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1

MYC translocation partner gene determines survival of patients with large B-cell lymphoma with MYC- or double-hit MYC/BCL2 translocations.  

PubMed

In large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) MYC- and MYC/BCL2 double-hit (DH) translocations have been associated with inferior survival. We hypothesised that the negative prognostic impact of MYC translocation was determined by an immunoglobulin MYC translocation partner gene (IG-MYC), as opposed to a non-immunoglobulin partner gene (nonIG-MYC). In a prospective, unselected cohort of 237 LBCL patients MYC and BCL2 translocations were identified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with split probes. MYC translocation partner gene was identified by IGH/MYC fusion probes and/or kappa/lambda split probes. Clinical data were collected from patient files. MYC translocation was identified in 28/225 patients. IG-MYC translocation partner gene was identified in 12/24 patients. DH translocation was identified in 23/228 patients. IG-MYC translocation partner gene was identified in 9/19 DH patients. Neither MYC-nor DH translocation showed correlation with survival. However, MYC translocation with IG-MYC translocation partner gene was associated with worse OS compared with both MYC translocation with nonIG-MYC translocation partner gene (P = 0.02) as well as absence of MYC translocation (P = 0.03). In patients with DH a similar, however, stronger correlation was seen (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0004 respectively). MYC - or DH translocation with nonIG-MYC translocation partner gene was not associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.2 and P = 0.3 respectively). Most patients received Rituximab (86%) and CHOP/CHOP-like chemotherapy regimes (81%). We suggest that prognostic stratification of LBCL patients by MYC and/or DH translocations should include identification of MYC translocation partner gene because approximately half of the cases harbour nonIG-MYC translocation partner genes with no or minor influence on survival. PMID:24118498

Pedersen, Mette Ř; Gang, Anne O; Poulsen, Tim S; Knudsen, Helle; Lauritzen, Anne F; Nielsen, Signe L; Klausen, Tobias W; Nřrgaard, Peter

2014-01-01

2

Topoisomerase Inhibitors Modulate Gene Expression of B-Cell Translocation Gene 2 and Prostate Specific Antigen in Prostate Carcinoma Cells  

PubMed Central

Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-?, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX’s attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

2014-01-01

3

Topoisomerase inhibitors modulate gene expression of B-cell translocation gene 2 and prostate specific antigen in prostate carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-?, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX's attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

2014-01-01

4

B-cell Translocation Gene 2 (BTG2) Stimulates Cellular Antioxidant Defenses through the Antioxidant Transcription Factor NFE2L2 in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells*  

PubMed Central

The B-cell translocation gene 2, BTG2, a member of the BTG/TOB (B-cell translocation gene/transducers of ErbB2) gene family, has been implicated in cell cycle regulation, normal development, and possibly tumor suppression. Previously, it was shown that BTG2 expression is lost or down-regulated in human breast cancers. We now report that BTG2 protects human mammary epithelial cells from oxidative stress due to hydrogen peroxide and other oxidants. BTG2 protection against oxidative stress is BRCA1-independent but requires the antioxidant transcription factor NFE2L2 and is associated with up-regulation of the expression of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase and superoxide dismutases 1 and 2. BTG2 stimulation of antioxidant gene expression is also NFE2L2-dependent. We further demonstrate that BTG2 is a binding partner for NFE2L2 and increases its transcriptional activity. In addition, BTG2 is detectable at the antioxidant response element (ARE) of several NFE2L2-responsive genes. Finally, we show that the ability of BTG2 to associate with NFE2L2, to protect cells against oxidative stress, and to stimulate antioxidant gene expression requires box B, a short highly conserved amino acid motif characteristic of BTG2/TOB family proteins, but does not require boxes A or C. These findings suggest a novel role for BTG2 as a co-activator for NFE2L2 in up-regulating cellular antioxidant defenses. PMID:22493435

Karve, Tejaswita M.; Rosen, Eliot M.

2012-01-01

5

Mechanisms of chromosomal translocations in B cell lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci are a hallmark of most mature B cell lymphomas and usually result in dysregulated expression of oncogenes brought under the control of the Ig enhancers. Although the precise mechanisms involved in the development of these translocations remains essentially unknown, a clear relationship has been established with the mechanisms that lead to Ig

