The term monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) was recently introduced to identify individuals with a population of monoclonal B cells in the absence of other features that are diagnostic of a B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. MBL is often identified through hospital investigation of a mild lymphocytosis, and approximately 1% of such individuals develop progressive disease requiring treatment per year. However, in population studies using high-sensitivity flow cytometry, MBL may be detectable in more than 10% of adults aged over 60 years, and clinical progression is rare. The majority of MBL cases have features that are characteristic of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, but an increasing amount of information is becoming available about MBL with the features of other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. In addition to flow cytometry findings, the incidental detection of an occult B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder is also occurring in a significant proportion of tissue biopsy samples. In this review, the clinical and biological relationship between MBL and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders will be discussed, with a focus on identifying the differences between low levels of peripheral blood or bone marrow involvement with lymphoma and the monoclonal B-cell populations that commonly occur in elderly adults. PMID:21261685
Rawstron, Andy C
We analysed the immunophenotypic and molecular expression of BCA-1 (B-cell-specific chemokine) and CXCR5 (BCA-1 receptor) in normal skin and different cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL); cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL); cutaneous B-cell pseudolymphoma (PCBCL)), with the aim of investigating their possible involvement in the pathogenesis of cutaneous B-cell disorders. BCA-1 and CXCR5 were constantly expressed in CBCL and PCBCL,
M. Mori; C. Manuelli; N. Pimpinelli; B. Bianchi; C. Orlando; C. Mavilia; P. Cappugi; E. Maggi; B. Giannotti; M. Santucci
B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are characterized by marked genetic, morphological, and clinical heterogeneity. The identification of prognostic markers could help to develop risk-adapted treatment strategies. Because proliferation of cells is essential for tumor growth, analysis of the cell cycle might give additional information on tumor progression and clinical behavior. Because initiation of DNA replication represents a significant step in cell division, it is worthwhile to focus the attention to the origin recognition complex (ORC), protein complex essential for initiation of DNA replication. Studies have already shown that ORC-associated factors give a more accurate assessment of cell proliferation than previous markers for many types of malignancies, but so far there have been no studies of eventual role of ORC4L in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Here, we describe 3 patients with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (2 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 with nonsecretory multiple myeloma) carrying a novel A286V mutation within ORC4L gene. All 3 patients were in the advanced stage of disease, but their response to the chemotherapy treatment was good and they achieved complete clinical remission in a relatively short period. Although the functional relevance of this mutation has not yet been elucidated, our observation raises a possibility that A286V mutation, which is constitutively present in these patients, might represent a favorable prognostic marker in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:20010161
Radojkovic, Milica; Ristic, Slobodan; Divac, Aleksandra; Tomic, Branko; Nestorovic, Aleksandra; Radojkovic, Dragica
Plasmablastic transformation of low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is rarely reported, particularly in cases with clonal evolution. Moreover, the relationship of these 2 morphologically and immunophenotypically distinctive neoplasms remains elusive. Here, we report 2 exceptional cases of plasmablastic transformation with apparently direct transformation from their preceding low-grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. In both cases, the plasmablastic transformation and low-grade lymphoproliferative disorder shared the same immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and an identical chromosomal translocation. Notably, both plasmablastic transformation cases also carried MYC gene rearrangements on chromosome 8q24, which have been frequently identified in de novo plasmablastic lymphoma. Therefore, our data suggest that dysregulation of MYC gene may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of plasmablastic transformation. PMID:23791008
Pan, Zenggang; Xie, Qingmei; Repertinger, Susan; Richendollar, Bill G; Chan, Wing C; Huang, Qin
This study was purposed to investigate the clinical characteristics of B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPD) complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) so as to improve the understanding of this disease. The clinical characteristics, laboratory data, therapy and outcome of 14 patients suffering from B-CLPD complicated by AIHA were restrospectively analyzed in Wuxi People Hospital and the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2000 to 2012. The results showed that 9 cases of the 14 patients were patients with chronic lymplocytic leukemia (CLL), 5 cases were patients with lymphoma, at time of hemolysis the median level of hemoglobine was 61 (33 - 84)g/L, the median ratio of reticulocytes was 12.0 (3.1 - 35.0)%, the positive rate of Coombs test was 100%. 1 case received corticosteroid alone, 5 cases were treated with chemotherapy combined with corticosteroid, 8 cases were treated with immunochemotherapy rituximab combined with corticosteroid. Overall response rate was 100%, in which CR was 78.6% (11/14), PR was 21.4% (3/14). The follow-up for these patients were performed to now, 35.7% (5/14) patients relapsed with hemolysis again, but they showed therapeutic response to treatment with above-menthoned therapy. From patients treated with rituximab alone, only 1 patient relapsed. Among 14 patients, 6 cases died, 1 case was lost, the other cases are still alive. It is concluded that the AIHA is the commonest complication of B-CLPD, it can be observed at different stages of B-CLPD, the treatment with corticosteroids can give well therapeutic effect for these patients, but the long time CR is lower, the rituximab has been confirmed to be effective for B-CLPD complicated by AIHA. PMID:23815912
Zhuang, Yun; Fan, Lei; Shen, Yun-Feng; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian-Yong
Objectives: To evaluate CD200 expression in B-cell proliferative disorders. Methods: We analyzed 180 recent specimens of B-cell neoplasms for CD200 expression by flow cytometric immunophenotypic analysis, which is better able to assess relative intensity of staining than immunohistochemical staining. Results: We found that hairy cell leukemia exhibits a high level of staining for CD200 in comparison to other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including hairy cell leukemia-variant (HCL-V), marginal zone lymphoma, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. We confirmed this observation by semiquantitative immunohistochemical staining. Conclusions: Assessment of the CD200 expression level is helpful to distinguish HCL from HCL-V and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and in the differential diagnosis of B-cell neoplasms in general. PMID:24045551
Pillai, Vinodh; Pozdnyakova, Olga; Charest, Karry; Li, Betty; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Dorfman, David M
In this study we investigated telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length in a panel of mature B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (MBCLDs) and correlated this parameter with histology and histopathogenesis in relation to the germinal center (GC). We assessed 123 MBCLD samples containing 80% or more tumor cells. TRF length was evaluated by Southern blot analysis using a chemiluminescence-based assay. GC status was assessed through screening for stable and ongoing somatic mutations within the immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Median TRF length was 6170 bp (range, 1896-11 200 bp) and did not correlate with patient age or sex. TRF length was greater in diffuse large cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma (medians: 7789 bp, 9471 bp, and 7383 bp, respectively) than in mantle cell lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (medians: 3582 bp and 4346 bp, respectively). GC-derived MBCLDs had the longest telomeres, whereas those arising from GC-inexperienced cells had the shortest (P < 10(-9)). We conclude that (1) TRF length in MBCLD is highly heterogeneous; (2) GC-derived tumors have long telomeres, suggesting that minimal telomere erosion occurs during GC-derived lymphomagenesis; and (3) the short TRF lengths of GC-inexperienced MBCLDs indicates that these neoplasms are good candidates for treatment with telomerase inhibitors, a class of molecules currently the subject of extensive preclinical evaluation. PMID:14988160
Ladetto, Marco; Compagno, Mara; Ricca, Irene; Pagano, Marco; Rocci, Alberto; Astolfi, Monica; Drandi, Daniela; di Celle, Paola Francia; Dell'Aquila, Maria; Mantoan, Barbara; Vallet, Sonia; Pagliano, Gloria; De Marco, Federica; Francese, Roberto; Santo, Loredana; Cuttica, Alessandra; Marinone, Carlo; Boccadoro, Mario; Tarella, Corrado
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a group of diseases that range from benign polyclonal to malignant monoclonal lymphoid proliferations. They arise secondary to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs given to prevent transplant rejection. Three main pathologic subsets/stages of evolution are recognised: early, polymorphic, and monomorphic lesions. The pathogenesis of PTLDs seems to be multifactorial. Among possible infective aetiologies, the role of EBV has been studied in depth, and the virus is thought to play a central role in driving the proliferation of EBV-infected B cells that leads to subsequent development of the lymphoproliferative disorder. It is apparent, however, that EBV is not solely responsible for the “neoplastic” state. Accumulated genetic alterations of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (deletions, mutations, rearrangements, and amplifications) and epigenetic changes (aberrant hypermethylation) that involve tumour suppressor genes are integral to the pathogenesis. Antigenic stimulation also plays an evident role in the pathogenesis of PTLDs. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) that are critical to fight viral infections have been thought to play a pathogenetically relevant role in PTLDs. Furthermore, regulatory T cells (Treg cells), which are modulators of immune reactions once incited, seem to have an important role in PTLDs where antigenic stimulation is key for the pathogenesis.
Ibrahim, Hazem A. H.; Naresh, Kikkeri N.
\\u000a The increased risk of malignancy, especially of lymphoid tumors, in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HST)\\u000a recipients has been recognized for many years [1-3]. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) represents a heterogeneous\\u000a group of abnormal lymphoid proliferations, generally of B-cell origin, that occur in the setting of ineffective T-cell function\\u000a due to pharmacologic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. Unlike most other
Ran Reshef; Alicia K. Morgans; Donald E. Tsai
We report three cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) showing a hitherto undescribed histological pattern consisting of nodular tumor growth associated with small B lymphocytes. FDCS tumor cells consistently showed large epithelioid features and were intermingled with small lymphocytes in the nodules in two cases, whereas they formed cohesive aggregates surrounded by lymphocyte mantle in the other. These features were easily confused with lymphomatous proliferations and, in particular, subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma, high-grade follicular lymphoma, and germinotropic large B-cell lymphomas. The diagnosis was established by the use of a broad panel of antibodies that showed a variable expression of the FDC markers CD21, CD23, CD35, clusterin, podoplanin, claudin 4, epidermal growth factor receptor, and CXCL13. The associated B lymphocytes revealed a mantle zone B phenotype, with expression of CD20 and PAX5, together with TCL1 and IgD. Of notice, in all cases, morphological features suggesting hyaline-vascular Castleman disease were recognized in the interfollicular areas, containing scattered epithelioid cells similar to those found in the nodules, thus providing a useful clue for FDCS diagnosis. Of the 3 cases, 1 presented multiple recurrences unresponsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and finally died of disease 14 years after diagnosis. This study further emphasizes the extreme variability of morphological presentation of FDCS and expands the spectrum of lesions showing a nodular growth pattern occurring in human lymph nodes. PMID:21835430
Lorenzi, Luisa; Lonardi, Silvia; Petrilli, Giulia; Tanda, Francesco; Bella, Michelangelo; Laurino, Licia; Rossi, Giuseppe; Facchetti, Fabio
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be associated with the development of lymphomas in immunocompromised patients. Recently, age-related immune impairment has been recognized as a predisposing factor in the development of EBV-driven lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in elderly patients without any known immunodeficiency or prior lymphoma. In approximately 70% of reported cases, the affected sites have been extranodal, such as the skin, lung, tonsil and stomach. However, age-related EBV-associated B cell (EBV + B cell) LPD is extremely rare in the oral cavity. Here we report a 71-year-old Japanese man who developed an EBV + B cell LPD resembling classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL)--so-called polymorphous subtype-of the mandible. Histopathologically, infiltration of large atypical lymphoid cells including Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells into granulation tissue with marked necrosis was found in the mandibular bone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the large atypical Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells were CD3-, CD15-, CD20+, CD30+ and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-latent infection membrane protein-1 (LMP-1)+. In situ hybridization (ISH) demonstrated EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) + in numerous Hodgkin or Reed-Sternberg-like cells. EBNA-2 was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using an extract from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the polymorphous subtype of age-related EBV + B cell LPD affecting the mandible. PMID:22869357
Kikuchi, Kentaro; Fukunaga, Shuichi; Inoue, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yuji; Kojima, Masaru; Ide, Fumio; Kusama, Kaoru
Transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells is accompanied by profound disturbance of immune function mediated by immunosuppressive drugs or delayed immune reconstitution. Disturbed T cell control of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells leads to posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in up to 10% of patients. Children are at a higher risk because they are more often EBV-naïve before transplantation. Patients with PTLD often present with unspecific symptoms (pain and organ/graft dysfunction). Depending on the onset of PTLD, manifestations vary between mainly nodal (late PTLD) and extranodal sites (early PTLD). Histology, immunohistology, EBER in situ hybridization and molecular pathology are required for diagnosis and subclassification of PTLD. The three major types are early lesions (resembling reactive proliferations in immunocompetent patients), polymorphic PTLD (proliferation of B and T cells with effacement of histoarchitecture) and monomorphic PTLD (presenting as malignant lymphomas, mainly high-grade B cell lymphomas). In a subfraction of cases, including monomorphic PTLD, reduction of immunosuppressive medication alone is sufficient to induce remission. Surgical debulking of tumor mass and anti-CD20-antibody treatment with or without chemotherapy (usually at lower dosages than in immunocompetent patients) constitute the basis of additional therapy. PMID:24013821
Hussein, Kais; Tiede, Christina; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Kreipe, Hans
Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using a novel ultrasensitive bright-field in situ hybridization approach (BRISH) to evaluate ? and ? immunoglobulin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in situ in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Methods: A series of 110 semiconsecutive clinical cases evaluated for lymphoma with historic flow cytometric (FCM) results were assessed with BRISH. Results: BRISH light chain restriction (LCR) results were concordant with FCM in 108 (99%) of 109 evaluable cases. Additional small B-cell lymphoma cohorts were successfully evaluated. Conclusions: BRISH analysis of ? and ? immunoglobulin mRNA expression is a sensitive tool for establishing LCR in B-cell NHL when FCM results are not available. PMID:24124155
Tubbs, Raymond R; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Zhen; Minca, Eugen C; Portier, Bryce P; Gruver, Aaron M; Lanigan, Christopher; Luo, Yuling; Cook, James R; Ma, Xiao-Jun
The last 20 years have seen a dramatic change in the way we classify, and therefore diagnose, lymphoma. Two decades ago, the International Working Formulation enabled diagnosis and management on the basis of H&E sections alone, with no mandatory requirement for immunophenotyping, molecular studies or any other ancillary investigations. The concept of categorisation by 'clinicopathological entities' defined by clinical features, morphology, immunophenotype and more recently, genotype, began with the Kiel, and Lukes and Collins classifications in the late 1970s, becoming fully expressed in the REAL and subsequently WHO classifications. The current, multidisciplinary approach to categorisation adds significantly to the task facing the anatomical pathologist, since it requires distribution of biopsy material to all the appropriate specialised laboratories, the gathering of a range of cross-disciplinary information, the correlation of all diagnostic findings, deduction of a definitive diagnosis and, finally, integration of all the above into a single multiparameter report. In this review, we summarise the contemporary approach to the biopsy, diagnosis and reporting of lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:16373226
Ellis, David W; Eaton, Michael; Fox, Richard M; Juneja, Surender; Leong, Anthony S-Y; Miliauskas, John; Norris, Debra L; Spagnolo, Dominic; Turner, Jenny
In a previous study, it was shown that the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was specifically associated with monotypic (IgMl) plasmablasts in multi- centric Castleman disease (MCD). The plasmablasts occur as isolated cells in the mantle zone of B-cell follicles but may form microlymphoma or frank plasma- blastic lymphoma. To determine the clonality and cellular origin of the mono- typic plasmablasts,
Ming-Qing Du; Hongxiang Liu; Tim C. Diss; Hongtao Ye; Rifat A. Hamoudi; Nicolas Dupin; Veronique Meignin; Eric Oksenhendler; Chris Boshoff; Peter G. Isaacson
A case of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) involving the pleura is reported. The patient was a 57-year-old man who underwent liver transplantation 2 years prior to the development of PTLD. The PTLD was pleural-based and was first detected by radiologic studies as a pleural effusion. Transbronchial biopsy and cytologic examination of 2 pleural fluid specimens were nondiagnostic. Subsequent open-wedge biopsy revealed a monomorphic PTLD, composed of large immunoblasts with plasmacytoid differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated B-cell lineage with expression of monotypic cytoplasmic immunoglobulin kappa light chain and CD79a, and absence of T-cell antigens. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus protein and RNA, respectively. No evidence of human herpesvirus 8 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction. We report this case because pleural-based PTLD is rare. The diagnosis of this entity is made more difficult by the fact that PTLD is often underrepresented in pleural fluid cytology samples. PMID:11231496
Hoffmann, H; Schlette, E; Actor, J; Medeiros, L J
Similarly to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is a ?-herpesvirus, recently recognized to be associated with the occurrence of rare B cell lymphomas and atypical lymphoproliferations, especially in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected subjects. Moreover, the human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), a ?-herpesvirus, has been shown to be implicated in some non-malignant lymph node proliferations, such as the Rosai Dorfman disease, and in a proportion of Hodgkin’s lymphoma cases. HHV-6 has a wide cellular tropism and it might play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases, but given its ubiquity, disease associations are difficult to prove and its role in hematological malignancies is still controversial. The involvement of another ?-herpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), has not yet been proven in human cancer, even though recent findings have suggested its potential role in the development of CD4+ large granular lymphocyte (LGL) lymphocytosis. Here, we review the current knowledge on the pathogenetic role of HHV-8 and human ?-herpesviruses in human lymphoproliferative disorders.
Quadrelli, C.; Barozzi, P.; Riva, G.; Vallerini, D.; Zanetti, E.; Potenza, L.; Forghieri, F.; Luppi, M.
Defective lymphocyte apoptosis results in chronic lymphadenopathy and/or splenomegaly associated with autoimmune phenomena. The prototype for human apoptosis disorders is the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), which is caused by mutations in the FAS apoptotic pathway. Recently, patients with an ALPS-like disease called RAS-associated autoimmune leukoproliferative disorder, in which somatic mutations in NRAS or KRAS are found, also were described. Despite this progress, many patients with ALPS-like disease remain undefined genetically. We identified a homozygous, loss-of-function mutation in PRKCD (PKC?) in a patient who presented with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoantibodies, elevated immunoglobulins and natural killer dysfunction associated with chronic, low-grade Epstein-Barr virus infection. This mutation markedly decreased protein expression and resulted in ex vivo B-cell hyperproliferation, a phenotype similar to that of the PKC? knockout mouse. Lymph nodes showed intense follicular hyperplasia, also mirroring the mouse model. Immunophenotyping of circulating lymphocytes demonstrated expansion of CD5+CD20+ B cells. Knockdown of PKC? in normal mononuclear cells recapitulated the B-cell hyperproliferative phenotype in vitro. Reconstitution of PKC? in patient-derived EBV-transformed B-cell lines partially restored phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced cell death. In summary, homozygous PRKCD mutation results in B-cell hyperproliferation and defective apoptosis with consequent lymphocyte accumulation and autoantibody production in humans, and disrupts natural killer cell function. PMID:23430113
Kuehn, Hye Sun; Niemela, Julie E; Rangel-Santos, Andreia; Zhang, Mingchang; Pittaluga, Stefania; Stoddard, Jennifer L; Hussey, Ashleigh A; Evbuomwan, Moses O; Priel, Debra A Long; Kuhns, Douglas B; Park, C Lucy; Fleisher, Thomas A; Uzel, Gulbu; Oliveira, João B
Familial aggregation of lymphoproliferative disorders from the Scandinavian family cancer database Print This Page Familial Aggregation of Lymphoproliferative Disorders from the Scandinavian Family Cancer Database Our Research
Epstein-barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-LPD) include a series of diseases from chronic to aggressive EBV-positive T-cells, NK cells, T/NK cells or B-cell LPD. The occurrence and development of EBV-LPD are closely associated with the cytokine storm, the clinical manifestations are very complex. Studies found that the different types of EBV-LPD express different cytokine secretion patterns, which help to further understand the progression of diseases, thus the EBV-LPD can be diagnosed early and treated early. In this article, different cytokine secretion patterns and their roles in EBV-LPD progression are reviewed. The main problems discussed above are the classification of EBV-LPD, T/NK-LPD and cytokine, B-LPD and cytokine, HLH and cytokine, and so on. PMID:23628063
Liu, Qian; Zhu, Ping
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are the second most frequent malignancies after solid organ transplantation and cover a wide spectrum ranging from polyclonal early lesions to monomorphic lymphoma. Available treatment modalities include immunosuppression reduction, immunotherapy with anti-B-cell monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, cytotoxic T-cell therapy as well as surgery and irradiation. Owing to the small number of cases and the heterogeneity of PTLD, current treatment strategies are mostly based on case reports and small, often retrospective studies. Moreover, many studies on the treatment of PTLD have involved a combination of different treatment options, complicating the evaluation of individual treatment components. However, there has been significant progress over the last few years. Three prospective phase II trials on the efficacy of rituximab monotherapy have shown significant complete remission rates without any relevant toxicity. A prospective, multicenter, international phase II trial evaluating sequential treatment with rituximab and CHOP-based chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) is ongoing and preliminary results have been promising. Cytotoxic T-cell therapy targeting Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells has shown low toxicity and high efficacy in a phase II trial and will be a future therapeutic option at specialized centers. Here, we review the currently available data on the different treatment modalities with a focus on PTLD following solid organ transplantation in adult patients.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication of any organ transplantation. It is\\u000a more common in children than in adults, and the risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and immunosuppression.\\u000a We report a case of colonic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma occurring 4 years after liver transplantation in a 52-year-old man\\u000a who had been taking immunosuppressive agents, namely, cyclosporin,
Min Jung Kim; Seong Hyeon Yun; Ho-Kyung Chun; Woo Yong Lee; Yong Beom Cho
Primary cutaneous posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are rare. This retrospective, multicenter study of 35 cases aimed to better describe this entity. Cases were (re)-classified according to the WHO-EORTC or the WHO 2008 classifications of lymphomas. Median interval between first transplantation and diagnosis was 85 months. Fifty-seven percent of patients had a kidney transplant. Twenty-four cases (68.6%) were classified as primary cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and 11 (31.4%) as primary cutaneous B cell PTLD. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the most common (50%) CTCL subtype. Ten (90.9%) cutaneous B cell PTLD cases were classified as EBV-associated B cell lymphoproliferations (including one plasmablastic lymphoma and one lymphomatoid granulomatosis) and one as diffuse large B cell lymphoma, other, that was EBV-negative. Sixteen (45.7%) patients died after a median follow-up of 19.5 months (11 [68.8%] with CTCL [6 of whom had CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD)] and 5 [31.2%] with cutaneous B cell PTLD. Median survival times for all patients, CTCL and cutaneous B cell PTLD subgroups were 93, 93, and 112 months, respectively. Survival rates for MF were higher than those for CD30(+) LPD. The spectrum of primary CTCL in organ transplant recipients (OTR) is similar to that in the general population. The prognosis of posttransplant primary cutaneous CD30(+) LPD is worse than posttransplant MF and than its counterpart in the immunocompetent population. EBV-associated cutaneous B cell LPD predominates in OTR. PMID:23718915
Seçkin, D; Barete, S; Euvrard, S; Francès, C; Kanitakis, J; Geusau, A; Del Marmol, V; Harwood, C A; Proby, C M; Ali, I; Güleç, A T; Durukan, E; Lebbé, C; Alaibac, M; Laffitte, E; Cooper, S; Bouwes Bavinck, J N; Murphy, G M; Ferrándiz, C; Mørk, C; Cetkovská, P; Kempf, W; Hofbauer, G F L
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is generally caused by an uncontrolled B-cell proliferation induced by\\u000a Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the setting of impaired EBV-specific T-cell immunity. PTLD has been described in allogeneic hematopoietic\\u000a stem cell transplant (HSCT) and rarely in autologous HSCT. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is being increasingly utilized for\\u000a acute rejection in organ transplantation, severe autoimmune diseases and aplastic anemia.
George M. ViolaYouli; Youli Zu; Kelty R. Baker; Saima Aslam
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare bone marrow failure syndrome defined by a progressive normocytic anaemia and reticulocytopenia without leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Secondary PRCA can be associated with various haematological disorders, such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The aim of the present review is to investigate the infrequent association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders. PRCA might precede the appearance of lymphoma, may present simultaneously with the lymphoid neoplastic disease, or might appear following the lymphomatic disorder. Possible pathophysiological molecular mechanisms to explain the rare association between PRCA and lymphoproliferative disorders are reported. Most cases of PRCA are presumed to be autoimmune mediated by antibodies against either erythroblasts or erythropoietin, by T-cells secreting factors selectively inhibiting erythroid colonies in the bone marrow or by NK cells directly lysing erythroblasts. Finally, focus is given to the therapeutical approach, as several treatment regimens have failed for PRCA. Immunosuppressive therapy and/or chemotherapy are effective for improving anaemia in the majority of patients with lymphoma-associated PRCA. Further investigation is required to define the pathophysiology of PRCA at a molecular level and to provide convincing evidence why it might appear as a rare complication of lymphoproliferative disorders.
Vlachaki, Efthymia; Diamantidis, Michael D.; Klonizakis, Philippos; Haralambidou-Vranitsa, Styliani; Ioannidou-Papagiannaki, Elizabeth; Klonizakis, Ioannis
Lymphoproliferative syndrome with well differentiated lymphocytes and moderate lymphocytosis in the peripheral blood includes a heterogeneous group of disorders, that present often difficulties in classification. We have studied the lymphocyte markers (ER, EMR, sIg and T3, T4, T8 antigens) in 36 cases who had lymphocytic infiltration in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphocyte counts less than 15 X 10(9) l-1. Four cases (11.1%) had the characteristics of T8 lymphocytosis and 31 had a B cell monoclonal proliferation in the peripheral blood. Of these, four were sIg-, EMR+, 19 were sIg+, EMR+ and 8 were sIg+, EMR-. Most patients (17/32) had the clinical picture of stage 0 and I B-CLL. Six cases presented as pure splenomegalic form of CLL, three had the features of immunocytic lymphoma and five had the features of lymphocytic lymphoma. It is concluded that the majority of lymphoproliferative disorders presenting with moderate lymphocytosis represent early forms of B-CLL. Occasionally cases of lymphocytic or immunocytic lymphoma may present problems of differential diagnosis since there may be a dissociation of phenotypic characteristics of lymphocytes between tissues and peripheral blood.
Economidou, J.; Choremi, H.; Konstantinidou, N.; Kofina, A.; Psarra, K.; Stefanoudaki, K.; Papayannis, A.; Economopoulos, F.; Dervenoulas, J.; Vlachos, J.
We report detailed histological and molecular characteristics of four post transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) presenting in the skin of renal transplant patients, and their clinical outcome. Three had B-cell lymphomas (cases 1-3), and one had a T-cell lymphoma (case 4). All B-cell lymphomas showed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH). Cases 1 and 2 were large cell lymphomas, and case 3 a plasmacytoma. Case 1 showed light chain restriction and heavy chain gene rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient was then diagnosed with an abdominal lymphoma and died of sepsis. Case 2 had no recoverable DNA. Case 3 had a plasmacytoma that showed monoclonal light chain restriction on IHC and an oligoclonal heavy chain rearrangement by PCR. In cases 2 and 3, the lesions regressed following reduction of immunosuppression, and died 1.5 and 8 years later from unrelated medical causes. Case 4 was a CD 30+ anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma with no EBV detected by IHC, ISH and PCR, and died of heart failure 2 years later. Cutaneous manifestations of PTLD are rare, show wide array of clinical and pathological features, and generally have a favorable prognosis. EBV appears to be associated only with B-cell cutaneous lymphomas. PMID:19903218
Salama, Samih; Todd, Stanley; Cina, Davide Pietro; Margetts, Peter
CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders of the skin represent a well-defined spectrum of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. They include lymphomatoid papulosis and cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma which are characterized by the common expression of the CD30 antigen, but different clinical, histological and molecular features. Recent progress in the pathobiology and identification of therapeutic targets has contributed to our current understanding of this peculiar group of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. The characteristic features of this group of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders are reviewed with particular emphasis to their diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:23149700
Alaibac, M; Zarian, H; Russo, I; Peserico, A
The incidence of lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) is significantly higher in individuals who have congenital, acquired or iatrogenically induced immunodeficiency. Although there are a wide range of LPDs including lymphoma and leukemia, this article only covers LPDs in patients with impaired immune function, which are called immunodeficiency-associated LPDs (ID-LPDs). Three of the four ID-LPD categories recognized by WHO have been selected for discussion: LPD in primary immune disorders, post-transplant LPD and LPD in HIV infection. Because of the high incidence and mortality of ID-LPDs, careful evaluation of the morphology, immunophenotype, genotype, viral status and clinical history is required for accurate diagnosis and treatment. Recently, treatment with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has been widely used and developed because of its potential benefits. The aim of this review is to describe new information concerning mAb treatment in LPDs and to draw physicians' attention to mAb therapy, which should be effective for some types of LPD. PMID:23557424
Yang, Xi; Miyawaki, Toshio; Kanegane, Hirokazu
Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) occur often in EBV-infected patients, especially in solid-organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The risk of developing LPD ranges from 1 to 25% and depends on the type of transplantation. We are presenting the case of a 9-year-old boy with acute myelogenous leukaemia in second remission, who developed LPD after matched unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation (MUD BMT) not identical in two loci. On day 50 after BMT the patient presented with fever and symptoms of paronychia. Two weeks later, bilateral cervical tenderness and adenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly developed. Bone marrow biopsy confirmed continuing remission. An extensive infection workup, including bacterial, mycotic and CMV infection yielded negative results. Basing on clinical picture and suspecting LPD, EBV-PCR was performed. The patient was found to have extremely high EBV DNA levels (4.905.152 genomes/mcg) in the peripheral blood. On days 64 and 73 after BMT, the patient received two doses of rituximab (MabThera) (375 mg/m(2)) After the first dose of rituximab EBV DNA copy numbers decreased to 707.723/mcg. However the patient's general condition was worsening; 71 days after BMT increasing aplasia and symptoms of venoocclusive disease (VOD) developed. The patient received two doses of defibrotide (Novarid). Despite of intensive therapy, progressive hepatic failure and increasing pulmonary oedema led to the patient's death, on day 96 after BMT. PMID:19531835
Sta?czak, Elzbieta; Pawelec, Katarzyna; Romiszewski, Micha?
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. We present a case of a 28-year-old woman with DC who was admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for aplastic anemia and who developed acute myeloid leukemia with complex genetic karyotype abnormalities including the MLL (11q23) gene, 1q25, and chromosome 8. After transplantation, a monomorphic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was discovered involving the liver, omental tissue, and peritoneal fluid samples showing additional MLL (11q23) gene abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Despite treatment, the patient died of complications associated with transplantation and invasive fungal infection. This case represents the first bona fide documented case of EBV-negative monomorphic PTLD host derived, with MLL gene abnormalities in a patient with DC, and shows another possible mechanism for the development of a therapy-related lymphoid neoplasm after transplantation. PMID:23222806
Bohn, Olga L; Whitten, Joseph; Spitzer, Barbara; Kobos, Rachel; Prockop, Susan; Boulad, Farid; Arcila, Maria; Wang, Lu; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie
Gamma heavy-chain disease (gHCD) is defined as a lymphoplasmacytic neoplasm that produces an abnormally truncated immunoglobulin gamma heavy-chain protein that lacks associated light chains. There is scant information in the literature regarding the morphologic findings in this rare disorder, but cases have often been reported to resemble lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). To clarify the spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders that may be associated with gHCD, this study reports the clinical, morphologic, and phenotypic findings in 13 cases of gHCD involving lymph nodes (n=7), spleen (n=2), bone marrow (n=8), or other extranodal tissue biopsies (n=3). Clinically, patients showed a female predominance (85%) with frequent occurrence of autoimmune disease (69%). Histologically, 8 cases (61%) contained a morphologically similar neoplasm of small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells that was difficult to classify with certainty, whereas the remaining 5 cases (39%) showed the typical features of one of several other well-defined entities in the 2008 WHO classification. This report demonstrates that gHCD is associated with a variety of underlying lymphoproliferative disorders but most often shows features that overlap with cases previously reported as "vaguely nodular, polymorphous" LPL. These findings also provide practical guidance for the routine evaluation of small B-cell neoplasms with plasmacytic differentiation that could represent a heavy-chain disease and give suggestions for an improved approach to the WHO classification of gHCD. PMID:22301495
Bieliauskas, Shannon; Tubbs, Raymond R; Bacon, Chris M; Eshoa, Camellia; Foucar, Kathryn; Gibson, Sarah E; Kroft, Steven H; Sohani, Aliyah R; Swerdlow, Steven H; Cook, James R
Gamma heavy-chain disease (gHCD) is defined as a lymphoplasmacytic neoplasm that produces an abnormally truncated immunoglobulin gamma heavy-chain protein that lacks associated light chains. There is scant information in the literature regarding the morphologic findings in this rare disorder, but cases have often been reported to resemble lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL). To clarify the spectrum of lymphoproliferative disorders that may be associated with gHCD, this study reports the clinical, morphologic, and phenotypic findings in 13 cases of gHCD involving lymph nodes (n = 7), spleen (n = 2), bone marrow (n = 8), or other extranodal tissue biopsies (n = 3). Clinically, patients showed a female predominance (85%) with frequent occurrence of autoimmune disease (69%). Histologically, 8 cases (61%) contained a morphologically similar neoplasm of small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and plasma cells that was difficult to classify with certainty, whereas the remaining 5 cases (39%) showed the typical features of one of several other well-defined entities in the 2008 WHO classification. This report demonstrates that gHCD is associated with a variety of underlying lymphoproliferative disorders but most often shows features that overlap with cases previously reported as “vaguely nodular, polymorphous” LPL. These findings also provide practical guidance for the routine evaluation of small B-cell neoplasms with plasmacytic differentiation that could represent a heavy-chain disease and give suggestions for an improved approach to the WHO classification of gHCD.
Bieliauskas, Shannon; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Bacon, Chris M.; Eshoa, Camellia; Foucar, Kathryn; Gibson, Sarah E.; Kroft, Steven H.; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Swerdlow, Steven H.; Cook, James R.
Background Rhesus macaques (RM) co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV) develop abnormal cellular proliferations characterized as extra-nodal lymphoma and retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF). RRV encodes a viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), much like Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, and involvement of the viral cytokine was examined in proliferative lesions. Methods Formalin fixed tissue from RM co-infected with SIV and RRV were analyzed for RRV genomes by in situ hybridization and RRV vIL-6 expression by immunofluorescence analysis. Results In situ hybridization analysis indicated that RRV is present in both types of lesions. Immunofluorescence analysis of different lymphomas and RF revealed positive staining for vIL-6. Similarly to KS, RF lesion is positive for vimentin, CD117 (c-kit), and smooth muscle actin (SMA) and contains T cell, B cell and monocytes/macrophage infiltrates. Conclusions Our data support the idea that vIL-6 may be critical to the development and progression of lymphoproliferative disorder in RRV/SIV-infected RM.
Orzechowska, B.U.; Manoharan, M.; Sprague, J.; Estep, R.D.; Axthelm, M.K.; Wong, S.W.
Some infectious agents have been associated with B-cell lymphoma development. In the last decades, it has been demonstrated that patients infected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) are more likely to develop B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) than those uninfected. The prevalence of HCV-infection among NHL patients is reported in this review of all Italian studies on NHL and HCV infection, both case-control and case series. From 18 studies, the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies in 2736 NHL patients was 19.7% (range: 8.3-37.1%). The association of HCV-infection with each NHL histotype in case-control studies is discussed. Molecular mechanisms by which HCV infection promotes B-cell NHL development is also explored and indicate that HCV-associated lymphomas may be a distinct entity. Clarification of these mechanisms may improve diagnosis, classification and therapy of this subset of NHL. Finally, treatment of HCV-positive patients with lymphoproliferative disorders are herein summarized and further support the notion that HCV infection contributes to the development of these pathologic conditions. PMID:20428756
Libra, Massimo; Polesel, Jerry; Russo, Alessia Erika; De Re, Vallì; Cinà, Diana; Serraino, Diego; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Stivala, Franca; Talamini, Renato
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell/natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPDs) accompany severe chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) or comprise the CAEBV disease entity. The CAEBV disease entity has the common feature of lymphoproliferation of T or NK cells (primarily), and B cells (rarely), with chronic activation of EBV infection. The disease is rare and seems to be more prevalent in East Asian countries. The CAEBV disease entity encompasses heterogenous disorders, including hydroa vacciniforme (HV), hypersensitivity to mosquito bites, EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, NK/T-cell lymphoma, and NK-cell leukemia. Atypical HV-like eruptions are present on sun-exposed and nonexposed areas with facial edema, fever, and hepatosplenomegaly, unlike classic HV. Recently, it has been suggested that classic HV and atypical HV-like eruptions are variants within the same disease spectrum of EBV-T/NK-LPD. We report a Korean boy with an atypical HV-like eruption and various systemic manifestations, including fever, sore throat, abdominal pain, headaches, seizures, and hematologic abnormalities for 2 years. After the initial mild eruption, which resembled a viral exanthem, ulceronecrotic skin lesions gradually developed and were associated with a high-grade fever and constitutional symptoms. He had a CAEBV infection, which showed a predominant proliferation of NK cells with high EBV DNA levels in the peripheral blood. However, in the skin lesions, there were nonneoplastic CD4 T-cell infiltrations predominantly showing a monoclonal T-cell receptor-? gene rearrangement and positive EBV in situ hybridization. PMID:23169419
Lee, Hye Young; Baek, Jin Ok; Lee, Jong Rok; Park, Sang Hui; Jeon, In Sang; Roh, Joo Young
Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
Lymphadenopathy, which may be associated with systemic symptoms, is frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Reactive non- neoplastic tissue comprises the majority of the lymph node lesions. However, several cohort studies have demonstrated that RA has an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). Since the early 1990s, an atypical or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) in patients immunosupressed with methtorexate (MTX)
M. Kojima; T. Motoori; S. Nakamura
To differentiate peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), the authors evaluated the results of T11 monoclonal antibody studies on consecutive cell suspensions prepared from 509 lymph nodes from various lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD). They used T11 (CD2) positivity to identify those LPD in which the content of T cells was high. There were 266 (52%) cell suspensions which contained more than 50% T11-positive cells. More than 75% of the following non-Hodgkin's lymphomas had over 50% T11-positive cells: diffuse mixed cell (DM), diffuse atypical poorly differentiated lymphocytic and lymphoblastic lymphomas; mycosis fungoides; and true histiocytic lymphoma. Eleven cell suspensions had more than 90% T11-positive cells; four were involved by B-cell lymphomas. The cell suspensions prepared from nine of 14 diffuse large cell lymphomas of the T-cell type had more than 50% T11-positive cells. Of these, three of five cases of the polymorphous subtype had fewer than 50% T11 cells, but six of seven lymph nodes of the clear-cell type had more than 50% T11-positive cells. Each of seven DM samples of the T-cell type contained over 50% T11 cells; none had a polymorphous appearance. In the 112 cases of reactive LPD studied, more than 75% of cases of necrotizing lymphadenitis, dermatopathic lymphadenitis, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and those with lymph nodes with no specific reactive pattern had more than 50% T11-positive cells. The authors' findings indicate that T11 positivity is a reliable T-cell marker in reactive and neoplastic LPD except for those cases of PTCL with a polymorphous appearance; these tend to lose T11-expression. A multi-parameter diagnostic approach is required in the following LPD: (1) PTCL which are T11-negative; (2) PTCL of small lymphocytic type having an unremarkable T-cell phenotype; (3) SIg-negative B-cell lymphomas which are rich in nonneoplastic T cells; (4) non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with minimal disease which are rich in reactive T cells; and (5) polymorphous large cell proliferations. PMID:2901904
Winberg, C D; Sheibani, K; Burke, J S; Wu, A; Rappaport, H
Accurate diagnosis of lymphoma includes the assessment of lineage-specific markers. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues express PAX5 exclusively in pro-B-cell to mature B-cell stages. However, some mature PAX5+ T-cell lymphomas have been reported. We report three cases of primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) with PAX5 expression: one cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) and two cases of lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP). The three patients were 26 years old and female, 75 years old and female, and 65 years old and male. In all cases, Hodgkin's and Reed-Sternberg-like large lymphoid cells were present, positive for CD30, fascin, and PAX5, and negative for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD45RO, CD56, cytotoxic markers, and Epstein-Barr virus. The ALCL was accompanied by lymphadenopathy; the patient died of progressive disease 5 months after diagnosis. The LyP cases were localized in the skin with spontaneous regression. One case was diagnosed during pregnancy, transformed to ALCL, and ended in death 32 months after diagnosis despite multi-agent chemotherapy. This study is the first to address the clinical significance of PAX5+ primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell LPDs. These cases were distinct regarding PAX5 expression and a relatively aggressive clinical course versus conventional primary cutaneous CD30+ T-cell LPDs. PMID:22449230
Hagiwara, Masahiro; Tomita, Akihiro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Yoshino, Tadashi; Tomita, Yasushi; Nakamura, Shigeo
Fas is an apoptosis-signaling receptor important for homeostasis of the immune system. In this study, Fas-mediated apoptosis and Fas mutations were analyzed in three Japanese children from two families with a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia and an increase in TCRabFCD4- CD8- T cells. Apoptosis induced by anti-Fas mAb was defective in both activated T cells and
Yoshihito Kasahara; Taizo Wada; Yo Niida; Akihiro Yachie; Hidetoshi Seki; Yasushi Ishida; Tsuyoshi Sakai; Fumitomo Koizumi; Shoichi Koizumi; Toshio Miyawaki; Noboru Taniguchi
We present a case of a 67-year-old Japanese man with a serious oropharyngeal ulceration that at first seemed to be destructive malignant lymphoma or oropharyngeal carcinoma. We suspected methotrexate (MTX)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) induced by MTX treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). About 3 weeks after simple discontinuation of MTX, complete regression of the disease was observed, confirming our diagnosis. PMID:23970326
Hanakawa, Hiroyuki; Orita, Yorihisa; Sato, Yasuharu; Uno, Kinya; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Yoshino, Tadashi
Lymphadenopathy, which may be associated with systemic symptoms, is frequently associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Reactive non-neoplastic tissue comprises the majority of the lymph node lesions. However, several cohort studies have demonstrated that RA has an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). Since the early 1990s, an atypical or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) in patients immunosupressed with methtorexate (MTX) therapy
M. Kojima; T. Motoori; S. Nakamura
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a heterogeneous disease group of benign and malignant entities. The\\u000a new World Health Organisation classification introduced in 2008 distinguishes early lesions, polymorphic, monomorphic and\\u000a classical Hodgkin lymphoma-type PTLD. Based on the time of appearance, early and late forms can be identified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PTLDs are the second most frequent posttransplantation tumors in adulthood, and the most frequent
Gyula Végs?; Melinda Hajdu; Anna Sebestyén
Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) may involve intrathoracic organs in patients with autoimmune disease, but little is known about the radiologic manifestations of autoimmune disease-associated LPDs (ALPDs) of the lungs. The purpose of our work was to identify the radiologic characteristics of pulmonary involvement in ALPDs. A comprehensive search for PubMed database was conducted with the combination of MeSH words. All articles which had original images or description on radiologic findings were included in this analysis. Also, CT images of eight patients with biopsy-proven lymphoproliferative disorder observed from our institution were added. Overall, 44 cases of ALPD were identified, and consisted of 24 cases of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (BALToma), eight cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), six cases of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), two cases of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, two cases of unclassified lymphoproliferative disorder, and one case each of lymphomatoid granulomatosis and hyperblastic BALT. Multiple nodules (n?=?14, 32 %) and single mass (n?=?8, 18 %) were the predominant radiologic manifestations. The imaging findings conformed to previously described findings of BALToma, NHL, or LIP. Data suggest that BALToma, NHL, and LIP are the predominant ALPDs of the lung, and ALPD generally shared common radiologic features with sporadic LPDs. Familiarity with ALPDs and their imaging findings may enable radiologists or clinicians to include the disease as a potential differential diagnosis and thus, to prompt early biopsy followed by appropriate treatment. PMID:23728499
Lee, Geewon; Lee, Ho Yun; Lee, Kyung Soo; Lee, Kyung Jong; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Han, Joungho; Chung, Man Pyo
Pretherapy sperm cryopreservation in young men is currently included in good clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to outline the effects of different oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders, based on an 8-year experience of the Cryopreservation Centre of a large public hospital. Two hundred and sixty-one patients with testicular neoplasia and 219 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders who underwent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and pretherapy semen cryopreservation were evaluated. Sperm and hormonal parameters (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, inhibin B levels) were assessed prior to and 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after the end of cancer treatment. At the time of sperm collection, baseline FSH level and sperm concentration were impaired to a greater extent in patients with malignant testicular neoplasias than in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Toxic effects on spermatogenesis were still evident at 6 and 12 months after the end of cancer therapies, while an improvement of seminal parameters was observed after 18 months. In conclusion, an overall increase in sperm concentration was recorded about 18 months after the end of cancer treatments in the majority of patients, even if it was not possible to predict the evolution of each single case 'a priori'. For this reason, pretherapy semen cryopreservation should be considered in all young cancer patients. PMID:23542137
Di Bisceglie, Cataldo; Bertagna, Angela; Composto, Emanuela R; Lanfranco, Fabio; Baldi, Matteo; Motta, Giovanna; Barberis, Anna M; Napolitano, Emanuela; Castellano, Elena; Manieri, Chiara
Pretherapy sperm cryopreservation in young men is currently included in good clinical practice guidelines for cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to outline the effects of different oncological treatments on semen quality in patients with testicular neoplasia or lymphoproliferative disorders, based on an 8-year experience of the Cryopreservation Centre of a large public hospital. Two hundred and sixty-one patients with testicular neoplasia and 219 patients with lymphoproliferative disorders who underwent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and pretherapy semen cryopreservation were evaluated. Sperm and hormonal parameters (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, inhibin B levels) were assessed prior to and 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months after the end of cancer treatment. At the time of sperm collection, baseline FSH level and sperm concentration were impaired to a greater extent in patients with malignant testicular neoplasias than in patients with lymphoproliferative disorders. Toxic effects on spermatogenesis were still evident at 6 and 12 months after the end of cancer therapies, while an improvement of seminal parameters was observed after 18 months. In conclusion, an overall increase in sperm concentration was recorded about 18 months after the end of cancer treatments in the majority of patients, even if it was not possible to predict the evolution of each single case ‘a priori'. For this reason, pretherapy semen cryopreservation should be considered in all young cancer patients.
