper cells can be modulated by its interaction with regulatory protein DEF6, a molecule that shares a high degree of homology with only one other protein, SWAP-70. Here, we demonstrate that on a C57BL/6 background the absence of both DEF6 and SWAP-70 leads to the development of a lupus-like disease in female mice, marked by simultaneous deregulation of CD4+ T cell IL-21 production and increased IL-21 B cell responsiveness. We furthermore show that DEF6 and SWAP-70 are differentially used at distinct stages of B cell differentiation to selectively control the ability of IRF4 to regulate IL-21 responsiveness in a stage-specific manner. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms that normally couple and coordinately regulate T and B cell responses to ensure tight control of productive T–B cell interactions. PMID:22370718

  8. Dual regulation of IRF4 function in T and B cells is required for the coordination of T-B cell interactions and the prevention of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Partha S; Gupta, Sanjay; Stirzaker, Roslynn A; Kumar, Varsha; Jessberger, Rolf; Lu, Theresa T; Bhagat, Govind; Pernis, Alessandra B

    2012-03-12

    Effective humoral responses to protein antigens require the precise execution of carefully timed differentiation programs in both T and B cell compartments. Disturbances in this process underlie the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is induced upon the activation of T and B cells and serves critical functions. In CD4(+) T helper cells, IRF4 plays an essential role in the regulation of IL-21 production, whereas in B cells it controls class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation. IRF4 function in T helper cells can be modulated by its interaction with regulatory protein DEF6, a molecule that shares a high degree of homology with only one other protein, SWAP-70. Here, we demonstrate that on a C57BL/6 background the absence of both DEF6 and SWAP-70 leads to the development of a lupus-like disease in female mice, marked by simultaneous deregulation of CD4(+) T cell IL-21 production and increased IL-21 B cell responsiveness. We furthermore show that DEF6 and SWAP-70 are differentially used at distinct stages of B cell differentiation to selectively control the ability of IRF4 to regulate IL-21 responsiveness in a stage-specific manner. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms that normally couple and coordinately regulate T and B cell responses to ensure tight control of productive T-B cell interactions. PMID:22370718

  9. Identification of lymphoproliferative disease virus in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eight cases described herein represent the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in wild turkeys and the first identification of LPDV in North America. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was presumably the cause of morbidity and mortality in five of the eight turk...

  10. Single nucleotide polymorphism-arrays provide new insights in the pathogenesis of post-transplant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Andrea; Capello, Daniela; Scandurra, Marta; Greiner, Timothy C; Chan, Wing C; Bhagat, Govind; Rossi, Davide; Morra, Enrica; Paulli, Marco; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Rancoita, Paola M V; Inghirami, Giorgio; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Moreno, Santiago M; Piris, Miguel A; Mian, Michael; Chigrinova, Ekaterina; Zucca, Emanuele; Favera, Riccardo D; Gaidano, Gianluca; Kwee, Ivo; Bertoni, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are complications of solid organ transplantation associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common form of monomorphic PTLD. We studied 44 cases of post-transplant DLBCL (PT-DLBCL) with high-density genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism-based arrays, and compared them with 105 cases of immunocompetent DLBCL (IC-DLBCL) and 28 cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated DLBCL (HIV-DLBCL). PT-DLBCL showed a genomic profile with specific features, although their genomic complexity was overall similar to that observed in IC- and HIV-DLBCL. Among the loci more frequently deleted in PT-DLBCL there were small interstitial deletions targeting known fragile sites, such as FRA1B, FRA2E and FRA3B. Deletions at 2p16.1 (FRA2E) were the most common lesions in PT-DLBCL, occurring at a frequency that was significantly higher than in IC-DLBCL. Genetic lesions that characterized post-germinal center IC-DLBCL were under-represented in our series of PT-DLBCL. Two other differences between IC-DLBCL and PT-DLBCL were the lack of del(13q14.3) (MIR15/MIR16) and of copy neutral LOH affecting 6p [major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus] in the latter group. In conclusion, PT-DLBCL presented unique features when compared with IC-DLBCL. Changes in PT-DLBCL were partially different to those in HIV-DLBCL, suggesting different pathogenetic mechanisms in the two conditions linked to immunodeficiency. PMID:20230398

  11. Molecular underpinning of B-cell anergy

    PubMed Central

    Yarkoni, Yuval; Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A byproduct of the largely stochastic generation of a diverse B-cell specificity repertoire is production of cells that recognize autoantigens. Indeed, recent studies indicate that more than half of the primary repertoire consists of autoreactive B cells that must be silenced to prevent autoimmunity. While this silencing can occur by multiple mechanisms, it appears that most autoreactive B cells are silenced by anergy, wherein they populate peripheral lymphoid organs and continue to express unoccupied antigen receptors yet are unresponsive to antigen stimulation. Here we review molecular mechanisms that appear operative in maintaining the antigen unresponsiveness of anergic B cells. In addition, we present new data indicating that the failure of anergic B cells to mobilize calcium in response to antigen stimulation is not mediated by inactivation of stromal interacting molecule 1, a critical intermediary in intracellular store depletion-induced calcium influx. PMID:20727040

  12. Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia: evidence for a T-cell lymphoproliferative origin.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Werner; Haeffner, Andreas C; Zepter, Karoline; Sander, Christian A; Flaig, Michael J; Mueller, Beatrix; Panizzon, Renato G; Hardmeier, Thomas; Adams, Volker; Burg, Günter

    2002-10-01

    Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE) is commonly regarded an angioproliferative process characterized by the presence of prominent, bizarrely shaped blood vessels. These vessels are accompanied by an inflammatory infiltrate that is thought to be a reactive component. Both the cell of origin and the pathogenesis of ALHE remain controversial. To define the histogenesis of this disorder, we analyzed the phenotypic and genotypic profile of the inflammatory infiltrate in ALHE by immunohistochemistry and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, as well as automated high-resolution PCR fragment analysis. Five of 7 ALHE patients displayed a clonal T-cell population and proliferative T-cell activity in lesional tissue. Most of these cases followed a protracted and therapy-reluctant course with recurrences. These data suggest that ALHE or a subset of ALHE cases harboring a clonal T-cell population may represent a T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of a benign or low-grade malignant nature. PMID:12395376

  13. Interleukin-5 Supports the Expansion of Fas Ligand-Expressing Killer B Cells that Induce Antigen-Specific Apoptosis of CD4+ T Cells and Secrete Interleukin-10

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Matthew W.; Reed, Tamra J.; Fox, David A.; Lundy, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    Beyond their critical role in humoral immunity, B lymphocytes can employ a variety of immunomodulatory mechanisms including expression of the apoptosis-inducing molecule Fas ligand (FasL; CD178). Here, we extensively characterized the surface phenotype of FasL+ killer B cells, showing they are enriched in the IgMhighCD5+CD1dhigh B cell subset previously reported to contain a higher frequency of B cells producing interleukin-10 (IL-10). A rare population of B cells expressing IL-10 was present among FasL+ B cells, but most FasL+ B cells did not produce IL-10. We also identify interleukin-5 (IL-5) as a novel inducer of killer B cell function. Constitutively FasL+ B cells expressed higher levels of the IL-5 receptor, and treating B cells with IL-5 and CD40L resulted in the expansion of a B cell population enriched for FasL+ cells. B cells stimulated with IL-5 and CD40L were potent inducers of apoptosis in activated primary CD4+ T cells, and this killing function was antigen-specific and dependent upon FasL. IL-5 also enhanced IL-10 secretion in B cells stimulated with CD40L. Taken together these findings elucidate the relationship of FasL+ B cells and IL-10-producing B cells and demonstrate that IL-5 can induce or enhance both killer B cell activity and IL-10 secretion in B cells. Finally, we found that the killer B cell activity induced by IL-5 was completely blocked by IL-4, suggesting the existence of a previously unknown antagonistic relationship between these type-2 cytokines in modulating the activity of killer B cells. Targeting this IL-5/IL-4 signaling axis may therefore represent a novel area of drug discovery in inflammatory disorders. PMID:23940537

  14. Filgrastim, lenograstim and pegfilgrastim in the mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells in patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Reale, Antonia; Melaccio, Assunta; Racanelli, Vito; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo

    2014-04-11

    Patients with lymphoproliferative disorders, candidate to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), require mobilization with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony -stimulating factor (G-CSF). This study looked for differences in hematopoietic peripheral stem cells (HPSCs) mobilization in response to the three available G-CSFs, namely lenograstim, filgrastim, and pegfilgrastim. Between 2000 and 2012, 146 patients (66 M and 80 F) who underwent ASCT for multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or Hodgkin's lymphoma were studied. All patients received induction therapy and then a mobilization regimen with cyclophosphamide plus lenograstim, or filgrastim, or pegfilgrastim. From days 12 to 14, HPSCs were collected by two to three daily leukaphereses. Our results show that high-dose cyclophosphamide plus lenograstim achieved adequate mobilization and the collection target more quickly and with fewer leukaphereses as compared to filgrastim and pegfilgrastim. No differences between the three regimens were observed regarding toxicity and days to WBC and platelet recovery. Thus, lenograstim may represent the ideal G-CSF for PBSC mobilization in patients with lymphoproliferative diseases. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and better understand the biological bases of these differences. PMID:24722996

  15. Transcriptional analysis of the B cell germinal center reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Klein; Yuhai Tu; Gustavo A. Stolovitzky; Jeffrey L. Keller; Joseph Haddad Jr.; Vladan Miljkovic; Giorgio Cattoretti; Andrea Califano; Riccardo dalla-Favera

    2003-01-01

    The germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial for T cell-dependent immune responses and is targeted by B cell lymphomagenesis. Here we analyzed the transcriptional changes that occur in B cells during GC transit (naïve B cells centroblasts centrocytes memory B cells) by gene expression profiling. Naïve B cells, characterized by the expression of cell cycle-inhibitory and antiapoptotic genes, become centroblasts

  16. Unusual case of B cell lymphoma after immunosuppressive treatment for psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Nosotti, Lorenzo; Baiocchini, Andrea; Bonifati, Claudio; Visco-Comandini, Ubaldo; Mirisola, Concetta; Del Nonno, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Lymphomas may be induced by the systemic immunosuppressive therapies used to treat psoriasis, such as ciclosporin, methotrexate and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? blockers. The biologic agents currently used in psoriasis include alefacept, efalizumab, and the TNF-? antagonists etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab. Infections and cancer are the main possible consequences of intended or unexpected immunosuppression. We report a 59-year-old man with a history of severe psoriasis vulgaris treated with traditional immunosuppressant drugs followed by anti-TNF-? therapy; the patient was firstly hospitalized for an acute cholestatic toxic hepatitis, which we supposed to be related to adalimumab. The first liver biopsy showed active disease with severe hepatocellular damage caused by heavy lymphocytes infiltrate in portal tracts at in the interface with a not conclusive diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disease. The correct diagnosis of T cell/histiocyte- rich large B cell lymphoma (T/HRBCL) was only reached through a gastric biopsy and a second liver biopsy. T/HRBCL is an uncommon morphologic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma not described until now in psoriatic patients receiving immunosuppressive biologic agents. In psoriatic patients, treated with biologic immunosuppressive agents, the suspect of abdominal lymphoma should always be included as differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound evaluation need therefore to be included in the pre-treatment screening as in the follow-up surveillance.

  17. Alterations in peripheral blood B cell subsets and dynamics of B cell responses during human schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Lucja A; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Heeringa, Jorn J; van der Vlugt, Luciën E P M; Pires, Regina B A; Mewono, Ludovic; Kremsner, Peter G; van Zelm, Menno C; Adegnika, Ayola A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2013-01-01

    Antibody responses are thought to play an important role in control of Schistosoma infections, yet little is known about the phenotype and function of B cells in human schistosomiasis. We set out to characterize B cell subsets and B cell responses to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation in Gabonese schoolchildren with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Frequencies of memory B cell (MBC) subsets were increased, whereas naive B cell frequencies were reduced in the schistosome-infected group. At the functional level, isolated B cells from schistosome-infected children showed higher expression of the activation marker CD23 upon stimulation, but lower proliferation and TNF-? production. Importantly, 6-months after 3 rounds of praziquantel treatment, frequencies of naive B cells were increased, MBC frequencies were decreased and with the exception of TNF-? production, B cell responsiveness was restored to what was seen in uninfected children. These data show that S. haematobium infection leads to significant changes in the B cell compartment, both at the phenotypic and functional level. PMID:23505586

  18. Alterations in Peripheral Blood B Cell Subsets and Dynamics of B Cell Responses during Human Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Labuda, Lucja A.; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Heeringa, Jorn J.; van der Vlugt, Luciën E. P. M.; Pires, Regina B. A.; Mewono, Ludovic; Kremsner, Peter G.; van Zelm, Menno C.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2013-01-01

    Antibody responses are thought to play an important role in control of Schistosoma infections, yet little is known about the phenotype and function of B cells in human schistosomiasis. We set out to characterize B cell subsets and B cell responses to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation in Gabonese schoolchildren with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Frequencies of memory B cell (MBC) subsets were increased, whereas naive B cell frequencies were reduced in the schistosome-infected group. At the functional level, isolated B cells from schistosome-infected children showed higher expression of the activation marker CD23 upon stimulation, but lower proliferation and TNF-? production. Importantly, 6-months after 3 rounds of praziquantel treatment, frequencies of naive B cells were increased, MBC frequencies were decreased and with the exception of TNF-? production, B cell responsiveness was restored to what was seen in uninfected children. These data show that S. haematobium infection leads to significant changes in the B cell compartment, both at the phenotypic and functional level. PMID:23505586

  19. Roles of ligands from the TNF superfamily in B cell development, function, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Figgett, William A; Vincent, Fabien B; Saulep-Easton, Damien; Mackay, Fabienne

    2014-06-01

    Most ligands from the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily play very important roles in the immune system, and particularly so in B lymphocyte biology. TNF ligands are essential to many aspects of normal B cell biology from development in the bone marrow to maturation in the periphery as well as for activation and differentiation into germinal centre, memory or plasma cells. TNF ligands also influence other aspects of B cell biology such as their ability to present antigens or regulate immune responses. Importantly, inadequate regulation of many TNF ligands is associated with B cell disorders including autoimmunity and cancers. As a result, inhibitors of a number of TNF ligands have been tested in the clinic, with some becoming very successful approved treatments alleviating B cell-mediated pathologies. PMID:24996229

  20. Germinal Center-Derived B Cell Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig P. Chappell; Joshy Jacob

    B cell memory is characterized by persistent levels of Ag-specific serum antibody (Ab) following immunization and the ability\\u000a to rapidly produce Ab upon secondary Ag exposure1. During primary immune responses in mammals, B cell activation occurs within or at the border of T cell-rich periarteriolar\\u000a lymphoid sheaths following cognate interaction with CD4 TH cells2,3. This interaction induces B lymphocytes to

  1. Tolerogenicity of Resting and Activated B Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Gilbert; William O. Weigle

    Summary Antigen presentation by resting splenic B cells has been shown previously to induce T helper I cell (Thl) anergy. In contrast to expectations, it was found here that B cells treated with F(ab')2 goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgM) for 24 or 48 h also presented antigen (Ag) to Thl cells in a manner that induced dramatic Ag-specific proliferative inactivation. The

  2. Isotype Control of B Cell Signaling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Karlee Silver (Headington; Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital REV)

    2003-05-27

    The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79? and CD79? heterodimer. Nai¨ve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79? and CD79? for signal transduction. After antigenic stimulation, B cells undergo isotype switching to yield IgG, IgE, or IgA. Recent research suggests that the ability of the B cell coreceptor CD22 to regulate BCR signaling depends on the isotype of the mIg cytoplasmic tail. Cell lines that express a BCR with the cytoplasmic tail from IgG, the isotype found in memory B cells, are not subject to CD22 regulation, whereas cell lines that express BCRs with IgM cytoplasmic tails are subject to CD22 regulation. Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to accumulate. These observations are a valuable step toward understanding the difference in B cell signaling between nai¨ve and memory cells. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings for CD22 regulation and signaling through the mIgG-containing BCR.

  3. Silencing of B Cell Receptor Signals in Human Naive B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Feldhahn, Niklas; Schwering, Ines; Lee, Sanggyu; Wartenberg, Maria; Klein, Florian; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Guolin; Wang, San Ming; Rowley, Janet D.; Hescheler, Jürgen; Krönke, Martin; Rajewsky, Klaus; Küppers, Ralf; Müschen, Markus

    2002-01-01

    To identify changes in the regulation of B cell receptor (BCR) signals during the development of human B cells, we generated genome-wide gene expression profiles using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique for CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), pre-B cells, naive, germinal center (GC), and memory B cells. Comparing these SAGE profiles, genes encoding positive regulators of BCR signaling were expressed at consistently lower levels in naive B cells than in all other B cell subsets. Conversely, a large group of inhibitory signaling molecules, mostly belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), were specifically or predominantly expressed in naive B cells. The quantitative differences observed by SAGE were corroborated by semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. In a functional assay, we show that down-regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors and increased responsiveness to BCR stimulation in memory as compared with naive B cells at least partly results from interleukin (IL)-4 receptor signaling. Conversely, activation or impairment of the inhibitory IgSF receptor LIRB1 affected BCR-dependent Ca2+ mobilization only in naive but not memory B cells. Thus, LIRB1 and IL-4 may represent components of two nonoverlapping gene expression programs in naive and memory B cells, respectively: in naive B cells, a large group of inhibitory IgSF receptors can elevate the BCR signaling threshold to prevent these cells from premature activation and clonal expansion before GC-dependent affinity maturation. In memory B cells, facilitated responsiveness upon reencounter of the immunizing antigen may result from amplification of BCR signals at virtually all levels of signal transduction. PMID:12438421

  4. B Cell-Derived Interleukin 10 Does Not Regulate Spontaneous Systemic Autoimmunity in MRL.Faslpr mice

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Lino L.; Kashgarian, Michael; Weaver, Casey T.; Roers, Axel; Müller, Werner; Shlomchik, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) via multiple effector functions. However, B cells are also implicated in regulating SLE and other autoimmune syndromes via release of IL-10. B cells secreting IL-10 have been termed “Breg” and have been proposed as a separate subset of cells, a concept that remains controversial. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory effects could determine the success of B cell targeted therapies for autoimmune disorders and it is therefore pivotal to understand the significance of B cell-secreted IL-10 in spontaneous autoimmunity. By lineage specific deletion of Il10 from B cells we demonstrate that B cell-derived IL-10 is ineffective in suppressing the spontaneous activation of self-reactive B and T cells during lupus. Correspondingly, severity of organ disease and survival rates in mice harboring Il10 deficient B cells are unaltered. Genetic marking of cells that transcribe Il10 illustrates that the pool of IL-10 competent cells is dominated by CD4 T cells and macrophages. IL-10 competent cells of the B lineage are rare in vivo and among them short-lived plasmablasts have the highest frequency, suggesting an activation rather than lineage-driven phenotype. Putative Breg phenotypic subsets such as CD1dhiCD5+ and CD21hiCD23hi B cells are not enriched in Il10 transcription. These genetic studies demonstrate that in a spontaneous model of murine lupus, IL-10 dependent B cell regulation does not restrain disease and thus the pathogenic effects of B cells are not detectably counterbalanced by their IL-10 dependent regulatory functions. PMID:22156495

  5. Antigen-specific B cell receptor sensitizes B cells to infection by influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, Stephanie K.; Ashour, Joseph; Karssemeijer, Roos A.; Popp, Maximilian W.; Avalos, Ana M.; Barisa, Marta; Altenburg, Arwen F.; Ingram, Jessica R.; Cragnolini, Juan Jose; Guo, Chunguang; Alt, Frederick W.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A virus-specific B lymphocytes and the antibodies they produce protect against infection 1. However, the outcome of interactions between a flu hemagglutinin (HA)-specific B cell via its receptor (BCR) and virus is unclear. Through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) we generated mice that harbor B cells with a BCR specific for the HA of A/WSN/33 (FluBI mice). Their B cells secrete an IgG2b that neutralizes infectious virus. While B cells from FluBI and control mice bind equivalent amounts of virus through interactions of HA with surface-disposed sialic acids, the A/WSN/33 virus infects only the HA-specific B cells. Mere binding of virus is not sufficient for infection of B cells: this requires interactions of the BCR with HA, causing both disruption of antibody secretion and FluBI B cell death within 18 hours. In mice infected with A/WSN/33, lung-resident FluBI B cells are infected by the virus, thus delaying the onset of protective antibody release into the lungs, while FluBI cells in the draining lymph node are not infected and proliferate. We propose that influenza targets and kills influenza-specific B cells in the lung, thus allowing the virus to gain purchase prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive response. PMID:24141948

  6. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in pregnancy: A case of favorable mother-fetal outcome in a well-controlled disease.

    PubMed

    Patti, Simona; Perrone, Giuseppina; De Pratti, Valentina; Quinti, Isabella; Milito, Cinzia; Brunelli, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by the dysregulation of the Fas apoptotic pathway. The Fas gene is expressed at the maternal-fetal interface and is involved in the regulation of immune response and implantation. Altered Fas expression may result in altered apoptosis and, ultimately, affect both the immune response and implantation; it is in fact associated with recurrent pregnancy loss, preterm premature rupture of membranes and pre-eclampsia. Currently, there are over 500 cases of ALPS reported worldwide from various racial and ethnic backgrounds. Up to date, the published work contains no specific reports on pregnancy outcome in women affected by ALPS. We present a case of full-term uneventful pregnancy in a patient affected by ALPS. A specific clinical follow-up in a pregnant woman with primary immunologic disease is suggested. PMID:25302402

  7. Characterization of EBV-related Lymphoproliferative Lesions Arising in Donor Lymphocytes of Transplanted Human Tumor Tissues in the NOG Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Etsuko; Kato, Atsuhiko; Chen, Yu Jau; Matsubara, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Human tumor tissue line models established in the severely immunodeficient NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Sug/Jic (NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2R?null or NOG) mouse are important tools for oncology research. During the establishment process, a lymphoproliferative lesion (LPL) that replaces the original tumor cells in the site of transplantation occurs. In the present study, we studied the impact of the LPL on the establishment process and the characteristics of the lesion, investigated the systemic distribution of the lesion in the mouse, and evaluated the potential of a simple identification method. The incidence of the lesion varied among tumor types, and the lesion was found to be the leading cause of unsuccessful establishment with gastric and colorectal cancer. The lesion consisted of a varying population of proliferating lymphoid cells that expressed CD20. The cells were positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related antigens, and EBV DNA was detected. There was systemic distribution of the lesion within the NOG mouse, and the most consistent gross finding was splenomegaly. Additionally, identification of LPL-affected cases was possible by detecting splenomegaly in the 1st and 2nd generation mice at necropsy. From our findings the lesion was judged to arise from EBV-infected B cells originating from the donor, and monitoring splenomegaly at necropsy was thought effective as a simple method for identifying the lesion at an early stage of the establishment process. PMID:25077758

  8. Study Provides Insights into Diagnosis, Treatment of Rare Immune Disease: Autoimmmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Results of Study Researchers led by V. Koneti Rao, M.D., and Michael Lenardo, M.D., of ... A, Lo B, Pittaluga S, Jaffe ES, Fleisher TA, Rao VK, Lenardo MJ. Natural history of autoimmune lymphoproliferative ...

  9. Cholera toxin promotes B cell isotype differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lycke, N; Strober, W

    1989-06-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) is a powerful oral immunogen and adjuvant that elicits strong IgG and IgA antibody responses. In our study we investigated whether this property of CT was associated with an effect on B cell isotype differentiation. Initially, we determined the effect of CT on normal LPS-induced Peyer's patch B cells and found that whereas CT is strongly inhibitory of IgM production, it increases by approximately three-fold the number and frequency of IgG- and IgA-producing cells. Subsequently, using cell sorting technology, we demonstrated that CT acts on membrane (m)IgM+, mIgG/mIgA- B cells rather than mIgG/mIgA+ B cells. In addition, we showed that CT does not cause selective inhibition of mIgM, or enhancement of mIgG/mIgA B cell proliferation. In parallel studies we determined the effect of CT on the differentiation of a clonal B cell population, CH12.LX cells, i.e., a population comprised mainly of mIgM+ cells (98%) admixed with a small subpopulation of mIgA+ cells (2%). Here we found that CT (in the absence of LPS) causes a rapid decrease (24 h) in the intensity of mIgM expression as well as a marked increase in the size of the subpopulation expressing mIgA. In addition, we found that CT (in the presence of LPS), inhibits CH12.LX IgM production while increasing the absolute number and frequency of IgA-producing cells. In contrast, CT inhibits IgA production by CH12.LX.A2 cells, a subclone of CH12.LX cells that bears only IgA. Finally, we demonstrated that CT is equally inhibitory of the proliferation of CH12.LX cells and CH12.LX.A2 cells. Taken together, these effects of CT on normal B cells and a clonal B cell line indicate that CT induces substantial numbers of mIgM+ cells to undergo isotype differentiation into mIgG+ or mIgA+ B cells. In a final series of studies we showed that the effect of CT on isotype differentiation was mimicked by the B subunit of CT, i.e., the subunit that does not activate intracellular adenylate cyclase; thus the induction of isotype differentiation by CT is not mediated by a perturbation in cAMP level. PMID:2785565

  10. B cells--masters of the immunoverse.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Roghanian, Ali; Cragg, Mark S

    2011-03-01

    The immune system involves the complex interplay between many different cell types. Over the last decade, T cells, dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages have all been implicated as the key regulator cells of the immunological response, linking innate and adaptive immunity. The forgotten cell in this discourse has been the B-cell. Long considered as simple antibody production units dictated to by T-cells, recent years have begun to shift this assumption. The discovery that numerous B-cell subsets exist, with specific regulatory functions capable of modulating T-cell and chronic inflammatory responses has revealed a hitherto unappreciated role of B-cells. In particular, these ideas have been developed in light of the surprisingly successful responses delivered in autoimmune settings following depletion of B-cells with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab. Here we summarise the history of the humble B-cell and discuss some of the key recent findings that lead us to propose it as an important regulator of ongoing immune responses and as such, one of the masters of the immunoverse. PMID:21147251

  11. Upper airway obstruction and pulmonary abnormalities due to lymphoproliferative disease following bone marrow transplantation in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry D. Fletcher; Helen E. Heslop; Sue C. Kaste; Sara Bodner

    1998-01-01

    We report three patients who developed severe supraglottic airway obstruction due to Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative\\u000a disease following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In addition to enlarged pharyngeal lymphoid tissue seen in all three\\u000a patients, two had supraglottic airway narrowing and two developed pulmonary lymphoproliferative disease. They were treated\\u000a with unmanipulated T cells or EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Life-threatening upper airway obstruction

  12. Schistosomes Induce Regulatory Features in Human and Mouse CD1dhi B Cells: Inhibition of Allergic Inflammation by IL10 and Regulatory T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciën E. P. M. van der Vlugt; Lucja A. Labuda; Arifa Ozir-Fazalalikhan; Ellen Lievers; Anouk K. Gloudemans; Kit-Yeng Liu; Tom A. Barr; Tim Sparwasser; Louis Boon; Ulysse Ateba Ngoa; Eliane Ngoune Feugap; Ayola A. Adegnika; Peter G. Kremsner; David Gray; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Hermelijn H. Smits

    2012-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections, such as schistosomes, are negatively associated with allergic disorders. Here, using B cell IL-10-deficient mice, Schistosoma mansoni-mediated protection against experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI) was shown to be specifically dependent on IL-10-producing B cells. To study the organs involved, we transferred B cells from lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes or spleen of OVA-infected mice to recipient OVA-sensitized

  13. B cells under influence: transformation of B cells by Epstein–Barr virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Küppers

    2003-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an extremely successful virus, infecting more than 90% of the human population worldwide. After primary infection, the virus persists for the life of the host, usually as a harmless passenger residing in B cells. However, EBV can transform B cells, which can result in the development of malignant lymphomas. Intriguingly, the three main types of EBV-associated

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 induces oncogene suppressor genes in B cell populations.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, R; Meyers, J M; Alvarez, C E; Thomas, J L; Bonnegarde-Bernard, A; Alder, H; Papenfuss, T L; Benson, D M; Boyaka, P N; Ziouzenkova, O

    2013-12-01

    The deregulation of B cell differentiation has been shown to contribute to autoimmune disorders, hematological cancers, and aging. We provide evidence that the retinoic acid-producing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (Aldh1a1) is an oncogene suppressor in specific splenic IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and IgG1(+)/CD19(+) B cell populations. Aldh1a1 regulated transcription factors during B cell differentiation in a sequential manner: 1) retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) in IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and 2) zinc finger protein Zfp423 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) in IgG1(+)/CD19(+) splenocytes. In Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, splenic IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and IgG1(+)/CD19(+) B cells acquired expression of proto-oncogenic genes c-Fos, c-Jun, and Hoxa10 that resulted in splenomegaly. Human multiple myeloma B cell lines also lack Aldh1a1 expression; however, ectopic Aldh1a1 expression rescued Rara and Znf423 expressions in these cells. Our data highlight a mechanism by which an enzyme involved in vitamin A metabolism can improve B cell resistance to oncogenesis. PMID:24080087

  15. Intravenous Immunoglobulin and Immunomodulation of B-Cell – in vitro and in vivo Effects

    PubMed Central

    Mitrevski, Milica; Marrapodi, Ramona; Camponeschi, Alessandro; Cavaliere, Filomena Monica; Lazzeri, Cristina; Todi, Laura; Visentini, Marcella

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used as replacement therapy in patients with antibody deficiencies and at higher dosages in immune-mediated disorders. Although different mechanisms have been described in vitro, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of IVIG are poorly understood. Different studies have suggested that IVIG modulates B-cell functions as activation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Recently, it was shown that IVIG induces in vitro B-cell unresponsiveness similar to anergy. In accord with this, we recently reported that IVIG therapy in patients affected by common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) interferes in vivo with the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling by increasing constitutive ERK activation and by reducing the phosphorylated ERK increment induced by BCR cross-linking. Moreover, we observed that IVIG induces in CVID patients an increase of circulating CD21low B-cells, an unusual population of anergic-like B-cells prone to apoptosis. Therefore, IVIG at replacement dose in vivo could prime B-cells to an anergic, apoptotic program. Here, we discuss these recent findings, which may improve our understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of IVIG, individualizing single involved molecules for more specific treatments. PMID:25657650

  16. Type II NKT-TFH cells against Gaucher lipids regulate B-cell immunity and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Shiny; Boddupalli, Chandra Sekhar; Verma, Rakesh; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ruhua; Pastores, Gregory M.; Mistry, Pramod K.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation including B-cell activation is commonly observed in both inherited (Gaucher disease [GD]) and acquired disorders of lipid metabolism. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying B-cell activation in these settings remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that ?-glucosylceramide 22:0 (?GL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), 2 major sphingolipids accumulated in GD, can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells. Human ?GL1-22– and LGL1-reactive CD1d tetramer–positive T cells have a distinct T-cell receptor usage and genomic and cytokine profiles compared with the classical type I NKT cells. In contrast to type I NKT cells, ?GL1-22– and LGL1-specific NKT cells constitutively express T-follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. Injection of these lipids leads to an increase in respective lipid-specific type II NKT cells in vivo and downstream induction of germinal center B cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and production of antilipid antibodies. Human ?GL1-22– and LGL1-specific NKT cells can provide efficient cognate help to B cells in vitro. Frequency of LGL1-specific T cells in GD mouse models and patients correlates with disease activity and therapeutic response. Our studies identify a novel type II NKT-mediated pathway for glucosphingolipid-mediated dysregulation of humoral immunity and increased risk of B-cell malignancy observed in metabolic lipid disorders. PMID:25499455

  17. Systematic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease presenting as a persistent fever and cough: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is an extremely rare disorder and classically arises following primary acute or chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. It is characterized by clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected T-cells with an activated cytotoxic phenotype. This disease has a rapid clinical course and is more frequent in Asia and South America, with relatively few cases being reported in Western countries. The clinical and pathological features of the disease overlap with other conditions including infectious mononucleosis, chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and natural killer cell malignancies. We describe the rare case of systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease in a 16-year-old Malay boy. Case presentation He presented with a six-month history of fever and cough, with pulmonary and mediastinal lymphadenopathy and severe pancytopenia. Medium- to large-sized, CD8+ and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-positive atypical lymphoid cells were present in the bone marrow aspirate. He subsequently developed fatal virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome and died due to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Conclusions Although systemic Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative childhood disease is a disorder which is rarely encountered in clinical practice, our case report underlines the importance of a comprehensive diagnostic approach in the management of this disease. A high level of awareness of the disease throughout the diagnosis process for young patients who present with systemic illness and hemophagocytic syndrome may be of great help for the clinical diagnosis of this disease. PMID:25163591

  18. [An effective method for T-cell and B-cell simultaneous depletion in vitro from mobilized peripheral blood stem/progenitor cell graft for haploidentical transplantation].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan; Li, Hong-Hua; Jin, Xiang-Shu; Jin, Hai-Jie; Fu, Li-Ye; Gao, Chun-Ji; Han, Xiao-Ping; Yu, Li

    2008-10-01

    Depletion of T and B cells from the graft is prerequisite for haploidentical transplantation to decrease the risk of GVHD and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. This study was aimed to investigate the performance of T-cell and B-cell simultaneous depletion from mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) for the first time in China, using anti-CD3 and anti-CD19 antibodies conjugated to magnetic microbeads by the CliniMACS device. The depletion efficiency of T-cell and B-cells was analyzed by flow cytometry; the function of the stem cells after depletion was evaluated using colony assays. The results indicated that the mononuclear cell count prior to T- and B-cell depletion was 4.88 x 10(10). After depletion, the percentage of T cells was 0.02% with a log (10) depletion of 4.4. The percentage of B cells was less than 0.01% with a log (10) depletion of at least 3.3. The product contained not only CD34(+) stem cells, but also NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes. After T- and B-cell depletion the purity of CD34(+) cells was 0.98%, the number of CD34 cells was 1.84 x 10(8) and their recovery rate was 69.7%. The number of NK cells was 2.54 x 10(9) and the recovery rate of NK cells was 71.7%. In vitro colony assays showed no negative impact on function of the hematopoietic stem cells. In conclusion, the CliniMACS system can be used to efficiently deplete T and B cells from PBSCs simultaneously, without adverse effect on biological function of hematopoietic stem cells. This study provides technical platform for haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:18928610

  19. Repression of B-Cell Linker (BLNK) and B-Cell Adaptor for Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (BCAP) Is Important for

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    -Rel protein is seen in classic Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (MLBCLRepression of B-Cell Linker (BLNK) and B-Cell Adaptor for Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (BCAP-Rel and c-Rel proteins uncovered that Rel protein expression leads to transcriptional repression of key B-cell

  20. Aberrant B cell selection and activation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kil, Laurens P; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2013-08-01

    The detrimental role of B lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is evident from the high levels of pathogenic antinuclear autoantibodies (ANAs) found in SLE patients. Affirming this causative role, additional antibody-independent roles of B cells in SLE were appreciated. In recent years, many defects in B cell selection and activation have been identified in murine lupus models and SLE patients that explain the increased emergence and persistence of autoreactive B cells and their lowered activation threshold. Therefore, clinical trials with B cell depletion regimens in SLE patients were initiated but disappointingly the efficacy of B cell depleting agents proved to be limited. Remarkably however, a major breakthrough in SLE therapy was accomplished by blocking B cell survival factors rather then eliminating B cells. This surprising finding indicates that although SLE is a B cell-driven disease, the amplifying crosstalk between B cells and other cells of the immune system likely evokes the observed tolerance breakdown in B cells. Moreover, this implies that intelligent interception of pro-inflammatory loops rather then selectively silencing B cells will be key to the development of new SLE therapies. In this review, we will not only highlight the intrinsic B cell defects that facilitate the persistence of autoreactive B cells and their activation, but in addition we will focus on B cell extrinsic signals derived from T cells and innate immune cells that lower the activation threshold for B cells. PMID:23768157

  1. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Gatter; Francesco Pezzella

    2010-01-01

    The recently published 4th edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues has added significant new data into previous entities of large B-cell lymphoma as well as introducing some new categories and two borderline subtypes. This review discusses each of these issues in turn with an emphasis on providing a practical interpretation to assist the diagnostic

  2. B Cell-Intrinsic CD84 and Ly108 Maintain Germinal Center B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eric B; Soni, Chetna; Chan, Alice Y; Domeier, Phillip P; Shwetank; Abraham, Thomas; Limaye, Nisha; Khan, Tahsin N; Elias, Melinda J; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Wakeland, Edward K; Rahman, Ziaur S M

    2015-05-01

    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (SLAMs) play an integral role in immune regulation. Polymorphisms in the SLAM family receptors are implicated in human and mouse model of lupus disease. The lupus-associated, somatically mutated, and class-switched pathogenic autoantibodies are generated in spontaneously developed germinal centers (GCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. The role and mechanism of B cell-intrinsic expression of polymorphic SLAM receptors that affect B cell tolerance at the GC checkpoint are not clear. In this study, we generated several bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice that overexpress C57BL/6 (B6) alleles of different SLAM family genes on an autoimmune-prone B6.Sle1b background. B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6-derived Ly108 and CD84 exhibit a significant reduction in the spontaneously developed GC response and autoantibody production compared with B6.Sle1b mice. These data suggest a prominent role for Sle1b-derived Ly108 and CD84 in altering the GC checkpoint. We further confirm that expression of lupus-associated CD84 and Ly108 specifically on GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice is sufficient to break B cell tolerance, leading to an increase in autoantibody production. In addition, we observe that B6.Sle1b B cells have reduced BCR signaling and a lower frequency of B cell-T cell conjugates; the reverse is seen in B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6 alleles of CD84 and Ly108. Finally, we find a significant decrease in apoptotic GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice compared with B6 controls. Our study establishes a central role for GC B cell-specific CD84 and Ly108 expression in maintaining B cell tolerance in GCs and in preventing autoimmunity. PMID:25801429

  3. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung

    2015-01-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion.

  4. DiGeorge syndrome who developed lymphoproliferative mediastinal mass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Yeun; Hur, Ji Ae; Kim, Ki Hwan; Cha, Yoon Jin; Lee, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong Soo

    2015-03-01

    DiGeorge syndrome is an immunodeficient disease associated with abnormal development of 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches. As a hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 occurs, various clinical phenotypes are shown with a broad spectrum. Conotruncal cardiac anomalies, hypoplastic thymus, and hypocalcemia are the classic triad of DiGeorge syndrome. As this syndrome is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, there are missing thymic shadow on their plain chest x-ray. Immunodeficient patients are traditionally known to be at an increased risk for malignancy, especially lymphoma. We experienced a 7-year-old DiGeorge syndrome patient with mediastinal mass shadow on her plain chest x-ray. She visited Severance Children's Hospital hospital with recurrent pneumonia, and throughout her repeated chest x-ray, there was a mass like shadow on anterior mediastinal area. We did full evaluation including chest computed tomography, chest ultrasonography, and chest magnetic resonance imaging. To rule out malignancy, video assisted thoracoscopic surgery was done. Final diagnosis of the mass which was thought to be malignancy, was lymphoproliferative lesion. PMID:25861334

  5. Germinal center B cells and mixed leukocyte reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Monfalcone, A.P.; Kosco, M.H.; Szakal, A.K.; Tew, J.G. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine if germinal center (GC) B cells are sufficiently activated to stimulate mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Percoll density fractionation and a panning technique with peanut agglutinin (PNA) were used to isolate GC B cells from the lymph nodes of immune mice. The GC B cells were treated with mitomycin C or irradiation and used to stimulate allogeneic or syngeneic splenic T cells in the MLR. Controls included high-density (HD) B cells prepared from spleens of the same mice and HD B cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate. GC B cells bound high amount sof PNA (i.e., PNAhi). Similarly, the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated B cells were PNAhi. Treatment with neuraminidase rendered the PNAlo HD B cells PNAhi. GC B cells and the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated HD B cells stimulated a potent MLR, while the untreated HD B cells did not. However, following neuraminidase treatment, the resulting PNAhi HD B cell population was able to induce an MLR. The PNA marker appeared to be an indicator of stimulatory activity, but incubating the cells with PNA to bind the cell surface ligand did not interfere with the MLR. GC B cells were also capable of stimulating a syngeneic MLR in most experiments although this was not consistently obtained. It appears that germinal centers represent a unique in vivo microenvironment that provides the necessary signals for B cells to become highly effective antigen-presenting cells.