Ralf Küppers; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

2001-01-01

6

Upregulation of B-cell translocation gene 2 by epigallocatechin-3-gallate via p38 and ERK signaling blocks cell proliferation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a well-known malignancy that accounts for the majority of oral cancers. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is an important regulator of cell cycle dynamics in cancer cells. However, the role of BTG2 in OSCC cells and the influences of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on BTG2 gene expressions have not been well evaluated. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of EGCG-induced BTG2 expression and the potential signal pathways involved. The (3)H-thymidine incorporation and Western-blot assays revealed cell proliferation was attenuated by EGCG via upregulation of BTG2 expression causing cell cycle G1 phase arrest in OSCC cells. BTG2 overexpression decreased tumor cell growth, while BTG2 knockdown illuminated the opposite effect in xenograft animal studies. Overexpressed BTG2 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and downregulated protein expressions of cyclin A, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Western-blot assays indicated that EGCG induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK. However, pretreatments with selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and PD0325901 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), significantly suppressed the activation of EGCG on BTG2 expression. Our results indicate that EGCG attenuates cell proliferation of OSCC cells by upregulating BTG2 expression via p38 and ERK pathways. PMID:25721086

Lee, Jehn-Chuan; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

2015-05-01

7

Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways  

PubMed Central

Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NF?B response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NF?B pathway. PMID:24981574

Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

2014-01-01

8

Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NF?B response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NF?B pathway. PMID:24981574

Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

2014-01-01

9

B cell translocation gene 1 reduces the biological outcome of kidney cancer through induction of cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, cell apoptosis and cell metastasis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the expression and function of B cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) in kidney carcinoma. Kidney samples were obtained from cancer lesions (n=85) and the adjacent normal tissue (n=40) in kidney cancer patients immediately following endoscopic biopsy. The effect of BTG1 overexpression was examined in vitro utilizing a human kidney cancer cell line, ACHN, stably transfected with a recombinant lentivirus (LeBTG1 cells) and compared to empty vector?transfected controls (LeEmpty). BTG1 protein expression was significantly lower in kidney cancer tissue biopsies compared to normal tissue, as measured by immunohistochemistry (34.1 vs. 77.8% of tissues; P<0.05) and western blotting (0.481±0.051 vs. 0.857±0.081; P<0.05). In vitro analyses revealed that LeBTG1 cells had a reduced survival fraction compared to control LeEmpty cells, with higher rates of apoptosis (16.6±2.5 vs. 6.1±0.7%; P<0.05). The proportion of LeBTG1 cells in G(0)/G(1) stage and S phase was also significantly different from LeEmpty cells (66.8±5.3 and 22.2±1.5% vs. 44.4±3.1 and 34.5±2.3%, respectively; P<0.05), and the migration and invasion of LeBTG1 cells was significantly impaired with respect to LeEmpty cells (74.0±9.0 and 53.0±7.0 vs. 118.0±15.0 and 103.0±13.0, respectively; P<0.05). These effects were accompanied by decreased protein expression of cyclin D1, B?cell lymphoma 2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9 in LeBTG1 cells (0.118±0.018, 0.169±0.015 and 0.207±0.027, respectively) compared to control LeEmpty cells (0.632±0.061, 0.651±0.063 and 0.443±0.042, respectively; P<0.05). Reduced BTG1 expression is associated with increased disease severity, suggesting it is a negative regulator of kidney cancer and can serve as a prognostic indicator. The results of the present study show that BTG1 protein levels were significantly reduced in kidney cancer biopsy specimens and were associated with disease progression and prognosis. PMID:25571854

Sun, Guogui; Liu, Qing; Cheng, Yunjie; Hu, Wanning

2015-03-01

10

Genistein reverses hypermethylation and induces active histone modifications in tumor suppressor gene B-cell Translocation Gene 3 (BTG3) in prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background BTG3/ANA/APRO4 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. We report here that BTG3 is transcriptionally down-regulated in prostate cancer and the mechanism of inactivation is through promoter hypermethylation. Methods Prostate cancer and normal cell lines were treated with different doses of genistein and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5Aza-C). BTG3 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in tissues and cell lines. BS-PCR, cloning and sequencing were used to examine promoter methylation in tumor samples and cell lines. Enzyme activity/inhibition assays were done to check the effect of genistein and 5Aza-C on DNA methyltransferases. ChIP assay was performed to analyze chromatin modifications caused by genistein treatment. Results BTG3 mRNA expression was down-regulated in cancer tissues and cells. Genistein and 5Aza-C induced BTG3 mRNA expression in all PC cell lines. Complete methylation of BTG3 promoter in tumor samples and cancer cell lines was observed. Genistein and 5Aza-C treatment significantly decreased promoter methylation, reactivating BTG3 expression. Genistein and 5Aza-C increased levels of acetylated histones 3, 4, 2H3K4, 3H3K4 and Pol II, decreased DNMTase, MBD2 activity and increased HAT activity. Conclusion This is the first report to show that BTG3 is silenced in prostate cancer and can be reactivated by genistein induced promoter demethylation and active histone modification. Genistein showed similar effects to that of 5Aza-C, which is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials as a treatment for prostate cancer. Since genistein is a natural, non-toxic, dietary isoflavone, these results indicate that genistein is a novel, advantageous therapeutic agent for treating prostate cancer. PMID:19885928

Majid, Shahana; Dar, Altaf A; Shahryari, Varahram; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ahmad, Ardalan; Saini, Sharanjot; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Angela V.; Dahiya, Rajvir

2014-01-01

11

A translocation t(8;14) and c-myc gene rearrangement associated with the histological transformation of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (FAB-L2) into Burkitt's type (FAB-L3) leukemia.  