Di Bisceglie, Cataldo; Bertagna, Angela; Composto, Emanuela R; Lanfranco, Fabio; Baldi, Matteo; Motta, Giovanna; Barberis, Anna M; Napolitano, Emanuela; Castellano, Elena; Manieri, Chiara
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are serious, life-threatening complications of solid-organ transplantation (SOT) and bone marrow transplantation, and are associated with high mortality. PTLDs represent a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative diseases, which show a spectrum of clinical, morphologic, and molecular genetic features ranging from reactive polyclonal lesions to frank lymphomas. We describe clinicopathologic features of 17 cases of PTLD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), which were analyzed by in situ hybridization for EBV and a panel of antibodies directed against numerous antigens, including CD20, PAX5, CD3, bcl-6, CD10, MUM-1/IRF4, CD138, Kappa, Lambda, CD30, CD15, and Ki67. The cases included 13 males and 4 females with a median age of 31 years (range 9-49 years) and the PTLDs developed 1.5-19 months post-transplant (mean 4.7 months). The histological types indicated five cases of early lesions, two of plasmacytic hyperplasia and three of infectious mononucleosis-like PTLD. Eight cases were polymorphic PTLD, and four were monomorphic PTLD, including three of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and one of plasmablastic lymphoma. Foci and sheets of necrosis were observed in five cases. The infected ratio of EBV was 88.2 %. Some cases were treated by reduction of immunosuppression, antiviral therapy, donor lymphocyte infusion, or anti-CD20 monoclonal rituximab. Eight cases died. The first half year after allo-HSCT is very important for the development of PTLD. The diagnosis of PTLD relies on morphology and immunohistochemistry, and EBV plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PTLD. The prognosis of PTLD is poor, and, notably, PTLD after allo-HSCT exhibits some features different from those of PTLD after SOT. PMID:23255160
Chen, Ding-Bao; Song, Qiu-Jing; Chen, Yun-Xin; Chen, Yu-Hong; Shen, Dan-Hua
The authors recently demonstrated that 40% of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative lesions contained lytic as well as latent EBV DNA. To examine more fully the replicative state of EBV in these disorders, the authors studied protein extracts of EBV-associated lymphoid lesions from 13 patients, most of whom were immunosuppressed, for expression of the diffuse early antigen (EA-D) of EBV, by immunoblotting techniques. The reagent used was a mouse monoclonal antibody. Seven of thirteen samples (54%) contained EA-D. These data indicate that in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative lesions, lytic viral replication occurs frequently, manifested by the presence of EBV diffuse early antigen as well as by the presence of lytic EBV DNA replication. PMID:1316087
Katz, B Z; Saini, U
Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) belong to the spectrum of cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders, an indolent form of T-cell lymphoproliferative disease. We reviewed 21 cases of CD30+ lymphoproliferative lesions expressing cytotoxic profile (CD8+). Seven cases of cutaneous ALCL, 2 cases of systemic ALCL involving the skin, and 12 cases of LyP. The cases of LyP were predominated by small lymphocytes exhibiting a prominent epidermotropic pattern consistent with either type B or type D LyP. Four cases showed co-expression of CD56. The ALCL cases included myxoid features, pseudoepitheliomatous change, and an intravascular component. In all cases that were primary in the skin an indolent clinical course was seen while one patient with systemic myxoid ALCL is in remission following systemic multiagent chemotherapy. The paucity of other neutrophils and eosinophils and concomitant granulomatous inflammation were distinctive features in cases of type B and type D LyP. CD30 and CD45 Ro positivity and a clinical course typical of LyP were useful differentiating features from an aggressive cytotoxic CD8+ T cell lymphoma. In all cases that were primary in the skin an indolent clinical course was observed. CD30 and CD45 Ro positivity and a clinical course typical of LyP were useful in preventing a misdiagnosis of an aggressive cytotoxic CD8+ T cell lymphoma. PMID:23189966
Plaza, Jose A; Feldman, Andrew L; Magro, Cynthia
Stromal elements present within the tumor microenvironment may suppress host immunity and promote the growth of malignant lymphocytes in B cell–derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In contrast, little is known about the microenvironment's role in T cell–derived NHL. B7-H1 (PD-L1, CD274), a member of the B7 family of costimulatory/coinhibitory ligands expressed by both malignant cells and stromal cells within the tumor microenvironment, has emerged as an important immune modulator capable of suppressing host immunity. Therefore, B7-H1 expression and function were analyzed in cutaneous and peripheral T-cell NHL. B7-H1 was expressed by tumor cells, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cells within the tumor microenvironment in T-cell NHL and was found to inhibit T-cell proliferation and promote the induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Collectively, the data presented provide the first evidence implicating B7-H1 in the suppression of host immunity in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and suggest that the targeting of B7-H1 may represent a novel therapeutic approach.
Wilcox, Ryan A.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Wada, David A.; Yang, Zhi-Zhang; Comfere, Nneka I.; Dong, Haidong; Kwon, Eugene D.; Novak, Anne J.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Witzig, Thomas E.
Hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients diagnosed with biopsy-confirmed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) at our institution from 1989 to 2010 were identified. Patient-, transplant- and disease-related characteristics, prognostic factors and outcome were collected and analyzed. One hundred and forty biopsy-proven cases of PTLD were included. Overall incidence in the transplant population was 2.12%, with heart transplant recipients carrying the highest risk. Most PTLDs were monomorphic (82%), with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most frequent subtype. The majority of cases (70.7%) occurred > 1 year posttransplant, and 66% were Epstein-Barr virus positive. Following initial therapy the overall response rate was 68.5%. Three-year relapse-free and overall survivals were 59% and 49%, respectively. At last follow-up, 44% of the patients were alive. Multivariable analysis identified several classical lymphoma-specific poor prognostic factors for the different outcome measures. The value of the International Prognostic Index was confirmed in our analysis. PMID:23442063
Dierickx, Daan; Tousseyn, Thomas; Sagaert, Xavier; Fieuws, Steffen; Wlodarska, Iwona; Morscio, Julie; Brepoels, Lieselot; Kuypers, Dirk; Vanhaecke, Johan; Nevens, Frederik; Verleden, Geert; Van Damme-Lombaerts, Rita; Renard, Marleen; Pirenne, Jacques; De Wolf-Peeters, Christiane; Verhoef, Gregor
Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a clonal B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) of post-germinal center nature. Despite the fact that the precise molecular pathway(s) leading to WM remain(s) to be elucidated, a hallmark of the disease is the absence of the immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch recombination. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we compared proteomic profiles of WM cells with that of other LPDs. We were able to demonstrate that WM constitutes a unique proteomic entity as compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and marginal zone lymphoma. Statistical comparisons of protein expression levels revealed that a few proteins are distinctly expressed in WM in comparison with other LPDs. In particular we observed a major downregulation of the double strand repair protein Ku70 (XRCC6); confirmed at both the protein and RNA levels in an independent cohort of patients. Hence, we define a distinctive proteomic profile for WM where the downregulation of Ku70-a component of the non homologous end-joining pathway-might be relevant in disease pathophysiology. PMID:22961060
Perrot, A; Pionneau, C; Azar, N; Baillou, C; Lemoine, F M; Leblond, V; Merle-Béral, H; Béné, M-C; Herbrecht, R; Bahram, S; Vallat, L
We report a woman in her early thirties with a long-term history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and prednisolone administration, who progressed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). Treatment for SLE consisted of 1 mg/kg/ day prednisolone followed by 5 mg/day of maintenance therapy. Lymph node biopsies were performed when the patient was in her early thirties, mid-forties, and late fifties. Histologically, the initial lymph node lesion was characterized by numerous enlarged, coalescing lymphoid follicles. The second biopsy showed effacement of the follicles and expansion of the paracortical area. A polymorphous population of small- to medium-sized lymphocytes, plasma cells, and immunoblasts had diffusely infiltrated the paracortical area. In the third lymph node biopsy, fibrous collagen bands divided the epithelioid cell granulomas into nodules. There were numerous Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in the epithelioid cell granuloma. In situ hybridization demonstrated there were no EBV-infected lymphocytes in the first biopsy; however, EBER(+) cells were detected in the second and third biopsy specimens. The current findings illustrate the natural progression in a patient with a long-term history of EBV(+) B-cell LPD in which the immunodeficiency was caused by SLE and probably her aging, which together resulted in histological change. PMID:22179188
Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Handa, Hiroshi; Yokohama, Akihiko; Mitsui, Takeki; Saitoh, Takayuki; Koiso, Hiromi; Uchiumi, Hideki; Hoshino, Takumi; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Kojima, Masaru; Nojima, Yoshihisa
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognized as a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. It has been suggested that HCV infects not only hepatocytes but also mononuclear lymphocytes including B cells that express the CD81 molecule, a putative HCV receptor. HCV infection of B cells is the likely cause of B-cell dysregulation disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, rheumatoid factor production, and B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that may evolve into non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Epidemiological data indicate an association between HCV chronic infection and the occurrence of B-cell NHL, suggesting that chronic HCV infection is associated at least in part with B-cell lymphomagenesis. In this paper, we aim to provide an overview of recent literature, including our own, to elucidate a possible role of HCV chronic infection in B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Ito, Masahiko; Kusunoki, Hideki; Mochida, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Mizuochi, Toshiaki
Background. Occult hepatitis C virus infection (OCI) was identified as a new form of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), characterized by undetectable HCV antibodies and HCV RNA in serum, while HCV RNA is detectable in liver and peripheral blood cells only. Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of OCI in Egyptian patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) and to compare its prevalence with that of HCV in those patients. Subjects and Methods. The current study included 100 subjects, 50 of them were newly diagnosed cases having different lymphoproliferative disorders (patients group), and 50 were apparently healthy volunteers (controls group). HCV antibodies were detected by ELISA, HCV RNA was detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR), and HCV genotype was detected by INNO-LiPA. Results. OCI was detected in 20% of patients group, compared to only 4% OCI in controls group. HCV was detected in 26% of patients group with a slightly higher prevalence. There was a male predominance in both HCV and OCI. All HCV positive patients were genotype 4. Conclusion. Our data revealed occurrence of occult HCV infection in Egyptian LPD patients at a prevalence of 20% compared to 26% of HCV. PMID:23304473
Youssef, Samar Samir; Nasr, Aml S; El Zanaty, Taher; El Rawi, Rasha Sayed; Mattar, Mervat M
Renal involvement in myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders is generally not routinely imaged, as in most instances\\u000a they are asymptomatic owing to preserved renal function. Symptoms arise as a result of compression, renal obstruction, infection,\\u000a or hemorrhage. Ultrasound and CT remain the imaging modalities of choice due to their availability, relatively short scan\\u000a times, and reduced costs compared with MR imaging.
Clara G. C. Ooi; Ali Guermazi
Angioedema due to the acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor is a rare disease known as acquired angioedema (AAE), which was first described in a patient with high-grade lymphoma and is frequently associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, including expansion of B cell clones producing anti-C1-INH autoantibodies, monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). AAE is clinically similar to hereditary angioedema (HAE), and is characterized by recurrent episodes of sub-cutaneous and sub-mucosal edema. It may affect the face, tongue, extremities, trunk and genitals. The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract causes bowel sub-occlusion with severe pain, vomiting and diarrhea, whereas laryngeal edema can be life-threatening. Unlike those with HAE, AAE patients usually have late-onset symptoms, do not have a family history of angioedema and present variable response to treatment due to the hyper-catabolism of C1-inhibitor. Reduced C1-inhibitor function leads to activation of the classic complement pathway with its consumption and activation of the contact system leading to the generation of the vasoactive peptide bradykinin, which increases vascular permeability and induces angioedema. Lymphoprolipherative diseases and AAE are tightly linked with either angioedema or limphoprolyferation being the first symptom. Experimental data indicate that neoplastic tissue and/or anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies induce C1-inhibitor consumption, and this is further supported by the observation that cytotoxic treatment of the lymphoproliferative diseases associated with AAE variably reverses the complement impairment and leads to a clinical improvement in angioedema symptoms. PMID:23490322
Castelli, Roberto; Zanichelli, Andrea; Cicardi, Marco; Cugno, Massimo
CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development. PMID:22801960
Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G
CD27, a tumor necrosis factor receptor family member, interacts with CD70 and influences T-, B- and NK-cell functions. Disturbance of this axis impairs immunity and memory generation against viruses including Epstein Barr virus (EBV), influenza, and others. CD27 is commonly used as marker of memory B cells for the classification of B-cell deficiencies including common variable immune deficiency. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping including expression analysis of CD27 on lymphoid cells was followed by capillary sequencing of CD27 in index patients, their parents, and non-affected siblings. More comprehensive genetic analysis employed single nucleotide polymorphism-based homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of exome sequencing data was performed at two centers using slightly different data analysis pipelines, each based on the Genome Analysis ToolKit Best Practice version 3 recommendations. A comprehensive clinical characterization was correlated to genotype. We report the simultaneous confirmation of human CD27 deficiency in 3 independent families (8 patients) due to a homozygous mutation (p. Cys53Tyr) revealed by whole exome sequencing, leading to disruption of an evolutionarily conserved cystein knot motif of the transmembrane receptor. Phenotypes varied from asymptomatic memory B-cell deficiency (n=3) to EBV-associated hemophagocytosis and lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD; n=3) and malignant lymphoma (n=2; +1 after LPD). Following EBV infection, hypogammaglobulinemia developed in at least 3 of the affected individuals, while specific anti-viral and anti-polysaccharide antibodies and EBV-specific T-cell responses were detectable. In severely affected patients, numbers of iNKT cells and NK-cell function were reduced. Two of 8 patients died, 2 others underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation successfully, and one received anti-CD20 (rituximab) therapy repeatedly. Since homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing did not reveal additional modifying factors, our findings suggest that lack of functional CD27 predisposes towards a combined immunodeficiency associated with potentially fatal EBV-driven hemo-phagocytosis, lymphoproliferation, and lymphoma development.
Salzer, Elisabeth; Daschkey, Svenja; Choo, Sharon; Gombert, Michael; Santos-Valente, Elisangela; Ginzel, Sebastian; Schwendinger, Martina; Haas, Oskar A.; Fritsch, Gerhard; Pickl, Winfried F.; Forster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Borkhardt, Arndt; Boztug, Kaan; Bienemann, Kirsten; Seidel, Markus G.
T cell depletion (TCD) of marrow is a proven method of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Nonetheless, TCD is associated with an increased risk of developing post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Between 1986 and 1998, 241 pediatric patients at the University of Iowa underwent BMT using ex vivo TCD of marrow from mismatched related or
B A Lynch; M A Vasef; M Comito; A L Gilman; N Lee; J Ritchie; S Rumelhart; M Holida; F Goldman
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is a serious complication after solid organ transplantation. Reduction of immunosuppression (RI) alone is not able to control the disease. We report a prospective analysis of 30 patients with PTLD after heart or kidney transplantation. Only 5 of 30 patients, treated solely with RI, obtained a complete response. Five patients were treated heterogeneously; in the remaining
S. M. L. Aversa; S. Stragliotto; D. Marino; F. Calabrese; P. Rigotti; F. Marchini; A. Gambino; G. Feltrin; C. Boso; F. Canova; C. Soldà; R. Mazzarotto; P. Burra
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease associated with altered immunoregulation and resulting in a deforming polyarthritis. Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used second line agent for RA, and there have been several recent reports of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated polyclonal B cell lymphoproliferative disorder in MTX-treated RA patients. The patient in this report had long standing RA treated with MTX and had recently begun taking a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. She developed a febrile illness associated with severe pancytopenia and leukocytoclastic vasculitic rash followed by diffuse adenopathy, with serologic and pathologic evidence of EBV infection. Previous studies have demonstrated the interaction of MTX and a variety of non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with various clinical manifestations including acute renal failure, pancytopenia, vomiting, diarrhea, elevated liver transaminases, jaundice, mucosal ulcerations, and pyrexia. However, we have not identified previous reports suggesting interaction between MTX and COX-2 inhibitors. We hypothesize that decreased renal elimination of MTX induced by the COX-2 inhibitor resulted in enhanced hematopoietic toxicity and immunosuppression causing the EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:15595320
Vincent, Simi; Slease, R Bradley; Rocca, Peter V
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) involving the central nervous system (CNS) in children are uncommon and can prove diagnostically challenging. The clinical and imaging characteristics of CNS PTLD can overlap with those of infection, hemorrhage, and primary CNS tumors. Some cases of CNS PTLD remain clinically unsuspected and are diagnosed postmortem. We report 6 instances of CNS PTLD in children, 2 of which were limited to the CNS and were unsuspected before autopsy. In our autopsy series, PTLD was found outside the CNS in 4 out of 6 cases. Since CNS PTLD has a poor prognosis and the presentation can be subtle, unsuspected, and high grade, it is important to maintain a high index of suspicion and to perform imaging and brain biopsy whenever clinically appropriate. In the presence of leptomeningeal involvement, the diagnosis could be made by cerebral spinal fluid examination. PMID:23286282
Gheorghe, Gabriela; Radu, Oana; Milanovich, Samuel; Hamilton, Ronald L; Jaffe, Ronald; Southern, James F; Ozolek, John A
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a lymphoid proliferation that develops as a complication of solid organ or bone marrow transplants. PTLD limited to the skin is very rare. Plasmacytoma-like PTLD is an uncommon variant of monomorphic PTLD. Its presentation in the skin is extraordinary with very few cases reported in the literature. We report a new case of plasmacytoma-like PTLD presenting as multiple skin nodules on the leg of a 74-year-old kidney transplant recipient. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of one nodule revealed atypical plasmacytoid and plasmablastic cells that showed kappa light chain restriction and stained positive for CD138. Staging investigations excluded extracutaneous manifestations of the disease. This case is unusual for several reasons including involvement limited to the skin, plasmacytoid phenotype of the tumor, presentation 18 years following transplantation and Epstein-Barr virus negativity. PMID:22574640
Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Pulpillo, Agueda; Lasanta, Begoña; Zulueta, Teresa; Andrades, Rocío; Requena, Luis
B cell-directed therapies are promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. Besides targeting CD20, newer B cell-directed therapies are in development that target other B cell surface molecules and differentiation factors. An increasing number of B cell-directed therapies are in development for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Like rituximab, which is approved as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many of these newer agents deplete B cells or target pathways essential for B cell development and function; however, many questions remain about their optimal use in the clinic and about the role of B cells in disease pathogenesis. Other therapies besides rituximab that target CD20 are the furthest along in development. Besides targeting CD20, the newer B cell-directed therapies target CD22, CD19, CD40-CD40L, B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). Rituximab is being tested in an ever-increasing number of autoimmune disorders and clinical studies of rituximab combined with other biological therapies are being pursued for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). B cell-directed therapies are being tested in clinical trials for a variety of autoimmune disorders including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), the inflammatory myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis) and the blistering skin diseases pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Despite the plethora of clinical studies related to B cell-directed therapies and wealth of new information from these trials, much still remains to be discovered about the pathophysiological role of B cells in autoimmune disorders. PMID:19604259
Levesque, M C
To assess whether the semiquantitative peripheral blood Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test correlates\\u000a with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD), we compiled the results of the test done over a 3-year period ending\\u000a July 1997. Six hundred seventy-six tests were done on 185 patients. Four hundred-thirty tests (63%) were negative, 167 (25%)\\u000a were weak positive, 67 (10%) were moderate
Beverly Barton Rogers; John Sommerauer; Albert Quan; Charles F. Timmons; D. Brian Dawson; Richard H. Scheuermann; Karen Krisher; Carolyn Atkins
Objectives: The field of cytopathology has been rapidly advancing in the era of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. On-site cytologic evaluation for adequacy and triaging specimens for small core biopsy or fine-needle aspiration (FNA) are often required. Cytopathologists face the challenge of how to best triage small specimens for diagnosis, molecular testing, and personalized treatment. Owing to its minimally invasive nature, FNA alone or combined with core biopsy for lymphoproliferative disorders and soft tissue tumors has gained popularity. Methods: Literature review and author's institutional experience are used for this review article. This article will focus mainly on lymphoproliferative disorders and soft tissue tumors. Results: Evaluation combining cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and/or molecular pathology is often needed to accurately diagnose and classify lymphomas and soft tissue tumors. Many molecular tests have been performed on cytologic specimens, such as tests for BRAF and RET in thyroid FNA. Conclusions: Molecular pathology has been widely integrated into conventional cytopathology for diagnosing lymphoproliferative disorders and soft tissue tumors, and the diagnostic value of FNA on those tumors has increased significantly. Cytology will play a more important role in the era of personalized medicine. PMID:24045541
Zhang, Songlin; Gong, Yun
Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a dimeric transcription factor composed of the Jun, Fos and Atf families of proteins. Batf is expressed in the immune system and participates in AP-1 dimers that modulate gene expression in response to a variety of stimuli. Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human BATF in T cells were generated using the human CD2 promoter (CD2-HA (hemagglutinin antigen) - BATF). By 1 year of age, over 90% of the mice developed a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The enlarged lymph nodes characteristic of this LPD contain a polyclonal accumulation of T cells with a CD4+ bias, yet efforts to propagate these tumor cells in vitro demonstrate that they do not proliferate as well as wild-type CD4+ T cells. Instead, the accumulation of these cells is likely due to an apoptotic defect as CD2-HA-BATF Tg T cells challenged by trophic factor withdrawal in vitro resist apoptosis and display a pro-survival pattern of Bcl-2 family protein expression. As elevated levels of Batf expression are a feature of lymphoid tumors in both humans and mice, these observations support the use of CD2-HA-BATF mice as a model for investigating the molecular details of apoptotic dysregulation in LPD.
Logan, M R; Jordan-Williams, K L; Poston, S; Liao, J; Taparowsky, E J
Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between serum free light chains (sFLC) quantification and the development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), using serum samples from a nested case-control cohort of patients with renal transplant. Ten new cases of PTLD and 46 controls were enrolled. Additional comparison groups consisted of five human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, five with untreated Hodgkin lymphoma and six normal individuals. Serum ? and ? FLC concentrations were measured by nephelometry and compared with reference ranges (normal and renal ranges). ? and/or ? were above the normal range in 90% of cases and in 65% of matched controls. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups, except for ? FLC concentrations between cases of PTLD and normal individuals (p = 0.016). The ?/? sFLC ratios of cases and controls were within the renal range and normal range. Our results suggest that sFLC are not useful to predict PTLD development in renal transplant recipients. PMID:23398208
Fernando, Rodrigo C; Rizzatti, Edgar G; Braga, Walter M T; Santos, Melina G; de Oliveira, Mariana B; Pestana, José O M; Baiocchi, Otavio C G; Colleoni, Gisele W B
A 44-year-old woman who had end-stage kidney disease from diabetes and hypertension underwent a deceased donor kidney transplantation. Eighteen months after the transplantation she developed an abrupt increase in her creatinine level and a kidney biopsy specimen showed the presence of a plasma cell-rich infiltrate. A vast majority of the plasma cells were kappa (?) light chain restricted on in situ hybridization. ? and lambda (?) free light chain were elevated in her serum and so was the ?/? ratio. A bone marrow biopsy specimen showed no evidence of clonal plasmacytosis. A positron emission tomography (PET) scan showed hypermetabolic activity confined to the kidney. Prior to transplantation she was Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin (Ig)G-negative but had detectable EBV based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in her blood during this episode. Despite reduction in immunosuppression there was no change in the ?/? ratio and her renal function worsened. She underwent a transplant nephrectomy and her ?/? ratio became normal. Twenty-one months later she is lymphoma-free and doing well on dialysis. Plasmacytoma-like post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is rare and even more is the localization of the malignancy to the allograft. When reduction of immunosuppression is unsuccessful in treatment, removal of the organ may be necessary as is demonstrated in our case. PMID:24034051
Kuppachi, S; Naina, H V; Self, S; Fenning, R
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a major and potentially life-threatening complication after solid-organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to describe the disease characteristics, clinical practices, and survival related to PTLD in adult orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients in South America. We conducted a survey at four different transplant groups from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Among 1621 OLT recipients, 27 developed PTLD (1.7%); the mean age at diagnosis was 53.7 (± 14) yr with a mean time of 39.7 (± 35.2) months from OLT to PTLD diagnosis. Initial therapy included reduction in immunosuppression alone in 23.1% of the patients. Either rituximab or chemotherapy was employed as initial or second-line therapy in 76.9% of the patients. PTLD location was frequently extranodal (80.7%) and mostly involving the transplanted liver (59.3%). The overall survival at one and five yr post-PTLD diagnosis was 53.8% and 46.2%, respectively. Significant univariate risk factors for post-PTLD mortality included lactate dehydrogenase ? 250 U/L (HR 9.66, p = 0.02), stage III/IV PTLD (HR 5.34, p = 0.004), and HCV infection (HR 7.68, p = 0.01). In conclusion, PTLD in OLT adult recipients is predominantly extranodal, and although mortality is high, long-term survival is possible. PMID:23758407
Mendizabal, Manuel; Marciano, Sebastián; dos Santos Schraiber, Luciana; Zapata, Rodrigo; Quiros, Rodolfo; Zanotelli, Maria Lucia; Rivas, María Marta; Kusminsky, Gustavo; Humeres, Roberto; Alves de Mattos, Angelo; Gadano, Adrián; Silva, Marcelo O
Pleural effusion presentation of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is relatively uncommon. Most examples of effusion-based PTLD have been secondary to widespread solid organ involvement, and are associated with an aggressive clinical course. We report on a case of primary effusion PTLD in a 70-yr-old male liver transplant recipient with a history of hepatitis B infection. Cytomorphologically, the pleural fluid specimen showed a monomorphous population of intermediate to large-sized transformed lymphoid cells, with irregular multilobated nuclear contours and readily identifiable mitotic figures. Flow cytometric immunophenotypic studies revealed a CD5-negative, CD10-negative, lambda immunoglobulin light chain-positive, monoclonal B-lymphocyte (CD19-positive/CD20-positive) population. The immunocytochemical stain for CD30 antigen was negative. In situ hybridization study for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early RNA (EBER) and Southern blot analysis for EBV terminal repeat sequences were both positive. Southern blot analysis for human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) was negative. No solid-organ PTLD was identified, and the cytologic results supported the diagnosis of primary effusion PTLD. Immunosuppression was decreased, and 8 mo following the diagnosis of pleural fluid PTLD, the patient was stable and his pleural effusion had markedly diminished. Recognition of primary effusion PTLD and its distinction from PTLD secondarily involving the body fluids and from other lymphomas is important, since the behavior and prognosis appear different. PMID:11466813
Ohori, N P; Whisnant, R E; Nalesnik, M A; Swerdlow, S H
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a frequent complication of intestinal transplantation and is associated with a poor prognosis. There is currently no consensus on optimal therapy. Recurrent PTLD involving the central nervous system (CNS) represents a particularly difficult therapeutic challenge. We report the successful treatment of CNS PTLD in a pediatric patient after liver/small bowel transplantation. Initial immunosuppression (IS) was with thymoglobulin, solucortef, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil. EBV viremia developed 8 weeks posttransplantation, and despite treatment with cytogam and valganciclovir the patient developed a polymorphic, CD20+, EBV+ PTLD with peripheral lymphadenopathy. Following treatment with rituximab, the lymphadenopathy resolved, but a new monomorphic CD20?, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD mesenteric mass emerged. Complete response of this PTLD was achieved with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy; however, 4 months off therapy he developed CNS PTLD (monomorphic CD20?, EBV+, lambda-restricted, plasmacytoid PTLD) of the brain and spine. IS was discontinued and HD-MTX (2.5–5?gm/m2/dose) followed by intrathecal HD-MTX (2?mg/dose ×2-3 days Q 7–10 days per cycle) was administered Q 4–7 weeks. After 3 cycles of HD-MTX, the CSF was negative for malignant cells, MRI of head/spine showed near-complete response, and PET/CT was negative. The patient remains in complete remission now for 3.5 years after completion of systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy. Conclusion. HD-MTX is an effective therapy for CNS PTLD and recurrent PTLD that have failed rituximab and CHOP chemotherapy.
Twist, Clare J.; Castillo, Ricardo O.
The B lymphoproliferative disorders B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B- CLL) and hairy cell leukemia (HCL) produce a number of autocrine growth factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1, all of which may induce positive feedback growth loops. If such malignancies depend on these autocrine growth loops for survival, their interruption may be therapeutically valuable. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) abrogates TNF- or IL-6-induced proliferation of HCL and B- CLL cells in vitro and has therapeutic activity in these diseases. We have investigated the possibility that IFN-alpha may act by interrupting autocrine growth factor loops. If purified B-CLL or HCL cells are cultured in the presence of TNF, there is induction of mRNA for TNF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. However, culture in the presence of IFN-alpha in addition to TNF reduced the level of mRNA for all these cytokines, compared with cells cultured in TNF alone. While cytokine mRNA levels were diminished, levels of mRNA for the ribonuclease activator 2-5A synthetase were increased. Analysis of the kinetics of cytokine mRNA production showed that levels fall shortly after the rise of 2-5A synthetase mRNA. IFN-alpha may produce these effects by shortening the half-life of cytokine mRNA, since TNF mRNA half-life in B-CLL and HCL cells is substantially reduced when the cells are cultured with IFN-alpha. These data suggest that IFN-alpha may mediate its therapeutic effects in these malignancies by blocking autocrine growth factor loops.
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is a new virus which has been reported in Kaposi's sarcoma and some lymphoproliferative disorders such as Castleman's disease and body-cavity-based lymphoma. Because HHV-8 shares homology with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), we searched for the presence of HHV-8 DNA sequences in various cutaneous T- and B-cell lymphoma by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-seven HIV-negative patients with cutaneous lymphoma or large plaque parapsoriasis were enrolled in the study. For the detection of HHV-8 DNA sequences we used PCR followed by a hybridization with a digoxigenin-labelled probe and nested-PCR. HHV-8 DNA sequences could only be detected in a patient with large plaque parapsoriasis. Our study does not suggest any direct implication of HHV-8 in the pathogenesis of most cutaneous lymphoma. Serological studies will be helpful to appreciate if there is an epidemiological link between HHV-8 and cutaneous lymphomas. PMID:9217812
Dupin, N; Franck, N; Calvez, V; Gorin, I; Grandadam, M; Huraux, J M; Leibowitch, M; Agut, H; Escande, J P
It is well recognized that patients with immunodeficiency have a high risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the occurrence of LPDs. Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the common cause of iatrogenic-associated LPD, and approximately 40-50% of MTX-related LPD cases occur in extranodal sites. However, the occurrence of MTX-related LPD in the gingiva is extremely rare. Herein, we report the fourth documented case of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD occurring in the gingiva of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 76-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of RA, who was treated with MTX and infliximab, presented with a tumorous lesion in the gingiva. Biopsy of the gingiva tumor revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with cleaved nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. These lymphoid cells were CD20- and EBER-positive. Therefore, a diagnosis of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD showing features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that occurred in the gingiva was made. Although the occurrence of LPD in the oral region, as seen in the present case, is rare, the prevalence of this disorder may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. Moreover, immunosenescence can also be a cause of EBV-associated LPD. Therefore, recognition of the occurrence of this disorder in the oral cavity and consideration of the clinical history can facilitate the correct diagnosis.
Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
It is well recognized that patients with immunodeficiency have a high risk of development of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with the occurrence of LPDs. Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the common cause of iatrogenic-associated LPD, and approximately 40-50% of MTX-related LPD cases occur in extranodal sites. However, the occurrence of MTX-related LPD in the gingiva is extremely rare. Herein, we report the fourth documented case of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD occurring in the gingiva of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 76-year-old Japanese female with a 10-year history of RA, who was treated with MTX and infliximab, presented with a tumorous lesion in the gingiva. Biopsy of the gingiva tumor revealed diffuse proliferation of large-sized lymphoid cells with cleaved nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. These lymphoid cells were CD20- and EBER-positive. Therefore, a diagnosis of MTX-related EBV-associated LPD showing features of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that occurred in the gingiva was made. Although the occurrence of LPD in the oral region, as seen in the present case, is rare, the prevalence of this disorder may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. Moreover, immunosenescence can also be a cause of EBV-associated LPD. Therefore, recognition of the occurrence of this disorder in the oral cavity and consideration of the clinical history can facilitate the correct diagnosis. PMID:24133604
Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Okuno, Hiroko; Horinouchi, Akiko; Nakanishi, Ryota; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
Epidermal keratinocytes form a highly organized stratified epithelium and sustain a competent barrier function together with dermal and hematopoietic cells. The Notch signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epidermal integrity. Here, we show that keratinocyte-specific deletion of total Notch signaling triggered a severe systemic B-lymphoproliferative disorder, causing death. RBP-j is the DNA binding partner of Notch, but both RBP-j–dependent and independent Notch signaling were necessary for proper epidermal differentiation and lipid deposition. Loss of both pathways caused a persistent defect in skin differentiation/barrier formation. In response, high levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were released into systemic circulation by Notch-deficient keratinocytes that failed to differentiate, starting in utero. Exposure to high TSLP levels during neonatal hematopoiesis resulted in drastic expansion of peripheral pre- and immature B-lymphocytes, causing B-lymphoproliferative disorder associated with major organ infiltration and subsequent death, a previously unappreciated systemic effect of TSLP. These observations demonstrate that local skin perturbations can drive a lethal systemic disease and have important implications for a wide range of humoral and autoimmune diseases with skin manifestations.
Demehri, Shadmehr; Liu, Zhenyi; Lee, Jonghyeob; Lin, Meei-Hua; Crosby, Seth D; Roberts, Christopher J; Grigsby, Perry W; Miner, Jeffrey H; Farr, Andrew G; Kopan, Raphael
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders of T-cell origin are quite uncommon, and the vast majority represent neoplasms of mature, post-thymic T- or natural killer cells. Here, we report a rare case of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), which occurred in an 18-year-old man who had undergone three liver transplants, initially for biliary atresia and subsequently for graft failure due to chronic rejection. He had received immunosuppression with cyclosporine and tacrolimus, as well as short-term treatment with OKT3. The T-ALL occurred 16?years after the first liver transplant. This case highlights the challenge for classifying rare neoplasms occurring in recipients of solid organ transplants that are currently not recognized to lie within the spectrum of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Given the long interval between the liver transplants and the development of T-ALL, a coincidental occurrence of the leukaemia cannot be ruled out. However, the potential roles of immunosuppressive therapy and other co-morbid conditions of the individual as possible risk factors for the pathogenesis of T-ALL are discussed. PMID:22618860
Fang, Yanan; Pinkney, Kerice A; Lee, John C; Gindin, Tatyana; Weiner, Michael A; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a spectrum of benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, including acute infectious mononucleosis (IM), Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-associated B cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). Immunosurveillance mediated by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes is believed to protect immunocompetent hosts from EBV-associated lymphoma and LPD. Due to the lack of an adequate animal model, however, the precise immunologic
Mary A. Cromwell
Cryostat sections of 246 consecutive bone marrow biopsies from 212 patients with lymphoproliferative disease were investigated using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MOAb's) and an immunoperoxidase technique. Bone marrow involvement was demonstrated by immunohistological examination in 121\\/160 patients (76%) with non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and 16\\/23 patients (70%) with plasma cell malignancies; the definite immunological diagnosis could be performed in 77%
J. Thaler; H. Denz; C. Gattringer; H. Glassl; M. Lechleitner; O. Dietze
The European LeukemiaNet (ELN), workpackage 10 (WP10) was designed to deal with diagnosis matters using morphology and immunophenotyping. This group aimed at establishing a consensus on the required reagents for proper immunophenotyping of acute leukemia and lymphoproliferative disorders. Animated discussions within WP10, together with the application of the Delphi method of proposals circulation, quickly led to post-consensual immunophenotyping panels for disorders on the ELN website. In this report, we established a comprehensive description of these panels, both mandatory and complementary, for both types of clinical conditions. The reason for using each marker, sustained by relevant literature information, is provided in detail. With the constant development of immunophenotyping techniques in flow cytometry and related software, this work aims at providing useful guidelines to perform the most pertinent exploration at diagnosis and for follow-up, with the best cost benefit in diseases, the treatment of which has a strong impact on health systems. PMID:21252983
Béné, M C; Nebe, T; Bettelheim, P; Buldini, B; Bumbea, H; Kern, W; Lacombe, F; Lemez, P; Marinov, I; Matutes, E; Maynadié, M; Oelschlagel, U; Orfao, A; Schabath, R; Solenthaler, M; Tschurtschenthaler, G; Vladareanu, A M; Zini, G; Faure, G C; Porwit, A
Crystalline corneal deposits have been well reported in individual cases of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with hyper-gammaglobulinemia, hence called 'Crystalline Paraproteinemic Keratopathy'. This is the first report of corneal deposits in a case of localised conjunctival B-cell Lymphoma without paraproteinaemia/hyper-gammaglobulinemia, hence called 'Presumed Paraproteinic Crystalline Keratopathy'. PMID:23361873
Alomar, Thaer S; Mahmood, Khalid; O'Connor, Simon; Robson, Keith; Dua, Harminder S
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that develop as a consequence of immunosuppression in a recipient of a solid organ, bone marrow or stem cell allograft. The development of PTLDs is usually associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the disorder is also termed EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The development of PTLD is a rare complication in autologous bone marrow/peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we report a case of EBV-associated LPD which developed following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A 51-year-old male presented with swelling of the left cervical lymph nodes. A biopsy revealed nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Following four courses of ABVd (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) therapy, the Hodgkin’s lymphoma relapsed. CHASE (cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cytarabine, dexamethasone) therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were performed. In the 128 days following the transplantation, lymph node swelling was noted and a biopsy specimen demonstrated EBV-associated LPD. The serum copy number of EBV-DNA was 2.7×103 copies/ml. The occurrence of EBV-associated LPD may be on the rise due to the increased number of patients undergoing immunosuppression therapy. The measurement of the serum EBV-DNA copy number and the detection of EBV-infected atypical lymphocytes using in situ hybridization are significant in establishing an early accurate diagnosis and initiating the correct treatment for EBV-associated LPD in patients with immunosuppression.
IZUMIYA, SAKURA; ISHIDA, MITSUAKI; HODOHARA, KEIKO; YOSHIDA, TAKASHI; OKABE, HIDETOSHI
Human PBMC engraft in mice homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (Prkdcscid) mutation (Hu-PBL-scid mice). Hu-PBL-NOD-scid mice generate 5- to 10-fold higher levels of human cells than do Hu-PBL-C.B-17-scid mice, and Hu-PBL-NOD-scid beta2-microglobulin-null (NOD-scid-B2mnull) mice support even higher levels of engraftment, particularly CD4+ T cells. The basis for increased engraftment of human PBMC and the functional capabilities of these cells in NOD-scid and NOD-scid-B2mnull mice are unknown. We now report that human cell proliferation in NOD-scid mice increased after in vivo depletion of NK cells. Human cell engraftment depended on CD4+ cells and required CD40-CD154 interaction, but engrafted CD4+ cells rapidly became nonresponsive to anti-CD3 Ab stimulation. Depletion of human CD8+ cells led to increased human CD4+ and CD20+ cell engraftment and increased levels of human Ig. We further document that Hu-PBL-NOD-scid mice are resistant to development of human EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. These disorders, however, develop rapidly following depletion of human CD8+ cells and are prevented by re-engraftment of CD8+ T cells. These data demonstrate that 1) murine NK cells regulate human cell engraftment in scid recipients; 2) human CD4+ cells are required for human CD8+ cell engraftment; and 3) once engrafted, human CD8+ cells regulate human CD4+ and CD20+ cell expansion, Ig levels, and outgrowth of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders. We propose that the Hu-PBL-NOD-scid model is suitable for the in vivo analysis of immunoregulatory interactions between human CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:10861091
Wagar, E J; Cromwell, M A; Shultz, L D; Woda, B A; Sullivan, J L; Hesselton, R M; Greiner, D L
AIMS: To investigate the expression pattern of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent genes at the single cell level in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders and acquired immunodefiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphomas, in relation to cellular morphology. METHODS: Nine post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders and three AIDS related lymphomas were subjected to immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies specific for EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) (2H4), EBNA2 (PE2 and the new rat anti-EBNA2 monoclonal antibodies 1E6, R3, and 3E9), and LMP1 (CS1-4 and S12). Double staining was performed combining R3 or 3E9 with S12. RESULTS: R3 and 3E9 anti-EBNA2 monoclonal antibodies were more sensitive than PE2, enabling the detection of more EBNA2 positive lymphoma cells. Both in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders and AIDS related lymphomas, different expression patterns were detected at the single cell level. Smaller neoplastic cells were positive for EBNA2 but negative for LMP1. Larger and more blastic neoplastic cells, sometimes resembling Reed-Sternberg cells, were LMP1 positive but EBNA2 negative (EBV latency type II). Morphologically intermediate neoplastic cells coexpressing EBNA2 and LMP1 (EBV latency type III), were detected using R3 and 3E9, and formed a considerable part of the neoplastic population in four of nine post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders and two of three AIDS related lymphomas. All samples contained a subpopulation of small tumour cells positive exclusively for Epstein-Barr early RNA and EBNA1. The relation between cellular morphology and EBV expression patterns in this study was less pronounced in AIDS related lymphomas than in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders, because the AIDS related lymphomas were less polymorphic than the post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. CONCLUSIONS: In post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders and AIDS related lymphomas, EBV latency type III can be detected by immunohistochemistry in a subpopulation of tumour cells using sensitive monoclonal antibodies R3 and 3E9. Our data suggest that EBV infected tumour cells in these lymphomas undergo gradual changes in the expression of EBV latent genes, and that these changes are associated with changes in cellular morphology. Images
Brink, A A; Dukers, D F; van den Brule, A J; Oudejans, J J; Middeldorp, J M; Meijer, C J; Jiwa, M
Mice homozygous for lpr (lymphoproliferation) or gld (generalized lymphoproliferative disease) develop lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly and suffer from autoimmune disease. The lpr mice have a defect in a cell-surface receptor, Fas, that mediates apoptosis, while gld mice have a mutation in the Fas ligand (FasL). Northern hybridization with the FasL cDNA as probe indicated that the cells accumulating in lpr and gld mice abundantly express the FasL mRNA without stimulation. By means of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we identified the cells expressing the FasL mRNA as CD4-CD8- double negative T cells. The T cells from lpr mice were specifically cytotoxic against Fas-expressing cells. Since FasL is normally expressed in activated mature T cells these results indicate that the double negative T cells accumulating in lpr and gld mice are activated once, and support the notion that the Fas/FasL system is involved in activation-induced suicide of T cells. Furthermore, the graft-versus host disease caused by transfer of lpr bone marrow to wild-type mice can be explained by the constitutive expression of the FasL in lpr-derived T cells. Images
Watanabe, D; Suda, T; Hashimoto, H; Nagata, S
Background: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) comprises a spectrum of clinically relevant lymphatic diseases that occur in patients after transplantation. The PTLD-related mortality is high and the clinical picture and location of the lesions are very variable. For these reasons, the diagnosis of PTLD is difficult and new diagnostic tools are sought. Case Report: A 31-year-old woman, 17 years after kidney transplantation, presented with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, fever, and weakness and was diagnosed with pulmonary PTLD. Computed tomography appearance was not typical for lymphoma and demonstrated multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules and masses with a halo sign. Initial differential diagnosis included invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and acute Wegener granulomatosis. Since cultures from bronchoalveolar lavage and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative, videothoracoscopy with lung biopsy was performed. Pathology analysis revealed diffuse large T-cell lymphoma with histopathologic features of infiltrative growth along the lung interstitium, vessel invasion, and hemorrhagic necrosis possibly explaining the presence of a halo sign. Conclusions: We suggest PTLD should always be suspected in a transplant recipient presenting with the CT halo sign. Moreover, the correlation of this radiological phenomenon with the patient's clinical presentation and severe pathologic findings allows us to conclude that the thoracic halo sign in PTLD may reflect a worse prognosis. PMID:24045455
Mucha, Krzysztof; Foroncewicz, Bartosz; Palczewski, Piotr; Su?kowska, Katarzyna; Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska, Bogna; Or?owski, Tadeusz; Go??biowski, Marek; P?czek, Leszek
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is an inherited immunodeficiency, partially characterized by a defect in cytotoxicity to Epstein-Barr virus. This viral infection is therefore often fatal in affected boys, whilst a variety of immune disorders or proliferative diseases may occur in surviving patients.We report an atypical case of a 41year-old male who presented with a primitive B-cell cerebral lymphoma, revealing an
B. Hervier; S. Latour; D. Loussouarn; M. Rimbert; G De-Saint-Basile; C. Picard; M. Hamidou
A total of 106 trephine biopsy specimens with clinical, laboratory and pathology findings corresponding to chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD) were analyzed to reveal the nature of the lymphoid infiltrate in the bone marrow. Histological investigation in 31 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 29 CMPDs not otherwise specified (CMPD-NOS), 28 essential thrombocytosis (ET), 15 polycythemia vera (PV) and three chronic eosinophilic leukemia/hypereosinophilic syndrome (CEL/HES) exhibited in 32% various amounts of lymphocytic infiltrate of sparsely to moderately diffuse or nodular types in the bone marrow, but the reactive or coinciding lymphomatous nature could not be revealed by histology alone in the majority of cases. PCR analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement was successfully performed in 81 out of the 106 DNA specimens extracted from formol-paraffin blocks. Out of the 81 samples with good-quality DNA, 18 gave a single or double discrete amplification band(s), which was reproducible only in four specimens. Sequencing finally proved monoclonal B-cell population of both pre- and postfollicular origin in all four samples (5%), one CML and three CMPD-NOS. Detailed clinical and pathological investigations indicated overt B-cell malignant lymphoma with clonal relationship to the CMPD in two out of these four patients. We conclude that detailed molecular analysis of IgH gene rearrangement in bone marrow samples of CMPD patients is needed to identify the true monoclonal B-cell infiltration, which-even without overt malignant lymphoma-may occur in this group of disorders. Modern Pathology (2004) 17, 1521-1530, advance online publication, 16 July 2004; doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800225. PMID:15257312
Pajor, László; Lacza, Agnes; Kereskai, László; Jáksó, Pál; Egyed, Miklós; Iványi, János L; Radványi, Gáspár; Dombi, Péter; Pál, Katalin; Losonczy, Hajna
In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the third annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in October 2012 in Lille. Here the SFGM-TC addressed the issue of post-transplant CMV and EBV reactivation, and EBV-related Lymphoproliferative Disorders. PMID:24011961
Bay, J-O; Peffault de Latour, R; Bruno, B; Coiteux, V; Guillaume, T; Hicheri, Y; Paillard, C; Suarez, F; Turlure, P; Alain, S; Bulabois, C-E; Socié, G; Bauters, F; Yakoub-Agha, I
We analyzed the rearrangement of T-cell receptor (TcR) 5 chain gene in 88 cases of lymphoproliferative disorders; 31 acute lymphoblastic leukemias\\/lymphoblastic lymphomas (ALL\\/LBL); 27 adult T-cell leu- kemias\\/lymphomas, 9 angioimmunoblastic lymphoadenopathies (AILD); 10 T-cell lymphomas (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma); and 11 Hodgkin's disease. All of 9 T-ALL\\/LBL cases, of which 4 cases have neither ÃŸ nor 7 gene rearrangement, had a new
Nobuhiro Kimura; Yoshihiro Takihara; Tomi Akiyoshi; Takahisa Yoshida; Koichi Ohshima; Takashi Kawara; Shusuke Hisano; Mitsuo Kozuru; Makoto Okumura; Masahiro Kikuchi
Epstein–Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) has been well described as a complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation but has only recently been reported following umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant. We report the case of a child transplanted with unrelated mismatched UCB for juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JCML) who developed EBV-associated PTLD, which was confirmed pathologically, 139 days following stem
PR Haut; P Kovarik; PH Shaw; D Walterhouse; HB Jenson; M Kletzel
The recurrent t(14;19)(q32;q13) translocation associated with chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, such as atypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia, results in the juxtaposition of the IGH@ and BCL3 genes and subsequent overexpression of BCL3. We report six patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have a cytogenetically identical translocation with different breakpoints at the molecular level. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with locus-specific
Hazel M. Robinson; Kerry E. Taylor; G. Reza Jalali; Kan Luk Cheung; Christine J. Harrison; Anthony V. Moorman
Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are heterogeneous lesions with variable morphology, immunophenotype, and molecular characteristics. Multiple distinct primary lesions can occur in PTLD, rarely with both B-cell and T-cell characteristics. Lesions can involve both grafted organs and other sites; however, PTLD involving the pituitary gland has not been previously reported. We describe a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus-negative PTLD 13 years posttransplantation involving the terminal ileum and pituitary, which was simultaneously involved by a pituitary adenoma. Immunohistochemistry of the pituitary lesion showed expression of CD79a, CD3, and CD7 with clonal rearrangements of both T-cell receptor gamma chain (TRG@) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH@) genes. The terminal ileal lesion was immunophenotypically and molecularly distinct. This is the first report of pituitary PTLD and illustrates the potentially complex nature of PTLD. PMID:20656316
Meriden, Zina; Bullock, Grant C; Bagg, Adam; Bonatti, Hugo; Cousar, John B; Lopes, M Beatriz; Robbins, Mark K; Cathro, Helen P
Human post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an abnormal lymphoid proliferation that arises in 1-12% of transplant recipients as a consequence of prolonged immunosuppression and Epstein-Barr viral infection (EBV). Nonhuman primates, primarily rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), have been used extensively in research models of solid organ transplantation, as the nonhuman primate immune system closely resembles that of the human. Lymphocryptovirus of rhesus monkeys has been characterized and shown to be very similar to EBV in humans in regards to its cellular tropism, host immune response, and ability to stimulate B lymphocyte proliferation and lymphomagenesis. Thus, it appears that the NHP may be an appropriate animal model for EBV-associated lymphoma development in humans. The clinical management of post-transplant nonhuman primates that are receiving multiple immunosuppressive agents can be complicated by the risk of PTLD and other opportunistic infections. We report 3 cases of PTLD in rhesus macaques that illustrate this risk potential in the setting of potent immunosuppressive therapies for solid organ transplantation. PMID:23578881
Page, Eugenia K; Courtney, Cynthia L; Sharma, Prachi; Cheeseman, Jennifer; Jenkins, Joe B; Strobert, Elizabeth; Knechtle, Stuart J
In this study, we compared the features and prognosis of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) occurring in living donor recipients with those of deceased donor kidney transplant patients. A comprehensive search was performed for finding studies reporting data of PTLD in living and deceased donor renal recipients in the Pubmed and Google scholar search engines. Finally, international data from 14 different studies were included in the analysis. Overall, 122 renal recipients with PTLD were entered into this analysis. Chi square test showed that renal recipients from living donors significantly less frequently represented any remission episodes during the course of their disease (41% vs. 63%, respectively; P = 0.05). Living donor renal recipients were significantly more likely to develop metastasis in comparison with deceased donor recipients (64% vs. 23%, respectively; P = 0.035). Histopathological evaluations were comparable between the two patient groups. Survival analysis did not show any difference between the patient groups, even when patients were adjusted for the type of immuno-suppression. The mortality rate of the transplant patients with PTLD was 55.3% and the 1- and 5-year patients survival rates were 50% and 37%, respectively, for the deceased donor renal recipients compared with 60% and 34%, respectively, for the living donors group. We conclude that living donor kidney transplant recipients who develop PTLD have a higher rate of metastasis and a lower rate of remission episodes. Further prospective studies with a large patient population are needed to confirm our results. PMID:24029253
Khedmat, Hossein; Taheri, Saeed
We postulated that quantitative monitoring of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) shedding after transplantation could distinguish EBV-associated illnesses and predict clinical outcome. EBV DNA was measured in solid organ (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) using our own real-time TaqMan EBV PCR. The proportion of patients who had EBV DNAemia post-transplant was significantly lower in HCT vs. SOT (p < 0.001). Over a 7.5-yr period, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) occurred in 66 (5.8%) of 1131 patients who met adequate monitoring criteria. SOT recipients developed PTLD significantly later than HCT recipients (median, 2.8 yr vs. 121 d; p < 0.001). PTLD was documented in 53 (14%) of 376 patients who had EBV in ?1 whole blood sample vs. 13 (2%) of 755 patients who had at least three EBV-negative blood samples and were never positive. PTLD risk in viremic patients increased with the peak quantity of EBV DNAemia (p < 0.001). PTLD occurred in 37/333 (11%) of patients with peak blood levels 103–105 copies/mL vs. 16/43 (37%) of patients with levels >105 (p < 0.001). EBV PCR was predictive in 29 (78%) of 37 patients tested within three wk prior to tissue diagnosis of PTLD, and thus, we conclude that EBV PCR with careful attention paid to changes in EBV DNAemia could lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment of PTLD.