  6. Skewed T cell receptor repertoire of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the potential role for Epstein–Barr virus-infected B cells in clonal restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fujishima, N; Hirokawa, M; Fujishima, M; Yamashita, J; Saitoh, H; Ichikawa, Y; Horiuchi, T; Kawabata, Y; Sawada, K-I

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes has been described in various infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and malaria. However, the antigen specificity and functions of the human V?1+ T cells remain obscure. We sought to explore the biological role for this T cell subset by investigating the reconstitution of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We observed skewed TCR repertoires of the V?1+ T cells in 27 of 44 post-transplant patients. Only one patient developed EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the present patient cohort. The -WGI- amino acid motif was observed in CDR3 of clonally expanded V?1+ T cells in half the patients. A skew was also detected in certain healthy donors, and the V?1+ T cell clone derived from the donor mature T cell pool persisted in the recipient's blood even 10 years after transplant. This T cell clone expanded in vitro against stimulation with autologous EBV–lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and the V?1+ T cell line expanded in vitro from the same patient showed cytotoxicity against autologous EBV–LCL. EBV-infected cells could also induce in vitro oligoclonal expansions of autologous V?1+ T cells from healthy EBV-seropositive individuals. These results suggest that human V?1+ T cells have a TCR repertoire against EBV-infected B cells and may play a role in protecting recipients of allogeneic HSCT from EBV-associated disease. PMID:17425654

  7. Antigen-specific B-cell receptor sensitizes B cells to infection by influenza virus

    E-print Network

    Dougan, Stephanie K.

    Influenza A virus-specific B lymphocytes and the antibodies they produce protect against infection. However, the outcome of interactions between an influenza haemagglutinin-specific B cell via its receptor (BCR) and virus ...

  8. Dasatinib therapy results in decreased B cell proliferation, splenomegaly, and tumor growth in a murine model of lymphoma expressing Myc and Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A.

    PubMed

    Dargart, Jamie L; Fish, Kamonwan; Gordon, Leo I; Longnecker, Richard; Cen, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and latency has been associated with malignant diseases including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and immune deficiency associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) recruits Lyn and Syk kinases via its SH2-domain binding motifs, and modifies their signaling pathways. LMP2A transgenic mice develop hyperproliferative bone marrow B cells and immature peripheral B cells through modulation of Lyn kinase signaling. LMP2A/?-MYC double transgenic mice develop splenomegaly and cervical lymphomas starting at 8 weeks of age. We reasoned that targeting Lyn in LMP2A-expressing B cells with dasatinib would provide a therapeutic option for EBV-associated malignancies. Here, we show that dasatinib inhibits B cell colony formation by LMP2A transgenic bone marrow cells, and reverses splenomegaly and tumor growth in both a pre-tumor and a syngeneic tumor transfer model of EBV-associated Burkitt lymphoma. Our data support the idea that dasatinib may prove to be an effective therapeutic molecule for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:22609829

  9. Dasatinib therapy results in decreased B cell proliferation, splenomegaly, and tumor growth in a murine model of lymphoma expressing Myc and Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A

    PubMed Central

    Dargart, Jamie L.; Fish, Kamonwan; Gordon, Leo I.; Longnecker, Richard; Cen, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and latency has been associated with malignant diseases including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and immune deficiency associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) recruits Lyn and Syk kinases via its SH2-domain binding motifs, and modifies their signaling pathways. LMP2A transgenic mice develop hyperproliferative bone marrow B cells and immature peripheral B cells through modulation of Lyn kinase signaling. LMP2A/?-MYC double transgenic mice develop splenomegaly and cervical lymphomas starting at 8 weeks of age. We reasoned that targeting Lyn in LMP2A-expressing B cells with dasatinib would provide a therapeutic option for EBV-associated malignancies. Here, we show that dasatinib inhibits B cell colony formation by LMP2A transgenic bone marrow cells, and reverses splenomegaly and tumor growth in both a pre-tumor and a syngeneic tumor transfer model of EBV-associated Burkitt lymphoma. Our data support the idea that dasatinib may prove to be an effective therapeutic molecule for the treatment of EBV-associated malignancies. PMID:22609829

  10. Global dynamics of B cells and anti-idiotipic B cells and its application to autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Sasaki; Tsuyoshi Kajiwara

    2007-01-01

    Global behavior of B models is discussed. When the source term for new B cells equals zero, the system has a conservation\\u000a quantity. It implies the structurally unstability. It suggests that lack of the source of new B cells may unstabilize the\\u000a immune system. When the B model incorporates autoimmunity, it loses symmetry. The asymmetry suggests the transition from a

  11. The B cell-specific transcription factor BSAP regulates B cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wakatsuki, Y; Neurath, M F; Max, E E; Strober, W

    1994-04-01

    The B cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) is a DNA-binding transcription factor expressed in pro-B, pre-B, and mature B cells, but not in plasma cells. In this study, we explored the role of BSAP in B cell function by assessing how the content of this protein varies in cells driven by proliferative stimuli and, conversely, how artificial manipulation of BSAP activity affects cell proliferation. We found that BSAP activity of nuclear extracts increased when B cells were activated by mitogen (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), antigen receptor-mediated signaling (surface immunoglobulin D [IgD] cross-linking) or T cell-dependent stimulation (CD40 cross-linking). We could suppress BSAP activity by exposure of B cells to phosphorothioate oligonucleotides antisense to the BSAP translation initiation start site, whereas control oligonucleotides were virtually inactive. Antisense-induced BSAP suppression was associated with a striking reduction in LPS-induced proliferation of splenic B cells and in the spontaneous proliferation of B lymphoma cells (CH12.LX), but the antisense oligonucleotide had virtually no effect on proliferation of two cell lines lacking BSAP: the T lymphoma line EL-4 and the plasma cell line MOPC-315. Overexpression of BSAP in splenic B cells or de novo expression in MOPC-315 plasma cells induced by transfection of a BSAP expression plasmid stimulated cell proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that BSAP activity is a rate-limiting regulator of B cell proliferation. We also found that treatment with the antisense BSAP oligonucleotide downregulated Ig class switching induced by interleukin 4 plus LPS. This effect may be secondary to reduced proliferation or could be mediated through BSAP binding sites in the IgH locus. PMID:7511679

  12. Advances in Human B Cell Phenotypic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Denise A.; Wei, Chungwen; Qian, Yu; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Sanz, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    To advance our understanding and treatment of disease, research immunologists have been called-upon to place more centralized emphasis on impactful human studies. Such endeavors will inevitably require large-scale study execution and data management regulation (“Big Biology”), necessitating standardized and reliable metrics of immune status and function. A well-known example setting this large-scale effort in-motion is identifying correlations between eventual disease outcome and T lymphocyte phenotype in large HIV-patient cohorts using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity are also characterized by correlative and functional contributions of B lymphocytes, which to-date have received much less attention in the human Big Biology enterprise. Here, we review progress in human B cell phenotyping, analysis, and bioinformatics tools that constitute valuable resources for the B cell research community to effectively join in this effort. PMID:23087687

  13. Hepatitis C and B-cell lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. C. Turner; G. Dusheiko; A. Jones

    2003-01-01

    The association between the hepatitis C virus and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is controversial. We review the epidemiological evidence behind the association, and look at the reasons behind the variation in study findings. There is increasing evidence of the pathogenesis of hepatitis C-associated lymphoma. Treatment of the hepatitis C virus with antiviral therapy may lead to the regression of some low-grade

  14. Mature T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease and Epstein-Barr virus infection are more frequent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Seiji; Tanimoto, Kazuki; Yamada, Kozue; Yoshimoto, Goichi; Suematsu, Eiichi; Fujisaki, Tomoaki; Oshiro, Yumi; Tamura, Kazuo; Takeshita, Morishige; Okamura, Seiichi

    2013-04-01

    We retrospectively analyzed in 54 consecutively enrolled Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) relevant clinicopathological characteristics, in particular paying attention to treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Between the 28 patients treated with MTX (MTX-treated group) and the 26 who were not (non-MTX group), there was no difference in age, interval between onset of RA and LPD, and lymphoma stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in the MTX-treated group, 15 (53 %) patients had mature B-cell LPD, eight (29 %) mature T/NK-cell LPD, and five (18 %) had Hodgkin lymphoma. In the non-MTX group, 22 (84 %) had mature B-cell LPD, 2 (8 %) had mature T/NK-cell LPD, and 2 (8 %) had Hodgkin lymphoma. The frequency of mature T/NK-cell LPD was significantly higher in the MTX-treated group (p?B-cell LPD and Hodgkin lymphoma in MTX-treated RA patients. PMID:23494713

  15. Clinical immunotherapy of B-cell malignancy using CD19-targeted CAR T-cells.

    PubMed

    Maher, John

    2014-02-01

    The CD19 molecule is ubiquitously expressed throughout all stages of B-cell differentiation, but is not found on haemopoietic stem cells. Since most B-cell leukaemias and lymphomas retain CD19 expression, it represents an excellent target for immunotherapy of these malignant disorders. Over the past 10 years, compelling pre-clinical evidence has accrued to indicate that expression of a CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in peripheral blood T-cells exerts therapeutic efficacy in diverse models of B-cell malignancy. Building on this, clinical studies are ongoing in several centres in which autologous CD19-specific CAR T-cells are undergoing evaluation in patients with acute and chronic B-cell leukaemia and refractory lymphoma. Early data have generated considerable excitement, providing grounds to speculate that CAR-based immunotherapy will radically alter existing management paradigms in B-cell malignancy. The focus of this mini-review is to evaluate these emerging clinical data and to speculate on clinical prospects for this new therapeutic modality. PMID:24365143

  16. Human B cell defects in perspective

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    While primary immune defects are generally considered to lead to severe and easily recognized disease in infants and children, a number of genetic defects impairing B cell function may not be clinically apparent or diagnosed until adult life. The commonest of these is common variable immune deficiency, the genetic origins of which are beginning to be at least partially understood. CVID affects ? 1/25,000 Caucasians and is characterized by a marked reduction in serum IgG, almost always in serum IgA, and reduced serum IgM in about half of all cases; these defects continue to provide an opportunity to investigate the genes necessary for B cell function in humans. Recently, a small number of genes necessary for normal B cell function have been identified in consanguineous families leading to varying degrees of hypogammaglobulinemia and loss of antibody production. In other studies, whole-exome sequencing and copy number variation, applied to large cohorts, have extended research into understanding both the genetic basis of this syndrome and the clinical phenotypes of CVID. PMID:22477523

  17. Emerging role of infectious etiologies in the pathogenesis of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Zucca, Emanuele; Bertoni, Francesco; Vannata, Barbara; Cavalli, Franco

    2014-10-15

    Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arise from lymphoid populations that are induced by chronic inflammation in extranodal sites. The most frequently affected organ is the stomach, where MALT lymphoma is incontrovertibly associated with a chronic gastritis induced by a microbial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. Gastric MALT lymphoma therefore represents a paradigm for evaluating inflammation-associated lymphomagenesis, which may lead to a deeper understanding of a possible etiologic association between other microorganisms and nongastric marginal zone lymphomas. Besides infectious etiology, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren syndrome or Hashimoto thyroiditis, can also carry a significant risk factor for the development of marginal zone lymphoma. In addition to the continuous antigenic drive, additional oncogenic events play a relevant role in lymphoma growth and progression to the point at which the lymphoproliferative process may eventually become independent of antigenic stimulation. Recent studies on MALT lymphomas have in fact demonstrated genetic alterations affecting the NF-?B) pathway, a major signaling pathway involved in many cancers. This review aims to present marginal zone lymphoma as an example of the close pathogenetic link between chronic inflammation and tumor development, with particular attention to the role of infectious agents and the integration of these observations into everyday clinical practice. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma." PMID:25320370

  18. Fc?R Interacts and Cooperates with the B Cell Receptor To Promote B Cell Survival.

    PubMed

    Ouchida, Rika; Lu, Qing; Liu, Jun; Li, Yingqian; Chu, Yiwei; Tsubata, Takeshi; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2015-04-01

    The IgM FcR (Fc?R) promotes B cell survival, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We show using Fc?R(-/-) and wild-type mice that Fc?R specifically enhanced B cell survival induced by BCR cross-linking with F(ab')2-anti-IgM Abs while having no effect on survival when the B cells were activated by CD40 ligation or LPS stimulation. Fc?R expression was markedly upregulated by anti-IgM stimulation, which may promote enhanced Fc?R signaling in these cells. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analyses demonstrated that Fc?R colocalized with the BCR on the plasma membrane of primary B cells. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis further revealed that Fc?R physically interacted with the BCR complex. Because NF-?B plays a prominent role in B cell survival, we analyzed whether Fc?R was involved in BCR-triggered NF-?B activation. Fc?R did not affect BCR-triggered I?B? phosphorylation characteristic of the canonical NF-?B activation pathway but promoted the production of the noncanonical NF-?B pathway component p52. Consistent with the elevated p52 levels, Fc?R enhanced BCR-triggered expression of the antiapoptotic protein BCL-xL. Importantly, Fc?R stimulation alone in the absence of BCR signaling had no effect on either I?B? phosphorylation or the expression of p52 and BCL-xL. Therefore, Fc?R relied on the BCR signal to activate the noncanonical NF-?B pathway and enhance B cell survival. These results reveal a cross-talk downstream of Fc?R and BCR signaling and provide mechanistic insight into Fc?R-mediated enhancement of B cell survival after BCR stimulation. PMID:25732732

  19. Cyclin D2 controls B cell progenitor numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azim Mohamedali; Ines Soeiro; Nicholas C. Lea; Janet Glassford; Lolita Banerji; Ghulam J. Mufti; Eric W.-F. Lam; N. Shaun; B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Cyclin D2 affects B cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo. It is rate-limiting for B cell receptor (BCR)-dependent proliferation of B cells, and cyclin D2\\/ mice lack CD5(B1) B lymphocytes. We show here that the bone marrow (BM) of cyclin D2\\/ mice contains half the num- bers of Sca1B220 B cell progenitors but nor- mal levels of Sca1 progenitor cells

  20. The p85? regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase has unique and redundant functions in B cells

    PubMed Central

    OAK, JEAN S.; CHEN, JING; PERALTA, RAECHEL Q.; DEANE, JONATHAN A.; FRUMAN, DAVID A.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphoinositide kinase (PI3K) is activated by various receptors on lymphocytes and regulates development, activation, and tolerance. Genetic ablation of PI3K function in T cells leads to the appearance of autoimmune disorders. In B cells, loss of the class IA regulatory subunit p85? causes a partial defect in B cell development and proliferation, whereas loss of p85? alone causes no apparent changes in B cell function. Here we investigate further the consequences of p85? deletion in B cells, in the presence or absence of p85?. We demonstrate that p85? partially compensates for loss of p85? in B cell development and peripheral survival, with greater defects observed when both isoforms are absent. BCR-mediated AKT phosphorylation is partially reduced in p85?-deficient B cells and further diminished with concomitant loss of p85?. Unexpectedly, loss of p85? results in increased BCR-mediated proliferation and ERK phosphorylation. These results indicate that the p85? regulatory isoform has partially overlapping functions with p85? in B cells as well as a unique role in opposing BCR responses. PMID:19811262

  1. Bad-deficient mice develop diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    E-print Network

    Datta, Sandeep Robert

    Bad-deficient mice develop diffuse large B cell lymphoma Ann M. Ranger*, Jiping Zha* , Hisashi, to diffuse large B cell lymphoma of germinal center origin. Exposure of Bad-null mice to sublethal -irradiation resulted in an increased incidence of pre-T cell and pro- pre-B cell lymphoblastic leukemia

  2. Production of cytokines by mouse B cells: B lymphomas and normal B cells produce interleukin 10.

    PubMed

    O'Garra, A; Stapleton, G; Dhar, V; Pearce, M; Schumacher, J; Rugo, H; Barbis, D; Stall, A; Cupp, J; Moore, K

    1990-01-01

    We have examined a panel of murine Ly-1+ B lymphomas and purified normal murine peritoneal B cells separated into subsets on the basis of expression of the Ly-1 surface antigen, for their ability to produce cytokines. Where possible, we have used a combination of cytokine detection methods in order to compensate for differences in sensitivity and specificity, and the possibility of inhibitors masking an activity. All the lymphomas tested were shown to constitutively express TGF-beta and CSIF/IL-10. In addition, varying levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, and G-CSF, were demonstrable in most of the lymphomas, and variants of one lymphoma (CH12) additionally produced varying levels of IL-3, IL-4, and GM-CSF. FACS purified normal Ly-1+ and Ly-1- peritoneal B cells, were also shown to express RNA encoding CSIF/IL-10, IL-6, TNF-alpha and TNF-beta, and very low levels of G-CSF, following stimulation with LPS. These data were supported by the detection of IL-6 and CSIF/IL-10 in supernatants from LPS-stimulated Ly-1+ and Ly-1- B cells using specific immunoassays. None of the lymphomas or B cell preparations produced IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7, or IFN-gamma. The purity of our normal B cell populations was assessed by phenotypic analysis on the FACS and also by the disappearance of certain mRNA transcripts after purification, e.g. CD4, c-fms, GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma, most of which could be detected in LPS-stimulated total peritoneal cell populations. This suggested that our B cell purification method had reduced, to a level undetectable in our assays, contaminating T cells (CD4), macrophages (c-fms, GM-CSF), and NK cells (IFN-gamma). Absence of IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, and GM-CSF expression by LPS-stimulated Ly-1+ and Ly-1- B cells reduced the concern that contaminating peritoneal mast cells could account for the observed cytokine production. We therefore believe our data provide strong support for production of a subset of cytokines by LPS-stimulated normal B cells. Both the Ly-1+ B lymphomas and normal Ly-1+ and Ly-1- B cells appear capable of expressing IL-6, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, and CSIF/IL-10.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1703785

  3. Schistosomes induce regulatory features in human and mouse CD1d(hi) B cells: inhibition of allergic inflammation by IL-10 and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    van der Vlugt, Luciën E P M; Labuda, Lucja A; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa; Lievers, Ellen; Gloudemans, Anouk K; Liu, Kit-Yeng; Barr, Tom A; Sparwasser, Tim; Boon, Louis; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Adegnika, Ayola A; Kremsner, Peter G; Gray, David; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H

    2012-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections, such as schistosomes, are negatively associated with allergic disorders. Here, using B cell IL-10-deficient mice, Schistosoma mansoni-mediated protection against experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI) was shown to be specifically dependent on IL-10-producing B cells. To study the organs involved, we transferred B cells from lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes or spleen of OVA-infected mice to recipient OVA-sensitized mice, and showed that both lung and splenic B cells reduced AAI, but only splenic B cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. Although splenic B cell protection was accompanied by elevated levels of pulmonary FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, in vivo ablation of FoxP3(+) T cells only moderately restored AAI, indicating an important role for the direct suppressory effect of regulatory B cells. Splenic marginal zone CD1d(+) B cells proved to be the responsible splenic B cell subset as they produced high levels of IL-10 and induced FoxP3(+) T cells in vitro. Indeed, transfer of CD1d(+) MZ-depleted splenic B cells from infected mice restored AAI. Markedly, we found a similarly elevated population of CD1d(hi) B cells in peripheral blood of Schistosoma haematobium-infected Gabonese children compared to uninfected children and these cells produced elevated levels of IL-10. Importantly, the number of IL-10-producing CD1d(hi) B cells was reduced after anti-schistosome treatment. This study points out that in both mice and men schistosomes have the capacity to drive the development of IL-10-producing regulatory CD1d(hi) B cells and furthermore, these are instrumental in reducing experimental allergic inflammation in mice. PMID:22347409

  4. Schistosomes Induce Regulatory Features in Human and Mouse CD1dhi B Cells: Inhibition of Allergic Inflammation by IL-10 and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    van der Vlugt, Luciën E. P. M.; Labuda, Lucja A.; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa; Lievers, Ellen; Gloudemans, Anouk K.; Liu, Kit-Yeng; Barr, Tom A.; Sparwasser, Tim; Boon, Louis; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Gray, David; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic helminth infections, such as schistosomes, are negatively associated with allergic disorders. Here, using B cell IL-10-deficient mice, Schistosoma mansoni-mediated protection against experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI) was shown to be specifically dependent on IL-10-producing B cells. To study the organs involved, we transferred B cells from lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes or spleen of OVA-infected mice to recipient OVA-sensitized mice, and showed that both lung and splenic B cells reduced AAI, but only splenic B cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. Although splenic B cell protection was accompanied by elevated levels of pulmonary FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, in vivo ablation of FoxP3+ T cells only moderately restored AAI, indicating an important role for the direct suppressory effect of regulatory B cells. Splenic marginal zone CD1d+ B cells proved to be the responsible splenic B cell subset as they produced high levels of IL-10 and induced FoxP3+ T cells in vitro. Indeed, transfer of CD1d+ MZ-depleted splenic B cells from infected mice restored AAI. Markedly, we found a similarly elevated population of CD1dhi B cells in peripheral blood of Schistosoma haematobium-infected Gabonese children compared to uninfected children and these cells produced elevated levels of IL-10. Importantly, the number of IL-10-producing CD1dhi B cells was reduced after anti-schistosome treatment. This study points out that in both mice and men schistosomes have the capacity to drive the development of IL-10-producing regulatory CD1dhi B cells and furthermore, these are instrumental in reducing experimental allergic inflammation in mice. PMID:22347409

  5. Two loci affecting B cell responses to B cell maturation factors.

    PubMed

    Sidman, C L; Marshall, J D; Beamer, W G; Nadeau, J H; Unanue, E R

    1986-01-01

    B lymphocytes from DBA/2Ha mice have a genetic defect characterized by a failure to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells in response to a family of lymphokines termed B cell maturation factors (BMFs). By contrast, B cells from DBA/2Ha mice respond normally in PFC assays to the B cell mitogen LPS, and macrophages from these mice are activated by one of the three BMFs. Two loci are responsible for the B cell defect in DBA/2Ha mice. One locus (Bmfr-1) is constitutively expressed throughout life, and maps approximately 13 cM distal to the brown locus on chromosome 4. A second locus (Bmfr-2) becomes active only after sexual maturity and is closely linked to the dilute locus on chromosome 9. At both loci, alleles determining responsiveness to BMFs are dominant over nonresponder alleles. The effect of Bmfr-2 on B cell responsiveness may be related to levels of the steroid sex hormones. DBA/2Ha mice offer a tool for studying the genetic and hormonal regulation of the immune system. PMID:3079812

  6. Two loci affecting B cell responses to B cell maturation factors

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    B lymphocytes from DBA/2Ha mice have a genetic defect characterized by a failure to differentiate into antibody-secreting cells in response to a family of lymphokines termed B cell maturation factors (BMFs). By contrast, B cells from DBA/2Ha mice respond normally in PFC assays to the B cell mitogen LPS, and macrophages from these mice are activated by one of the three BMFs. Two loci are responsible for the B cell defect in DBA/2Ha mice. One locus (Bmfr-1) is constitutively expressed throughout life, and maps approximately 13 cM distal to the brown locus on chromosome 4. A second locus (Bmfr-2) becomes active only after sexual maturity and is closely linked to the dilute locus on chromosome 9. At both loci, alleles determining responsiveness to BMFs are dominant over nonresponder alleles. The effect of Bmfr-2 on B cell responsiveness may be related to levels of the steroid sex hormones. DBA/2Ha mice offer a tool for studying the genetic and hormonal regulation of the immune system. PMID:3079812

  7. Leupaxin negatively regulates B cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Chew, Valerie; Lam, Kong-Peng

    2007-09-14

    The role of the paxillin superfamily of adaptor proteins in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling has not been studied previously. We show here that leupaxin (LPXN), a member of this family, was tyrosine-phosphorylated and recruited to the plasma membrane of human BJAB lymphoma cells upon BCR stimulation and that it interacted with Lyn (a critical Src family tyrosine kinase in BCR signaling) in a BCR-induced manner. LPXN contains four leucine-rich sequences termed LD motifs, and serial truncation and specific domain deletion of LPXN indicated that its LD3 domain is involved in the binding of Lyn. Of a total of 11 tyrosine sites in LPXN, we mutated Tyr(22), Tyr(72), Tyr(198), and Tyr(257) to phenylalanine and demonstrated that LPXN was phosphorylated by Lyn only at Tyr(72) and that this tyrosine site is proximal to the LD3 domain. The overexpression of LPXN in mouse A20 B lymphoma cells led to the suppression of BCR-induced activation of JNK, p38 MAPK, and, to a lesser extent, Akt, but not ERK and NFkappaB, suggesting that LPXN can selectively repress BCR signaling. We further show that LPXN suppressed the secretion of interleukin-2 by BCR-activated A20 B cells and that this inhibition was abrogated in the Y72F LPXN mutant, indicating that the phosphorylation of Tyr(72) is critical for the biological function of LPXN. Thus, LPXN plays an inhibitory role in BCR signaling and B cell function. PMID:17640867

  8. Treatment recommendations for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and related disorders: IWWM-7 consensus

    PubMed Central

    Kastritis, Efstathios; Owen, Roger G.; Kyle, Robert A.; Landgren, Ola; Morra, Enrica; Leleu, Xavier; García-Sanz, Ramón; Munshi, Nikhil; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Terpos, Evangelos; Ghobrial, Irene M.; Morel, Pierre; Maloney, David; Rummel, Mathias; Leblond, Véronique; Advani, Ranjana H.; Gertz, Morie A.; Kyriakou, Charalampia; Thomas, Sheeba K.; Barlogie, Bart; Gregory, Stephanie A.; Kimby, Eva; Merlini, Giampaolo; Treon, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a distinct B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder for which clearly defined criteria for the diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and treatment strategy have been proposed as part of the consensus panels of International Workshops on WM (IWWM). As part of the IWWM-7 and based on recently published and ongoing clinical trials, the panels updated treatment recommendations. Therapeutic strategy in WM should be based on individual patient and disease characteristics (age, comorbidities, need for rapid disease control, candidacy for autologous transplantation, cytopenias, IgM-related complications, hyperviscosity, and neuropathy). Mature data show that rituximab combinations with cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone, bendamustine, or bortezomib/dexamethasone provided durable responses and are indicated for most patients. New monoclonal antibodies (ofatumumab), second-generation proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib), mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, and Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors are promising and may expand future treatment options. A different regimen is typically recommended for relapsed or refractory disease. In selected patients with relapsed disease after long-lasting remission, reuse of a prior effective regimen may be appropriate. Autologous stem cell transplantation may be considered in young patients with chemosensitive disease and in newly diagnosed patients with very-high-risk features. Active enrollment of patients with WM in clinical trials is encouraged. PMID:25027391

  9. Role of prolactin in B cell regulation in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Correale, Jorge; Farez, Mauricio F; Ysrraelit, María Célica

    2014-04-15

    The role of prolactin in MS pathogenesis was investigated. Prolactin levels were higher in MS subjects both during remission and exacerbation compared to control subjects. Prolactin increased JAK2 expression and Stat phosphorylation on B cells, up-regulated anti-MOG antibody secreting cell numbers, BAFF levels, and Bcl-2expression, and down-regulated expression of Trp63. Prolactin levels correlated positively with anti-MOG secreting cell numbers, and negatively with induced apoptotic B cells. Additionally, prolactin decreased B cell receptor-mediated activation threshold, and induced CD40 expression in B cells. These findings suggest that prolactin promotes B cell autoreactivity in MS through different mechanisms. PMID:24612525

  10. The J6JFH1 strain of hepatitis C virus infects human B-cells with low replication efficacy.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Masato; Seya, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Misako; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Sakamoto, Naoya; Aly, Hussein H

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious health problem worldwide that can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma or end-stage liver disease. Current treatment with pegylated interferon, ribavirin, and NS3/4A protease inhibitor would lead to a good prognosis in a large population of patients, but there is still no effective vaccine for HCV. HCV robustly infects hepatocytes in the liver. However, extrahepatic manifestations such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, a systemic immune complex-mediated disorder characterized by B-cell proliferation, which may evolve into overt B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, have been demonstrated. HCV-RNA is often found to be associated with peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting a possible interaction with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially B-cells with HCV. B-cell HCV infection was a matter of debate for a long time, and the new advance in HCV in vitro infectious systems suggest that exosome can transmit HCV genome to support "infection." We aimed to clarify the susceptibility of primary B-cells to HCV infection, and to study its functional effect. In this article, we found that the recombinant HCV J6JFH1 strain could infect human B-cells isolated from the peripheral blood of normal volunteers by the detection of both HCV-negative-strand RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and NS5A protein. We also show the blocking of HCV replication by type I interferon after B-cell HCV infection. Although HCV replication in B-lymphocytes showed lower efficiency, in comparison with hepatocyte line (Huh7) cells, our results clearly demonstrate that human B-lymphocytes without other non-B-cells can actually be infected with HCV, and that this interaction leads to the induction of B-cells' innate immune response, and change the response of these cells to apoptosis. PMID:24853207

  11. B Cell Aortic Homing and Atheroprotection Depend on Id3

    PubMed Central

    Doran, Amanda C.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Oldham, Stephanie N.; Garmey, James C.; Campbell, Kirsti A.; Skaflen, Marcus D.; Cutchins, Alexis; Lee, Daniel J.; Glover, David K.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; Galkina, Elena V.; Ley, Klaus; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale B cells are abundant in the adventitia of normal and diseased vessels. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating homing of B cells to the vessel wall and B cell effects on atherosclerosis are poorly understood. Inhibitor of Differentiation-3 (Id3), is important for atheroprotection in mice and polymorphism in the human ID3 gene has been implicated as a potential risk marker of atherosclerosis in humans. Yet the role of Id3 in B cell regulation of atherosclerosis is unknown. Objective To determine if Id3 regulates B cell homing to the aorta and atheroprotection, and identify molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this effect. Methods and Results Loss of Id3 in Apoe?/? mice resulted in early and increased atherosclerosis. Flow cytometry revealed a defect in Id3?/? Apoe?/? mice in the number of B cells in the aorta, but not the spleen, lymph nodes and circulation. Similarly, B cells transferred from Id3?/? Apoe?/? mice into B cell deficient micereconstituted spleen, lymph node and blood similarly to B cells from Id3+/+ Apoe?/? mice, but aortic reconstitution and B cell-mediated inhibition of diet-induced atherosclerosis was significantly impaired. In addition to retarding initiation of atherosclerosis, B cells homed to regions of existing atherosclerosis, reduced macrophage content in plaque and attenuated progression of disease. The chemokine receptor, CCR6, was identified as an important Id3 target mediating aortic homing and atheroprotection. Conclusions Together, these results are the first to identify the Id3-CCR6 pathway in B cells and demonstrate its role in aortic B cell homing and B cell mediated protection from early atherosclerosis. PMID:22034493

  12. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we ...

  13. Gene Rearrangement in B and T-Lymphoproliferative Disease Detected by the Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Trainor; M. J. Brisco; J. H. Wan; S. Neoh; S. Grist; A. A. Morley

    Gene rearrangement and monoclonality have been detected in normal cells and in lymphoproliferative disease by using the polymerase chain reaction and primers for the V and J regions of the lg heavy chain gene or T-cell receptor ychain gene. Using the lg primers monoclonality was detected in 20 of 20 normal B-lymphocyte clones and in 39 of 52 cases of

  14. Molecular genetic haplotype segregation studies in three families with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Schuster; S. Seidenspinner; T. Grimm; W. Kreß; S. Zielen; M. Bock; H. W. Kreth

    1994-01-01

    Three families with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease were studied. Affected males clinically presented with severe or fatal infectious mononucleosis, acquired hypogammaglobulinaemia, hypergammaglobulinaemia M, and malignant lymphoma including Hodgkin disease. Haplotype analysis using various DNA markers from Xq25-q27 allowed the prediction of the carrier status in females and identification of the XLP status in asymptomatic males.

  15. Plasma markers of B-cell activation and clonality in pediatric liver and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Eric A.; Savoldo, Barbara; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Costello, Rene; Zingone, Adriana; Heslop, Helen E.; Landgren, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Transplant recipients are at risk of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Methods: Thirty-six pediatric transplant recipients were evaluated (18 hematopoietic stem cell and 18 liver recipients; 12 had PTLD). We studied 207 longitudinal plasma samples from these recipients for three markers of B-cell activation or clonality: immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), soluble CD30 (sCD30), and monoclonal immunoglobulins (M-proteins). Results Kappa FLCs, lambda FLCs, and sCD30 were elevated in 20.8%, 28.0%, and 94.2% of plasma specimens, respectively. FLC and sCD30 levels increased significantly 1.18–1.82 fold per log10 Epstein Barr virus (EBV) load in peripheral blood. Five PTLD cases manifested elevated FLCs with an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio, suggesting monoclonal FLC production. M-proteins were present in 91% of PTLD cases, vs. 50–67% of other recipients with high or low EBV loads (p=0.13). Concordance of FLCs, M-proteins, and PTLD tumor light chain restriction was imperfect. For example, one PTLD case with an IgG lambda M-protein had a tumor that was kappa restricted, and another case with an M-protein had a T-cell PTLD. In an additional case, an IgM kappa M-protein and excess kappa FLCs were both detected in plasma at PTLD diagnosis; while the tumor was not restricted at diagnosis, kappa restriction was present 5 years later when the PTLD relapsed. Discussion Plasma markers of B-cell dysfunction are frequent following transplantation and associated with poor EBV control. These abnormal markers may be produced by oligoclonal B-cell populations or PTLD tumor cells, and could potentially help identify recipients at high risk of PTLD. PMID:23222884

  16. FcgammaRIIB is differentially expressed during B cell maturation and in B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Camilleri-Broët, Sophie; Cassard, Lydie; Broët, Philippe; Delmer, Alain; Le Touneau, Agnès; Diebold, Jacques; Fridman, Wolf Herman; Molina, Thierry Jo; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    FcgammaRIIB, a low affinity receptor for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG), is thought to drive negative selection of B cells in germinal centers (GC) by inducing apoptosis upon interaction with immune complexes. Its expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 22 reactive lymphoid tissues and 112 B-cell lymphomas. Pre-GC mantle cells, marginal zone cells and their neoplastic counterparts expressed FcgammaRIIB. The B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphomas were also positive. Not detected in GC, FcgammaRIIB was expressed in 52% of follicular lymphomas and in 20% of diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL). In DLBCL, FcgammaRIIB expression was linked to transformation (P < 0.001). Re-analysis of a gene profile data set from the Lymphochip microarrays showed that FcgammaRIIB expression in the activated B-like DLBCL subgroup was higher than in the GC-like one (P < 0.04), and was associated with an adverse prognostic both in univariate (P < 0.003) and in multivariate analysis including the International Prognostic Indicator (IPI) (P < 0.01). Thus these results challenge the potential role of FcgammaRIIB during B-cell selection in GC, and suggest a prognostic value of FcgammaRIIB expression in DLBCL. PMID:14675408

  17. Regulation of B-cell commitment to plasma cells or to memory B cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Jun Liu; Jacques Banchereau

    1997-01-01

    During humoral immune responses, B-lymphocyte activation is followed by differentiation along either the plasma cell pathway or the memory B-cell pathway. Recent studies suggest that CD40–CD40 ligand, OX–OX40 ligand, a group of cytokines and intracellular transcriptional factors may all contribute to B-lymphocyte differentiation control.

  18. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: what 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography can do in the management of these patients? Suggestions from a case report.