PubMed

We report a case of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia which showed histological transformation from an FAB-L2 into a Burkitt's type (FAB-L3). Both leukemias had identical immunoglobulin heavy-chain joining gene and kappa light-chain joining gene rearrangements, indicating the clonal identity of the two leukemias. A chromosomal analysis of leukemia cells on the onset indicated normal karyotype, whereas that of the transformed FAB-L3 showed t(8;14)(q24;q32). Furthermore, the proto-oncogene c-myc was in the germline configuration in the initial leukemia but in the rearranged configuration after transformation. Presence of t(8;14)(q24;q32) and the c-myc gene rearrangement after transformation suggested that the chromosomal translocation followed by the activation of the c-myc proto-oncogene might be involved in the Burkitt's type transformation of the FAB-L2 leukemic clone, but not in the leukemogenesis of the initial FAB-L2 leukemia. PMID:9402334

Masauzi, N; Kasai, M; Suzuki, G; Kobayashi, N; Ohizumi, H; Ogasawara, M; Kiyama, Y; Naohara, T; Saitoh, M; Higa, T; Tanaka, J; Hashino, S; Imamura, M; Asaka, M

1997-10-01

12

Evolution of B-cell malignancy; Pre-B-cell leukemia resulting from MYC activation in a B-cell neoplasm with a rearranged BCL2 gene  

SciTech Connect

The authors have analyzed the molecular genetics of the breakpoints involved in the t(8;14) and t(14;18) translocations of an acute pre-B-cell leukemia from a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma. In this patient's leukemic cells, the breakpoint of the t(14;18) translocation occurred in the major breakpoint-cluster region of the BCL2 gene and became linked to the J{sub H}4 joining-region gene segment of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus on the 14q+ chromosome as previously observed in follicular lymphoma. An N region and heptamer and nonamer signal sequences indicated that this translocation occurred as a mistake in V{sub H}-D{sub H}-J{sub H} joining (where V{sub H} and D{sub H} are the variable and diversity segments). In the t(8;14) translocation, the breakpoint was located immediately 5' of the first exon of the MYC protooncogene, which was juxtaposed with the C{gamma}2 constant gene segment of the second 14q+ chromosome. The finding of repeated sequences typical of switch regions suggested that this translocation occurred during heavy-chain isotype switching, resulting in progression to pre-B-cell leukemia with both the 5(8;14) and the t(14;18) translocations. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive phenotype of the patient's leukemic cells further suggests that the pre-B-cell leukemia was derived from a pre-B cell carrying a t(14;18) translocation in the original follicular lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction method was then used to identify cancer cells in the bone marrow of the patient.

Gauwerky, C.E.; Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. (Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1988-11-01

13

An intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with a t(3;14)(q27;q32) translocation.  

PubMed

A 61-year-old man with no symptom was found with bilateral adrenal nodules on CT scan during a routine physical check-up. The left nodule was removed by adrenalectomy, and the patient was diagnosed with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) on pathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Using a set of dual-colour, break-apart probes and fluorescence in situ hybridisation, it was revealed that the lymphoma cells have tetraploid karyotype, with a breakpoint in BCL6 gene, which was further confirmed as a t(3;14)(q27;q32) translocation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of IVLBCL with such a translocation. PMID:24357441

Cui, Jing; Liu, Qun; Cheng, Yuxia; Chen, Shaoyu; Sun, Qing

2014-03-01

14

Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of immunoblastic type are a major reservoir for MYC-IGH translocations.  

PubMed

The immunoblastic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (IB-DLBCL) has recently been recognized as an aggressive lymphoma type with inferior prognosis as compared with other DLBCL variants. At the same time, the presence of MYC rearrangements in DLBCL has been shown to indicate shorter survival in R-CHOP-treated patients. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of MYC gene rearrangements in IB-DLBCL versus non-IB-DLBCL in a large series. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization with an MYC break-apart and MYC-IGH fusion probe, we found that 13/39 evaluable IB-DLBCLs (33%) harbor translocations involving MYC, in contrast with only 5/68 (7%) in the non-IB-DLBCL group (P<0.01). The immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) was the translocation partner in all rearrangements (100%) involving MYC in IB-DLBCL, which is in contrast to what has been reported for DLBCL in the literature (50% to 70%). Moreover, MYC rearrangements occurred as the sole translocation in the majority of cases (77%), whereas across all DLBCLs the majority of MYC-rearranged cases carry additional rearrangements of either BCL2 and/or BCL6 genes (between 58% and 83% of cases). Finally, MYC-rearranged IB-DLBCLs were CD10 positive in 62% (8/13), whereas this was an uncommon feature in MYC germline IB-DLBCLs (15%). In conclusion, IB-DLBCLs are genetically characterized by frequent MYC-IGH translocations that often occur without additional BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations. The activation of MYC, therefore, may be an important pathogenetic feature in IB-DLBCL. PMID:25229766