Holman, Carol J.; Karger, Amy B.; Mullan, Beth D.; Brundage, Richard C.; Balfour, Henry H.
A novel human B-lymphotropic virus (HBLV) was isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of six individuals: two HTLV-III seropositive patients from the United States (one with AIDS-related lymphoma and one with dermatopathic lymphadenopathy), three HTLV-III seronegative patients from the United States (one with angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, one with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and one with immunoblastic lymphoma), and one HTLV-III seronegative patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia from Jamaica. All six isolates were closely related by antigenic analysis, and sera from all six virus-positive patients reacted immunologically with each virus isolate. In contrast, only four sera from 220 randomly selected healthy donors and none from 12 AIDS patients without associated lymphoma were seropositive. The virus selectively infected freshly isolated human B cells and converted them into large, refractile mono- or binucleated cells with nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. HBLV is morphologically similar to viruses of the herpesvirus family but is readily distinguishable from the known human and nonhuman primate herpesviruses by host range, in vitro biological effects, and antigenic features. PMID:2876520
Salahuddin, S Z; Ablashi, D V; Markham, P D; Josephs, S F; Sturzenegger, S; Kaplan, M; Halligan, G; Biberfeld, P; Wong-Staal, F; Kramarsky, B
Background: Although no definite risk factors have emerged for the different hematological malignancies, a viral cause has been postulated. Several studies have detected SV40 DNA sequences in tumor tissues obtained from non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients. A link between SV40 and NHL is biologically plausible because SV40 causes hematological malignancies in laboratory rodents. Methods: We investigated 266 Egyptian cases of different hematological malignancies, for the presence of SV40 DNA using multiplex nested PCR technique. These cases consisted of 158 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), 54 Hodgkin’s disease(HD), 26 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), 13 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 8 chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL), 7 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), in addition to 34 subjects of control group. Results: Our results have shown that SV40 DNA sequences were found in 53.8% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients, 29.6% of Hodgkin’s disease patients, and 40.7% of different types of leukemia cases. Frequency of SV40 DNA sequences was higher in NHL patients compared to the other tumor cases. Also, frequency of SV40 DNA sequences was significantly higher (p<0.05) in NHL patients than in the control group. Regarding the different histological types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, SV40 DNA sequences were detected frequently in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in follicular lymphoma. Conclusions: The present study suggests that SV40 DNA virus is significantly associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and might have a role in the development of these hematological malignancies. Polyomavirus SV40 may act as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of these tumors and this could lead to new diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive approaches.
Mohamed, Waleed S.; Samra, Mohamed A.; Fawzy, Mohamed A.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are severe complications after solid organ transplantation with no consensus on best treatment practice. Chemotherapy is a therapeutic option with a high response and a significant relapse rate leading to a low long-term tolerance rate. Currently, most centres use anthracycline-based drug combinations, such as CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). We assessed the efficacy and safety of a dose-adjusted ACVBP (doxorubicin reduced to 50 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide adjusted to renal function, vindesine, bleomycin, prednisone) regimen in patients failing to respond to a reduction in immunosuppressive therapy. Favourable responses were observed in 24 (73%) of the 33 treated patients. Fourteen (42%) patients died, mostly from PTLD progression. Actuarial survival was 60% at 5 years and 55% at 10 years. Survival prognostic factors were: number of involved sites (P = 0.007), clinical stage III/IV (P = 0.004), bulky tumour (P < 0.0001), B symptoms (P = 0.03), decreased serum albumin (P = 0.03) and poor performance status (P = 0.06). Both the international and the PTLD prognostic index were predictive for survival (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Overall 128 cycles were given. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was recorded after 26 (20%) chemotherapy cycles in 19 (58%) patients. Forty-one (32%) infections were recorded in 26 (79%) patients. This study demonstrated that an individual dose-adjustment of ACVBP regimen was manageable in PTLD patients and favourably impacted on long-term survival. PMID:16889621
Fohrer, Cécile; Caillard, Sophie; Koumarianou, Argyro; Ellero, Bernard; Woehl-Jaeglé, Marie-Lorraine; Meyer, Carole; Epailly, Eric; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Lioure, Bruno; Natarajan-Ame, Shanti; Maloisel, Frédéric; Lutun, Philippe; Kessler, Romain; Moulin, Bruno; Bergerat, Jean-Pierre; Wolf, Philippe; Herbrecht, Raoul
The objective of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of a UK-based real-time service to improve the diagnosis and management of lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) in Ghana. Adult patients reporting to hospital with a suspected LPD, during a 1 year period, were prospectively enrolled. Bone marrow and/or lymph node biopsies were posted to the Haematology Malignancy Diagnostic Service (HMDS), Leeds, UK and underwent morphological analysis and immunophenotyping. Results were returned by e-mail. The initial diagnoses made in Ghana were compared with the final HMDS diagnoses to assess the contribution of the HMDS diagnosis to management decisions. The study was conducted at the two teaching hospitals in Ghana-Komfo Anokye, Kumasi and Korle Bu, Accra. Participants comprised 150 adult patients (>/=12 years old), 79 women, median age 46 years. Bone marrow and lymph node biopsy samples from all adults presenting with features suggestive of a LPD, at the two teaching hospitals in Ghana, over 1 year were posted to a UK LPD diagnostic centre, where immunophenotyping was performed by immunohistochemistry. Molecular analysis was performed where indicated. Diagnostic classifications were made according to international criteria. Final diagnosis was compared to the initial Ghanaian diagnosis to evaluate discrepancies; implications for alterations in treatment decisions were evaluated. Median time between taking samples and receiving e-mail results in Ghana was 15 days. Concordance between initial and final diagnoses was 32% (48 of 150). The HMDS diagnosis would have changed management in 31% (46 of 150) of patients. It is feasible to provide a UK-based service for LPD diagnosis in Africa using postal services and e-mail. This study confirmed findings from wealthy countries that a specialised haematopathology service can improve LPD diagnosis. This model of Ghana-UK collaboration provides a platform on which to build local capacity to operate an international quality diagnostic service for LPDs. PMID:19669193
Parkins, Elizabeth; Owen, Roger G; Bedu-Addo, George; Sem, Ohene Opare; Ekem, Ivy; Adomakoh, Yvonne; Bates, Imelda
Two patients with lymphoproliferative disorders developed peripheral neuropathy and neoplastic lymphocytic nerve infiltrates. One of these patients, with B cell small lymphocytic lymphoma, presented with a chronic axonal neuropathy. CD22+, CD5- cells were identified in the epineurium. The other patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia of 3 years duration developed a mixed axonal and demyelinating neuropathy. CD22+ and CD5+ cells were
F. P. Thomas; U. Vallejos; D. R. Foitl; J. R. Miller; R. Barrett; M. R. Fetell; D. M. Knowles; N. Latov; A. P. Hays
Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) are characterised by abnormal proliferation of indigenous cell lines or infiltration of lung parenchyma by lymphoid cells. They encompass a wide spectrum of focal or diffuse abnormalities, which may be classified as reactive or neoplastic on the basis of cellular morphology and clonality. The spectrum of reactive disorders results primarily from antigenic stimulation of bronchial mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and comprises three main entities: follicular bronchiolitis, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia and (more rarely) nodular lymphoid hyperplasia. Primary parenchymal neoplasms are most commonly extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of MALT origin (MALT lymphomas), followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) and lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG). Secondary lymphomatous parenchymal neoplasms (both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas) are far more prevalent than primary neoplasms. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related lymphoma (ARL) and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) may also primarily affect the lung parenchyma. Modern advances in treatments for AIDS and transplant medicine are associated with an increase in the incidence of LPD and have heightened the need to understand the range of imaging appearance of these diseases. The multidetector CT (MDCT) findings of LPD are heterogeneous, thereby reflecting the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of these entities. Understanding the spectrum of LPD and the various imaging manifestations is crucial because the radiologist is often the first one to suggest the diagnosis and has a pivotal role in differentiating these diseases. The current concepts of LPD are discussed together with a demonstration of the breadth of MDCT patterns within this disease spectrum.
Hare, S S; Souza, C A; Bain, G; Seely, J M; Frcpc; Gomes, M M; Quigley, M
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a rare, but serious complication following transplantation. Late-onset PTLD are often associated with more monoclonal lesions and consequently have a worse prognosis. There are only isolated case reports of Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as PTLD. We present an extremely rare, aggressive Burkitt's lymphoma years after kidney and pancreas transplantation which was successfully treated with combination chemotherapy along with withdrawal of immunosuppression. The patient remains in complete remission more than 2 years after his diagnosis. We also provide a succinct review of treatment of various PTLD and discuss the role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in the pathogenesis of PTLD. PMID:23466659
Naik, Seema; Tayapongsak, Kristy; Robbins, Katherine; Manavi, Cyrus Koresh; Pettenati, Mark J; Grier, David D
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a rare, but serious complication following transplantation. Late-onset PTLD are often associated with more monoclonal lesions and consequently have a worse prognosis. There are only isolated case reports of Burkitt's lymphoma presenting as PTLD. We present an extremely rare, aggressive Burkitt's lymphoma years after kidney and pancreas transplantation which was successfully treated with combination chemotherapy along with withdrawal of immunosuppression. The patient remains in complete remission more than 2 years after his diagnosis. We also provide a succinct review of treatment of various PTLD and discuss the role of Epstein-Barr virus infection in the pathogenesis of PTLD.
Naik, Seema; Tayapongsak, Kristy; Robbins, Katherine; Manavi, Cyrus Koresh; Pettenati, Mark J.; Grier, David D.
Using RT-PCR analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent gene transcription in EBV-harboring cell lines (JY and RAJI) and in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs), we detected transcription of all tested latent genes (EBNA1, EBNA2, LMP1, LMP2A, and BARF0) in all cases, suggesting the presence of similar EBV expression patterns in both PT-LPDs and cell lines. In addition, the detection of immediate early (ZEBRA) and early gene (BHRF1) transcripts in cell lines and PT-LPDs indicates that activation of the virus lytic cycle occurs. To investigate EBV expression patterns at the single-cell level, a combination of immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization (including double-staining procedures) was used. In the JY and RAJI cell lines, the latency type 3 expression pattern was detected in 80 to 90% of the cells as shown by the co-expression of EBNA2 and LMP1. In contrast, in the three PT-LPDs that could be analyzed by double staining, cells expressing both EBNA2 and LMP1 were rarely detected. A mixture of at least three different cell populations were identified: (1) cells exclusively expressing EBER1/2 and EBNA1 (latency type 1); (2) cells expressing EBER1/2, EBNA1, and LMP1 (latency type 2); and (3) cells expressing EBER1/2, EBNA1, and EBNA2 in the absence of LMP1. Activation of the lytic cycle was observed in a small minority of cells, as demonstrated by detection of ZEBRA and EA-D in all cases and GP350/220 in two cases. Thus, in contrast to EBV-transformed cell lines, the observed EBV gene expression pattern in PT-LPDs reflects a mixture of multiple EBV-harboring subpopulations expressing different subsets of EBV-encoded proteins. These data indicate that the operational definitions of EBV latencies in vitro cannot easily be applied to PT-LPDs but that a continuum of different latency expression patterns can be detected at the single cell level in these lymphomas with, in a small minority of cells, progression to the virus lytic cycle. PMID:7573368
Oudejans, J J; Jiwa, M; van den Brule, A J; Grässer, F A; Horstman, A; Vos, W; Kluin, P M; van der Valk, P; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J
Using RT-PCR analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent gene transcription in EBV-harboring cell lines (JY and RAJI) and in post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs), we detected transcription of all tested latent genes (EBNA1, EBNA2, LMP1, LMP2A, and BARF0) in all cases, suggesting the presence of similar EBV expression patterns in both PT-LPDs and cell lines. In addition, the detection of immediate early (ZEBRA) and early gene (BHRF1) transcripts in cell lines and PT-LPDs indicates that activation of the virus lytic cycle occurs. To investigate EBV expression patterns at the single-cell level, a combination of immunohistochemistry and RNA in situ hybridization (including double-staining procedures) was used. In the JY and RAJI cell lines, the latency type 3 expression pattern was detected in 80 to 90% of the cells as shown by the co-expression of EBNA2 and LMP1. In contrast, in the three PT-LPDs that could be analyzed by double staining, cells expressing both EBNA2 and LMP1 were rarely detected. A mixture of at least three different cell populations were identified: (1) cells exclusively expressing EBER1/2 and EBNA1 (latency type 1); (2) cells expressing EBER1/2, EBNA1, and LMP1 (latency type 2); and (3) cells expressing EBER1/2, EBNA1, and EBNA2 in the absence of LMP1. Activation of the lytic cycle was observed in a small minority of cells, as demonstrated by detection of ZEBRA and EA-D in all cases and GP350/220 in two cases. Thus, in contrast to EBV-transformed cell lines, the observed EBV gene expression pattern in PT-LPDs reflects a mixture of multiple EBV-harboring subpopulations expressing different subsets of EBV-encoded proteins. These data indicate that the operational definitions of EBV latencies in vitro cannot easily be applied to PT-LPDs but that a continuum of different latency expression patterns can be detected at the single cell level in these lymphomas with, in a small minority of cells, progression to the virus lytic cycle. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7
Oudejans, J. J.; Jiwa, M.; van den Brule, A. J.; Grasser, F. A.; Horstman, A.; Vos, W.; Kluin, P. M.; van der Valk, P.; Walboomers, J. M.; Meijer, C. J.
The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is triggered by Epstein-Barr virus infection and results in fatal mononucleosis, immunodeficiency, and lymphoproliferative disorders. This study shows that the mutation responsible for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is genetically linked to a restriction fragment length polymorphism detected with the DXS42 probe (from Xq24-q27). The most likely recombination frequency between the loci is 4%, and the associated logarithm of the odds is 5.26. Haplotype analysis using flanking restriction fragment length polymorphism markers indicates that the locus for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is distal to probe DXS42 but proximal to probe DXS99 (from Xq26-q27). It is now possible to predict which members of a family with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome are carrier females and to diagnose the syndrome prenatally.
Skare, J.C.; Milunsky, A.; Byron, K.S.; Sullivan, J.L.
A variety of nonmalignant cells present in the tumor microenvironment promotes tumorigenesis by stimulating tumor cell growth and metastasis or suppressing host immunity. The role of such stromal cells in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is incompletely understood. Monocyte-derived cells (MDCs), including professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs), play a central role in T-cell biology. Here, we provide evidence that monocytes promote the survival of malignant T cells and demonstrate that MDCs are abundant within the tumor microenvironment of T cell–derived lymphomas. Malignant T cells were observed to remain viable during in vitro culture with autologous monocytes, but cell death was significantly increased after monocyte depletion. Furthermore, monocytes prevent the induction of cell death in T-cell lymphoma lines in response to either serum starvation or doxorubicin, and promote the engraftment of these cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Monocytes are actively recruited to the tumor microenvironment by CCL5 (RANTES), where their differentiation into mature DCs is impaired by tumor-derived interleukin-10. Collectively, the data presented demonstrate a previously undescribed role for monocytes in T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders.
Wilcox, Ryan A.; Wada, David A.; Ziesmer, Steven C.; Elsawa, Sherine F.; Comfere, Nneka I.; Dietz, Allan B.; Novak, Anne J.; Witzig, Thomas E.; Feldman, Andrew L.; Pittelkow, Mark R.
PTLD of the CNS is a rare complication of solid organ transplantation, and there are only case reports/series available in the literature. Current literature suggests that CNS PTLD carries a worse prognosis than PTLD outside the CNS, and most are of B-cell lineage, predominantly monomorphic, and are associated with EBV infection. Because this disorder is so rare, there is no standard chemotherapy for pediatric patients with CNS PTLD and reported therapies for EBV-associated CNS PTLD are heterogeneous with mixed results. Since outcomes of CNS PTLD are historically poor, we attempted to develop a novel therapeutic treatment regimen. Based on a review of the literature and with the help of a multidisciplinary team, we created a regimen of chemotherapy that included dexamethasone and high-dose methotrexate in addition to intravenous and intraventricular Rituximab in two pediatric patients. The intraventricular chemotherapy succeeded in shrinking the tumor in both of our patients; however, as shown in the second case, the clinical outcome depends on the location of the tumor. Systemic and intraventricular therapies hold promise in the management of EBV-associated CNS PTLD; however the rarity of this entity prevents the development of well-designed studies necessary for the establishment of an evidence-based treatment standard. PMID:22646132
Twombley, Katherine; Pokala, Hanumantha; Ardura, Monica I; Harker-Murray, Paul; Johnson-Welch, Sarah F; Weinberg, Arthur; Seikaly, Mouin
CD200, an immunoglobulin superfamily membrane glycoprotein, is expressed in a number of B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, including primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, but not diffuse large B cell lymphoma, based on a preliminary study. Here, we compare the expression of CD200 with other markers of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, including MAL and CD23, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histologic sections from a series of 35 cases of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma and 30 cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. CD200 exhibits the greatest staining sensitivity of the markers studied: 94%, compared with CD23 (69%), MAL (86%), TRAF (86%), and REL (77%). It exhibits staining specificity of 93%, similar to that of CD23 (93%) and MAL (97%), and greater than that of TRAF (77%) and REL (83%). We conclude that CD200 is a practical and useful marker for the diagnosis of primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. PMID:22899296
Dorfman, David M; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Alonso, Miguel A
Immunosuppressive regimens that effectively prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) have been associated with an increased incidence of post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the first year after transplantation. We evaluated the incidence of PTLD associated with the use of high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as GVHD prophylaxis. Between 2000 and 2011, a total of 785 adult allo-BMT recipients were given PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, including 313 patients who received PTCy as sole GVHD prophylaxis. HLA-haploidentical or unrelated donor graft transplantation was performed in 526 patients (67%). No cases of PTLD occurred during the first year after allo-BMT in this series. PTLD is a rare occurrence after allo-BMT using PTCy, even in high-risk alternative donor transplantations. PMID:23871780
Kanakry, Jennifer A; Kasamon, Yvette L; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Borrello, Ivan M; Brodsky, Robert A; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Gladstone, Douglas E; Gocke, Christopher D; Huff, Carol Ann; Kanakry, Christopher G; Luznik, Leo; Matsui, William; Mogri, Huzefa J; Swinnen, Lode J; Symons, Heather J; Jones, Richard J; Ambinder, Richard F
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders such as mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). The pathogenesis of these disorders remains unclear, and it has been proposed that HCV drives the pro-liferation of B cells. Here we demonstrate that certain HCV+MC+ subjects have clonal expansions of immunoglobulin M (IgM)+?+IgDlow/?CD21lowCD27+ B cells. Using RT-PCR to amplify Ig from these singly sorted cells, we show that these predominantly rheumatoid factor-encoding VH1-69/JH4 and V?3-20 gene segment-restricted cells have low to moderate levels of somatic hypermutations. Ig sequence analysis suggests that antigen selection drives the generation of mutated clones. These findings lend further support to the notion that specific antigenic stimulation leads to B-cell proliferation in HCV MC and that chronic B-cell stimulation may set the stage for malignant transformation and the development of B-NHL. The finding that these hypermutated, marginal zone-like IgM+CD27+ B cells are clonally expanded in certain subjects with MC offers insight into mechanisms of HCV-associated MC and B-cell malignancy. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00219999.
Charles, Edgar D.; Green, Rashidah M.; Marukian, Svetlana; Talal, Andrew H.; Lake-Bakaar, Gerond V.; Jacobson, Ira M.; Rice, Charles M.
Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been linked with B cell lymphoproliferative disorders and several autoimmune-related diseases. The mechanisms of how chronic viral infection affects B cell development and predisposes the patients to autoimmune manifestations are poorly understood. In this study, we established an experimental system to probe the B cell responses and characterize the antibodies from chronic-HCV-infected individuals. We identified an unusual polyclonal expansion of the IgM memory B cell subset in some patients. This B cell subset is known to be tightly regulated, and autoreactive cells are eliminated by tolerance mechanisms. Genetic analysis of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain variable gene (VH) sequences of the expanded cell population showed that the levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) correlate with the extent of cell expansion in the patients and that the VH genes exhibit signs of antigen-mediated selection. Functional analysis of the cloned B cell receptors demonstrated autoreactivity in some of the expanded IgM memory B cells in the patients which is not found in healthy donors. In summary, this study demonstrated that, in some patients, chronic HCV infection disrupts the tolerance mechanism that normally deletes autoreactive B cells, therefore increasing the risk of developing autoimmune antibodies. Long-term follow-up of this expanded B cell subset within the infected individuals will help determine whether these cells are predictors of more-serious clinical manifestations.
Roughan, Jill E.; Reardon, Kathryn M.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Quendler, Heribert; Pockros, Paul J.
Sustained, targeted, high-level transgene expression in primary B lymphocytes may be useful for gene therapy in B cell disorders. We developed several candidate B-lineage predominant self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (LV) containing alternative enhancer/promoter elements including: the immunoglobulin ? (Ig?) (B29) promoter combined with the immunoglobulin µ enhancer (EµB29); and the endogenous BTK promoter with or without Eµ (EµBtkp or Btkp). LV-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter expression was evaluated in cell lines and primary cells derived from human or murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In murine primary cells, EµB29 and EµBtkp LV-mediated high-level expression in immature and mature B cells compared with all other lineages. Expression increased with B cell maturation and was maintained in peripheral subsets. Expression in T and myeloid cells was much lower in percentage and intensity. Similarly, both EµB29 and EµBtkp LV exhibited high-level activity in human primary B cells. In contrast to EµB29, Btkp and EµBtkp LV also exhibited modest activity in myeloid cells, consistent with the expression profile of endogenous Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Notably, EµB29 and EµBtkp activity was superior in all expression models to an alternative, B-lineage targeted vector containing the EµS.CD19 enhancer/promoter. In summary, EµB29 and EµBtkp LV comprise efficient delivery platforms for gene expression in B-lineage cells. PMID:21139568
Sather, Blythe D; Ryu, Byoung Y; Stirling, Brigid V; Garibov, Mikhail; Kerns, Hannah M; Humblet-Baron, Stéphanie; Astrakhan, Alexander; Rawlings, David J
Sustained, targeted, high-level transgene expression in primary B lymphocytes may be useful for gene therapy in B cell disorders. We developed several candidate B-lineage predominant self-inactivating lentiviral vectors (LV) containing alternative enhancer/promoter elements including: the immunoglobulin ? (Ig?) (B29) promoter combined with the immunoglobulin µ enhancer (EµB29); and the endogenous BTK promoter with or without Eµ (EµBtkp or Btkp). LV-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter expression was evaluated in cell lines and primary cells derived from human or murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In murine primary cells, EµB29 and EµBtkp LV-mediated high-level expression in immature and mature B cells compared with all other lineages. Expression increased with B cell maturation and was maintained in peripheral subsets. Expression in T and myeloid cells was much lower in percentage and intensity. Similarly, both EµB29 and EµBtkp LV exhibited high-level activity in human primary B cells. In contrast to EµB29, Btkp and EµBtkp LV also exhibited modest activity in myeloid cells, consistent with the expression profile of endogenous Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Notably, EµB29 and EµBtkp activity was superior in all expression models to an alternative, B-lineage targeted vector containing the EµS.CD19 enhancer/promoter. In summary, EµB29 and EµBtkp LV comprise efficient delivery platforms for gene expression in B-lineage cells.
Sather, Blythe D; Ryu, Byoung Y; Stirling, Brigid V; Garibov, Mikhail; Kerns, Hannah M; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Astrakhan, Alexander; Rawlings, David J
During immunosuppressive medication, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with a risk of developing posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). The appropriateness of a spontaneous EBV B-cell transformation (SET) assay as a monitor of EBV-specific immunity was evaluated to investigate if it safely allows reducing immunosuppressive medication, thereby decreasing the risk of developing PTLD. PBMC were isolated longitudinally from 20 pediatric renal
Mireille T. M. Vossen; Mi-Ran Gent; Jean-Claude Davin; Paul A. Baars; Pauline M. E. Wertheim-van Dillen; Jan F. L. Weel; Marijke T. L. Roos; Debbie van Baarle; Jaap Groothoff; René A. W. van Lier; Taco W. Kuijpers
Persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by a stable, polyclonal CD19-positive CD5-negative lymphocytosis, the presence of binucleated lymphocytes in peripheral blood, and a polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulin-M that may occasionally be accompanied by splenomegaly. Histopathologic diagnosis of these splenectomy specimens is difficult because of the massive spleen infiltration and the rarity of the descriptions of this condition. We describe the histopathologic findings from 2 splenectomy specimens. These included a partially preserved architecture with infiltration of the red pulp by small lymphocytes and partial replacement of the white pulp. Suggestions for identifying the disorder are made. PMID:23715167
Martinez-Lopez, Azahara; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Mazorra, Francisco; Miranda-Vallina, Cesar; Ulibarrena, Carlos; Martin, Juan Luis Alfonso; Bosch, Jose Miguel; Peri, Valeria; Burdaspal, Ana; Fernandez-Alvarez, Montse; Sanchez-Verde, Lidia; Piris, Miguel A
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the breast are rare, encompassing approximately 0.04–0.5% of all malignant breast tumors, and the vast majority are B-cell lymphomas. In contrast, lymphomas of T-cell phenotype have been rarely reported and some of these have been in close proximity to a breast implant. In our consultation practice, we have identified four patients with primary T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma
Anja C Roden; William R Macon; Gary L Keeney; Jeffrey L Myers; Andrew L Feldman; Ahmet Dogan
CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders are classified as cutaneous (primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and lymphomatoid papulosis) or systemic. As extent of disease dictates prognosis and treatment, patients with skin involvement need clinical staging to determine whether systemic lymphoma also is present. Similar processes may involve mucosal sites of the head and neck, constituting a spectrum that includes both neoplasms and reactive conditions (eg, traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia). However, no standard classification exists for mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations. To improve our understanding of these processes, we identified 15 such patients and examined clinical presentation, treatment and outcome, morphology, phenotype using immunohistochemistry, and genetics using gene rearrangement studies and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The 15 patients (11 M, 4 F; mean age, 57 years) had disease involving the oral cavity/lip/tongue (9), orbit/conjunctiva (3) or nasal cavity/sinuses (3). Of 14 patients with staging data, 7 had mucosal disease only; 2 had mucocutaneous disease; and 5 had systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Patients with mucosal or mucocutaneous disease only had a favorable prognosis and none developed systemic spread (follow-up, 4-93 months). Three of five patients with systemic disease died of lymphoma after 1-48 months. Morphologic and phenotypic features were similar regardless of extent of disease. One anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive case was associated with systemic disease. Two cases had rearrangements of the DUSP22-IRF4 locus on chromosome 6p25.3, seen most frequently in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Our findings suggest mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations share features with cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, and require clinical staging for stratification into primary and secondary types. Primary cases have clinicopathologic features closer to primary cutaneous disease than to systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma, including indolent clinical behavior. Understanding the spectrum of mucosal CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferations is important to avoid possible overtreatment resulting from a diagnosis of overt T-cell lymphoma. PMID:22388754
Sciallis, Andrew P; Law, Mark E; Inwards, David J; McClure, Rebecca F; Macon, William R; Kurtin, Paul J; Dogan, Ahmet; Feldman, Andrew L
Antibodies Elicited by Naked DNA Vaccination against the Complementary determining Region 3 Hypervariable Region of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Idiotypic Determinants of B-lymphoproliferative Disorders Specifically React with Patients' Tumor Cells 1
Several reports have suggested that the mechanism of protection in- duced by antiidiotypic vaccination against low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders is likely to be antibody mediated. Here we test the hypothesis that DNA vaccination with the short peptide encompassing the comple- mentary-determining region 3 hypervariable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain (VH-CDR3) may elicit a specific antibody immune response able to recognize the
Monica Rinaldi; Francesco Ria; Paola Parrella; Emanuela Signori; Anna Serra; Silvia A. Ciafre; Isabella Vespignani; Marzia Lazzari; Maria Giulia Farace; Giuseppe Saglio; Vito M. Fazio
Patients affected by autoimmune diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, dermatomyositis) who are treated with methotrexate\\u000a (MTX) sometimes develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). In approximately 40% of reported cases, the affected sites have\\u000a been extranodal, and have included the gastrointestinal tract, skin, lung, kidney, and soft tissues. However, MTX-associated\\u000a LPD (MTX-LPD) is extremely rare in the oral cavity. Here we report a 69-year-old
Kentaro Kikuchi; Yuji Miyazaki; Akio Tanaka; Hisao Shigematu; Masaru Kojima; Hideaki Sakashita; Kaoru Kusama
The IL-12R?2 gene is expressed in human mature B cell subsets but not in transformed B cell lines. Silencing of this gene may be advantageous to neoplastic B cells. Our objective was to investigate the mechanism(s) and the functional consequence(s) of IL-12R?2 gene silencing in primary B cell tumors and transformed B cell lines. Purified tumor cells from 41 patients with different chronic B cell lymphoproliferative disorders, representing the counterparts of the major mature human B cell subsets, tested negative for IL-12R?2 gene expression. Hypermethylation of a CpG island in the noncoding exon 1 was associated with silencing of this gene in malignant B cells. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2?-deoxycytidine restored IL-12R?2 mRNA expression in primary neoplastic B cells that underwent apoptosis following exposure to human recombinant IL-12 (hrIL-12). hrIL-12 inhibited proliferation and increased the apoptotic rate of IL-12R?2–transfected B cell lines in vitro. Finally, hrIL-12 strongly reduced the tumorigenicity of IL-12R?2–transfected Burkitt lymphoma RAJI cells in SCID-NOD mice through antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects, coupled with neoangiogenesis inhibition related to human IFN-?–independent induction of hMig/CXCL9. The IL-12R?2 gene acts as tumor suppressor in chronic B cell malignancies, and IL-12 exerts direct antitumor effects on IL-12R?2–expressing neoplastic B cells.
Airoldi, Irma; Di Carlo, Emma; Banelli, Barbara; Moserle, Lidia; Cocco, Claudia; Pezzolo, Annalisa; Sorrentino, Carlo; Rossi, Edoardo; Romani, Massimo; Amadori, Alberto; Pistoia, Vito
CD-30 Positive Anaplastic Large T-cell Cutaneous Lymphoma; Lymphoma, Primary Cutaneous Anaplastic Large Cell; Lymphomatoid Papulosis; Mycosis Fungoides; Skin Lymphoma; Cutaneous Lymphomas; Lymphoma; Hematologic Disorder
EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.
Primary cutaneous CD30(+) lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30(+) LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30(+) LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30(+) LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30(+) LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30(+) LPDs. PMID:21841159
Kempf, Werner; Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, José A; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein
Context.-Molecular tests for clonality performed on atypical lymphoid lesions may yield abnormal results because of the coexistence of monoclonal B lymphocytosis or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in the sample investigated. Objective.-To investigate the ability of the BIOMED-2 sets of primers to identify 2 clonal populations in the same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sample. Design.-Ten cases with 2 B-lymphoproliferative disorders at the same site were analyzed using 5 BIOMED-2 primer sets (IGH FR1, FR2, FR3, IGK VJ, and IGK VKde). Results.-All 10 cases (100%) showed at least 1 clone; 8 of 10 cases (80%) had 2 clones with at least 1 primer set, and the 2 clones were shown by 4 or 5 primer sets in none of the cases (0%), by 3 sets in 1 of 10 cases (10%), by 2 sets in 4 of 10 cases (40%), and by 1 set in 3 of 10 cases (30%). The most effective set was IGH FR2, detecting 4 of 10 biclonal cases (40%). The IGK VJ and IGK VKde each showed 2 clones in 3 of 10 cases (30% each). The least effective sets were IGH FR1 and FR3, with 2 of 10 cases (20%) each, with IGH FR1 being the least useful. Conclusions.-The BIOMED-2 primers are effective in the detection of 2 clonal populations in the same sample. PMID:24168505
Ly, Brenda; Cotta, Claudiu V
EORTC, ISCL, and USCLC consensus recommendations for the treatment of primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders: lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma*
Primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPDs) are the second most common form of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and include lymphomatoid papulosis and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Despite the anaplastic cytomorphology of tumor cells that suggest an aggressive course, CD30+ LPDs are characterized by an excellent prognosis. Although a broad spectrum of therapeutic strategies has been reported, these have been limited mostly to small retrospective cohort series or case reports, and only very few prospective controlled or multicenter studies have been performed, which results in a low level of evidence for most therapies. The response rates to treatment, recurrence rates, and outcome have not been analyzed in a systematic review. Moreover, international guidelines for staging and treatment of CD30+ LPDs have not yet been presented. Based on a literature analysis and discussions, recommendations were elaborated by a multidisciplinary expert panel of the Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the International Society for Cutaneous Lymphomas, and the United States Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium. The recommendations represent the state-of-the-art management of CD30+ LPDs and include definitions for clinical endpoints as well as response criteria for future clinical trials in CD30+ LPDs.
Pfaltz, Katrin; Vermeer, Maarten H.; Cozzio, Antonio; Ortiz-Romero, Pablo L.; Bagot, Martine; Olsen, Elise; Kim, Youn H.; Dummer, Reinhard; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Whittaker, Sean; Hodak, Emmilia; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Berti, Emilio; Horwitz, Steve; Prince, H. Miles; Guitart, Joan; Estrach, Teresa; Sanches, Jose A.; Duvic, Madeleine; Ranki, Annamari; Dreno, Brigitte; Ostheeren-Michaelis, Sonja; Knobler, Robert; Wood, Gary; Willemze, Rein
Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) constitute rare complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AlloHSCT). The incidence of EBV-PTLD is above 1%, but it may increase in patients with well-known risk factors such as EBV seronegativity at the time of transplantation, T-cell depletion of donor grafts, HLA mismatch and use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for prophylaxis of graft versus host disease. The risk factors for PRCA were defined and they include: 1) elevated post-transplant anti-donor isohemagglutinin titers, 2) reduced-intensity conditioning before transplant, 3) the presence of anti-A agglutinin and 4) ciclosporin for graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis and 5) transplant from sibling donor. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab remains the first line treatment for PTLD following AlloHSCT, but its efficacy in PRCA is limited. Reduction of immunosuppression is also strongly advised. This is the first report on an adult patient who simultaneously developed PRCA and PTLD after ABO-mismatched AlloHSCT. The early introduction of rituximab resulted in prompt resolution of clinical symptoms with subsequent full recovery.
Kopinska, Anna; Frankiewicz, Andrzej; Grygoruk-Wisniowska, Iwona; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira
Overexpression of a src family gene, lck, has been associated with differentiation of the murine thymic lymphoma line LSTRA. Recent findings by several groups strongly suggest a functional role for the gene product p56lck protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) in the activation of normal T cells. A single recessive gene, lpr or gld, induces a lymphoproliferative disorder concomitant with autoimmune disease in mice. In this study, a 10-fold elevated activity of PTK encoded by fyn, another src family gene, was demonstrated in CD4-CD8- T cells in mutant mice. The increased PTK activity was consistent with overexpression of fyn mRNA. The elevated fyn mRNA expression appeared to be a characteristic of CD4-CD8- T cells, since it was not observed in normal T cells at any stage of differentiation. The fact that fyn mRNA expression was markedly induced in normal T cells by mitogenic stimulation with anti-T3 epsilon antiserum supports the possibility that p59fyn PTK is a signal-generating molecule in T cells. Thus, our findings provide insight into the physiological role for a src gene family kinase in T-cell development and contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of disease-inducing recessive genes. Images
Katagiri, T; Urakawa, K; Yamanashi, Y; Semba, K; Takahashi, T; Toyoshima, K; Yamamoto, T; Kano, K
Abstract T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (T-PTLD) is a rare but severe complication after transplant. Here we present the clinicopathological features of a single-center series of nine cases. Additionally, we summarize the clinicopathological findings of 147 cases of T/NK-cell PTLD reported in the literature in an attempt to define subtype-specific characteristics. T/NK-cell PTLD occurs in patients of all ages, usually extranodally, and most frequently after kidney transplant. Organ specific incidence, however, is highest following heart transplant. Approximately one-third of T-cell PTLDs are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related, with peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) being the most prevalent EBV-associated T-cell PTLD. A male predominance is observed, which is most striking in the EBV(+) group, particularly in PTCL, NOS. With a median posttransplant interval of 72 months, T-cell PTLDs are among the late-occurring PTLDs. Of the most common T-cell PTLDs, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has the best prognosis, whereas PTCL, NOS and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) have the worst prognosis. EBV(+) cases seem to have a longer survival than EBV(-) cases, suggesting a different pathogenetic mechanism. PMID:23402267
Herreman, An; Dierickx, Daan; Morscio, Julie; Camps, Jordi; Bittoun, Emilie; Verhoef, Gregor; De Wolf-Peeters, Christiane; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas
alpha-Naphthyl acetate esterase activity--a cytochemical marker for T lymphocytees. Correlation with immunologic studies of normal tissues, lymphocytic leukemias, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and other lymphoproliferative disorders.
Cytochemical identification of T lymphocytes on the basis of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (NAE) activity was compared with immunologic markers for cell suspensions and/or cryostat sections of 113 specimens. Nonneoplastic tissues (peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleens, tonsils, thymus, and pleural fluid) and specimens from various lymphoproliferative disorders, including acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, lymphosarcoma cell leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of B-and T-cell types, and Hodgkin's disease, were evaluated. T (E-rosetting) cells demonstrated several patterns of NAE reactivity: 1) a strong globular reaction product, the most specific pattern for T-cell identification, 2) granular cytoplasmic staining, or 3) no reactivity. B lymphocytes revealed a granular pattern of NAE staining, were devoid of enzyme, or, in rare instances, exhibited strong NAE activity. Percentages of lymphoid cells with strong (globular) NAE activity closely paralleled T-cell (E-rosette) values in the majority of cases, with the best correlations observed for peripheral blood studies. However, discordant results were noted for some neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissues, including cases of T-cell lymphoma or leukemia. Markedly discrepant results were noted for thymic lymphocytes, most of which revealed E-rosette formation and weak or absent NAE activity. Lymph nodes involved by Hodgkin's disease demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of staining in E-rosetting cells and in Reed-Sternberg variants. Cryostat section studies of reactive lymph nodes and nodular lymphomas demonstrated strong NAE staining in lymphoid cells of T-cell (interfollicular, internodular) areas, with little or no positivity in follicles or nodules (B-cell areas). NAE staining patterns further suggested that T cells comprise part of the follicular cuff and possibly represent a minor population of some neoplastic nodules. Although NAE determinations do not represent a consistently reliable alternative to immunologic methods for T-cell identification, this easily applicable cytochemical marker is complementary to other techniques in assessing neoplastic or nonneoplastic tissues, particularly cryostat sections. (Am J Pathol 97:17--42, 1979). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13
Pinkus, G. S.; Hargreaves, H. K.; McLeod, J. A.; Nadler, L. M.; Rosenthal, D. S.; Said, J. W.