    PubMed

    Cistaro, A; Pazè, F; Durando, S; Cogoni, M; Faletti, R; Vesco, S; Vallero, S; Quartuccio, N; Treglia, G; Ramenghi, U

    2014-01-01

    A young patient with undefined autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS-U) and low back pain underwent a CT and MRI study that showed enhancing vertebral lesions, some pulmonary nodules and diffuse latero-cervical lymphadenopathy. A (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed many areas of intense (18)F-FDG uptake in multiple vertebrae, in some ribs, in the sacrum, in the liver, in both lungs, in multiple lymph nodes spread in the cervical, thoracic and abdominal chains. A bone marrow biopsy showed a "lymphomatoid granulomatosis", a rare variant of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). After the treatment, the (18)F-FDG-PET/CT scan showed a complete metabolic response. PMID:23845452

  19. The majority of human memory B cells recognizing RhD and tetanus resides in IgM+ B cells.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E; Verhagen, Onno J H M; Berkowska, Magdalena A; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ellen van der Schoot, C

    2014-08-01

    B cell memory to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27(+) cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D(+) erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid-specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27(-) B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D(+) erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27(-)IgM(+) and CD27(+)IgM(+) B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27(-)IgM(+), CD27(+)IgM(+), and CD27(+)IgG(+) B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM(+) B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27(+) B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

  20. Generation of high-titre virus stocks using BrK.219, a B-cell line infected stably with recombinant Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Kati, Semra; Hage, Elias; Mynarek, Martin; Ganzenmueller, Tina; Indenbirken, Daniela; Grundhoff, Adam; Schulz, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gamma-2-lymphotropic human oncogenic herpesvirus associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and two B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV establishes latency soon after infection in vivo and in vitro. Consequently, it is technically difficult to generate high-titre virus stocks required for infection experiments in tissue culture. Currently used methods of KSHV stock production involve induction of the lytic/productive cycle in PEL cell lines or in adherent cell lines harbouring recombinant KSHV genomes. In this study, the BJAB-derived B-cell line BrK.219, which is infected latently with a recombinant KSHV (rKSHV.219), is used to produce high-titre virus stocks. BrK.219 cells enter the lytic KSHV replication cycle upon cross-linking of B-cell receptors (BCRs) with anti-IgM antibodies without the need for additional, potentially toxic chemical inducers. High cell concentrations can be cultured and induced easily in spinner flasks, saving time and resources. The established protocol allows the generation of KSHV virus stocks with titres of up to 10(6)IU/ml in unconcentrated culture supernatants, representing a 10(3)-10(4)-fold improvement compared to conventional methods. PMID:25736227

  1. Comparative analyses of B cell populations in trout kidney and mouse bone marrow; establishing “B cell signatures”

    PubMed Central

    Zwollo, Patty; Mott, Katrina; Barr, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the frequency and distribution of developing B cell populations in the kidney of the rainbow trout, using four molecular B cell markers that are highly conserved between species, including two transcription factors, Pax5 and EBF1, recombination activating gene RAG1, and the immunoglobulin heavy chain mu. Three distinct B cell stages were defined: early developing B cells (CLP, pro-B, and early pre-B cells), late developing B cell (late pre-B, immature B, and mature B cells), and IgM-secreting cells. Developmental stage-specific, combinatorial expression of Pax5, EBF1, RAG1 and immunoglobulin mu was determined in trout anterior kidney cells by flow cytometry. Trout staining patterns were compared to a well-defined primary immune tissue, mouse bone marrow, and using mouse surface markers B220 and CD43. A remarkable level of similarity was uncovered between the primary immune tissues of both species. Subsequent analysis of the entire trout kidney, divided into five contiguous segments K1-K5, revealed a complex pattern of early developing, late developing, and IgM-secreting B cells. Patterns in anterior kidney segment K1 were most similar to those of mouse bone marrow, while the most posterior part of the kidney, K5, had many IgM-secreting cells, but lacked early developing B cells. A potential second B lymphopoiesis site was uncovered in segment K4 of the kidney. The B cell patterns, or “B cell signatures” described here provide information on the relative abundance of distinct developing B cell populations in the trout kidney, and can be used in future studies on B cell development in other vertebrate species. PMID:20705088

  2. Activated germinal center B cells undergo directed migration

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mark J.; Hauser, Anja E.; Haberman, Ann M.; Kleinstein, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Affinity maturation, the fundamental basis for adaptive immunity, is accomplished through somatic hypermutation of B-cell receptors followed by the expansion of rare mutants with higher affinity for the immunizing antigen. This process occurs over a period of weeks in unique microanatomic sites known as germinal centers. Two-photon microscopy has recently made it possible to track individual B cells moving within germinal centers in living animals. Characterizing the migration patterns of B cells within germinal centers is critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying affinity maturation. Here we present the results of two statistical approaches designed to test the hypothesis that the motion of B cells within germinal centers is random. Analysis of four different experiments shows that activated B cells move in a directed manner that sharply contrasts with the behavior of naïve B cells. PMID:21805826

  3. Antigen-specific interaction between T and B cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Lanzavecchia

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that B cells require T-cell help to produce specific antibody. Classic experiments suggested that antigen-specific helper T cells interact with antigen-specific B cells via an antigen `bridge'1,2, the B cells binding to one determinant on an antigen molecule (the `hapten'), while the T cells at the same time recognize another determinant (the `carrier'). T-helper cells bind

  4. B-cell-activating factor inhibits CD20-mediated and B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yohei; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Onda, Keiko; Nakajima, Hideki; Sato, Ban; Horiuchi, Yasuomi; Okita, Hajime; Katagiri, Yohko U; Saito, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a survival and maturation factor for B cells belonging to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily. Among three identified functional receptors, the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) is thought to be responsible for the effect of BAFF on B cells though details of how remain unclear. We determined that a hairy-cell leukaemia line, MLMA, expressed a relatively high level of BAFF-R and was susceptible to apoptosis mediated by either CD20 or B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Using MLMA cells as an in vitro model of mature B cells, we found that treatment with BAFF could inhibit apoptosis mediated by both CD20 and BCR. We also observed, using immunoblot analysis and microarray analysis, that BAFF treatment induced activation of nuclear factor-?B2 following elevation of the expression level of Bcl-2, which may be involved in the molecular mechanism of BAFF-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, BAFF treatment was also found to induce the expression of a series of genes, such as that for CD40, related to cell survival, suggesting the involvement of a multiple mechanism in the BAFF-mediated anti-apoptotic effect. MLMA cells should provide a model for investigating the molecular basis of the effect of BAFF on B cells in vitro and will help to elucidate how B cells survive in the immune system in which BAFF-mediated signalling is involved. PMID:18540961

  5. B-Cell Response during Protozoan Parasite Infections

    PubMed Central

    Amezcua Vesely, María C.; Bermejo, Daniela A.; Montes, Carolina L.; Acosta-Rodríguez, Eva V.; Gruppi, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we discuss how protozoan parasites alter immature and mature B cell compartment. B1 and marginal zone (MZ) B cells, considered innate like B cells, are activated during protozoan parasite infections, and they generate short lived plasma cells providing a prompt antibody source. In addition, protozoan infections induce massive B cell response with polyclonal activation that leads to hypergammaglobulnemia with serum antibodies specific for the parasites and self and/or non related antigens. To protect themselves, the parasites have evolved unique ways to evade B cell immune responses inducing apoptosis of MZ and conventional mature B cells. As a consequence of the parasite induced-apoptosis, the early IgM response and an already establish humoral immunity are affected during the protozoan parasite infection. Moreover, some trypanosomatides trigger bone marrow immature B cell apoptosis, influencing the generation of new mature B cells. Simultaneously with their ability to release antibodies, B cells produce cytokines/quemokines that influence the characteristic of cellular immune response and consequently the progression of parasite infections. PMID:22315659

  6. B cell-targeted therapies in autoimmunity: rationale and progress

    PubMed Central

    Fiorina, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    B cells are recognized as main actors in the autoimmune process. Autoreactive B cells can arise in the bone marrow or in the periphery and, if not properly inhibited or eliminated, can lead to autoimmune diseases through several mechanisms: autoantibody production and immune complex formation, cytokine and chemokine synthesis, antigen presentation, T cell activation, and ectopic lymphogenesis. The availability of agents capable of depleting B cells (that is, anti-CD20 and anti-CD22 monoclonal antibodies) or targeting B cell survival factors (atacicept and belimumab) opens new perspectives in the treatment of diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. PMID:20948646

  7. RHOF PROMOTES MURINE MARGINAL ZONE B CELL DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    KISHIMOTO, MAYUKO; MATSUDA, TAKENORI; YANASE, SHOUGO; KATSUMI, AKIRA; SUZUKI, NOBUAKI; IKEJIRI, MAKOTO; TAKAGI, AKIRA; IKAWA, MASAHITO; KOJIMA, TETSUHITO; KUNISHIMA, SHINJI; KIYOI, HITOSHI; NAOE, TOMOKI; MATSUSHITA, TADASHI; MARUYAMA, MITSUO

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT RhoF is a member of the Rho GTPase family that has been implicated in various cell functions including long filopodia formation, adhesion, and migration of cells. Although RhoF is expressed in lymphoid tissues, the roles of RhoF in B cell development remain largely unclear. On the other hand, other members of the Rho GTPase family, such as Cdc42, RhoA, and Rac, have been intensively studied and are known to be required for B cell development in the bone marrow and spleen. We hypothesized that RhoF is also involved in B cell development. To examine our hypothesis, we analyzed B cell development in RhoF knockout (KO) mice and found a significant reduction in marginal zone (MZ) B cells in the spleen, although T cell development in the thymus and spleen was not affected. Consistent with these results, the width of the MZ B cell region in the spleen was significantly reduced in the RhoF KO mice. However, the antigen-specific antibody titer of IgM and IgG3 after MZ B cell-specific antigen (T cell-independent antigen, type I) stimulation was not affected by RhoF deletion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RhoF was dispensable for stromal cell-derived factor-1?- and B lymphocyte chemoattractant-induced B cell migration. These results suggest that RhoF promotes MZ B cell development in the spleen. PMID:25741038

  8. IFN-? Treatment Requires B Cells for Efficacy in Neuroautoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Ryan D; Hu, Yang; Kumar, Gaurav; Szeto, Spencer; Abraham, Peter; Winderl, Johannes; Guthridge, Joel M; Pardo, Gabriel; Dunn, Jeffrey; Steinman, Lawrence; Axtell, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    IFN-? remains the most widely prescribed treatment for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Despite widespread use of IFN-?, the therapeutic mechanism is still partially understood. Particularly, the clinical relevance of increased B cell activity during IFN-? treatment is unclear. In this article, we show that IFN-? pushes some B cells into a transitional, regulatory population that is a critical mechanism for therapy. IFN-? treatment increases the absolute number of regulatory CD19(+)CD24(++)CD38(++) transitional B cells in peripheral blood relative to treatment-naive and Copaxone-treated patients. In addition, we found that transitional B cells from both healthy controls and IFN-?-treated MS patients are potent producers of IL-10, and that the capability of IFN-? to induce IL-10 is amplified when B cells are stimulated. Similar changes are seen in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. IFN-? treatment increases transitional and regulatory B cell populations, as well as IL-10 secretion in the spleen. Furthermore, we found that IFN-? increases autoantibody production, implicating humoral immune activation in B cell regulatory responses. Finally, we demonstrate that IFN-? therapy requires immune-regulatory B cells by showing that B cell-deficient mice do not benefit clinically or histopathologically from IFN-? treatment. These results have significant implications for the diagnosis and treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. PMID:25646307

  9. Involvement of I-A-restricted B-B cell interaction in the polyclonal B cell differentiation induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Y; Ono, S; Ishihara, K; Muramatsu, M; Hamaoka, T

    1990-01-01

    The present study has examined a functional role of Ia molecules expressed on murine B cells in polyclonal B cell differentiation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reverse, IgM PFC responses of unprimed B cells induced by LPS in the apparent absence of T cells and adherent accessory cells were markedly inhibited in a haplotype-specific manner by Fab monomer fragment of anti-class II (Ia) but not anti-class I MHC monoclonal antibody (mAb). However, the degree of inhibition of LPS responses of H-2-heterozygous F1 B cells expressing both parental I-A products by either one of anti-I-A mAb was at best half that of the parental B cells. Interestingly, when (B10 x B10.-BR)F1 (H-2b/k) B cells were fractionated into adherent and nonadherent populations by their ability to bind to parental B10 B cell monolayers, LPS responses of F1 B cells adherent to and nonadherent to the B10 B cell monolayers were selectively inhibited by anti-I-Ab and anti-I-Ak mAb, respectively. These results suggest that LPS-responsive F1 B cells comprise at least two separate populations with restriction specificity for only one of the parental I-A products expressed on B cells. In addition, it was demonstrated that the I-A-restriction specificity of LPS-responsive B cells is "plastic" and determined by H-2-genotype of bone marrow cells present during B cell ontogeny but not by that of radiation-resistant host elements. Namely, the LPS responses of B10-derived B cells from (B10 + B10.BR) (H-2b x H - 2k)F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras but not from B10 (H-2b x H-2k)F1 chimeras became sensitive to the inhibition of anti-I-Ak mAb in the presence of mitomycin C-treated I-Ak-positive B cells, supporting a notion of receptor-Ia molecules interactions rather than like-like interactions. Thus, the present results provide evidence indicating that B-B cell interaction via recognition of self-I-A products is a crucial event in the polyclonal B cell differentiation induced by LPS. PMID:2327298

  10. Notch activity synergizes with B-cell-receptor and CD40 signaling to enhance B-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Matthew; Calamito, Marco; Srivastava, Bhaskar; Maillard, Ivan; Pear, Warren S; Allman, David

    2007-04-15

    How diverse environmental cues are integrated to regulate B-cell activation and development remains poorly understood. Here we show that Notch activity synergizes with B-cell receptor (BCR) and/or CD40 signaling to enhance several aspects of B-cell activation and function. We find that costimulation of follicular B cells with the Notch ligand Delta-like-1 leads to significant increases in BCR- and CD40-mediated proliferation and enhances production of IgG1(+) cells in vitro and in vivo. We further find that coengagement of Notch and the BCR results in increased activation of the MAPK pathway, and MAPK and Notch inhibitors prevent B-cell activation events mediated by coengagement of Notch and the BCR. These data suggest that the BCR and CD40 signaling pathways collaborate with the Notch pathway to optimize B-cell activation. PMID:17179224

  11. Childhood sarcoidosis: A rare but fascinating disorder.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Avinash K; Gedalia, Abraham

    2008-01-01

    Childhood sarcoidosis is a rare multisystemic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. In the pediatric series reported from the southeastern United States, sarcoidosis had a higher incidence among African Americans. Most reported childhood cases have occurred in patients aged 13-15 years. Macrophages bearing an increased expression of major histocompatibility class (MHC) II molecules most likely initiate the inflammatory response of sarcoidosis by presenting an unidentified antigen to CD4+ Th (helper-inducer) lymphocytes. A persistent, poorly degradable antigen driven cell-mediated immune response leads to a cytokine cascade, to granuloma formation, and eventually to fibrosis. Frequently observed immunologic features include depression of cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and a heightened helper T cell type 1 (Th1) immune response at sites of disease. Circulating immune complexes, along with signs of B cell hyperactivity, may also be found. The clinical presentation can vary greatly depending upon the organs involved and age of the patient. Two distinct forms of sarcoidosis exist in children. Older children usually present with a multisystem disease similar to the adult manifestations, with frequent hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary infiltrations. Early-onset sarcoidosis is a unique form of the disease characterized by the triad of rash, uveitis, and arthritis in children presenting before four years of age. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is confirmed by demonstrating a typical noncaseating granuloma on a biopsy specimen. Other granulmatous diseases should be reasonably excluded. The current therapy of choice for sarcoidosis in children with multisystem involvement is oral corticosteroids. Methotrexate given orally in low doses has been effective, safe and steroid sparing in some patients. Alternative immunosuppressive agents, such as azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, and cyclosporine, have been tried in adult cases of sarcoidosis with questionable efficacy. The high toxicity profile of these agents, including an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders and carcinomas, has limited their use to patients with severe disease refractory to other agents. Successful steroid sparing treatment with mycophenolate mofetil was described in an adolescent with renal-limited sarcoidosis complicated by renal failure. Novel treatment strategies for sarcoidosis have been developed including the use of TNF-alpha inhibitors, such as infliximab. The long-term course and prognosis is not well established in childhood sarcoidosis, but it appears to be poorer in early-onset disease. PMID:18811966

  12. Modulation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and B-cells by MCS-18 a natural product isolated from Helleborus purpurascens.

    PubMed

    Littmann, Leonie; Rössner, Susanne; Kerek, Franz; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Zinser, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    MCS-18, a natural product isolated from Helleborus purpurascens has been shown to have several beneficial effects in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. However, very little is known regarding the immuno-modulatory capacity of MCS-18 in respect to murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DC) and B-cells. Thus, in the present study we examined the effect of MCS-18 on murine BM-DC and B-cells. Interestingly MCS-18 inhibited the expression of important DC-specific molecules and lead to an impaired T-cell stimulation capacity. In addition, MCS-18 also reduced B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. PMID:18926301

  13. Fas\\/Apo1 mutations and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in a patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Pensati; A Costanzo; A Ianni; D Accapezzato; R Iorio; G Natoli; R Nisini; C Almerighi; C Balsano; P Vajro; A Vegnente; M Levrero

    1997-01-01

    Inherited mutations of the Fas\\/Apo1\\/CD95 gene, a cell-surface receptor involved in cell death signaling and in the control of self-reactivity, characterize the recently identified autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes. A patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis with the immunologic and genetic features of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is described. The clinical picture was dominated by liver disease with hepatosplenomegaly and positivity for anti-liver-kidney

  14. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like syndrome presented as lupus-like syndrome with mycobacterial joint infection evolved into the lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Hoon Hong; Choong Ki Lee

    2009-01-01

    The autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and ALPS-like syndrome are variable clinical conditions characterized by\\u000a lymphoproliferative disease, autoimmune cytopenias and susceptibility to malignancy. A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the\\u000a hospital for intractable generalized pain and stiffness with multiple swollen joints for 2 weeks. A low-grade fever, intermittent\\u000a hypotension and confusion were associated with the pain. The evaluation revealed multiple joint bony

  15. Reprint of: B cell elimination in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin. Immunol. 146(2) 90-103.

    PubMed

    Furtado, João; Isenberg, David A

    2013-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder with a worldwide distribution, potentially life-threatening with considerable morbidity. The elimination of pathogenic B cells has emerged as a rational therapeutic option. Many open label studies have reported encouraging results in which clinical and serological remission have invariably been described, often enabling the reduction of steroid and immunosuppressive treatment. However, the results from randomized controlled studies have been disappointing and several questions remain to be answered. In this review we will focus on results of B cell direct depletion in the treatment of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:23642318

  16. BAFF enhances chemotaxis of primary human B cells: a particular synergy between BAFF and CXCL13 on memory B cells.

    PubMed

    Badr, Gamal; Borhis, Gwenoline; Lefevre, Eric A; Chaoul, Nada; Deshayes, Frederique; Dessirier, Valérie; Lapree, Genevieve; Tsapis, Andreas; Richard, Yolande

    2008-03-01

    B-cell-activating factor of the TNF family, (BAFF), and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) regulate B-lymphocyte survival and activation. We report that BAFF, but not APRIL, increased the chemotactic response of primary human B cells to CCL21, CXCL12, and CXCL13. The BAFF-induced increase in B-cell chemotaxis was totally abolished by blockade of BAFF-R and was strongly dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT, NF-kappaB, and p38MAPK pathways. BAFF had similar effects on the chemotaxis of naive and memory B cells in response to CCL21 but increased more strongly that of memory B cells to CXCL13 than that of naive B cells. Our findings indicate a previously unreported role for the BAFF/BAFF-R pair in mature B-cell chemotaxis. The synergy between CXCL13 and BAFF produced by stromal cells and follicular dendritic cells may have important implications for B-cell homeostasis, the development of normal B-cell areas, and for the formation of germinal center-like follicles that may be observed in various autoimmune diseases. PMID:18172003

  17. Tissue-Specific B-Cell Dysfunction and Generalized Memory B-Cell Loss during Acute SIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Peruchon, Sandrine; Chaoul, Nada; Burelout, Chantal; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Laurent, Pascale; Cognasse, Fabrice; Prévot, Sophie; Garraud, Olivier; Le Grand, Roger; Richard, Yolande

    2009-01-01

    Background Primary HIV-infected patients display severe and irreversible damage to different blood B-cell subsets which is not restored by highly efficient anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Because longitudinal investigations of primary HIV-infection is limited by the availability of lymphoid organs, we studied the tissue-specific B-cell dysfunctions in acutely simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251-infected Cynomolgus macaques. Methods and Findings Experiments were performed on three groups of macaques infected for 14, 21 or 28 days and on three groups of animals treated with HAART for two-weeks either initiated at 4 h, 7 or 14 days post-infection (p.i.). We have simultaneously compared changes in B-cell phenotypes and functions and tissue organization of B-cell areas in various lymphoid organs. We showed that SIV induced a steady decline in SIgG-expressing memory (SIgD?CD27+) B-cells in spleen and lymph nodes during the first 4 weeks of infection, concomitant to selective homing/sequestration of B-cells to the small intestine and spleen. SIV non-specific Ig production was transiently increased before D14p.i., whereas SIV-specific Ig production was only detectable after D14p.i., coinciding with the presence of CD8+ T-cells and IgG-expressing plasma cells within germinal centres. Transient B-cell apoptosis on D14p.i. and commitment to terminal differentiation contributed to memory B-cell loss. HAART abrogated B-cell apoptosis, homing to the small intestine and SIV-specific Ig production but had minimal effect on early Ig production, increased B-cell proportions in spleen and loss of memory B-cells. Therefore, virus–B-cell interactions and SIV-induced inflammatory cytokines may differently contribute to early B-cell dysfunction and impaired SIV/HIV-specific antibody response. Conclusions These data establish tissue-specific impairments in B-cell trafficking and functions and a generalized and steady memory B-cell loss in secondary lymphoid organs. Characterization of underlying mechanisms would be helpful in designing new therapeutic strategies to dampen B-cell activation and increases HIV/SIV specific antibody response. PMID:19543531

  18. Interleukin-10+ regulatory B cells arise within antigen-experienced CD40+ B cells to maintain tolerance to islet autoantigens.

    PubMed

    Kleffel, Sonja; Vergani, Andrea; Tezza, Sara; Ben Nasr, Moufida; Niewczas, Monika A; Wong, Susan; Bassi, Roberto; D'Addio, Francesca; Schatton, Tobias; Abdi, Reza; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Wen, Li; Wasserfall, Clive H; O'Connor, Kevin C; Fiorina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Impaired regulatory B cell (Breg) responses are associated with several autoimmune diseases in humans; however, the role of Bregs in type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains unclear. We hypothesized that naturally occurring, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing Bregs maintain tolerance to islet autoantigens, and that hyperglycemic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and T1D patients lack these potent negative regulators. IgVH transcriptome analysis revealed that islet-infiltrating B cells in long-term normoglycemic (Lnglc) NOD, which are naturally protected from diabetes, are more antigen-experienced and possess more diverse B-cell receptor repertoires compared to those of hyperglycemic (Hglc) mice. Importantly, increased levels of Breg-promoting CD40(+) B cells and IL-10-producing B cells were found within islets of Lnglc compared to Hglc NOD. Likewise, healthy individuals showed increased frequencies of both CD40(+) and IL-10(+) B cells compared to T1D patients. Rituximab-mediated B-cell depletion followed by adoptive transfer of B cells from Hglc mice induced hyperglycemia in Lnglc human CD20 transgenic NOD mouse models. Importantly, both murine and human IL-10(+) B cells significantly abrogated T-cell-mediated responses to self- or islet-specific peptides ex vivo. Together, our data suggest that antigen-matured Bregs may maintain tolerance to islet autoantigens by selectively suppressing autoreactive T-cell responses, and that Hglc mice and individuals with T1D lack this population of Bregs. PMID:25187361

  19. Murine model of CD40-activation of B cells.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Tanja M; Fiedler, Anne; Klein-Gonzalez, Nela; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Research on B cells has shown that CD40 activation improves their antigen presentation capacity. When stimulated with interleukin-4 and CD40 ligand (CD40L), human B cells can be expanded without difficulties from small amounts of peripheral blood within 14 days to very large amounts of highly-pure CD40-B cells (>10(9) cells per patient) from healthy donors as well as cancer patients. CD40-B cells express important lymph node homing molecules and can attract T cells in vitro. Furthermore they efficiently take up, process and present antigens to T cells. CD40-B cells were shown to not only prime naíve, but also expand memory T cells. Therefore CD40-activated B cells (CD40-B cells) have been studied as an alternative source of immuno-stimulatory antigen-presenting cells (APC) for cell-based immunotherapy1,5,10. In order to further study whether CD40-B cells induce effective T cell responses in vivo and to study the underlying mechanism we established a cell culture system for the generation of murine CD40-activated B cells. Using splenocytes or purified B cells from C57BL/6 mice for CD40-activation, optimal conditions were identified as follows: Starting from splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice (haplotype H-2b) lymphocytes are purified by density gradient centrifugation and co-cultured with HeLa cells expressing recombinant murine CD40 ligand (tmuCD40L HeLa). Cells are recultured every 3-4 days and key components such as CD40L, interleukin-4, -Mercaptoethanol and cyclosporin A are replenished. In this protocol we demonstrate how to obtain fully activated murine CD40-B cells (mCD40B) with similar APC-phenotype to human CD40-B cells (Fig 1a,b). CD40-stimulation leads to a rapid outgrowth and expansion of highly pure (>90%) CD19+ B cells within 14 days of cell culture (Fig 1c,d). To avoid contamination with non-transfected cells, expression of the murine CD40 ligand on the transfectants has to be controlled regularly (Fig 2). Murine CD40-activated B cells can be used to study B-cell activation and differentiation as well as to investigate their potential to function as APC in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, they represent a promising tool for establishing therapeutic or preventive vaccination against tumors and will help to answer questions regarding safety and immunogenicity of this approach. PMID:20208476

  20. B-Cell-Mediated Strategies to Fight Chronic Allograft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dalloul, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Solid organs have been transplanted for decades. Since the improvement in graft selection and in medical and surgical procedures, the likelihood of graft function after 1?year is now close to 90%. Nonetheless even well-matched recipients continue to need medications for the rest of their lives hence adverse side effects and enhanced morbidity. Understanding Immune rejection mechanisms, is of increasing importance since the greater use of living-unrelated donors and genetically unmatched individuals. Chronic rejection is devoted to T-cells, however the role of B-cells in rejection has been appreciated recently by the observation that B-cell depletion improve graft survival. By contrast however, B-cells can be beneficial to the grafted tissue. This protective effect is secondary to either the secretion of protective antibodies or the induction of B-cells that restrain excessive inflammatory responses, chiefly by local provision of IL-10, or inhibit effector T-cells by direct cellular interactions. As a proof of concept B-cell-mediated infectious transplantation tolerance could be achieved in animal models, and evidence emerged that the presence of such B-cells in transplanted patients correlate with a favorable outcome. Among these populations, regulatory B-cells constitute a recently described population. These cells may develop as a feedback mechanism to prevent uncontrolled reactivity to antigens and inflammatory stimuli. The difficult task for the clinician, is to quantify the respective ratios and functions of “tolerant” vs. effector B-cells within a transplanted organ, at a given time point in order to modulate B-cell-directed therapy. Several receptors at the B-cell membrane as well as signaling molecules, can now be targeted for this purpose. Understanding the temporal expansion of regulatory B-cells in grafted patients and the stimuli that activate them will help in the future to implement specific strategies aimed at fighting chronic allograft rejection. PMID:24381571

  1. Marginal Zone B-Cells, a Gatekeeper of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zouali, Moncef; Richard, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    To maintain the integrity of an organism constantly challenged by pathogens, the immune system is endowed with a variety of cell types. B lymphocytes were initially thought to only play a role in the adaptive branch of immunity. However, a number of converging observations revealed that two B-cell subsets, marginal zone (MZ) and B1 cells, exhibit unique developmental and functional characteristics, and can contribute to innate immune responses. In addition to their capacity to mount a local antibody response against type-2 T-cell-independent (TI-2) antigens, MZ B-cells can participate to T-cell-dependent (TD) immune responses through the capture and import of blood-borne antigens to follicular areas of the spleen. Here, we discuss the multiple roles of MZ B-cells in humans, non-human primates, and rodents. We also summarize studies – performed in transgenic mice expressing fully human antibodies on their B-cells and in macaques whose infection with Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) represents a suitable model for HIV-1 infection in humans – showing that infectious agents have developed strategies to subvert MZ B-cell functions. In these two experimental models, we observed that two microbial superantigens for B-cells (protein A from Staphylococcus aureus and protein L from Peptostreptococcus magnus) as well as inactivated AT-2 virions of HIV-1 and infectious SIV preferentially deplete innate-like B-cells – MZ B-cells and/or B1 B-cells – with different consequences on TI and TD antibody responses. These data revealed that viruses and bacteria have developed strategies to deplete innate-like B-cells during the acute phase of infection and to impair the antibody response. Unraveling the intimate mechanisms responsible for targeting MZ B-cells in humans will be important for understanding disease pathogenesis and for designing novel vaccine strategies. PMID:22566852

  2. Activity of a Nitroxylated Analog of Daunorubicin, Ruboxyl, in B-Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Seminara; Fabrizio Franchi; Nina Konovalova; Claudio Pioli; Roberto Rossetti; Luigi Tubani; Gino Doria; Filippo Rossi Fanelli

    2001-01-01

    A nitroxylated analog of daunorubicin, ruboxyl (RBX), showed low toxicity but significant lympholytic effect in preclinical evaluations. A series of studies in vitro and in animals demonstrate that RBX is a putative agent in the treatment of many neoplasms. We report the results of a study in mice in which RBX showed selective B-lymphocyte immunosuppression. On the basis of this

  3. Clinicopathologic features of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders arising after pediatric small bowel transplant.

    PubMed

    Nassif, S; Kaufman, S; Vahdat, S; Yazigi, N; Kallakury, B; Island, E; Ozdemirli, M

    2013-12-01

    Few studies examined the clinicopathologic features of PTLD arising in pediatric SBT patients. Particularly, the association between ATG and PTLD in this population has not been described. Retrospective review of 81 pediatric patient charts with SBT--isolated or in combination with other organs--showed a PTLD incidence of 11%, occurring more frequently in females (median age of four yr) and with clinically advanced disease. Monomorphic PTLD was the most common histological subtype. There was a significant difference in the use of ATG between patients who developed PTLD and those who did not (p < 0.01); a similar difference was seen with the use of sirolimus (p < 0.001). These results suggested a link between the combination of ATG and sirolimus and development of more clinically and histologically advanced PTLD; however, the risk of ATG by itself was not clear. EBV viral loads were higher in patients with PTLD, and median time between detection of EBV to PTLD diagnosis was three months. However, viral loads at the time of PTLD diagnosis were most often lower than at EBV detection, thereby raising questions on the correlation between decreasing viral genomes and risk of PTLD. PMID:24118781

  4. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive sporadic burkitt lymphoma: an age-related lymphoproliferative disorder?

    PubMed

    Satou, Akira; Asano, Naoko; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Osumi, Tomoo; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Ishiguro, Atsushi; Elsayed, Ahmed Ali; Nakamura, Naoya; Ohshima, Koichi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2015-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in 20% to 30% of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL). However, only a few studies of EBV-positive (EBV) sBL have been reported, and its characteristics still remain controversial. To highlight the features of EBV sBL, we compared the clinicopathologic characteristics of 33 cases of EBV and 117 cases of EBV-negative (EBV) sBL in Japan. EBV sBL showed significantly higher age distribution (median, 42 vs. 13 y; P<0.0001) and higher frequency of patients older than 50 years (48% vs. 16%, P<0.0001). We also revealed the difference of the involved sites. The EBV group showed significantly higher incidence of involvement of tonsil (P=0.027), adrenal gland (P=0.011), and cervical lymph node (P=0.040). In addition, the EBV group tended to have higher incidence of nodal involvement (P=0.078) and involvement of para-aorta lymph node (P=0.084) and heart (P=0.050). In contrast, the gastrointestinal tract was less frequently affected in EBV sBL (P=0.024). In addition, the less positivity for MUM1 (P=0.020) of EBV sBL was highlighted. These results indicate that biological behavior and pathogenesis of EBV sBL might be different from those of EBV sBL. Our results demonstrate that EBV sBL has an aspect of age-related disease and is a distinct clinicopathologic subtype, which should be distinguished from EBV sBL. PMID:25321330

  5. Rituximab treatment for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) induces complete remission of recurrent nephrotic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kandai Nozu; Kazumoto Iijima; Masato Fujisawa; Atsuko Nakagawa; Norishige Yoshikawa; Masafumi Matsuo

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old Japanese boy who underwent kidney transplantation with a kidney from his mother developed severe proteinuria immediately after the operation. Because his original disease was nephrotic syndrome (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, or FSGS) and electron microscopic examination of the renal biopsy showed foot process fusion, we diagnosed this as a recurrence of nephrotic syndrome to the transplanted kidney. Four months

  6. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of stomach presenting with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Wazir, Marina; Kashmir, Saba Binte; Qureshi, Muhammad Saleem

    2014-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are most often diagnosed in the setting of a known malignancy. It is not uncommon for a paraneoplastic disorder to develop before a cancer is identified. While syndrome of cerebellar degeneration has been identified as a paraneoplastic manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma, thymoma, lung and breast cancer, ovarian and testicular tumors, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, follicular lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of stomach, its association with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and particularly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has not been established previously. This case report describes the primary presentation with signs of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration as the only manifestation of an underlying diffuse large B-cell lymphoma making it the first of its kind to be formally reported. Furthermore, it also includes the identification of associated paraneoplastic antibodies for this particular syndrome. PMID:24717988

  7. Uptake and Presentation of Antigen by B Cells 

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Katharine E

    B cells internalize antigen in a specific manner through the B cell receptor (BCR). The antigen is processed into peptides that are loaded on to MHC class II molecules and presented to CD4+ T cells. I have investigated factors that affect how...

  8. B cells do not present antigen covalently linked to microspheres.

    PubMed

    Galelli, A; Charlot, B; Dériaud, E; Leclerc, C

    1993-05-01

    B cells have been shown to present antigen to T cells very efficiently through their capacity to capture antigens by their membrane immunoglobulin. This direct cognate interaction of T and B cells results in the proliferation and differentiation of B cells. This concept has been established using soluble proteins. However, most of the antigens to which the immune system is exposed are included in complex particulate structures such as bacteria or parasites. The capacity of B cells to present these large and complex antigens is still unclear. To address this question we have studied the presentation by trinitrophenyl (TNP)-specific B cells of the same antigen TNP-KLH (keyhole limpet haemocyanin), either in a soluble form or covalently linked to poly(acrolein) microspheres, from 0.25 to 1.5 microns in diameter. In the presence of irradiated splenocytes or purified macrophages as a source of antigen-presenting cells (APC), KLH-specific T cells proliferated in response to soluble TNP-KLH or to TNP-KLH coupled to beads. In contrast, TNP-specific memory B cells were totally ineffective in presenting the TNP-KLH beads to KLH-specific T cells whereas they presented very efficiently soluble TNP-KLH. Similar results were obtained with the A20 B lymphoma or with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated TNP-specific B cells. These results therefore indicate that B cells are unable to present large size particulate antigens such as bacteria or parasites. PMID:8509143

  9. B cell lymphoma of the thymus and salivary gland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Di Loreto; L Mariuzzi; A De Grassi; C A Beltrami

    1996-01-01

    A case of primary low grade B cell lymphoma of the salivary gland associated with a low grade B cell lymphoma of the thymus and involvement of the skin is reported. The lesions in the salivary gland and in the thymus showed the typical features of a lymphoma arising from the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and comprised lymphatic follicles,

  10. Epigenetic ontogeny of the Igk locus during B cell development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Goldmit; Yanhong Ji; Jane Skok; Esther Roldan; Steffen Jung; Howard Cedar; Yehudit Bergman

    2004-01-01

    To become accessible for rearrangement, the immunoglobulin ? locus must undergo a series of epigenetic changes. This begins in pro–B cells with the relocation of both immunoglobulin ? alleles from the periphery to the center of the nucleus. In pre–B cells, one allele became preferentially packaged into an active chromatin structure characterized by histone acetylation and methylation of histone H3

  11. B Cells: The Old New Players in Reproductive Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Fettke, Franziska; Schumacher, Anne; Costa, Serban-Dan; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive immunology research has long focused on T cell responses to paternal antigens and tolerance mechanisms supporting fetal well-being. The participation of B cells herein was not widely studied. Because of the fascinating immunological uniqueness of pregnancy, it is however to be expected that such pleiotropic cells play a considerable role. In fact, on the one hand B cells contribute toward pregnancy tolerance by secreting the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 but on the other hand can seriously harm pregnancy because of their capacity of producing autoantibodies. As for protective B cells, new evidences in mouse models arise suggesting that IL-10 producing B cells, the so-called B10 cells, help in maintaining tolerance toward semi-allogenic fetal antigens. They may be also important to fight danger signals at the fetal-maternal interface as, e.g., in the case of infections with the aim to restore the disrupted fetal tolerance. In human pregnancies, IL-10 producing B cells increase with pregnancy onset but not in the case of spontaneous abortions. In vitro, they are able to suppress TNF-? production by T cells from pregnant individuals. Their generation and functionality will be discussed throughout this review article. B cells can be deleterious to pregnancy as well. Aberrant B cell compartment is associated with obstetric pathologies. In particular, the capacity of B2 cells to produce specific autoantibodies or of B-1a B cells to secrete natural autoantibodies that can turn autoreactive will be discussed herein. PMID:25002862

  12. Involvement of I-A-restricted B-B cell interaction in the polyclonal B cell differentiation induced by lipopolysaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    Takahama, Y.; Ono, S.; Ishihara, K.; Muramatsu, M.; Hamaoka, T. (Osaka Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1990-01-01

    The present study has examined a functional role of Ia molecules expressed on murine B cells in polyclonal B cell differentiation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Reverse, IgM PFC responses of unprimed B cells induced by LPS in the apparent absence of T cells and adherent accessory cells were markedly inhibited in a haplotype-specific manner by Fab monomer fragment of anti-class II (Ia) but not anti-class I MHC monoclonal antibody (mAb). However, the degree of inhibition of LPS responses of H-2-heterozygous F1 B cells expressing both parental I-A products by either one of anti-I-A mAb was at best half that of the parental B cells. Interestingly, when (B10 x B10.-BR)F1 (H-2b/k) B cells were fractionated into adherent and nonadherent populations by their ability to bind to parental B10 B cell monolayers, LPS responses of F1 B cells adherent to and nonadherent to the B10 B cell monolayers were selectively inhibited by anti-I-Ab and anti-I-Ak mAb, respectively. These results suggest that LPS-responsive F1 B cells comprise at least two separate populations with restriction specificity for only one of the parental I-A products expressed on B cells. In addition, it was demonstrated that the I-A-restriction specificity of LPS-responsive B cells is plastic and determined by H-2-genotype of bone marrow cells present during B cell ontogeny but not by that of radiation-resistant host elements. Namely, the LPS responses of B10-derived B cells from (B10 + B10.BR) (H-2b x H - 2k)F1 radiation bone marrow chimeras but not from B10 (H-2b x H-2k)F1 chimeras became sensitive to the inhibition of anti-I-Ak mAb in the presence of mitomycin C-treated I-Ak-positive B cells, supporting a notion of receptor-Ia molecules interactions rather than like-like interactions.

  13. DHA-enriched fish oil targets B cell lipid microdomains and enhances ex vivo and in vivo B cell function

    PubMed Central

    Gurzell, Eric A.; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Clinthorne, Jonathan; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2013-01-01

    DHA is a n-3 LCPUFA in fish oil that generally suppresses T lymphocyte function. However, the effect of fish oil on B cell function remains relatively understudied. Given the important role of B cells in gut immunity and increasing human fish oil supplementation, we sought to determine whether DFO leads to enhanced B cell activation in the SMAD?/? colitis-prone mouse model, similar to that observed with C57BL/6 mice. This study tested the hypothesis that DHA from fish oil is incorporated into the B cell membrane to alter lipid microdomain clustering and enhance B cell function. Purified, splenic B cells from DFO-fed mice displayed increased DHA levels and diminished GM1 microdomain clustering. DFO enhanced LPS-induced B cell secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? and increased CD40 expression ex vivo compared with CON. Despite increased MHCII expression in the unstimulated ex vivo B cells from DFO-fed mice, we observed no difference in ex vivo OVA-FITC uptake in B cells from DFO or CON mice. In vivo, DFO increased lymphoid tissue B cell populations and surface markers of activation compared with CON. Finally, we investigated whether these ex vivo and in vivo observations were consistent with systemic changes. Indeed, DFO-fed mice had significantly higher plasma IL-5, IL-13, and IL-9 (Th2-biasing cytokines) and cecal IgA compared with CON. These results support the hypothesis and an emerging concept that fish oil enhances B cell function in vivo. PMID:23180828

  14. Association of severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) with probable autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-variant.