Horn, Heike; Staiger, Annette M; Vöhringer, Matthias; Hay, Ulrich; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Ott, M Michaela

2015-01-01

15

Activation of MYC in a masked t(8;17) translocation results in an aggressive B-cell leukemia.  

PubMed Central

We have analyzed the oncogene rearrangements involving BCL2 and MYC in the leukemia cells of a patient with an aggressive prolymphocytic leukemia that had an abnormal karyotype including a t(14;18) translocation and a chromosome 17q+. Molecular analysis showed that BCL2 was rearranged in the major breakpoint cluster region and had joined into the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene as in follicular lymphoma. Cloning and sequence analysis of the rearranged MYC gene revealed that MYC was truncated at the Pvu II site at the end of the first exon of MYC and had joined into the regulatory elements of a gene that we called BCL3 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 3). The BCL3 locus was mapped to chromosome 17 band q22. We found BCL3 transcribed as a message of 1.7 kilobases in many hematopoietic cell lines representing all hematopoietic lineages. In the patient's leukemia cells, the truncated MYC gene was highly expressed under the influence of BCL3 regulatory elements, leading to an aggressive B-cell leukemia that presumably had been derived from an indolent lymphoma carrying a rearranged BCL2 gene. Images PMID:2682663

Gauwerky, C E; Huebner, K; Isobe, M; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

1989-01-01

16

Induction of plasmacytoid differentiation by phorbol ester in B-cell lymphoma cell lines bearing 8;14 translocations.  

PubMed Central

At nanomolar concentrations, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced differentiation in a human Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line, JD 38, derived from an undifferentiated lymphoma and containing an 8;14 translocation. The changes induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate were consistent with differentiation towards plasma cells and included (i) a marked increase (30-fold) in IgM secretion; (ii) a decrease in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio associated with the development of a single prominent nucleolus instead of multiple nucleoli; (iii) the development of parallel arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum, eccentric nuclei, and marginated heterochromatin; (iv) a reduction in the expression of surface markers, including common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen, IgM, and C3 receptors. Essentially all cells showed plasmacytoid differentiation, although the degree varied. Rare cells (less than 1%) appeared to be terminally differentiated into plasma cells. The increase in secreted IgM was preceded by a small increase in mu-chain RNA, with an increase in the ratio of secreted to membrane form. A small increase in c-myc RNA was also detected with differentiation. This might reflect coordinate regulation of the transcription of immunoglobulin and the translocated c-myc gene. Thus, the maturational arrest of this lymphoma cell line can be overcome with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, indicating that translocation of the c-myc gene does not permanently block the capacity for differentiation. Further, this gene continues to be expressed to at least the same level during cell maturation. Similar ultrastructural changes were induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in four of seven additional lines studied. Images PMID:6203124

Benjamin, D; Magrath, I T; Triche, T J; Schroff, R W; Jensen, J P; Korsmeyer, S J

1984-01-01

17

Translocations among Antibody Genes in Human Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic chromosomal translocations that occur in certain human malignancies offer opportunities to understand how two gene systems can affect one another when they are accidentally juxtaposed. In the case of Burkitt lymphoma, such a translocation joins the cellular oncogene, c-myc, to a region encoding one of the immunoglobulin genes. In at least one example, the coding sequence of the

Philip Leder; Jim Battey; Gilbert Lenoir; Christopher Moulding; William Murphy; Huntington Potter; Timothy Stewart; Rebecca Taub

1983-01-01

18

Translocation and Rearrangements of the c-myc Oncogene Locus in Human Undifferentiated B-Cell Lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The locus for the cellular myc (c-myc) oncogene in humans is located on the region of chromosome 8 that is translocated to chromosome 14 in cells from most undifferentiated B-cell lymphomas. It is shown in this study that the c-myc locus is rearranged in 5 out of 15 cell lines from patients with undifferentiated B-cell lymphomas, and that the rearrangement

Riccardo dalla-Favera; Stefano Martinotti; Robert C. Gallo; Jan Erikson; Carlo M. Croce

1983-01-01

19

DNA repair genes are selectively mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