A 58-year-old Chinese man presented initially with generalized lymphadenopathy, and lymph-node biopsy showed disturbed architecture with preponderance of large B-blasts mixed with numerous CD8+ T lymphocytes, consistent with an acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Immunohistological and gene rearrangement studies confirmed the absence of clonal T or B cells. Polyclonal EBV with lytic infection was detected by Southern blot hybridization (SoBH). Expression of EBV proteins (EBNA2, LMP and ZEBRA) was detected in a proportion of cells by immunostaining. EBV-lytic proteins EA-D, VCA, MA were also detected in rare scattered cells. Double immunostaining showed that the LMP-positive cells were of B and of T phenotype: 73% CD19+, 26% CD2+, 23% CD3+, 8% CD4+, 17% CD8+. After biopsy, there was spontaneous regression of lymph-node enlargement, but lymphadenopathy recurred 8 months later, and the second lymph-node biopsy showed T-cell lymphoma, confirmed by detection of clonally rearranged T-cell-receptor beta-chain gene. However, EBV genome could not be detected in the second biopsy by SoBH, in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded EBER RNA, and immunostaining for EBNA2, LMP and ZEBRA was also negative. This case is of special interest because an EBV-negative T-cell lymphoma developed shortly after an acute episode of EBV-related lymphoproliferation, even though many EBV-positive T cells were detected during the acute episode. EBV was apparently not a direct cause of the lymphoma, but the close temporal association of the 2 lesions supports the hypothesis that EBV can act as a co-factor in lymphomagenesis. PMID:8014013
Tao, Q; Srivastava, G; Loke, S L; Liang, R H; Liu, Y T; Ho, F C
Plasmacytomas expressing immunoglobulin A are rare and not well characterized. In this study, nine cases of IgA-positive plasmacytomas presenting in lymph node and three in extranodal sites were analyzed by morphology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR examination of immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light chain genes. Laboratory features were correlated with clinical findings. There were seven males and five females; age range was 10 to 66 years (median, 32 years). Six of the patients were younger than 30-years-old, five of whom had nodal disease. 67% (6/9) of the patients with nodal disease had evidence of immune system dysfunction, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, T-cell deficiency, autoantibodies, arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, and decreased B-cells. An IgA M-spike was detected in 6/11 cases, and the M-protein was nearly always less than 30 g/L. All patients had an indolent clinical course without progression to plasma cell myeloma. Histologically, IgA plasmacytomas showed an interfollicular or diffuse pattern of plasma cell infiltration. The plasma cells were generally of mature Marschalko type with little or mild pleomorphism and exclusive expression of monotypic IgA. There was an equal expression of kappa and lambda light chains (ratio 6:6). Clonality was demonstrated in 9 of 12 cases: by PCR in 7 cases, by cytogenetic analysis in 1 case, and by immunofixation in 1 case. Clonality did not correlate with pattern of lymph node infiltration. Our results suggest that IgA plasmacytomas may represent a distinct form of extramedullary plasmacytoma characterized by younger age at presentation, frequent lymph node involvement and low risk of progression to plasma cell myeloma.
Shao, Haipeng; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Pittaluga, Stefania; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wilson, Wyndham; Spector, Nelson; Milito, Cristiane; Morais, Jose Carlos; Jaffe, Elaine S.
Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the generation of effector and memory CD8(+) T cells. We used two different models, transgenic expression of truncated (dominant negative) form of TGF-?RII (dnTGF?RII) and Cre-mediated deletion of the floxed TGF-?RII to examine the role of TGF-? signaling in the formation, function, and homeostatic proliferation of memory CD8(+) T cells. Blocking TGF-? signaling in effector CD8(+) T cells using both of these models demonstrated a role for TGF-? in regulating the number of short-lived effector cells but did not alter memory CD8(+) T cell formation and their function upon Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. Interestingly, however, a massive lymphoproliferative disorder and cellular transformation were observed in Ag-experienced and homeostatically generated memory CD8(+) T cells only in cells that express the dnTGF?RII and not in cells with a complete deletion of TGF-?RII. Furthermore, the development of transformed memory CD8(+) T cells expressing dnTGF?RII was IL-7- and IL-15-independent, and MHC class I was not required for their proliferation. We show that transgenic expression of the dnTGF?RII, rather than the absence of TGF-?RII-mediated signaling, is responsible for dysregulated expansion of memory CD8(+) T cells. This study uncovers a previously unrecognized dominant function of the dnTGF?RII in CD8(+) T cell proliferation and cellular transformation, which is caused by a mechanism that is different from the absence of TGF-? signaling. These results should be considered during both basic and translational studies where there is a desire to block TGF-? signaling in CD8(+) T cells. PMID:23686479
Ishigame, Harumichi; Mosaheb, Munir M; Sanjabi, Shomyseh; Flavell, Richard A
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease mediated by inflammatory processes mainly at the joints. Recently, awareness of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (T-LPD) has been heightened for its association with methotraxate usage in RA patients. In the contrary, acute myeloid leukemia with multilineage dysplasia (AML-MLD) has never been documented to be present concomitantly with the above two conditions. In this report we present a case of an autopsy-proven co-existence of AML-MLD and EBV-associated T-LPD in a patient with RA.
Tokuhira, Michihide; Hanzawa, Kyoko; Watanabe, Reiko; Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Nemoto, Tomoe; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Tamaru, Jun-ichi; Itoyama, Shinji; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kameda, Hideto; Mori, Shigehisa; Kizaki, Masahiro
Bi-clonality is a rare phenomenon seen in approximately 5% of chronic B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Both true bi-clonality and somatic hypermutation resulting in intraclonal evolution have been described. We present the case of a 37-year-old female who developed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with immunohistochemical studies showing monotypic immunostaining of plasma cells for immunoglobulin lambda light chain on her right arm in 2008. Three years later, she developed a second focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma on her left arm, but immunohistochemical studies demonstrated monotypic immunostaining of plasma cells for immunoglobulin kappa light chain confirmed after repeat analysis. Evaluation for systemic lymphoma with laboratory and imaging studies was negative. Together, the findings were consistent with bi-clonal, multifocal extranodal primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. We present this case to highlight a rare phenomenon within primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas. PMID:22809282
Nicholson, Kimberly M; Patel, Keyur P; Duvic, Madeleine; Prieto, Victor G; Tetzlaff, Michael T
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is closely linked to primary Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection. A defect of EBV specific cellular immunity is postulated to play a pivotal role in the etiology of PTLD, but there is some debate as to whether EBV load in the peripheral blood of transplant patients predicts onset of PTLD or relapse after treatment. The current prospective,
Stephan Oertel; Ralf Ulrich Trappe; Kristin Zeidler; Nina Babel; Petra Reinke; Manfred Hummel; Sven Jonas; Matthias Papp-Vary; Marion Subklewe; Bernd Dörken; Hanno Riess; Barbara Gärtner
Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia
B- and T-cell recirculation is crucial for the function of the immune system, with the control of cell migration being mainly mediated by several chemokines and their receptors. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR3 on normal and malignant B cells from 65 patients with chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLDs). Although CXCR3 is lacking on CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells from healthy subjects, it is expressed on leukemic B lymphocytes from all (31/31) patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The presence of CXCR3 was heterogeneous in other B-cell disorders, being expressed in 2 of 7 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 4 of 12 patients with hairy cell leukemia (HCL), and 11 of 15 patients with other subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). Chemotaxis assay shows that normal B cells from healthy subjects do not migrate in response to IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IFN-gamma-induced monokine (Mig). In contrast, a definite migration in response to IP-10 and Mig has been observed in all malignant B cells from patients with CLL, but not in patients with HCL or MCL (1/7 cases tested). Neoplastic B cells from other NHLs showed a heterogenous pattern. The migration elicited by IP-10 and Mig was inhibited by blocking CXCR3. No effect of IP-10 and Mig chemokines was observed on the cytosolic calcium concentration in malignant B cells. The data reported here demonstrate that CXCR3 is expressed on malignant B cells from CLDs, particularly in patients with CLL, and represents a fully functional receptor involved in chemotaxis of malignant B lymphocytes. PMID:10393705
Trentin, L; Agostini, C; Facco, M; Piazza, F; Perin, A; Siviero, M; Gurrieri, C; Galvan, S; Adami, F; Zambello, R; Semenzato, G
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with the B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We have previously reported that HCV+MC+ patients have clonal expansions of hypermutated, rheumatoid factor–bearing marginal zone-like IgM+CD27+ peripheral B cells using the VH1-69 gene. Here we coupled transcriptional profiling with immunophenotypic and functional studies to ascertain these cells' role in MC pathogenesis. Despite their fundamental role in MC disease, these B cells have overall transcriptional features of anergy and apoptosis instead of neoplastic transformation. Highly up-regulated genes include SOX5, CD11C, galectin-1, and FGR, similar to a previously described FCRL4+ memory B-cell subset and to an “exhausted,” anergic CD21low memory B-cell subset in HIV+ patients. Moreover, HCV+MC+ patients' clonal peripheral B cells are enriched with CD21low, CD11c+, FCRL4high, IL-4Rlow memory B cells. In contrast to the functional, rheumatoid factor–secreting CD27+CD21high subset, the CD27+CD21low subpopulation exhibits decreased calcium mobilization and does not efficiently differentiate into rheumatoid factor–secreting plasmablasts, suggesting that a large proportion of HCV+MC+ patients' clonally expanded peripheral B cells is prone to anergy and/or apoptosis. Down-regulation of multiple activation pathways may represent a homeostatic mechanism attenuating otherwise uncontrolled stimulation of circulating HCV-containing immune complexes. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00435201.
Charles, Edgar D.; Brunetti, Claudia; Marukian, Svetlana; Ritola, Kimberly D.; Talal, Andrew H.; Marks, Kristen; Jacobson, Ira M.; Rice, Charles M.
Background Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and of some lymphoproliferative disorders of B cells. Most malignancies develop after long-lasting viral dormancy, and a preventing role for both humoral and cellular immune control is suggested by the high frequency of these pathologies in immunosuppressed patients. B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells of peripheral lymphoid organs and blood represent the major reservoir of HHV-8. Due to the dual role of B cells in HHV-8 infection, both as virus reservoir and as agents of humoral immune control, we analyzed the subset distribution and the functional state of peripheral blood B cells in HHV-8-infected individuals with and without cKS. Methodology/Principal Findings Circulating B cells and their subsets were analyzed by 6-color flow cytometry in the following groups: 1- patients HHV-8 positive with classic KS (cKS) (n?=?47); 2- subjects HHV-8 positive and cKS negative (HSP) (n?=?10); 3- healthy controls, HHV-8 negative and cKS negative (HC) (n?=?43). The number of B cells belonging to the preimmune/natural effector compartment, including transitional, pre-naïve, naïve and MZ-like subsets, was significantly higher among HHV-8 positive subjects, with or without cKS, while was comparable to healthy controls in the antigen-experienced T-cell dependent compartment. The increased number of preimmune/natural effector B cells was associated with increased resistance to spontaneous apoptosis, while it did not correlate with HHV-8 viral load. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that long-lasting HHV-8 infection promotes an imbalance in peripheral B cell subsets, perturbing the equilibrium between earlier and later steps of maturation and activation processes. This observation may broaden our understanding of the complex interplay between viral and immune factors leading HHV-8-infected individuals to develop HHV-8-associated malignancies.
Della Bella, Silvia; Taddeo, Adriano; Colombo, Elena; Brambilla, Lucia; Bellinvia, Monica; Pregliasco, Fabrizio; Cappelletti, Monica; Calabro, Maria Luisa; Villa, Maria Luisa
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare familial disorder resulting in selective immunodeficiency to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of EBV-infected lymphocytes. Phenotypes of this disease are variable and include fulminant infectious mononucleosis, hypogammaglobulinemia, and malignant lymphoma. In this article, we describe a case of a previously healthy 4-year-old boy with serologic evidence of acute EBV infection who died of fulminant hepatic failure. Histopathological examination of tissue obtained postmortem showed hemophagocytosis and prominent polymorphous infiltrates associated with necrosis in the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) utilizing primers complementary to the EBV gene LMP2a performed on samples of liver tissue demonstrated approximately 0.6 copies of the EBV gene per cell. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated light chain restriction and PCR studies of the immunoglobulin V-D-J region revealed two strong bands, consistent with a clonal B cell proliferation. Extended family history revealed that the boy's family was followed by the XLP Registry, which was established in 1978 to follow kindreds with XLP. The genetic abnormality associated with XLP has been localized to the Xq25, allowing RFLP analysis to identify female carriers and affected boys. PMID:9841710
Maia, D M; Garwacki, C P
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of apoptosis, most commonly due to mutations in the FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. It presents with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and symptomatic multilineage cytopenias in an otherwise healthy child. Unfortunately, these clinical findings are also noted in other childhood lymphoproliferative conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which can confound the diagnosis. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with symptoms misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with chemotherapy before the recognition that her symptoms and laboratory values were consistent with a somatic FAS mutation leading to ALPS. This case should alert pediatricians to include ALPS in the differential diagnosis of a child with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias; obtain discriminating screening laboratory biomarkers, such as serum vitamin B-12 and ferritin levels; and, in the setting of a highly suspicious clinical scenario for ALPS, pursue testing for somatic FAS mutations when germ-line mutation testing is negative. PMID:24101757
Rudman Spergel, Amanda; Walkovich, Kelly; Price, Susan; Niemela, Julie E; Wright, Dowain; Fleisher, Thomas A; Rao, V Koneti
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) comprises a spectrum ranging from polyclonal hyperplasia to aggressive monoclonal lymphomas. The majority of PTLDs are of B-cell origin while T-cell PTLDs and Hodgkin lymphoma-like PTLDs are uncommon. Here, we report a unique case of a 56-year-old man in whom a lymphoma with two distinct components developed as a duodenal mass seventeen years following a combined kidney-pancreas transplant. This PTLD, which has features not previously reported in the literature, consisted of one component of CD20 positive and EBV negative monomorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The other component showed anaplastic morphology, expressed some but not all T-cell markers, failed to express most B-cell markers except for PAX5, and was diffusely EBV positive. Possible etiologies for this peculiar constellation of findings are discussed and the literature reviewed for “composite-like” lymphomas late in the posttransplant setting.
Zhang, Dahua; Ranheim, Erik A.
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350.
Oliveira, Joao Bosco
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a well characterized etiopathogenic factor for a variety of immune-related conditions, including lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases. EBV-mediated transformation of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblastoid cells occurs in early stages of infection and is an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms associated with acquisition of unlimited growth. RESULTS: We investigated the effects of experimental EBV infection of B cells on DNA methylation profiles by using high-throughput analysis. Remarkably, we observed hypomethylation of around 250 genes, but no hypermethylation. Hypomethylation did not occur at repetitive sequences, consistent with the absence of genomic instability in lymphoproliferative cells. Changes in methylation only occurred after cell divisions started, without the participation of the active demethylation machinery, and were concomitant with acquisition by B cells of the ability to proliferate. Gene Ontology analysis, expression profiling, and high-throughput analysis of the presence of transcription factor binding motifs and occupancy revealed that most genes undergoing hypomethylation are active and display the presence of NF-?B p65 and other B cell-specific transcription factors. Promoter hypomethylation was associated with upregulation of genes relevant for the phenotype of proliferating lymphoblasts. Interestingly, pharmacologically induced demethylation increased the efficiency of transformation of resting B cells to lymphoblastoid cells, consistent with productive cooperation between hypomethylation and lymphocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide novel clues on the role of the B cell transcription program leading to DNA methylation changes, which we find to be key to the EBV-associated conversion of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblasts. PMID:23320978
Hernando, Henar; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Islam, Abul B; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Rodríguez-Cortez, Virginia C; Javierre, Biola M; Mangas, Cristina; Fernández, Agustín F; Parra, Maribel; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Esteller, Manel; López-Granados, Eduardo; Fraga, Mario F; López-Bigas, Nuria; Ballestar, Esteban
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans.
Teachey, David T.; Obzut, Dana A.; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S.; Maris, John M.; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Brown, Valerie I.; Grupp, Stephan A.
The systemic distribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genomes was studied in paraffin-embedded tissues from 12 fatal cases of Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), using an in situ hybridization technique employing an alpha-35S-dCTP-radiolabeled BamHI-W fragment of EBV DNA. The presence of EBV was documented in various PTLD-involved organs. The hybridization signal for the virus localized predominantly in the abnormal lymphoid cells, but signals also were detected in hepatocytes and/or adrenal cortical cells in five cases. The distribution of autoradiographic label within the lymphoid cells was focal and its intensity varied from field to field suggesting a nonuniformity of the viral genomic load in the infected tissues. Recruitment of EBV genome-bearing cells was not observed into inflammatory mononuclear infiltrates found in organs without histopathologic evidence of PTLD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Randhawa, P. S.; Jaffe, R.; Demetris, A. J.; Nalesnik, M.; Starzl, T. E.; Chen, Y. Y.; Weiss, L. M.
Fas (also known as Apo1 and CD95) is a cell surface receptor involved in apoptotic cell death. Fas expression and function were analyzed in three children (including two siblings) with a lymphoproliferative syndrome, two of whom also had autoimmune disorders. A large deletion in the gene encoding Fas and no detectable cell surface expression characterized the most affected patient. Clinical
F. Rieux-Laucat; F. Le Deist; C. Hivroz; I. A. G. Roberts; K. M. Debatin; A. Fischer; J. P. de Villartay
Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL) is an heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders, which account for 25-30% of all primary cutaneous lymphoma and include three main histotypes: 1) primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL); 2) primary cutaneous follicular center cell lymphoma (PCFCL); 3) primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), leg type (PCDLBCL-LT). PCMZL and PCFCL are indolent lymphomas, with an excellent prognosis despite an high rate of cutaneous recurrences; in contrast, PCDLBCL-LT is clinically more aggressive and usually requires to be treated with multi-agent chemotherapy and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. PCDLBCL-LT histologically consists of large round cells (centroblasts and immunoblasts), is characterized by strong bcl-2 expression, in the absence of t(14;18) translocation, and resembles the activated B-cell type of nodal DLBCL. Recently, the term primary cutaneous DLBCL-other (PCDLBCL-O) has been proposed to include diffuse lymphomas composed of large transformed B-cells that lack the typical features of PCDLBCL-LT and do not conform to the definition of PCFCL. Some clinical studies suggested that such cases have an indolent clinical course and may be treated in a conservative manner; however, data regarding the actual prognosis and clinical behaviour of these peculiar cases are still too limited. The spectrum of primary cutaneous DLBCL also encompasses some rare morphological variants, such as anaplastic or plasmablastic subtypes and T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma, and some recently described, exceedingly rare DLBCL subtypes, such as intravascular large B-cell lymphoma and EBV-associated large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly, which often present in the skin. PMID:23149705
Paulli, M; Lucioni, M; Maffi, A; Croci, G A; Nicola, M; Berti, E
Morphological differentiation between benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) can be challenging. Immunophenotyping (IPT) by either technique, flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry (IHC), is an important step in solving such difficulty. Thirty-five newly diagnosed patients with chronic B-cell neoplasms (11 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 22 non Hodgkin lymphoma and 2 hairy cell leukemia) were included in this study with age range from 20 to 70 years. Monoclonal antibodies surface expression using lymphoproliferative disorders panel (CD45, CD19, CD5, CD10, CD11c, CD20, CD22, CD23, CD38, CD79b, FMC7, CD103, CD25, kappa and lambda light chains) by flow cytometry was done on bone marrow samples. CD20, CD5, CD23, Bcl-2, Bcl-6, kappa and lambda light chain immunostaining were performed on fixed bone marrow trephine biopsy specimen. The sensitivity of IHC was 81.8% in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and 100% in non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as regards CD20, 100% in both groups as regards CD5, 46% in CLL and 66.7% in NHL as regards CD23, 33.3% in CLL and 50% in NHL as regards kappa chain, 20% in CLL and 33.3% in NHL as regards lambda chain. We found that IHC and flow cytometry are equally effective in diagnosing CLL; however, IHC might be slightly more sensitive than flow cytometry in detecting bone marrow infiltration in NHL and hairy cell leukemia (HCL).
Abdel-Ghafar, Afaf Abdel-Aziz; El Din El Telbany, Manal Ahmed Shams; Mahmoud, Hanan Mohamed; El-Sakhawy, Yasmin Nabil
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that represent serious complications following immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ or hematopoietic-cell recipients. In contrast to B-cell PTLD, T-cell PTLD is less frequent and is not usually associated with Epstein Barr Virus infection. Moreover, to our knowledge, isolated T-cell PTLD involving the breast is extremely rare and this condition has never been reported previously in the literature. Herein, we report a rare case of isolated T-cell PTLD of the breast that occurred after a patient had been treated for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to acute myeloblastic leukemia. PMID:24043963
Hwang, Ji-Young; Cha, Eun Suk; Lee, Jee Eun; Sung, Sun Hee
B cells regulate immune responses during infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Beside their unique and characteristic antibody production, B lymphocytes can modulate physiological and pathological processes by presenting antigens or synthesizing signaling molecules. In human and mouse diseases, immuno-intervention, targeting B cells, has revealed and highlighted their antibody-independent regulatory contribution. In this review, we focus on B cell-cytokine production, which is commonly disturbed in inflammatory disorders, and describe the B cell cytokine profile in different diseases. Finally, we discuss some key issues for future B cell-targeted therapies. PMID:23614878
Hamze, Moustafa; Desmetz, Caroline; Guglielmi, Paul
Although there is increasing evidence that the majority of cases of hairy cell leukemia represent B-lymphoproliferative disorders, the exact subset of B-cells from which hairy cells are derived, is still unclear. On the basis of results obtained in previous studies, and data collected from the literature, it is suggested that B-lymphocytes normally residing in the marginal zone of the splenic
J. J. van den Oord; C. de Wolf-Peeters; V. J. Desmet
Immunosuppression-associated lymphoproliferative disorders can be related to primary as well as acquired immune disorders. Interferon gamma receptor (IFN-?R) deficiency is a rare primary immune disorder, characterized by increased susceptibility to mycobacterial infections. Here we report the first case of an Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) related B-cell lymphoma in a patient with complete IFN-?R1 deficiency. The patient was a 20-year-old man with homozygous 22Cdel in IFNGR1 resulting in complete absence of IFN-?R1 surface expression and complete lack of responsiveness to IFN-? in vitro. He had disseminated refractory Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium abscessus infections. At age 18 he presented with new spiking fever and weight loss that was due to an EBV-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Two years later he died of progressive lymphoma. IFN-? plays an important role in tumor protection and rejection. Patients with IFN-?R deficiencies and other immune deficits predisposing to mycobacterial disease seem to have an increased risk of malignancies, especially those related to viral infections. As more of these patients survive their early infections, cancer awareness and tumor surveillance may need to become a more routine part of management.
Bax, Hannelore I.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Vesterhus, Per; Laerum, Dan; Pittaluga, Stefania; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Holland, Steven M.
The rapid increase in the incidence of the B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in their development renders timely a review of the theoretical and practical aspects of molecular abnormalities in B cell NHL. In Section I, Dr. Macintyre addresses the practical aspects of the use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of patients with B cell NHL. While detection of clonal Ig rearrangements is widely used to distinguish reactive from malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, molecular informativity is variable. The relative roles of cytogenetic, molecular and immunological techniques in the detection of genetic abnormalities and their protein products varies with the clinical situation. Consequently, the role of molecular analysis relative to morphological classification is evolving. Integrated diagnostic services are best equipped to cope with these changes. Recent evidence that large scale gene expression profiling allows improved prognostic stratification of diffuse large cell lymphoma suggests that the choice of diagnostic techniques will continue to change significantly and rapidly. In Section II, Dr. Willerford reviews current understanding of the mechanisms involved in immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement during B lymphoid development and the way in which these processes may contribute to Ig-locus chromosome translocations in lymphoma. Recent insights into the regulation of Ig gene diversification indicate that genetic plasticity in B lymphocytes is much greater than previously suspected. Physiological genomic instability, which may include isotype switching, recombination revision and somatic mutation, occurs in germinal centers in the context of immune responses and may explain longstanding clinical observations that link immunity and lymphoid neoplasia. Data from murine models and human disorders predisposing to NHL have been used to illustrate these issues. In Section III, Dr. Morris reviews the characteristics and consequences of deregulation of novel "proto-oncogenes" involved in B cell NHL, including PAX5 (chromosome 9p 13), BCL8 (15q11-q13), BCL9, MUC1, FcgammaRIIB and other 1q21-q22 genes and BCL10 (1p22). The AP12-MLT/MALT1 [t(11;18)(q21;q21)] fusion transcript is also described. PMID:11701542
Macintyre, Elizabeth; Willerford, Dennis; Morris, Stephan W.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is probably the most common chronic viral infection and affects an estimated 180 million people worldwide, accounting for 3% of the global population. Although the liver is considered to be the primary target, extrahepatic manifestations are well recognized among patients with chronic HCV infection. Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a correlation between chronic HCV infection and occurrence of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL). The clinical evidence that antiviral therapy has a significant role in the treatment at least of some HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, especially indolent B-NHL, further supports the existence of an etiopathogenetic link. However, the mechanisms exploited by HCV to induce B-cell lymphoproliferation have so far not completely clarified. It is conceivable that different biological mechanisms, namely, chronic antigen stimulation, high-affinity interaction between HCV-E2 protein and its cellular receptors, direct HCV infection of B-cells, and "hit and run" transforming events, may be combined themselves and cooperate in a multifactorial model of HCV-associated lymphomagenesis. PMID:22844326
Forghieri, Fabio; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Maffei, Rossana; Potenza, Leonardo; Narni, Franco; Marasca, Roberto
Objective. To identify and characterize rheumatoid factor (RF)-producing B-cells and cryoprecipitate immunoglobulin (Ig) M in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive patients. Methods. We purified and characterized, by peptide mass fingerprinting integrated with an NCBI IgBlast data bank search, the IgM component of cryoprecipitate and analysed the VDJ pattern of bone marrow B-cells by gene scan analysis of 17 HCV-positive patients with
V. De Re; S. De Vita; D. Sansonno; D. Gasparotto; M. P. Simula; F. A. Tucci; A. Marzotto; M. Fabris; A. Gloghini; A. Carbone; F. Dammacco; M. Boiocchi
Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice reconstituted with lymphocytes from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative human donors develop aggressive tumors after the chimeric mice are infected with EBV. The tumors were composed of human B cells that expressed EBV encoded antigens (latent membrane protein and EBV nuclear antigen2). Southern blot analysis of DNA from 16 SCID/hu tumors with human Ig gene probes showed that each tumor contained multiple heavy and light chain gene rearrangements. Ig kappa gene rearrangements were frequent, while clonal lambda gene rearrangements were infrequent. Analysis of EBV terminal repeat sequences indicated two or more fused termini in each tumor, consistent with a multiclonal origin. Linear terminal repeat segments and viral antigens (EA-D and EA-R) associated with EBV replication were not detected in the tumors. High levels of human Igs in the SCID/hu serum were oligoclonal and primarily contained kappa light chains. Before the appearance of overt tumors, circulating cells with human and EBV DNA could be detected in the SCID/hu mice by the polymerase chain reaction. We conclude that EBV infection in SCID/hu chimeric mice produces a limited number of transformation events, which give rise to oligoclonal tumors resembling EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in some immune-deficient patients. PMID:1309425
Pisa, P; Cannon, M J; Pisa, E K; Cooper, N R; Fox, R I
During the immunodeficiency that follows hemopoietic stem cell transplant or solid organ transplant, lymphoproliferation can develop due to uncontrolled expansion of Epstein–Barr-virus (EBV)-infected B cells that express the full spectrum of EBV latent antigens. As development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in these patients is clearly associated with a deficient EBV-specific cellular immune response, immunotherapy strategies to restore the EBV-specific
Cliona M. Rooney; B SAVOLDO
MYD88 L265P in Waldenström macroglobulinemia, immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy, and other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders using conventional and quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.
By whole-genome and/or Sanger sequencing, we recently identified a somatic mutation (MYD88 L265P) that stimulates nuclear factor ?B activity and is present in >90% of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) patients. MYD88 L265P was absent in 90% of immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients. We therefore developed conventional and real-time allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assays for more sensitive detection and quantification of MYD88 L265P. Using either assay, MYD88 L265P was detected in 97 of 104 (93%) WM and 13 of 24 (54%) IgM MGUS patients and was either absent or rarely expressed in samples from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (2/20; 10%), CLL (1/26; 4%), multiple myeloma (including IgM cases, 0/14), and immunoglobulin G MGUS (0/9) patients as well as healthy donors (0/40; P < 1.5 × 10(-5) for WM vs other cohorts). Real-time AS-PCR identified IgM MGUS patients progressing to WM and showed a high rate of concordance between MYD88 L265P ?CT and BM disease involvement (r = 0.89, P = .008) in WM patients undergoing treatment. These studies identify MYD88 L265P as a widely present mutation in WM and IgM MGUS patients using highly sensitive and specific AS-PCR assays with potential use in diagnostic discrimination and/or response assessment. The finding of this mutation in many IgM MGUS patients suggests that MYD88 L265P may be an early oncogenic event in WM pathogenesis. PMID:23321251
Xu, Lian; Hunter, Zachary R; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Yangsheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xia; Morra, Enrica; Trojani, Alessandra; Greco, Antonino; Arcaini, Luca; Varettoni, Marzia; Varettoni, Maria; Brown, Jennifer R; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C; Munshi, Nikhil C; Patterson, Christopher J; Manning, Robert J; Tripsas, Christina K; Lindeman, Neal I; Treon, Steven P
Epstein-Barr virus positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+ DLBCL) of the elderly is a rare B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (B-LPD) that occurs in patients > 50 years with no known history of immunodeficiency or lymphoma. Patients present with moderate to severe clinical B-symptoms. These lesions show complete effacement of normal tissue/nodal architecture by large atypical lymphoid cells/immunoblasts and Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg-like giant cells with variable amounts of inflammatory cells in the background. The ratio of neoplastic to inflammatory cells, degree of mitoses and necrosis can be quite variable; hence EBV+ DLBCL of the elderly was historically divided into low grade polymorphic and high grade monomorphic types. Further studies have shown both types to be different points in the spectrum of disease, and are all high grade lymphomas. The neoplastic large lymphoid cells show expression of CD20/CD79a and PAX-5, with variable expression of CD30, LMP-1 and EBNA-2, but CD15, CD10 and BCL6 are generally negative. Neoplastic cells show EBER positivity and high Ki-67 expression. Differential diagnoses include EBV+ B-LPD, classical Hodgkin lymphoma and EBV-DLBCL. EBV+ DLBCL of the elderly is highly aggressive with a median survival of 2 years. These patients are less responsive to standard chemotherapy compared with other B-LPD. PMID:19255922
Wong, Hannah H; Wang, Jun
Translational Mini-Review Series on B cell subsets in disease. Transitional B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome: clinical implications and effects of B cell-targeted therapies.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome are autoimmune disorders which are characterized by a disturbed B cell homeostasis which leads ultimately to dysfunction of various organs. One of the B cell subsets that appear in abnormal numbers is the population of transitional B cells, which is increased in the blood of patients with SLE and Sjögren's syndrome. Transitional B cells are newly formed B cells. In mice, transitional B cells undergo selection checks for unwanted specificity in the bone marrow and the spleen in order to eliminate autoreactive B cells from the circulating naive B cell population. In humans, the exact anatomical compartments and mechanisms of the specificity check-points for transitional B cells remain unclear, but appear to be defective in SLE and Sjögren's syndrome. This review aims to highlight the current understanding of transitional B cells and their defects in the two disorders before and after B cell-targeted therapies. PMID:22132879
Vossenkämper, A; Lutalo, P M K; Spencer, J
Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders.
Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafo, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marin, Gustavo H.; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Nunez, Luis; Macor, Paolo
Current B-cell disorder treatments take advantage of dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens and immunotherapy via use of monoclonal antibodies. Unfortunately, they may lead to insufficient tumor distribution of therapeutic agents, and often cause adverse effects on patients. In this contribution, we propose a novel therapeutic approach in which relatively high doses of Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil were loaded into biodegradable nanoparticles coated with an anti-CD20 antibody. We demonstrate their ability to effectively target and internalize in tumor B-cells. Moreover, these nanoparticles were able to kill not only p53 mutated/deleted lymphoma cell lines expressing a low amount of CD20, but also circulating primary cells purified from chronic lymphocitic leukemia patients. Their safety was demonstrated in healthy mice, and their therapeutic effects in a new model of Burkitt's lymphoma. The latter serves as a prototype of an aggressive lympho-proliferative disease. In vitro and in vivo data showed the ability of anti-CD20 nanoparticles loaded with Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil to increase tumor cell killing in comparison to free cytotoxic agents or Rituximab. These results shed light on the potential of anti-CD20 nanoparticles carrying Hydroxychloroquine and Chlorambucil for controlling a disseminated model of aggressive lymphoma, and lend credence to the idea of adopting this therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell disorders. PMID:24098639
Mezzaroba, Nelly; Zorzet, Sonia; Secco, Erika; Biffi, Stefania; Tripodo, Claudio; Calvaruso, Marco; Mendoza-Maldonado, Ramiro; Capolla, Sara; Granzotto, Marilena; Spretz, Ruben; Larsen, Gustavo; Noriega, Sandra; Lucafò, Marianna; Mansilla, Eduardo; Garrovo, Chiara; Marín, Gustavo H; Baj, Gabriele; Gattei, Valter; Pozzato, Gabriele; Núñez, Luis; Macor, Paolo
A murine monoclonal antibody (anti-BL7) was raised by immunization of BALB/c mice with a precursor B-cell line (Josh-7) which detects a heat-stable, nonimmunoprecipitable antigen. The expression of BL7 was investigated in peripheral blood and/or bone marrow leukemic cell suspensions stained by indirect immunofluorescence and analyzed by flow cytometry. Lymphoblasts from 43 of 43 cases of "null" acute lymphoblastic leukemia were BL7-. Five cases of T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 5 cases of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive blastic chronic myelogenous leukemia were also BL7-. All 63 cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia were BL7+. Neoplastic cells in 22 of 28 cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in leukemic phase were also BL7+. Expression of BL7 showed some correlation with Rappaport's histological classification. Four cases of multiple myeloma and plasma cell leukemia were BL7-. Twenty-three cases of acute nonlymphocytic leukemias were also analyzed. Of these, only the acute promyelocytic (M3,4 cases) and acute myelomonocytic (M4, one case) varieties expressed BL7 on a small proportion (approximately 15%) of the leukemic cells. All other subgroups were BL7-. The reactivity of anti-BL7 was compared to other B-cell antibodies on selected samples and was shown to be different from B1, B2, and the BA antibodies. Anti-BL7 is a unique monoclonal antibody useful in the study of B-cell cancers. PMID:3924396
Al-Katib, A; Wang, C Y; Koziner, B
Although the precise pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remains unclear, many cell populations, including monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and B cells, participate in the inflammatory process. Ongoing research continues to evaluate the critical roles played by B cells in sustaining the chronic inflammatory process of RA. These findings have contributed to the development of targeted therapies that deplete B cells, such as rituximab, as well as inhibitors of B lymphocyte stimulation, such as belimumab. In a phase I trial, belimumab treatment significantly reduced CD20+ levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Phase I and phase II trials of rituximab found that rituximab plus methotrexate achieved significantly better American College of Rheumatology 50% responses for patients with RA than those patients receiving monotherapy with methotrexate. These clinical trial data present promising evidence for B cell targeted therapies as future therapeutic options for RA.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an increasingly recognized condition as the number of solid organ and bone marrow transplant recipients increases. It can be a life threatening fulminant disorder and affects approximately 8% of solid organ transplant recipients. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is closely involved in the pathogenesis of PTLD and the majority of PTLD cases arise in response to primary infection with EBV or to re-activation of previously acquired EBV. The principal risk factors underlying the development of PTLD are the degree of overall immunosuppression and EBV serostatus of the recipient. The most commonly used pathologic classification of PTLD is the World Health Organization classification, which divides PTLD into three categories: early lesions, polymorphic PTLD, and monomorphic PTLD. Early lesions are characterized by reactive plasmacytic hyperplasia. Polymorphic PTLD may be either polyclonal or monoclonal and is characterized by destruction of the underlying lymphoid architecture, necrosis, and nuclear atypia. In monomorphic PTLD, the majority of cases (>80%) arise from B cells, similar to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in immunocompetent hosts. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but Burkitt's/Burkitt's-like lymphoma and plasma cell myeloma are also seen. Rarely T-cell variants occur, which include peripheral T-cell lymphomas and, rarely, other uncommon types, including gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma and T-natural killer (NK) cell varieties. Hodgkin's disease-like lymphoma is very unusual. An accurate diagnosis of PTLD requires a high index of suspicion, since the disorder may present subtly and/or extranodally. Radiologic evidence of a mass or the presence of elevated serum markers (such as increased LDH levels) are suggestive of PTLD, with positive finding on ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and/or positron emission tomography scanning (possibly indicating metabolically active areas) also favoring the diagnosis. The management of PTLD poses a major therapeutic challenge and although there is reasonable agreement about the overall principles of treatment, there is still considerable controversy about the optimal treatment of individual patients. EBV-related PTLDs are a significant cause of mortality in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation with the observed mortality rate of up to 50%. This paper presents the experience acquired at Merkur University Hospital in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with liver transplantation and PTLD. PMID:23126028
Filipec-Kanizaj, Tajana; Budimir, Jelena; Coli?-Cvrlje, Vesna; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Susterci?, Dunja; Naumovski-Mihali?, Slavica; Mrzljak, Anna; Koloni?, Slobodanka Ostoji?; Sobocan, Nikola; Bradi?, Tihomir; Doli?, Zrinka Miseti?; Kocman, Branislav; Katici?, Miroslava; Zidovec-Lepej, Snjezana; Vince, Adriana
Immunoglobulin genotyping of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV)-positive posttransplan- tation lymphoproliferative disease has suggested that such lesions often arise from atypical post-germinal center B cells, in some cases carrying functionally inactivated immunoglobulin genes. To in- vestigate whether EBV can rescue cells that are failed products of the somatic hypermutation process occurring in ger- minal centers (GCs), we isolated GC cells from
Sridhar Chaganti; Andrew I. Bell; Noelia Begue Pastor; Anne E. Milner; Mark Drayson; John Gordon; Alan B. Rickinson
The clinical, light microscopic, ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and cytogenetic features of a case of monocytoid B cell lymphoma were investigated. The tumour initially affected the cervical and supraclavicular nodes, but 33 months later affected the left parotid salivary gland. The patient had subclinical Sjögren's syndrome. The neoplastic cells showed characteristic morphological features and had peri- and interfollicular distribution in the node. Immunocytochemically the tumour cells were L26, 4KB5, MB2, CD19, CD20, CD22 and IgM/kappa positive. Prominent plasmablastic plasmacytoid differentiation was present in the recurrent tumour, suggesting an origin from post-follicular B cells. The lymphoma cells showed unusual cytogenetic abnormalities. Images
Banerjee, S S; Harris, M; Eyden, B P; Radford, J A; Harrison, C J; Mainwaring, A R
A 77-year-old man with a 5-year history of mycosis fungoides (MF) who had received several lines of therapy, including intravenous courses of Methotrexate (MTX) for the past 2 years, went on to develop several ulcerated cutaneous nodules on the left leg. Biopsy revealed diffuse sheets of EBV-positive large B cells (CD20+ CD30 ± IgM Lambda), with an angiocentric distribution and a monoclonal IGH gene rearrangement. Although the pathological features were diagnostic for an EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), several possibilities could be considered for assignment to a specific entity: EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly, methotrexate-induced lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD), lymphomatoid granulomatosis, or the more recently described EBV-positive mucocutaneous ulcer. The development of EBV+ lymphoproliferations has been reported in two other patients with MF under MTX, and occurred as skin lesions of the leg in one of these and in the current case, which may question the relatedness to primary cutaneous DLCBL, leg-type. PMID:23031074
Rausch, Thierry; Cairoli, Anne; Benhattar, Jean; Spring, Philipp; Hohl, Daniel; de Leval, Laurence
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). We have characterized the role of KSHV-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) K13 in the modulation of anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells. We demonstrate that K13 protects WEHI 231, an immature B-cell line, against anti-IgM-induced growth arrest and apoptosis. The protective effect of K13 was associated with the activation of the NF-?B pathway and was deficient in a mutant K13 with three alanine substitutions at positions 58 to 60 (K13-58AAA) and a structural homolog, vFLIP E8, both of which lack NF-?B activity. K13 upregulated the expression of NF-?B subunit RelB and blocked the anti-IgM-induced decline in c-Myc and rise in p27Kip1 that have been associated with growth arrest and apoptosis. K13 also upregulated the expression of Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl2 family. Finally, K13 protected the mature B-cell line Ramos against anti-IgM-induced apoptosis through NF-?B activation. Inhibition of anti-IgM-induced apoptosis by K13 may contribute to the development of KSHV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.
Graham, Ciaren; Matta, Hittu; Yang, Yanqiang; Yi, Han; Suo, Yulan; Tolani, Bhairavi
Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. PMID:23806511
Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox
Germline mutation of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) gene at the phospholipase C-?1 (PLC-?1)-binding site leads to a fatal lymphoproliferative disease in mice. The hyperactivated T cells that develop in these mice have defective T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced calcium flux but enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. We used genetic analysis to investigate genes whose products might suppress MAPK activation and lymphoproliferative disease in LAT mutant mice. B-lymphocyte adaptor molecule of 32 kDa (Bam32) is a known mediator of MAPK activation in B cells. We recently reported that in CD4+ T cells, Bam32 deficiency decreased MAPK activation and specifically extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling, following TCR stimulation. By crossing the Bam32 null mutation onto the LAT knock-in background, we found that the Bam32 null mutation delayed the onset and decreased the severity of lymphoproliferative disease in LAT knock-in mice. The pulmonary lymphocyte infiltration seen in LAT knock-in mice was also markedly decreased in double-mutant mice. Additionally, Erk activation was diminished in LAT knock-in Bam32 knockout CD4+ T cells. To more accurately determine the role of Erk in this delay of lymphoproliferative disease, we also bred a transgenic, hypersensitive Erk allele (the Erk2 sevenmaker mutant) onto the LAT knock-in Bam32 knockout double-mutant background. These triple transgenic mice demonstrated a role for Erk activation in lymphoproliferative disease caused by the LAT knock-in mutation.
Miyaji, Michihiko; Kortum, Robert L.; Surana, Rishi; Li, Wenmei; Woolard, Kevin D.; Simpson, R. Mark; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Sommers, Connie L.
Germline mutation of the linker for activation of T cells (LAT) gene at the phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1)-binding site leads to a fatal lymphoproliferative disease in mice. The hyperactivated T cells that develop in these mice have defective T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-induced calcium flux but enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. We used genetic analysis to investigate genes whose products might suppress MAPK activation and lymphoproliferative disease in LAT mutant mice. B-lymphocyte adaptor molecule of 32 kDa (Bam32) is a known mediator of MAPK activation in B cells. We recently reported that in CD4(+) T cells, Bam32 deficiency decreased MAPK activation and specifically extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling, following TCR stimulation. By crossing the Bam32 null mutation onto the LAT knock-in background, we found that the Bam32 null mutation delayed the onset and decreased the severity of lymphoproliferative disease in LAT knock-in mice. The pulmonary lymphocyte infiltration seen in LAT knock-in mice was also markedly decreased in double-mutant mice. Additionally, Erk activation was diminished in LAT knock-in Bam32 knockout CD4(+) T cells. To more accurately determine the role of Erk in this delay of lymphoproliferative disease, we also bred a transgenic, hypersensitive Erk allele (the Erk2 sevenmaker mutant) onto the LAT knock-in Bam32 knockout double-mutant background. These triple transgenic mice demonstrated a role for Erk activation in lymphoproliferative disease caused by the LAT knock-in mutation. PMID:19667175
Miyaji, Michihiko; Kortum, Robert L; Surana, Rishi; Li, Wenmei; Woolard, Kevin D; Simpson, R Mark; Samelson, Lawrence E; Sommers, Connie L
Nineteen consecutive patients with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in an Asian population were reviewed. The histopathologic diagnoses were monomorphic (CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, n = 14); plasmacytic (n = 1); Burkitt-like (n = 1); natural killer cell lymphoma (n = 1); lymphomatoid papulosis (n = 1); and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). Early-onset ( Chan, Thomas S Y; Hwang, Yu-Yan; Gill, Harinder; Au, Wing-Yan; Leung, Anskar Y H; Tse, Eric; Chim, Chor-Sang; Loong, Florence; Kwong, Yok-Lam 2012-02-10
Chan, Thomas S Y; Hwang, Yu-Yan; Gill, Harinder; Au, Wing-Yan; Leung, Anskar Y H; Tse, Eric; Chim, Chor-Sang; Loong, Florence; Kwong, Yok-Lam
B cell receptor (BCR)-mediated antigen recognition is thought to regulate B cell differentiation. BCR signal strength may also influence B cell fate decisions. Here, we used the Epstein-Barr virus protein LMP2A as a constitutively active BCR surrogate to study the contribution of BCR signal strength in B cell differentiation. Mice carrying a targeted replacement of Igh by LMP2A leading to
Kevin L Otipoby; Marat Alimzhanov; Sibille Humme; Nathalie Uyttersprot; Jeffery L Kutok; Michael C Carroll; Stefano Casola; Klaus Rajewsky
We have recently described a new form of light chain deposition disease (LCDD) presenting as a severe cystic lung disorder requiring lung transplantation. There was no bone marrow plasma cell proliferation. Because of the absence of disease recurrence after bilateral lung transplantation and of serum free light chain ratio normalization after the procedure, we hypothesized that monoclonal light chain synthesis occurred within the lung. The aim of this study was to look for the monoclonal B-cell component in three patients with cystic lung LCDD. Histological examination of the explanted lungs showed diffuse non-amyloid ? light chain deposits associated with a mild lymphoid infiltrate composed of aggregates of small CD20+, CD5?, CD10? B lymphocytes reminiscent of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. Using PCR, we identified a dominant B-cell clone in the lung in the three studied patients. The clonal expansion of each patient shared a unmutated antigen receptor variable region sequence characterized by the use of IGHV4-34 and IGKV1 subgroups with heavy and light chain CDR3 sequences of more than 80% amino acid identity, a feature evocative of an antigen-driven process. Combined with clinical and biological data, our results strongly argue for a new antigen-driven primary pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorder.