    PubMed

    Berio, A; Mangiante, G; Piazzi, A

    2014-01-01

    The paper reported on a case of severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI) associated with a probable autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome variant (Dianzani autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease) (DALD). A male patient with typical features of SMEI and a SCN1A gene variant presented in the first year of life with multiple lymph nodes, palpable liver at 2 cm from the costal margin, neutropenia, dysgammaglobulinemia, relative and sometimes absolute lymphocytosis. Subsequently the patient presented with constantly raised IgA in serum and positive antinuclear and thyroid antimicrosomal antibodies. The diagnosis of probable autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome was made; arthritis, skin and throat blisters, which appeared subsequently led to the diagnosis of linear IgA disease. On the basis of these unique associations, the Authors hypothesized that autoimmunity may be partly responsible of the severe epileptic symptomatology, perhaps mediated by autoantibodies against sodium channels or by accompanying cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorated the epilepsy and laboratory tests. Future studies will be necessary to evaluate the relevance of autoimmunity in SMEI. PMID:25669891

  15. Transfer of antigen from human B cells to dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Bohdan P.; Raycroft, Maurice T.; Quan, Timothy E.; Rudenga, Benjamin J.; Roman, Robert M.; Craft, Joe; Mamula, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The cooperation of B lymphocytes with other antigen presenting cells (APCs) is often necessary in the efficient processing and presentation of antigen. Herein, we describe a mechanism by which B cells physically interact with dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in the transfer of B cell receptor (BCR)-enriched antigen to these APCs. Antigen transfer involves direct contact between the two cells followed by the capture of B cell derived membrane and intracellular components. Strikingly, DCs acquire greater amounts of antigen by transfer from B cells than by endocytosis of free antigen. Blocking scavenger receptor A, a DC surface receptor involved in membrane acquisition, abrogates these events. We propose that antigen transfer from B cells to DCs results in a more focused immunologic response due to the selective editing of Ag by the BCR. PMID:24309484

  16. Transfer of antigen from human B cells to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Bohdan P; Raycroft, Maurice T; Quan, Timothy E; Rudenga, Benjamin J; Roman, Robert M; Craft, Joe; Mamula, Mark J

    2014-03-01

    The cooperation of B lymphocytes with other antigen presenting cells (APCs) is often necessary in the efficient processing and presentation of antigen. Herein, we describe a mechanism by which B cells physically interact with dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in the transfer of B cell receptor (BCR)-enriched antigen to these APCs. Antigen transfer involves direct contact between the two cells followed by the capture of B cell derived membrane and intracellular components. Strikingly, DCs acquire greater amounts of antigen by transfer from B cells than by endocytosis of free antigen. Blocking scavenger receptor A, a DC surface receptor involved in membrane acquisition, abrogates these events. We propose that antigen transfer from B cells to DCs results in a more focused immunologic response due to the selective editing of Ag by the BCR. PMID:24309484

  17. Immunopathology of B-cell lymphomas induced in C57BL/6 mice by dualtropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV)

    SciTech Connect

    Pattengale, P.K.; Taylor, C.R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.

    1982-06-01

    Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed.

  18. Exploiting Human Memory B Cell Heterogeneity for Improved Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Noel T.; Henry Dunand, Carole J.; Wilson, Patrick C.

    2011-01-01

    The major goal in vaccination is establishment of long-term, prophylactic humoral memory to a pathogen. Two major components to long-lived humoral memory are plasma cells for the production of specific immunoglobulin and memory B cells that survey for their specific antigen in the periphery for later affinity maturation, proliferation, and differentiation. The study of human B cell memory has been aided by the discovery of a general marker for B cell memory, expression of CD27; however, new data suggests the existence of CD27? memory B cells as well. These recently described non-canonical memory populations have increasingly pointed to the heterogeneity of the memory compartment. The novel B memory subsets in humans appear to have unique origins, localization, and functions compared to what was considered to be a “classical” memory B cell. In this article, we review the known B cell memory subsets, the establishment of B cell memory in vaccination and infection, and how understanding these newly described subsets can inform vaccine design and disease treatment. PMID:22566866

  19. A Novel VHH Antibody Targeting the B Cell-Activating Factor for B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen; Li, Shenghua; Zhang, Weijing; Sun, Jian; Ren, Guangda; Dong, Quanchao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To construct an immune alpaca phage display library, in order to obtain a single domain anti-BAFF (B cell-activating factor) antibody. Methods: Using phage display technology, we constructed an immune alpaca phage display library, selected anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (sdAbs), cloned three anti-BAFF single-domain antibody genes into expression vector pSJF2, and expressed them efficiently in Escherichia coli. The affinity of different anti-BAFF sdAbs were measured by Bio layer interferometry. The in vitro biological function of three sdAbs was investigated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We obtained three anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (anti-BAFF64, anti-BAFF52 and anti-BAFFG3), which were produced in high yield in Escherichia coli and inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusion: The selected anti-BAFF antibodies could be candidates for B-cell lymphoma therapies. PMID:24879522

  20. The regulation of the B-cell gene expression programme by Pax5

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    ; pro-B cell; pre-B cell receptor OVERVIEW OF B-CELL DEVELOPMENT B cells derive from multipotent differentiated plasma cells, or memory cells that provide the basis for acquired immunity. As well as being dual role in both positively and negatively regulating gene expression during B-cell development. Pax5

  1. The influence of BCR density on the differentiation of natural poly-reactive B cells begins at an early stage of B cell development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Xing; Wei Li; Ying Lin; Meng Fu; Cheng-xin Li; Ping Zhang; Liang Liang; Gang Wang; Tian-wen Gao; Hua Han; Yu-feng Liu

    2009-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) density plays a role in the differentiation of immature B cells to their mature compartments; however, the exact strategy of its influence on the development of natural autoreactive B cells is still unclear. In the present study, we explored the role of BCR surface density in autoreactive B cell development by studying two lines of

  2. B Cell Receptor Signaling: Picky About PI3Ks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jose J. Limon (University of California; Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Center for Immunology REV)

    2010-08-10

    The B cell receptor (BCR) and the pre-BCR control cell fate at many stages of B cell development, survival, and antigen response. Most of these processes require the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Previous work has pointed to p110? as the key catalytic isoform of PI3K for many B cell responses. A study of mice with different combinations of PI3K mutations confirms the central role of p110? in agonist-mediated signaling, while identifying an unexpected function for the p110? isoform in tonic signaling by the pre-BCR and mature BCR.

  3. Increased expression of Ia antigens on resting B cells: an additional role for B-cell growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Noelle, R; Krammer, P H; Ohara, J; Uhr, J W; Vitetta, E S

    1984-01-01

    The present studies demonstrate that both T-cell-derived supernatants containing B-cell growth factor (BCGF or BSF) and a partially purified preparation of the B-cell growth factor (BSF-p1) induce an increase in the expression of IA and IE-encoded antigens on small resting B cells. This increase is detectable by 6-8 hr after initiation of culture and is relatively selective, since levels of surface immunoglobulin and H-2 antigens do not increase to the same extent. Although interferon-gamma induces increased expression of Ia antigens on macrophages and dividing neoplastic B cells, it does not induce an increase in the expression of Ia antigens on resting B cells. These results demonstrate that BSF-p1 may play two roles: (i) it acts on resting B cells to increase the levels of Ia antigen expression; and (ii) it sustains the growth of B cells that have been previously activated with mitogens, antigens, or anti-Ig. PMID:6435125

  4. B-Cell waste classification sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    HOBART, R.L.

    1999-09-22

    This report documents the methods used to collect and analyze samples to obtain data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream.

  5. Revisiting the role of B cells in skin immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Egbuniwe, Isioma U; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Nestle, Frank O; Lacy, Katie E

    2015-02-01

    Whereas our understanding of the skin immune system has increased exponentially in recent years, the role of B cells in cutaneous immunity remains poorly defined. Recent studies have revealed the presence of B cells within lymphocytic infiltrates in chronic inflammatory skin diseases and cutaneous malignancies including melanoma, and have examined their functional significance in these settings. We review these findings and discuss them in the context of the current understanding of the role of B cells in normal skin physiology, as well as in both animal and human models of skin pathology. We integrate these findings into a model of cutaneous immunity wherein crosstalk between B cells and other skin-resident immune cells plays a central role in skin immune homeostasis. PMID:25616715

  6. Mini-Review: Innate responses of B cells

    E-print Network

    MacDonald, Andrew

    in the treatment of non- Hodgkins lymphomas [1]. The results of B cell depletion in treating a number of diseases, it is early days and much of the data derive from lymphoma patients. Still, it may be that the observed

  7. Monovalent engagement of the BCR activates ovalbumin-specific transnuclear B cells

    E-print Network

    Avalos, Ana M.

    Valency requirements for B cell activation upon antigen encounter are poorly understood. OB1 transnuclear B cells express an IgG1 B cell receptor (BCR) specific for ovalbumin (OVA), the epitope of which can be mimicked ...

  8. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-30

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma,; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  9. CXCR7 influences the migration of B cells during maturation.

    PubMed

    Humpert, Marie-Luise; Pinto, Dora; Jarrossay, David; Thelen, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    The atypical chemokine receptor CXCR7 binds the chemokines CXCL12 and CXCL11. The receptor is widely expressed and was shown to tune CXCR12-induced responses of CXCR4. Here, the function of CXCR7 was examined at late stages of human B-cell maturation, when B cells differentiate into Ab-secreting plasmablasts. We identified two populations of CXCR7(+) cells in tonsillar lymphocytes, one being presumably memory B cells or early plasmablasts (FSC(low) CD19(+) CD38(mid) ) and the other being plasmablasts or early plasma cells (FSC(high) CD19(+) CD38(+) ). CXCR7 is expressed on CD19(+) CD27(+) memory B cells, on CD19(+) CD38(+) CD138(-) and intracellular immunoglobulin high plasmablasts, but not on CD19(+) CD138(+) icIg(high) plasma cells. The differential expression pattern suggests a potential contribution of the scavenger receptor in final B-cell maturation. On in vitro differentiating B cells, we found a marked inverse correlation between CXCR7 and CXCR5 cell surface levels, whereas expression of CXCR4 remained almost constant. Migration assays performed with tonsillar mononuclear cells or in vitro differentiated cells revealed that inhibition of CXCR7 markedly increases chemotaxis toward CXCL12, especially at late stages of B-cell maturation. Chemotaxis was attenuated in the presence of CXCR4 antagonists, confirming that migration is CXCR4 mediated. Our findings unequivocally demonstrate a novel role for CXCR7 in regulating the migration of plasmablasts during B-cell maturation. PMID:24259140

  10. Early Events of B Cell Activation by Antigen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Depoil (Cancer Research UK London Research Institute; Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory REV)

    2009-03-24

    The activation of B cells confers long-lasting protection from a plethora of infectious diseases through the generation of plasma cells that produce high-affinity antibodies and memory cells. Engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR) with cognate antigen initiates intracellular signaling and subsequent internalization of antigen. Membrane-bound antigens are now considered the predominant forms that initiate B cell activation in vivo. We have shown that upon recognition of antigen on the surface of a presenting cell, the B cell undergoes a dramatic change in morphology characterized by rapid spreading followed by more prolonged contraction along the presenting surface. This two-phase response increases the amount of antigen that the B cell accumulates, internalizes, and subsequently presents to T cells. Thus, the spreading and contraction response shapes the outcome of B cell activation. We used a combination of planar lipid bilayers and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to investigate the early events that occur after engagement of the BCR and before B cell spreading. We observed the rapid formation of BCR-antigen microclusters, which we redefine as “microsignalosomes” because they mediate the coordinated recruitment of intracellular effectors, such as the kinases Lyn and Syk, the adaptor Vav, and phospholipase C–?2 (PLC-?2). We identified an essential role for the co-receptor CD19 in mediating spreading, and thus B cell activation, in response to membrane-bound antigen. Preliminary evidence suggests that the cellular morphology changes described in vitro are likely to occur upon recognition of antigen presented on the surface of macrophages in lymph nodes in vivo.

  11. Inactivating mutations of acetyltransferase genes in B-cell lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Pasqualucci; David Dominguez-Sola; Annalisa Chiarenza; Giulia Fabbri; Adina Grunn; Vladimir Trifonov; Lawryn H. Kasper; Stephanie Lerach; Hongyan Tang; Jing Ma; Davide Rossi; Amy Chadburn; Vundavalli V. Murty; Charles G. Mullighan; Gianluca Gaidano; Raul Rabadan; Paul K. Brindle; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

    2011-01-01

    B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma comprises biologically and clinically distinct diseases the pathogenesis of which is associated with genetic lesions affecting oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. We report here that the two most common types--follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma--harbour frequent structural alterations inactivating CREBBP and, more rarely, EP300, two highly related histone and non-histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that act as transcriptional co-activators

  12. Successful T cell priming in B cell-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    B cells are an abundant population of lymphocytes that can efficiently capture, process, and present antigen for recognition by activated or memory T cells. Controversial experiments and arguments exist, however, as to whether B cells are or should be involved in the priming of virgin T cells in vivo. Using B cell-deficient mice, we have studied the role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells in a wide variety of tests, including assays of T cell proliferation and cytokine production in responses to protein antigens, T cell killing to minor and major histocompatibility antigens, skin graft rejection, and the in vitro and in vivo responses to shistosome eggs. We found that B cells are not critical for either CD4 or CD8 T cell priming in any of these systems. This finding lends support to the notion that the priming of T cells is reserved for specialized cells such as dendritic cells and that antigen presentation by B cells serves distinct immunological functions. PMID:7561694

  13. Characterization of a presecretory phase in B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    King, L B; Corley, R B

    1989-04-01

    We have identified and characterized an inducible in vitro subclone of the CH12 B-cell lymphoma, CH12-LBK, which appears to represent a transitional phase in the B-cell differentiation pathway. This phase, which we call the "presecretory" phase, falls between replicating B cells that are not secreting antibodies and B cells that secrete antibody at a high rate. Presecretory cells are characterized by abundant steady-state levels of immunoglobulin and joining (J) chain transcripts and of protein but low levels of mouse mammary tumor virus envelope transcripts and low rates of immunoglobulin secretion. Additional stimulation is required for presecretory cells to differentiate into cells that secrete antibodies at a high rate. The existence of cells with this phenotype suggests that high-level expression of immunoglobulin and J-chain protein does not necessarily commit a B cell to polymerize and secrete multimeric immunoglobulin. Rather, other gene products, expressed after immunoglobulin and J-chain transcripts have been upregulated late in B-cell differentiation, appear responsible for inducing high rates of antibody secretion. PMID:2495536

  14. Characterization of three overlapping deletions causing X-linked lymphoproliferative disease

    SciTech Connect

    Skare, J.; Bailin Wu; Wyandt, H.; Milunsky, A. (Boston Univ., MA (United States)); Madan, S.; Pulijaal, V.; Nitowsky, H. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)); Purtilo, D.; Grierson, H. (Univ. of Nebraska, Omaha (United States)); Haber, D.; Wissink, J.; Housman, D. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States)); Nelson, D. (Baylor College, Houston, TX (United States)); Sylla, B.; Lenoir, G. (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)); Glaser, J. (Bronx-Jacobi Hospital, NY (United States)); White, B. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Holden, J. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Blot hybridization was used to find DNA sequences missing in a male who lacked two-thirds of Xq25. The probes were used to discover two additional males with deletions resulting in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). All three deletions have a region in common, and DXS739 is within this candidate region. The new deletions were also detectable using chromosome banding, and the smallest removes only one-third of Xq25. XLP is the only consequence of the deletions. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Activation of the B Cell Antigen Receptor Triggers Reactivation of Latent Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus in B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kati, Semra; Tsao, Edward H.; Günther, Thomas; Weidner-Glunde, Magdalena; Rothämel, Thomas; Grundhoff, Adam; Kellam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an oncogenic herpesvirus and the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease. Latently infected B cells are the main reservoir of this virus in vivo, but the nature of the stimuli that lead to its reactivation in B cells is only partially understood. We established stable BJAB cell lines harboring latent KSHV by cell-free infection with recombinant virus carrying a puromycin resistance marker. Our latently infected B cell lines, termed BrK.219, can be reactivated by triggering the B cell receptor (BCR) with antibodies to surface IgM, a stimulus imitating antigen recognition. Using this B cell model system we studied the mechanisms that mediate the reactivation of KSHV in B cells following the stimulation of the BCR and could identify phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) as proteins that play an important role in the BCR-mediated reactivation of latent KSHV. PMID:23678173

  16. Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease in miniature swine after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: similarity to human PTLD and association with a porcine gammaherpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Huang, C A; Fuchimoto, Y; Gleit, Z L; Ericsson, T; Griesemer, A; Scheier-Dolberg, R; Melendy, E; Kitamura, H; Fishman, J A; Ferry, J A; Harris, N L; Patience, C; Sachs, D H

    2001-03-01

    Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a major complication of current clinical transplantation regimens. The lack of a reproducible large-animal model of PTLD has limited progress in understanding the pathogenesis of and in developing therapy for this clinically important disease. This study found a high incidence of PTLD in miniature swine undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and characterized this disease in swine. Two days before allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, miniature swine were conditioned with thymic irradiation and in vivo T-cell depletion. Animals received cyclosporine daily beginning 1 day before transplantation and continuing for 30 to 60 days. Flow cytometry and histologic examination were performed to determine the cell type involved in lymphoproliferation. Polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect and determine the level of porcine gammaherpesvirus in involved lymph node tissue. PTLD in swine is morphologically and histologically similar to that observed in human allograft recipients. Nine of 21 animals developed a B-cell lymphoproliferation involving peripheral blood (9 of 9), tonsils, and lymph nodes (7 of 9) from 21 to 48 days after transplantation. Six of 9 animals died of PTLD and 3 of 9 recovered after reduction of immunosuppression. A novel porcine gammaherpesvirus was identified in involved tissues. Miniature swine provide a genetically defined large-animal model of PTLD with many characteristics similar to human PTLD. The availability of this reproducible large-animal model of PTLD may facilitate the development and testing of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for prevention or treatment of PTLD in the clinical setting. PMID:11222395

  17. The LRF transcription factor regulates mature B cell development and the germinal center response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Nagisa; Maeda, Manami; Lee, Sung-Uk; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Li, Min; Williams, John C.; Wang, Lisheng; Su, Leila; Suzuki, Mai; Saito, Toshiki I.; Chiba, Shigeru; Casola, Stefano; Yagita, Hideo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Bhatia, Ravi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    B cells play a central role in immune system function. Deregulation of normal B cell maturation can lead to the development of autoimmune syndromes as well as B cell malignancies. Elucidation of the molecular features of normal B cell development is important for the development of new target therapies for autoimmune diseases and B cell malignancies. Employing B cell–specific conditional knockout mice, we have demonstrated here that the transcription factor leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) forms an obligate dimer in B cells and regulates mature B cell lineage fate and humoral immune responses via distinctive mechanisms. Moreover, LRF inactivation in transformed B cells attenuated their growth rate. These studies identify what we believe to be a new key factor for mature B cell development and provide a rationale for targeting LRF dimers for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and B cell malignancies. PMID:21646720

  18. Epstein Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases: the virus as a therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Eric; Kwong, Yok-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs) express all EBV latent antigens (type III latency) in immunodeficient patients and limited antigens (type I and II latencies) in immunocompetent patients. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the prototype exhibiting type III EBV latency. Although EBV antigens are highly immunogenic, PTLD cell proliferation remains unchecked because of the underlying immunosuppression. The restoration of anti-EBV immunity by EBV-specific T cells of either autologous or allogeneic origin has been shown to be safe and effective in PTLDs. Cellular therapy can be improved by establishing a bank of human leukocyte antigen-characterized allogeneic EBV-specific T cells. In EBV+ LPDs exhibiting type I and II latencies, the use of EBV-specific T cells is more limited, although the safety and efficacy of this therapy have also been demonstrated. The therapeutic role of EBV-specific T cells in EBV+ LPDs needs to be critically reappraised with the advent of monoclonal antibodies and other targeted therapy. Another strategy involves the use of epigenetic approaches to induce EBV to undergo lytic proliferation when expression of the viral thymidine kinase renders host tumor cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of ganciclovir. Finally, the prophylactic use of antiviral drugs to prevent EBV reactivation may decrease the occurrence of EBV+ LPDs. PMID:25613733

  19. TIM-1 signaling in B cells regulates antibody production

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Juan [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Usui, Yoshihiko [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan) [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan); Takeda, Kazuyoshi [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Norihiro [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan) [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Research Institute for Diseases of Old Ages, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Akiba, Hisaya, E-mail: hisaya@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)] [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    Highlights: {yields} TIM-1 is highly expressed on anti-IgM + anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. {yields} Anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and Ig production on activated B cell in vitro. {yields} TIM-1 signaling regulates Ab production by response to TI-2 and TD antigens in vivo. -- Abstract: Members of the T cell Ig and mucin (TIM) family have recently been implicated in the control of T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we found TIM-1 expression on anti-IgM- or anti-CD40-stimulated splenic B cells, which was further up-regulated by the combination of anti-IgM and anti-CD40 Abs. On the other hand, TIM-1 ligand was constitutively expressed on B cells and inducible on anti-CD3{sup +} anti-CD28-stimulated CD4{sup +} T cells. In vitro stimulation of activated B cells by anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and expression of a plasma cell marker syndecan-1 (CD138). We further examined the effect of TIM-1 signaling on antibody production in vitro and in vivo. Higher levels of IgG2b and IgG3 secretion were detected in the culture supernatants of the anti-TIM-1-stimulated B cells as compared with the control IgG-stimulated B cells. When immunized with T-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, TNP-specific IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 Abs were slightly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice. When immunized with T-dependent antigen OVA, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE Abs were significantly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice as compared with the control IgG-treated mice. These results suggest that TIM-1 signaling in B cells augments antibody production by enhancing B cell proliferation and differentiation.

  20. Selective regulation of autoreactive B cells by Fc?RIIB

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Jeganathan; Kawabata, Daisuke; Kim, Sunjung; Xu, Xiaonan; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Paul, Elahna; Diamond, Betty; Grimaldi, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Fc?RIIB is an inhibitory receptor which plays a role in limiting B cell and DC activation. Since Fc?RIIB is known to dampen the signaling strength of the BCR, we wished to determine the impact of Fc?RIIB on the regulation of BCRs which differ in their affinity for DNA. For these studies, Fc?RIIB deficient BALB/c mice were bred with mice expressing the transgene-encoded H chain of the R4A anti-DNA antibody which gives rise to BCRs which express high, low or no affinity for DNA. The deletion of Fc?RIIB in R4A BALB/c mice led to an alteration in the B cell repertoire, allowing for the expansion and activation of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells. By 6 to 8 months of age, R4A × Fc?RIIB-/- BALB/c mice spontaneously developed anti-DNA antibody titers. These mice also displayed an induction of IFN-inducible genes and an elevation in levels of the B cell survival factor, BAFF. These data demonstrate that Fc?RIIB preferentially limits activation of high affinity autoreactive B cells and can influence the activation of DC through an immune complex-mediated mechanism. PMID:19327966

  1. Early steps of IgA B cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Strober, W; Harriman, G R; Kunimoto, D R

    1991-01-01

    The overall picture of IgA B cell differentiation to emerge from these studies is that sIgM-bearing 'virgin' B cells entering the Peyer's patches are subject to a microenvironment (most probably organ-specific stromal cells) which brings about initial or primary IgA switch differentiation. For reasons mentioned, this probably does not involve TGF-beta, which instead appears to operate on a cell, such as the CH12.LX B cell, which has already undergone the initial steps of IgA isotype switching. The next stage of IgA B cell differentiation involves a cell which expressed both sIgM and sIgA simultaneously and appears to produce C mu and C alpha mRNA transcripts in the absence of a deletional rearrangement. Whether this involves a 'transplicing' mechanism or some other mechanism has yet to be determined. Finally, committed IgA B cells emerge from the dual-bearing cell population which express only sIgA. These cells can migrate out of Peyer's patches and respond to various terminal differentiation factors such as IL-5, IL-6 and IFN-gamma. PMID:1955762

  2. Building Classifier Ensembles for B-Cell Epitope Prediction

    PubMed Central

    EL-Manzalawy, Yasser; Honavar, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    Identification of B-cell epitopes in target antigens is a critical step in epitope-driven vaccine design, immunodiagnostic tests, and antibody production. B-cell epitopes could be linear, i.e., a contiguous amino acid sequence fragment of an antigen, or conformational, i.e., amino acids that are often not contiguous in the primary sequence but appear in close proximity within the folded 3D antigen structure. Numerous computational methods have been proposed for predicting both types of B-cell epitopes. However, the development of tools for reliably predicting B-cell epitopes remains a major challenge in immunoinformatics. Classifier ensembles a promising approach for combining a set of classifiers such that the overall performance of the resulting ensemble is better than the predictive performance of the best individual classifier. In this chapter, we show how to build a classifier ensemble for improved prediction of linear B-cell epitopes. The method can be easily adapted to build classifier ensembles for predicting conformational epitopes. PMID:25048130

  3. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. PMID:25066775

  4. Establishment and operation of a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant allogeneic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic cell bank for the treatment of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark A; Wilkie, Gwen M; Robinson, Nicolas; Rivera, Nadja; Haque, Tanzina; Crawford, Dorothy H; Barry, Jacqueline; Fraser, Neil; Turner, David M; Robertson, Victoria; Dyer, Phil; Flanagan, Peter; Newlands, Helen R; Campbell, John; Turner, Marc L

    2014-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several malignancies, including post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Conventional treatments for PTLD are often successful, but risk organ rejection and cause significant side effects. EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) generated in vitro from peripheral blood lymphocytes provide an alternative treatment modality with few side effects, but autologous CTLs are difficult to use in clinical practice. Here we report the establishment and operation of a bank of EBV-specific CTLs derived from 25 blood donors with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) types found at high frequency in European populations. Since licensure, there have been enquiries about 37 patients, who shared a median of three class I and two class II HLA types with these donors. Cells have been infused into ten patients with lymphoproliferative disease, eight of whom achieved complete remission. Neither patient with refractory disease was matched for HLA class II. Both cases of EBV-associated non-haematopoietic sarcoma receiving cells failed to achieve complete remission. Thirteen patients died before any cells could be issued, emphasizing that the bank should be contacted before patients become pre-terminal. Thus, this third party donor-derived EBV-specific CTL cell bank can supply most patients with appropriately matched cells and most recipients have good outcomes. PMID:25066775

  5. B cell receptor signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Jan A.; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    BCR signaling plays an important pathogenic role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B cell lymphomas, based on structural restrictions of the BCR, and BCR-dependent survival and growth of the malignant B cells. In CLL and lymphoma subtypes, ligand-independent (“tonic”) and ligand-dependent BCR signaling have been characterized, which can involve mutations of BCR pathway components or be triggered by (auto-) antigens present in the tissue microenvironment. In CLL, based on high response rates and durable remissions in early-stage clinical trials, there is rapid clinical development of inhibitors targeting BCR-associated kinases (BTK, PI3K?), which will change treatment paradigms in CLL and other B cell malignancies. Here, we discuss the evolution of this field, from BCR-related prognostic markers, to mechanisms of BCR activation, and targeting of BCR-associated kinases, the emerging Achilles’ heel in CLL pathogenesis. PMID:23928062

  6. T cell-independent restimulation of FVIII-specific murine memory B cells is facilitated by dendritic cells together with toll-like receptor 7 agonist.

    PubMed

    Pordes, Aniko G; Baumgartner, Christina K; Allacher, Peter; Ahmad, Rafi U; Weiller, Markus; Schiviz, Alexandra N; Schwarz, Hans Peter; Reipert, Birgit M

    2011-09-15

    Memory B cells are involved in long-term maintenance of antibody-dependent immunologic disorders. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the restimulation of FVIII-specific memory B cells in hemophilia A with FVIII inhibitors is regulated. We asked whether concurrent activation of the innate immune system by an agonist for toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 is able to facilitate the differentiation of FVIII-specific memory B cells in the absence of T-cell help. TLR7 recognizes single-stranded RNA as contained in RNA viruses such as influenza, Sendai, and Coxsackie B viruses. Our results indicate that highly purified murine memory B cells do not differentiate into FVIII-specific antibody-secreting cells in the presence of FVIII and the TLR7 agonist when cultured in the absence of CD4(+) T cells. However, CD11c(+) dendritic cells facilitate the T cell-independent differentiation of FVIII-specific memory B cells but only in the presence of FVIII and the TLR7 agonist. In contrast to T cell-dependent restimulation, the antibody response after T cell-independent restimulation of FVIII-specific memory B cells is skewed toward IgG2a, an antibody subclass that is efficient in activating the complement system and in inducing Fc-receptor-mediated effector functions, both are required for effective immune responses against pathogens. PMID:21788339

  7. IFN Regulatory Factor 8 Regulates MDM2 in Germinal Center B Cells1

    E-print Network

    IFN Regulatory Factor 8 Regulates MDM2 in Germinal Center B Cells1 Jeff X. Zhou,2,3 Chang Hoon Lee-dependent and -independent apoptosis pathways, in germinal center (GC) B cells. In GC B cells of IRF8 to specific patho- gens, Ig genes undergo genomic sequence rearrange- ments in germinal center (GC)4 B cells

  8. B-cell targeted therapies in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Albert; Robert Eisenberg

    2006-01-01

    B cells appear to have a central role in the immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE); both autoantibody production and B-cell anomalies are characteristic of these diseases. With the recent availability of biologic agents that can deplete B cells or block their function in vivo, it has become possible to target B cells therapeutically. Evidence strongly

  9. Human innate B cells: a link between host defense and autoimmunity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric C. B. Milner; Jennifer Anolik; Amedeo Cappione; Iñaki Sanz

    2005-01-01

    B cells play a variety of immunoregulatory roles through their antigen-presentation ability and through cytokine and chemokine production. Innate immune activation of B cells may play a beneficial role through the generation of natural cross-reactive antibodies, by maintaining B cell memory and by exercising immunomodulatory functions that may provide protection against autoimmunity. In this article, we review human B cell

  10. Regulation of Primary Response Genes in B Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Trent; Suh, Hyunsuk; Buratowski, Stephen; Roy, Ananda L.

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated gene expression in B cells often results in various lymphoid malignancies and immune deficiencies. Therefore, understanding signal-induced gene regulatory pathways involved during B cell activation is important to tackle pathologies associated with altered B cell function. Primary response genes (PRGs) are rapidly induced upon signaling in B cells and other cell types and often encode oncogenic transcription factors, which are associated with various malignancies. However, an important issue that remains unclear is whether the fundamental mechanism of activation of these genes is essentially the same under such diverse conditions. c-fos is a PRG that is induced rapidly upon activation of B cells in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Using the c-fos gene as a candidate PRG, we addressed here how it is regulated in response to tumor-promoting and antigen-mimicking signals. Our results show that although the mRNA was induced and extinguished within minutes in response to both signals, surprisingly, apparently full-length unspliced pre-mRNA persisted for several hours in both cases. However, although the mitogenic signal resulted in a more sustained mRNA response that persisted for 4 h, antigenic signaling resulted in a more robust but very transient response that lasted for <1 h. Moreover, the pre-mRNA profile exhibited significant differences between the two signals. Additionally, the splicing regulation was also observed with egr-2, but not with c-myc. Together, these results suggest a previously underappreciated regulatory step in PRG expression in B cells. PMID:23536186

  11. Lymphoproliferative responses and protection in conventional piglets inoculated orally with virulent or attenuated porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L de Arriba; A Carvajal; J Pozo; P Rubio

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocyte proliferative responses were evaluated in mucosal (mesenteric lymph nodes) and systemic (spleen and blood) lymphoid tissues of conventional piglets inoculated with the virulent or attenuated isolates of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) strain CV-777 and challenged 21 days later with the virulent isolate of the same virus. A lymphoproliferative assay was developed in which mononuclear cells isolated from lymphoid

  12. Engineering cultured insulin-secreting pancreatic B-cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neville H. McClenaghan; P. R. Flatt

    1999-01-01

    Despite many triumphs, a significant limitation of the usefulness of many of the available B-cell lines for the study of\\u000a insulin secretion are either inappropriate or lack of responsiveness to glucose. Commonly employed cell lines generated prior\\u000a to the 1990s following X-ray irradiation (RINm5F cells) or simian virus 40 B-cell transformation (HIT-T15 cells and BTC) fall\\u000a into this category. More

  13. Molecular Pathogenesis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christof; Pasqualucci, Laura; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, substantial insight regarding the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has been obtained. Particularly, based on gene expression profile analysis this disease can be classified in distinct phenotypic subgroups and specific transcriptional programs have been identified. New technologies like next-generation whole genome/exome sequencing and genome wide SNP array analysis revealed novel lesions involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. This Review focuses on the diversity of genetic lesions found in the different subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:21842702

  14. Lnk Adaptor: Novel Negative Regulator of B Cell Lymphopoiesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher E. Rudd (Harvard Medical School; Department of Pathology REV)

    2001-06-05

    Originally thought to have the functions now ascribed to the linker for activation of T cells protein (LAT), Lnk is coming into its own as an adaptor protein that mediates signaling through several receptor pathways. An essential role for Lnk in B cell development and maturation was recently uncovered by Perlmutter and colleagues. Rudd discusses the role of Lnk in B cells and hypothesizes a mechanism whereby Lnk, and its closely related protein family members, the adaptor molecules containing pleckstrin homology (PH) and Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains (APS), and Src-homology 2-B protein (SH2-B), may mediate signal promotion or attenuation.

  15. Evolution of B-cell malignancy; Pre-B-cell leukemia resulting from MYC activation in a B-cell neoplasm with a rearranged BCL2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gauwerky, C.E.; Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. (Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The authors have analyzed the molecular genetics of the breakpoints involved in the t(8;14) and t(14;18) translocations of an acute pre-B-cell leukemia from a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma. In this patient's leukemic cells, the breakpoint of the t(14;18) translocation occurred in the major breakpoint-cluster region of the BCL2 gene and became linked to the J{sub H}4 joining-region gene segment of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus on the 14q+ chromosome as previously observed in follicular lymphoma. An N region and heptamer and nonamer signal sequences indicated that this translocation occurred as a mistake in V{sub H}-D{sub H}-J{sub H} joining (where V{sub H} and D{sub H} are the variable and diversity segments). In the t(8;14) translocation, the breakpoint was located immediately 5' of the first exon of the MYC protooncogene, which was juxtaposed with the C{gamma}2 constant gene segment of the second 14q+ chromosome. The finding of repeated sequences typical of switch regions suggested that this translocation occurred during heavy-chain isotype switching, resulting in progression to pre-B-cell leukemia with both the 5(8;14) and the t(14;18) translocations. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive phenotype of the patient's leukemic cells further suggests that the pre-B-cell leukemia was derived from a pre-B cell carrying a t(14;18) translocation in the original follicular lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction method was then used to identify cancer cells in the bone marrow of the patient.

  16. Alterations of the B-Cell Response by HIV1 Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoying Shen; Georgia D. Tomaras

    2011-01-01

    While the hallmark of HIV-1 infection is the progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells, extensive B-cell dysfunction ensues that impairs the quality of the humoral response. HIV-1 infection causes hypergammaglobulinemia,\\u000a polyclonal activation, loss of memory B-cell subsets, B-cell exhaustion, aberrant B-cell surface markers, and impaired humoral\\u000a responses against infections and vaccinations. The totality of the mechanisms that contribute to B-cell

  17. Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates the Expansion of B-cell Progenitors in a Dose-dependent Manner*

    PubMed Central

    ?hsberg, Josefine; Ungerbäck, Jonas; Strid, Tobias; Welinder, Eva; Stjernberg, Jenny; Larsson, Malin; Qian, Hong; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factor doses are of importance for normal and malignant B-lymphocyte development; however, the understanding of underlying mechanisms and functional consequences of reduced transcription factor levels is limited. We have analyzed progenitor and B-lineage compartments in mice carrying heterozygote mutations in the E2a, Ebf1, or Pax5 gene. Although lymphoid progenitors from Ebf1 or Pax5 heterozygote mice were specified and lineage-restricted in a manner comparable with Wt progenitors, this process was severely impaired in E2a heterozygote mutant mice. This defect was not significantly enhanced upon combined deletion of E2a with Ebf1 or Pax5. Analysis of the pre-B-cell compartment in Ebf1 heterozygote mice revealed a reduction in cell numbers. These cells expressed Pax5 and other B-lineage-associated genes, and global gene expression analysis suggested that the reduction of the pre-B-cell compartment was a result of impaired pre-B-cell expansion. This idea was supported by a reduction in IL2R?-expressing late pre-B-cells as well as by cell cycle analysis and by the finding that the complexity of the VDJ rearrangement patterns was comparable in Wt and Ebf1+/? pre-B-cells, although the number of progenitors was reduced. Heterozygote deletion of Ebf1 resulted in impaired response to IL7 in vitro and reduced expression levels of pre-BCR on the cell surface, providing possible explanations for the observed stage-specific reduction in cellular expansion. Thus, transcription factor doses are critical for specification as well as expansion of B-lymphoid progenitors, providing increased insight into the molecular regulation of B-cell development. PMID:24078629

  18. B cell suppression in newborn following treatment of pregnant diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient with rituximab containing regimen.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Prakas Kumar; Dolai, Tuphan Kanti; Bagchi, Basab; Ghosh, Malay Kumar; Bose, Sudipta; Bhattacharyya, Maitreyee

    2014-10-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with pregnancy is rare. Rituximab based chemotherapy is now considered the standard of care and considered safe for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during pregnancy but little is known about its safety profile on the fetus. A 32 y primigravida was diagnosed as DLBCL at 20 wk of gestation. She received rituximab containing chemotherapy with successful pregnancy outcome. Though the baby was absolutely healthy, B-cell was totally absent in the cord blood. PMID:24562617

  19. Tn polyagglutinability occurring in a patient with B cell lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wallner; R. Waldner

    1985-01-01

    A case of polymorphic immunocytoma (B cell lymphoma) coinciding with expression of Tn antigen on a population of erythrocytes is presented. Tn activation was found incidentally by screening blood samples of patients suffering from hematologic malignancies with a Tn specific lectin from Salvia sclarea. So far, Tn activation has been reported only in apparently healthy subjects or in subjects suffering

  20. 324 Facility B-Cell quality process plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1998-06-10

    B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. This includes: (1) Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment. This activity is the restart of hotwork in B-Cell to size reduce the remainder of Tank 119 and other miscellaneous pieces of equipment into sizes that can be loaded into a grout container. This activity also includes the process of preparing the containers for shipment from the cell. The specific activities and procedures used are detailed in a table. (2) Load and Ship Low-Level Waste. This activity covers the process of taking a grouted LLW container from B-Cell and loading it into the cask in the REC airlock and Cask Handling Area (CHA) for shipment to the LLBG. The detailed activities and procedures for this part of cell cleanout are included in second table.