DNA repair mechanisms are fundamental for B cell development, which relies on the somatic diversification of the immunoglobulin genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination. Their failure is postulated to promote genomic instability and malignant transformation in B cells. By performing targeted sequencing of 73 key DNA repair genes in 29 B cell lymphoma samples, somatic and germline mutations were identified in various DNA repair pathways, mainly in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Mutations in mismatch repair genes (EXO1, MSH2, and MSH6) were associated with microsatellite instability, increased number of somatic insertions/deletions, and altered mutation signatures in tumors. Somatic mutations in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes (DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS, PRKDC/DNA-PKcs, XRCC5/KU80, and XRCC6/KU70) were identified in four DLBCL tumors and cytogenetic analyses revealed that translocations involving the immunoglobulin-heavy chain locus occurred exclusively in NHEJ-mutated samples. The novel mutation targets, CHEK2 and PARP1, were further screened in expanded DLBCL cohorts, and somatic as well as novel and rare germline mutations were identified in 8 and 5% of analyzed tumors, respectively. By correlating defects in a subset of DNA damage response and repair genes with genomic instability events in tumors, we propose that these genes play a role in DLBCL lymphomagenesis. PMID:23960188

de Miranda, Noel FCC; Peng, Roujun; Georgiou, Konstantinos; Wu, Chenglin; Sörqvist, Elin Falk; Berglund, Mattias; Chen, Longyun; Gao, Zhibo; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lisboa, Susana; Roos, Fredrik; van Wezel, Tom; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Rosenquist, Richard; Sundström, Christer; Enblad, Gunilla; Nilsson, Mats; Zeng, Yixin; Kipling, David

2013-01-01

20

Inactivating mutations of acetyltransferase genes in B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma comprises biologically and clinically distinct diseases the pathogenesis of which is associated with genetic lesions affecting oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes. We report here that the two most common types--follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma--harbour frequent structural alterations inactivating CREBBP and, more rarely, EP300, two highly related histone and non-histone acetyltransferases (HATs) that act as transcriptional co-activators

Laura Pasqualucci; David Dominguez-Sola; Annalisa Chiarenza; Giulia Fabbri; Adina Grunn; Vladimir Trifonov; Lawryn H. Kasper; Stephanie Lerach; Hongyan Tang; Jing Ma; Davide Rossi; Amy Chadburn; Vundavalli V. Murty; Charles G. Mullighan; Gianluca Gaidano; Raul Rabadan; Paul K. Brindle; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

2011-01-01

21

Regulation of Primary Response Genes in B Cells*  

PubMed Central

Deregulated gene expression in B cells often results in various lymphoid malignancies and immune deficiencies. Therefore, understanding signal-induced gene regulatory pathways involved during B cell activation is important to tackle pathologies associated with altered B cell function. Primary response genes (PRGs) are rapidly induced upon signaling in B cells and other cell types and often encode oncogenic transcription factors, which are associated with various malignancies. However, an important issue that remains unclear is whether the fundamental mechanism of activation of these genes is essentially the same under such diverse conditions. c-fos is a PRG that is induced rapidly upon activation of B cells in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Using the c-fos gene as a candidate PRG, we addressed here how it is regulated in response to tumor-promoting and antigen-mimicking signals. Our results show that although the mRNA was induced and extinguished within minutes in response to both signals, surprisingly, apparently full-length unspliced pre-mRNA persisted for several hours in both cases. However, although the mitogenic signal resulted in a more sustained mRNA response that persisted for 4 h, antigenic signaling resulted in a more robust but very transient response that lasted for <1 h. Moreover, the pre-mRNA profile exhibited significant differences between the two signals. Additionally, the splicing regulation was also observed with egr-2, but not with c-myc. Together, these results suggest a previously underappreciated regulatory step in PRG expression in B cells. PMID:23536186

Fowler, Trent; Suh, Hyunsuk; Buratowski, Stephen; Roy, Ananda L.

2013-01-01

22

The regulation of the B-cell gene expression programme by Pax5  

E-print Network

; pro-B cell; pre-B cell receptor OVERVIEW OF B-CELL DEVELOPMENT B cells derive from multipotent differentiated plasma cells, or memory cells that provide the basis for acquired immunity. As well as being dual role in both positively and negatively regulating gene expression during B-cell development. Pax5

Cai, Long

23

Reciprocal 8;14 translocation in EBV-negative B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia with Burkitt-type cells.  

PubMed

A cytogenetic study, including prophase-prometaphase chromosome analysis, of a patient with EBV-genome-negative acute lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell type with Burkitt-type cells is presented. All bone-marrow mitoses examined had a 14q+ marker chromosome which was identified as a reciprocal 8;14 translocation of exactly the same type as in Burkitt's lymphoma. PMID:90020

Mitelman, F; Andersson-Anvret, M; Brandt, L; Catovsky, D; Klein, G; Manolov, G; Manolova, Y; Mark-Vendel, E; Nilsson, P G

1979-07-15

24

The Prognosis of MYC Translocation Positive Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Depends on The Second Hit  

E-print Network

line treatment for this malignancy [2]. A number of biomarkers have been investigated with the aim of predicting treatment outcome at diagnosis and identifying those that may benefit from novel therapeutic strategies, but only a few have proven... -cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP chemotherapy. Blood 2009; 114: 3533-3537. 11. Yoon SO, Jeon YK, Paik JH et al. MYC translocation and an increased copy number predict poor prognosis in adult diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), especially...