Colombat, Magali; Mal, Herve; Diebold, Jacques; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Damotte, Diane; Callard, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Farcet, Jean-Pierre; Stern, Marc; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a hematologic condition wherein small B-cell clones can be detected in the blood of asymptomatic individuals. Most MBL have an immunophenotype similar to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 'CLL-like' MBL is a precursor to CLL. We used flow cytometry to identify MBL from unaffected members of CLL kindreds. We identified 101 MBL cases from 622 study subjects; of these, 82 individuals with MBL were further characterized. In all, 91 unique MBL clones were detected: 73 CLL-like MBL (CD5(+)CD20(dim)sIg(dim)), 11 atypical MBL (CD5(+)CD20(+)sIg(+)) and 7 CD5(neg) MBL (CD5(neg)CD20(+)sIg(neg)). Extended immunophenotypic characterization of these MBL subtypes was performed, and significant differences in cell surface expression of CD23, CD49d, CD79b and FMC-7 were observed among the groups. Markers of risk in CLL such as CD38, ZAP70 and CD49d were infrequently expressed in CLL-like MBL, but were expressed in the majority of atypical MBL. Interphase cytogenetics was performed in 35 MBL cases, and del 13q14 was most common (22/30 CLL-like MBL cases). Gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays was performed on seven CLL-like MBL, and showed activation of B-cell receptor associated pathways. Our findings underscore the diversity of MBL subtypes and further clarify the relationship between MBL and other lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:21617698
Lanasa, M C; Allgood, S D; Slager, S L; Dave, S S; Love, C; Marti, G E; Kay, N E; Hanson, C A; Rabe, K G; Achenbach, S J; Goldin, L R; Camp, N J; Goodman, B K; Vachon, C M; Spector, L G; Rassenti, L Z; Leis, J F; Gockerman, J P; Strom, S S; Call, T G; Glenn, M; Cerhan, J R; Levesque, M C; Weinberg, J B; Caporaso, N E
It is paradoxical that immunodeficiency disorders are associated with autoimmunity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, a cause of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is a case in point. In this issue of the JCI, Sauer and colleagues investigate the B cell defects in ADA-deficient patients. They demonstrate that ADA patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy had B cell tolerance checkpoint defects. Remarkably, gene therapy with a retrovirus that expresses ADA resulted in the apparent correction of these defects, with normalization of peripheral B cell autoantibody frequencies. In vitro, agents that either block ADA or overexpress adenosine resulted in altered B cell receptor and TLR signaling. Collectively, these data implicate a B cell-intrinsic mechanism for alterations in B cell tolerance in the setting of partial ADA deficiency that is corrected by gene therapy. PMID:22622034
Luning Prak, Eline T
Within the B-cell follicle of secondary lymphoid organs, germinal center (GC) reactions produce high affinity antibody-secreting plasma cells (PCs) and memory B-cells necessary for the host's defense against invading pathogens. This process of GC formation is reliant on the activation of antigen-specific B-cells by T-cells capable of recognizing epitopes of the same antigenic complex. The unique architecture of secondary lymphoid organs facilitates these initial GC events through the placement of large clonally-diverse B-cell follicles near equally diverse T-cell zones. Antigen-activated B-cells that receive proper differentiation signals at the T-cell border of the B-cell follicle initiate an early GC B-cell transcriptional profile and migrate to follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks within the B-cell follicle to seed the GC reaction. Peripheral to FDCs, GC B-cells rapidly divide in dark zones of the GC, and undergo somatic hypermutation of their immunoglobulin (Ig) variable domain. Newly formed GC B-cell clones then migrate into the GC light zone where they compete for antigen and secondary signals presented by FDCs and a specialized subset of CD4(+) T-cells known as T-follicular helper (T(FH)) cells. Survival, proliferative and differentiation signals delivered by mature FDCs and T(FH) cells initiate transcriptional programs that determine if GC B-cells become memory B-cells or terminally differentiated PCs. To prevent oncogenic transformation and/or the escape of autoreactive clones, there are several regulatory mechanisms that restrict GC B-cell proliferation and survival. Here we will detail the recent advances in GC B-cell biology that relate to their generation and fate-determination as well as their pathogenic potential. PMID:22390182
Hamel, Keith M; Liarski, Vladimir M; Clark, Marcus R
A series of cases of gastric lymphoproliferative disease exhibiting the features of pseudolymphoma, frank lymphoma, or both was investigated immunohistochemically and genotypically for evidence of B cell clonality. Immunoperoxidase studies on frozen and paraffin sections showed that all cases clearly exhibited immunoglobulin light chain restriction (eight cases kappa, six cases lambda). Southern blotting using JH, Ck, and Cl probes to detect clonally rearranged gene fragments confirmed monoclonality in each case, and the immunohistochemical and genotypic data were in agreement in all cases except one (1 light chain restriction/k gene rearrangement). The study confirmed that light chain restriction in gastric lymphoid infiltrates is synonymous with monoclonality ant there is a histologic continuum between low grade B cell gastric lymphoma with features of pseudolymphoma and high grade B cell lymphoma. The authors believe that histologic and immunohistochemical features such as light chain restriction clearly discriminate reactive and neoplastic gastric lymphoid infiltration. Therefore, light chain-restricted lymphoid proliferation, previously termed pseudolymphoma is, in fact, an early stage of frank lymphoma, which obviates the need to use the term pseudolymphoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 p561-a Figure 3 p563-a
Spencer, J.; Diss, T. C.; Isaacson, P. G.
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) arise in the immunosuppressed and are frequently Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated. The most common PTLD histological sub-type is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV+DLBCL-PTLD). Restoration of EBV-specific T-cell immunity can induce EBV+DLBCL-PTLD regression. The most frequent B-cell lymphoma in the immunocompetent is also DLBCL. ‘EBV-positive DLBCL of the elderly’ (EBV+DLBCL) is a rare but well-recognized DLBCL entity that occurs in the overtly immunocompetent, that has an adverse outcome relative to EBV-negative DLBCL. Unlike PTLD (which is classified as viral latency III), literature suggests EBV+DLBCL is typically latency II, i.e. expression is limited to the immuno-subdominant EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2 EBV-proteins. If correct, this would be a major impediment for T-cell immunotherapeutic strategies. Unexpectedly we observed EBV+DLBCL-PTLD and EBV+DLBCL both shared features consistent with type III EBV-latency, including expression of the immuno-dominant EBNA3A protein. Extensive analysis showed frequent polymorphisms in EB-NA1 and LMP1 functionally defined CD8+ T-cell epitope encoding regions, whereas EBNA3A polymorphisms were very rare making this an attractive immunotherapy target. As with EBV+DLBCL-PTLD, the antigen presenting machinery within lymphomatous nodes was intact. EBV+DLBCL express EBNA3A suggesting it is amenable to immunotherapeutic strategies.
Nguyen-Van, Do; Keane, Colm; Han, Erica; Jones, Kimberley; Nourse, Jamie P; Vari, Frank; Ross, Nathan; Crooks, Pauline; Ramuz, Olivier; Green, Michael; Griffith, Lyn; Trappe, Ralf; Grigg, Andrew; Mollee, Peter; Gandhi, Maher K
ObjectiveLymphoproliferative lesions of the ocular adnexa were analyzed to examine (1) the suitability of the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification for the subtyping of the lymphomas in these sites; (2) the predictive value of the REAL classification for the evolution of these tumors; and (3) the frequency and prognostic impact of tumor type, location, proliferation rate (Ki-67 index), p53, and
Sarah E Coupland; Lothar Krause; Henri-Jacques Delecluse; Ioannis Anagnostopoulos; Hans-Dieter Foss; Michael Hummel; Norbert Bornfeld; William R Lee; Harald Stein
Recent advances in genomics and proteomics, combined with the facilitated generation and analysis of transgenic and gene-knockout animals, have revealed new complexities in classical biological systems, including the B-cell compartment. Studies on an 'old', but poorly characterized, B-cell subset--the naive, marginal-zone (MZ) B-cell subset--over the past two years have spawned an avalanche of data that encompass the generation and function of these cells. Now that the initial 'infatuation' is over, it is time to reconsider these data and generate some conclusions that can be incorporated into a working model of the B-cell system. PMID:12033738
Martin, Flavius; Kearney, John F
IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. The development/survival of IL-17-producing CD4 T cells (Th17) share critical cues with B-cell differentiation and the circulating follicular T helper subset was recently shown to be enriched in Th17 cells able to help B-cell differentiation. We investigated a putative link between Th17-cell homeostasis and B cells by studying the Th17-cell compartment in primary B-cell immunodeficiencies. Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorders (CVID), defined by defects in B-cell differentiation into plasma and memory B cells, are frequently associated with autoimmune and inflammatory manifestations but we found no relationship between these and Th17-cell frequency. In fact, CVID patients showed a decrease in Th17-cell frequency in parallel with the expansion of activated non-differentiated B cells (CD21lowCD38low). Moreover, Congenital Agammaglobulinemia patients, lacking B cells due to impaired early B-cell development, had a severe reduction of circulating Th17 cells. Finally, we found a direct correlation in healthy individuals between circulating Th17-cell frequency and both switched-memory B cells and serum BAFF levels, a crucial cytokine for B-cell survival. Overall, our data support a relationship between Th17-cell homeostasis and B-cell maturation, with implications for the understanding of the pathogenesis of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and the physiology of B-cell depleting therapies.
Barbosa, Rita R.; Silva, Sara P.; Silva, Susana L.; Melo, Alcinda Campos; Pedro, Elisa; Barbosa, Manuel P.; Pereira-Santos, M. Conceicao; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Sousa, Ana E.
Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCLs) are made up of a heterogenous group of B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases confined to the skin at the time of diagnosis with no evidence of extracutaneous involvement. With early diagnosis and adequate treatment, PCBCLs as a group has excellent prognosis, with about a 95% survival rate at five years. We report a case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a 52-year-old woman presenting as a fungating skin ulcer mimicking advanced basal cell carcinoma. Review of available literature showed most studies of PCBCLs being done on Europeans with no universally acceptable system of classification. Clinical findings, diagnostic evaluations and treatment outcomes of PCBCLs are discussed with emphasis on comparison of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Neoplasms of the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue classification systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Mai, Le; Matin, Abu; Maini, Archana
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) comprise a wide spectrum of hematologic malignancies that are found increasingly in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) patients given the rising frequency of these surgeries and their long-term success. PTLDs are highly correlated with both the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and the degree of immunosuppression involved. Herein is reported a case of a 53-year-old male with successfully treated hepatitis C virus genotype 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent OLT and developed symptoms of weakness and poor appetite 4 years later while on tacrolimus 3?mg b.i.d. with historically very low plasma levels. He was found to be anemic and colonoscopy revealed a 4.5?cm cecal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Further workup revealed mesenteric lymph node enlargement consistent and nodal DLBCL dissemination. He was treated with cyclophosphamide-hydroxyldaunorubicin-oncovin-prednisone-rituximab (CHOP-R) chemotherapy and his tacrolimus dose was lowered. Additionally, he manifested PTLD-associated cryoglobulinemia leading to acute kidney injury. After a prolonged hospitalization he was discharged with close followup. PMID:23259146
Moore, Christopher M; Lamzabi, Ihab; Bartels, Anne K; Jakate, Shriram; Van Thiel, David H
Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBL) is occasionally associated with prominent plasma cell differentiation. However, MZBL rarely exhibits histological features that resemble plasmacytoma arising from a localized plasma cell variant of Castleman's disease (PCCD). We here report a histologically similar case that was associated with primary cutaneous tumor. The patient was a 57-year-old woman with a 5-year history of cutaneous nodules. Histologically, a prominent proliferation of plasma cells occupied the interfollicular area of the central portion of the cutaneous tumor, whereas various numbers of CD5+ centrocyte-like (CCL) cells, which were arranged in a marginal zone distribution pattern, occupied the peripheral region of the tumor. The majority of the lymphoid follicles had atrophic or regressive germinal centers resembling hyaline-vascular Castleman's disease. CCL cells were observed to have colonized a few of the lymphoid follicles. Immunohistochemistry revealed that these cells had a monotypic intracytoplasmic kappa chain. Without treatment, the patient was quiescent, but 2 years later, there was a transformation to the large cell type. These observations suggest that MZBL needs to be distinguished from PCCD, and that untreated cutaneous MZBL may undergo a high-grade blastic transformation similar to other indolent lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:18184415
Tsukamoto, Norifumi; Kojima, Masaru; Uchiyama, Toshimasa; Takeuchi, Tokio; Karasawa, Masamitsu; Murakami, Hirokazu; Sato, Sadao
Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease.
Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.
B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is essential for normal B-cell development, selection, survival, proliferation, and differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. Similarly, this pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple B-cell malignancies. Genetic and pharmacological approaches have established an important role for the Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase isoform p110delta (PI3K?) in coupling the BCR and other BCRs to B-cell survival, migration, and activation. In the past few years, several small-molecule inhibitory drugs that target PI3K?, Btk, and Syk have been developed and shown to have efficacy in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of B-cell malignancies. Emerging preclinical data have also shown a critical role of BCR signaling in the activation and function of self-reactive B cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases. Because BCR signaling plays a major role in both B-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation and B-cell malignancies, inhibition of this pathway may represent a promising new strategy for treating these diseases. This review summarizes recent achievements in the mechanism of action, pharmacological properties, and clinical activity and toxicity of these BCR signaling inhibitors, with a focus on their emerging role in treating lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune disorders. PMID:23886342
Puri, Kamal D; Di Paolo, Julie A; Gold, Michael R
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that function as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a B-cell-tropic virus associated with KS and B-cell lymphomas, encodes 12 miRNA genes that are highly expressed in these tumor cells. One viral miRNA, miR-K12-11, shares 100% seed sequence homology with hsa-miR-155, an oncogenic human miRNA that functions as a key regulator of hematopoiesis and B-cell differentiation. So far, in vitro studies have shown that both miRNAs can regulate a common set of cellular target genes, suggesting that miR-K12-11 may mimic miR-155 function. To comparatively study miR-K12-11 and miR-155 function in vivo, we used a foamy virus vector to express the miRNAs in human hematopoietic progenitors and performed immune reconstitutions in NOD/LtSz-scid IL2R?null mice. We found that ectopic expression of miR-K12-11 or miR-155 leads to a significant expansion of the CD19+ B-cell population in the spleen. Subsequent quantitative PCR analyses of these splenic B cells revealed that C/EBP?, a transcriptional regulator of interleukin-6 that is linked to B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, is downregulated when either miR-K12-11 or miR-155 is ectopically expressed. In addition, inhibition of miR-K12-11 function using antagomirs in KSHV-infected human primary effusion lymphoma B cells resulted in derepression of C/EBP? transcript levels. This in vivo study validates miR-K12-11 as a functional ortholog of miR-155 in the context of hematopoiesis and suggests a novel mechanism by which KSHV miR-K12-11 induces splenic B-cell expansion and potentially KSHV-associated lymphomagenesis by targeting C/EBP?.
Boss, Isaac W.; Nadeau, Peter E.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Yang, Yajie; Mergia, Ayalew; Renne, Rolf
Successful treatment of a classic Hodgkin lymphoma-type post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder with tailored chemotherapy and Epstein-Barr virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.
CHL type is the least common major form of EBV-related PTLD but rarely occurs in pediatric recipients; development of CHL subsequent to other PTLD subtypes in the same transplant recipient is even more unusual. Because of its rarity, indications on the best treatment strategy are limited. Patients have been mostly treated with standard HL chemotherapy/radiotherapy, and prognosis seems more favorable than other monomorphic PTLDs. Herein, we describe a pediatric case of EBV-associated, stage IV-B, CHL arising in a heart allograft recipient eight yr after diagnosis of B-cell polymorphic PTLD. The patient was successfully treated with adjusted-dose HL chemotherapy and autologous EBV-specific CTL, without discontinuation of maintenance immunosuppression. At two yr from therapy completion, the patient is in CR with stable organ function. With this strategy, it may be possible to reproduce the good prognostic data reported for CHL-type PTLD, with decreased risk of organ toxicity or rejection. PMID:23992468
Basso, Sabrina; Zecca, Marco; Calafiore, Lucia; Rubert, Laura; Fiocchi, Roberto; Paulli, Marco; Quartuccio, Giuseppe; Guido, Ilaria; Sebastiani, Roberta; Croci, Giorgio Alberto; Beschi, Claudia; Nardiello, Ida; Ginevri, Fabrizio; Cugno, Chiara; Comoli, Patrizia
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of plasma cell monotypia in labial salivary gland tissue of patients with and without Sjögren's syndrome, and to evaluate its relation to the development of systemic monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS: A quantitative immunohistological study was performed on labial salivary gland tissue of 45 patients with Sjögren's syndrome, 18 with rheumatoid arthritis without Sjögren's syndrome, and 80 healthy controls. In none of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome was there evidence of systemic monoclonal lymphoproliferative disease at the time of biopsy. RESULTS: Monotypic plasma cell populations, defined by a kappa:lambda ratio of > or = 3, were only observed in older patients (above 43 years) with Sjögren's syndrome. In almost all these patients monotypic plasma cell populations were present in multiple labial salivary gland tissues and the IgM/kappa monotypia was observed most frequently. The prevalence of monotypic plasma cell populations in the group with Sjögren's syndrome was 22% (10/45) and there was no significant predilection for primary Sjögren's syndrome. Of special clinical interest was the observation that progression to systemic monoclonal lymphoproliferative disease had occurred exclusively in this subgroup of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, with a prevalence of 30% (3/10). CONCLUSION: Quantitative immunohistological examination of labial salivary gland tissues provides pathologists with a simple method to select those patients with Sjögren's syndrome who have an increased relative risk at the time of biopsy to develop benign or malignant lymphoproliferative disorders.
Bodeutsch, C; de Wilde, P C; Kater, L; van den Hoogen, F H; Hene, R J; van Houwelingen, J C; van de Putte, L B; Vooijs, G P
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to have a causative role in B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, including B-cell lymphomas, in chronic virus carriers. Previous data from in vitro HCV-infected B-cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HCV-positive individuals suggested that HCV might have a direct mutagenic effect on B cells, inducing mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and the proto-oncogenes BCL6 and CTNNB1 (?-catenin). To clarify whether HCV indeed has a mutagenic effect on B cells in vivo, we analyzed naive and memory B cells from the peripheral blood of four chronic HCV carriers and intrahepatic B cells from the livers of two HCV-positive patients for mutations in the three reported target genes. However, no mutations were found in the TP53 and CTNNB1 genes. For BCL6, which is a physiological target of the somatic hypermutation process in germinal-center B cells, the mutation levels identified were not higher than those reported in the respective B-cell subsets in healthy individuals. Hence, we conclude that in chronic HCV carriers, the virus does not generally induce mutations in the cancer-related genes TP53, CTNNB1, and BCL6 in B cells. Based on these findings, new targets have to be investigated as potential mediators of HCV-associated B-cell lymphomagenesis.
Tucci, Felicia Anna; Broering, Ruth; Johansson, Patricia; Schlaak, Joerg F.
Most Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive tumor cells contain one of the latent forms of viral infection. The role of lytic viral gene expression in EBV-associated malignancies is unknown. Here we show that EBV mutants that cannot undergo lytic viral replication are defective in promoting EBV-mediated lymphoproliferative disease (LPD). Early-passage lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from EBV mutants with a deletion of either viral immediate-early gene grew similarly to wild-type (WT) virus LCLs in vitro but were deficient in producing LPD when inoculated into SCID mice. Restoration of lytic EBV gene expression enhanced growth in SCID mice. Acyclovir, which prevents lytic viral replication but not expression of early lytic viral genes, did not inhibit the growth of WT LCLs in SCID mice. Early-passage LCLs derived from the lytic-defective viruses had substantially decreased expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and restoration of lytic gene expression reversed this defect. Expression of cellular IL-10 and viral IL-10 was also diminished in lytic-defective LCLs. These results suggest that lytic EBV gene expression contributes to EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease, potentially through induction of paracrine B-cell growth factors.
Hong, Gregory K.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Feng, Wen-Hai; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Holley-Guthrie, Elizabeth; Kenney, Shannon C.
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a low-grade lymphoproliferative disease. Cutaneous involvement of B-CLL is limited and, in most cases, it represents non-specific manifestations related to an impaired immune system. Leukemic skin infiltrates (leukemia cutis) occur in 4-20% of patients. Herein we report the case of a 65-year-old woman with B-CLL presenting with papular, nodular, and plaque skin infiltrates affecting the nose, mimicking granulomatous rosacea. We discuss several aspects of rare cutaneous manifestations of B-CLL involving the face. PMID:24139374
Di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Trevisan, Giusto
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a low-grade lymphoproliferative disease. Cutaneous involvement of B-CLL is limited and, in most cases, it represents non-specific manifestations related to an impaired immune system. Leukemic skin infiltrates (leukemia cutis) occur in 4-20% of patients. Herein we report the case of a 65-year-old woman with B-CLL presenting with papular, nodular, and plaque skin infiltrates affecting the nose, mimicking granulomatous rosacea. We discuss several aspects of rare cutaneous manifestations of B-CLL involving the face. PMID:24139373
Di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Trevisan, Giusto
Evidence has been growing that the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disease involves immune processes deregulation. It is believed that antigens or immunological elements can trigger transformation of normal lymphocyte polyclonal population into monoclonal neoplastic disorder--lymphoproliferative disease. Extensive studies point to the link between malignant lymphoma development and autoimmune or inflammatory diseases--namely rheumatoid arthritis, Sjörgen's syndrome, coeliac disease, systemic lupus erythematosus or thyroiditis. Increased risk of lymphoproliferative disease development was also proved for some infections. These infections involve both viral (e.g. Epstein-Barr virus, HIV or hepatitis C virus) and bacterial agents (e.g. Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi). Besides various lymphomas, the links to autoimmune/inflammatory diseases have also been described in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Regarding clinical medicine, it is necessary to distinguish patients with autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases who are at the increased risk of tumour development. New approaches must be found to lower this risk. Also, the relationship between autoimmune/inflammatory disease therapy and lymphoma development should be clarified. Although lymphomas associated with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases represent only a small proportion of all lymphomas, any new findings regarding these diseases can cast light on lymphoma pathogenesis as a whole. PMID:21560455
Tvar?zková, Zuzana; Pavlová, Sárka; Doubek, Michael; Mayer, Jirí; Pospísilová, Sárka
Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare and fatal disorder. It may often mimic other common cardiac tumors like cardiac myxoma because of similarities in the clinical presentation. We report a case of PCL of diffuse large B-cell type, in a 38-year-old, immunocompetent male who presented with superior vena cava syndrome that was excised as a myxoma. Histology revealed a large cell population diffusely and strongly expressing CD45, CD20, MUM1/IRF4 and FOXP1 hinting at an activated B-cell (ABC)-like phenotype. After four cycles of Rituximab with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and prednisolone) the tumor regressed completely but the patient had a relapse and subsequently succumbed to the disease confirming the aggressive nature. The aggressive behavior of PCL may be possibly linked to its ABC-like origin. PMID:21934230
Gadage, Vijaya; Kembhavi, Seema; Kumar, Prabhash; Shet, Tanuja
X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP1), described in the mid-1970s and molecularly defined in 1998, and XLP2, reported in 2006, are prematurely lethal genetic immunodeficiencies that share susceptibility to overwhelming inflammatory responses to certain infectious triggers. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP; encoded by SH2D1A) is mutated in XLP1, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP; encoded by BIRC4) is mutated in XLP2. XLP1 is a disease with multiple and variable clinical consequences, including fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) triggered predominantly by Epstein-Barr virus, lymphomas, antibody deficiency, and rarer consequences of immune dysregulation. To date, XLP2 has been found to cause HLH with and without exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, and HLH is commonly recurrent in these patients. For both forms of XLP, the only curative therapy at present is allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Beyond their common X-linked locus and their requirement for normal immune responses to certain viral infections, SAP and XIAP demonstrate no obvious structural or functional similarity, are not coordinately regulated with respect to their expression, and do not appear to directly interact. In this review, we describe the genetic, clinical, and immunopathologic features of these 2 disorders and discuss current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
Zhang, Kejian; Snow, Andrew L.; Marsh, Rebecca A.
Galectines are a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins with an affinity for beta-galactosides. Galectines is differentially expressed by various normal and pathological tissues and appears to be functionally polyvalent, with a wide range of biological activity. The intracellular and extracellular activity of galectines has been described. Evidence points to galectin and its ligands as one of the master regulators of such immune responses as T-cell homeostasis and survival, T-cell immune disorders, inflammation and allergies as well as host-pathogen interactions. Galectines expression or overexpression in tumors and/or the tissue surrounding them must be considered as a sign of the malignant tumor progression that is often related to the long-range dissemination of tumoral cells (metastasis), to their dissemination into the surrounding normal tissue, and to tumor immune-escape. Elevated levels of galectines have been found to be significantly associated with higher risk progressing of the lymphoproliferative disease. The targeted inhibition of Galectines expression is what should be developed for therapeutic applications against cancer progression. Galectines are the promising molecular target for the development of new and original diagnostic and therapeutic tools. PMID:23356132
Sivkovych, S O; Kysel'ova, O A; Mel'nyk, U I; Zubryts'ka, T B; Serbin, I M
B cells are critical to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is substantial evidence of the efficacy of depletion\\u000a of B cells in many patients with RA using the first licensed agent, rituximab. Recent research has focused on enhancing efficacy\\u000a using other targets to inhibit B cell function, including other B cell-depleting antibodies and cytokines critical to B cell
Edward M. Vital; Shouvik Dass; Paul Emery
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by specific pathological features. A hallmark of pSS is B-cell hyperactivity as manifested by the production of autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, formation of ectopic lymphoid structures within the inflamed tissues, and enhanced risk of B-cell lymphoma. Changes in the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets and differences in post-recombination processes of immunoglobulin variable region
Arne Hansen; Peter E Lipsky; Thomas Dörner
BackgroundB cell depletion immunotherapy has been successfully employed to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In recent years, increasing attention has been directed towards also using B-cell depletion therapy as a treatment option in autoimmune disorders. However, it appears that the further development of these approaches will depend on a methodology to determine the relation of B-cell depletion to clinical response and how
Daniel L. J. Thorek; Patricia Y. Tsao; Vaishali Arora; Lanlan Zhou; Robert A. Eisenberg; Andrew Tsourkas; Derya Unutmaz
Celiac disease (CD) is associated with both lymphoproliferative malignancy (LPM) and increased death from LPM. Research suggests that co-existing autoimmune disease may influence survival in LPM. Through Cox regression we examined overall and cause-specific mortality in 316 individuals with CD+LPM versus 689 individuals with LPM only. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to biopsy reports at any of Sweden's 28 pathology departments, and LPM as having a relevant disease code in the Swedish Cancer Register. During follow-up, there were 551 deaths (CD: n = 200; non-CD: n = 351). Individuals with CD+LPM were at an increased risk of death compared with LPM-only individuals [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.48]. However, this excess risk was only seen in the first year after LPM diagnosis (aHR = 1.76), with HRs decreasing to 1.09 in years 2-5 after LPM diagnosis and to 0.90 thereafter. Individuals with CD and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were at a higher risk of any death as compared with NHL-only individuals (aHR = 1.23; 95% CI = 0.97-1.56). This excess risk was due to a higher proportion of T cell lymphoma in CD patients. Stratifying for T- and B cell status, the HR for death in individuals with CD+NHL was 0.77 (95% CI = 0.46-1.31). In conclusion, we found no evidence that co-existing CD influences survival in individuals with LPM. The increased mortality in the first year after LPM diagnosis is related to the predominance of T-NHL in CD individuals. Individuals with CD+LPM should be informed that their prognosis is similar to that of individuals with LPM only. However, this study had low statistical power to rule our excess mortality in patients with CD and certain LPM subtypes. PMID:23463575
Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Murray, Joseph A; Green, Peter H R; Ekbom, Anders; Granath, Fredrik
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation or infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) most often induces post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), but it also may be associated with clinical symptoms such as pneumonia. Our aim was to investigate and describe the clinical manifestations of PTLD and PTLD accompanied by EBV-associated pneumonia in 323 patients after HSCT. PTLD within extravisceral lymphoid tissue was identified in 7 cases (5 with CD20(+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 with CD20(+) polymorphic B-cell hyperplasia, and 1 with CD3(+)CD45RO(+) peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified). Six of the patients with PTLD were EBV positive. Three patients had EBV-associated pneumonia, and chest computed tomography revealed multifocal patchy and diffuse ground-glass attenuation in both lungs. EBV-DNA was positive in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, which contained mainly CD3(+) T cells but no CD19(+) or CD20(+) B cells. Lung biopsy showed interstitial intra-alveolar infiltrates of mainly CD3(+) T cells and some CD68(+) macrophages without CD19(+) and CD20(+) B cells. The patients with PTLD accompanied by EBV-associated pneumonia developed hyperpyrexia and dyspnea, which progressed rapidly, and eventually all died within 2 weeks of the onset of PTLD. EBV-associated PTLD accompanied by EBV-associated pneumonia after HSCT is rare. Cytology of BAL fluid and lung biopsy may help establish the diagnosis. PMID:20345506
Liu, Q-F; Fan, Z-P; Luo, X-D; Sun, J; Zhang, Y; Ding, Y-Q
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an invasive, EBV expressing B lymphoma and a major cause of morbidity and mortality following organ transplantation. Presently there is limited therapy available; rather the patient often loses the allograft or succumbs to the malignancy. CD77 (or globotriaosyl ceramide -Gb(3)) is a germinal center B cell marker [Gregory et al. Int J Cancer 1998;42:213-20; Gregory et al., J Immunol 1987;139:313-8; Mangeney et al. Eur J Immunol 1991;21:1131-40], expressed on most EBV infected B cells and is the receptor for the E. coli derived verotoxin (VT) [Lingwood CA. Advances in Lipid Research 1993;25:189-212]. We present the basis of a possible novel approach to PTLD therapy utilizing the specific targeting of VT to the infiltrating lymphoma cells. Biopsies of adenoid, kidney or liver tissue of four PTLD patients were stained with verotoxin to determine expression of CD77. VT is a potent inducer of necrosis/apoptosis of receptor positive cells. In each PTLD case, the infiltrating EBV positive B lymphoma cells were strongly and selectively stained with VT, identifying CD77 as a new marker for these cells. For such individuals, VT might provide the basis of an approach to control their malignancy. PMID:10996204
Arbus, G S; Grisaru, S; Segal, O; Dosch, M; Pop, M; Lala, P; Nutikka, A; Lingwood, C A
X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is caused by mutations in SH2D1A, and is associated with overwhelming infectious mononucleosis, aplastic anemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and B-cell lymphomas. However, the frequency of SH2D1A mutations in males who present with B NHL is unknown. Five cases of XLP were diagnosed among 158 males presenting with B NHL (approximately 3.2%). Four of the patients had two episodes of B NHL and one had a single episode of B NHL followed by aggressive infectious mononucleosis. Prospective screening for XLP in males with B-cell lymphoma at the time of initial diagnosis should be considered. PMID:23589280
Sandlund, J T; Shurtleff, S A; Onciu, M; Horwitz, E; Leung, W; Howard, V; Rencher, R; Conley, M E
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of two B cell lymphoproliferative diseases, namely primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV infection of B cell lymphoma in vitro has been a long-standing battle in advancing human KSHV biology. In this study, a modified form of KSHV BAC36 named BAC36A significantly increased the fidelity of gene-targeted site-directed mutagenesis in the KSHV genome. This modification eliminates tedious screening steps required to obtain mutant clones when a KSHV BAC36 reverse genetic system is used. Coculturing B-cell lymphoma BJAB cells with KSHV BAC36A stably transfected 293T cells enabled us to infect BJAB cells with a KSHV virion derived from the KSHV BAC36A. The coculture system produced substantial amounts of KSHV infection to BJAB, meaning that KSHV virions were released from 293T cells and then infected neighboring BJAB cells. Owing to our success with the KSHV BAC36A and coculture system, we propose a new genetic system for the study of KSHV gene expression and regulation in B-cell lymphoma. PMID:22538658
Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is an extremely rare condition that originates from dendritic cells. We report on the first case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) of donor origin in a BPDC patient post-allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Flow cytometry study identified a cell population CD4+/CD56+/CD45RA+/CD123+/TCL1+ suggestive of BPDCN diagnosis, which was confirmed by a lymph node biopsy (cells positive for BCL11a, BDCA-2, CD2AP, CD123, TCL1 and S100). Cytogenetic analysis revealed a complex karyotype: (19 metaphase) 47,XX,t(1;6)(q21;q2?5),-13?+?2mar/47, XX, +21 /46,XX . The patient was started on acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) induction schedule, and subsequently an allogeneic HSCT was performed. On day +36 post-HSCT, bone marrow biopsy/aspirate showed complete morphological remission, and chimerism study showed 100% donor chimera. However, on day +37, the patient was found to have enlarged cervical and supraclavicular lymphoadenopathy, splenomegaly and raised lactic dehydrogenase. EBV-DNA copies in blood were elevated, consistent with a lytic cycle. A lymph node biopsy showed EBV encoded RNA and large atypical B cells (CD45dim-, CD4+/CD56+, monoclonal for k-chain, CD19+/CD20+/CD21+/CD22+/CD38+/CD43+/CD79?-/CD5-/CD10-), consistent with PTLD monomorphic type. Chimerism study showed that PTLD was of donor origin. This case together with the recent literature findings on BPDCN and PTLD are discussed. PMID:22915052
Piccin, Andrea; Morello, Enrico; Svaldi, Mirija; Haferlach, Torsten; Facchetti, Fabio; Negri, Giovanni; Vecchiato, Cinzia; Fisogni, Simona; Pusceddu, Irene; Cortelazzo, Sergio
Primary immunodeficiency diseases include more than 150 different genetic defects, classified on the basis of the mutations or physiological defects involved. The first immune defects to be well recognized were those of adaptive immunity affecting B cell function and resulting in hypogammaglobulinemia and defects of specific antibody production; more recently, novel defects of innate immunity have been described, some involving Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signaling pathways. Furthermore, it is increasingly evident that the innate and adaptive pathways intersect and reinforce each other. B cells express a number of TLRs, which when activated lead to cell activation, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, secretion of cytokines, up-regulation of recombination enzymes, isotype switch and immune globulin production. TLR activation of antigen presenting cells leads to heightened cytokine production, providing additional stimuli for B cell development and maturation. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) have altered TLR responsiveness. We review TLR defects in these disorders of B cell development, and discuss how B cell gene defects may modulate TLR signaling.
Marron, Thomas U.; Yu, Joyce E.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte
Primary immunodeficiency diseases include more than 150 different genetic defects, classified on the basis of the mutations or physiological defects involved. The first immune defects to be well recognized were those of adaptive immunity affecting B cell function and resulting in hypogammaglobulinemia and defects of specific antibody production; more recently, novel defects of innate immunity have been described, some involving Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signaling pathways. Furthermore, it is increasingly evident that the innate and adaptive pathways intersect and reinforce each other. B cells express a number of TLRs, which when activated lead to cell activation, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, secretion of cytokines, up-regulation of recombination enzymes, isotype switch and immune globulin production. TLR activation of antigen presenting cells leads to heightened cytokine production, providing additional stimuli for B cell development and maturation. Recent studies have demonstrated that patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) have altered TLR responsiveness. We review TLR defects in these disorders of B cell development, and discuss how B cell gene defects may modulate TLR signaling. PMID:22202002
Marron, Thomas U; Yu, Joyce E; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte
Primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCL) have historically been a matter of debate in the literature. The 2005 World Health Organization-European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification scheme segregated cutaneous B-cell lymphomas into 3 groups: primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma, and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PCDLBCL), "leg type" (PCDLBCL-LT). Additionally, the WHO-EORTC classification scheme utilized the term PCLBCL "other" not otherwise specified (NOS) type for rare cases of PCLBCL not belonging to either the "leg type" or the primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphoma group. In this study, we retrospectively assessed the histomorphologic features of 79 cases of PCDLBCLs, including those of "leg type" and "other" NOS type, to further categorize the histologic spectrum of these unusual cutaneous neoplasms. The histologic diagnosis of PCLBCL usually poses little diagnostic difficulty; however, some cases may adopt unusual or unfamiliar appearances mimicking other lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant neoplasms. Seventy-nine cases, occurring in 37 men and 42 women, aged 34-94 years, were analyzed. Fifty-three cases were classified as "leg type" and 26 cases were classified as "other" NOS type using the WHO-EORTC classification. Of the 53 cases classified as "leg type," 33 were women and 20 were men; of the 26 cases of "other" NOS type, 9 were women and 17 were men. In the "leg type" category, 31 cases were located on the lower extremities, 5 cases on the face, 5 cases on the arm, 3 cases on the chest, 2 cases on the shoulder, 2 cases on the back, 1 case on the trunk, 1 case on the buttock, 1 case on the supraclavicular area, 1 case on the head, and 1 case on the flank. Of the "other" NOS type category, 8 cases were located on the face, 5 cases on the shoulder, 3 cases on the head, 2 cases on the abdomen, 2 cases on the chest, 1 case on the trunk, 1 on the vulva, 1 on the axilla, 1 on the back, 1 on the neck, and 1 on the hip. Most cases assessed showed the classic morphologic appearance of PCDLBCL, but cases mimicking Burkitt lymphoma (starry-sky pattern), natural killer-cell (NK) lymphoma, mycosis fungoides (epidermotropism), low-grade B-cell lymphomas, epithelial malignancies, and Merkel cell carcinoma were encountered in this series. The high frequency of these rare histologic patterns can be explained by a bias associated with consultation practice. Careful histologic examination and immunohistochemical stains were used to establish the correct diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of PCDLBCL is broad and difficult to define histologically. Knowledge of these rare histologic variants is necessary to avoid misinterpretation of these cases as nonlymphoid malignancies. PMID:21937906
Plaza, Jose A; Kacerovska, Denisa; Stockman, David L; Buonaccorsi, J Noelle; Baillargeon, Paul; Suster, Saul; Kazakov, Dmitry V
Evidence for a developmental relationship between B cells and macrophages has led to the hypothesis that B cells evolved from a phagocytic predecessor. The recent identification of phagocytic IgM+ cells in fishes and amphibians supports this hypothesis, but raises the question of when, evolutionarily, was phagocytic capacity lost in B cells? To address this, leucocytes were isolated from red-eared sliders, Trachemys scripta, incubated with fluorescent beads and analysed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Results indicate that red-eared slider B cells are able to ingest foreign particles and suggest that ectothermic vertebrates may use phagocytic B cells as part of a robust innate immune response. PMID:19846448
Zimmerman, Laura M; Vogel, Laura A; Edwards, Kevin A; Bowden, Rachel M
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder, characterized by the presence of antibodies to U1-RNP protein. We aimed to determine phenotypic abnormalities of peripheral B cell subsets in MCTD. Blood samples were obtained from 46 MCTD patients, and 20 controls. Using anti-CD19, anti-CD27, anti-IgD and anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies, the following B cell subsets were identified by flow cytometry: (1) transitional B cells (CD19+CD27-IgD+CD38(high)); (2) naive B cells (CD19+CD27-IgD+CD38(low)); (3) non-switched memory B cells (CD19+CD27+IgD+); (4) switched memory B cells (CD19+CD27+IgD-); (5) double negative (DN) memory B cells (CD19+CD27-IgD-) and (6) plasma cells (CD19+CD27(high)IgD-). The proportion of transitional B cells, naive B cells and DN B lymphocytes was higher in MCTD than in controls. The DN B cells were positive for CD95 surface marker. This memory B cells population showed a close correlation with disease activity. The number of plasma cells was also increased, and there was an association between the number of plasma cells and the anti-U1RNP levels. Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and corticosteroid treatment decreased the number of DN and CD27(high) B cells. In conclusion, several abnormalities were found in the peripheral B-cell subsets in MCTD, which reinforces the role of derailed humoral autoimmune processes in the pathogenesis. PMID:23608739
Hajas, A; Barath, S; Szodoray, P; Nakken, B; Gogolak, P; Szekanecz, Z; Zold, E; Zeher, M; Szegedi, G; Bodolay, E
B cells develop from hematopoietic precursor cells in an ordered maturation and selection process. Extensive studies with many different mouse mutants provided fundamental insights into this process. However, the characterization of genetic defects causing primary immunodeficiencies was essential in understanding human B-cell biology. Defects in pre-B-cell receptor components or in downstream signaling proteins, such as Bruton tyrosine kinase and B-cell linker protein, arrest development at the pre-B-cell stage. Defects in survival-regulating proteins, such as B-cell activator of the TNF-? family receptor (BAFF-R) or caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11), interrupt maturation and prevent differentiation of transitional B cells into marginal zone and follicular B cells. Mature B-cell subsets, immune responses, and memory B-cell and plasma cell development are disturbed by mutations affecting Toll-like receptor signaling, B-cell antigen receptor coreceptors (eg, CD19), or enzymes responsible for immunoglobulin class-switch recombination. Transgenic mouse models helped to identify key regulatory mechanisms, such as receptor editing and clonal anergy, preventing the activation of B cells expressing antibodies recognizing autoantigens. Nevertheless, the combination of susceptible genetic backgrounds with the rescue of self-reactive B cells by T cells allows the generation of autoreactive clones found in patients with many autoimmune diseases and even in those with primary immunodeficiencies. The rapid progress of functional genomic research is expected to foster the development of new tools that specifically target dysfunctional B lymphocytes to treat autoimmunity, B-cell malignancies, and immunodeficiency. PMID:23465663
Pieper, Kathrin; Grimbacher, Bodo; Eibel, Hermann
Hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndromes are primary immunodeficiencies characterized by defects of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. HIGM patients who carry mutations in the CD40-ligand (CD40L) gene expressed by CD4+ T cells suffer from recurrent infections and often develop autoimmune disorders. To investigate the impact of CD40L–CD40 interactions on human B cell tolerance, we tested by ELISA the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells from three CD40L-deficient patients. Antibody characteristics and reactivity from CD40L-deficient new emigrant B cells were similar to those from healthy donors, suggesting that CD40L–CD40 interactions do not regulate central B cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from CD40L-deficient patients expressed a high proportion of autoreactive antibodies, including antinuclear antibodies. Thus, CD40L–CD40 interactions are essential for peripheral B cell tolerance. In addition, a patient with the bare lymphocyte syndrome who could not express MHC class II molecules failed to counterselect autoreactive mature naive B cells, suggesting that peripheral B cell tolerance also depends on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II–T cell receptor (TCR) interactions. The decreased frequency of MHC class II–restricted CD4+ regulatory T cells in CD40L-deficient patients suggests that these T cells may mediate peripheral B cell tolerance through CD40L–CD40 and MHC class II–TCR interactions.
Herve, Maxime; Isnardi, Isabelle; Ng, Yen-shing; Bussel, James B.; Ochs, Hans D.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Meffre, Eric
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder of B cell differentiation or function with inadequate antibody production. Our laboratory studies a natural form of CVID in horses characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia due to impaired B cell production in the bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess the status of B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of CVID-affected horses by measuring the expression of genes essential for early B cell commitment and development. Standard RT-PCR revealed that most of the transcription factors and key signaling molecules that directly regulate B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and precede PAX5 are expressed in the affected horses. Yet, the expression of PAX5 and relevant target genes was variable. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA expression of E2A, PAX5, CD19, and IGHD was significantly reduced in equine CVID patients when compared to healthy horses (p < 0.05). In addition, the PAX5/EBF1 and PAX5/B220 ratios were significantly reduced in CVID patients (p < 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the absence of PAX5-BSAP expression in the bone marrow of affected horses. Our data suggest that B cell development seems to be impaired at the transition between pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells in equine CVID patients.