  1. Immunomodulatory Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franquesa, Marcella; Hoogduijn, M. J.; Bestard, O.; Grinyó, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The research on T cell immunosuppression therapies has attracted most of the attention in clinical transplantation. However, B cells and humoral immune responses are increasingly acknowledged as crucial mediators of chronic allograft rejection. Indeed, humoral immune responses can lead to renal allograft rejection even in patients whose cell-mediated immune responses are well controlled. On the other hand, newly studied B cell subsets with regulatory effects have been linked to tolerance achievement in transplantation. Better understanding of the regulatory and effector B cell responses may therefore lead to new therapeutic approaches. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are arising as a potent therapeutic tool in transplantation due to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. The research on MSCs has mainly focused on their effects on T cells and although data regarding the modulatory effects of MSCs on alloantigen-specific humoral response in humans is scarce, it has been demonstrated that MSCs significantly affect B cell functioning. In the present review we will analyze and discuss the results in this field. PMID:22833744

  2. Mechanisms of chromosomal translocations in B cell lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Küppers; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

    2001-01-01

    Reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci are a hallmark of most mature B cell lymphomas and usually result in dysregulated expression of oncogenes brought under the control of the Ig enhancers. Although the precise mechanisms involved in the development of these translocations remains essentially unknown, a clear relationship has been established with the mechanisms that lead to Ig

  3. New Insights into Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kalpadakis, Christina; Pangalis, Gerassimos A.; Sachanas, Sotirios; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P.; Kyriakaki, Stavroula; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Koulieris, Efstathios; Moschogiannis, Maria; Yiakoumis, Xanthi; Tsirkinidis, Pantelis; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Levidou, Georgia; Papadaki, Helen A.; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Angelopoulou, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a premalignant condition characterized by the presence of less than 5000/?L circulating clonal B cells in otherwise healthy individuals. Three subcategories have been identified according to the immunophenotypic features: CLL-like, CD5(+) atypical, and CD5(?) MBL. CLL-like MBL is by far the most frequent and best studied category and further divided in low-count [LC] and high-count [HC] MBL, based on a cutoff value of 500/?L clonal B cells. LC-MBL typically remains stable and probably does not represent a truly premalignant condition, but rather an age-related immune senescence. On the other hand, HC-MBL is closely related to CLL-Rai0, bearing similar immunogenetic profile, and is associated with an annual risk of progression to CLL requiring therapy at a rate of 1.1%. Currently there are no reproducible factors for evaluating the risk of progression to CLL. CD5(?) MBL is characterized by an immunophenotype consistent with marginal zone origin and displays many similarities with marginal zone lymphomas (MZL), mainly the splenic MZL. The cutoff value of 5000/?L clonal B cells cannot probably be applied in CD5(?) MBL, requiring a new definition to describe those cases. PMID:25295254

  4. Spinal cord injury impacts B cell production, homeostasis, and activation.

    PubMed

    Oropallo, Michael A; Goenka, Radhika; Cancro, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Complex interactions govern the interplay of central nervous and immune systems, including the generation, homeostatic maintenance, and activation of B cells. Accordingly, spinal cord injury will likely impact all of these processes. Several laboratories have recently explored this possibility, and their observations in aggregate reveal both acute and chronic consequences that can vary based on the injury location. Acute effects include a transient cessation of bone marrow B lymphopoiesis, with a corresponding drop in the peripheral follicular and transitional B cell subsets, whereas the marginal zone subset is preserved. Despite recovery of B lymphopoiesis by 28 days post injury, follicular B cell numbers remain depressed; this may reflect reduced levels of the homeostatic cytokine BLyS. In general, the ability to mount T dependent antibody responses after injury are intact, as are pre-existing memory B cell pools and antibody levels. In contrast, T-independent responses are chronically compromised. Both glucocorticoid-dependent and -independent processes mediate these effects, but a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved awaits further study. Nonetheless, these observations in toto strengthen the growing appreciation for bidirectional interactions between the CNS and immune system, highlighting the need for further basic and translational efforts. PMID:25443579

  5. Experimental Models of B Cell Tolerance in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Michelle L.; Sciammas, Roger; Chong, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    Immunologic tolerance is the ultimate goal of organ transplantation yet, is rarely attainable and an infrequent event in humans. Even with the use of conventional immunosuppression, which has successfully improved short-term allograft survival, long-term allograft survival has remained static and is complicated by serious side effects secondary to the long-term use of immunosuppressive agents. Accordingly, over the past several decades, there has been a push to fully understand both the cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in the induction and maintenance of tolerance, with recent data implicating B cells and donor specific alloantibody as a barrier to and potential mediator of allograft tolerance. The study of B cells and alloantibody in transplant tolerance has evolved over recent years from using rodent models to large animals to non-human primate models. This review will discuss the role of B cells and alloantibody as antagonists and facilitators of transplantation tolerance, and highlight the experimental models developed for elucidating the mechanisms of B cell tolerance to alloantigen. PMID:21925896

  6. B cells flying solo Joanna Groom and Fabienne Mackay

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    REVIEW B cells flying solo Joanna Groom and Fabienne Mackay Systemic autoimmunity such as systemic represents a new pathogenic mechanism in autoimmunity. Immunology and Cell Biology (2008) 86, 40­46; doi:10.1038/sj.icb.7100142 Keywords: BAFF; survival; autoimmunity; B lymophocytes; Toll-like receptors Immunology

  7. Antigen-specific B cell responses of vaccinated, neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of newborn calves to vaccination are variable and often characterized by marginal humoral (i.e., antibody) responses. The immune cell population pivotal in the production of antibody is the B cell. The composition and functional capacity of this population in the newborn calf is not well...

  8. Cord blood transplants for SCID: better B-cell engraftment?

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan-Yin; Roberts, Robert Lloyd; Moore, Theodore B; Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Despite successful T-cell engraftment in transplanted patients, B-cell function is not always achieved; up to 58% of patients require immunoglobulin therapy after receiving haploidentical transplants. We report 2 half-sibling males with X-linked ?-chain SCID treated with different sources of stem cells. Sibling 1 was transplanted with T-cell-depleted haploidentical maternal bone marrow and sibling 2 was transplanted with 7/8 human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated umbilical cord blood. Both patients received pretransplant conditioning and posttransplant graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis. B-cell engraftment and function was achieved in sibling 1 but not in sibling 2. This disparate result is consistent with a review of 19 other SCID children who received cord blood transplants. B-cell function, as indicated by no need for immunoglobulin therapy, was restored in 42% of patients given haploidentical transplants and in 68% of patients given matched unrelated donor transplants compared with 80% of patients given cord blood transplants. Cord blood is an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation in children with SCID and has a higher likelihood of B-cell reconstitution. PMID:22510776

  9. An eruption of European B-cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Cancro, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Volcanic ash clouds disrupted the 2010 ESF/EMBO meeting on B cells and protection. Nevertheless, the delegates who did make it to Catalonia put together their own programme of talks covering a range of themes from mutualism to epigenetics. PMID:20725089

  10. TCL1 in B-cell tumors retains its normal b-cell pattern of regulation and is a marker of differentiation stage.

    PubMed

    Herling, Marco; Patel, Kaushali A; Hsi, Eric D; Chang, Kong-Chao; Rassidakis, George Z; Ford, Richard; Jones, Dan

    2007-07-01

    The high expression of the T-cell oncogene TCL1 in B-cell tumors and the emergence of B-cell lymphomas in TCL1-transgenic mice suggest a pathogenetic role for this kinase coregulator in B-cell malignancies. We compared the expression of TCL1 in B-cell tumors with their differentiation stage. As with normal B-cell subsets, uniform TCL1 expression was characteristic of tumors of pregerminal center derivation such as precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (85%, 47/55) and mantle cell lymphoma (84%, 49/58), and was more variable in follicular lymphoma (57%, 28/49). Large B-cell lymphoma was less frequently positive for TCL1 (36%, 18/50), especially among cases of the activated B-cell type. All types of Hodgkin lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, and post-germinal center-derived tumors, including plasma cell myeloma and MALT lymphoma, were negative for TCL1, except for 1 case. In nearly all TCL1-expressing tumors, as with normal B cells, variations in cellular TCL1 levels were related to the proliferation and microenvironmental factors. In normal B cells, cell lines and primary B-cell tumor samples, TCL1 downmodulation occurred after prolonged cytokine treatment and/or B-cell receptor stimulation. In contrast to mature T-cell tumors where TCL1 expression is always indicative of an activating TCL1 gene translocation, TCL1 expression in B-cell tumors parallels its regulation in non-neoplastic B cells. Therefore, TCL1 expression can be used diagnostically as an indicator of the differentiation stage of a given B-cell tumor. PMID:17592280

  11. Severe Puumala virus infection in a patient with a lymphoproliferative disease treated with icatibant.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi; Leppänen, Ilona; Koskela, Sirpa; Antonen, Jaakko; Mäkelä, Satu; Sinisalo, Marjatta; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of patients at risk of a severe course of hantaviral disease and lack of effective medication represent a global challenge in the treatment of this emerging infection. We describe a 67-year-old female patient with a history of chronic lymphoproliferative disease involving the spleen and an extremely severe acute Puumala hantavirus infection. She was treated with the bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant and recovered. She is the second patient with a spleen abnormality and severe Puumala infection treated with icatibant in our hospital. We suggest that patients with spleen abnormalities may be more susceptible to severe hantavirus disease. The activation of the kinin-kallikrein system and the formation of bradykinin in hantavirus-infected endothelial cells indicate that the role of bradykinin receptor antagonist icatibant in the treatment of hantavirus disease is worth studying. PMID:25496418

  12. Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: a neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Keel, M. Kevin; Philips, Jamie E.; Cartoceti, Andrew N.; Munk, Brandon A.; Nemeth, Nicole M.; Welsh, Trista I.; Thomas, Jesse M.; Crum, James M.; Lichtenwalner, Anne B.; Fadly, Aly M.; Zavala, Guillermo; Holmes, Edward C.; Brown, Justin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) is an exogenous oncogenic retrovirus that induces lymphoid tumors in some galliform species of birds. Historically, outbreaks of LPDV have been reported from Europe and Israel. Although the virus has previously never been detected in North America, herein we describe the widespread distribution, genetic diversity, pathogenesis, and evolution of LPDV in the United States. Characterization of the provirus genome of the index LPDV case from North America demonstrated an 88% nucleotide identity to the Israeli prototype strain. Although phylogenetic analysis indicated that the majority of viruses fell into a single North American lineage, a small subset of viruses from South Carolina were most closely related to the Israeli prototype. These results suggest that LPDV was transferred between continents to initiate outbreaks of disease. However, the direction (New World to Old World or vice versa), mechanism, and time frame of the transcontinental spread currently remain unknown. PMID:24503062

  13. Endogenous secretion of IL-4 maintains growth and Thy-1 expression of a transformed B cell clone.

    PubMed

    Louie, S W; Ramirez, L M; Krieg, A M; Maliszewski, C R; Bishop, G A

    1993-01-15

    The CD5+ B cell lymphoma clone, CH12.LX, endogenously produces IL-4. Blocking the binding of this IL-4 to its cellular receptor inhibited the continuous proliferation of CH12.LX. mAb specific for either IL-4 or the IL-4R profoundly and specifically inhibited the proliferation of CH12.LX cells in a concentration-dependent manner, within 4 h after the addition of mAb. The addition of exogenous rIL-4 alone to CH12.LX cells had no effect on either proliferation or antibody secretion. However, exogenous rIL-4 was able to counteract the effects of anti-IL-4 antibody. Treatment of CH12.LX cells with antisense RNA oligodeoxynucleotides to IL-4 also specifically inhibited cell proliferation and decreased the levels of IL-4 secreted into the culture supernatants by more than 50%, without effect on total RNA or protein synthesis. Effects of antisense IL-4 were also blocked by addition of exogenous IL-4. Control oligodeoxynucleotides of equal size and base composition had no effect, and IL-4 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides did not effect the growth of a B cell lymphoma clone which does not produce IL-4. Blocking the binding of endogenously produced IL-4 to CH12.LX cells did not change the levels of membrane IL-4R or CD5 molecules. However, the constitutive expression of Thy-1 by these B cells was markedly decreased, and anti-Thy-1 antibodies decreased proliferation and PMA-induced aggregation of CH12.LX cells. Autocrine secretion of IL-4 thus appears to be required both for the continuous proliferation of CH12.LX B cells, as well as their expression of Thy-1, which may function either as a homotypic adhesion molecule or a signal transduction molecule for these cells. These findings indicate that endogenously produced lymphokines may play a critical role in the maintenance of B cell hyperproliferative disorders. PMID:8093458

  14. In Vitro Evolution of Allergy Vaccine Candidates, with Maintained Structure, but Reduced B Cell and T Cell Activation Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Ola B.; Adedoyin, Justus; Rhyner, Claudio; Neimert-Andersson, Theresa; Grundström, Jeanette; Berndt, Kurt D.; Crameri, Reto; Grönlund, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Allergy and asthma to cat (Felis domesticus) affects about 10% of the population in affluent countries. Immediate allergic symptoms are primarily mediated via IgE antibodies binding to B cell epitopes, whereas late phase inflammatory reactions are mediated via activated T cell recognition of allergen-specific T cell epitopes. Allergen-specific immunotherapy relieves symptoms and is the only treatment inducing a long-lasting protection by induction of protective immune responses. The aim of this study was to produce an allergy vaccine designed with the combined features of attenuated T cell activation, reduced anaphylactic properties, retained molecular integrity and induction of efficient IgE blocking IgG antibodies for safer and efficacious treatment of patients with allergy and asthma to cat. The template gene coding for rFel d 1 was used to introduce random mutations, which was subsequently expressed in large phage libraries. Despite accumulated mutations by up to 7 rounds of iterative error-prone PCR and biopanning, surface topology and structure was essentially maintained using IgE-antibodies from cat allergic patients for phage enrichment. Four candidates were isolated, displaying similar or lower IgE binding, reduced anaphylactic activity as measured by their capacity to induce basophil degranulation and, importantly, a significantly lower T cell reactivity in lymphoproliferative assays compared to the original rFel d 1. In addition, all mutants showed ability to induce blocking antibodies in immunized mice.The approach presented here provides a straightforward procedure to generate a novel type of allergy vaccines for safer and efficacious treatment of allergic patients. PMID:21931754

  15. CD5 Is Dissociated from the B-Cell Receptor in B Cells from Bovine Leukemia Virus-Infected, Persistently Lymphocytotic Cattle: Consequences to B-Cell Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Glenn H.; Pritchard, Suzanne M.; Dequiedt, Franck; Willems, Luc; Kettmann, Richard; Davis, William C.

    2001-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), a retrovirus related to human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2, can induce persistent nonneoplastic expansion of the CD5+ B-cell population, termed persistent lymphocytosis (PL). As in human CD5+ B cells, we report here that CD5 was physically associated with the B-cell receptor (BCR) in normal bovine CD5+ B cells. In contrast, in CD5+ B cells from BLV-infected PL cattle, CD5 was dissociated from the BCR. In B cells from PL cattle, apoptosis decreased when cells were stimulated with antibody to surface immunoglobulin M (sIgM), while in B cells from uninfected cattle, apoptosis increased after sIgM stimulation. The functional significance of the CD5-BCR association was suggested by experimental dissociation of the CD5-BCR interaction by cross-linking of CD5. This caused CD5+ B cells from uninfected animals to decrease apoptosis when stimulated with anti-sIgM. In contrast, in CD5+ B cells from PL animals, in which CD5 was already dissociated from the BCR, there was no statistically significant change in apoptosis when CD5 was cross-linked and the cells were stimulated with anti-sIgM. Disruption of CD5-BCR interactions and subsequent decreased apoptosis and increased survival in antigenically stimulated B cells may be a mechanism of BLV-induced PL. PMID:11160667

  16. Deletion of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products Exacerbates Lymphoproliferative Syndrome and Lupus Nephritis in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j Mice.

    PubMed

    Goury, Antoine; Meghraoui-Kheddar, Aïda; Belmokhtar, Karim; Vuiblet, Vincent; Ortillon, Jeremy; Jaisson, Stéphane; Devy, Jerôme; Le Naour, Richard; Tabary, Thierry; Cohen, Jacques H M; Schmidt, Ann-Marie; Rieu, Philippe; Touré, Fatouma

    2015-04-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor that interacts with advanced glycation end products, but also with C3a, CpG DNA oligonucleotides, and alarmin molecules such as HMGB1 to initiate a proinflammatory reaction. Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder associated with the accumulation of RAGE ligands. We generated mice invalidated for RAGE in the lupus-prone B6-MRL Fas lpr/j background to determine the role of RAGE in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. We compared the phenotype of these mice with that of their wild-type and B6-MRL Fas lpr/j littermates. Lymphoproliferative syndrome, production of anti-dsDNA Abs, lupus nephritis, and accumulation of CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) autoreactive T cells (in the peripheral blood and the spleen) were significantly increased in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j RAGE(-/-) mice compared with B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (respectively p < 0.005, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). A large proportion of autoreactive T cells from B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice expressed RAGE at their surface. Time course studies of annexin V expression revealed that autoreactive T cells in the spleen of B6-MRL Fas lpr/j-RAGE(-/-) mice exhibited a delay in apoptosis and expressed significantly less activated caspase 3 (39.5 ± 4.3%) than T cells in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice (65.5 ± 5.2%) or wild-type mice (75.3 ± 2.64%) (p = 0.02). We conclude that the deletion of RAGE in B6-MRL Fas lpr/j mice promotes the accumulation of autoreactive CD3(+)B220(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells, therefore exacerbating lymphoproliferative syndrome, autoimmunity, and organ injury. This suggests that RAGE rescues the apoptosis of T lymphocytes when the death receptor Fas/CD95 is dysfunctional. PMID:25762779

  17. Splenic B cell lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes: differential diagnosis of B cell leukaemias with large spleens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J V Melo; U Hegde; A Parreira; I Thompson; I A Lampert; D Catovsky

    1987-01-01

    The clinical, haematological, morphological and histological features of a series of 22 patients presenting with splenic lymphoma with circulating villous lymphocytes were assessed and compared with those of patients with other forms of chronic B cell leukaemia in an attempt to differentiate this condition from hairy cell leukaemia, prolymphocytic leukaemia, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, with which this condition has many

  18. Akt and mTOR in B Cell Activation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Limon, Jose J.; Fruman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is required for B cell proliferation and survival. PI3K signaling also controls key aspects of B cell differentiation. Upon engagement of the B cell receptor (BCR), PI3K activation promotes Ca2+ mobilization and activation of NF?B-dependent transcription, events which are essential for B cell proliferation. PI3K also initiates a distinct signaling pathway involving the Akt and mTOR serine/threonine kinases. It has been generally assumed that activation of Akt and mTOR downstream of PI3K is essential for B cell function. However, Akt and mTOR have complex roles in B cell fate decisions and suppression of this pathway can enhance certain B cell responses while repressing others. In this review we will discuss genetic and pharmacological studies of Akt and mTOR function in normal B cells, and in malignancies of B cell origin. PMID:22888331

  19. Essential role of EBF1 in the generation and function of distinct mature B cell types

    PubMed Central

    Vilagos, Bojan; Hoffmann, Mareike; Souabni, Abdallah; Sun, Qiong; Werner, Barbara; Medvedovic, Jasna; Bilic, Ivan; Minnich, Martina; Axelsson, Elin; Jaritz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor EBF1 is essential for lineage specification in early B cell development. In this study, we demonstrate by conditional mutagenesis that EBF1 is required for B cell commitment, pro–B cell development, and subsequent transition to the pre–B cell stage. Later in B cell development, EBF1 was essential for the generation and maintenance of several mature B cell types. Marginal zone and B-1 B cells were lost, whereas follicular (FO) and germinal center (GC) B cells were reduced in the absence of EBF1. Activation of the B cell receptor resulted in impaired intracellular signaling, proliferation and survival of EBF1-deficient FO B cells. Immune responses were severely reduced upon Ebf1 inactivation, as GCs were formed but not maintained. ChIP- and RNA-sequencing of FO B cells identified EBF1-activated genes that encode receptors, signal transducers, and transcriptional regulators implicated in B cell signaling. Notably, ectopic expression of EBF1 efficiently induced the development of B-1 cells at the expense of conventional B cells. These gain- and loss-of-function analyses uncovered novel important functions of EBF1 in controlling B cell immunity. PMID:22473956

  20. Establishment of Murine Gammaherpesvirus Latency in B Cells Is Not a Stochastic Event

    PubMed Central

    Fontinha, Diana; Marques, Sofia; Simas, J. Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Murid ?-herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) promotes polyclonal B cell activation and establishes latency in memory B cells via unclear mechanisms. We aimed at exploring whether B cell receptor specificity plays a role in B cell susceptibility to viral latency and how this is related to B cell activation. We first observed that MuHV-4-specific B cells represent a minority of the latent population, and to better understand the influence of the virus on non-MuHV-4 specific B cells we used the SWHEL mouse model, which produce hen egg lysozyme (HEL)-specific B cells. By tracking HEL+ and HEL? B cells, we showed that in vivo latency was restricted to HEL? B cells while the two populations were equally sensitive to the virus in vitro. Moreover, MuHV-4 induced two waves of B cell activation. While the first wave was characterized by a general B cell activation, as shown by HEL+ and HEL? B cells expansion and upregulation of CD69 expression, the second wave was restricted to the HEL? population, which acquired germinal center (GC) and plasma cell phenotypes. Antigenic stimulation of HEL+ B cells led to the development of HEL+ GC B cells where latent infection remained undetectable, indicating that MuHV-4 does not benefit from acute B cell responses to establish latency in non-virus specific B cells but relies on other mechanisms of the humoral response. These data support a model in which the establishment of latency in B cells by ?-herpesviruses is not stochastic in terms of BCR specificity and is tightly linked to the formation of GCs. PMID:25079788

  1. Pathogen manipulation of B cells: the best defence is a good offence.

    PubMed

    Nothelfer, Katharina; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Phalipon, Armelle

    2015-03-01

    B cells have long been regarded as simple antibody production units, but are now becoming known as key players in both adaptive and innate immune responses. However, several bacteria, viruses and parasites have evolved the ability to manipulate B cell functions to modulate immune responses. Pathogens can affect B cells indirectly, by attacking innate immune cells and altering the cytokine environment, and can also target B cells directly, impairing B cell-mediated immune responses. In this Review, we provide a summary of recent advances in elucidating direct B cell-pathogen interactions and highlight how targeting this specific cell population benefits different pathogens. PMID:25659322

  2. Impact of IL6 receptor inhibition on human memory B cells in vivo: impaired somatic hypermutation in preswitch memory B cells and modulation of mutational targeting in memory B cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Muhammad; Petra Roll; Thomas Seibold; Stefan Kleinert; Hermann Einsele; Thomas Dörner; Hans-Peter Tony

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveInterleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor (IL-6R) inhibition by tocilizumab is a novel anti-inflammatory therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. As IL-6 is a late differentiation factor of B cells the authors asked if IL-6R inhibition impacts on the mutational differentiation of human memory B-cell antigen receptors in vivo.Methods1733 immunoglobulin receptors (IgR) of single cell sorted preswitch and postswitch memory B cells

  3. Nature and nurture: a case of transcending haematological pre-malignancies in a pair of monozygotic twins adding possible clues on the pathogenesis of B-cell proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marcus C; Nyvold, Charlotte G; Roug, Anne S; Kjeldsen, Eigil; Villesen, Palle; Nederby, Line; Hokland, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We describe a comprehensive molecular analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins, who came to our attention when one experienced amaurosis fugax and was diagnosed with JAK2+ polycythaemia vera. He (Twin A) was also found to have an asymptomatic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Although JAK2-, Twin B was subsequently shown to have a benign monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Flow cytometric and molecular analyses of the B-cell compartments revealed different immunoglobulin light and heavy chain usage in each twin. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing could help delineating the pattern of germline B-cell disorder susceptibility and reveal somatic mutations potentially contributing to the differential patterns of pre-malignancy. Comparing bone marrow cells and T cells and employing in-house engineered integrative analysis, we found aberrations in Twin A consistent with a myeloid neoplasm, i.e. in TET2, RUNX1, PLCB1 and ELF4. Employing the method for detecting high-ranking variants by extensive annotation and relevance scoring, we also identified shared germline variants in genes of proteins interacting with B-cell receptor signalling mediators and the WNT-pathway, including IRF8, PTPRO, BCL9L, SIT1 and SIRPB1, all with possible implications in B-cell proliferation. Similar patterns of IGHV-gene usage to those demonstrated here have been observed in inherited acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Collectively, these findings may help in facilitating identification of putative master gene(s) involved in B-cell proliferations in general and MBL and B-CLL in particular. PMID:25752595

  4. 324 Facility B-cell quality process plan

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.L.

    1998-07-29

    B-Cell is currently being cleaned out (i.e., removal of equipment, fixtures and residual radioactive materials) and deactivated. TPA Milestone M-89-02 dictates that all mixed waste and equipment be removed from B-Cell by 5/31/99. The following sections describe the major activities that remain for completion of the TPA milestone. These include: Size Reduce Tank 119 and Miscellaneous Equipment; Load and Ship Low-Level Waste; Remove and Size Reduce the 1B Rack; Collect Dispersible Material from Cell Floor; Remove and Size Reduce the 2A Rack; Size Reduce the 1A Rack; Load and Ship Mixed Waste to PUREX Tunnels; and Move Spent Fuel to A-Cell;

  5. Mast cells, basophils and B cell connection network.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Sonia; Betto, Elena; Ceccaroni, Alice Amaranta; Magris, Raffaella; Giunta, Marina; Mion, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    It has been proven that both resting and activated mast cells (MCs) and basophils are able to induce a significant increase in proliferation and survival of naïve and activated B cells, and their differentiation into antibody-producing cells. The immunological context in which this regulation occurs is of particular interest and the idea that these innate cells induce antibody class switching and production is increasingly gaining ground. This direct role of MCs and basophils in acquired immunity requires cell to cell contact as well as soluble factors and exosomes. Here, we review our current understanding of the interaction between B cells and MCs or basophils as well as the evidence supporting B lymphocyte-MC/basophil crosstalk in pathological settings. Furthermore, we underline the obscure aspects of this interaction that could serve as important starting points for future research in the field of MC and basophil biology in the peculiar context of the connection between innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:24671125

  6. Cutaneous B cell lymphomas: Report of two interesting cases

    PubMed Central

    Gurumurthy, Ravichandran; Mohapatra, Ranjan Kumar; Easow, Jose M; Mohan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous B cell lymphomas can arise primarily from the skin or may occur due to secondary spread from nodal lymphomas. Primary lymphomas are confined to the skin without systemic spread and they differ from secondary lymphomas in their clinical behavior, treatment and prognosis. Cutaneous lymphomas being relatively rare, lack of precise definition and understanding of their clinical behavior diseases leads to pitfalls in the diagnosis. We report two cases of cutaneous B cell lymphomas who presented with fever of unknown origin initially and later found to have skin lesions. Hence, skin can be a potential diagnostic clue in the evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin. The distinctions between the primary and the secondary lymphomas become important in choosing the treatment and assessing the prognosis.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A suppresses MHC class II expression by regulating the B-cell transcription factors E47 and PU.1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Han; Lin, Ju-Yin; Chou, Ya-Ching; Chen, Mei-Ru; Yeh, Te-Huei; Lin, Chung-Wu; Lin, Sue-Jane; Tsai, Ching-Hwa

    2015-04-01

    Oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) uses various approaches to escape host immune responses and persist in B cells. Such persistent infections may provide the opportunity for this virus to initiate tumor formation. Using EBV-immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as a model, we found that the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II and CD74 in B cells is repressed after EBV infection. Class II transactivator (CIITA) is the master regulator of MHC class II-related genes. As expected, CIITA was downregulated in LCLs. We showed that downregulation of CIITA is caused by EBV latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and driven by the CIITA-PIII promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LMP2A-mediated E47 and PU.1 reduction resulted in CIITA suppression. Mechanistically, the LMP2A immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif was critical for the repression of E47 and PU.1 promoter activity via Syk, Src, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Elimination of LMP2A in LCLs using a shLMP2A approach showed that the expression levels of E47, PU.1, CIITA, MHC class II, and CD74 are reversed. These data indicated that the LMP2A may reduce MHC class II expression through interference with the E47/PU.1-CIITA pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that MHC class II may be detected in tonsils and EBV-negative Hodgkin disease but not in EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease and Hodgkin disease. PMID:25631773

  8. Chemokine-mediated B cell trafficking during early rabbit GALT development.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shi-Kang; Volgina, Veronica V; Sethupathi, Periannan; Knight, Katherine L; Lanning, Dennis K

    2014-12-15

    Microbial and host cell interactions stimulate rabbit B cells to diversify the primary Ab repertoire in GALT. B cells at the base of appendix follicles begin proliferating and diversifying their V-(D)-J genes around 1 wk of age, ?5 d after B cells first begin entering appendix follicles. To gain insight into the microbial and host cell interactions that stimulate B cells to diversify the primary Ab repertoire, we analyzed B cell trafficking within follicles during the first week of life. We visualized B cells, as well as chemokines that mediate B cell homing in lymphoid tissues, by in situ hybridization, and we examined B cell chemokine receptor expression by flow cytometry. We found that B cells were activated and began downregulating their BCRs well before a detectable B cell proliferative region appeared at the follicle base. The proliferative region was similar to germinal center dark zones, in that it exhibited elevated CXCL12 mRNA expression, and B cells that upregulated CXCR4 mRNA in response to signals acquired from selected intestinal commensals localized in this region. Our results suggest that after entering appendix follicles, B cells home sequentially to the follicle-associated epithelium, the follicular dendritic cell network, the B cell/T cell boundary, and, ultimately, the base of the follicle, where they enter a proliferative program and diversify the primary Ab repertoire. PMID:25385821

  9. TWO STAGES OF B-CELL MEMORY DEVELOPMENT WITH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KO OKUMURA; CHARLES M. METZLER; THETA T. TSU; LEONARD A. HERZENBERG; LEONORE A. HERZENBERG

    Different approaches to determining the role T cells play in the development of B-cell memory have yielded apparently conflicting answers. Studies with T- deficient mice (adult thymectomized and reconstituted by bone marrow cells (ATX-BM), ~ nu\\/nu) have established that the antigen-induced appearance of memory B lymphocytes which give rise to IgG antibody-forming cells (AFC) requires the help of few (if

  10. Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy C. Rawstron; Fiona L. Bennett; Sheila J. M. O'Connor; Marwan Kwok; James A. L. Fenton; Marieth Plummer; Ruth de Tute; Roger G. Owen; Stephen J. Richards; Andrew S. Jack; Peter Hillmen

    2008-01-01

    Background A diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) requires a count of over 5000 circulating CLL-phenotype cells per cubic millimeter. Asymptomatic persons with fewer CLL-phenotype cells have monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). The goal of this study was to investigate the relation between MBL and CLL. Methods We investigated 1520 subjects who were 62 to 80 years of age with a

  11. Tn polyagglutinability occurring in a patient with B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wallner, M; Waldner, R

    1985-11-01

    A case of polymorphic immunocytoma (B cell lymphoma) coinciding with expression of Tn antigen on a population of erythrocytes is presented. Tn activation was found incidentally by screening blood samples of patients suffering from hematologic malignancies with a Tn specific lectin from Salvia sclarea. So far, Tn activation has been reported only in apparently healthy subjects or in subjects suffering from or developing myeloid leukemia. PMID:3933597

  12. Novel approaches to immunotherapy for B-cell malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renier J. Brentjens

    2004-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer refers to a wide array of novel therapeutic interventions that harness the immune system to target\\u000a and eradicate malignant cells in the host. Advances in the understanding of how tumor cells evade host immune detection, coupled\\u000a with improved gene transduction technologies, have enabled investigators to propose and test novel immune-based therapies\\u000a for B-cell malignancies. As a result,

  13. Development of B-cell memory and effector function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1996-01-01

    The past year has seen significant advances in our understanding of molecules that both positively and negatively regulate B- and T-cell responses. Of particular interest is the lethal phenotype of CTLA-4 deficient mice, which has illuminated the importance of downregulation of T-cell responses and the increasingly complicated role of CD40 and its ligand in directing both T- and B-cell priming.

  14. Inducible resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis in B cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L ROTHSTEIN

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis produced in B cells through Fas (APO-1, CD95) triggering is regulated by signals derived from other surface receptors: CD40 engagement produces upregulation of Fas expression and marked susceptibility to Fas-induced cell death, whereas antigen receptor engagement, or IL-4R engagement, inhibits Fas killing and in so doing induces a state of Fas-resistance, even in otherwise sensitive, CD40-stimulated targets. Surface immunoglobulin

  15. CD3-Positive B Cells: A Storage-Dependent Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Angela; Möbs, Christian; Raifer, Hartmann; Wiendl, Heinz; Hertl, Michael; Eming, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    The majority of clinical studies requires extensive management of human specimen including e.g. overnight shipping of blood samples in order to convey the samples in a central laboratory or to simultaneously analyze large numbers of patients. Storage of blood samples for periods of time before in vitro/ex vivo testing is known to influence the antigen expression on the surface of lymphocytes. In this context, the present results show for the first time that the T cell antigen CD3 can be substantially detected on the surface of human B cells after ex vivo storage and that the degree of this phenomenon critically depends on temperature and duration after blood withdrawal. The appearance of CD3 on the B cell surface seems to be a result of contact-dependent antigen exchange between T and B lymphocytes and is not attributed to endogenous production by B cells. Since cellular subsets are often classified by phenotypic analyses, our results indicate that ex vivo cellular classification in peripheral blood might result in misleading interpretations. Therefore, in order to obtain results reflecting the in vivo situation, it is suggested to minimize times of ex vivo blood storage after isolation of PBMC. Moreover, to enable reproducibility of results between different research groups and multicenter studies, we would emphasize the necessity to specify and standardize the storage conditions, which might be the basis of particular findings. PMID:25329048

  16. Artesunate Abolishes Germinal Center B Cells and Inhibits Autoimmune Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haochu

    2014-01-01

    The antimalarial drug artemisinin and its derivatives exhibit potent immunosuppressive activity in several autoimmune disease models, however the mechanisms are not well-understood. This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects and the underlying mechanisms of the artemisinin analog artesunate using the K/BxN mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. The well-studied disease mechanisms of K/BxN model allowed us to pinpoint the effect of artesunate on disease. Artesunate treatment prevented arthritis development in young K/BxN mice by inhibiting germinal center (GC) formation and production of autoantibodies. In adult K/BxN mice with established arthritis, artesunate diminished GC B cells in a few days. However, artesunate did not affect the follicular helper T cells (Tfh). In contrast to the spontaneous K/BxN model, artesunate treatment exerted minor influence on K/BxN serum transfer induced arthritis suggesting that artesunate has minimal effect on inflammatory responses downstream of antibody production. Finally, we showed that artesunate preferentially inhibits proliferating GC B cells. These results identify GC B cells as a target of artesunate and provide a new rationale for using artemisinin analogues to treat autoimmune diseases mediated by autoantibodies. PMID:25116436

  17. Ia-restricted B-B cell interaction. I. The MHC haplotype of bone marrow cells present during B cell ontogeny dictates the self-recognition specificity of B cells in the polyclonal B cell activation by a B cell differentiation factor, B151-TRF2.

    PubMed

    Ono, S; Takahama, Y; Hamaoka, T

    1987-11-15

    We have demonstrated that B cell recognition of Ia molecules is involved in polyclonal B cell differentiation by B151-TRF2. The present study was undertaken to examine the Ia recognition specificity of B151-TRF2-responsive B cells in fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-allogeneic P1----P2, semiallogeneic P1----(P1 x P2)F1, and double donor (P1 + P2)----(P1 x P2)F1 and (P1 + P2)----P1 radiation bone marrow chimeras. The B cells from both P1----P2 and P1----(P1 x P2)F1 chimeras could give rise to in vitro immunoglobulin M-producing cells upon stimulation with B151-TRF2 comparable in magnitude to that of normal P1 B cells, and their responses were inhibited by anti-I-AP1 but not by anti-I-AP2 monoclonal antibody even in the presence of mitomycin C-treated T cell-depleted P2 spleen cells as auxiliary cells. In contrast, the B151-TRF2 responses of P1 B cells isolated from both (P1 + P2)----(P1 x P2)F1 and (P1 + P2)----P1 double bone marrow chimeras became sensitive to the inhibition of not only anti-I-AP1 but also anti-I-AP2 monoclonal antibody only when the culture was conducted in the presence of P2 auxiliary cells, demonstrating that they adaptively differentiate to recognize as self-structures allogeneic as well as syngeneic Ia molecules. Moreover, the experiments utilizing B cells from H-2-congenic mice and B cell hybridoma clones as auxiliary cells revealed that B151-TRF2-responsive B cells recognize Ia molecules expressed on B cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B151-TRF2-responsive B cells recognize Ia molecules expressed by B cells as self-structures and that their self-recognition specificity is dictated by the MHC haplotype of bone marrow cells present during the B cell ontogeny but not by the MHC haplotype of a radiation-resistant host environment. PMID:3316381

  18. Ia-restricted B-B cell interaction. I. The MHC haplotype of bone marrow cells present during B cell ontogeny dictates the self-recognition specificity of B cells in the polyclonal B cell activation by a B cell differentiation factor, B151-TRF2

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, S.; Takahama, Y.; Hamaoka, T.

    1987-11-15

    We have demonstrated that B cell recognition of Ia molecules is involved in polyclonal B cell differentiation by B151-TRF2. The present study was undertaken to examine the Ia recognition specificity of B151-TRF2-responsive B cells in fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-allogeneic P1----P2, semiallogeneic P1----(P1 x P2)F1, and double donor (P1 + P2)----(P1 x P2)F1 and (P1 + P2)----P1 radiation bone marrow chimeras. The B cells from both P1----P2 and P1----(P1 x P2)F1 chimeras could give rise to in vitro immunoglobulin M-producing cells upon stimulation with B151-TRF2 comparable in magnitude to that of normal P1 B cells, and their responses were inhibited by anti-I-AP1 but not by anti-I-AP2 monoclonal antibody even in the presence of mitomycin C-treated T cell-depleted P2 spleen cells as auxiliary cells. In contrast, the B151-TRF2 responses of P1 B cells isolated from both (P1 + P2)----(P1 x P2)F1 and (P1 + P2)----P1 double bone marrow chimeras became sensitive to the inhibition of not only anti-I-AP1 but also anti-I-AP2 monoclonal antibody only when the culture was conducted in the presence of P2 auxiliary cells, demonstrating that they adaptively differentiate to recognize as self-structures allogeneic as well as syngeneic Ia molecules. Moreover, the experiments utilizing B cells from H-2-congenic mice and B cell hybridoma clones as auxiliary cells revealed that B151-TRF2-responsive B cells recognize Ia molecules expressed on B cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that B151-TRF2-responsive B cells recognize Ia molecules expressed by B cells as self-structures and that their self-recognition specificity is dictated by the MHC haplotype of bone marrow cells present during the B cell ontogeny but not by the MHC haplotype of a radiation-resistant host environment.

  19. Using flow cytometry to screen patients for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP deficiency and XIAP deficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca A. Marsh; Jack J. Bleesing; Alexandra H. Filipovich

    2010-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that is most often caused by mutations in SH2D1A, the gene encoding signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). XLP caused by SAP deficiency is most often characterized by fulminant mononucleosis\\/EBV- associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. XLP has also been found to be caused by mutations in BIRC4, the gene

  20. Revisiting the B-cell compartment in mouse and humans: more than one B-cell subset exists in the marginal zone and beyond

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The immunological roles of B-cells are being revealed as increasingly complex by functions that are largely beyond their commitment to differentiate into plasma cells and produce antibodies, the key molecular protagonists of innate immunity, and also by their compartmentalisation, a more recently acknowledged property of this immune cell category. For decades, B-cells have been recognised by their expression of an immunoglobulin that serves the function of an antigen receptor, which mediates intracellular signalling assisted by companion molecules. As such, B-cells were considered simple in their functioning compared to the other major type of immune cell, the T-lymphocytes, which comprise conventional T-lymphocyte subsets with seminal roles in homeostasis and pathology, and non-conventional T-lymphocyte subsets for which increasing knowledge is accumulating. Since the discovery that the B-cell family included two distinct categories — the non-conventional, or extrafollicular, B1 cells, that have mainly been characterised in the mouse; and the conventional, or lymph node type, B2 cells — plus the detailed description of the main B-cell regulator, Fc?RIIb, and the function of CD40+ antigen presenting cells as committed/memory B-cells, progress in B-cell physiology has been slower than in other areas of immunology. Cellular and molecular tools have enabled the revival of innate immunity by allowing almost all aspects of cellular immunology to be re-visited. As such, B-cells were found to express “Pathogen Recognition Receptors” such as TLRs, and use them in concert with B-cell signalling during innate and adaptive immunity. An era of B-cell phenotypic and functional analysis thus began that encompassed the study of B-cell microanatomy principally in the lymph nodes, spleen and mucosae. The novel discovery of the differential localisation of B-cells with distinct phenotypes and functions revealed the compartmentalisation of B-cells. This review thus aims to describe novel findings regarding the B-cell compartments found in the mouse as a model organism, and in human physiology and pathology. It must be emphasised that some differences are noticeable between the mouse and human systems, thus increasing the complexity of B-cell compartmentalisation. Special attention will be given to the (lymph node and spleen) marginal zones, which represent major crossroads for B-cell types and functions and a challenge for understanding better the role of B-cell specificities in innate and adaptive immunology. PMID:23194300

  1. XBP-1 regulates signal transduction, transcription factors and bone marrow colonization in B cells

    E-print Network

    Hu, Chih-Chi Andrew

    XBP-1, a transcription factor that drives the unfolded protein response (UPR), is activated in B cells when they differentiate to plasma cells. Here, we show that in the B cells, whose capacity to secrete IgM has been ...