Clipson, Alexandra; Barrans, Sharon; Zeng, Naiyan; Crouch, Simon; Grigoropoulos, Nicholas F; Liu, Hongxiang; Kocialkowski, Sylvia; Wang, Ming; Huang, Yuanxue; Worrillow, Lisa; Goodlad, John; Buxton, Jenny; Neat, Michael; Fields, Paul; Wilkins, Bridget; Grant, John W; Wright, Penny; EI-Daly, Hesham; Follows, George A; Roman, Eve; Watkins, A James; Johnson, Peter W M; Jack, Andrew; Du, Ming-Qing

2015-01-08

25

C(A T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing  

E-print Network

Cm C(A T)GG DNA methylation in mature B cell lymphoma gene silencing Cindy Sue Malone*, Maurine D) and myeloma are lymphoid malignancies that arise from terminally differentiated B cells. Interestingly, PEL do not express immunoglobulins or most B lineage-specific genes. The B cell-specific B29 (Ig CD79b) gene

Jacobsen, Steve

26

The Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene 3’ Enhancers Induce Bcl2 Deregulation and Lymphomagenesis in Murine B Cells  

PubMed Central

Human follicular B-cell lymphoma is associated with the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation that juxtaposes the Bcl2 proto-oncogene with the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, resulting in the deregulated expression of Bcl2. Our previous studies have shown that the Igh 3’ enhancers deregulate Bcl2 expression in vitro. However, the effects of the Igh 3’ enhancer elements on Bcl2 expression in vivo are not known. To investigate the role of the Igh 3’ enhancers in Bcl2 deregulation, we used gene targeting to generate knock-in mice in which four DNase I hypersensitive regions from the murine Igh 3’ region were integrated 3’ of the Bcl2 locus. Increased levels of Bcl2 mRNA and protein were observed in the B cells of Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice. B cells from Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice demonstrated an extended survival in vitro compared with B cells from wild-type mice. The Bcl2 promoter shift from P1 (the 5’ promoter) to P2 (the 3’ promoter) was observed in B cells from Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice, similar to human t(14;18) lymphomas. The IgH-3’E-bcl2 mice developed monoclonal B-cell follicular lymphomas, which were slowly progressive. These studies demonstrate that the Igh 3’ enhancers play an important role in the deregulation of Bcl2 and B-cell lymphomagenesis in vivo. PMID:21606958

Xiang, Hong; Noonan, Emily J.; Wang, Jinghong; Duan, Hong; Ma, Lawrence; Michie, Sara; Boxer, Linda M.

2011-01-01

27

Gene Translocations in Musculoskeletal Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Establishing the best diagnosis for musculoskeletal neoplasms requires a multidisciplinary approach using clinical, radiographic, and histologic analyses. Despite this rigorous approach, establishing accurate diagnoses and prognoses remains challenging. Improved diagnostic methods are expected as unique molecular signals for specific bone and soft tissue cancers are identified. We performed a systematic review of the best available evidence to explore three major applications of molecular genetics that will best benefit clinical management of musculoskeletal neoplasms: diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. The specific questions addressed in this systematic review are: (1) What sets of histopathologic sarcoma subtypes will benefit from molecular evaluation and diagnosis? (2) What molecular methods are best applied to histopathologic sarcomas to distinguish between major subtypes? (3) How do the molecular patterns discovered on genetic diagnosis affect prognosis of certain sarcomas? (4) Which sarcoma translocations can benefit from an improved response and outcome using existing and forthcoming pharmacogenetic approaches targeting molecular events? This review summarizes recent advances in molecular genetics that are available and will soon be available to clinicians to better predict outcomes and subsequently help make future treatment decisions. Level of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18566876

Krishnan, Balaji; Khanna, Gaurav

2008-01-01

28

AID-Targeting and Hypermutation of Non-Immunoglobulin Genes Does Not Correlate with Proximity to Immunoglobulin Genes in Germinal Center B Cells  