Tallmadge, R.L.; Such, K.A.; Miller, K.C.; Matychak, M.B.; Felippe, M.J.B.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene, which encodes a transcription factor critical for Treg function, result in a severe autoimmune disorder and the production of various autoantibodies in mice and in IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) patients. However, it is unknown whether Tregs normally suppress autoreactive B cells. To investigate a role for Tregs in maintaining human B-cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells isolated from IPEX patients. Characteristics and reactivity of antibodies expressed by new emigrant/transitional B cells from IPEX patients were similar to those from healthy donors, demonstrating that defective Treg function does not impact central B-cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from IPEX patients often expressed autoreactive antibodies, suggesting an important role for Tregs in maintaining peripheral B-cell tolerance. T cells displayed an activated phenotype in IPEX patients, including their Treg-like cells, and showed up-regulation of CD40L, PD-1, and inducibl T-cell costimulator (ICOS), which may favor the accumulation of autoreactive mature naive B cells in these patients. Hence, our data demonstrate an essential role for Tregs in the establishment and the maintenance of peripheral B-cell tolerance in humans. PMID:23223361
Kinnunen, Tuure; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Morbach, Henner; Choi, Jinyoung; Kim, Sangtaek; Craft, Joseph; Mayer, Lloyd; Cancrini, Caterina; Passerini, Laura; Bacchetta, Rosa; Ochs, Hans D; Torgerson, Troy R; Meffre, Eric
Multiple myeloma and B cell lymphoma are leading causes of death in Gaucher's disease but the nature of the stimulus driving the often noted clonal expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting B cells and cognate lymphoid malignancy is unknown. We investigated the long-term development of B cell malignancies in an authentic model of non-neuronopathic Gaucher's disease in mice: selective deficiency of ?-glucocerebrosidase in haematopoietic cells [Gba(tm1Karl/tm1Karl)Tg(Mx1-cre)1Cgn/0, with excision of exons 9-11 of the murine GBA1 gene, is induced by poly[I:C]. Mice with Gaucher's disease showed visceral storage of ?-glucosylceramide and greatly elevated plasma ?-glucosylsphingosine [median 57.9 (range 19.8-159) nm; n = 39] compared with control mice from the same strain [median 0.56 (range 0.04-1.38) nm; n = 29] (p < 0.0001). Sporadic fatal B cell lymphomas developed in 11 of 21 GD mice (6-24 months) but only two of eight control animals developed tumours by age 24 months. Unexpectedly, most mice with overt lymphoma had absent or few Gaucher cells but local inflammatory macrophages were present. Eleven of 39 of Gaucher mice developed monoclonal gammopathy, but in the control group only one animal of 25 had clonal immunoglobulin abnormalities. Seven of 10 of the B cell lymphomas were found to secrete a monoclonal paraprotein and the lymphomas stained intensely for pan-B cell markers; reactive T lymphocytes were also present in tumour tissue. In the Gaucher mouse strain, it was notable that, as in patients with this disease, CD138(+) plasma cells frequently surrounded splenic macrophages engorged with glycosphingolipid. Our strain of mice, with inducible deficiency of ?-glucocerebrosidase in haematopoietic cells and a high frequency of sporadic lethal B cell malignancies, faithfully recapitulates human Gaucher's disease: it serves as a tractable model to investigate the putative role of bioactive sphingolipids in the control of B cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of myelomatosis-the most prevalent human cancer associated with this disorder. PMID:23775597
Pavlova, E V; Wang, S Z; Archer, J; Dekker, N; Aerts, J M F G; Karlsson, S; Cox, T M
This unit describes procedures for measuring the capacity of purified B cells to undergo proliferation. The method centers on the use of polyclonal stimulating agents (mitogens) because these agents stimulate the majority of B cells and because the alternative (measurement of antigen-induced proliferation) requires the laborious procedures of isolating antigen-specific B cells (which are otherwise present in too low a concentration in whole B cell populations). Cross-linking of the B cell antigen receptor, surface immunoglobulin (sIg), by specific antigen stimulates cells to proliferate prior to secreting Ig. For this purpose, monoclonal or heterologous affinity-purified anti-Ig antibodies are used. B cells can also be stimulated to proliferate by antigen-nonspecific reagents (mitogens), and it is also critical to study the role of these mitogens in B cell responses. Both of these systems have the advantage that the majority of B cells will be activated. The first basic protocol describes B cell proliferation induced by two commonly used stimulants--anti-Ig antibody (either anti-IgM or anti-IgD) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--as measured by incorporation of [3H]thymidine into dividing cells. Alternate protocols describe other commonly used mitogens as well as other means of measuring cell proliferation. PMID:18432906
Mond, James J; Brunswick, Mark
Grb2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein, which activates Ras and MAP kinases in growth factor receptor signalling, while in B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling this role is controversial. In B cell lines it was shown that Grb2 can inhibit BCR-induced Ca(2+) signalling. Nonetheless, the physiological role of Grb2 in primary B cells is still unknown. We generated a B-cell-specific Grb2-deficient mouse line, which had a severe reduction of mature follicular B cells in the periphery due to a differentiation block and decreased B-cell survival. Moreover, we found several changes in important signalling pathways: enhanced BCR-induced Ca(2+) signalling, alterations in mitogen-activated protein kinase activation patterns and strongly impaired Akt activation, the latter pointing towards a defect in PI3K signalling. Interestingly, B-cell-specific Grb2-deficient mice showed impaired IgG and B-cell memory responses, and impaired germinal centre formation. Thus, Grb2-dependent signalling pathways are crucial for lymphocyte differentiation processes, as well as for control of secondary humoral immune responses. PMID:21427701
Ackermann, Jochen A; Radtke, Daniel; Maurberger, Anna; Winkler, Thomas H; Nitschke, Lars
Extramammary tumors rarely metastasize to the breast. The commonest tumors to metastasize in breast tissue are lymphoproliferative diseases, melanoma, lung cancer and gynecological malignancies. Primary breast lymphoma has been reported in the literature with a maximum percentage of about 0.5% of all breast malignancies, while secondary localizations of lymphomas in the breast are less well studied in the literature than primary ones. The authors report a rare case of a secondary localization of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia to the breast in which the diagnosis was obtained by histopathology and immunohistochemistry and further confirmed by molecular data. This occurrence must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lump so that the primary hematological disease can be adequately treated and the correct type of breast surgery performed. PMID:18822706
Famà, Fausto; Barresi, Valeria; Giuffrè, Giuseppe; Todaro, Paolo; Mazzei, Sergio; Vindigni, Angelo; Gioffrè-Florio, Maria
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation remains a life-threatening complication. Expression of the virus-encoded gene product, EBER, has been shown to prevent apoptosis via blockade of PKR activation. As PKR is a major cellular defense against Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and oncolytic HSV-1 (oHSV) mutants have shown promising antitumor efficacy in preclinical models, we sought to determine whether EBV-LPD cells are susceptible to infection by oHSVs. We tested three primary EBV-infected lymphocyte cell cultures from neuroblastoma (NB) patients as models of naturally acquired EBV-LPD. NB12 was the most susceptible, NB122R was intermediate and NB88R2 was essentially resistant. Despite EBER expression, PKR was activated by oHSV infection. Susceptibility to oHSV correlated with the expression of the HSV receptor, nectin-1. The resistance of NB88R2 was reversed by exogenous nectin-1 expression, whereas downregulation of nectin-1 on NB12 decreased viral entry. Xenografts derived from the EBV-LPDs exhibited only mild (NB12) or no (NB88R2) response to oHSV injection, compared with a NB cell line that showed a significant response. We conclude that EBV-LPDs are relatively resistant to oHSV virotherapy, in some cases, due to low virus receptor expression but also due to intact antiviral PKR signaling. PMID:23254370
Wang, P-Y; Currier, M A; Hansford, L; Kaplan, D; Chiocca, E A; Uchida, H; Goins, W F; Cohen, J B; Glorioso, J C; van Kuppevelt, T H; Mo, X; Cripe, T P
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an incurable, autoimmune exocrinopathy that predominantly affects females and whose pathogenesis remains unknown. Like rheumatoid arthritis, its severity increases after menopause, and estrogen deficiency has been implicated. We have reported that estrogen receptor-? and -?-knockout mice develop autoimmune nephritis and myeloid leukemia, respectively, but neither develops SS. One model of estrogen deficiency in rodents is the aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mouse. In these animals, there is elevated B lymphopoiesis in bone marrow. We now report that ArKO mice develop severe autoimmune exocrinopathy resembling SS. By 1 year of age, there is B cell hyperplasia in the bone marrow, spleen, and blood of ArKO mice and spontaneous autoimmune manifestations such as proteinuria and severe leukocyte infiltration in the salivary glands and kidney. Also, as is typically found in human SS, there were proteolytic fragments of ?-fodrin in the salivary glands and anti-?-fodrin antibodies in the serum of both female and male ArKO mice. When mice were raised on a phytoestrogen-free diet, there was a mild but significant incidence of infiltration of B lymphocytes in WT mice and severe destructive autoimmune lesions in ArKO mice. In age-matched WT mice fed a diet containing normal levels of phytoestrogen, there were no autoimmune lesions. These results reveal that estrogen deficiency results in a lymphoproliferative autoimmune disease resembling SS and suggest that estrogen might have clinical value in the prevention or treatment of this disease.
Shim, Gil-Jin; Warner, Margaret; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Andersson, Sandra; Liu, Lining; Ekman, Jenny; Imamov, Otabek; Jones, Margaret E.; Simpson, Evan R.; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake
The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (Emu) and Igbeta (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage-specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec(-/-) mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of EmuB29-Btk-LV-transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage-targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406
Kerns, Hannah M; Ryu, Byoung Y; Stirling, Brigid V; Sather, Blythe D; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny; Rawlings, David J
Effective humoral responses to protein antigens require the precise execution of carefully timed differentiation programs in both T and B cell compartments. Disturbances in this process underlie the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is induced upon the activation of T and B cells and serves critical functions. In CD4+ T helper cells, IRF4 plays an essential role in the regulation of IL-21 production, whereas in B cells it controls class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation. IRF4 function in T helper cells can be modulated by its interaction with regulatory protein DEF6, a molecule that shares a high degree of homology with only one other protein, SWAP-70. Here, we demonstrate that on a C57BL/6 background the absence of both DEF6 and SWAP-70 leads to the development of a lupus-like disease in female mice, marked by simultaneous deregulation of CD4+ T cell IL-21 production and increased IL-21 B cell responsiveness. We furthermore show that DEF6 and SWAP-70 are differentially used at distinct stages of B cell differentiation to selectively control the ability of IRF4 to regulate IL-21 responsiveness in a stage-specific manner. Collectively, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms that normally couple and coordinately regulate T and B cell responses to ensure tight control of productive T–B cell interactions.
Biswas, Partha S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Stirzaker, Roslynn A.; Kumar, Varsha; Jessberger, Rolf; Lu, Theresa T.; Bhagat, Govind
While the outcome for pediatric patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) or lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has improved dramatically, patients often suffer from therapeutic sequelae. Additionally, despite intensified treatment, the prognosis remains dismal for patients with refractory or relapsed disease. Thus, novel biologically targeted treatment approaches are needed. These targets can be identified by understanding how a loss of lymphocyte homeostasis can result in LPD or ALL. Herein, we review potential molecular and cellular therapeutic strategies that (i) target key signaling networks (e.g., PI3K/AKT/mTOR, JAK/STAT, Notch1, and SRC kinase family-containing pathways) which regulate lymphocyte growth, survival, and function; (ii) block the interaction of ALL cells with stromal cells or lymphoid growth factors secreted by the bone marrow microenvironment; or (iii) stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses.
Seif, Alix E.; Reid, Gregor S. D.; Teachey, David T.; Grupp, Stephan A.
B lymphocytes play several critical roles in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. They are the source of the rheumatoid factors and anticitrullinated protein antibodies, which contribute to immune complex formation and complement activation in the joints. B cells are also very efficient antigen-presenting cells, and can contribute to T cell activation through expression of costimulatory molecules. B cells both respond
Gregg J Silverman; Dennis A Carson
Antigen presentation by resting splenic B cells has been shown previously to induce T helper 1 cell (Th1) anergy. In contrast to expectations, it was found here that B cells treated with F(ab')2 goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgM) for 24 or 48 h also presented antigen (Ag) to Th1 cells in a manner that induced dramatic Ag-specific proliferative inactivation. The tolerogenicity of the anti-Ig-treated B cells was consistent with the observation that these B cells were only slightly more efficient than resting B cells in stimulating human gamma globulin (HGG)-induced proliferation of HGG-specific Th1 cells in primary cultures. The activated B cells were, however, more efficient than resting B cells in stimulating a primary mixed leukocyte reaction, and exhibited increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, RL388 Ag and transferrin receptor. In addition, unlike resting B cells, which expressed little detectable B7, anti-Ig- treated B cells expressed high levels of B7. The functional capacity of the B7 expressed on the activated B cells was demonstrated by the fact that the Ag-presenting capacity of these B cells was inhibited by the addition to culture of CTLA4Ig, a soluble receptor for B7. It is unlikely that the tolerogenicity of the activated B cells was due to an inability of the Th1 cells to respond to B7 signals; the Th1 clones used in the experiments, unlike the Th2 clones tested, expressed CD28, the ligand for B7. In addition, anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody inhibited the induction of Th1 cell anergy when added to cultures of Th1 cells and Ag-pulsed fixed antigen-presenting cells. Taken together, the results indicate that B cells, even when activated, do not satisfy the costimulatory requirements of the Th1 cells used here, and therefore can present Ag in a tolerogenic fashion to Th1 cells. The costimulator deficiency of activated B cells may reflect an inadequacy in the level of B7 expressed or a lack of some other molecule.
Summary A byproduct of the largely stochastic generation of a diverse B-cell specificity repertoire is production of cells that recognize autoantigens. Indeed, recent studies indicate that more than half of the primary repertoire consists of autoreactive B cells that must be silenced to prevent autoimmunity. While this silencing can occur by multiple mechanisms, it appears that most autoreactive B cells are silenced by anergy, wherein they populate peripheral lymphoid organs and continue to express unoccupied antigen receptors yet are unresponsive to antigen stimulation. Here we review molecular mechanisms that appear operative in maintaining the antigen unresponsiveness of anergic B cells. In addition, we present new data indicating that the failure of anergic B cells to mobilize calcium in response to antigen stimulation is not mediated by inactivation of stromal interacting molecule 1, a critical intermediary in intracellular store depletion-induced calcium influx.
Yarkoni, Yuval; Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C.
Antigen-specific tolerance induction using autologous B-cell gene therapy is a potential treatment to eliminate undesirable immune responses. For example, we have shown that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and type 1 diabetes in NOD mice can be ameliorated using antigen-Ig fusion protein transduced B cells. However, it is well established that autoreactive antigen-specific B cells are activated in many autoimmune diseases and can contribute to pathogenesis. While syngeneic B cells from immunized or autoimmune mice can serve as tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APC), this observation begs the question of whether the antigen-specific B cells per se can be transduced as tolerogenic APC. To test this, we employed two model systems employing B cell receptor (BCR) transgenic or wild type (wt) mice as B cell donors. While adoptively transferred MOG-Ig transduced wt C57Bl/6 B cells were highly tolerogenic and ameliorated EAE, MOG-Ig transduced anti-MOG B cells from BCR transgenic mice were not. This phenomenon was reproduced in the NOD diabetes model in which pro-insulin-Ig transduced polyclonal wt NOD B cells were protective, whereas similarly transduced anti-insulin BCR B cells were not. Since the frequency of antigen-specific B cells in an immunized animal is quite low, we wished to determine the threshold numbers of BCR transgenic B cells that could be present in an effective transduced population. Therefore, we “spiked” polyclonal wt C57Bl/6 B cells with different numbers of anti-MOG BCR transgenic B cells. In the EAE model, we found protection when BCR B cells were present at 1%, but they prevented tolerance induction at 10%. Antigen-specific B cells expressed normal levels of co-stimulatory molecules and were tolerogenic when transduced with an irrelevant antigen (OVA). Thus, the presence of a BCR specific for the target autoantigen may interfere with the tolerogenic process to that antigen, but BCR-specific B cells are not intrinsically defective as tolerogenic APC. Taken together, these data suggest that antigen-specific tolerance induction can be achieved in the presence of a limited number of antigen-specific B cells, but higher numbers of pathogenic B cells may mask this induction. This observation should guide future development of therapies using autologous B cells to treat patients with autoimmune diseases.
Zhang, Ai-Hong; Li, Xin; Onabajo, Olusegun O.; Su, Yan; Skupsky, Jonathan; Thomas, James W.; Scott, David W.
Introduction Systemic Epstein-Barr-virus-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disease of childhood is an extremely rare disorder, characterized\\u000a by clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr-virus-infected T cells with an activated cytotoxic phenotype. The disease is more\\u000a frequent in Asia and South America, with only few cases reported in Western countries. A prompt diagnosis, though often difficult,\\u000a is a necessity due to the very aggressive clinical course
Valentina Tabanelli; Claudio Agostinelli; Elena Sabattini; Anna Gazzola; Francesco Bacci; Saveria Capria; Claudia Mannu; Simona Righi; Maria Teresa Sista; Giovanna Meloni; Stefano A Pileri; Pier Paolo Piccaluga
For many years, central dogma defined multiple sclerosis (MS) as a T cell-driven autoimmune disorder; however, over the past decade there has been a burgeoning recognition that B cells contribute to the pathogenesis of certain MS disease subtypes. B cells may contribute to MS pathogenesis through production of autoantibodies (or antibodies directed at foreign bodies, which unfortunately cross-react with self-antigens), through promotion of T cell activation via antigen presentation, or through production of cytokines. This review highlights evidence for antibody-dependent and antibody-independent B cell involvement in MS pathogenesis. PMID:22690126
Wilson, Heather L
Background Natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes is a disorder characterized by chronic proliferation of CD3?CD16+ granular lymphocytes. By flow cytometry analysis, we previously demonstrated a dysregulation in killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) expression in natural killer cells from patients with this lymphoproliferative disease, the activating KIR receptors being mostly expressed. We also found that patients with natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes usually had KIR genotypes characterized by multiple activating KIR genes. Design and Methods We investigated the mRNA levels of the KIR3DL1 inhibitory and the related KIR3DS1 activating receptors in 15 patients with natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes and in ten controls. These genes are usually expressed when present in the genome of the Caucasian population. Results We demonstrated the complete lack of KIR3DL1 expression in most of the patients analyzed, with the receptor being expressed in 13% of patients compared to in 90% of controls (P<0.01). Interestingly, studies of the methylation patterns of KIR3DL1 promoter showed a significantly higher methylation status (0.76 ± 0.12 SD) in patients than in healthy subjects (0.49±0.10 SD, P<0.01). The levels of expression of DNA methyl transferases, which are the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation, did not differ between patients and controls. Conclusions In this study we showed, for the first time, a consistent down-regulation of the inhibitory KIR3DL1 signal due to marked methylation of its promoter, thus suggesting that together with the increased expression of activating receptors, the lack of the inhibitory signal could also play a role in the pathogenesis of natural killer cell-type lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes.
Gattazzo, Cristina; Teramo, Antonella; Miorin, Marta; Scquizzato, Elisa; Cabrelle, Anna; Balsamo, Mirna; Agostini, Carlo; Vendrame, Elena; Facco, Monica; Albergoni, Maria Paola; Trentin, Livio; Vitale, Massimo; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Zambello, Renato
A unique immune deficiency in a 24-month-old male characterized by a transient but protracted developmental delay in the B-cell lineage is reported. Significant deficiencies in the number of B cells in the blood, the concentrations of immunoglobulins in the serum, and the titers of antibodies to T-dependent and T-independent antigens resolved spontaneously by the age of 39 months in a sequence that duplicated the normal development of the B-cell lineage: blood B cells followed by immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, IgA, and specific IgG antibodies to T-independent antigens (pneumococcal polysaccharides). Because of the sequence of recovery, the disorder could have been confused with other defects in humoral immunity, depending on when in the course of disease immunologic studies were conducted. Investigations of X-chromosome polymorphisms suggested that the disorder was not X linked in that the mother appeared to have identical X chromosomes. An autosomal recessive disorder involving a gene that controls B-cell development and maturation seems more likely. In summary, this case appears to be a novel protracted delay in the development of the B-cell lineage, possibly due to an autosomal recessive genetic defect.
Goldman, Armond S.; Miles, Stephen E.; Rudloff, Helen E.; Palkowetz, Kimberly H.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.
Individuals with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease lack invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and are exquisitely susceptible to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. To determine whether iNKT cells recognize or regulate EBV, resting B cells were infected with EBV in the presence or absence of iNKT cells. The depletion of iNKT cells increased both viral titers and the frequency of EBV-infected B cells. However, EBV-infected B cells rapidly lost expression of the iNKT cell receptor ligand CD1d, abrogating iNKT cell recognition. To determine whether induced CD1d expression could restore iNKT recognition in EBV-infected cells, lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) were treated with AM580, a synthetic retinoic acid receptor-? agonist that upregulates CD1d expression via the nuclear protein, lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1). AM580 significantly reduced LEF-1 association at the CD1d promoter region, induced CD1d expression on LCL, and restored iNKT recognition of LCL. CD1d-expressing LCL elicited interferon ? secretion and cytotoxicity by iNKT cells even in the absence of exogenous antigen, suggesting an endogenous iNKT antigen is expressed during EBV infection. These data indicate that iNKT cells may be important for early, innate control of B cell infection by EBV and that downregulation of CD1d may allow EBV to circumvent iNKT cell-mediated immune recognition. PMID:23974196
Chung, Brian K; Tsai, Kevin; Allan, Lenka L; Zheng, Dong Jun; Nie, Johnny C; Biggs, Catherine M; Hasan, Mohammad R; Kozak, Frederick K; van den Elzen, Peter; Priatel, John J; Tan, Rusung
X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is characterized by markedly reduced numbers of T cells, the absence of proliferative responses to mitogens, and hypogammaglobulinemia but normal or elevated numbers of B cells. To determine if the failure of the B cells to produce immunoglobulin might be due to expression of the XSCID gene defect in B-lineage cells as well as T cells, we analyzed patterns of X chromosome inactivation in B cells from nine obligate carriers of this disorder. A series of somatic cell hybrids that selectively retained the active X chromosome was produced from Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated B cells from each woman. To distinguish between the two X chromosomes, the hybrids from each woman were analyzed using an X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism for which the woman in question was heterozygous. In all obligate carriers of XSCID, the B-cell hybrids demonstrated preferential use of a single X chromosome, the nonmutant X, as the active X. To determine if the small number of B-cell hybrids that contained the mutant X were derived from an immature subset of B cells, lymphocytes from three carriers were separated into surface IgM positive and surface IgM negative B cells prior to exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and production of B-cell hybrids. The results demonstrated normal random X chromosome inactivation in B-cell hybrids derived from the less mature surface IgM positive B cells. In contrast, the pattern of X chromosome inactivation in the surface IgM negative B cells, which had undergone further replication and differentiation, was significantly nonrandom in all three experiments [logarithm of odds (lod) score greater than 3.0]. These results suggest that the XSCID gene product has a direct effect on B cells as well as T cells and is required during B-cell maturation. Images
Conley, M E; Lavoie, A; Briggs, C; Brown, P; Guerra, C; Puck, J M
Antibody responses are thought to play an important role in control of Schistosoma infections, yet little is known about the phenotype and function of B cells in human schistosomiasis. We set out to characterize B cell subsets and B cell responses to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation in Gabonese schoolchildren with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Frequencies of memory B cell (MBC) subsets were increased, whereas naive B cell frequencies were reduced in the schistosome-infected group. At the functional level, isolated B cells from schistosome-infected children showed higher expression of the activation marker CD23 upon stimulation, but lower proliferation and TNF-? production. Importantly, 6-months after 3 rounds of praziquantel treatment, frequencies of naive B cells were increased, MBC frequencies were decreased and with the exception of TNF-? production, B cell responsiveness was restored to what was seen in uninfected children. These data show that S. haematobium infection leads to significant changes in the B cell compartment, both at the phenotypic and functional level.
Labuda, Lucja A.; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Heeringa, Jorn J.; van der Vlugt, Lucien E. P. M.; Pires, Regina B. A.; Mewono, Ludovic; Kremsner, Peter G.; van Zelm, Menno C.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H.
Antibody responses are thought to play an important role in control of Schistosoma infections, yet little is known about the phenotype and function of B cells in human schistosomiasis. We set out to characterize B cell subsets and B cell responses to B cell receptor and Toll-like receptor 9 stimulation in Gabonese schoolchildren with Schistosoma haematobium infection. Frequencies of memory B cell (MBC) subsets were increased, whereas naive B cell frequencies were reduced in the schistosome-infected group. At the functional level, isolated B cells from schistosome-infected children showed higher expression of the activation marker CD23 upon stimulation, but lower proliferation and TNF-? production. Importantly, 6-months after 3 rounds of praziquantel treatment, frequencies of naive B cells were increased, MBC frequencies were decreased and with the exception of TNF-? production, B cell responsiveness was restored to what was seen in uninfected children. These data show that S. haematobium infection leads to significant changes in the B cell compartment, both at the phenotypic and functional level. PMID:23505586
Labuda, Lucja A; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Heeringa, Jorn J; van der Vlugt, Luciën E P M; Pires, Regina B A; Mewono, Ludovic; Kremsner, Peter G; van Zelm, Menno C; Adegnika, Ayola A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated disorder that can cause fatal arterial or venous thrombosis/thromboembolism. Immune complexes consisting of platelet factor 4 (PF4), heparin, and PF4/heparin-reactive antibodies are central to the pathogenesis of HIT. However, the B-cell origin of HIT antibody production is not known. Here, we show that anti-PF4/heparin antibodies are readily generated in wild-type mice on challenge with PF4/heparin complexes, and that antibody production is severely impaired in B-cell-specific Notch2-deficient mice that lack marginal zone (MZ) B cells. As expected, Notch2-deficient mice responded normally to challenge with T-cell-dependent antigen nitrophenyl-chicken ? globulin but not to the T-cell-independent antigen trinitrophenyl-Ficoll. In addition, wild-type, but not Notch2-deficient, B cells plus B-cell-depleted wild-type splenocytes adoptively transferred into B-cell-deficient ?MT mice responded to PF4/heparin complex challenge. PF4/heparin-specific antibodies produced by wild-type mice were IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes. An in vitro class-switching assay showed that MZ B cells were capable of producing antibodies of IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes. Lastly, MZ, but not follicular, B cells adoptively transferred into B-cell-deficient ?MT mice responded to PF4/heparin complex challenge by producing PF4/heparin-specific antibodies of IgG2b and IgG3 isotypes. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MZ B cells are critical for PF4/heparin-specific antibody production. PMID:23460609
Zheng, Yongwei; Yu, Mei; Podd, Andrew; Yuan, Liudi; Newman, Debra K; Wen, Renren; Arepally, Gowthami; Wang, Demin
Autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens often arise in autoimmune disease associated with the failure to clear apoptotic cells in a swift and timely manner. Nucleic acids present in apoptotic cells and in membranous microparticles derived thereof exert adjuvant activity in the immune response to apoptosis. The scope of this review is to provide an overview on the current knowledge on B cell responses to apoptotic cells and membranous microparticles. Although physiological B cell responses to apoptotic cells result in the release of IL-10 by B cells and immunosuppression, pathological responses lead to autoantibody formation. Toll-like receptors specific for nucleic acids are engaged in both types of responses. In this review we delineate the functional impact of nucleic acids on B cell responses in the context of apoptosis. PMID:23215840
Aging represents a complex remodeling in which both innate and adaptive immunities deteriorate. Age-related changes in humoral\\u000a immunity are responsible for the reduced vaccine responses observed in elderly individuals. Although T cell alterations play\\u000a a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes, alterations in B cells also occur. We here provide an overview of\\u000a age-related changes in B cell markers
Daniela Frasca; Bonnie B. Blomberg
Neutrophils use opsonizing antibodies to enhance the clearance of intruding microbes. Recent studies indicate that splenic neutrophils also induce antibody production by providing helper signals to B cells lodged in the MZ of the spleen. Here, we discuss the B cell helper function of neutrophils in the context of growing evidence indicating that neutrophils function as sophisticated regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:23630389
Cerutti, Andrea; Puga, Irene; Magri, Giuliana
Amongst the many ploys used by microbial pathogens to interfere with host immune responses is the production of proteins with the properties of superantigens. These properties enable superantigens to interact with conserved variable region framework subdomains of the antigen receptors of lymphocytes rather than the complementarity determining region involved in the binding of conventional antigens. To understand how a B cell superantigen affects the host immune system, we infused protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) and followed the fate of peripheral B cells expressing B cell receptors (BCRs) with VH regions capable of binding SpA. Within hours, a sequence of events was initiated in SpA-binding splenic B cells, with rapid down-regulation of BCRs and coreceptors, CD19 and CD21, the induction of an activation phenotype, and limited rounds of proliferation. Apoptosis followed through a process heralded by the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, the induction of the caspase pathway, and DNA fragmentation. After exposure, B cell apoptotic bodies were deposited in the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. Although in vivo apoptosis did not require the Fas death receptor, B cells were protected by interleukin (IL)-4 or CD40L, or overexpression of Bcl-2. These studies define a pathway for BCR-mediated programmed cell death that is VH region targeted by a superantigen.
Goodyear, Carl S.; Silverman, Gregg J.
The B cell receptor (BCR) consists of an antigen-binding membrane immunoglobulin (mIg) associated with the CD79alpha and CD79beta heterodimer. Naïve B cells express the IgM and IgD isotypes, which have very short cytoplasmic tails and therefore depend on CD79alpha and CD79beta for signal transduction. After antigenic stimulation, B cells undergo isotype switching to yield IgG, IgE, or IgA. Recent research suggests that the ability of the B cell coreceptor CD22 to regulate BCR signaling depends on the isotype of the mIg cytoplasmic tail. Cell lines that express a BCR with the cytoplasmic tail from IgG, the isotype found in memory B cells, are not subject to CD22 regulation, whereas cell lines that express BCRs with IgM cytoplasmic tails are subject to CD22 regulation. Moreover, stimulation through BCRs containing an IgG cytoplasmic tail causes increased numbers of antigen-specific clones to accumulate. These observations are a valuable step toward understanding the difference in B cell signaling between na ve and memory cells. Here, we discuss the implications of these findings for CD22 regulation and signaling through the mIgG-containing BCR. PMID:12771436
Silver, Karlee; Cornall, Richard J
Mutations in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) result in the B cell immunodeficiencies XLA in humans and Xid in mice. Both the maintenance of peripheral B cell numbers and their response to B cell antigen receptor (BCR) crosslinking de\\
Anne B Satterthwaite; Zuomei Li; Owen N Witte
Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the causative agent of immunosuppression associated lymphoproliferations such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), AIDS related immunoblastic lymphomas (ARL) and immunoblastic lymphomas in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP). The reported overall mortality for PTLD often exceeds 50%. Reducing the immunosuppression in recipients of solid organ transplants (SOT) or using highly active antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients leads to complete remission in 23–50% of the PTLD/ARL cases but will not suffice for recipients of bone marrow grafts. An additional therapeutic alternative is the treatment with anti-CD20 antibodies (Rituximab) or EBV-specific cytotoxic T-cells. Chemotherapy is used for the non-responding cases only as the second or third line of treatment. The most frequently used chemotherapy regimens originate from the non-Hodgkin lymphoma protocols and there are no cytotoxic drugs that have been specifically selected against EBV induced lymphoproliferative disorders. Methods As lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are well established in vitro models for PTLD, we have assessed 17 LCLs for cytotoxic drug sensitivity. After three days of incubation, live and dead cells were differentially stained using fluorescent dyes. The precise numbers of live and dead cells were determined using a custom designed automated laser confocal fluorescent microscope. Results Independently of their origin, LCLs showed very similar drug sensitivity patterns against 29 frequently used cytostatic drugs. LCLs were highly sensitive for vincristine, methotrexate, epirubicin and paclitaxel. Conclusion Our data shows that the inclusion of epirubicin and paclitaxel into chemotherapy protocols against PTLD may be justified.
Markasz, Laszlo; Stuber, Gyorgy; Flaberg, Emilie; Jernberg, Asa Gustafsson; Eksborg, Staffan; Olah, Eva; Skribek, Henriette; Szekely, Laszlo
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by specific pathological features. A hallmark of pSS is B-cell hyperactivity as manifested by the production of autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, formation of ectopic lymphoid structures within the inflamed tissues, and enhanced risk of B-cell lymphoma. Changes in the distribution of peripheral B-cell subsets and differences in post-recombination processes of immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) gene usage are also characteristic features of pSS. Comparison of B cells from the peripheral blood and salivary glands of patients with pSS with regard to their expression of the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR5, and their migratory capacity towards the corresponding ligands, CXCL12 and CXCL13, provide a mechanism for the prominent accumulation of CXCR4+CXCR5+ memory B cells in the inflamed glands. Glandular B cells expressing distinct features of IgV light and heavy chain rearrangements, (re)circulating B cells with increased mutations of c? transcripts in both CD27- and CD27+ memory B-cell subsets, and enhanced frequencies of individual peripheral B cells containing IgV heavy chain transcripts of multiple isotypes indicate disordered selection and incomplete differentiation processes of B cells in the inflamed tissues in pSS. This may possibly be related to a lack of appropriate censoring mechanisms or different B-cell activation pathways within the ectopic lymphoid structures of the inflamed tissues. These findings add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of this autoimmune inflammatory disorder and may result in new therapeutic approaches.
Hansen, Arne; Lipsky, Peter E; Dorner, Thomas
X chromosome-linked sever combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is characterized by markedly reduced numbers of T cells, the absence of proliferative responses to mitogens, and hypogammaglobulinemia but normal or elevated number of B cells. To determine if the failure of the B cells to produce immunoglobulin might be due to expression of the XSCID gene defect in B-lineage cells as well as T cells, the authors analyzed patterns of X chromosome inactivation in B cells from nine obligate carriers of this disorder. A series of somatic cell hybrids that selectively retained the active X chromosome was produced from Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated B cells from each woman. To distinguish between the two X chromosome, the hybrids from each woman were analyzed using an X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism for which the woman in question was heterozygous. In all obligate carriers of XSCID, the B-cell hybrids demonstrated preferential use of a single X chromosome, the nonmutant X, as the active X. To determine if the small number of B-cell hybrids that contained the mutant X were derived from an immature subset of B cells, lymphocytes from three carriers were separated into surface IgM positive and surface IgM negative B cells prior to exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and production of B-cell hybrids. The results demonstrated normal random X chromosome inactivation in B-cell hybrids derived from the less mature surface IgM positive B cells. These results suggest that the XSCID gene product has a direct effect on B cells as well as T cells and is required during B-cell maturation.
Conley, M.E.; Lavoie, A.; Briggs, C.; Brown, P.; Guerra, C.; Puck, J.M.
The eight cases described herein represent the first reports of lymphoproliferative disease virus (LPDV) infection in wild turkeys and the first identification of LPDV in North America. Systemic lymphoproliferative disease was presumably the cause of morbidity and mortality in five of the eight turk...
Host response to EBV infection in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease results from mutations in an SH2-domain encoding geneCoffey, A.J. et al. (1998)Nat. Genet. 20, 129–135The X-linked lymphoproliferative-disease gene product SAP regulates signals induced through the co-receptor SLAMSayos, J. et al. (1998)Nature 395, 462–469
Kathryn L Evans
Long-term bone marrow cultures have been useful in determining gene expression patterns in pre-B cells and in the identification of cytokines such as interleukin 7 (IL-7). We have developed a culture system to selectively grow populations of B lineage restricted progenitors (pro-B cells) from murine bone marrow. Pro-B cells do not grow in response to IL-7, Steel locus factor (SLF), or a combination of the two. c-kit, the SLF receptor, and the IL-7 receptor are both expressed by pro-B cells, indicating that the lack of response is not simply due to the absence of receptors. Furthermore, SLF is not necessary for the growth of pro-B cells since they could be expanded on a stromal line derived from Steel mice that produces no SLF. IL-7 responsiveness in pre-B cells is associated with an increase in n-myc expression and is correlated with immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements. Although members of the ets family of transcription factors and the Pim-1 kinase are expressed by pro-B cells, n-myc is not expressed. Pro-B cells maintain Ig genes in the germline configuration, which is correlated with a low level of recombination activating genes 1 and 2 (Rag-1 and 2) mRNA expression, but high expression of sterile mu and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Pro-B cells are unable to grow separated from the stromal layer by a porous membrane, indicating that stromal contact is required for growth. These results suggest that pro-B cells are dependent on alternative growth signals derived from bone marrow stroma and can be distinguished from pre-B cells by specific patterns of gene expression.
The B-cell receptor (BCR) complex and its associated protein-tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the development, proliferation, and survival of normal or malignant B cells. Regulated activity of the BCR complex promotes the expansion of selected B cells and the deletion of unwanted or self-reactive ones. Compounds that inhibit various components of this pathway, including spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), and phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), have been developed. Herein we summarize the rationale for use of agents that can inhibit BCR-signaling to treat patients with either indolent or aggressive B-cell lymphomas, highlight early clinical results, and speculate on the future application of such agents in the treatment of patients with various B-cell lymphomas.
Choi, Michael Y.; Kipps, Thomas J.
An enormous number of B cells with different B-cell receptors (BCRs) are continuously produced in the bone marrow. BCRs are further diversified during the germinal center reaction. Due to extensive recirculation, B cells with mutually binding BCR are likely to meet in lymphoid organs. We have addressed possible outcomes of such an encounter in vitro. B lymphoma cells were transfected with complementary BCR, one transfectant expressing an Idiotype(+) (Id(+) ) BCR and the other an anti-Id BCR. To exclude confounding effects of secreted Ig, the transfected B lymphoma cells only expressed membrane IgD. Coincubation of paired Id(+) /anti-Id lymphoma cells results in conjugate formation, signaling, activation of Caspase 3/7, and apoptosis of at least one of the two cells in the pair. Our data provide suggestive evidence for a mechanism whereby the B-cell compartment is partly purged of B cells with complementary BCRs. PMID:23839948
Jacobsen, Johanne T; Sundvold-Gjerstad, Vibeke; Skjeldal, Frode M; Andersen, Jan-Terje; Abrahamsen, Greger; Bakke, Oddmund; Spurkland, Anne; Bogen, Bjarne
One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia. PMID:22613797
Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox
One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that ?-galactosylceramide (?GalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell–dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP?/?.B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP?/?.BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAPfl/fl.tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell–mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.
Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F.; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Carroll, Michael C.; Tsokos, George C.; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A.; Terhorst, Cox
The discovery that T cells cooperate with B cells in the induction of antibody production marked a milestone in the study of immunology. Together with presentation of antigen by specialized antigen-presenting cells (a discovery made at around the same time), it provided the first and most important example of cooperation between different cell types of the immune system. The discovery
N. A. Mitchison
B cell receptor (BCR) signaling is mediated through immunoglobulin (Ig) ? and Iga membrane- bound heterodimer. Igand Igare redundant in their ability to support early B cell development, but their roles in mature B cells have not been defined. To examine the function of Ig ? -Igin mature B cells in vivo we exchanged the cytoplasmic domain of Igfor the
Amy Reichlin; Anna Gazumyan; Hitoshi Nagaoka; Kathrin H. Kirsch; Manfred Kraus; Klaus Rajewsky; Michel C. Nussenzweig
My favored treatment approach for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma continues to evolve. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can now be cured in more than 50% of patients. This is a result of improved definitions of the disease, improved diagnostic capabilities, better staging and restaging techniques, a useful prognostic index to guide therapeutic decisions, and the development of increasingly effective therapies. Positron emission tomographic scans have improved the accuracy of both staging and restaging. Findings on a positron emission tomographic scan at the end of therapy are the best predictors of a good treatment outcome. Numerous subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been identified that require specific treatment approaches. For example, plasmablastic lymphoma typically lacks CD20 and does not benefit from treatment with rituximab. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma originating in specific extranodal sites such as the central nervous system, testes, and skin presents special problems and requires specific treatment approaches. A subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a very high proliferative rate seems to have a poor outcome when treated with CHOP-R and does better with regimens used for patients with Burkitt lymphoma. New insights into the biology of these disorders are likely to further change treatment approaches. Recognition that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is not one disease, but a variety of clinicopathologic syndromes provides the opportunity to further improve our ability to benefit patients.
Armitage, James O.
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by profound lymphocytic infiltration into the lacrimal and salivary glands, thereby diminished secretory function. B cell hyper-activation is a predominant feature of SS related to hypergammaglobulinemia and production of autoantibodies. The adaptor molecule NF-kB activator 1 (Act1) plays an important role in the homeostasis of B cells by attenuating CD40 and B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family receptor (BAFFR) signaling. Act1-deficient mice develop autoimmune manifestations similar to SS, which are hypergammaglobulinemia, high levels of anti-SSA and anti-SSB autoantibodies. In this study, to investigate the role of Act1 in the pathogenesis of SS, we examined Act1mRNA expressions in B cells from patients with SS and discussed the association of Act1 with parameters and clinical manifestations of SS. We showed the low level of Act1mRNA expression in patients with SS and reciprocal association of Act1 with serum IgG level. Diminished Act1mRNA expression in SS may be associated with B cell hyperactivity and elevated immunoglobulin production in SS by uncontrolled B cell activation signal through CD40 and BAFFR. PMID:22374447
Nakagawa, Yasuko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kurita, Takashi; Nakagawa, Hisako; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Horita, Tetsuya; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Koike, Takao
My favored treatment approach for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma continues to evolve. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can now be cured in more than 50% of patients. This is a result of improved definitions of the disease, improved diagnostic capabilities, better staging and restaging techniques, a useful prognostic index to guide therapeutic decisions, and the development of increasingly effective therapies. Positron emission tomographic scans have improved the accuracy of both staging and restaging. Findings on a positron emission tomographic scan at the end of therapy are the best predictors of a good treatment outcome. Numerous subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have been identified that require specific treatment approaches. For example, plasmablastic lymphoma typically lacks CD20 and does not benefit from treatment with rituximab. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma originating in specific extranodal sites such as the central nervous system, testes, and skin presents special problems and requires specific treatment approaches. A subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a very high proliferative rate seems to have a poor outcome when treated with CHOP-R and does better with regimens used for patients with Burkitt lymphoma. New insights into the biology of these disorders are likely to further change treatment approaches. Recognition that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is not one disease, but a variety of clinicopathologic syndromes provides the opportunity to further improve our ability to benefit patients. PMID:22305028
Armitage, James O
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a cytokine whose actions are closely related to B cell differentiation into plasma cells as well as to CD8(+) cytolytic T cell effector and memory generation, influencing the T lymphocyte response to different viruses. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP-1) is a primary immunodeficiency syndrome that is characterized by a high susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus. We observed in a pediatric patient with XLP-1 that IL-21 was expressed in nearly all peripheral blood CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. However, IL-21 could not be found in the lymph nodes, suggesting massive mobilization of activated cells toward the infection's target organs, where IL-21-producing cells were detected, resulting in large areas of tissue damage. PMID:23467775
Ortega, Consuelo; Estévez, Orlando A; Fernández, Silvia; Aguado, Rocío; Rumbao, José M; Gonzalez, Teresa; Pérez-Navero, Juan L; Santamaría, Manuel
Hodgkin’s disease (HD) is a lymphoproliferative disease of predominantly B-cell origin. However, the reasons for the incomplete development of the B-cell phenotype and lack of immunoglobulin expression in classical HD (cHD) have not been fully explained. We examined the expression of PU.1 in HD, an Ets-family transcription factor, which regulates the expression of immunoglobulin and other genes that are important for B-cell development. Immunohistochemistry for PU.1 was performed on 35 cases of cHD and 15 cases of lymphocyte predominance HD as well as 67 non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL). Expression of PU.1 was studied by Western blotting in four cHD-derived cell lines and in five NHL cell lines. We also studied the expression of two additional B-cell transcription factors, B-cell-specific activator protein and Oct-2. Our results show a striking lack of PU.1 expression by neoplastic cells in cHD but not in lymphocyte predominance HD. Our study also confirmed that B-cell-specific activator protein but not Oct-2 is not expressed by cHD. Western blotting showed no PU.1 protein expression in the cHD-derived cell lines, with the exception of one cell line of putative monocyte/histiocyte origin. The lack of PU.1 protein expression in cHD likely contributes to the lack of immunoglobulin expression and incomplete B-cell phenotype characteristic of the Reed-Sternberg cells in cHD.
Torlakovic, Emina; Tierens, Anne; Dang, Hien D.; Delabie, Jan
B lymphocytes provide the cellular basis of the humoral immune response. All stages of this process, from B cell activation to formation of germinal centers and differentiation into memory B cells or plasma cells, are influenced by extrinsic signals and controlled by transcriptional regulation. Compared to naïve B cells, memory B cells display a distinct expression profile, which allows for their rapid secondary responses. Indisputably, many B cell malignancies result from aberrations in the circuitry controlling B cell function, particularly during the GC reaction. Here we review new insights into memory B cell subtypes, recent literature on transcription factors regulating human B cell differentiation, and further evidence for B cell lymphomagenesis emanating from errors during the GC cell reactions.
Schmidlin, Heike; Diehl, Sean A.; Blom, Bianca
Patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) carry a substantially increased risk to develop malignant lymphomas. This is in part due to the immunosuppression required to maintain the function of the organ graft. Depending on the transplanted organ, up to 15% of pediatric transplant recipients acquire posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), and eventually 20% of those succumb to the disease. Early diagnosis of PTLD is often hampered by the unspecific symptoms and the difficult differential diagnosis, which includes atypical infections as well as graft rejection. Treatment of PTLD is limited by the high vulnerability towards antineoplastic chemotherapy in transplanted children. However, new treatment strategies and especially the introduction of the monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab have dramatically improved outcomes of PTLD. This review discusses risk factors for the development of PTLD in children, summarizes current approaches to therapy, and gives an outlook on developing new treatment modalities like targeted therapy with virus-specific T cells. Finally, monitoring strategies are evaluated.
The present study was undertaken to determine if germinal center (GC) B cells are sufficiently activated to stimulate mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Percoll density fractionation and a panning technique with peanut agglutinin (PNA) were used to isolate GC B cells from the lymph nodes of immune mice. The GC B cells were treated with mitomycin C or irradiation and used to stimulate allogeneic or syngeneic splenic T cells in the MLR. Controls included high-density (HD) B cells prepared from spleens of the same mice and HD B cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate. GC B cells bound high amount sof PNA (i.e., PNAhi). Similarly, the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated B cells were PNAhi. Treatment with neuraminidase rendered the PNAlo HD B cells PNAhi. GC B cells and the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated HD B cells stimulated a potent MLR, while the untreated HD B cells did not. However, following neuraminidase treatment, the resulting PNAhi HD B cell population was able to induce an MLR. The PNA marker appeared to be an indicator of stimulatory activity, but incubating the cells with PNA to bind the cell surface ligand did not interfere with the MLR. GC B cells were also capable of stimulating a syngeneic MLR in most experiments although this was not consistently obtained. It appears that germinal centers represent a unique in vivo microenvironment that provides the necessary signals for B cells to become highly effective antigen-presenting cells.
Monfalcone, A.P.; Kosco, M.H.; Szakal, A.K.; Tew, J.G. (Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))
The cellular source of B cell activation factor (BAFF) required for peripheral B cell survival\\/ maturation is unknown. To determine the nature of BAFF-producing cells we established and analyzed reciprocal bone marrow (BM) chimeras with wild-type (WT) and BAFF-deficient mice. The results revealed that BAFF production by radiation-resistant stromal cells is com- pletely sufficient to provide a necessary signal for
Leonid Gorelik; Kevin Gilbride; Max Dobles; Susan L. Kalled; Daniel Zandman; Martin L. Scott
A role for B-cell-receptor (BCR) signalling in lymphomagenesis has been inferred by studying immunoglobulin genes in human lymphomas and by engineering mouse models, but genetic and functional evidence for its oncogenic role in human lymphomas is needed. Here we describe a form of `chronic active' BCR signalling that is required for cell survival in the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of
R. Eric Davis; Vu N. Ngo; Georg Lenz; Pavel Tolar; Ryan M. Young; Paul B. Romesser; Holger Kohlhammer; Laurence Lamy; Hong Zhao; Yandan Yang; Weihong Xu; Arthur L. Shaffer; George Wright; Wenming Xiao; John Powell; Jian-Kang Jiang; Craig J. Thomas; Andreas Rosenwald; German Ott; Hans Konrad Muller-Hermelink; Randy D. Gascoyne; Joseph M. Connors; Nathalie A. Johnson; Lisa M. Rimsza; Elias Campo; Elaine S. Jaffe; Wyndham H. Wilson; Jan Delabie; Erlend B. Smeland; Richard I. Fisher; Rita M. Braziel; Raymond R. Tubbs; J. R. Cook; Dennis D. Weisenburger; Wing C. Chan; Susan K. Pierce; Louis M. Staudt
To advance our understanding and treatment of disease, research immunologists have been called-upon to place more centralized emphasis on impactful human studies. Such endeavors will inevitably require large-scale study execution and data management regulation (“Big Biology”), necessitating standardized and reliable metrics of immune status and function. A well-known example setting this large-scale effort in-motion is identifying correlations between eventual disease outcome and T lymphocyte phenotype in large HIV-patient cohorts using multiparameter flow cytometry. However, infection, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity are also characterized by correlative and functional contributions of B lymphocytes, which to-date have received much less attention in the human Big Biology enterprise. Here, we review progress in human B cell phenotyping, analysis, and bioinformatics tools that constitute valuable resources for the B cell research community to effectively join in this effort.