  2. A germinal center-independent pathway generates unswitched memory B cells early in the primary response.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Justin J; Pape, Kathryn A; Jenkins, Marc K

    2012-03-12

    Memory B cells can be produced from the classical germinal center (GC) pathway or a less understood GC-independent route. We used antigen-based cell enrichment to assess the relative contributions of these pathways to the polyclonal memory B cell pool. We identified a CD38(+) GL7(+) B cell precursor population that differentiated directly into IgM(+) or isotype-switched (sw) Ig(+) memory B cells in a GC-independent fashion in response to strong CD40 stimulation. Alternatively, CD38(+) GL7(+) B cell precursors had the potential to become Bcl-6(+) GC cells that then generated primarily swIg(+) memory B cells. These results demonstrate that early IgM(+) and swIg(+) memory B cells are products of a GC-independent pathway, whereas later switched Ig(+) memory B cells are products of GC cells. PMID:22370719

  3. A germinal center–independent pathway generates unswitched memory B cells early in the primary response

    PubMed Central

    Pape, Kathryn A.; Jenkins, Marc K.

    2012-01-01

    Memory B cells can be produced from the classical germinal center (GC) pathway or a less understood GC-independent route. We used antigen-based cell enrichment to assess the relative contributions of these pathways to the polyclonal memory B cell pool. We identified a CD38+ GL7+ B cell precursor population that differentiated directly into IgM+ or isotype-switched (sw) Ig+ memory B cells in a GC-independent fashion in response to strong CD40 stimulation. Alternatively, CD38+ GL7+ B cell precursors had the potential to become Bcl-6+ GC cells that then generated primarily swIg+ memory B cells. These results demonstrate that early IgM+ and swIg+ memory B cells are products of a GC-independent pathway, whereas later switched Ig+ memory B cells are products of GC cells. PMID:22370719

  4. B Cell Receptor Signaling-Based Index as a Biomarker for the Loss of Peripheral Immune Tolerance in Autoreactive B Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Taras; Zerbe, Gary O.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the loss of peripherally induced B cell immune tolerance in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and establishes a novel signaling-based measure of activation in a subset of autoreactive B cells - the Induced tolerance status index (ITSI). Naturally occurring naïve autoreactive B cells can escape the “classical” tolerogenic mechanisms of clonal deletion and receptor editing, but remain peripherally tolerized through B cell receptor (BCR) signaling inhibition (postdevelopmental “receptor tuning” or anergy). ITSI is a statistical index that numerically determines the level of homology between activation patterns of BCR signaling intermediaries in B cells that are either tolerized or activated by auto antigen exposure, and thus quantifies the level of peripheral immune tolerance. The index is based on the logistic regression analysis of phosphorylation levels in a panel of BCR signaling proteins. Our results demonstrate a new approach to identifying autoreactive B cells based on their BCR signaling features. PMID:25057856

  5. Gene Expression Profiling of B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Reveals a Homogeneous Phenotype Related to Memory B Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Klein; Yuhai Tu; Gustavo A. Stolovitzky; Michela Mattioli; Giorgio Cattoretti; Hervé Husson; Arnold Freedman; Giorgio Inghirami; Lilla Cro; Luca Baldini; Antonino Neri; Andrea Califano; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

    B cell-derived chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) represents a common malignancy whose cell derivation and pathogenesis are unknown. Recent studies have shown that ? 50% of CLLs display hypermutated immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) sequences and a more fa- vorable prognosis, suggesting that they may represent a distinct subset of CLLs which have transited through germinal centers (GCs), the physiologic site of

  6. CD22 Regulates Adaptive and Innate Immune Responses of B Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norihito Kawasaki; Christoph Rademacher; James C. Paulson

    2011-01-01

    B cells sense microenvironments through the B cell receptor (BCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While signals from BCR and TLRs synergize to distinguish self from nonself, inappropriate regulation can result in development of autoimmune disease. Here we show that CD22, an inhibitory co-receptor of BCR, also negatively regulates TLR signaling in B cells. CD22-deficient (Cd22–\\/–) B cells exhibit hyperactivation in

  7. Not always the bad guys: B cells as regulators of autoimmune pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Fillatreau; David Gray; Stephen M. Anderton

    2008-01-01

    When B cells react aggressively against self, the potential for pathology is extreme. It is therefore not surprising that B-cell depletion is seen as an attractive therapy in autoimmune diseases. However, B cells can also be essential for restraining unwanted autoaggressive T-cell responses. Recent advances have pointed to interleukin-10 (IL-10) production as a key component in B-cell-mediated immune regulation. In

  8. Fanca deficiency reduces A/T transitions in somatic hypermutation and alters class switch recombination junctions in mouse B cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy Vy; Riou, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to bone marrow failure, congenital abnormalities, and increased risk for leukemia and cancer. Cells with loss-of-function mutations in the FANC pathway are characterized by chromosome fragility, altered mutability, and abnormal regulation of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR) enable B cells to produce high-affinity antibodies of various isotypes. Both processes are initiated after the generation of dG:dU mismatches by activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Whereas SHM involves an error-prone repair process that introduces novel point mutations into the Ig gene, the mismatches generated during CSR are processed to create double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in DNA, which are then repaired by the NHEJ pathway. As several lines of evidence suggest a possible role for the FANC pathway in SHM and CSR, we analyzed both processes in B cells derived from Fanca?/? mice. Here we show that Fanca is required for the induction of transition mutations at A/T residues during SHM and that despite globally normal CSR function in splenic B cells, Fanca is required during CSR to stabilize duplexes between pairs of short microhomology regions, thereby impeding short-range recombination downstream of DSB formation. PMID:24799500

  9. Accumulation of Self-Reactive Naïve and Memory B Cell Reveals Sequential Defects in B Cell Tolerance Checkpoints in Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Bombardieri, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by breach of self-tolerance towards nuclear antigens resulting in high affinity circulating autoantibodies. Although peripheral B cell disturbances have been described in SS, with predominance of naïve and reduction of memory B cells, the stage at which errors in B cell tolerance checkpoints accumulate in SS is unknown. Here we determined the frequency of self- and poly-reactive B cells in the circulating naïve and memory compartment of SS patients. Single CD27?IgD+ naïve, CD27+IgD+ memory unswitched and CD27+IgD? memory switched B cells were sorted by FACS from the peripheral blood of 7 SS patients. To detect the frequency of polyreactive and autoreactive clones, paired Ig VH and VL genes were amplified, cloned and expressed as recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) displaying identical specificity of the original B cells. IgVH and VL gene usage and immunoreactivity of SS rmAbs were compared with those obtained from healthy donors (HD). From a total of 353 VH and 293 VL individual sequences, we obtained 114 rmAbs from circulating naïve (n?=?66) and memory (n?=?48) B cells of SS patients. Analysis of the Ig V gene repertoire did not show significant differences in SS vs. HD B cells. In SS patients, circulating naïve B cells (with germline VH and VL genes) displayed a significant accumulation of clones autoreactive against Hep-2 cells compared to HD (43.1% vs. 25%). Moreover, we demonstrated a progressive increase in the frequency of circulating anti-nuclear naïve (9.3%), memory unswitched (22.2%) and memory switched (27.3%) B cells in SS patients. Overall, these data provide novel evidence supporting the existence of both early and late defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints in patients with SS resulting in the accumulation of autoreactive naïve and memory B cells. PMID:25535746

  10. Human germinal center B cells differ from naive and memory B cells by their aggregated MHC class II-rich compartments lacking HLA-DO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecile Chalouni; Jacques Banchereau; Anne B. Vogt; Virginia Pascual; Jean Davoust

    2003-01-01

    To generate memory B cells bearing high-affinity antibodies, naive B cells first encounter antigen in the T cell-rich areas of secondary lymphoid organs. There, they are activated by antigen-specific T cells and become germinal center (GC) founder B cells. GC founders enter the GC to become centroblasts that proliferate and mutate their BCR. Centroblasts differentiate into centrocytes that undergo selection,

  11. B Cell Adaptor Containing Src Homology 2 Domain (BASH) Links B Cell Receptor Signaling to the Activation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachiyo Tsuji; Mariko Okamoto; Koichi Yamada; Noriaki Okamoto; Ryo Goitsuka; Rudiger Arnold; Friedemann Kiefer; Daisuke Kitamura

    The B cell adaptor containing src homology 2 domain (BASH; also termed BLNK or SLP-65), is crucial for B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated activation, proliferation, and differentia- tion of B cells. BCR-mediated tyrosine-phosphorylation of BASH creates binding sites for signaling effectors such as phospholipase C ? (PLC ? )2 and Vav, while the function of its COOH-terminal src homology 2

  12. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  13. Blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Chen, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Renal transplantation has become one of the most common surgical procedures performed to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney from a donor. It can help patients with kidney failure live decades longer. However, renal transplantation also faces a risk of developing various blood disorders. The blood disorders typically associated with renal transplantation can be divided into two main categories: (1) Common disorders including post-transplant anemia (PTA), post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE), and post-transplant cytopenias (PTC, leukopenia/neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and pancytopenia); and (2) Uncommon but serious disorders including hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS), thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), therapy-related myelodysplasia (t-MDS), and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML). Although many etiological factors involve the development of post-transplant blood disorders, immunosuppressive agents, and viral infections could be the two major contributors to most blood disorders and cause hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency by suppressing hematopoietic function of bone marrow. Hematological abnormalities and immunodeficiency will result in severe clinical outcomes in renal transplant recipients. Understanding how blood disorders develop will help cure these life-threatening complications. A potential therapeutic strategy against post-transplant blood disorders should focus on tapering immunosuppression or replacing myelotoxic immunosuppressive drugs with lower toxic alternatives, recognizing and treating promptly the etiological virus, bacteria, or protozoan, restoring both hematopoietic function of bone marrow and normal blood counts, and improving kidney graft survival. PMID:25853131

  14. Dysregulated TCL1 promotes multiple classes of mature B cell lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina K. Hoyer; Samuel W. French; Devin E. Turner; Mai T. N. Nguyen; Mathilde Renard; Cindy S. Malone; Sonja Knoetig; Chen-Feng Qi; Thomas T. Su; Hilde Cheroutre; Randolph Wall; David J. Rawlings; Herbert C. Morse III; Michael A. Teitell

    2002-01-01

    The TCL1 protooncogene is overexpressed in many mature B cell lymphomas, especially from AIDS patients. To determine whether aberrant expression promotes B cell transformation, we generated a murine model in which a TCL1 transgene was overexpressed at similar levels in both B and T cells. Strikingly, transgenic mice developed Burkitt-like lymphoma (BLL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with

  15. Human Immunoglobulin M Memory B Cells Controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae Infections Are Generated in the Spleen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Kruetzmann; M. Manuela Rosado; Holger Weber; Ulrich Germing; Olivier Tournilhac; Hans-Hartmut Peter; Reinhard Berner; Anke Peters; Thomas Boehm; Alessandro Plebani; Isabella Quinti; Rita Carsetti

    Splenectomized and asplenic patients have a high incidence of infections by encapsulated bacteria and do not respond to polysaccharide vaccines. To understand whether the absence of the spleen is associated with a defined B cell defect, we analyzed B cell subsets in the peripheral blood. We found that a population of B cells known as immunoglobulin (Ig)M memory is lacking

  16. B cells as under-appreciated mediators of non-autoimmune inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Nikolajczyk, Barbara S.

    2010-01-01

    B lymphocytes play roles in many autoimmune diseases characterized by unresolved inflammation, and B cell ablation is proving to be a relatively safe, effective treatment for such diseases. B cells function, in part, as important sources of regulatory cytokines in autoimmune disease, but B cell cytokines also play roles in other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases. B cell ablation may therefore benefit inflammatory disease patients in addition to its demonstrated efficacy in autoimmune disease. Current ablation drugs clear both pro- and anti-inflammatory B cell subsets, which may unexpectedly exacerbate some pathologies. This possibility argues that a more thorough understanding of B cell function in human inflammatory disease is required to safely harness the clinical promise of B cell ablation. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and periodontal disease (PD) are two inflammatory diseases characterized by little autoimmunity. These diseases are linked by coincident presentation and alterations in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent B cell cytokine production, which may identify B cell ablation as a new therapy for co-affected individuals. Further analysis of the role B cells and B cell cytokines play in T2D, PD and other inflammatory diseases is required to justify testing B cell depletion therapies on a broader range of patients. PMID:20382544

  17. Identification of uniquely expressed transcription factors in highly purified B-cell lymphoma samples

    E-print Network

    Peterson, Carsten

    Identification of uniquely expressed transcription factors in highly purified B-cell lymphoma is not used for classification of B-cell lymphomas (BCLs). Traditionally, BCLs are diagnosed based associated to the tumor cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL

  18. C(A T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing

    E-print Network

    Jacobsen, Steve

    Cm C(A T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing Cindy Sue Malone*, Maurine D) and myeloma are lymphoid malignancies that arise from terminally differentiated B cells. Interestingly, PEL do not express immunoglobulins or most B lineage-specific genes. The B cell-specific B29 (Ig CD79b) gene

  19. Changes in H2A.Z occupancy and DNA methylation during B-cell lymphomagenesis

    E-print Network

    Henikoff, Steven

    . Here, we ask whether a similar relationship exists in mammals, using a mouse B-cell lymphoma modelResearch Changes in H2A.Z occupancy and DNA methylation during B-cell lymphomagenesis Melissa L sites (TSSs) during MYC-induced transformation of pre-B cells and, subsequently, during lymphomagenesis

  20. B cells have distinct roles in host protection against different nematode parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    B cells may mediate protective responses against nematode parasites by supporting Th2 cell development and/or by producing antibodies. To examine this, B cell-deficient mice were inoculated with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) or Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Hp). B cell-deficient and wild type (WT...

  1. Downregulation of FOXP1 is required during germinal center B-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Roa, Sergio; Bunting, Karen L.; Aznar, María Angela; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita; Fontán, Lorena; Fresquet, Vicente; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; Robles, Eloy F.; De Smedt, Linde; Sagaert, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation and germinal center (GC) formation are dependent on the interplay between BCL6 and other transcriptional regulators. FOXP1 is a transcription factor that regulates early B-cell development, but whether it plays a role in mature B cells is unknown. Analysis of human tonsillar B-cell subpopulations revealed that FOXP1 shows the opposite expression pattern to BCL6, suggesting that FOXP1 regulates the transition from resting follicular B cell to activated GC B cell. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and gene expression assays on B cells indicated that FOXP1 acts as a transcriptional activator and repressor of genes involved in the GC reaction, half of which are also BCL6 targets. To study FOXP1 function in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing human FOXP1 in lymphoid cells. These mice exhibited irregular formation of splenic GCs, showing a modest increase in naïve and marginal-zone B cells and a significant decrease in GC B cells. Furthermore, aberrant expression of FOXP1 impaired transcription of noncoding ?1 germline transcripts and inhibited efficient class switching to the immunoglobulin G1 isotype. These studies show that FOXP1 is physiologically downregulated in GC B cells and that aberrant expression of FOXP1 impairs mechanisms triggered by B-cell activation, potentially contributing to B-cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:23580662

  2. Dual-reactive B cells are autoreactive and highly enriched in the plasmablast and memory B cell subsets of autoimmune mice

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Emilie M.; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Leahy, Katelyn; Swanson, Cristina L.; Rubtsov, Anatoly V.; Torres, Raul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rare dual-reactive B cells expressing two types of Ig light or heavy chains have been shown to participate in immune responses and differentiate into IgG+ cells in healthy mice. These cells are generated more often in autoreactive mice, leading us to hypothesize they might be relevant in autoimmunity. Using mice bearing Igk allotypic markers and a wild-type Ig repertoire, we demonstrate that the generation of dual-? B cells increases with age and disease progression in autoimmune-prone MRL and MRL/lpr mice. These dual-reactive cells express markers of activation and are more frequently autoreactive than single-reactive B cells. Moreover, dual-? B cells represent up to half of plasmablasts and memory B cells in autoimmune mice, whereas they remain infrequent in healthy mice. Differentiation of dual-? B cells into plasmablasts is driven by MRL genes, whereas the maintenance of IgG+ cells is partly dependent on Fas inactivation. Furthermore, dual-? B cells that differentiate into plasmablasts retain the capacity to secrete autoantibodies. Overall, our study indicates that dual-reactive B cells significantly contribute to the plasmablast and memory B cell populations of autoimmune-prone mice suggesting a role in autoimmunity. PMID:22927551

  3. Primary rectal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with ulcerative colitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hiyama, Kazuhiro; Terashima, Hideo; Nakano, Yoritaka; Kamiga, Masahiro; Harada, Kyoichi; Horiguchi, Hisashi; Mamiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We need to be aware of primary intestinal lymphoproliferative disease (PILD) associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). We should carefully monitor UC patients, particularly patients who meet the following conditions; a previous Epstein-Barr virus infection, treatment duration ?4 years, male, and age ?50 years.

  4. Follicular Lymphoma Presenting with Leptomeningeal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ricardo; Costa, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma is generally an indolent B cell lymphoproliferative disorder of transformed follicular center B cells. Central nervous system metastasis is a very rare complication portending a very poor prognosis. We report a rare case of follicular lymphoma presenting with leptomeningeal involvement achieving a complete remission after initial therapy. PMID:25544910

  5. Characterization of tumor-associated B-cell subsets in patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gryschok, Luise; Malcher, Joke; Wennhold, Kerstin; Garcia-Marquez, Maria; Herbold, Till; Neuhaus, Laura S.; Becker, Hans J.; Fiedler, Anne; Scherwitz, Pascal; Koslowsky, Thomas; Hake, Roland; Stippel, Dirk L.; Hölscher, Arnulf H.; Eidt, Sebastian; Hallek, Michael; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A precise understanding of the mechanisms by which human immune cell subsets affect tumor biology will be critical for successful treatment of cancer using immunotherapeutic approaches. Recent evidence suggests that B cells can both promote and inhibit the development and progression of tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the composition of the B-cell infiltrates in colorectal cancers (CRC) in order to gain further insight into the role of B cells in CRC. Experimental Design: In this study we characterized B-cell subsets in primary tumors (n=38), metastases (n=6) and blood (n=46) of 51 patients with a diagnosis of CRC and blood of 10 healthy controls. B-cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry. Results: Peripheral blood of CRC patients contained a higher percentage of memory B cells than that of age-matched healthy controls. Furthermore, the percentage of B cells within tumors was higher than that in the peripheral blood of CRC patients while metastases were typically devoid of tumor-infiltrating B cells. Tumor-associated B cells were enriched for activated and terminally differentiated B cells. Relevant proportions of regulatory B cells could only be detected in advanced cancer and metastases. Conclusion: B cells constitute a significant proportion of the immune infiltrate in CRC. The B-cell infiltrate of primary CRC is characterized by an accumulation of terminally differentiated memory B cells or plasma cells suggestive of a specific immune response against the tumor. However advanced tumors and metastases are also infiltrated by a considerable number of regulatory B cells. PMID:25026291

  6. Cluster formation among small resting B lymphocytes leading to B cell activation.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Y; Ono, S; Ishihara, K; Hamaoka, T

    1989-01-01

    Intercellular contacts are thought to be a crucial event in various aspects of immune responses. We have recently suggested that the self class II MHC-restricted B-B cell interaction is a prerequisite process in the polyclonal B cell differentiation induced by a novel T cell-derived lymphokine B151-TRF2 or LPS. The results have led us to the possibility that such a class II MHC-restricted B-B cell interaction promotes the formation of B cell clusters responsible for the development of IgM-producing cells upon subsequent stimulation with the polyclonal B cell activator. To examine directly this possibility, the present study has utilized a recently devised ACAS470 work station capable of sorting out desired cells in a tissue culture plate in situ. Clusters and non-clusters were observed after 2 day preculture of murine resting B cells in the absence of the polyclonal B cell activator. Interestingly, B cells in clusters purified by the ACAS470 gave rise to IgM-producing cells when stimulated with B151-TRF2 or LPS for an additional 2 days, whereas non-clustered B cells failed to differentiate. Moreover, such a B cell activation was not observed when the 2 day preculture of the resting B cells was conducted in the presence of anti-class II MHC mAb but not of anti-class I MHC mAb. Thus, the present results support the notion that cluster formation among small resting B cells accompanying the class II MHC-restricted B-B cell interaction makes the B cells responsive to differentiation signals of polyclonal B cell activator. PMID:2487675

  7. Mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of Teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Irene; Zhang, Yong-An; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2012-01-01

    As physical barriers that separate teleost fish from the external environment, mucosae are also active immunological sites that protect them against exposure to microbes and stressors. In mammals, the sites where antigens are sampled from mucosal surfaces and where stimulation of naive T and B lymphocytes occurs are known as inductive sites and are constituted by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). According to anatomical location, the MALT in teleost fish is subdivided into gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissue (GIALT). All MALT contain a variety of leukocytes, including, but not limited to, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, macrophages and granulocytes. Secretory immunoglobulins are produced mainly by plasmablasts and plasma cells, and play key roles in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis. Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD, in which IgM was thought to be the only one responding to pathogens both in systemic and mucosal compartments. However, a third teleost immunoglobulin class, IgT/IgZ, was discovered in 2005, and it has recently been shown to behave as the prevalent immunoglobulin in gut mucosal immune responses. The purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of mucosal immunoglobulins and B cells of fish MALT. Moreover, we attempt to integrate the existing knowledge on both basic and applied research findings on fish mucosal immune responses, with the goal to provide new directions that may facilitate the development of novel vaccination strategies that stimulate not only systemic, but also mucosal immunity. PMID:22133710

  8. B-B cell interaction involved in polyclonal B cell activation is restricted by I-A but not by I-E molecules.

    PubMed

    Takahama, Y; Ono, S; Ishihara, K; Hirano, H; Hamaoka, T

    1990-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the class II MHC restricted B-B cell interaction is involved in the polyclonal differentiation of unprimed murine B cells into IgM-producing cells induced by a T cell-derived lymphokine B151-TRF2 or bacterial LPS. The present study has addressed the question of whether I-A and/or I-E molecules function as restriction elements for the B-B cell interaction. The results revealed that (B10 x B10.BR)F1(H-2b/k) B cells could be separated into I-Ab- and 1-Ak-restricted subpopulations by their ability to bind to B10(H-2b) or B10.BR(H-2k) B cell monolayers, whereas an I-E-restricted F1 B cell population was not obtained. Moreover, B10-derived B cells isolated from (B10 + B10.BR) - (B10 x B10.BR)F1 but not from B10 - (B10 x B10.BR)F1 radiation-induced bone marrow chimeras acquired newly the ability to co-operate with mitomycin C-treated auxilary B cells expressing I-Ak but not I-Ek molecules. Thus, these results indicate that I-E molecules, unlike I-A molecules, do not serve as restriction elements for the B-B cell interaction, and that I-A and I-E molecules on B cells play functionally disparate roles in the activation of polyclonal B cells. PMID:1965143

  9. Primary B cell lymphoma of paranasal sinuses: a diagnostic surprise.

    PubMed

    Anand, T S; Saxena, Y K; Shashidhar, T B; Kumar, Soumitra

    2008-09-01

    Primary lymphomas of paranasal cavities are rather uncommon entities. They have a variable presentation from fulminant destructive manifestations to chronic indolent type of disease. Chronic indolent form may mimic invasive fungal sinusitis in its presentation. Unless high index of suspicion is held and appropriate histopathology sections are taken from specimen, its diagnosis can be deceitful. We here by report a case of primary lymphoma of the paranasal sinuses which was radiologically and clinically suspected to be a invasive fungal sinusitis and later was proven to be a B cell lymphoma. Clinical similarities between lymphoma and invasive fungal sinusitis along with management issues are discussed in this article. PMID:23120556

  10. [Clarithromycin therapy of a B cell MALT lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Danilko, L; Haas, K; Schönherr, U; Tschurtschenthaler, G

    2013-05-01

    Presentation of a 34-year-old patient with a conjunctival tumor of the left upper circumference of the eyeball clinically presenting as a salmon-pink colored conjunctival tumor. The incisional biopsy and immunohistochemical work-up revealed an extranodal conjunctival mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the marginal zone B cell type. The therapy comprised a currently experimental therapy scheme with 500 mg clarithromycin 3 times per day for 21 days. This therapy achieved a significant tumor regression. PMID:23224128

  11. Emerging drugs for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Patrizia; Younes, Anas

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent non-Hodgkin lymphoma in western countries. Despite the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy, the prognosis is still poor and almost one-third of patients fail or relapse after first-line treatment. Gene expression profiling has identified three main signatures related to subgroups with different biological characteristics and responses to treatment. Novel agents targeting the oncogenic drivers of these subsets are currently under investigation with the aim of providing a tailored approach and avoiding unnecessary toxicity. Herein, we review the emerging therapies for DLBCL with a focus on preclinical and early clinical trials as well as future directions. PMID:25652253

  12. Epstein-Barr virus-associated persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with a distinct 69-base pair deletion in the LMP1 oncogene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Larcher; C. McQuain; C. Berger; M. Mitterer; P. J. Quesenberry; H. P. Huemer; H. Knecht

    1997-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes have been detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of patients with persistent polyclonal\\u000a B-cell lymphocytosis (PPBL). This is consistent with the hypothesis that latent EBV infection is involved in the pathogenesis\\u000a of this disorder. Two EBV-encoded proteins expressed in viral latency are the latent membrane proteins 1 and 2A (LMP1 and\\u000a LMP2A). We have studied the

  13. Altered B-cell homeostasis and excess BAFF in human chronic graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Kristen E.; Kim, Haesook T.; Cutler, Corey S.; Bhuiya, Nazmim S.; Schowalter, Michael; Ho, Vincent T.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Koreth, John; Blazar, Bruce R.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Ritz, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients otherwise cured of malignancy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The presence of alloantibodies and high plasma B cell–activating factor (BAFF) levels in patients with cGVHD suggest that B cells play a role in disease pathogenesis. We performed detailed phenotypic and functional analyses of peripheral B cells in 82 patients after HSCT. Patients with cGVHD had significantly higher BAFF/B-cell ratios compared with patients without cGVHD or healthy donors. In cGVHD, increasing BAFF concentrations correlated with increased numbers of circulating pre–germinal center (GC) B cells and post-GC “plasmablast-like” cells, suggesting in vivo BAFF dependence of these 2 CD27+ B-cell subsets. Circulating CD27+ B cells in cGVHD comprised in vivo activated B cells capable of IgG production without requiring additional antigen stimulation. Serial studies revealed that patients who subsequently developed cGVHD had delayed reconstitution of naive B cells despite persistent BAFF elevation as well as proportional increase in CD27+ B cells in the first year after HSCT. These studies delineate specific abnormalities of B-cell homeostasis in patients with cGVHD and suggest that BAFF targeting agents may be useful in this disease. PMID:19168788

  14. CEACAM1 induces B-cell survival and is essential for protective antiviral antibody production

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Honke, Nadine; Shaabani, Namir; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Seifert, Marc; Pozdeev, Vitaly; Xu, Haifeng C.; Sharma, Piyush; Baldin, Fabian; Marquardsen, Florian; Merches, Katja; Lang, Elisabeth; Kirschning, Carsten; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Florian; Dittmer, Ulf; Küppers, Ralf; Recher, Mike; Hardt, Cornelia; Scheffrahn, Inka; Beauchemin, Nicole; Göthert, Joachim R.; Singer, Bernhard B.; Lang, Philipp A.; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    B cells are essential for antiviral immune defence because they produce neutralizing antibodies, present antigen and maintain the lymphoid architecture. Here we show that intrinsic signalling of CEACAM1 is essential for generating efficient B-cell responses. Although CEACAM1 exerts limited influence on the proliferation of B cells, expression of CEACAM1 induces survival of proliferating B cells via the BTK/Syk/NF-?B-axis. The absence of this signalling cascade in naive Ceacam1?/? mice limits the survival of B cells. During systemic infection with cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus, Ceacam1?/? mice can barely induce neutralizing antibody responses and die early after infection. We find, therefore, that CEACAM1 is a crucial regulator of B-cell survival, influencing B-cell numbers and protective antiviral antibody responses. PMID:25692415

  15. B-cell responses to B-cell activation factor of the TNF family (BAFF) are impaired in the absence of PI3K delta.

    PubMed

    Henley, Thomas; Kovesdi, Dorottya; Turner, Martin

    2008-12-01

    B-cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF) is critical for the survival and maturation of B cells. The molecular mechanisms by which BAFF regulates the survival of developing B cells are becoming better understood. Recent evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating a role for the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in response to BAFF. However, the importance of the PI3K family for BAFF-signalling and the effects of loss of PI3K function on BAFF responses are still unknown. We therefore investigated the BAFF-mediated responses of B cells deficient for the PI3K catalytic subunit P110delta. We find that the loss of P110delta impairs the BAFF-mediated survival of cultured B cells demonstrating a direct role for this member of the PI3K family in regulating the survival of B cells in response to BAFF. P110delta was required for the growth of B cells in response to BAFF and was critical for the upregulation of the receptor for BAFF following BCR crosslinking. Our findings reveal an important role for p110delta in regulating B-cell responses to BAFF. PMID:19016531

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Identifies a Clinically Favorable Subgroup of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Related to Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Rosenwald; George Wright; Karen Leroy; Xin Yu; Philippe Gaulard; Randy D. Gascoyne; Wing C. Chan; Tong Zhao; Corinne Haioun; Timothy C. Greiner; Dennis D. Weisenburger; James C. Lynch; Julie Vose; James O. Armitage; Erlend B. Smeland; Stein Kvaloy; Harald Holte; Jan Delabie; Elias Campo; Emili Montserrat; Armando Lopez-Guillermo; German Ott; H. Konrad Muller-Hermelink; Joseph M. Connors; Rita Braziel; Thomas M. Grogan; Richard I. Fisher; Thomas P. Miller; Michael LeBlanc; Michael Chiorazzi; Hong Zhao; Liming Yang; John Powell; Wyndham H. Wilson; Elaine S. Jaffe; Richard Simon; Richard D. Klausner; Louis M. Staudt

    Using current diagnostic criteria, primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) cannot be distinguished from other types of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) reliably. We used gene expression profiling to develop a more precise molecular diagnosis of PMBL. PMBL patients were considerably younger than other DLBCL patients, and their lymphomas fre- quently involved other thoracic structures but not extrathoracic sites

  17. T cell-B cell thymic cross-talk: maintenance and function of thymic B cells requires cognate CD40-CD40 ligand interaction.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Chiharu; Williams, Joy A; Watanabe, Masashi; Jeon, Hyein; Sharrow, Susan O; Hodes, Richard J

    2014-12-01

    Thymic development requires bidirectional interaction or cross-talk between developing T cells and thymic stromal cells, a relationship that has been best characterized for the interaction between thymocytes and thymic epithelial cells. We have characterized in this article the requirement for similar cross-talk in the maintenance and function of thymic B cells, another population that plays a role in selection of developing thymic T cells. We found that maintenance of thymic B cells is strongly dependent on the presence of mature single-positive thymocytes and on the interactions of these T cells with specific Ag ligand. Maintenance of thymic B cell number is strongly dependent on B cell-autonomous expression of CD40, but not MHC class II, indicating that direct engagement of CD40 on thymic B cells is necessary to support their maintenance and proliferation. Thymic B cells can mediate negative selection of superantigen-specific, self-reactive, single-positive thymocytes, and we show that CD40 expression on B cells is critical for this negative selection. Cross-talk with thymic T cells is thus required to support the thymic B cell population through a pathway that requires cell-autonomous expression of CD40, and that reciprocally functions in negative selection of autoreactive T cells. PMID:25344473

  18. Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in early mouse B cells are mediated by B cell- and Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hwan; Akira, Shizuo; Calame, Kathryn; Beutler, Bruce; Selsing, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and somatic hyperconversion. In general high levels of AID expression are found in mature B cells responding to antigens. However, AID expression and SHM have also been detected in developing B cells from transgenic mice that have a limited Ig repertoire. Here we demonstrate that AID expression and active CSR/SHM occur in developing B cells from wild-type mice. Further, our results suggest that somatic variants arising from developing B cells in the bone marrow further diversify in the spleen of unimmunized mice. AID expression in developing B cells is T-cell independent but involves engagement of B cell and Toll-like receptors. Early AID expression can increase the pre-immune repertoire of developing B cells, may provide an innate population of IgG- and IgA-expressing cells, and could be involved in receptor-editing of self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:17658280

  19. Role of antigen in the B cell response. Specific antigen and the lymphokine IL-5 synergize to drive B cell lymphoma proliferation and differentiation to Ig secretion.

    PubMed

    Swain, S L; Dutton, R W; McKenzie, D; Helstrom, H; English, M

    1988-06-15

    CH12 tumor B cells specific for SRBC require SRBC as Ag and the lymphokine IL-5 (formerly known as BCGFII) for optimal proliferation and differentiation to Ig-secreting cells. Lysed SRBC and IL-5 purified to homogeneity synergize markedly, especially at low B cell densities. A sizable proportion of CH12 cells differentiate into Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells when low numbers of the B lymphoma cells (100 to 3000) are cultured with Ag and IL-5. IL-2 or IL-4 have no effects. Intact SRBC or lysed SRBC are equally effective as sources of Ag. Even in the presence of the mitogens LPS and dextran sulfate, there is a striking requirement for Ag for both proliferation and differentiation at low B cell density. Because of the low cell numbers used, the results strongly suggest that the effects of Ag and lymphokine are directly on the B cell. The cell surface phenotype of the CH12 lymphoma and the kinetics of their response suggest that CH12 B cells have the characteristics of activated B cells. Thus, it appears that Ag binding to surface Ig gives a direct signal to at least some B cells that is critical in the later phases of the B cell response after initial activation during which proliferation and differentiation to Ig secretion occur and that the lymphokine IL-5 costimulates with Ag to mediate this phase of the response. PMID:2453572

  20. The PI3K Isoforms p110? and p110? are Essential for Pre-B Cell Receptor Signaling and B Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Ramadani, Faruk; Bolland, Daniel J.; Garcon, Fabien; Emery, Juliet L.; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Corcoran, Anne E.; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    B cell development is controlled by a series of checkpoints that ensure that the immunoglobulin (Ig)-encoding genes are assembled in frame to produce a functional B cell receptor (BCR) and antibodies. The BCR consists of Ig proteins in complex with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing Ig? and Ig? chains. Whereas the activation of Src and Syk tyrosine kinases is essential for BCR signaling, the pathways that act downstream of these kinases are incompletely defined. Previous work has revealed a key role for the p110? isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in agonist-induced BCR signaling; however, early B cell development and mature B cell survival, which depend on tonic BCR signaling, are not substantially affected by a deficiency in p110?. Here, we show that in the absence of p110?, p110?, but not p110?, can compensate to promote early B cell development in the bone marrow and B cell survival in the spleen. In the absence of both p110? and p110? activities, pre-BCR signaling fails to suppress the production of recombination-activating gene (Rag) protein and to promote developmental progression of B cell progenitors. By contrast, p110? does not contribute to agonist-induced BCR signaling. These studies indicate that either p110? or p110? can mediate tonic signaling from the BCR, but that only p110? can contribute to antigen-dependent activation of B cells. PMID:20699475

  1. A Rare Case of Splenic Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Relapsing Polychondritis of the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gary J.; Mendes, Bryan; Sheykholeslami, Kianoush

    2014-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RPC) is a poorly understood phenomenon associated with cartilaginous inflammation of the ear, nose, tracheobronchial tree, and peripheral joints. Many cases of RPC respond to anti-inflammatories and resolve with no further complications. However, RPC has also been linked to more insidious conditions such as malignancies, autoimmune disorders, vasculitis, or underlying infections. Given the spectrum of associated disorders, patients with RPC may need to be monitored for more insidious underlying conditions. In this case, we report a unique case of bilateral auricular inflammation and nasal inflammation mimicking RPC as the only presenting symptom of splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and we survey related cases in the literature. PMID:25544924

  2. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma confirmed by lung biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunli; Lai, Ning; Zhou, Ying; Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rongchang; Zhang, Nuofu

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a very rare form of large B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma which is characterized by selective growth of lymphoma cells within the lumina of small blood vessels. We report a 64-year-old woman visited hospital because of persistent cough, intermittent high fever as high as 38.7°C and occasional shortness of breath. Her chest CT showed left upper lobe pneumonia and tuberculosis skin test (PPD test) was positive. She was suspected with tuberculosis and treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs. However, her symptoms and general condition deteriorated, and she visited our hospital. She had no abnormal findings on physical examination, but had abnormal laboratory findings, including decreased hemoglobin, elevated LDH and C-reactive protein. Arterial blood gas analysis showed moderate hypoxaemia. A chest radiograph showed pneumonia in whole lung and CT showed diffused ground glass opacities in both lung fields. Lung biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. Primary pulmonary manifestation is very rare. The diagnosis is based on the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:25337283

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jenny; Grubor, Vladimir; Love, Cassandra L; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Richards, Kristy L; Mieczkowski, Piotr A; Dunphy, Cherie; Choi, William; Au, Wing Yan; Srivastava, Gopesh; Lugar, Patricia L; Rizzieri, David A; Lagoo, Anand S; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Mann, Karen P; Flowers, Christopher; Naresh, Kikkeri; Evens, Andrew; Gordon, Leo I; Czader, Magdalena; Gill, Javed I; Hsi, Eric D; Liu, Qingquan; Fan, Alice; Walsh, Katherine; Jima, Dereje; Smith, Lisa L; Johnson, Amy J; Byrd, John C; Luftig, Micah A; Ni, Ting; Zhu, Jun; Chadburn, Amy; Levy, Shawn; Dunson, David; Dave, Sandeep S

    2013-01-22

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of lymphoma in adults. The disease exhibits a striking heterogeneity in gene expression profiles and clinical outcomes, but its genetic causes remain to be fully defined. Through whole genome and exome sequencing, we characterized the genetic diversity of DLBCL. In all, we sequenced 73 DLBCL primary tumors (34 with matched normal DNA). Separately, we sequenced the exomes of 21 DLBCL cell lines. We identified 322 DLBCL cancer genes that were recurrently mutated in primary DLBCLs. We identified recurrent mutations implicating a number of known and not previously identified genes and pathways in DLBCL including those related to chromatin modification (ARID1A and MEF2B), NF-?B (CARD11 and TNFAIP3), PI3 kinase (PIK3CD, PIK3R1, and MTOR), B-cell lineage (IRF8, POU2F2, and GNA13), and WNT signaling (WIF1). We also experimentally validated a mutation in PIK3CD, a gene not previously implicated in lymphomas. The patterns of mutation demonstrated a classic long tail distribution with substantial variation of mutated genes from patient to patient and also between published studies. Thus, our study reveals the tremendous genetic heterogeneity that underlies lymphomas and highlights the need for personalized medicine approaches to treating these patients. PMID:23292937

  4. Towards the Generation of B-Cell Receptor Retrogenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Jenny; Heink, Sylvia; Roth, Edith; Wittmann, Jürgen; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Kamradt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic expression of B- and T-cell receptors (BCRs and TCRs, respectively) has been a standard tool to study lymphocyte development and function in vivo. The generation of transgenic mice is time-consuming and, therefore, a faster method to study the biology of defined lymphocyte receptors in vivo would be highly welcome. Using 2A peptide-linked multicistronic retroviral vectors to transduce stem cells, TCRs can be expressed rapidly in mice of any background. We aimed at adopting this retrogenic technology to the in vivo expression of BCRs. Using a well characterised BCR specific for hen egg lysozyme (HEL), we achieved surface expression of the retrogenically encoded BCR in a Rag-deficient pro B-cell line in vitro. In vivo, retrogenic BCRs were detectable only intracellularly but not on the surface of B cells from wild type or Rag2-deficient mice. This data, together with the fact that no BCR retrogenic mouse model has been published in the 7 years since the method was originally published for TCRs, strongly suggests that achieving BCR-expression in vivo with retrogenic technology is highly challenging if not impossible. PMID:25296340

  5. Idiotypic networks incorporating T-B cell co-operation. The conditions for percolation.

    PubMed

    de Boer, R J; Hogeweg, P

    1989-07-10

    Previous work was concerned with symmetric immune networks of idiotypic interactions amongst B cell clones. The behaviour of these networks was contrary to expectations. This was caused by an extensive percolation of idiotypic signals. Idiotypic activation was thus expected to affect almost all (greater than 10(7] B cell clones. We here analyse whether the incorporation of helper T cells (Th) into these B cell models could cause a reduction in the percolation. Empirical work on idiotypic interactions between Th and B cells however, would suggest that two different idiotypic Th models should be developed: (1) a Th which recognises native B cell idiotypes, i.e. a non-MHC-restricted "ThId" model, and (2) a "classical" MHC-restricted helper T cell model. In the ThId model, the Th-B cell interaction is symmetric. A 2-D model of a Th and a B cell clone that interact idiotypically with each other accounts for various equilibria (i.e. one virgin and two immune states). Introduction of antigen does indeed lead to a state switch from the virgin to the immune state; such a system is thus able to "remember" its exposure to antigen. Idiotypic signals do however, percolate in ThId models via these "B-Th-B-Th" pathways: proliferating Th and B cell clones that interact idiotypically, will always activate each other reciprocally. In the MHC-restricted Th model, Th-B interactions are asymmetric. Because the B cell idiotypes are processed and subsequently presented by MHC molecules, the Th receptor and the native B cell receptor are not expected to be complementary. Thus the Th and the B cells are unable to activate each other reciprocally, and a 2-D Th-B cell model cannot account for idiotypic memory. In contrast to the ThId model, idiotypic activation cannot percolate via "B-Th-B-Th" interactions. Due to the assymmetry idiotypic activation stops at the first Th level. A Th clone cannot activate a subsequent B cell clone: if the B cells recognise the Th cells, they see idiotype but get no help; if the Th cells see the B cells, the B cells are helped but see no idiotype. The percolation along "B-B-B" pathways in these two models is next analysed. Two B cells clones, each helped by one Th clone, are connected by a symmetric idiotypic interaction. It turns out that in both models the second (i.e. anti-idiotypic) B cells (B2) never proliferate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2593685

  6. A two-scale model for correlation between B cell VDJ usage in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals for study of immunology. The dynamics of the adaptive immune system in zebrafish is similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a two-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in primary and secondary immune reactions in zebrafish and to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in distinct zebrafish. The first scale of the model consists of a generalized NK model to simulate the B cell maturation process in the 10-day primary immune response. The second scale uses a delay ordinary differential equation system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of zebrafish. The generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen mostly possess a single VDJ recombination. The probability that mature B cells in two zebrafish have the same VDJ recombination increases with the B cell population size or the B cell selection intensity and decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The ODE model shows a distribution of correlation in the VDJ usage of the B cell repertoires in two six-month-old zebrafish that is highly similar to that from experiment. This work presents a simple theory to explain the experimentally observed correlation in VDJ usage of distinct zebrafish B cell repertoires after an immune response.