PubMed Central

Upon activation, B cells divide, form a germinal center, and express the activation induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that triggers somatic hypermutation of the variable regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) loci. Recent evidence indicates that at least 25% of expressed genes in germinal center B cells are mutated or deaminated by AID. One of the most deaminated genes, c-Myc, frequently appears as a translocation partner with the Ig heavy chain gene (Igh) in mouse plasmacytomas and human Burkitt's lymphomas. This indicates that the two genes or their double-strand break ends come into close proximity at a biologically relevant frequency. However, the proximity of c-Myc and Igh has never been measured in germinal center B cells, where many such translocations are thought to occur. We hypothesized that in germinal center B cells, not only is c-Myc near Igh, but other mutating non-Ig genes are deaminated by AID because they are near Ig genes, the primary targets of AID. We tested this “collateral damage” model using 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization (3D-FISH) to measure the distance from non-Ig genes to Ig genes in germinal center B cells. We also made mice transgenic for human MYC and measured expression and mutation of the transgenes. We found that there is no correlation between proximity to Ig genes and levels of AID targeting or gene mutation, and that c-Myc was not closer to Igh than were other non-Ig genes. In addition, the human MYC transgenes did not accumulate mutations and were not deaminated by AID. We conclude that proximity to Ig loci is unlikely to be a major determinant of AID targeting or mutation of non-Ig genes, and that the MYC transgenes are either missing important regulatory elements that allow mutation or are unable to mutate because their new nuclear position is not conducive to AID deamination. PMID:22768095

Gramlich, Hillary Selle; Reisbig, Tara; Schatz, David G.

2012-01-01

29

Chromosomal location targets different MYC family gene members for oncogenic translocations  

PubMed Central

The MYC family of cellular oncogenes includes c-Myc, N-myc, and L-myc, which encode transcriptional regulators involved in the control of cell proliferation and death. Accordingly, these genes become aberrantly activated and expressed in specific types of cancers. For example, c-Myc translocations occur frequently in human B lymphoid tumors, while N-myc gene amplification is frequent in human neuroblastomas. The observed association between aberrations in particular MYC family genes and specific subsets of malignancies might reflect, at least in part, tissue-specific differences in expression or function of a given MYC gene. Since c-Myc and N-myc share substantial functional redundancy, another factor that could influence tumor-specific gene activation would be mechanisms that target aberrations (e.g., translocations) in a given MYC gene in a particular tumor progenitor cell type. We have previously shown that mice deficient for the DNA Ligase4 (Lig4) nonhomologous DNA end-joining factor and the p53 tumor suppressor routinely develop progenitor (pro)-B cell lymphomas that harbor translocations leading to c-Myc amplification. Here, we report that a modified allele in which the c-Myc coding sequence is replaced by N-myc coding sequence (NCR allele) competes well with the wild-type c-Myc allele as a target for oncogenic translocations and amplifications in the Lig4/p53-deficient pro-B cell lymphoma model. Tumor onset, type, and cytological aberrations are similar in tumors harboring either the wild-type c-Myc gene or the NCR allele. Our results support the notion that particular features of the c-Myc locus select it as a preferential translocation/amplification target, compared to the endogenous N-myc locus, in Lig4/p53-deficient pro-B cell lymphomas. PMID:19174520

Gostissa, Monica; Ranganath, Sheila; Bianco, Julia M.; Alt, Frederick W.

2009-01-01

30

Extensive Gene-Specific Translational Reprogramming in a Model of B Cell Differentiation and Abl-Dependent Transformation  

PubMed Central

To what extent might the regulation of translation contribute to differentiation programs, or to the molecular pathogenesis of cancer? Pre-B cells transformed with the viral oncogene v-Abl are suspended in an immortalized, cycling state that mimics leukemias with a BCR-ABL1 translocation, such as Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Inhibition of the oncogenic Abl kinase with imatinib reverses transformation, allowing progression to the next stage of B cell development. We employed a genome-wide polysome profiling assay called Gradient Encoding to investigate the extent and potential contribution of translational regulation to transformation and differentiation in v-Abl-transformed pre-B cells. Over half of the significantly translationally regulated genes did not change significantly at the level of mRNA abundance, revealing biology that might have been missed by measuring changes in transcript abundance alone. We found extensive, gene-specific changes in translation affecting genes with known roles in B cell signaling and differentiation, cancerous transformation, and cytoskeletal reorganization potentially affecting adhesion. These results highlight a major role for gene-specific translational regulation in remodeling the gene expression program in differentiation and malignant transformation. PMID:22693568

Bates, Jamie G.; Salzman, Julia; May, Damon; Garcia, Patty B.; Hogan, Gregory J.; McIntosh, Martin; Schlissel, Mark S.; Brown, Pat O.