Kaminski, Denise A.; Wei, Chungwen; Qian, Yu; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Sanz, Ignacio
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is known to be associated with two distinct lymphoproliferative disorders: primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD)\\/MCD-associated plasmablastic lymphoma. We here report a high incidence of KSHV infection in solid HIV-associated immunoblastic\\/plasmablastic non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), in patients lacking effusions and without evidence of (prior) MCD. Within a cohort of 99 HIV-related NHLs, 10 cases
S. T. P. Deloose; L. A. Smit; F. T. Pals; M-J Kersten; C J M van Noesel; S T Pals
Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare, neurological disorder characterized by sudden cramps and spasms. High titers of enzyme-inhibiting IgG autoantibodies against the 65 kD isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) are a hallmark of SPS, implicating an autoimmune component in the pathology of the syndrome. Studying the B cell compartment and the anti-GAD65 B cell response in two monozygotic
Marta Rizzi; Rolf Knoth; Christiane S. Hampe; Peter Lorenz; Marie-Lise Gougeon; Brigitte Lemercier; Nils Venhoff; Francesca Ferrera; Ulrich Salzer; Hans-Jürgen Thiesen; Hans-Hartmut Peter; Ulrich A. Walker; Hermann Eibel; Jacques Zimmer
Transplantation reliably evokes allo-specific B cell and T cell responses in mice. Yet, human recipients of kidney transplants with normal function usually exhibit little or no antibody specific for the transplant donor during the early weeks and months after transplantation. Indeed, the absence of antidonor antibodies is taken to reflect effective immunosuppressive therapy and to predict a favorable outcome. Whether the absence of donor-specific antibodies reflects absence of a B cell response to the donor, tolerance to the donor or immunity masked by binding of donor-specific antibodies to the graft is not known. To distinguish between these possibilities, we devised a novel ELISPOT, using cultured donor, recipient and third-party fibroblasts as targets. We enumerated donor-specific antibody-secreting cells in the blood of nine renal allograft recipients with normal kidney function before and after transplantation. Although none of the nine subjects had detectable donor-specific antibodies before or after transplantation, all exhibited increases in the frequency of donor-specific antibody-secreting cells eight weeks after transplantation. The responses were directed against the donor HLA-class I antigens. The increase in frequency of donor-specific antibody-secreting cells after renal transplantation indicates that B cells respond specifically to the transplant donor more often than previously thought. PMID:23750851
Lynch, R J; Silva, I A; Chen, B J; Punch, J D; Cascalho, M; Platt, J L
While primary immune defects are generally considered to lead to severe and easily recognized disease in infants and children, a number of genetic defects impairing B cell function may not be clinically apparent or diagnosed until adult life. The commonest of these is common variable immune deficiency, the genetic origins of which are beginning to be at least partially understood. CVID affects ? 1/25,000 Caucasians and is characterized by a marked reduction in serum IgG, almost always in serum IgA, and reduced serum IgM in about half of all cases; these defects continue to provide an opportunity to investigate the genes necessary for B cell function in humans. Recently, a small number of genes necessary for normal B cell function have been identified in consanguineous families leading to varying degrees of hypogammaglobulinemia and loss of antibody production. In other studies, whole-exome sequencing and copy number variation, applied to large cohorts, have extended research into understanding both the genetic basis of this syndrome and the clinical phenotypes of CVID.
We investigated the effect of a lymphokine termed 'suppressive B-cell factor' (SBF), which is produced by FcR gamma (Fc receptor for IgG)-stimulated B cells or hybridoma TS4.44, and is known to suppress B-cell responses in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting their proliferation. Small B cells, fractionated by Percoll density gradient, from athymic nude mice (BALB/c) secreted SBF after binding EA (sheep erythrocytes sensitized with IgG mouse anti-sheep erythrocyte antibody), and the proliferation of small but not large B cells was preferentially suppressed by SBF in response to LPS in vitro. Proliferation of purified B cells from BALB/c nu/nu mice, induced by a synergistic interaction between F(ab')2 fragment of goat anti-mouse IgM antibody and B-cell stimulating factor (BSF1), was almost completely abrogated by the co-existence of SBF during the 72-hr culture period. However, the co-culture with SBF for the last 24 or 48 hr, as well as of B cells pretreated with SBF for 1 hr at 37 degrees, partially inhibited the growth response. These findings suggest that SBF operates on resting B cells and holds them in a resting state. This notion would be further supported by the fact that SBF inhibited G0-G1 transition. Taken together, we conclude that SBF acts on the early step of B-cell activation, thereby inhibiting B-cell growth. Arrest of resting B cells in the G0 phase and failure of an increase in functional receptors for BSF1 seem to be responsible for the suppression of B-cell responses.
Ohno, T; Miyama-Inaba, M; Masuda, T; Fukuma, K; Ajisaka, K; Suzuki, R; Kumagai, K; Kanoh, T; Uchino, H
Twenty-one cases of large, B-cell lymphoma with an unusually high content of reactive T lymphocytes are described in this report. Fifteen patients presented with lymphoma in nodal sites and six patients presented with lymphoma in extranodal sites. With two exceptions, all patients were more than 50 years of age. The male to female ratio was 1:2. Histologically, isolated to small groups of large lymphoid cells were intermingled with many small lymphocytes. The large cells were neoplastic and exhibited B-lineage markers; immunoglobulin light chain restriction could be demonstrated in two thirds of the cases. There was a rich infiltrate of immunophenotypically mature T lymphocytes that comprised more than 50% of the cellular population. The T lymphocytes ranged from small cells with dark, round nuclei to slightly larger cells with elongated, irregular nuclei. There were occasional medium-sized blastic cells. There was also a variable infiltrate of histiocytes with or without epithelioid features, eosinophils and plasma cells, and increased vascularity. The peculiar morphologic features were also reproduced in other sites in the four patients for whom additional histologic materials were available for examination. We postulate that the abundance of T cells results either from a florid host reaction or from cytokine secretion by the neoplastic B cells, attracting T cells to the vicinity. The morphologic and immunologic features mimic those of a variety of benign lymphoproliferative diseases, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy and lymphomas arising in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, peripheral T-cell lymphoma, secondary B-immunoblastic lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease. Careful morphologic evaluation and immunophenotypic studies using leukocyte antibodies reactive in paraffin-embedded sections are of great assistance in determining a diagnosis. PMID:2591944
Ng, C S; Chan, J K; Hui, P K; Lau, W H
As well as classically defined switched immunoglobulin isotype-expressing B cells, memory B cells are now thought to include IgM-expressing cells and memory cells that lack B cell lineage markers, such as B220 or CD19. We set out to compare the relative importance of memory B cell subsets with an established flow cytometry method to identify antigen-specific cells. After immunization with
Jennifer Bell; David Gray
Actin reorganization has been shown to be important for lymphocyte activation in response to antigenic stimulation. However, methods for quantitative analysis of actin dynamics in live lymphocytes are still underdeveloped. In this study, we describe new methods to examine the actin dynamics in B cells induced by antigenic stimulation. Using the A20 B cell line expressing GFP-actin, we analyzed in real time the redistribution of F-actin and the lateral mobility of actin flow in the surface of B cells in response to soluble and/or membrane associated antigens. Using fluorescently labeled G-actin, we identified the subcellular location and quantified the level of de novo actin polymerization sites in primary B cells. Using A20 B cells expressing G-actin fused with the photoconvertible protein mEos, we examined the kinetics of actin polymerization and depolymerization at the same time. Our studies present a set of methods that are capable of quantitatively analyzing the role of actin dynamics in lymphocyte activation. PMID:22995298
Liu, Chaohong; Miller, Heather; Sharma, Shruti; Beaven, Amy; Upadhyaya, Arpita; Song, Wenxia
The gut is the most common extranodal site where lymphomas arise. Although all histological lymphoma types may develop in the gut, small and large B-cell lymphomas predominate. The sometimes unexpected finding of a lymphoid lesion in an endoscopic biopsy of the gut may challenge both the clinician (who is not always familiar with lymphoma pathogenesis) and the pathologist (who will often be hampered in his/her diagnostic skill by the limited amount of available tissue). Moreover, the past 2 decades have spawned an avalanche of new data that encompasses both the function of the reactive B-cell as well as the pathogenic pathways that lead to its neoplastic counterpart, the B-cell lymphoma. Therefore, this review aims to offer clinicians an overview of B-cell lymphomas in the gut, and their pertinent molecular features that have led to new insights regarding lymphomagenesis. It addresses the question as how to incorporate all presently available information on normal and neoplastic B-cell differentiation, and how this knowledge can be applied in daily clinical practice (e.g., diagnostic tools, prognostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets) to optimalise the managment of this heterogeneous group of neoplasms. PMID:23443141
Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Yantiss, Rhonda K
Ig class switch recombination (CSR) is triggered by the engagement of CD40 on B cells by CD40 ligand on T cells. In addition, recent studies have shown that dendritic cells (DCs) are able to directly control the CSR of B cells through B lymphocyte stimulator protein (or B cell activation factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family) and a
Kunie Obayashi; Tomomitsu Doi; Shigeo Koyasu
Several functional and phenotypic B cell populations have been described in the spleen. These include the 'transitional' subsets, which are thought to be late differentiation intermediates of marrow-derived, mature follicular B cells. The exact progenitor-successor relationships of these transitional subsets, as well as whether a proliferative step is requisite for follicular B cell maturation, remain controversial. Moreover, whether late B
Gitit Shahaf; David Allman; Michael P. Cancro; Ramit Mehr
Skewed T cell receptor repertoire of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and the potential role for Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in clonal restriction
The proliferation of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes has been described in various infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and malaria. However, the antigen specificity and functions of the human V?1+ T cells remain obscure. We sought to explore the biological role for this T cell subset by investigating the reconstitution of T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of V?1+ ?? T lymphocytes after human allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We observed skewed TCR repertoires of the V?1+ T cells in 27 of 44 post-transplant patients. Only one patient developed EBV-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in the present patient cohort. The -WGI- amino acid motif was observed in CDR3 of clonally expanded V?1+ T cells in half the patients. A skew was also detected in certain healthy donors, and the V?1+ T cell clone derived from the donor mature T cell pool persisted in the recipient's blood even 10 years after transplant. This T cell clone expanded in vitro against stimulation with autologous EBV–lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), and the V?1+ T cell line expanded in vitro from the same patient showed cytotoxicity against autologous EBV–LCL. EBV-infected cells could also induce in vitro oligoclonal expansions of autologous V?1+ T cells from healthy EBV-seropositive individuals. These results suggest that human V?1+ T cells have a TCR repertoire against EBV-infected B cells and may play a role in protecting recipients of allogeneic HSCT from EBV-associated disease.
Fujishima, N; Hirokawa, M; Fujishima, M; Yamashita, J; Saitoh, H; Ichikawa, Y; Horiuchi, T; Kawabata, Y; Sawada, K-I
Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) controls genes involved in normal lymphocyte functions, but constitutive NF-?B activation is often associated with B cell malignancy. Using high-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing, we investigated a unique family with hereditary polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis. We found a novel germline heterozygous missense mutation (E127G) in affected patients in the gene encoding CARD11, a scaffolding protein required for antigen receptor (AgR)-induced NF-?B activation in both B and T lymphocytes. We subsequently identified a second germline mutation (G116S) in an unrelated, phenotypically similar patient, confirming mutations in CARD11 drive disease. Like somatic, gain-of-function CARD11 mutations described in B cell lymphoma, these germline CARD11 mutants spontaneously aggregate and drive constitutive NF-?B activation. However, these CARD11 mutants rendered patient T cells less responsive to AgR-induced activation. By reexamining this rare genetic disorder first reported four decades ago, our findings provide new insight into why activating CARD11 mutations may induce B cell expansion and preferentially predispose to B cell malignancy without dramatically perturbing T cell homeostasis. PMID:23129749
Snow, Andrew L; Xiao, Wenming; Stinson, Jeffrey R; Lu, Wei; Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Zheng, Lixin; Pittaluga, Stefania; Matthews, Helen F; Schmitz, Roland; Jhavar, Sameer; Kuchen, Stefan; Kardava, Lela; Wang, Wei; Lamborn, Ian T; Jing, Huie; Raffeld, Mark; Moir, Susan; Fleisher, Thomas A; Staudt, Louis M; Su, Helen C; Lenardo, Michael J
Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disorder caused by genetic, environmental and age-related factors, and it is more prevalent in men. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) that might be involved in PD pathogenesis. Transcriptomes of 30 female PD-patients and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were profiled using GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Samples were from unrelated Ashkenazi individuals, non-carriers of LRRK2 G2019S or GBA founder mutations. Results Differential expression was detected in 115 genes (206 exons), with over-representation of immune response annotations. Thirty genes were related to B cell functions, including the uniquely B cell-expressed IGHM and IGHD, the B cell surface molecules CD19, CD22 and CD79A, and the B cell gene regulator, PAX5. Quantitative-RT-PCR confirmation of these 6 genes in 79 individuals demonstrated decreased expression, mainly in women patients, independent of PD-pharmacotherapy status. Conclusions Our results suggest that the down regulation of genes related to B cell activity reflect the involvement of these cells in PD in Ashkenazi individuals and represents a molecular aspect of gender-specificity in PD.
Work in the past years has led to a refined phenotypical description of functionally distinct T- and B-cell subsets. Since both lymphocyte compartments are established and undergo dramatic changes during childhood, redefined pediatric reference values of both compartments are needed. In a cohort of 145 healthy children, aged 0-18 years, the relative and absolute numbers of the various T- and B-cell subsets were determined. In addition, we found that besides thymic output, naive (CD27(+)CD45RO(-)) T-cell proliferation contributed significantly to the establishment of the naive T-cell compartment. At birth, regulatory (CD25(+)CD127(-)CD4(+)) T cells (Tregs) mainly had a naive (CD27(+)CD45RO(-)) phenotype whereas 'memory or effector-like' (CD45RO(+)) Tregs accumulated slowly during childhood. Besides the CD27(+)IgM(+)IgD(+) memory B-cell population, the recently identified CD27(-)IgG(+) and CD27(-)IgA(+) memory B-cell populations were already present at birth. These data provide reference values of the T- and B-cell compartments during childhood for studies of immunological disorders or immune reconstitution in children. PMID:19586803
van Gent, R; van Tilburg, C M; Nibbelke, E E; Otto, S A; Gaiser, J F; Janssens-Korpela, P L; Sanders, E A M; Borghans, J A M; Wulffraat, N M; Bierings, M B; Bloem, A C; Tesselaar, K
Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) controls genes involved in normal lymphocyte functions, but constitutive NF-?B activation is often associated with B cell malignancy. Using high-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing, we investigated a unique family with hereditary polyclonal B cell lymphocytosis. We found a novel germline heterozygous missense mutation (E127G) in affected patients in the gene encoding CARD11, a scaffolding protein required for antigen receptor (AgR)–induced NF-?B activation in both B and T lymphocytes. We subsequently identified a second germline mutation (G116S) in an unrelated, phenotypically similar patient, confirming mutations in CARD11 drive disease. Like somatic, gain-of-function CARD11 mutations described in B cell lymphoma, these germline CARD11 mutants spontaneously aggregate and drive constitutive NF-?B activation. However, these CARD11 mutants rendered patient T cells less responsive to AgR-induced activation. By reexamining this rare genetic disorder first reported four decades ago, our findings provide new insight into why activating CARD11 mutations may induce B cell expansion and preferentially predispose to B cell malignancy without dramatically perturbing T cell homeostasis.
Xiao, Wenming; Stinson, Jeffrey R.; Lu, Wei; Chaigne-Delalande, Benjamin; Zheng, Lixin; Pittaluga, Stefania; Matthews, Helen F.; Schmitz, Roland; Jhavar, Sameer; Kuchen, Stefan; Kardava, Lela; Wang, Wei; Lamborn, Ian T.; Jing, Huie; Raffeld, Mark; Moir, Susan; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Staudt, Louis M.; Su, Helen C.
Background X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency presenting with a variety of clinical manifestations, the most common being dysgammaglobulinemia and B-cell lymphoma. The first gene causing XLP, when defective, was termed SH2D1A or SAP for signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein. The absence of SH2D1A leads to an overwhelming and uncontrolled TH1- shifted cytotoxic immune response, which might, at least in part, explain the severe clinical picture. A second gene, XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis), was later identified. Methods An 8 year old Mexican boy was admitted in June 2008 for bronchopneumonia, with no previous history of recurrent or severe infections. He had a family history of a brother deceased at 7 years from fulminate hepatitis, who was diagnosed with agammaglobulinemia. A laboratory evaluation for primary immunodeficiency was made, including serum immunoglobulins: IgG 30 mg/dL, IgA <5 mg/dL IgM 8.6 mg/dL; and flow citometry for lymphocyte subpopulations: CD3+ 2590 mm3 (56%) CD4+ 1004 mm3 (42%), CD8+ 1267 mm3(53%) CD16/56 171mm3 (41%) CD19+ 1493 mm3 (35%). The patient was started on monthly intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG) therapy. He was admitted in December 2008 with fever and severe abdominal pain; an exploratory laparotomy revealed a rectal-sigmoid tumor. The biopsy reported an atypical Burkitt lymphoma (Immunophenotype “B”: Bcl 2+, CD10+) with surgical margins negative for malignancy. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were negative for malignancy. In February 2009, management with chemotherapy was started with the diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma stage III. Patient received 6 courses of chemotherapy with complete response to induction; for consolidation, 4 doses of rituximab were given. PCR amplification and direct automated sequencing by the Sanger method was performed in both genes known to be responsible for XLP in chromosome X. Results A hemizygous splice-site deletion in SAP was found, in intron 2: c.187_201+10del25, which deletes exon 2 splice donor site, and is predicted to result in the skipping of exon 2, and thus in a truncated, nonfunctional protein. XIAP was also sequenced and no mutation was found. Conclusions Final diagnosis: XLP.The patient is currently in the program for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
Gamez, Luisa; Yamazaki, Marco Antonio; Espinosa, Sara; Lugo-Reyes, Saul; Hernandez, Victor
Despite tremendous advances in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there remains interest in oral agents that may offer benefits that are similar to, or better than, those of biologic therapies. In their paper, Chang and colleagues demonstrate the effectiveness of a Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor in two models of RA. Btk inhibition impacts several pathways affecting both B-cell and macrophage activation, making it a promising target in RA. However, other kinase inhibitors have failed to transition from animal models to human therapy, so it remains to be seen whether a Btk inhibitor will have a role in the RA treatment armamentarium. PMID:21878134
Ruderman, Eric M; Pope, Richard M
Despite tremendous advances in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there remains interest in oral agents that may offer benefits that are similar to, or better than, those of biologic therapies. In their paper, Chang and colleagues demonstrate the effectiveness of a Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) inhibitor in two models of RA. Btk inhibition impacts several pathways affecting both B-cell and macrophage activation, making it a promising target in RA. However, other kinase inhibitors have failed to transition from animal models to human therapy, so it remains to be seen whether a Btk inhibitor will have a role in the RA treatment armamentarium.
The present paradigm is that primary B cells are nonphagocytosing cells. In this study, we demonstrate that human primary B cells are able to internalize bacteria when the bacteria are recognized by the BCR. BCR-mediated internalization of Salmonella typhimurium results in B cell differentiation and secretion or anti-Salmonella Ab by the Salmonella-specific B cells. In addition, BCR-mediated internalization leads to
Y. Souwer; A. Griekspoor; T. Jorritsma; Wit de J; H. Janssen; J. Neefjes; Ham van S. M
The concentration of calcium in the cytosol influences the metabolism of phosphoinositides which play essential roles as intracellular messengers in B lymphocytes. To investigate the calcium requirements for various stages of B cell activation the authors studied the effect of altering calcium availability for B cells stimulated by different classes of mitogens. 1mM EGTA inhibited B cell thymidine incorporation stimulated
G. Dennis; J. Mizuguchi; F. D. Finkelman; J. J. Mond
Recognition and clearance of a bacterial infection are a fundamental properties of innate immunity. Here, we describe an effector B cell population that protects against microbial sepsis. Innate response activator (IRA) B cells are phenotypically and functionally distinct, develop and diverge from B1a B cells, depend on pattern-recognition receptors, and produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Specific deletion of IRA B cell activity impairs bacterial clearance, elicits a cytokine storm, and precipitates septic shock. These observations enrich our understanding of innate immunity, position IRA B cells as gatekeepers of bacterial infection, and identify new treatment avenues for infectious diseases. PMID:22245738
Rauch, Philipp J; Chudnovskiy, Aleksey; Robbins, Clinton S; Weber, Georg F; Etzrodt, Martin; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Tiglao, Elizabeth; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Theurl, Igor; Gorbatov, Rostic; Waring, Michael T; Chicoine, Adam T; Mouded, Majd; Pittet, Mikael J; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K
Chronic helminth infections, such as schistosomes, are negatively associated with allergic disorders. Here, using B cell IL-10-deficient mice, Schistosoma mansoni-mediated protection against experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI) was shown to be specifically dependent on IL-10-producing B cells. To study the organs involved, we transferred B cells from lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes or spleen of OVA-infected mice to recipient OVA-sensitized mice, and showed that both lung and splenic B cells reduced AAI, but only splenic B cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. Although splenic B cell protection was accompanied by elevated levels of pulmonary FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, in vivo ablation of FoxP3+ T cells only moderately restored AAI, indicating an important role for the direct suppressory effect of regulatory B cells. Splenic marginal zone CD1d+ B cells proved to be the responsible splenic B cell subset as they produced high levels of IL-10 and induced FoxP3+ T cells in vitro. Indeed, transfer of CD1d+ MZ-depleted splenic B cells from infected mice restored AAI. Markedly, we found a similarly elevated population of CD1dhi B cells in peripheral blood of Schistosoma haematobium-infected Gabonese children compared to uninfected children and these cells produced elevated levels of IL-10. Importantly, the number of IL-10-producing CD1dhi B cells was reduced after anti-schistosome treatment. This study points out that in both mice and men schistosomes have the capacity to drive the development of IL-10-producing regulatory CD1dhi B cells and furthermore, these are instrumental in reducing experimental allergic inflammation in mice.
van der Vlugt, Lucien E. P. M.; Labuda, Lucja A.; Ozir-Fazalalikhan, Arifa; Lievers, Ellen; Gloudemans, Anouk K.; Liu, Kit-Yeng; Barr, Tom A.; Sparwasser, Tim; Boon, Louis; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Feugap, Eliane Ngoune; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Gray, David; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Smits, Hermelijn H.
We report here a 47-year-old male with the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytosis accompanying disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS) is a life-threatening disorder, and LAHS secondary to B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare compared to that secondary to T- or NK/T-cell lymphoma in Western countries. T- or NK/T-cell LAHS is sometimes combined with DIC, which makes patients' outcomes even worse, but few reports of B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC has been published so far. We successfully treated a patient with this condition with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), a novel agent for DIC. We believe that rTM is a therapeutic option in cases with B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC. PMID:23696942
Uni, Masahiro; Yoshimi, Akihide; Maki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Daichi; Nakazaki, Kumi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo
We report here a 47-year-old male with the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma and hemophagocytosis accompanying disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (LAHS) is a life-threatening disorder, and LAHS secondary to B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare compared to that secondary to T- or NK/T-cell lymphoma in Western countries. T- or NK/T-cell LAHS is sometimes combined with DIC, which makes patients’ outcomes even worse, but few reports of B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC has been published so far. We successfully treated a patient with this condition with recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM), a novel agent for DIC. We believe that rTM is a therapeutic option in cases with B-cell LAHS accompanying DIC.
Uni, Masahiro; Yoshimi, Akihide; Maki, Hiroaki; Maeda, Daichi; Nakazaki, Kumi; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo
B-cell colony growth of malignant and normal B-cells has been studied in a double layer (agar-fluid) colony assay. Stimulatory factors consisted of irradiated blood leukocytes, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), interleukin 2 (IL2) and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in various combinations. B-cell colonies have been obtained in all cases tested, i.e., 7/7 cases with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, 7/7 cases with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 5/5 cases with hairy cell leukaemia and 7/7 normal B-cell suspensions, obtained from blood (X 3), bone marrow (X 2) and spleen (X 2). The plating efficacy ranged from 0.02-0.35, with a median of 0.07. Colony formation was found to be linear (r = 0.96) in the plating range of 0.5-8 X 10(5) cells. Secondary colonies could be obtained in 2 cases tested. DNA synthesizing cells in colonies were determined in 4 cases using monoclonal antibodies against DNA-incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd). In most cases the combination of PHA (with or without IL2) and irradiated leukocytes yielded the highest number of colonies, but in some experiments stimulation with TPA + IL2 was found to be optimal. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4
Kluin-Nelemans, J. C.; Hakvoort, H. W.; van Dierendonck, J. H.; Beverstock, G. C.; Fibbe, W. E.; Willemze, R.; van Rood, J. J.
It is controversial whether naïve B cells are directly activated in response to TLR9 ligand, CpG ODN. Although bovine blood-derived CD21(+) B cells express TLR9 and proliferate in response to CpG in mixed-cell populations, purified bovine B cells do not proliferate significantly in response to CpG ODN, even when the B cell receptor is engaged. When co-cultured with CD14(+) myeloid cells and/or B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine produced by activated myeloid cells, there was a significant increase in CpG-specific B cell proliferation, and the number of large B cells in general or positive for CD25, all of which are markers for B cell activation. These data suggest that activated myeloid cells and BAFF prime B cells for significant CpG-specific activation. Understanding the signals required to mediate efficient CpG-induced, antigen-independent and T-cell independent activation of B cells has implications for polyclonal B cell activation and the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:21724179
Buchanan, Rachelle M; Popowych, Yurij; Arsic, Natasha; Townsend, Hugh G G; Mutwiri, George K; Potter, Andrew A; Babiuk, Lorne A; Griebel, Philip J; Wilson, Heather L
The RecQ family helicase BLM is critically involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and BLM mutation causes the heritable disorder, Bloom’s syndrome. Affected individuals suffer from a predisposition to a multitude of cancer types and an ill-defined immunodeficiency involving low serum antibody titers. To investigate its role in B cell biology, we inactivated murine Blm specifically in B lymphocytes in vivo. Numbers of developing B lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and mature B cells in the periphery were drastically reduced upon Blm-inactivation. Of the major peripheral B cell subsets, B1a cells were most prominently affected. In the sera of Blm-deficient naïve mice, concentrations of all Ig isotypes were low, particularly IgG3. Specific IgG antibody responses upon immunization were poor and mutant B cells exhibited a generally reduced antibody class switch-capacity in vitro. We did not find evidence for a crucial role of Blm in the mechanism of class switch recombination. However, a modest shift towards microhomology-mediated switch junction formation was observed in Blm-deficient B cells. Finally, a cohort of p53-deficient, conditional Blm knockout mice revealed an increased propensity for B cell lymphoma development. Impaired cell cycle progression and survival as well as high rates of chromosomal structural abnormalities in mutant B cell blasts was identified as the basis for the observed effects. Collectively, our data highlight the importance of BLM-dependent genome surveillance for B cell immunity by ensuring proper development and function of the various B cell subsets while counteracting lymphomagenesis.
Babbe, Holger; McMenamin, Jennifer; Hobeika, Elias; Wang, Jing; Rodig, Scott J.; Reth, Michael; Leder, Philip
Objective Bryostatin-1 and related diacylglycerol (DAG) analogues activate RasGRPs in lymphocytes, thereby activating Ras and mimicking some aspects of immune receptor signaling. To define the role of RasGRPs in lymphocyte apoptosis and to identify potential therapeutic uses for DAG analogues in lymphocyte disorders, we characterized the response of lymphoma-derived cell lines to DAG analogues. Materials and Methods Human lymphoma-derived B cell lines and mouse primary B cells were treated with bryostatin-1 or its synthetic analogue “pico.” Ras signaling partners and Bcl-2 family members were studied with biochemical assays. Cellular responses were monitored using growth and apoptosis assays. Results Stimulation of B cells with DAG analogues results in activation of protein kinase C/RasGRP-Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk signaling and phosphorylation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim. In vitro, Bim is phosphorylated by Erk on sites previously associated with increased apoptotic activity. In Toledo B cells derived from a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL), DAG analogue stimulation leads to extensive apoptosis. Apoptosis can be suppressed by either downregulation of Bim or overexpression of Bcl-2. It is associated with the formation of Bak–Bax complexes and increased mitochondrial membrane permeability. Toledo B-NHL cell apoptosis shows a striking dependence on sustained signaling. Conclusion In B cells, Erk activation leads directly to phosphorylation of Bim on sites associated with activation of Bim. In Toledo B-NHL cells, the dependence of apoptosis on sustained signaling suggests that Bcl-2 family members could interpret signal duration, an important determinant of B cell receptor–mediated negative selection. Certain cases of B-NHL might respond to DAG analogue treatment by the mechanism outlined here.
Stang, Stacey L.; Lopez-Campistrous, Ana; Song, Xiaohua; Dower, Nancy A.; Blumberg, Peter M.; Wender, Paul A.; Stone, James C.
The immune receptors of lymphocytes are able to sense the nature of bound ligands. Through coupled signaling pathways the generated signals are appropriately delivered to the intracellular machinery, allowing specific functional responses. A central issue in contemporary immunology is how the fate of B lymphocytes is determined at the successive developmental stages and how the B cell receptor distinguishes between signals that induce immune response or tolerance. Experiments with mice expressing transgenes or lacking signal transduction molecules that lead to abnormal lymphocyte development and/or response are providing important clues to the mechanisms that regulate signaling thresholds at different developmental stages. The studies are also revealing novel potential mechanisms of induction of autoimmunity, which may have a bearing on the understanding of human diseases. PMID:11641235
Hasler, P; Zouali, M
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in all countries and all age groups. DLBCL is potentially curable, and the outcome of patients with DLBCL has completely changed with the introduction of therapy involving the monoclonal antibody rituximab in combination with chemotherapy. Nonetheless, relapse is detected after treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone in approximately 30% of patients. It has recently become clear that DLBCL represents a heterogeneous admixture of quite different entities. Gene expression profiling has uncovered DLBCL subtypes that have distinct clinical behaviors and prognoses; however, incorporation of this information into treatment algorithms awaits further investigation. Future approaches to DLBCL treatment will use this new genetic information to identify potential biomarkers for prognosis and targets for treatment.
We retrospectively analyzed in 54 consecutively enrolled Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) relevant clinicopathological characteristics, in particular paying attention to treatment with methotrexate (MTX). Between the 28 patients treated with MTX (MTX-treated group) and the 26 who were not (non-MTX group), there was no difference in age, interval between onset of RA and LPD, and lymphoma stage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in the MTX-treated group, 15 (53 %) patients had mature B-cell LPD, eight (29 %) mature T/NK-cell LPD, and five (18 %) had Hodgkin lymphoma. In the non-MTX group, 22 (84 %) had mature B-cell LPD, 2 (8 %) had mature T/NK-cell LPD, and 2 (8 %) had Hodgkin lymphoma. The frequency of mature T/NK-cell LPD was significantly higher in the MTX-treated group (p?0.05). Of the eight patients in the MTX-treated group with mature T/NK-cell LPD, two had large granular lymphocytic leukemia and the other six had a variety of different histological types with frequent CD8 but not CD56 expression. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was significantly higher in the MTX-treated group (p?0.05); evidence of latent type II EBV infection was found in four of the eight patients with mature T/NK-cell LPD. Withdrawal of MTX led to complete remission in seven patients with mature T/NK-cell LPD irrespective of EBV infection. Our findings highlight that mature T/NK-cell LPD is a frequent complication in RA patients treated with MTX. EBV infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of T/NK-cell LPD, as well as B-cell LPD and Hodgkin lymphoma in MTX-treated RA patients. PMID:23494713
Kondo, Seiji; Tanimoto, Kazuki; Yamada, Kozue; Yoshimoto, Goichi; Suematsu, Eiichi; Fujisaki, Tomoaki; Oshiro, Yumi; Tamura, Kazuo; Takeshita, Morishige; Okamura, Seiichi
Background Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It frequently causes dose reductions or treatment delay, which can be prevented or treated by the administration of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, a better knowledge of the incidence, day of onset after therapy, and duration of neutropenia is essential to optimize the use of G-CSF. Design and methods Six hundred and ninety-four patients from a single institution, affected by lympho-proliferative diseases, were retrospectively reviewed for the occurrence of grade 4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN). Duration of neutropenia and time of neutrophil nadir were also retrieved. The diagnoses included non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Chemotherapy regimens were obviously different according to the diagnosis, disease stage, and first or subsequent lines of therapy. Results No patient received G-CSF as primary prophylaxis. Median nadir did not significantly differ among patients treated with first or successive lines of therapy. The incidence of grade 4 neutropenia and FN ranged from 0 to 94%, depending on the chemotherapy regimen. Patients receiving a first-line chemotherapy regimen had a significantly lower incidence of febrile grade 4 neutropenia compared to patients treated with a second or subsequent line of therapy. The duration of grade 4 neutropenia was significantly longer in patients given second or subsequent lines. Conclusion The results of this study could be useful to define the nadir onset in the hematologic setting in order to correctly tailor timing and duration of G-CSF prophylaxis and to assess the lowest fully effective dose.
Ria, Roberto; Reale, Antonia; Moschetta, Michele; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo
The cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) is essential for resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection because it stimulates the synthesis of interferon-? (IFN-?), a major activator of the parasiticidal effect of macrophages. A less studied property of IL-12 is its ability to amplify the proliferation of T or natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We investigated the role of endogenously produced IL-12 in the maintenance of parasite antigen (T-Ag)-specific lymphoproliferative responses during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection. We also studied whether treatment with recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12) would stimulate T-Ag-specific or concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymphoproliferation and abrogate the suppression that is characteristic of the acute phase of infection. Production of IL-12 by spleen-cell cultures during T. cruzi infection increased in the first days of infection (days 3–5) and decreased as infection progressed beyond day 7. The growth-promoting activity of endogenous IL-12 on T-Ag-specific proliferation was observed on day 5 of infection. Treatment of cultures with rIL-12 promoted a significant increase in Con A-stimulated proliferation by spleen cells from normal or infected mice. Enhanced T-Ag-specific proliferation by rIL-12 was seen in spleen cell cultures from infected mice providing that nitric oxide production was inhibited by treatment with the competitive inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA). Enhancement of proliferation promoted by IL-12 occurred in the presence of neutralizing anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2) antibody, suggesting that this activity of IL-12 was partly independent of endogenous IL-2. Thymidine incorporation levels achieved with rIL-12 treatment of the cultures were ? 50% of those stimulated by rIL-2 in the same cultures.
Galvao da Silva, Ana Paula; de Almeida Abrahamsohn, Ises
The generation of high-affinity antibodies depends on the ability of B cells to extract antigens from the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells. B cells that express high-affinity B cell receptors (BCRs) acquire more antigen and obtain better T cell help. However, the mechanisms by which B cells extract antigen remain unclear. Using fluid and flexible membrane substrates to mimic antigen-presenting cells, we showed that B cells acquire antigen by dynamic myosin IIa-mediated contractions that pull out and invaginate the presenting membranes. The forces generated by myosin IIa contractions ruptured most individual BCR-antigen bonds and promoted internalization of only high-affinity, multivalent BCR microclusters. Thus, B cell contractility contributes to affinity discrimination by mechanically testing the strength of antigen binding. PMID:23686338
Natkanski, Elizabeth; Lee, Wing-Yiu; Mistry, Bhakti; Casal, Antonio; Molloy, Justin E; Tolar, Pavel
B-cell lymphoma in children accounts for about 10% of all pediatric malignancies. Chemotherapy has been very successful leading to an over-all 5-year survival between 80 and 90% depending on lymphoma type and extent of disease. Therapeutic toxicity remains high calling for better targeted and thus less toxic therapies. Therapeutic antibodies have become a standard element of B-cell lymphoma therapy in adults. Clinical experience in pediatric lymphoma patients is still very limited. This review outlines the rationale for antibody treatment of B-cell lymphomas in children and describes potential target structures on B-cell lymphoma cells. It summarizes the clinical experience of antibody therapy of B-cell lymphoma in children and gives an outlook on new developments and challenges for antibody therapy of pediatric B-cell lymphoma. PMID:23565504
Meyer-Wentrup, Friederike; de Zwart, Verena; Bierings, Marc
The Aicda locus encodes the activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and is highly expressed in germinal center (GC) B cells to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. Besides these Ig specific activities in B cells, AID has been implicated in active DNA demethylation in non-B cell systems. We here determined a potential role of AID as an epigenetic eraser and transcriptional regulator in B cells. RNA-Seq on different B cell subsets revealed that Aicda(-/-) B cells are developmentally affected. However as shown by RNA-Seq, MethylCap-Seq, and SNP analysis these transcriptome alterations may not relate to AID, but alternatively to a CBA mouse strain derived region around the targeted Aicda locus. These unexpected confounding parameters provide alternative, AID-independent interpretations on genotype-phenotype correlations previously reported in numerous studies on AID using the Aicda(-/-) mouse strain. PMID:23922811
Hogenbirk, Marc A; Heideman, Marinus R; Velds, Arno; van den Berk, Paul C M; Kerkhoven, Ron M; van Steensel, Bas; Jacobs, Heinz
Aiolos encodes a zinc finger DNA-binding protein that is highly expressed in mature B cells and is homologous to Ikaros. In the periphery of mice homozygous for an Aiolos-null mutation, B cells exhibit an activated cell surface phenotype and undergo augmented antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated in vitro proliferative responses, even at limiting amounts of stimulant. In vivo, T cell-dependent B cell responses, including the formation of germinal centers and elevated serum IgG and IgE, are detected in Aiolos-deficient mice in the absence of immunization. Auto-antibodies and development of B cell lymphomas are frequently seen among aging Aiolos mutants. In sharp contrast to conventional B cells, B cells of the peritoneum, of the marginal zone, and the recirculating bone marrow population are greatly reduced. PMID:9806640
Wang, J H; Avitahl, N; Cariappa, A; Friedrich, C; Ikeda, T; Renold, A; Andrikopoulos, K; Liang, L; Pillai, S; Morgan, B A; Georgopoulos, K
B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. Research on alternative splicing of both the Ikaros and Pax5 genes in rainbow trout is presented, including their functional significance. An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. Lastly, broader impacts and practical applications are discussed.
Objective Clinical studies indicate that anti-CD20 B cell depletion may be an effective multiple sclerosis therapy. We investigated mechanisms of its immune modulation using two paradigms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Methods Murine EAE was induced by either recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rMOG), a model in which B cells are considered to contribute pathogenically, or MOG peptide (p)35–55, a model that does not require B cells. Results In EAE induced by rMOG, B cells became activated and, when serving as antigen presenting cells (APC), promoted differentiation of proinflammatory MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. B cell depletion prevented or reversed established rMOG-induced EAE, which was associated with less CNS inflammation, elimination of meningeal B cells, and reduction of MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. In contrast, in EAE induced by MOG p35–55, B cells did not become activated or efficiently polarize proinflammatory MOG-specific T cells, similar to naïve B cells. In this EAE setting, anti-CD20 treatment exacerbated EAE, and did not impede development of Th1 or Th17 cells. Irrespective of the EAE model used, B cell depletion reduced the frequency of regulatory T cells, and increased the capacity of remaining APC to promote development of encephalitogenic T cells. Interpretation Our study highlights distinct roles for B cells in pathogenesis and regulation of CNS autoimmune disease. Clinical benefit from depletion of antigen-activated B cells may relate primarily to abrogation of proinflammatory B cell APC function. However, in certain clinical settings, elimination of unactivated B cells, which participate in regulation of T cells and other APC, may be undesirable.
Weber, Martin S.; Prod'homme, Thomas; Patarroyo, Juan C.; Molnarfi, Nicolas; Karnezis, Tara; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Danilenko, Dimitry M.; Eastham-Anderson, Jeffrey; Slavin, Anthony J.; Linington, Christopher; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Martin, Flavius; Zamvil, Scott S.
It is well known that B cells require T-cell help to produce specific antibody. Classic experiments suggested that antigen-specific helper T cells interact with antigen-specific B cells via an antigen `bridge'1,2, the B cells binding to one determinant on an antigen molecule (the `hapten'), while the T cells at the same time recognize another determinant (the `carrier'). T-helper cells bind
The development of B cells requires the expression of an antigen receptor at distinct points during maturation. The Ig-?\\/? heterodimer signals for these receptors, and mice harboring a truncation of the Ig-? intracellular domain (mb-1?c\\/?c) have severely reduced peripheral B cell numbers. Here we report that immature mb-1?c\\/?c B cells are activated despite lacking a critical Ig-?-positive signaling motif. As
Raul M Torres; Katrin Hafen
Cathepsin L (CTSL) is a ubiquitously expressed lysosomal cysteine peptidase with diverse and highly specific functions. The involvement of CTSL in thymic CD4+ T-cell positive selection has been well documented. Using CTSLnkt/nkt mice that lack CTSL activity, we have previously demonstrated that the absence of CTSL activity affects the homeostasis of the T-cell pool by decreasing CD4+ cell thymic production and increasing CD8+ thymocyte production. Herein we investigated the influence of CTSL activity on the homeostasis of peripheral B-cell populations and bone marrow (BM) B-cell maturation. B-cell numbers were increased in lymph nodes (LN), spleen and blood from CTSLnkt/nkt mice. Increases in splenic B-cell numbers were restricted to transitional T1 and T2 cells and to the marginal zone (MZ) cell subpopulation. No alterations in the proliferative or apoptosis levels were detected in peripheral B-cell populations from CTSLnkt/nkt mice. In the BM, the percentage and the absolute number of pre-pro-B, pro-B, pre-B, immature and mature B cells were not altered. However, in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that BM B-cell production was markedly increased in CTSLnkt/nkt mice. Besides, BM B-cell emigration to the spleen was increased in CTSLnkt/nkt mice. Colony-forming unit pre-B (CFU pre-B) assays in the presence of BM stromal cells (SC) and reciprocal BM chimeras revealed that both BM B-cell precursors and SC would contribute to sustain the increased B-cell hematopoiesis in CTSLnkt/nkt mice. Overall, our data clearly demonstrate that CTSL negatively regulates BM B-cell production and output therefore influencing the homeostasis of peripheral B cells.
Badano, Maria Noel; Camicia, Gabriela Lorena; Lombardi, Gabriela; Maglioco, Andrea; Cabrera, Gabriel; Costa, Hector; Meiss, Roberto Pablo
Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) by germinal center (GC) B cells drives the processes of immunoglobulin\\u000a (Ig) somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) necessary for the generation of high affinity IgG serum\\u000a antibody and the memory B-cell compartment. Increasing evidence indicates that AID is also expressed at low levels in developing\\u000a B cells but to date, this
Masayuki Kuraoka; Laurie McWilliams; Garnett Kelsoe
Autoreactive B cells are one of the key immune cells that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition to the production of harmful auto-antibodies (auto-Abs), B cells prime autoreactive T cells as antigen-presenting cells and secrete a wide range of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have both autocrine and paracrine effects. Agents that modulate B cells may therefore be of potential therapeutic value. Current strategies include targeting B-cell surface antigens, cytokines that promote B-cell growth and functions, and B- and T-cell interactions. In this article, we review the role of B cells in SLE in animal and human studies, and we examine previous reports that support B-cell modulation as a promising strategy for the treatment of this condition. In addition, we present an update on the clinical trials that have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of agents that antagonize CD20, CD22 and B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) in human SLE. While the results of many of these studies remain inconclusive, belimumab, a human monoclonal antibody against BLyS, has shown promise and has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration as an indicated therapy for patients with mild to moderate SLE. Undoubtedly, advances in B-cell immunology will continue to lead us to a better understanding of SLE pathogenesis and the development of novel specific therapies that target B cells. PMID:23455017
Chan, Vera Sau-Fong; Tsang, Helen Hoi-Lun; Tam, Rachel Chun-Yee; Lu, Liwei; Lau, Chak-Sing
B cells are recognized as main actors in the autoimmune process. Autoreactive B cells can arise in the bone marrow or in the periphery and, if not properly inhibited or eliminated, can lead to autoimmune diseases through several mechanisms: autoantibody production and immune complex formation, cytokine and chemokine synthesis, antigen presentation, T cell activation, and ectopic lymphogenesis. The availability of agents capable of depleting B cells (that is, anti-CD20 and anti-CD22 monoclonal antibodies) or targeting B cell survival factors (atacicept and belimumab) opens new perspectives in the treatment of diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common type of malignant lymphoma. In the last few years, significant progress has been achieved in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this entity. Gene expression profiling has identified three molecular DLBCL subtypes, termed germinal-center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL, activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the biology of these DLBCL subtypes with a special emphasis on novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
Frick, Mareike; Dorken, Bernd
B lymphocytes are the source of humoral immunity and are thus a critical component of the adaptive immune system. However, B cells can also be pathogenic and the origin of disease. Deregulated B-cell function has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. B cells contribute to pathological immune responses through the secretion of cytokines, costimulation of T cells, antigen presentation, and the production of autoantibodies. DNA-and RNA-containing immune complexes can also induce the production of type I interferons, which further promotes the inflammatory response. B-cell depletion with the CD20 antibody rituximab has provided clinical proof of concept that targeting B cells and the humoral response can result in significant benefit to patients. Consequently, the interest in B-cell targeted therapies has greatly increased in recent years and a number of new biologics exploiting various mechanisms are now in clinical development. This review provides an overview on current developments in the area of B-cell targeted therapies by describing molecules and subpopulations that currently offer themselves as therapeutic targets, the different strategies to target B cells currently under investigation as well as an update on the status of novel therapeutics in clinical development. Emerging data from clinical trials are providing critical insight regarding the role of B cells and autoantibodies in various autoimmune conditions and will guide the development of more efficacious therapeutics and better patient selection.