  7. Defective B cell tolerance in adenosine deaminase deficiency is corrected by gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha V; Morbach, Henner; Brigida, Immacolata; Ng, Yen-Shing; Aiuti, Alessandro; Meffre, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene defects are among the most common causes of SCID. Restoration of purine metabolism and immune functions can be achieved by enzyme replacement therapy, or more effectively by bone marrow transplant or HSC gene therapy (HSC-GT). However, autoimmune complications and autoantibody production, including anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), frequently occur in ADA-SCID patients after treatment. To assess whether ADA deficiency affects the establishment of B cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells of ADA-SCID patients before and after HSC-GT. We found that before HSC-GT, new emigrant/transitional and mature naive B cells from ADA-SCID patients contained more autoreactive and ANA-expressing clones, indicative of defective central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We further observed impaired B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR functions in B cells after ADA inhibition, which may underlie the defects in B cell tolerance. Strikingly, after HSC-GT, ADA-SCID patients displayed quasi-normal early B cell tolerance checkpoints, as evidenced by restored removal of developing autoreactive and ANA-expressing B cells. Hence, ADA plays an essential role in controlling autoreactive B cell counterselection by regulating BCR and TLR functions. PMID:22622038

  8. Specific peripheral B cell tolerance defects in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Tuure; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Morbach, Henner; Cantaert, Tineke; Lynch, Megan; Preston-Hurlburt, Paula; Herold, Kevan C.; Hafler, David A.; O’Connor, Kevin C.; Meffre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a genetically mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. B cells have recently emerged as major contributors to disease pathogenesis, but the mechanisms responsible for the loss of B cell tolerance in patients with MS are largely unknown. In healthy individuals, developing autoreactive B cells are removed from the repertoire at 2 tolerance checkpoints during early B cell development. Both of these central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints are defective in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we found that only the peripheral, but not the central, B cell tolerance checkpoint is defective in patients with MS. We show that this specific defect is accompanied by increased activation and homeostatic proliferation of mature naive B cells. Interestingly, all of these MS features parallel defects observed in FOXP3-deficient IPEX patients, who harbor nonfunctional Tregs. We demonstrate that in contrast to patients with RA or T1D, bone marrow central B cell selection in MS appears normal in most patients. In contrast, patients with MS suffer from a specific peripheral B cell tolerance defect that is potentially attributable to impaired Treg function and that leads to the accumulation of autoreactive B cell clones in their blood. PMID:23676463

  9. Reciprocal polarization of T and B cells at the immunological synapse.

    PubMed

    Duchez, Sophie; Rodrigues, Magda; Bertrand, Florie; Valitutti, Salvatore

    2011-11-01

    Cognate interactions between T and B lymphocytes lead to the formation of the immunological synapse (IS) where bidirectional activation signals are exchanged. Although the molecular architecture and the function of the IS have been studied extensively on the T cell side, little is known about events occurring during synapse formation in Ag-presenting B cells. We investigated the impact of BCR and TLR signaling on human B cell activation and on the T and B cell side of the IS. On the T cell side, we observed that T cells polarized toward both naive and previously activated B cells. Nevertheless, when T cells interacted with different B cells simultaneously, T cells selectively polarized their secretory machinery toward preactivated B cells. Furthermore, both naive and preactivated B cells reoriented their microtubule-organizing center toward the synaptic T cell during cognate interactions. This phenomenon was rapid and not dependent on T cell secretory activity. Interestingly, not only the microtubule-organizing center but also the Golgi apparatus and Lamp-3(+) and MHC class II(+) vesicles all repositioned beneath the IS, suggesting that the entire endocytic/exocytic B cell compartment was reoriented toward the T cell. Taken together, our results show that the B cell activation status fine-tunes T cell polarization responses and reveal the capacity of naive and activated B cells to polarize toward T cells during cognate interactions. PMID:21930964

  10. Ex vivo characterization and isolation of rare memory B cells with antigen tetramers

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Bettina; May, Kenneth F.; Dranoff, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Studying human antigen-specific memory B cells has been challenging because of low frequencies in peripheral blood, slow proliferation, and lack of antibody secretion. Therefore, most studies have relied on conversion of memory B cells into antibody-secreting cells by in vitro culture. To facilitate direct ex vivo isolation, we generated fluorescent antigen tetramers for characterization of memory B cells by using tetanus toxoid as a model antigen. Brightly labeled memory B cells were identified even 4 years after last immunization, despite low frequencies ranging from 0.01% to 0.11% of class-switched memory B cells. A direct comparison of monomeric to tetrameric antigen labeling demonstrated that a substantial fraction of the B-cell repertoire can be missed when monomeric antigens are used. The specificity of the method was confirmed by antibody reconstruction from single-cell sorted tetramer+ B cells with single-cell RT-PCR of the B-cell receptor. All antibodies bound to tetanus antigen with high affinity, ranging from 0.23 to 2.2 nM. Furthermore, sequence analysis identified related memory B cell and plasmablast clones isolated more than a year apart. Therefore, antigen tetramers enable specific and sensitive ex vivo characterization of rare memory B cells as well as the production of fully human antibodies. PMID:21551230

  11. B cells populating the multiple sclerosis brain mature in the draining cervical lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Joel N. H.; Yaari, Gur; Vander Heiden, Jason A.; Church, George; Donahue, William F.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.; Huttner, Anita J.; Laman, Jon D.; Nagra, Rashed M.; Nylander, Alyssa; Pitt, David; Ramanan, Sriram; Siddiqui, Bilal A.; Vigneault, Francois; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Hafler, David A.; O’Connor, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by autoimmune mediated demyelination and neurodegeneration. The CNS of patients with MS harbors expanded clones of antigen-experienced B cells that reside in distinct compartments including the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and parenchyma. It is not understood whether this immune infiltrate initiates its development in the CNS or in peripheral tissues. B cells in the CSF can exchange with those in peripheral blood, implying that CNS B cells may have access to lymphoid tissue that may be the specific compartment(s) in which CNS resident B cells encounter antigen and experience affinity maturation. In this study, paired tissues were used to determine whether the B cells that populate the CNS mature in the draining cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). High-throughput sequencing of the antibody repertoire demonstrated that clonally expanded B cells were present in both compartments. Founding members of clonal families were more often found in the draining CLNs. More mature clonal family members derived from these founders were observed in the draining CLNs and also in the CNS, including lesions. These data provide new evidence that B cells traffic freely across the tissue barrier with the majority of B cell maturation occurring outside of the CNS in the secondary lymphoid tissue. Our study may aid in further defining the mechanisms of immunomodulatory therapies that either deplete circulating B cells or impact the intrathecal B cell compartment by inhibiting lymphocyte transmigration into the CNS. PMID:25100741

  12. Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Paul U; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001) reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  13. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Paul U.; Jones, Penelope; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Dunster, Kate; Paul, Eldho; Lewin, Sharon; Woolley, Ian; Spelman, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n?=?591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n?=?140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n?=?45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001) reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population. PMID:21829713

  14. Characterization of B-cell phenotypic changes during ileal and jejunal Peyer's patch development in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, P J; Kennedy, L; Graham, T; Davis, W C; Reynolds, J D

    1992-01-01

    Changes in B-cell phenotype during development of ileal and jejunal Peyer's patches (PP) of sheep were investigated using flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase-stained cryosections. On Day 104 of gestation (term at 150 days) B-cell clusters were identified in the lamina propria of the ileum. These clusters were composed of cells that expressed surface IgM (sIgM), lambda or kappa light chain, and BAQ44A, a B-cell differentiation molecule. No cells in the clusters stained for terminal deoxynucleotide transferase. On Day 132 gestation, a change was evident in the phenotype of ileal PP B cells. Most B cells expressed a reduced level of sIgM and 20% were BAQ44A-. The B cells in the dome region were BAQ44A+ but few BAQ44A+ cells were present in the follicles. At 6-8 weeks of age BAQ44A+ cells were restricted to the dome region of the ileal PP; flow cytometric analysis confirmed that 25% of B cells isolated from the dome/follicle complex were BAQ44A+. Thus, the primordial PP was populated with B cells that were phenotypically similar to circulating B cells (sIgMhigh, BAQ44A+). After 132 days gestation, the predominant B-cell phenotype in the ileal PP changed to sIgMlow and BAQ44A-. This phenotypic change could be the result of either early immigrant B-cell differentiation or subsequent colonization by sIgMlow BAQ44A- B cells. The phenotypic changes of ileal PP follicular B cells were not complete until after birth and different phenotypic changes were observed in follicles of the jejunal PP of young lambs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1493930

  15. Bruton’s Tyrosine Kinase Promotes Persistence of Mature Anti-Insulin B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonami, Rachel H.; Sullivan, Allison M.; Case, James B.; Steinberg, Hannah E.; Hoek, Kristen L.; Khan, Wasif N.; Kendall, Peggy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes are essential for the development of T cell–mediated type 1 diabetes (T1D). Cytoplasmic Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a key component of B cell signaling, and its deletion in T1D-prone NOD mice significantly reduces diabetes. However, the role of BTK in the survival and function of autoreactive B cells is not clear. To evaluate the contributions of BTK, we used mice in which B cells express an anti-insulin BCR (125Tg) and promote T1D, despite being anergic. Crossing Btk deficiency onto 125Tg mice reveals that, in contrast to immature B cells, mature anti-insulin B cells are exquisitely dependent upon BTK, because their numbers are reduced by 95%. BTK kinase domain inhibition reproduces this effect in mature anti-insulin B cells, with less impact at transitional stages. The increased dependence of anti-insulin B cells on BTK became particularly evident in an Ig? locus site–directed model, in which 50% of B cells edit their BCRs to noninsulin specificities; Btk deficiency preferentially depletes insulin binders from the follicular and marginal zone B cell subsets. The persistent few Btk-deficient anti-insulin B cells remain competent to internalize Ag and invade pancreatic islets. As such, loss of BTK does not significantly reduce diabetes incidence in 125Tg/NOD mice as it does in NOD mice with a normal B cell repertoire. Thus, BTK targeting may not impair autoreactive anti-insulin B cell function, yet it may provide protection in an endogenous repertoire by decreasing the relative availability of mature autoreactive B cells. PMID:24453243

  16. Endogenous antigen tunes the responsiveness of naive B cells but not T cells

    PubMed Central

    Zikherman, Julie; Parameswaran, Ramya; Weiss, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    In humans up to 75% of newly generated B cells and about 30% of mature B cells exhibit some degree of autoreactivity1. Yet, how B cells establish and maintain tolerance in the face of autoantigen exposure during and after development is not certain. Studies of model BCR transgenic systems have highlighted the critical role played by functional unresponsiveness or ‘anergy’2,3. Unlike T cells, evidence suggests that receptor editing and anergy, rather than deletion, account for much of B cell tolerance4,5. However, it remains unclear whether the mature diverse B cell repertoire of mice contains anergic autoreactive B cells, and if so, whether antigen was encountered during or after their development. By taking advantage of a reporter mouse in which B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling rapidly and robustly induces GFP expression under the control of the Nur77 regulatory region, antigen-dependent and – independent BCR signaling events in vivo during B cell maturation were visualized. Here we show that B cells encounter antigen during development in the spleen, and that this antigen exposure in turn tunes the responsiveness of BCR signaling in B cells at least partly by down-modulating expression of surface IgM but not IgD BCRs, and by modifying basal calcium levels. By contrast, no analogous process occurs in naive mature T cells. Our data demonstrate not only that autoreactive B cells persist in the mature repertoire, but that functional unresponsiveness or ‘anergy’ exists in the mature B cell repertoire along a continuum, a fact that has long been suspected, but never yet shown. These results have important implications for understanding how tolerance in T and B cells is differently imposed, and how these processes might go awry in disease. PMID:22902503

  17. Case series of precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Yong; Om, Sang Yong; Shin, Su-Jin; Kim, Jeong Eun; Yoon, Dok Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Precursor B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LBL) is an uncommon subtype of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), accounting for only 0.3% of NHL in adults and less than 10% of all LBL cases. Unlike T-cell LBL, it usually presents with extranodal involvement while sparing the bone marrow (BM). Among the 27 patients with LBL treated in the Asan Medical Center between January 2007 and March 2012, 3 had B-LBL. All had a good performance status and low International Prognostic Index. However, unlike most previously reported cases, the patients had lymphoma in their bone marrow and extranodal sites such as bone and lung. After intensive combination chemotherapy, one patient achieved a complete response and the other 2 patients, a partial response. Our experience suggests that multiple extranodal sites may be involved in B-LBL and BM involvement may not be as infrequent as previously thought. Furthermore, intensive chemotherapy seems to be effective. PMID:25548762

  18. Primary B cell lymphoma of the tongue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management. PMID:22826730

  19. Primary B cell Lymphoma of the tongue: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hmidi, Mounir; Touiheme, Nabil; Elboukhari, Ali; Kettani, Mounir; Elmejareb, Charafeddine; Messary, Abdelhamid

    2012-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma of the oral cavity is rare and of the tongue even rarer. Location of oral lymphomas is more frequent in masticatory mucosa than in movable mucosa; the lingual and buccal mucosa is rarely involved; whereas the gingival vestibule and Waldeyer's ring seem to be the most frequent site of occurrence. We describe a 78 year old male who presented with a mass lesion primarily involving the base of tongue and was diagnosed as diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with CHOP chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The lesion was completely disappeared). He has currently remained disease free for 16 months. Although oral lymphoma of tongue is very uncommon, it should always be considered in differential diagnosis of various benign and malignant lesions in this region. A proper clinical evaluation, histopathologic as well as immunohistochemical evaluation of biopsy specimen may aid in the diagnosis and thus, help in proper management. PMID:22826730

  20. Interleukin-21 Enhances Rituximab Activity in a Cynomolgus Monkey Model of B Cell Depletion and in Mouse B Cell Lymphoma Models

    PubMed Central

    Krejsa, Cecile M.; Holly, Rick D.; Heipel, Mark; Bannink, Ken M.; Johnson, Rebecca; Roque, Richard; Heffernan, Jane; Hill, Julie; Chin, Lay; Wagener, Felecia; Shiota, Faith; Henderson, Katherine; Sivakumar, Pallavur V.; Ren, Hong-Ping; Barahmand-pour, Fariba; Foster, Don; Clegg, Chris; Kindsvogel, Wayne; Ponce, Rafael; Hughes, Steven D.; Waggie, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody targeting CD20 on B cells, is currently used to treat many subtypes of B cell lymphomas. However, treatment is not curative and response rates are variable. Recombinant interleukin-21 (rIL-21) is a cytokine that enhances immune effector function and affects both primary and transformed B cell differentiation. We hypothesized that the combination of rIL-21 plus rituximab would be a more efficacious treatment for B cell malignancies than rituximab alone. We cultured human and cynomolgus monkey NK cells with rIL-21 and found that their activity was increased and proteins associated with antibody dependent cytotoxicity were up-regulated. Studies in cynomolgus monkeys modeled the effects of rIL-21 on rituximab activity against CD20 B cells. In these studies, rIL-21 activated innate immune effectors, increased ADCC and mobilized B cells into peripheral blood. When rIL-21 was combined with rituximab, deeper and more durable B cell depletion was observed. In another series of experiments, IL-21 was shown to have direct antiproliferative activity against a subset of human lymphoma cell lines, and combination of murine IL-21 with rituximab yielded significant survival benefits over either agent alone in xenogeneic mouse tumor models of disseminated lymphoma. Therefore, our results do suggest that the therapeutic efficacy of rituximab may be improved when used in combination with rIL-21. PMID:23825648

  1. A Critical Role of the Thy28-MYH9 Axis in B Cell-Specific Expression of the Pax5 Gene in Chicken B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Kitaura, Fusako; Fujii, Hodaka

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Pax5 plays essential roles in B cell lineage commitment. However, molecular mechanisms of B cell-specific expression of Pax5 are not fully understood. Here, we applied insertional chromatin immunoprecipitation (iChIP) combined with stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) (iChIP-SILAC) to direct identification of proteins interacting with the promoter region of the endogenous single-copy chicken Pax5 gene. By comparing B cells with macrophage-like cells trans-differentiated by ectopic expression of C/EBP?, iChIP-SILAC detected B cell-specific interaction of a nuclear protein, Thy28/Thyn1, with the Pax5 1A promoter. Trans-differentiation of B cells into macrophage-like cells caused down-regulation of Thy28 expression. Loss-of-function of Thy28 induced decrease in Pax5 expression and recruitment of myosin-9 (MYH9), one of Thy28-interacting proteins, to the Pax5 1A promoter. Loss-of-function of MYH9 also induced decrease in Pax5 expression. Thus, our analysis revealed that Thy28 is functionally required for B cell-specific expression of Pax5 via recruitment of MYH9 to the Pax5 locus in chicken B cells. PMID:25607658

  2. THE MIR-23A MICRORNA CLUSTER INHIBITS B CELL DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Mullenix, Jason; Velu, Chinavenmeni S.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Dahl, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transcription factor PU.1 (encoded by Sfpi1) promotes myeloid differentiation but it is unclear what downstream genes are involved. MiRNAs are a class of small RNAs that regulate many cellular pathways including proliferation, survival and differentiation. The objective of this study was to identify miRNAs downstream of PU.1 that regulate hematopoietic development. Materials and Methods MiRNAs that change expression in a PU.1-inducible cell line were identified with microarrays. The promoter for a miRNA cluster upregulated by PU.1 induction was analyzed for PU.1 binding by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Retroviral transduction of hematopoietic progenitors was performed to evaluate the effect of miRNA expression on hematopoietic development in vitro and in vivo. Results We identified a miRNA cluster whose pri-transcript is regulated by PU.1. The pri-miRNA encodes three mature miRNAs: miR-23a, miR-27a, and miR-24-2. Each miRNA is more abundant in myeloid cells compared to lymphoid cells. When hematopoietic progenitors expressing the 23a cluster miRNAs were cultured in B cell promoting conditions we observed a dramatic decrease in B lymphopoiesis and an increase in myelopoiesis compared to control cultures. In vivo, hematopoietic progenitors expressing the miR-23a cluster generate reduced numbers of B cells compared to control cells. Conclusions The miR-23a cluster is a downstream target of PU.1 involved in antagonizing lymphoid cell fate acquisition. Although miRNAs have been identified downstream of PU.1 in mediating the development of monocytes and granulocytes, the 23a cluster is the first downstream miRNA target implicated in regulating the development of myeloid versus lymphoid cells. PMID:20399246

  3. BAFF regulates B cell survival by downregulating the BH3-only family member Bim via the ERK pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Craxton; Kevin E. Draves; Adriana Gruppi; Edward A. Clark

    2005-01-01

    The B cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) is required for B cell survival and maturation. The mechanisms by which BAFF mediates B cell survival are less understood. We found that BAFF and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), which are related, block B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-induced apoptosis upstream of mitochondrial damage, which is consistent with

  4. Aberration in DNA Methylation in B-Cell Lymphomas Has a Complex Origin and Increases with Disease Severity

    E-print Network

    Aberration in DNA Methylation in B-Cell Lymphomas Has a Complex Origin and Increases with Disease in normal B-cell populations and subtypes of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. These lymphomas display striking and progressive intra-tumor heterogeneity

  5. Aggressive B-cell lymphomas: how many categories do we need?

    PubMed Central

    Said, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphomas are diverse group of neoplasms that arise at different stages of B-cell development and by various mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. The aggressive B-cell lymphomas include many types, subtypes and variants of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), Burkitt lymphoma (BL), mantle cell lymphoma and its blastoid variant, and B lymphoblastic lymphoma. Differences in histology, cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities, as well as the relationship with the tumor microenvironment, help define characteristic signatures for these neoplasms, and in turn dictate potential therapeutic targets. Rather than survey the entire spectrum of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, this report aims to identify and characterize important clinically aggressive subtypes of DLBCL, and explore the relationship of DLBCL to BL and the gray zone between them (B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL). PMID:23154748

  6. Rehabilitation or the death penalty: Autoimmune B cells in the dock.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Lekh N; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-03-01

    CD20-based monoclonal antibodies have become established as treatments for lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis and dermatomyositis, with the principle therapeutic mechanism relating to B-cell depletion through effector cell engagement. An article by Brühl et al. in this issue of the European Journal of Immunology [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 705-715] reveals a fundamentally distinct mechanism of silencing autoimmune B-cell responses. Rather than B-cell depletion, the authors use anti-CD79b antibodies to induce B-cell tolerance and suppress humoral immune responses against collagen to prevent the development of arthritis in mice. Here we highlight the differences in the mechanisms used by anti-CD20 and anti-CD79b Ab therapy and discuss why depletion of B cells may not be required to treat autoimmune arthritis and other B-cell-associated pathologies. PMID:25639261

  7. B cell activation involves nanoscale receptor reorganizations and inside-out signaling by Syk

    PubMed Central

    Kläsener, Kathrin; Maity, Palash C; Hobeika, Elias; Yang, Jianying; Reth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Binding of antigen to the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) initiates a multitude of events resulting in B cell activation. How the BCR becomes signaling-competent upon antigen binding is still a matter of controversy. Using a high-resolution proximity ligation assay (PLA) to monitor the conformation of the BCR and its interactions with co-receptors at a 10–20 nm resolution, we provide direct evidence for the opening of BCR dimers during B cell activation. We also show that upon binding Syk opens the receptor by an inside-out signaling mechanism that amplifies BCR signaling. Furthermore, we found that on resting B cells, the coreceptor CD19 is in close proximity with the IgD-BCR and on activated B cells with the IgM-BCR, indicating nanoscale reorganization of receptor clusters during B cell activation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02069.001 PMID:24963139

  8. B Lymphocyte Lineage Specification, Commitment and Epigenetic Control of Transcription by Early B Cell Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, James; Ramírez, Julita; Lukin, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) is a transcription factor that is critical for both B lymphopoiesis and B cell function. EBF1 is a requisite component of the B lymphocyte transcriptional network and is essential for B lineage specification. Recent studies revealed roles for EBF1 in B cell commitment. EBF1 binds its target genes via a DNA-binding domain including a unique ‘zinc knuckle’, which mediates a novel mode of DNA recognition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of EBF1 in pro-B cells defined hundreds of new, as well as previously identified, target genes. Notably, expression of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), BCR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways is controlled by EBF1. In this review, we highlight these current developments and explore how EBF1 functions as a tissue-specific regulator of chromatin structure at B cell-specific genes. PMID:21735360

  9. CD4+ T Cells and CD40 Participate in Selection and Homeostasis of Peripheral B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Marc A.; Kolhatkar, Nikita S.; Thouvenel, Chris; Khim, Socheath

    2014-01-01

    Control of peripheral B cell development and homeostasis depends critically on coordinate signals received through the BAFFRs and BCRs. The extent to which other signals contribute to this process, however, remains undefined. We present data indicating that CD4+ T cells directly influence naive B cell development via CD40 signaling. Loss of CD4+ T cells or CD40–CD40L interaction leads to reduced B cell homeostatic proliferation and hindered B cell reconstitution posttransplantation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of CD40 signals, these events are modulated by BCR self-reactivity. Strikingly, murine models lacking CD40 reveal a broadly altered BCR specificity and limited diversity by both single-cell cloning and high-throughput sequencing techniques. Collectively, our results imply that any setting of T cell lymphopenia or reduced CD40 function, including B cell recovery following transplantation, will impact the naive B cell repertoire. PMID:25172502

  10. Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human B cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important players in B-cell activation, maturation and memory and may be involved in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. Accumulating studies show differential expression in this heterogeneous group of cancers. Stimulation with TLR specific ligands, or agonists of their ligands, leads to aberrant responses in the malignant B-cells. According to current data, TLRs can be implicated in malignant transformation, tumor progression and immune evasion processes. Most of the studies focused on multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but in the last decade the putative role of TLRs in other types of B-cell lymphomas has gained much interest. The aim of this review is to discuss recent findings on the role of TLRs in normal B cell functioning and their role in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. PMID:25112836

  11. Functional analysis of human memory B-cell subpopulations: IgD +CD27 + B cells are crucial in secondary immune response by producing high affinity IgM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhui Shi; Kazunaga Agematsu; Hans D Ochs; Kazuo Sugane

    2003-01-01

    The number of memory B cells in peripheral blood has been assayed in various diseases by using CD27 as a memory B-cell marker. However, the defining differences of characteristic and function between the two memory B-cell subpopulations separated by immunoglobulin (Ig)D expression remain to be clearly elucidated. We analyzed here IgD+CD27+ B cells (circulating B cells 2, cB2) and IgD?CD27+

  12. Microenvironmental niches in the bone marrow required for B-cell development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nagasawa

    2006-01-01

    B-cell development is known to occur in a complex bone-marrow microenvironment but its functional organization remains unclear. It is thought that bone-marrow stromal cells create distinct microenvironments, known as niches, that provide support for haematopoiesis and B-cell development. Although it has been more than 20 years since the development of a culture system that allows the growth of B-cell progenitors

  13. Splenectomy Associated Changes in IgM Memory B Cells in an Adult Spleen Registry Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul U. Cameron; Penelope Jones; Malgorzata Gorniak; Kate Dunster; Eldho Paul; Sharon Lewin; Ian Woolley; Denis Spelman

    2011-01-01

    Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited

  14. Infection and Persistence of Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus in Immortalized B-Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Bilello; Sabine M. Lang; Fred Wang; Jon C. Aster; Ronald C. Desrosiers

    2006-01-01

    Received 7 July 2005\\/Accepted 18 January 2006 Similar to its close relative human herpesvirus 8, rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) persists predomi- nantly in B cells of its natural host. Rhesus monkey B-cell lines immortalized by the Epstein-Barr-related virus from rhesus monkeys (rhEBV) were used as targets for infection by RRV. These cultured B cells were susceptible to infection by RRV

  15. Glomerulonephritis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related B-cell lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Moulin; Pierre M Ronco; Beatrice Mougenot; Arnaud Francois; Jean-Paul Fillastre; Francoise Mignon

    1992-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related B-cell lymphomas. We retrospectively analyzed clinical presentation, immunopathological data and renal outcome in 13 patients with glomerulonephritis (GN) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or related diffuse well-differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma (WDLL) of B-cell lineage. B-cell proliferation and glomerulopathy were simultaneously diagnosed in seven of the 13 patients. Nephrotic syndrome was observed in nine patients.

  16. Two Distinct Pathways of B-Cell Development in Peyer’s Patches

    PubMed Central

    Kugelberg, Birgit; Ferrari, Giorgio

    1995-01-01

    The developmental biology of sheep ileal and jejunal Peyer’s patches (PP) was investigated using corticosteroids to deplete immature B lymphocytes. During a 7-day treatment with dexamethasone, ileal PP follicular (iPf)B-cell proliferation was arrested and most iPfB-cells died. This resulted in follicular involution with the survival of mesenchymal cells. No iPfB-cell proliferation was detected in follicular remnants for 4 weeks postdexamethasone treatment, and during a subsequent 3-month period, there was limited iPfB-cell proliferation that resulted in a partial regeneration of follicles. Ileal PP involution was also associated with a severe B lymphopenia that persisted for over 14 weeks and was characterized by the survival of primarily isotype-switched and CD5+ sIgM+ B-cells in blood. In contrast, the size of jejunal PP follicles was reduced following dexamethasone treatment, but intrafollicular B-cell proliferation was not arrested. Furthermore, within 4 weeks, the jejunal PP follicles had recovered in size and cellularity and there was no disruption in IgA plasma-cell production. Thus, dexamethasone selectively depleted iPfB-cells and revealed that the ileal and jejunal PPs contain functionally distinct B-cell populations. The partial regeneration of the iPfB-cell population indicated that either an intrafollicular, corticosteroid-resistant B-stem cell existed or that ileal PP follicles can be repopulated by circulating B-cells. Finally, the association between ileal PP involution and the absence of circulating, CD5- B-cells confirmed that this lymphoid tissue provides an essential environment for conventional sIgM+ B-cell development. PMID:8924762

  17. Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL): biology, natural history and clinical management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T D Shanafelt; P Ghia; M C Lanasa; O Landgren; A C Rawstron

    2010-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the other low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas are among the most common lymphoid malignancies. Recent studies suggest that more than 4% of the general population over age 40 harbor a population of clonal B cells with the phenotype of either CLL or another B-cell malignancy, a condition now designated monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Although all cases of

  18. Positive and negative roles of the tyrosine kinase Lyn in B cell function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony L. DeFranco; Vivien W. F. Chan; Clifford A. Lowell

    1998-01-01

    The function of Lyn in B cell activation has been studied recently by examining the properties of B cells from mice in which thelyngene has been inactivated by gene targeting. These mice show evidence of B cell hyperreactivityin vivo,as the number of B lymphoblastoid cells greatly increase with age, IgM levels increase by 10-fold or more, and auto- antibodies to

  19. B-cell activation and development within chronically inflamed synovium in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Berek; Hye-Jung Kim

    1997-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases, B cells often accumulate in the affected tissue. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis or reactive arthritis, germinal center-like structures may develop in the inflamed synovial tissue. B cells from these structures were isolated and their V-gene repertoire determined. The majority of synovial B cells are long-term memory cells and thus are part of the chronic inflammatory reaction.

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

    The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

  1. High levels of SOX5 decrease proliferative capacity of human B cells, but permit plasmablast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Sic, Heiko; Kienzler, Anne-Kathrin; Fischer, Beate; Rizzi, Marta; Seidl, Maximilian; Melkaoui, Kerstina; Unger, Susanne; Moehle, Luisa; Schmit, Nadine E; Deshmukh, Sachin D; Ayata, Cemil Korcan; Schuh, Wolfgang; Zhang, Zhibing; Cosset, François-Loic; Verhoeyen, Els; Peter, Hans-Hartmut; Voll, Reinhard E; Salzer, Ulrich; Eibel, Hermann; Warnatz, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Currently very little is known about the differential expression and function of the transcription factor SOX5 during B cell maturation. We identified two new splice variants of SOX5 in human B cells, encoding the known L-SOX5B isoform and a new shorter isoform L-SOX5F. The SOX5 transcripts are highly expressed during late stages of B-cell differentiation, including atypical memory B cells, activated CD21low B cells and germinal center B cells of tonsils. In tonsillar sections SOX5 expression was predominantly polarized to centrocytes within the light zone. After in vitro stimulation, SOX5 expression was down-regulated during proliferation while high expression levels were permissible for plasmablast differentiation. Overexpression of L-SOX5F in human primary B lymphocytes resulted in reduced proliferation, less survival of CD138neg B cells, but comparable numbers of CD138+CD38hi plasmablasts compared to control cells. Thus, our findings describe for the first time a functional role of SOX5 during late B cell development reducing the proliferative capacity and thus potentially affecting the differentiation of B cells during the germinal center response. PMID:24945754

  2. CXCR4 promotes B cell egress from Peyer’s patches

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Timothy H.; Bannard, Oliver; Gray, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    Peyer’s patches (PPs) play a central role in supporting B cell responses against intestinal antigens, yet the factors controlling B cell passage through these mucosal lymphoid tissues are incompletely understood. We report that, in mixed chimeras, CXCR4-deficient B cells accumulate in PPs compared with their representation in other lymphoid tissues. CXCR4-deficient B cells egress from PPs more slowly than wild-type cells, whereas CXCR5-deficient cells egress more rapidly. The CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, is expressed by cells adjacent to lymphatic endothelial cells in a zone that abuts but minimally overlaps with the CXCL13+ follicle. CXCR4-deficient B cells show reduced localization to these CXCL12+ perilymphatic zones, whereas CXCR5-deficient B cells preferentially localize in these regions. By photoconverting KikGR-expressing cells within surgically exposed PPs, we provide evidence that naive B cells transit PPs with an approximate residency half-life of 10 h. When CXCR4 is lacking, KikGR+ B cells show a delay in PP egress. In summary, we identify a CXCL12hi perilymphatic zone in PPs that plays a role in overcoming CXCL13-mediated retention to promote B cell egress from these gut-associated lymphoid tissues. PMID:23669394

  3. Nek2 Is a Novel Regulator of B Cell Development and Immunological Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen; Huang, Junwei; Yang, Ye; Wendlandt, Erik; Xu, Hongwei; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2014-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Nek2 is commonly found upregulated in a wide variety of neoplasms including diffuse large B cell lymphoma and multiple myeloma. High expression of Nek2 is implicated in the induction of chromosomal instability, promotion of cell proliferation, and drug resistance in tumor cells as well as a marker for poor clinical outcomes. Despite its well recorded involvement in chromosomal instability and neoplastic growth, little is known about the involvement of Nek2 in B cell development. Here we report the development of a transgenic mouse line with conditional expression of Nek2 in the B cell lineage and the effects it has on the development of B cells. Interestingly, we found that the overexpression of Nek2 does not induce spontaneous tumor formation within the transgenic mice up to 24 months after induction. Instead, overexpression of Nek2 in the B cell lineage affects the development of B cells by increasing the proportion of immature B cells in the bone marrow and decreasing B-1 B cells in peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, Nek2 transgenic mice develop spontaneous germinal centers and exhibit an enhanced T cell dependent immune response. Altogether, our data demonstrates a novel role for Nek2 in regulating B cell development and the immune response. PMID:25485281

  4. Genetic manipulation of B cells for the isolation of rare therapeutic antibodies from the human repertoire.

    PubMed

    Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; van Helden, Pauline M; Wagner, Koen; Yasuda, Etsuko; Spits, Hergen; Beaumont, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Antibody based therapies are increasingly applied to prevent and treat human disease. While the majority of antibodies currently on the market are chimeric or humanized antibodies from rodents, the focus has now shifted to the isolation and development of fully human antibodies. By retroviral transduction of B cell lymphoma-6 (BCL-6), which prevents terminal differentiation of B cells and, the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) into primary human B cells we efficiently immortalize antibody-producing B cells allowing the isolation of therapeutic antibodies. Selection of antigen-specific B cell clones was greatly facilitated because the transduced B cells retain surface immunoglobulin expression and secrete immunoglobulin into the culture supernatant. Surface immunoglobulin expression can be utilized to stain and isolate antigen specific B cell clones with labeled antigen. Immunoglobulins secreted in culture supernatant can directly be tested in functional assays to identify unique B cell clones. Here we describe the key features of our Bcl-6/Bcl-xL culture platform (AIMSelect). PMID:23867338

  5. Tumor infiltrating B-cells are increased in prostate cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of increased B-cell tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) was seen in mouse prostate cancer (PCa) but has not been fully documented in human PCa. We, therefore, investigated the density of infiltrating B cells within human PCa utilizing a quantitative computational method. Methods Archived radical prostatectomy specimens from 53 patients with known clinical outcome and D’Amico risk category were obtained and immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for the B cell marker, CD20. Slides were reviewed by a genitourinary pathologist who manually delineated the tumoral regions of PCa. Slides were digitally scanned and a computer algorithm quantified the area of CD20 stained B-cells as a measure of B cell density within the outlined regions of prostate cancer (intra-tumoral region), versus extra-tumoral prostate tissue. Correlations were analyzed between B-cell density and demographic and clinical variables, including D’Amico risk groups and disease recurrence. Results For the entire cohort, the mean intra-tumoral B cell density was higher (3.22 SE?=?0.29) than in the extra-tumoral region of each prostatectomy section (2.24, SE?=?0.19) (paired t test; P?B cell infiltration in low risk (0.0377 vs. 0.0246; p?=?0.151) and intermediate risk (0.0260 vs. 0.0214; p?=?0.579) patient prostatectomy specimens did not show significantly more B-cells within the PCa tumor. However, patient specimens from the high-risk group (0.0301 vs. 0.0197; p?B-cell staining. Extent of B-cell infiltration in the prostatectomy specimens did not correlate with any other clinical parameters. Conclusions Our study shows that higher B-cell infiltration was present within the intra-tumoral PCa regions compared to the extra-tumoral benign prostate tissue regions in prostatectomy sections. For this study we developed a new method to measure B-cells using computer-assisted digitized image analysis. Accurate, consistent quantitation of B-cells in prostatectomy specimens is essential for future clinical trials evaluating the effect of B cell ablating antibodies. The interaction of B-cells and PCa may serve as the basis for new therapeutic targets. PMID:24475900

  6. Ixazomib Citrate in Treating Patients With Untreated B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-16

    B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Follicular Lymphoma; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  7. Targeting CD22 Reprograms B-Cells and Reverses Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fiorina, Paolo; Vergani, Andrea; Dada, Shirine; Jurewicz, Mollie; Wong, Masie; Law, Kenneth; Wu, Erxi; Tian, Ze; Abdi, Reza; Guleria, Indira; Rodig, Scott; Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Bluestone, Jeffrey; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate a B-cell–depleting strategy to reverse diabetes in naïve NOD mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We targeted the CD22 receptor on B-cells of naïve NOD mice to deplete and reprogram B-cells to effectively reverse autoimmune diabetes. RESULTS—Anti-CD22/cal monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy resulted in early and prolonged B-cell depletion and delayed disease in pre-diabetic mice. Importantly, when new-onset hyperglycemic mice were treated with the anti-CD22/cal mAb, 100% of B-cell–depleted mice became normoglycemic by 2 days, and 70% of them maintained a state of long-term normoglycemia. Early therapy after onset of hyperglycemia and complete B-cell depletion are essential for optimal efficacy. Treated mice showed an increase in percentage of regulatory T-cells in islets and pancreatic lymph nodes and a diminished immune response to islet peptides in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of reemerging B-cells showed significant changes of a set of proinflammatory genes. Functionally, reemerging B-cells failed to present autoantigen and prevented diabetes when cotransferred with autoreactive CD4+ T-cells into NOD.SCID hosts. CONCLUSIONS—Targeting CD22 depletes and reprograms B-cells and reverses autoimmune diabetes, thereby providing a blueprint for development of novel therapies to cure autoimmune diabetes. PMID:18689692

  8. B cells from periodontal disease patients express surface Toll-like receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyunjin; Zhang, Yue; Jagannathan, Madhumita; Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Liu, Hongsheng; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa M.; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation links periodontal disease (PD) to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Activation of TLRs, particularly TLR4, promotes chronic inflammation in PD by stimulating myeloid cells. B cells from healthy individuals are generally refractory to TLR4 agonists as a result of low surface TLR4 expression. Unexpectedly, a significantly increased percentage of gingival and peripheral blood B cells from patients with PD expressed surface TLR4. Surface expression correlated with an active TLR4 promoter that mimicked the TLR4 promoter in neutrophils. B cells from PD patients were surface myeloid differentiation protein 2-positive and also packaged the enhancer of a proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1?, into an active structure, demonstrating that these cells harbor key characteristics of proinflammatory cell types. Furthermore, B cells lacked activating signatures of a natural IL-1? inhibitor, IL-1 receptor antagonist. Surprisingly, despite multiple signatures of proinflammatory cells, freshly isolated B cells from PD patients had decreased expression of TLR pathway genes compared with B cells from healthy individuals. Decreases in inflammatory gene expression were even more dramatic in B cells stimulated with a TLR4 ligand from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS 1690. In contrast, B cell TLR4 was not activated by the prototypic TLR4 ligand Escherichia coli LPS. These findings raise the unexpected possibility that TLR4 engagement modulates B cell activation in PD patients. PMID:19118102

  9. Comparative susceptibility of B cells with different lineages to cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by translational inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Uzarski, Rebecca L; Pestka, James J

    2003-11-28

    The trichothecene mycotoxins, Shiga toxins (STs), and ricin are potent translational inhibitors that exert diverse mechanisms of action but all have the capacity to induce death by apoptosis. Germinal centers containing actively dividing B cells are particularly sensitive to protein synthesis inhibition, and, of these, the immature B cell is reportedly most susceptible to apoptosis. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that immature and mature B-cell lineages were differentially susceptible to apoptosis and cytotoxicity induction by representative trichothecene mycotoxins, ST-1, and ricin, as well as cycloheximide (CHX), a prototypical protein synthesis inhibitor commonly used to study cell signal transduction. WEHI-231 and CH31 cells were used as representatives of phenotypically immature B cells, whereas CH12.LX cells were used to model mature B cells. Resultant data suggest that Type D and Type A trichothecenes, ricin, and ST-1 were more potent inducers of apoptosis than CHX, whereas Type B and Type A trichothecene metabolites were less. CHX and the trichothecenes affected immature and mature B cells equally, thus suggesting that toxicity due to these natural toxins was lineage independent. In contrast, mature B cells were more sensitive to ricin- and ST-1-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis than immature B cells. Taken together, these results suggest that B cells are targets of a diverse array of naturally occurring translational inhibitors. Upregulation of apoptosis in B lymphocytes may contribute to the impairment of the immune response and other symptoms described following exposure to these toxins. PMID:14710595

  10. Simultaneous occurrence of two B-cell malignancies: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, SHUJUAN; MA, YONGYONG; BI, LAIXI; SHEN, ZHIJIAN; YU, KANG

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the case of a 75-year-old male with coexisting multiple myeloma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Although the two malignancies are mature B-cell neoplasms, their clinical manifestations are very different and the clinical approaches used to treat these two types of tumor vary. The patient in the present case was diagnosed with the simultaneous existence of two different B-cell tumors and was successfully treated using the DCEP regimen. The simultaneous presentation of two mature B-cell neoplasms, types of hematological malignancy, is very rare, thus the present case is considered to be interesting. PMID:25013515

  11. Natural Anti-Intestinal Goblet Cell Autoantibody Production from Marginal Zone B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Daiju; Asano, Masanao; Shinton, Susan A.; Brill-Dashoff, Joni; Formica, Anthony M.; Velcich, Anna; Hardy, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Expression of a germline VH3609/D/JH2 IgH in mice results in the generation of B1 B cells with anti-thymocyte/Thy-1 glycoprotein autoreactivity by coexpression of Vk21-5/Jk2 L chain leading to production of serum IgM natural autoantibody. In these same mice, the marginal zone (MZ) B cell subset in spleen shows biased usage of a set of Ig L chains different from B1 B cells, with 30% having an identical Vk19-17/Jk1 L chain rearrangement. This VH3609/Vk19-17 IgM is reactive with intestinal goblet cell granules, binding to the intact large polymatrix form of mucin 2 glycoprotein secreted by goblet cells. Analysis of a ?? B cell AgR (BCR) transgenic (Tg) mouse with this anti–goblet cell/mucin2 autoreactive (AGcA) specificity demonstrates that immature B cells expressing the Tg BCR become MZ B cells in spleen by T cell–independent BCR signaling. These Tg B cells produce AGcA as the predominant serum IgM, but without enteropathy. Without the transgene, AGcA autoreactivity is low but detectable in the serum of BALB/c and C.B17 mice, and this autoantibody is specifically produced by the MZ B cell subset. Thus, our findings reveal that AGcA is a natural autoantibody associated with MZ B cells. PMID:25480561

  12. A Novel Mechanism for B Cell Repertoire Maturation Based on Response by B Cell Precursors to Pre–B Receptor Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, R.; Li, Y.-S.; Shinton, S.A.; Carmack, C.E.; Manser, T.; Wiest, D.L.; Hayakawa, K.; Hardy, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The expression of different sets of immunoglobulin specificities by fetal and adult B lymphocytes is a long-standing puzzle in immunology. Recently it has become clear that production of immunoglobulin ? heavy chain and subsequent assembly with a surrogate light chain to form the pre-B cell receptor complex is critical for development of B cells. Here we show that instead of promoting pre–B cell progression as in adult bone marrow, this complex inhibits pre–B cell growth in fetal liver. Curiously, we identify a fetal-associated VH11 ? heavy chain that allows continued pre-B proliferation in fetal liver. Interestingly, this heavy chain does not associate efficiently with a surrogate light chain, providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for skewing the expression of distinctive VH genes toward fetal through early neonatal life. PMID:9432984

  13. The Fas/CD95 Receptor Regulates the Death of Autoreactive B Cells and the Selection of Antigen-Specific B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koncz, Gabor; Hueber, Anne-Odile

    2012-01-01

    Cell death receptors have crucial roles in the regulation of immune responses. Here we review recent in vivo data confirming that the Fas death receptor (TNFSR6) on B cells is important for the regulation of autoimmunity since the impairment of only Fas function on B cells results in uncontrolled autoantibody production and autoimmunity. Fas plays a role in the elimination of the non-specific and autoreactive B cells in germinal center, while during the selection of antigen-specific B cells different escape signals ensure the resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Antigen-specific survival such as BCR or MHCII signal or coreceptors (CD19) cooperating with BCR inhibits the formation of death inducing signaling complex. Antigen-specific survival can be reinforced by antigen-independent signals of IL-4 or CD40 overproducing the anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. PMID:22848207

  14. B Cells Control the Migration of a Subset of Dendritic Cells into B Cell Follicles Via CXC Chemokine Ligand 13 in a Lymphotoxin-Dependent Fashion1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Yu; Yang Wang; Robert K. Chin; Luisa Martinez-Pomares; Siamon Gordon; Marie H. Kosco-Vibois; Jason Cyster; Yang-Xin Fu

    Certain classes of dendritic cells (DCs) meet rare cognate Ag-specific T and B cells inside primary B cell follicles for the devel- opment of germinal centers. However, the mechanisms underlying this coordination are still undefined. Cysteine-rich (CR) domain of the mannose receptor (CR-Fc) DCs are a newly discovered subset of DCs that migrate rapidly into the primary lymphoid follicles from

  15. The molecular signature of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma differs from that of other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and shares features with classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry J. Savage; Stefano Monti; Jeffery L. Kutok; Giorgio Cattoretti; Donna Neuberg; Laurence de Leval; Paul Kurtin; Paola Dal Cin; Christine Ladd; Friedrich Feuerhake; Ricardo C. T. Aguiar; Sigui Li; Gilles Salles; Francoise Berger; Wen Jing; Geraldine S. Pinkus; Thomas Habermann; Riccardo Dalla-Favera; Lee Harris; Jon C. Aster; Todd R. Golub; Margaret A. Shipp

    2003-01-01

    Mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (MLBCL) is a recently identified subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that char- acteristically presents as localized tu- mors in young female patients. Although MLBCL has distinctive pathologic fea- tures, it clinically resembles the nodular sclerosis subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). To elucidate the molecu- lar features of MLBCL, we compared the gene expression

  16. The Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor PCI-32765 blocks B-cell activation and is efficacious in models of autoimmune disease and B-cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Honigberg, Lee A; Smith, Ashley M; Sirisawad, Mint; Verner, Erik; Loury, David; Chang, Betty; Li, Shyr; Pan, Zhengying; Thamm, Douglas H; Miller, Richard A; Buggy, Joseph J

    2010-07-20

    Activation of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling pathway contributes to the initiation and maintenance of B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. The Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) is specifically required for BCR signaling as demonstrated by human and mouse mutations that disrupt Btk function and prevent B-cell maturation at steps that require a functional BCR pathway. Herein we describe a selective and irreversible Btk inhibitor, PCI-32765, that is currently under clinical development in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We have used this inhibitor to investigate the biologic effects of Btk inhibition on mature B-cell function and the progression of B cell-associated diseases in vivo. PCI-32765 blocked BCR signaling in human peripheral B cells at concentrations that did not affect T cell receptor signaling. In mice with collagen-induced arthritis, orally administered PCI-32765 reduced the level of circulating autoantibodies and completely suppressed disease. PCI-32765 also inhibited autoantibody production and the development of kidney disease in the MRL-Fas(lpr) lupus model. Occupancy of the Btk active site by PCI-32765 was monitored in vitro and in vivo using a fluorescent affinity probe for Btk. Active site occupancy of Btk was tightly correlated with the blockade of BCR signaling and in vivo efficacy. Finally, PCI-32765 induced objective clinical responses in dogs with spontaneous B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These findings support Btk inhibition as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of human diseases associated with activation of the BCR pathway. PMID:20615965

  17. Suppression of Human B Cell Activation by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Involves Altered Regulation of B Cell Lymphoma-6.

    PubMed

    Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S; Crawford, Robert B; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2015-03-01

    The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces marked suppression of the primary humoral immune response in virtually every animal species evaluated thus far. In addition, epidemiological studies performed in areas of dioxin contamination have identified an association between TCDD exposure and an increased incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Recent studies using an in vitro CD40 ligand model of human B cell differentiation have shown that TCDD impairs both B cell activation and differentiation. The present study extends these findings by identifying B cell lymphoma-6 [BCL-6] as a putative cellular target for deregulation by TCDD, which may contribute to suppression of B cell function as well as NHL. BCL-6 is a multifunctional transcriptional repressor frequently mutated in NHLs and known to regulate critical events of B cell activation and differentiation. In the presence of TCDD, BCL-6 protein levels were elevated and concurrently the same population of cells with high BCL-6 levels showed decreased CD80 and CD69 expression indicative of impaired cellular activation. The elevated BCL-6 levels resulted in a concomitant increase in BCL-6 DNA binding activity at its cognate binding site within an enhancer region for CD80. Furthermore, a small molecule inhibitor of BCL-6 activity reversed TCDD-mediated suppression of CD80 expression in human B cells. In the presence of a low-affinity ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), suppression of B cell activation and altered BCL-6 regulation were not observed. These results provide new mechanistic insights into the role of BCL-6 in the suppression of human B cell activation by TCDD. PMID:25543051

  18. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions called depressive disorders. Depressive disorders affect the way a ... for doctors to diagnose. Back Continue What Causes Bipolar Disorder? Doctors and scientists don't know the ...

  19. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell Disorders ...

  20. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  1. Interleukin 21 Signaling in B Cells Is Required for Efficient Establishment of Murine Gammaherpesvirus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Christopher M.; Speck, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    The human gammaherpesviruses take advantage of normal B cell differentiation pathways to establish life-long infection in memory B cells. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice also leads to life-long infection in memory B cells. To gain access to the memory B cell population, MHV68 infected B cells pass through the germinal center reaction during the onset of latency and require signals from T follicular helper (TFH) cells for proliferation. Interleukin 21 (IL-21), one of the secreted factors produced by TFH cells, plays an important role in both the maintenance of the germinal center response as well as in the generation of long-lived plasma cells. Using IL-21R deficient mice, we show that IL-21 signaling is required for efficient establishment of MHV68 infection. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, fewer infected splenocytes are able to gain access to either the germinal center B cell population or the plasma cell population – the latter being a major site of MHV68 reactivation. Furthermore, the germinal center B cell population in IL-21R-/- mice is skewed towards the non-proliferating centrocyte phenotype, resulting in reduced expansion of infected B cells. Additionally, the reduced frequency of infected plasma cells results in a significant reduction in the frequency of splenocytes capable of reactivating virus. This defect in establishment of MHV68 infection is intrinsic to B cells, as MHV68 preferentially establishes infection in IL-21R sufficient B cells in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-21 signaling plays multiple roles during establishment of MHV68 infection, and identify IL-21 as a critical TFH cell-derived factor for efficient establishment of gammaherpesvirus B cell latency. PMID:25875847

  2. Molecular characterization of the cervical and systemic B-cell repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Ryan G; Breden, Felix; Plummer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The cervical mucosa of women who are highly exposed to HIV-1, yet remain persistently seronegative (HEPS), presents a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of an immune compartment potentially capable of preventing HIV-1 infection. Herein, we provide a detailed characterization of the immunoglobulin repertoire of cervical and systemic B cells from one such HEPS individual from Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 512 VH sequences that were RT-PCR amplified from B cells in a paired sample from the cervix and peripheral blood. The VH3 and DH repertoire of class switched cervical B cells differs significantly from that of systemic B cells, indicating that the cervical environment affects local B-cell populations and hence VH gene expression. Six networks of clonally related, heavily mutated B cells were identified that spanned the systemic and cervical B-cell compartments. Analysis of somatic mutations suggests this is likely the result of systemic, class switched B cells homing to the cervical mucosa. Multiple networks of somatically mutated V-gene sequences, unique to the cervical mucosa, were also identified. This supports the notion that site specific responses occur and have unique regulation of tolerance and recruitment into local memory or blast B-cell compartments. We conclude that while the nature of the cervical environment shapes the local B cell repertoire, the infusion of post germinal center B cells to the human cervix is a common occurrence, and represents a means by which systemic immunization could provide the local antibodies necessary to prevent HIV-1 at the site of initial contact. PMID:21293180

  3. CD19 and CD32b Differentially Regulate Human B Cell Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Karnell, Jodi L.; Dimasi, Nazzareno; Karnell, Fredrick G.; Fleming, Ryan; Kuta, Ellen; Wilson, Mildred; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou; Ettinger, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    B cell activation is regulated by a variety of signals. CD19 positively regulates B cell activation, augmenting signals delivered through the BCR complex. In contrast, CD32b contains an ITIM and negatively regulates BCR signaling. Importantly, there are drugs currently in clinical trials and preclinical development that cross-link CD32b to molecules within the BCR complex. We wanted to address how single engagement versus cotargeting these molecules affects human B cell function. When B cells from healthy individuals were activated by signals that mimic a T cell response (IL-21 costimulation), ligation of CD32b, but not CD19, inhibited B cell expansion and plasma cell (PC) differentiation. In contrast, when B cells were activated through TLR, anti-CD19, but not anti-CD32b, blunted the response. However, when both CD19 and CD32b were coengaged by a bispecific anti-CD19×CD32b Ab, both types of stimuli were potently inhibited. Cross-linking CD19 with CD32b also inhibited Ab-independent functions of B cells, such as HLA upregulation, cytokine production, and the ability of B cells to prime CD4+ T cells. Finally, although cross-linking CD19 and CD32b inhibited PC differentiation of primary B cells, it did not alter Ig production from pre-established PCs. These data elucidate the mechanism by which a complex set of signals determines the fate of B cell responsiveness. Although signals through CD19 influence TLR-driven activation, CD32b impacts the magnitude of the response following IL-21 costimulation. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple surface molecules may be a necessary approach to comprehensively modulate B cell activation in vivo. PMID:24442430

  4. CD19 and CD32b differentially regulate human B cell responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Karnell, Jodi L; Dimasi, Nazzareno; Karnell, Fredrick G; Fleming, Ryan; Kuta, Ellen; Wilson, Mildred; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou; Herbst, Ronald; Ettinger, Rachel

    2014-02-15

    B cell activation is regulated by a variety of signals. CD19 positively regulates B cell activation, augmenting signals delivered through the BCR complex. In contrast, CD32b contains an ITIM and negatively regulates BCR signaling. Importantly, there are drugs currently in clinical trials and preclinical development that cross-link CD32b to molecules within the BCR complex. We wanted to address how single engagement versus cotargeting these molecules affects human B cell function. When B cells from healthy individuals were activated by signals that mimic a T cell response (IL-21 costimulation), ligation of CD32b, but not CD19, inhibited B cell expansion and plasma cell (PC) differentiation. In contrast, when B cells were activated through TLR, anti-CD19, but not anti-CD32b, blunted the response. However, when both CD19 and CD32b were coengaged by a bispecific anti-CD19×CD32b Ab, both types of stimuli were potently inhibited. Cross-linking CD19 with CD32b also inhibited Ab-independent functions of B cells, such as HLA upregulation, cytokine production, and the ability of B cells to prime CD4(+) T cells. Finally, although cross-linking CD19 and CD32b inhibited PC differentiation of primary B cells, it did not alter Ig production from pre-established PCs. These data elucidate the mechanism by which a complex set of signals determines the fate of B cell responsiveness. Although signals through CD19 influence TLR-driven activation, CD32b impacts the magnitude of the response following IL-21 costimulation. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple surface molecules may be a necessary approach to comprehensively modulate B cell activation in vivo. PMID:24442430

  5. Interleukin 21 signaling in B cells is required for efficient establishment of murine gammaherpesvirus latency.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher M; Speck, Samuel H

    2015-04-01

    The human gammaherpesviruses take advantage of normal B cell differentiation pathways to establish life-long infection in memory B cells. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice also leads to life-long infection in memory B cells. To gain access to the memory B cell population, MHV68 infected B cells pass through the germinal center reaction during the onset of latency and require signals from T follicular helper (TFH) cells for proliferation. Interleukin 21 (IL-21), one of the secreted factors produced by TFH cells, plays an important role in both the maintenance of the germinal center response as well as in the generation of long-lived plasma cells. Using IL-21R deficient mice, we show that IL-21 signaling is required for efficient establishment of MHV68 infection. In the absence of IL-21 signaling, fewer infected splenocytes are able to gain access to either the germinal center B cell population or the plasma cell population - the latter being a major site of MHV68 reactivation. Furthermore, the germinal center B cell population in IL-21R-/- mice is skewed towards the non-proliferating centrocyte phenotype, resulting in reduced expansion of infected B cells. Additionally, the reduced frequency of infected plasma cells results in a significant reduction in the frequency of splenocytes capable of reactivating virus. This defect in establishment of MHV68 infection is intrinsic to B cells, as MHV68 preferentially establishes infection in IL-21R sufficient B cells in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-21 signaling plays multiple roles during establishment of MHV68 infection, and identify IL-21 as a critical TFH cell-derived factor for efficient establishment of gammaherpesvirus B cell latency. PMID:25875847

  6. Reconstitution of B-cell-depleted mice with B cells restores Th2-type immune responses during Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infection.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, A W; Phillips, R S

    1996-01-01

    In mice depleted of B cells from birth by treatment with anti-immunoglobulin M(mu) antibodies, progression from a Th1- to a Th2-regulated immune response during primary infection with Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi fails to occur. While Th1-type immunity limits parasitemia, in the absence of B cells, chronic low-grade infections persist. Here, we show that reconstituting immune, and to a lesser extent naive, B cells to mice rendered deficient in B-cell function through anti-immunoglobulin M(mu) pretreatment restores the CD4+ T-cell response to the Th2 type later in P. c. chabaudi infection and with it the capacity to eliminate infection. This finding provides clear evidence that B cells are required for switching the balance of immune regulation between CD4+ T cells from Th1 to Th2 during P.c. chabaudi infection and supports the concept that B cells, through antibody production, are needed for effective antimalarial immunity. PMID:8557367

  7. CD80 expression on B cells regulates murine T follicular helper development, germinal center B cell survival, and plasma cell generation.

    PubMed

    Good-Jacobson, Kim L; Song, Eunice; Anderson, Shannon; Sharpe, Arlene H; Shlomchik, Mark J

    2012-05-01

    Germinal center (GC) B cells and T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells interact in the production of high-affinity long-lived plasma cells (PCs) and memory B cells, although the mechanisms regulating the formation of these long-lived populations remain unclear. Because CD80 is one of the few markers shared by human and murine memory B cells, we investigated its role in the development of GCs, memory cells, and PCs. In CD80-deficient mice, fewer long-lived PCs were generated upon immunization compared with that in B6 controls. In concert, the absence of CD80 resulted in an increase in apoptotic GC B cells during the contraction phase of the GC. CD80(-/-) mice had fewer T(FH) cells compared with that of B6, and residual T(FH) cells failed to mature, with decreased ICOS and PD-1 expression and decreased synthesis of IL-21 mRNA. Mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrated a B cell-intrinsic requirement for CD80 expression for normal T(FH) cell and PC development. Therefore, B cell expression of CD80 plays a critical role in regulating B-T interactions in both early and late GC responses. This, in turn, results in impaired ability to produce long-lived PCs. These data provide new insights into the development of GCs and Ab-forming cells and the functions of CD80 in humoral immunity. PMID:22450810

  8. Through an ITIM-independent mechanism the Fc?RIIB blocks B cell activation by disrupting the colocalized microclustering of the B cell receptor and CD19.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liling; Li, Gen; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yilin; Wan, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Shaosen; Shaheen, Samina; Li, Jing; Wang, Li; Yue, Cai; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Fei; Brzostowski, Joseph; Chen, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Wenjie; Liu, Wanli

    2014-06-01

    B cell activation is regulated through the interplay of the BCR with the inhibitory coreceptor Fc?RIIB and the activating coreceptor CD19. Recent studies suggest that Ag-driven BCR microclusters are efficiently converted to a signaling active state on colocalization with CD19 microclusters. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-based, high-resolution, high-speed live-cell and molecule imaging approaches, we show that when co-ligated to the BCR, the Fc?RIIB can inhibit B cell activation by blocking the colocalization of BCR and CD19 microclusters within the B cell immunological synapse. Remarkably, this inhibitory function of Fc?RIIB is dependent not on its well-characterized ITIM-containing cytoplasmic domain, but its transmembrane domain. Indeed, human primary B cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients homozygous for gene encoding the loss-of-function transmembrane domain mutant Fc?RIIB-I232T fail to block the synaptic colocalization of the BCR with CD19, leading to dysregulated recruitment of downstream signaling molecule p-PI3K to membrane proximal signalosome. This inhibitory function of Fc?RIIB in impairing the spatial-temporal colocalization of BCR and CD19 microclusters in the B cell immunological synapse may help explain the hyper-reactive features of systemic lupus erythematosus patient B cells in reported studies. These observations may also provide new targets for therapies for systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:24790152

  9. A novel syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD)

    PubMed Central

    May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M.; Giardina, Patricia J.; Klaassen, Robert J.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Geraghty, Michael T.; Major-Cook, Nathalie; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Thuret, Isabelle; Thompson, Alexis A.; Marques, Laura; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise K.; Bottomley, Sylvia S.; Fleming, Mark D.; Wynn, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders identified by pathological erythroid precursors with perinuclear mitochondrial iron deposition in bone marrow. An international collaborative group of physicians and laboratory scientists collated clinical information on cases of CSA lacking known causative mutations, identifying a clinical subgroup of CSA associated with B immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and development delay. Twelve cases from 10 families were identified. Median age at presentation was 2 months. Anemia at diagnosis was sideroblastic, typically severe (median hemoglobin, 7.1 g/dL) and markedly microcytic (median mean corpuscular volume, 62.0 fL). Clinical course involved recurrent febrile illness and gastrointestinal disturbance, lacking an infective cause. Investigation revealed B-cell lymphopenia (CD19+ range, 0.016-0.22 × 109/L) and panhypogammaglobulinemia in most cases. Children displayed developmental delay alongside variable neurodegeneration, seizures, cerebellar abnormalities, sensorineural deafness, and other multisystem features. Most required regular blood transfusion, iron chelation, and intravenous immunoglobulin replacement. Median survival was 48 months, with 7 deaths caused by cardiac or multiorgan failure. One child underwent bone marrow transplantation aged 9 months, with apparent cure of the hematologic and immunologic manifestations. We describe and define a novel CSA and B-cell immunodeficiency syndrome with additional features resembling a mitochondrial cytopathy. The molecular etiology is under investigation. PMID:23553769

  10. A novel syndrome of congenital sideroblastic anemia, B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD).

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Daniel H; May, Alison; Jolles, Stephen; Connor, Philip; Powell, Colin; Heeney, Matthew M; Giardina, Patricia J; Klaassen, Robert J; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Geraghty, Michael T; Major-Cook, Nathalie; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Thuret, Isabelle; Thompson, Alexis A; Marques, Laura; Hughes, Stephen; Bonney, Denise K; Bottomley, Sylvia S; Fleming, Mark D; Wynn, Robert F

    2013-07-01

    Congenital sideroblastic anemias (CSAs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders identified by pathological erythroid precursors with perinuclear mitochondrial iron deposition in bone marrow. An international collaborative group of physicians and laboratory scientists collated clinical information on cases of CSA lacking known causative mutations, identifying a clinical subgroup of CSA associated with B immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and development delay. Twelve cases from 10 families were identified. Median age at presentation was 2 months. Anemia at diagnosis was sideroblastic, typically severe (median hemoglobin, 7.1 g/dL) and markedly microcytic (median mean corpuscular volume, 62.0 fL). Clinical course involved recurrent febrile illness and gastrointestinal disturbance, lacking an infective cause. Investigation revealed B-cell lymphopenia (CD19? range, 0.016-0.22 × 10?/L) and panhypogammaglobulinemia in most cases. Children displayed developmental delay alongside variable neurodegeneration, seizures, cerebellar abnormalities, sensorineural deafness, and other multisystem features. Most required regular blood transfusion, iron chelation, and intravenous immunoglobulin replacement. Median survival was 48 months, with 7 deaths caused by cardiac or multiorgan failure. One child underwent bone marrow transplantation aged 9 months, with apparent cure of the hematologic and immunologic manifestations. We describe and define a novel CSA and B-cell immunodeficiency syndrome with additional features resembling a mitochondrial cytopathy. The molecular etiology is under investigation. PMID:23553769

  11. In aged mice, low surrogate light chain promotes pro-B-cell apoptotic resistance, compromises the PreBCR checkpoint, and favors generation of autoreactive, phosphorylcholine-specific B cells.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Michelle; Alter, Sarah; McAvoy, Kelly; Frasca, Daniela; Wright, Jacqueline A; Zinkel, Sandra S; Khan, Wasif N; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Riley, Richard L

    2015-06-01

    In aged mice, new B-cell development is diminished and the antibody repertoire becomes more autoreactive. Our studies suggest that (i) apoptosis contributes to reduced B lymphopoiesis in old age and preferentially eliminates those B-cell precursors with higher levels of the surrogate light chain (SLC) proteins (?5/VpreB) and (ii) ?5(low) B-cell precursors generate new B cells which show increased reactivity to the self-antigen/bacterial antigen phosphorylcholine (PC). Pro-B cells in old bone marrow as well as pro-B cells from young adult ?5-deficient mice are resistant to cytokine-induced apoptosis (TNF?; TGF?), indicating that low ?5 expression in pro-B cells is sufficient to cause increased survival. Transfer of TNF?-producing 'age-associated B cells' (ABC; CD21/35(-) CD23(-) ) or follicular (FO) B cells from aged mice into RAG-2 KO recipients led to preferential loss of ?5(high) pro-B cells, but retention of ?5(low) , apoptosis-resistant pro-B cells. In old mice, there is increased reactivity to PC in both immature bone marrow B cells and mature splenic FO B cells. In young mice, absence of ?5 expression led to a similar increase in PC reactivity among bone marrow and splenic B cells. We propose that in old age, increased apoptosis, mediated in part by TNF?-producing B cells, results in preferential loss of SLC(high) pro-B cells within the bone marrow. Further B-cell development then occurs via an 'SLC(low) ' pathway that not only impairs B-cell generation, but promotes autoreactivity within the naïve antibody repertoires in the bone marrow and periphery. PMID:25727904

  12. Antibody and B cell responses to Plasmodium sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Dups, Johanna N; Pepper, Marion; Cockburn, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are capable of blocking infection of the liver by Plasmodium sporozoites. Accordingly the induction of anti-sporozoite antibodies is a major aim of various vaccine approaches to malaria. In recent years our knowledge of the specificity and quantities of antibodies required for protection has been greatly expanded by clinical trials of various whole sporozoite and subunit vaccines. Moreover, the development of humanized mouse models and transgenic parasites have also aided our ability to assess the specificity of antibodies and their ability to block infection. Nonetheless, considerable gaps remain in our knowledge - in particular in understanding what antigens are recognized by infection blocking antibodies and in knowing how we can induce robust, long-lived antibody responses. Maintaining high levels of circulating antibodies is likely to be of primary importance, as antibodies must block infection in the short time it takes for sporozoites to reach the liver from the skin. It is clear that a better understanding of the development of protective B cell-mediated immunity will aid the development and refinement of malaria vaccines. PMID:25477870

  13. Stereotyped B-cell receptors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Vardi, Anna; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Stamatopoulos, Kostas

    2014-10-01

    Over the last decade, immunogenetic analysis of B-cell receptor immunoglobulins (BcR IGs) has proved to be a particularly fruitful field in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), not only for understanding disease pathogenesis but also for discriminating clinical subgroups with markedly distinct course and outcome. Of utmost importance was the identification of quasi-identical BcR IGs among unrelated patients with CLL, fittingly coined as "stereotypy," that set the wheels in motion for unraveling the role of antigen(s) in the selection and expansion of the leukemic clones. The categorization of CLL clones into "subsets" according to shared BcR IG structural characteristics provided a compartmentalized view of this otherwise heterogeneous disease, which eventually led to defining strikingly homogeneous groups of patients in terms of: (i) functional properties of the clonal BcR IGs, e.g. BcR reactivity and signaling; (ii) clonal genetic landscape, e.g. genomic aberrations, gene expression/methylation profiles, microRNA signatures; and (iii) clinical course and outcome. The remarkable restriction of the CLL IG gene repertoire, resulting to a great degree from the high impact of BcR IG stereotypy, may also prompt speculations regarding CLL ontogenesis. Overall, the BcR IG molecule justifiably lies at the heart of CLL clinical research, holding the promise of subset-tailored therapies. PMID:24397617

  14. Helicobacter pylori eradication in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Paydas, Semra

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the stomach is a heterogenous disease. There are tumors without histological evidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which are classified as pure or de novo DLBCL and those with evidence of MALT, which are classified as DLBCL (MALT). The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric MALT lymphoma and remission with H. pylori eradication was shown in the 1990s. In recent years, scientists from Taiwan and others have shown that high-grade gastric lymphomas may be dependent on H. pylori and eradication of this microorganism is effective in these cases. This entity is biologically distinct from H. pylori (-) cases and has a better clinical outcome. There are sufficient data about the complete remission in some of these cases with brief treatment with antibiotics. With this strategy, it is possible to save some of these cases from the harmful effects of standard chemotherapy. It is time to treat these cases with H. pylori eradication. However, strict histopathological follow-up is crucial and histopathological response must be evaluated according to the scoring system proposed by Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte. If there is no sufficient response, chemotherapy must be given immediately. These results suggest that H. pylori dependency and high-grade transformation in gastric MALT lymphomas are distinct events. PMID:25852262

  15. Helicobacter pylori eradication in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Paydas, Semra

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the stomach is a heterogenous disease. There are tumors without histological evidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, which are classified as pure or de novo DLBCL and those with evidence of MALT, which are classified as DLBCL (MALT). The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and gastric MALT lymphoma and remission with H. pylori eradication was shown in the 1990s. In recent years, scientists from Taiwan and others have shown that high-grade gastric lymphomas may be dependent on H. pylori and eradication of this microorganism is effective in these cases. This entity is biologically distinct from H. pylori (-) cases and has a better clinical outcome. There are sufficient data about the complete remission in some of these cases with brief treatment with antibiotics. With this strategy, it is possible to save some of these cases from the harmful effects of standard chemotherapy. It is time to treat these cases with H. pylori eradication. However, strict histopathological follow-up is crucial and histopathological response must be evaluated according to the scoring system proposed by Groupe d’Etude des Lymphomes de l’Adulte. If there is no sufficient response, chemotherapy must be given immediately. These results suggest that H. pylori dependency and high-grade transformation in gastric MALT lymphomas are distinct events.

  16. Abnormal expression of chemokine receptor on B cells in patients with SLE.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Maiko; Nakayamada, Shingo; Iwata, Shigeru; Kubo, Satoshi; Yunoue, Naoki; Wang, Sheau-Pey; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

      SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by overactivation of autoreactive memory B cells. However, little is known about the mechanism of qualitative abnormality of B cells. The subset classification of T cells by expression pattern of master transcription factors and chemokine receptors has been established. The biology of T cells is useful information to assess qualitative abnormality of B cells. Therefore, we focused on the expression of chemokine receptors such as CXCR5 and CXCR3 on B cells in order to define the B cell subset classification in patients with SLE. Our results revealed that pathological B cells, which lose CXCR5 and express CXCR3, might be involved in autoantibody production through the interaction with Tfh cells, and in acquisition of effector function of memory B cells during the pathological process in SLE. In addition, the results revealed that those effector B cells still remained after improvement of disease activity by immunosuppressive therapy, indicating that the quantitative abnormality, which is not improved by current therapy, may underlie in this disease. PMID:25765690

  17. DNA breaks early in replication process associated with B cell cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  18. A multi-scale model for correlation in B cell VDJ usage of zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Keyao; Deem, Michael W.

    2011-10-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one of the model animals used for the study of immunology because the dynamics in the adaptive immune system of zebrafish are similar to that in higher animals. In this work, we built a multi-scale model to simulate the dynamics of B cells in the primary and secondary immune responses of zebrafish. We use this model to explain the reported correlation between VDJ usage of B cell repertoires in individual zebrafish. We use a delay ordinary differential equation (ODE) system to model the immune responses in the 6-month lifespan of a zebrafish. This mean field theory gives the number of high-affinity B cells as a function of time during an infection. The sequences of those B cells are then taken from a distribution calculated by a 'microscopic' random energy model. This generalized NK model shows that mature B cells specific to one antigen largely possess a single VDJ recombination. The model allows first-principle calculation of the probability, p, that two zebrafish responding to the same antigen will select the same VDJ recombination. This probability p increases with the B cell population size and the B cell selection intensity. The probability p decreases with the B cell hypermutation rate. The multi-scale model predicts correlations in the immune system of the zebrafish that are highly similar to that from experiment.

  19. CVID-associated TACI mutations affect autoreactive B cell selection and activation

    PubMed Central

    Romberg, Neil; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Saadoun, David; Gentile, Maurizio; Kinnunen, Tuure; Ng, Yen Shing; Virdee, Manmeet; Menard, Laurence; Cantaert, Tineke; Morbach, Henner; Rachid, Rima; Martinez-Pomar, Natalia; Matamoros, Nuria; Geha, Raif; Grimbacher, Bodo; Cerutti, Andrea; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Meffre, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is an assorted group of primary diseases that clinically manifest with antibody deficiency, infection susceptibility, and autoimmunity. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI are associated with CVID and autoimmune manifestations, whereas two mutated alleles prevent autoimmunity. To assess how the number of TACI mutations affects B cell activation and tolerance checkpoints, we analyzed healthy individuals and CVID patients carrying one or two TACI mutations. We found that TACI interacts with the cleaved, mature forms of TLR7 and TLR9 and plays an important role during B cell activation and the central removal of autoreactive B cells in healthy donors and CVID patients. However, only subjects with a single TACI mutation displayed a breached immune tolerance and secreted antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). These antibodies were associated with the presence of circulating B cell lymphoma 6–expressing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, likely stimulating autoreactive B cells. Thus, TACI mutations may favor CVID by altering B cell activation with coincident impairment of central B cell tolerance, whereas residual B cell responsiveness in patients with one, but not two, TACI mutations enables autoimmune complications. PMID:24051380

  20. Study of BKM120 & Rituximab in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Indolent B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-18

    Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Relation of Gene Expression Phenotype to Immunoglobulin Mutation Genotype in B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Rosenwald; Ash A. Alizadeh; George Widhopf; Richard Simon; R. Eric Davis; Xin Yu; Liming Yang; Oxana K. Pickeral; Laura Z. Rassenti; John Powell; David Botstein; John C. Byrd; Michael R. Grever; Bruce D. Cheson; Nicholas Chiorazzi; Wyndham H. Wilson; Thomas J. Kipps; Patrick O. Brown; Louis M. Staudt

    2001-01-01

    The most common human leukemia is B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malig- nancy of mature B cells with a characteristic clinical presentation but a variable clinical course. The rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of CLL cells may be either germ-line in sequence or somatically mutated. Lack of Ig mutations defined a distinctly worse prognostic group of CLL patients raising

  2. Rearrangement and selection of VH11 in the Ly-1 B cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    One of the predominant VH genes utilized to encode the anti-BrMR