Peyer's patches (PPs) play a central role in supporting B cell responses against intestinal antigens, yet the factors controlling B cell passage through these mucosal lymphoid tissues are incompletely understood. We report that, in mixed chimeras, CXCR4-deficient B cells accumulate in PPs compared with their representation in other lymphoid tissues. CXCR4-deficient B cells egress from PPs more slowly than wild-type cells, whereas CXCR5-deficient cells egress more rapidly. The CXCR4 ligand, CXCL12, is expressed by cells adjacent to lymphatic endothelial cells in a zone that abuts but minimally overlaps with the CXCL13(+) follicle. CXCR4-deficient B cells show reduced localization to these CXCL12(+) perilymphatic zones, whereas CXCR5-deficient B cells preferentially localize in these regions. By photoconverting KikGR-expressing cells within surgically exposed PPs, we provide evidence that naive B cells transit PPs with an approximate residency half-life of 10 h. When CXCR4 is lacking, KikGR(+) B cells show a delay in PP egress. In summary, we identify a CXCL12(hi) perilymphatic zone in PPs that plays a role in overcoming CXCL13-mediated retention to promote B cell egress from these gut-associated lymphoid tissues. PMID:23669394
Schmidt, Timothy H; Bannard, Oliver; Gray, Elizabeth E; Cyster, Jason G
The function of the immune system is highly dependent on cellular differentiation and clonal expansion of antigen-specific lymphocytes. However, little is known about mechanisms that may have evolved to protect replicative potential in actively dividing lymphocytes during immune differentiation and response. Here we report an analysis of telomere length and telomerase expression, factors implicated in the regulation of cellular replicative lifespan, in human B cell subsets. In contrast to previous observations, in which telomere shortening and concomitant loss of replicative potential occur in the process of somatic cell differentiation and cell division, it was found that germinal center (GC) B cells, a compartment characterized by extensive clonal expansion and selection, had significantly longer telomeric restriction fragments than those of precursor naive B cells. Furthermore, it was found that telomerase, a telomere-synthesizing enzyme, is expressed at high levels in GC B cells (at least 128-fold higher than those of naive and memory B cells), correlating with the long telomeres in this subset of B cells. Finally, both naive and memory B cells were capable of up-regulating telomerase activity in vitro in response to activation signals through the B cell antigen receptor in the presence of CD40 engagement and/or interleukin 4. These observations suggest that a novel process of telomere lengthening, possibly mediated by telomerase, functions in actively dividing GC B lymphocytes and may play a critical role in humoral immune response by maintaining the replicative potential of GC and descendant memory B cells.
Weng, Nan-ping; Granger, Lawrence; Hodes, Richard J.
Both humoral and cellular immune responses are impaired in aged individuals, leading to decreased vaccine responses. Although T cell defects occur, defects in B cells play a significant role in age-related humoral immune changes. The ability to undergo class switch recombination (CSR), the enzyme for CSR, AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) and the transcription factor E47 are all decreased in aged stimulated B cells. We here present an overview of age-related changes in human B cell markers and functions, and also discuss some controversies in the field of B cell aging.
Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Landin, Ana Marie; Blomberg, Bonnie B
It has been recently demonstrated that while oligosaccharide moieties of ? heavy chains in the B-cell receptor (BCR) are of the complex type as expected, those of the pre-BCR on the surface of pre-B cells contain oligosaccharide moieties of the high-mannose type only. This is unique, because high-mannose glycans are generally restricted to the endoplasmic reticulum and not presented on the surface of mammalian cells. In the present study, we examined the processing of the unusually glycosylated ? heavy chains in pre-B cells. We demonstrate that the pre-BCR reaches the cell surface by a non-conventional brefeldin A-sensitive monensin-insensitive transport pathway. Although pre-BCR complexes consist of ? heavy chains with high-mannose oligosaccharide moieties, they are stably expressed in the plasma membrane and demonstrate turnover rates similar to those of the BCR. Thus, rapid internalization cannot account for their low surface expression, as previously postulated. Rather, we demonstrate that the low pre-BCR abundance in the plasma membrane results, at least in part, from insufficient production of surrogate light chains, which appears to be a limiting factor in pre-BCR expression. PMID:23267849
Cohen, Sharon; Haimovich, Joseph; Hollander, Nurit
Mechanistic understanding of RP105 has been confounded by the fact that this TLR homolog has appeared to have opposing, cell type-specific effects on TLR4 signaling. While RP105 inhibits TLR4-driven signaling in cell lines and myeloid cells, impaired LPS-driven proliferation by B cells from RP105?/? mice has suggested that RP105 facilitates TLR4 signaling in B cells. We show here that modulation of B cell proliferation by RP105 is not a function of B cell-intrinsic expression of RP105, and identify a mechanistic role for dysregulated BAFF expression in the proliferative abnormalities of B cells from RP105?/? mice: serum BAFF levels are elevated in RP105?/? mice, and partial BAFF neutralization rescues aberrant B cell proliferative responses in such mice. These data indicate that RP105 does not have dichotomous effects on TLR4 signaling, and emphasize the need for caution in interpreting the results of global genetic deletion.
Allen, Jessica L.; Flick, Leah M.; Divanovic, Senad; Jackson, Shaun W.; Bram, Richard; Rawlings, David J.; Finkelman, Fred D.; Karp, Christopher L.
Primary immunodeficiencies consist to a large extent of B cell defects, as indicated by inadequate Ab levels or response upon immunization. Many B cell defects have not yet been well characterized. Our objective was to create reliable in vivo and in vitro assays to routinely analyze human B cell differentiation, proliferation, and Ig production and to define reference ranges for different age categories. The in vitro assays were applied to classify the developmental and/or functional B cell defects in patients previously diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency. Apart from standard immunophenotyping of circulating human B cell subsets, an in vitro CFSE dilution assay was used for the assessment of proliferative capacity comparing T cell-dependent and T cell-independent B cell activation. Plasmablast/plasma cell differentiation was assessed by staining for CD20, CD38, and CD138, and measurement of in vitro Ig secretion. At young age, B cells proliferate upon in vitro activation, but neither differentiate nor produce IgG. These latter functions reached adult levels at 5 and 10 y of age for T cell-dependent versus T cell-independent stimulations, respectively. The capacity of B cells to differentiate into plasmablasts and to produce IgG appeared to be contained within the switched memory B cell pool. Using these assays, we could categorize common variable immunodeficiency patients into subgroups and identified a class-switch recombination defect caused by an UNG mutation in one of the patients. We defined age-related reference ranges for human B cell differentiation. Our findings indicate that in vivo B cell functionality can be tested in vitro and helps to diagnose suspected B cell defects. PMID:23585684
aan de Kerk, Daan J; Jansen, Machiel H; ten Berge, Ineke J M; van Leeuwen, Ester M M; Kuijpers, Taco W
Activation of the TCL1 oncogene has been implicated in T cell leukemias\\/lymphomas and recently was associated with AIDS diffuse large B cell lymphomas (AIDS-DLBCL). Also, in nonmalignant lymphoid tissues, antibody staining has shown that mantle zone B cells expressed abundant Tcl1 protein, whereas germinal center (GC; centrocytes and centroblasts) B cells showed markedly reduced expression. Here, we analyze isolated B
Jonathan W Said; Katrina K Hoyer; Samuel W French; Lisa Rosenfelt; Maria Garcia-Lloret; Patricia J Koh; Tse-Chang Cheng; Girija G Sulur; Geraldine S Pinkus; W Michael Kuehl; David J Rawlings; Randolph Wall; Michael A Teitell
The concentration of calcium in the cytosol influences the metabolism of phosphoinositides which play essential roles as intracellular messengers in B lymphocytes. To investigate the calcium requirements for various stages of B cell activation the authors studied the effect of altering calcium availability for B cells stimulated by different classes of mitogens. 1mM EGTA inhibited B cell thymidine incorporation stimulated by LPS, 8-mercaptoguanosine (8sGuo) or anti-Ig antibodies, but had no effect on cell viability in the culture system used. The slow phase calcium channel blocker verapamil suppressed /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation to a lesser degree. B cell sIa expression was used as an indicator of an earlier B cell activation event. The calcium ionophore A23187 stimulated a dramatic increase in B cell sIa in a dose dependent manner which was inhibited in the presence of 1mM EGTA. This reduction in extracellular calcium only partially diminished the sIa augmentation resulting from anti-Ig antibody, and had no effect on that stimulated by LPS or 8sGuo. These findings suggest that extracellular calcium is required for later events in B cells activation while earlier events may be primarily dependent upon intracellular calcium stores. Furthermore, membrane Ig mediated B cell activation may require higher concentrations of intracellular calcium than other B cell activation pathways.
Dennis, G.; Mizuguchi, J.; Finkelman, F.D.; Mond, J.J.
Individual murine B cells express a wide range of Ia densities on the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that a dramatic increase in B-cell Ia could be induced by overnight exposure to an uncharacterized lymphokine (LK). Membrane I-A and I-E molecules were both increased after LK treatment, whereas membrane IgM remained unchanged. Two subpopulations of B cells were identified, based on their requirements for expressing maximal Ia; one subpopulation required only LK, the other required both LK and T cells in the overnight culture. Functional changes accompanied the Ia increase. The functional capacity to present antigens to T cells was lacking in normal resting B cells, but was acquired following LK treatment. We suggest that the LK-treated B cell has achieved a new differentiation state, one of preparation for interaction with T cells. We term this state the "poised" B cell, and propose that B cells in the poised state may significantly contribute to T-cell activation as antigen-presenting cells. Moreover, poised B cells may themselves find an advantage over normal B cells in successfully acquiring T-cell help.
Tartakovsky, B.; Durum, S. K.
On antigen binding by the B-cell receptor (BCR), B cells up-regulate protein expression of the key downstream signaling molecule Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), but the effects of Btk up-regulation on B-cell function are unknown. Here, we show that transgenic mice overexpressing Btk specifically in B cells spontaneously formed germinal centers and manifested increased plasma cell numbers, leading to antinuclear autoantibody production and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoimmune pathology affecting kidneys, lungs, and salivary glands. Autoimmunity was fully dependent on Btk kinase activity, because Btk inhibitor treatment (PCI-32765) could normalize B-cell activation and differentiation, and because autoantibodies were absent in Btk transgenic mice overexpressing a kinase inactive Btk mutant. B cells overexpressing wild-type Btk were selectively hyperresponsive to BCR stimulation and showed enhanced Ca(2+) influx, nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation, resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and defective elimination of selfreactive B cells in vivo. These findings unravel a crucial role for Btk in setting the threshold for B-cell activation and counterselection of autoreactive B cells, making Btk an attractive therapeutic target in systemic autoimmune disease such as SLE. The finding of in vivo pathology associated with Btk overexpression may have important implications for the development of gene therapy strategies for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, the immunodeficiency associated with mutations in BTK. PMID:22383797
Kil, Laurens P; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; van Nimwegen, Menno; Corneth, Odilia B J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Dingjan, Gemma M; Thaiss, Friedrich; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Elewaut, Dirk; Delsing, Dianne; van Loo, Pieter Fokko; Hendriks, Rudi W
It is now well established that important regulatory interactions occur between the cells in the hematopoietic, immune and skeletal systems (osteoimmunology). B lymphocytes (B cells) are responsible for the generation and production of antibodies or immunoglobulins in the body. Together with T cells these lymphocytes comprise the adaptive immune system, which allows an individual to develop specific responses to an infection and retain memory of that infection, allowing for a faster and more robust response if that same infection occurs again. In addition to this immune function, B cells have a close and multifaceted relationship with bone cells. B cells differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in supportive niches found on endosteal bone surfaces. Cells in the osteoblast lineage support HSC and B cell differentiation in these niches. B cell differentiation is regulated, at least in part, by a series of transcription factors that function in a temporal manner. While these transcription factors are required for B cell differentiation, their loss causes profound changes in the bone phenotype. This is due, in part, to the close relationship between macrophage/osteoclast and B cell differentiation. Cross talk between B cells and bone cells is reciprocal with defects in the RANKL-RANK, OPG signaling axis resulting in altered bone phenotypes. While the role of B cells during normal bone remodeling appears minimal, activated B cells play an important role in many inflammatory diseases with associated bony changes. This review examines the relationship between B cells and bone cells and how that relationship affects the skeleton and hematopoiesis during health and disease.
Horowitz, Mark C.; Fretz, Jackie A.; Lorenzo, Joseph A.
The clearest evidence that B cells play an important role in human autoimmunity is that immunotherapies that deplete B cells are very effective treatments for many autoimmune diseases. All people, healthy or ill, have autoreactive B cells, but not at the same frequency. A number of genes influence the level of these autoreactive B cells and whether they are eliminated or not during development at a central checkpoint in the bone marrow (BM) or at a later checkpoint in peripheral lymphoid tissues. These genes include those encoding proteins that regulate signaling through the B-cell receptor complex such as Btk and PTPN22, proteins that regulate innate signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) such as MyD88 and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4, as well as the gene encoding the activation-induced deaminase (AID) essential for B cells to undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Recent studies have revealed that TLR signaling elements and AID function not only in peripheral B cells to help mediate effective antibody responses to foreign antigens, but also in the BM to help remove autoreactive B-lineage cells at a very early point in B-cell development. Newly arising B cells that leave the BM and enter the blood and splenic red pulp can express both AID and TLR signaling elements like TLR7, and thus are fully equipped to respond rapidly to antigens (including autoantigens), to isotype class switch, and to undergo somatic hypermutation. These red pulp B cells may thus be an important source of autoantibody-producing cells arising particularly in extrafollicular sites, and indeed may be as significant a source of autoantibody-producing cells as B cells arising from germinal centers.
Abnormalities in humoral immunity typically reflect a generalized or selective failure of effective B cell development. The developmental processes can be followed through analysis of cell surface markers such as IgM, IgD, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD21, and CD38. Early phases of B cell development are devoted to the creation of immunoglobulin and testing B cell antigen receptor signaling. Failure leads to the absence of B cells and immunoglobulin in the blood from birth. As the developing B cells begin to express a surface B cell receptor, they become subject to negative and positive selection pressures and increasingly depend on survival signals. Defective signalling can lead to selective or generalized hypogammaglobulinemia even in the presence of normal numbers of B cells. In the secondary lymphoid organs, some B cells enter the splenic marginal zone where pre-activated cells lie ready to rapidly respond to T-independent antigens, such as the polysaccharides that coat some microorganisms. Other cells enter the follicle and, with the aid of cognate follicular T cells, divide to help form a germinal center after their interaction with antigen. In the germinal center, B cells can undergo the processes of class switching and somatic hypermutation. Failure to properly receive T cell signals can lead to Hyper IgM syndrome. B cells that leave the germinal center can develop into memory B cells, short lived plasma cells, or long lived plasma cells. The latter ultimately migrate back to the bone marrow where they can continue to produce protective antigen-specific antibodies for decades.
Vale, Andre M
Treatment of patients with neoplastic diseases of the lymphatic or lymphoreticular system and HBV infection can lead to reactivation of viral infection. Assessment of HBs antigen among this group is insufficient for the diagnosis of chronic HBV infection. Current research suggests the necessity of determining anti-HBc, antiHBs and HBV-DNA. Elimination of HBV as well as the influence of the virus on hepatocytes is associated with increased inflammatory and necrotic changes in the liver. Understandable, therefore, becomes a possibility of significant damage to hepatocytes caused by HBV during chemoimmunotherapy. Ofparticular importance in the reactivation of HBV are glicocorticosteroids acting as suppressants of the immune system and rituximab activating B cell apoptosis. Reactivation of HBV may occur in more than 60% of patients with positive HBs antigen and in approximately 50% of patients without HBsAg. Early therapy with nucleo(z)tide analogues significantly reduces the incidence ofHBV reactivation. PMID:22708294
?api?ski, Tadeusz Wojciech; Jaroszewicz, Jerzy; Ostapczuk, Anna; Flisiak, Robert
Background X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a rare inherited immunodeficiency by an extreme vulnerability to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, frequently resulting in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). XLP are now divided into type 1 (XLP-1) and type 2 (XLP-2), which are caused by mutations of SH2D1A/SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) genes, respectively. The diagnosis of XLP in individuals with EBV-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) is generally difficult because they show basically similar symptoms to sporadic EBV-HLH. Although EBV-infected cells in sporadic EBV-HLH are known to be mainly in CD8+ T cells, the cell-type of EBV-infected cells in EBV-HLH seen in XLP patients remains undetermined. Methods EBV-infected cells in two patients (XLP-1 and XLP-2) presenting EBV-HLH were evaluated by in EBER-1 in situ hybridization or quantitative PCR methods. Results Both XLP patients showed that the dominant population of EBV-infected cells was CD19+ B cells, whereas EBV-infected CD8+ T cells were very few. Conclusions In XLP-related EBV-HLH, EBV-infected cells appear to be predominantly B cells. B cell directed therapy such as rituximab may be a valuable option in the treatment of EBV-HLH in XLP patients.
Prothrombotic haematological disorders, in particular myeloproliferative disorders, are identified in a significant proportion of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Multiple prothrombotic disorders may coexist. PVT is diagnosed in one fourth of patients with cirrhosis and is more common with advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. PVT in cirrhosis can precipitate decompensation. Intrahepatic microthrombosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is usually a complication of myeloablative treatment before haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders can complicate liver transplantation and are related to Epstein-Barr virus infection. Hepatitis B reactivation in patients receiving chemotherapy for haematological malignancies is very common without pre-emptive treatment, and can lead to liver failure. Liver involvement is common in primary haematological diseases, such as haemolytic anaemias, lymphomas and leukaemia. PMID:24090939
Pieri, Giulia; Theocharidou, Eleni; Burroughs, Andrew K
Numerous population studies and experimental models suggest that helminth infections can ameliorate immuno-inflammatory disorders such as asthma and autoimmunity. Immunosuppressive cell populations associated with helminth infections include Treg and alternatively-activated macrophages. In previous studies, we showed that both CD4+CD25+ Treg, and CD4– MLN cells from Heligmosomoides polygyus-infected C57BL/6 mice were able to transfer protection against allergic airway inflammation to sensitized but uninfected animals. We now show that CD4–CD19+ MLN B cells from infected, but not naïve, mice are able to transfer a down-modulatory effect on allergy, significantly suppressing airway eosinophilia, IL-5 secretion and pathology following allergen challenge. We further demonstrate that the same cell population can alleviate autoimmune-mediated inflammatory events in the CNS, when transferred to uninfected mice undergoing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein(p35–55)-induced EAE. In both allergic and autoimmune models, reduction of disease was achieved with B cells from helminth-infected IL-10?/? donors, indicating that donor cell-derived IL-10 is not required. Phenotypically, MLN B cells from helminth-infected mice expressed uniformly high levels of CD23, with follicular (B2) cell surface markers. These data expand previous observations and highlight the broad regulatory environment that develops during helminth infections that can abate diverse inflammatory disorders in vivo.
Wilson, Mark S; Taylor, Matthew D; O'Gorman, Mary T; Balic, Adam; Barr, Tom A; Filbey, Kara; Anderton, Stephen M; Maizels, Rick M
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), the target of inactivating mutations in X-linked immunodeficiency diseases of mice and humans, is essential for normal B cell responsiveness. Recent studies have outlined a mechanism for the activation of Btk by B cell receptor engagement and have identified proximal and distal targets of Btk action.
The splenic marginal zone is a site of blood flow, and the specialized B cell population that inhabits this compartment has been linked to the capture and follicular delivery of blood-borne antigens. However, the mechanism of this antigen transport has remained unknown. Here we show that marginal zone B cells were not confined to the marginal zone but continuously shuttled
Guy Cinamon; Marcus A Zachariah; Olivia M Lam; Frank W Foss; Jason G Cyster
Purpose Oncolytic viruses are self-amplifying anti-cancer agents that make use of the natural ability of viruses to kill cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been extensively tested against solid cancers, but less so against B cell cancers since these cells do not generally express the coxsackie and adenoviral receptor (CAR). To determine if other adenoviruses might have better potency, we “mined” the adenovirus virome of 55 serotypes for viruses that could kill B cell cancers. Experimental Design 15 adenoviruses selected to represent Ad species B, C, D, E, and F were tested in vitro against cell lines and primary patient B cell cancers for their ability to infect, replicate in, and kill these cells. Select viruses were also tested against B cell cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice. Results Species D adenoviruses mediated most robust killing against a range of B cell cancer cell lines, against primary patient marginal zone lymphoma cells, and against primary patient CD138+ myeloma cells in vitro. When injected into xenografts in vivo, single treatment with select species D viruses Ad26 and Ad45 delayed lymphoma growth. Conclusions Relatively unstudied species D adenoviruses have a unique ability to infect and replicate in B cell cancers as compared to other adenovirus species. These data suggest these viruses have unique biology in B cells and support translation of novel species D adenoviruses as oncolytics against B cell cancers.
Chen, Christopher Y.; Senac, Julien S.; Weaver, Eric A.; May, Shannon M.; Jelinek, Diane F.; Greipp, Philip; Witzig, Thomas; Barry, Michael A.
Summary It has been generally assumed that because streptozotocin is toxic to the adult B cell of most species, it should also damage B cells obtained at earlier stages of development. This paper examines whether this is true for human fetal pancreata obtained from the therapeutic termination of pregnancies during the first half of the second trimester. Experiments were carried out
B. E. Tuch; J. R. Turtle; C. J. Simeonovic
IBD is characterized by a chronic, dysregulated immune response to intestinal bacteria. Past work has focused on the role of T cells and myeloid cells in mediating chronic gastrointestinal and systemic inflammation. Here, we show that circulating and tissue B cells from CD patients demonstrate elevated basal levels of activation. CD patient B cells express surface TLR2, spontaneously secrete high levels of IL-8, and contain increased ex vivo levels of phosphorylated signaling proteins. CD clinical activity correlates directly with B cell expression of IL-8 and TLR2, suggesting a positive relationship between these B cell inflammatory mediators and disease pathogenesis. In contrast, B cells from UC patients express TLR2 but generally do not demonstrate spontaneous IL-8 secretion; however, significant IL-8 production is inducible via TLR2 stimulation. Furthermore, UC clinical activity correlates inversely with levels of circulating TLR2+ B cells, which is opposite to the association observed in CD. In conclusion, TLR2+ B cells are associated with clinical measures of disease activity and differentially associated with CD- and UC-specific patterns of inflammatory mediators, suggesting a formerly unappreciated role of B cells in the pathogenesis of IBD
Noronha, Ansu Mammen; Liang, YanMei; Hetzel, Jeremy T.; Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Stucchi, Arthur; Zhang, Yue; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S.; Farraye, Francis A.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa M.
Over the past several years, studies on normal and malignant B cells have provided new insights into the unique physiology of the germinal centre (GC). In particular, advances in technology have allowed a more precise dissection of the phenotypes of GC B cells and the specific transcriptional programmes that are responsible for this phenotype. Furthermore, substantial progress has been made
Ulf Klein; Riccardo Dalla-Favera
Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), as accessory cells to B cells, promote germinal center (GC) development. Age-related defects in the role of FDCs are well documented in vivo. In old mice, FDCs bind fewer immune complexes (ICs) and produce few iccosomes for endocytosis by B cells, antigen processing, and presentation to T cells. We recently studied whether these defects are due
Andras K Szakal; Yüksel Aydar; Peter Balogh; John G Tew
DHA is a n-3 LCPUFA in fish oil that generally suppresses T lymphocyte function. However, the effect of fish oil on B cell function remains relatively understudied. Given the important role of B cells in gut immunity and increasing human fish oil supplementation, we sought to determine whether DFO leads to enhanced B cell activation in the SMAD-/- colitis-prone mouse model, similar to that observed with C57BL/6 mice. This study tested the hypothesis that DHA from fish oil is incorporated into the B cell membrane to alter lipid microdomain clustering and enhance B cell function. Purified, splenic B cells from DFO-fed mice displayed increased DHA levels and diminished GM1 microdomain clustering. DFO enhanced LPS-induced B cell secretion of IL-6 and TNF-? and increased CD40 expression ex vivo compared with CON. Despite increased MHCII expression in the unstimulated ex vivo B cells from DFO-fed mice, we observed no difference in ex vivo OVA-FITC uptake in B cells from DFO or CON mice. In vivo, DFO increased lymphoid tissue B cell populations and surface markers of activation compared with CON. Finally, we investigated whether these ex vivo and in vivo observations were consistent with systemic changes. Indeed, DFO-fed mice had significantly higher plasma IL-5, IL-13, and IL-9 (Th2-biasing cytokines) and cecal IgA compared with CON. These results support the hypothesis and an emerging concept that fish oil enhances B cell function in vivo. PMID:23180828
Gurzell, Eric A; Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Clinthorne, Jonathan; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Fenton, Jenifer I
Innate-like B cells (ILBs) are heterogeneous populations of unconventional B cells with innate sensing and responding properties. ILBs in mice are composed of B1 cells, marginal zone (MZ) B cells and other related B cells. ILBs maintain natural IgM levels at steady state, and after innate activation, they can rapidly acquire immune regulatory activities through the secretion of natural IgM and IL-10. Thus, ILBs constitute an important source of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs), which have been shown to play critical roles in autoimmunity, inflammation and infection. The present review highlights the latest advances in the field of ILBs and focuses on their regulatory functions. Understanding the regulatory activities of ILBs and their underlying mechanisms could open new avenues in manipulating their functions in inflammatory, infectious and other relevant diseases. PMID:23396472
Signalling through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) is required throughout B-cell development and peripheral maturation. Targeted disruption of BCR components or downstream effectors indicates that specific signalling mechanisms are preferentially required for central B-cell development, peripheral maturation and repertoire selection. Additionally, the avidity and the context in which antigen is encountered determine both cell fate and differentiation in the periphery. Although the signalling and receptor components required at each stage have been largely elucidated, the molecular mechanisms through which specific signalling are evoked at each stage are still obscure. In particular, it is not known how the pre-BCR initiates the signals required for normal development or how immature B cells regulate the signalling pathways that determine cell fate. In this review, we will summarize the recent studies that have defined the molecules required for B-cell development and maturation as well as the theories on how signals may be regulated at each stage.
Wang, Leo D; Clark, Marcus R
The reactivity of PC47H, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against fucosylceramide, with cells of lymphoid lineage was examined. Immunoreactive fucosylceramide (FC) was recognized only in pokeweed mitogen (PWM)-stimulated B blasts, plasma cells and germinal center cells. mAb PC47H did not react with T cells at different stages or with peripheral blood B cells. Furthermore, FC was expressed abundantly in blastic cells of B-cell lymphoma, multiple lymphoma and myeloma cell lines KMS-12-BM and KMS-12-PE. In other words, FC was expressed more strongly in mature than in immature B cells. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that FC was located in the plasma membrane and rough endoplasmic reticulum. mAb PC47H can therefore be used as a unique B-cell differentiation marker for study of B-cell activation and differentiation and clonal analysis of lymphoid malignancies. PMID:8258455
Nakamura, H; Yamada, H; Kitagawa, H; Masunaga, A; Itoyama, S; Sugawara, I
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in initiating immune responses. Some persistent viruses infect DCs and can disrupt their functions in vitro. However, these viruses remain strongly immunogenic in vivo. Thus what role DC infection plays in the pathogenesis of persistent infections is unclear. Here we show that a persistent, B cell-tropic gamma-herpesvirus, Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), infects DCs early after host entry, before it establishes a substantial infection of B cells. DC-specific virus marking by cre-lox recombination revealed that a significant fraction of the virus latent in B cells had passed through a DC, and a virus attenuated for replication in DCs was impaired in B cell colonization. In vitro MuHV-4 dramatically altered the DC cytoskeleton, suggesting that it manipulates DC migration and shape in order to spread. MuHV-4 therefore uses DCs to colonize B cells.
Frederico, Bruno; Gill, Michael B.; Smith, Christopher M.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Stevenson, Philip G.
A major cause of morbidity and mortality following lung trans- plantation is posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). In a retrospective cohort analysis of pediatric patients, we evaluated the risk factors associated with PTLD in 128 first-time lung trans- plant recipients from 1990 to 1997. The greatest risk factor for PTLD was a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Of the 16 patients
ALAN H. COHEN; STUART C. SWEET; ERIC MENDELOFF; GEORGE B. MALLORY; CHARLES B. HUDDLESTON; MADELEINE KRAUS; MICHAEL KELLY; ROBERT HAYASHI; MICHAEL R. D E BAUN
Patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) tend to produce autoantibodies and have a propensity to develop immunoregulatory disorders. We characterize the profile of autoantibodies in a group of HAE patients and investigate their memory B cells' phenotype and activation status. We studied the activity status phenotype, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 expression and total phosphotyrosine in B cells isolated from HAE patients. Additionally, the following autoantibodies were assessed in the serum of 61 HAE patients: anti-nuclear, rheumatoid factor, anti-cardiolipin, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-endomysial, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, anti-thyroid and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. In 47·5% of HAE patients we detected at least one of the tested autoantibodies. Expression of CD69, CD5 and CD21 was found to be significantly higher on memory B cells from HAE patients compared to healthy controls (4·59 ± 4·41 versus 2·06 ± 1·81, P = 0·04, 8·22 ± 7·17 versus 3·65 ± 3·78, P = 0·05, 2·43 ± 0·54 versus 1·92 ± 0·41, P = 0·01, respectively). Total phosphotyrosine in B cells from HAE patients was significantly higher compared to healthy controls (4·8 ± 1·1 versus 2·7 ± 1·3, P = 0·0003). Memory B cells isolated from the HAE group contained higher amounts of TLR-9 compared to healthy controls (8·17 ± 4·1 versus 4·56 ± 1·6, P = 0·0027). Furthermore, the expression of TLR-9 in memory B cells from HAE patients with autoantibodies was significantly higher than the control group (10 ± 4·7 versus 4·56 ± 1·6, P = 0·0002) and from that in HAE patients without autoantibodies (10 ± 4·7 versus 5·8 ± 0·9, P = 0·036). HAE patients have enhanced production of autoantibodies due most probably to the increased activation of B cells, which was found to be in association with a high expression of TLR-9. PMID:22288585
Kessel, A; Peri, R; Perricone, R; Guarino, M D; Vadasz, Z; Novak, R; Haj, T; Kivity, S; Toubi, E
One remarkable feature of the immune system is its capacity to maintain constant numbers of resting immune cells despite the complex nature of signals needed throughout development and maturation. For many years, B-cell survival was thought to rely solely on B-cell receptor (BCR) tonic signals that would trigger necessary basal survival pathways. The discovery of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like ligand BAFF(B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family)/BLyS (B-lymphocyte stimulator) changed these views entirely, as BAFF-deficient mice lack most mature B cells, and treatment with BAFF inhibitors leads to their loss, establishing BAFF as an unappreciated key B-cell survival factor. BAFF-mediated survival signals have been mapped and signaling crosstalk with the BCR has been identified, explaining the need for both BCR- and BAFF-mediated signals for B-cell survival. However, this crosstalk only explains how BCR and BAFF signals cooperate to produce survival proteins and yet, inactivating pro-apoptotic factors such as FOXO proteins, which may be managed separately by BAFF and the BCR, has emerged as an equally important step for survival. In this review, we present new views on B-cell survival, at all stages of B-cell life, and suggest that, in most cases, survival results from the production of appropriate survival factors balanced with the adequate and timely degradation of pro-apoptotic proteins. PMID:20727038
Mackay, Fabienne; Figgett, William A; Saulep, Damien; Lepage, Melanie; Hibbs, Margaret L
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells characteristically exhibit low or undetectable surface B cell receptor (BCR) and diminished responses to BCR-mediated signaling. These features suggest that CLL cells may have sustained mutations affecting one or more of the BCR proteins required for receptor surface assembly and signal transduction. Loss of expression and mutations in the critical BCR protein B29 (Ig,
Melinda S. Gordon; Roberta M. Kato; Frederick Lansigan; Alexis A. Thompson; Randolph Wall; David J. Rawlings
Nutrition can modify the onset or severity of diseases and recent changes in eating habits are supposed to promote immunoglobulin (Ig) E-dependent disorders. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) possesses immunomodulatory properties and has been shown to influence chronic and allergic inflammatory disorders in vivo. Here, we examined the impact of DHA on primary human B cells to
Christin Weise; Kerstin Hilt; Milena Milovanovic; Dennis Ernst; Ralph Rühl; Margitta Worm
Germinal centers (GCs) generate memory B and plasma cells, essential for long-lived humoral immunity. GC B cells with high affinity B cell receptors (BCRs) are selectively expanded. To enable this selection, BCRs of such cells are thought to signal differently from those with lower affinity. We show that, surprisingly, most proliferating GC B cells did not demonstrate active BCR signaling. Rather, spontaneous and induced signaling was limited by increased phosphatase activity. Accordingly, both SHP-1 and SHIP-1 were hyperphosphorylated in GC cells and remained colocalized with BCRs after ligation. Furthermore, SHP-1 was required for GC maintenance. Intriguingly, GC B cells in the cell cycle G2 period regained responsiveness to BCR stimulation. These data have implications for how higher affinity B cells are selected in the GC.
Khalil, Ashraf M.; Cambier, John C.; Shlomchik, Mark J.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the CNS and a leading cause of lasting neurological disability in younger adults. In the last decade our knowledge of its immunopathogenesis expanded vastly. It is now widely appreciated that B cells are key players in the autoreactive immune network. They exert far more functions than merely being the precursors of antibody-producing plasma cells. B cells act as efficient antigen-presenting cells and may stimulate an autoreactive immune response through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. It is thus only logical to test therapeutic strategies targeting B cells in MS. Rituximab is a depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against CD20 and expressed on developing, naïve, and memory B cells but not stem or plasma cells. Several smaller studies have been conducted that led to a placebo controlled, double blind phase II study on efficacy which was reported recently. The results are very promising, meeting not only the primary endpoint of reduction of the surrogate MRI marker of contrast-enhancing lesions but also showing a reduction in clinical relapse rate of patients treated with rituximab. This review discusses the role of autoreactive B cells in the context of MS, analyzes the B-cell-depleting treatment studies reported, and provides information on planned and future B-cell-directed therapeutic strategies in MS. PMID:19189075
Menge, T; Büdingen, H-C; Dalakas, M C; Kieseier, B C; Hartung, H-P
Immune complexes (ICs) containing DNA and RNA are responsible for disease manisfestations found in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). B cells contribute to SLE pathology through BCR recognition of endogenous DNA- and RNA-associated autoantigens and delivery of these self-constitutents to endosomal TLR9 and TLR7, respectively. B cell activation by these pathways leads to production of class-switched DNA- and RNA reactive autoantibodies, contributing to an inflammatory amplification loop characteristic of disease. Intriguinly, self-DNA and RNA are typically non-stimulatory for TLR9/7 due to absence of stimulatory sequences or presence of molecular modifications. Recent evidence from our lab and others suggests that B cell activation by BCR/TLR pathways is tightly regulated by surface-expressed receptors on B cells, and the outcome of activation depends on the balance of stimulatory and inhibitory signals. Either IFN? engagement of the type I IFN receptor, or loss of IgG ligation of the inhibitory Fc?RIIB receptor promotes B cell activation by weakly-stimulatory DNA and RNA TLR ligands. In this context, autoreactive B cells can respond robustly to common autoantigens. These findings have important implications for the role of B cells in vivo in the pathology of SLE.
Avalos, Ana Maria; Busconi, Liliana; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a lymphomagenic human herpesvirus, colonises the host through polyclonal B cell-growth-transforming infections yet establishes persistence only in IgD+ CD27+ non-switched memory (NSM) and IgD? CD27+ switched memory (SM) B cells, not in IgD+ CD27? naïve (N) cells. How this selectivity is achieved remains poorly understood. Here we show that purified N, NSM and SM cell preparations are equally transformable in vitro to lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) that, despite upregulating the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) enzyme necessary for Ig isotype switching and Ig gene hypermutation, still retain the surface Ig phenotype of their parental cells. However, both N- and NSM-derived lines remain inducible to Ig isotype switching by surrogate T cell signals. More importantly, IgH gene analysis of N cell infections revealed two features quite distinct from parallel mitogen-activated cultures. Firstly, following 4 weeks of EBV-driven polyclonal proliferation, individual clonotypes then become increasingly dominant; secondly, in around 35% cases these clonotypes carry Ig gene mutations which both resemble AID products and, when analysed in prospectively-harvested cultures, appear to have arisen by sequence diversification in vitro. Thus EBV infection per se can drive at least some naïve B cells to acquire Ig memory genotypes; furthermore, such cells are often favoured during an LCL's evolution to monoclonality. Extrapolating to viral infections in vivo, these findings could help to explain how EBV-infected cells become restricted to memory B cell subsets and why EBV-driven lymphoproliferative lesions, in primary infection and/or immunocompromised settings, so frequently involve clones with memory genotypes.
Croom-Carter, Debbie; Shannon-Lowe, Claire; Kube, Dieter; Feederle, Regina; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Rickinson, Alan B.; Bell, Andrew I.
Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed.
Pattengale, P.K.; Taylor, C.R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.
Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7
Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.
The susceptibility of neonatal and adult B lymphocytes to tolerance induction was analyzed by a modification of the in vitro splenic focus technique. This technique permits stimulation of individual hapten- specific clonal precursor cells from both neonatal and adult donors. Neonatal or adult BALB/c spleen cells were adoptively transferred into irradiated, syngeneic, adult recipients which had been carrier-primed to hemocyanin (Hy), thus maximizing stimulation to the hapten 2,4- dinitrophenyl coupled by Hy (DNP-Hy). Cultures were initially treated with DNP on several heterologous (non-Hy) carriers and subsequently stimulated with DNP-Hy. Whereas the responsiveness of adult B cells was not diminished by pretreatment with any DNP conjugate, the majority of the neonatal B-cell response was abolished by in vitro culture with all of the DNP-protein conjugates. During the 1st wk of life, the ability to tolerize neonatal splenic B cells progressively decreased. Thus, tolerance in this system is: (a) restricted to B cells early in development; (b) established by both tolerogens and immunogens; (c) achieved at low (10(-9) M determinant) antigen concentrations; and (d) highly specific, discriminating between DNP- and TNP-specific B cells. We conclude that: (a) B lymphocytes, during their development, mature through a stage in which they are extremely susceptible to tolerogenesis; (b) the specific interaction of B-cell antigen receptors with multivalent antigens, while irrelevant to mature B cells, is tolerogenic to neonatal (immature) B cells unless antigen is concomitantly recognized by primed T cells; and (c) differences in the susceptibility of immature and mature B lymphocytes to tolerance induction suggest intrinsic differences between neonatal and adult B cells and may provide a physiologically relevant model for the study of tolerance to self-antigens.
B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a member of the family of TNF-like cytokines, supports the survival and differentiation of B cells. The successful development of belimumab, a human antibody targeting soluble BAFF, has marked an important milestone in the development of biologic therapy for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), although much remains unknown regarding the clinical utility of BAFF inhibition in SLE and other autoimmune diseases. In the present review, we provide an overview of the knowledge concerning BAFF's role in murine and human B-cell development and maturation, as well as the clinical and mechanistic effects of BAFF inhibition in human SLE.
The B cell receptor (BCR) and the pre-BCR control cell fate at many stages of B cell development, survival, and antigen response. Most of these processes require the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Previous work has pointed to p110δ as the key catalytic isoform of PI3K for many B cell responses. A study of mice with different combinations of PI3K mutations confirms the central role of p110δ in agonist-mediated signaling, while identifying an unexpected function for the p110α isoform in tonic signaling by the pre-BCR and mature BCR.
Jose J. Limon (University of California;Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Center for Immunology REV); David A. Fruman (University of California;Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Center for Immunology REV)
Antigens such as viral envelope proteins and bacterial exotoxins induce responses which result in the production of neutralizing antibody. These responses persist for years and provide highly efficient defence against reinfection. During these antibody responses a proportion of participating B cells mutate the genes that encode their immunoglobulin variable regions. This can increase the affinity of the antibody, but can also induce autoreactive B cells. Selection mechanisms operate which allow the cells with high affinity for the provoking antigen to persist, while other B cells recruited into the response die.
MacLennan, I C; Garcia de Vinuesa, C; Casamayor-Palleja, M
B-cell activating factor (BAFF), a member of the family of TNF-like cytokines, supports the survival and differentiation of B cells. The successful development of belimumab, a human antibody targeting soluble BAFF, has marked an important milestone in the development of biologic therapy for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), although much remains unknown regarding the clinical utility of BAFF inhibition in SLE and other autoimmune diseases. In the present review, we provide an overview of the knowledge concerning BAFF's role in murine and human B-cell development and maturation, as well as the clinical and mechanistic effects of BAFF inhibition in human SLE. PMID:23281926
Boneparth, Alexis; Davidson, Anne
B cells are generally believed to operate as producers of high affinity antibodies to defend the body against microorganisms, whereas cellular cytotoxicity is considered as an exclusive prerogative of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In conflict with this dogma, recent studies have demonstrated that the combination of interleukin-21 (IL-21) and B-cell receptor (BCR) stimulation enables B cells to produce and secrete the active form of the cytotoxic serine protease granzyme B (GrB). Although the production of GrB by B cells is not accompanied by that of perforin as in the case of many other GrB-secreting cells, recent findings suggest GrB secretion by B cells may play a significant role in early antiviral immune responses, in the regulation of autoimmune responses, and in cancer immunosurveillance. Here, we discuss in detail how GrB-secreting B cells may influence a variety of immune processes. A better understanding of the role that GrB-secreting B cells are playing in the immune system may allow for the development and improvement of novel immunotherapeutic approaches against infectious, autoimmune and malignant diseases.
Hagn, Magdalena; Jahrsdorfer, Bernd
B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disease caused by impaired apoptosis regulation that leads to an abnormal survival and an accumulation of B-lymphocytes. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and proapoptotic Bax proteins are involved in the highly regulated mechanism of cell death. Bax and Bcl-2 intracellular levels were analyzed both in CD19+ and CD3+ cells from 28 B-CLL de novo patients and compared with cells from healthy donors. Our results were expressed as a ratio (Bax/Bcl-2) obtained by dividing Bax mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and Bcl-2 MFI; obviously, a lower ratio is associated with an anti-apoptotic status, while a higher index correlates to apoptosis activation. In CD19+ B-CLL cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower than in the CD19+ normal counterpart (1.3 versus 3.51; P<.05), mainly due to a Bcl-2 over expression (17.65 versus 9.02; P<.001). In CD3+ cells from B-CLL patients, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower than in normal CD3+ cells (7.89 versus 8.96; P<.005), most importantly as a result of Bax suppression (77.22 versus 96.63; P<.001). These study data show an apoptosis inhibition not only in CD19+ cells, but also in CD3+ cells, suggesting a pivotal role of T-cells in B-CLL pathogenesis. PMID:17118768
Scamardella, F; Maconi, M; Albertazzi, L; Gamberi, B; Gugliotta, L; Brini, M
Immunological memory is the residuum of a successful immune response that in the B cell lineage comprises long-lived plasma cells and long-lived memory B cells. It is apparent that distinct classes of memory B cells exist, distinguishable by, among other things, immunoglobulin isotype, location, and passage through the germinal center. Some of this variation is due to the nature of the antigen, and some appears to be inherent to the process of forming memory. Here, we consider the heterogeneity in development and phenotype of memory B cells and whether particular functions are partitioned into distinct subsets. We consider also how understanding the details of generating memory may provide opportunities to develop better, functionally targeted vaccines. PMID:24031013
Tarlinton, David; Good-Jacobson, Kim
The mechanisms regulating the induction and maintenance of B lymphocytes have been delineated extensively in immunization studies using proteins and hapten-carrier systems. Increasing evidence suggests, however, that the regulation of B cell responses induced by infections is far more complex. Here we review the current understanding of B cell responses induced following infection with influenza virus, a small RNA virus that causes “the flu”. Notably, the rapidly induced, highly protective and long-lived humoral response to this virus is contributed by multiple B cell subsets, each generating qualitatively distinct respiratory tract and systemic responses. Some B cell subsets provide extensive cross-protection against variants of the ever-mutating virus and each is regulated by the quality and magnitude of infection-induced innate immune signals. Knowledge gained from the analysis of such highly protective humoral response might provide a blueprint for successful vaccines and vaccination approaches.
Waffarn, Elizabeth E.; Baumgarth, Nicole
Heart failure is a complex disease that has great impact on morbidity and mortality in the general population. No recent therapies have proven to be effective; however, the discovery of new potential pathophysiological mechanisms involved in heart failure expression and progression could offer novel therapeutic strategies. A number of studies have shown that the immune system may be a central mediator in the development and progression of heart failure, and here we describe how the B-cell and B-cell-mediated pathways play specific roles in the heart failure state. Therapies aimed at B-cells, either blocking antibody production or inactivating B-cell function, may suggest potential new treatment strategies.
Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M.; Youker, Keith A.; Torre-Amione, Guillermo
In this study, we established a computational model describing the molecular circuit underlying B cell terminal differentiation and how TCDD may affect this process by impinging upon various molecular targets....
Identification of epitopes that invoke strong responses from B-cells is one of the key steps in designing effective vaccines against pathogens. Because experimental determination of epitopes is expensive in terms of cost, time, and effort involved, there is an urgent need for computational methods for reliable identification of B-cell epitopes. Although several computational tools for predicting B-cell epitopes have become available in recent years, the predictive performance of existing tools remains far from ideal. We review recent advances in computational methods for B-cell epitope prediction, identify some gaps in the current state of the art, and outline some promising directions for improving the reliability of such methods.