2012-01-01

31

Molecular Cloning of the Chromosomal Breakpoint of B-Cell Lymphomas and Leukemias with the t(11;14) Chromosome Translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal breakpoint of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells of the B-cell type carrying the translocated long arms of chromosomes 11 and 14 [t(11;14) (q13;q32)] was cloned. The breakpoint was found to be within the joining segment of the human heavy chain locus on the translocated long arm of chromosome 14. A probe that is specific for chromosome 11 and

Yoshihide Tsujimoto; Jorge Yunis; Louise Onorato-Showe; Jan Erikson; Peter C. Nowell; Carlo M. Croce

1984-01-01

32

Defective B cell tolerance in adenosine deaminase deficiency is corrected by gene therapy.  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene defects are among the most common causes of SCID. Restoration of purine metabolism and immune functions can be achieved by enzyme replacement therapy, or more effectively by bone marrow transplant or HSC gene therapy (HSC-GT). However, autoimmune complications and autoantibody production, including anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), frequently occur in ADA-SCID patients after treatment. To assess whether ADA deficiency affects the establishment of B cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells of ADA-SCID patients before and after HSC-GT. We found that before HSC-GT, new emigrant/transitional and mature naive B cells from ADA-SCID patients contained more autoreactive and ANA-expressing clones, indicative of defective central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We further observed impaired B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR functions in B cells after ADA inhibition, which may underlie the defects in B cell tolerance. Strikingly, after HSC-GT, ADA-SCID patients displayed quasi-normal early B cell tolerance checkpoints, as evidenced by restored removal of developing autoreactive and ANA-expressing B cells. Hence, ADA plays an essential role in controlling autoreactive B cell counterselection by regulating BCR and TLR functions. PMID:22622038

Sauer, Aisha V; Morbach, Henner; Brigida, Immacolata; Ng, Yen-Shing; Aiuti, Alessandro; Meffre, Eric

2012-06-01

33

Blimp1 Orchestrates Plasma Cell Differentiation by Extinguishing the Mature B Cell Gene Expression Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blimp-1, a transcriptional repressor, drives the terminal differentiation of B cells to plasma cells. Using DNA microarrays, we found that introduction of Blimp-1 into B cells blocked expression of a remarkably large set of genes, while a much smaller number was induced. Blimp-1 initiated this cascade of gene expression changes by directly repressing genes encoding several transcription factors, including Spi-B

A. L. Shaffer; Kuo-I Lin; Tracy C. Kuo; Xin Yu; Elaine M. Hurt; Andreas Rosenwald; Jena M. Giltnane; Liming Yang; Hong Zhao; Kathryn Calame; Louis M. Staudt

2002-01-01

34

Relation of Gene Expression Phenotype to Immunoglobulin Mutation Genotype in B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common human leukemia is B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a malig- nancy of mature B cells with a characteristic clinical presentation but a variable clinical course. The rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes of CLL cells may be either germ-line in sequence or somatically mutated. Lack of Ig mutations defined a distinctly worse prognostic group of CLL patients raising

Andreas Rosenwald; Ash A. Alizadeh; George Widhopf; Richard Simon; R. Eric Davis; Xin Yu; Liming Yang; Oxana K. Pickeral; Laura Z. Rassenti; John Powell; David Botstein; John C. Byrd; Michael R. Grever; Bruce D. Cheson; Nicholas Chiorazzi; Wyndham H. Wilson; Thomas J. Kipps; Patrick O. Brown; Louis M. Staudt

2001-01-01

35

Diagnostic value of immunoglobulin ? light chain gene rearrangement analysis in B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Analysis of the immunoglobulin ? light chain (IGK) gene is an alternative method for B-cell clonality assessment in the diagnosis of mature B-cell proliferations in which the detection of clonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements fails. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the added value of standardized BIOMED-2 assay for the detection of clonal IGK gene rearrangements in the diagnostic setting of suspected B-cell lymphomas. With this purpose, 92 specimens from 80 patients with the final diagnosis of mature B-cell lymphoma (37 specimens), mature T-cell lymphoma (26 specimens) and reactive lymphoid proliferation (29 specimens) were analyzed for B-cell clonality. B-cell clonality analysis was performed using the BIOMED-2 IGH and IGK gene clonality assays. The determined sensitivity of the IGK assay was 67.6%, while the determined sensitivity of the IGH assay was 75.7%. The sensitivity of combined IGH+IGK assay was 81.1%. The determined specificity of the IGK assay was 96.2% in the group of T-cell lymphomas and 96.6% in the group of reactive lesions. The determined specificity of the IGH assay was 84.6% in the group of lymphomas and 86.2% in the group of reactive lesions. The comparison of GeneScan (GS) and heteroduplex pretreatment-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (HD-PAGE) methods for the analysis of IGK gene rearrangements showed a higher efficacy of GS analysis in a series of 27 B-cell lymphomas analyzed by both methods. In the present study, we demonstrated that by applying the combined IGH+IGK clonality assay the overall detection rate of B-cell clonality was increased by 5.4%. Thus, we confirmed the added value of the standardized BIOMED-2 IGK assay for assessment of B-cell clonality in suspected B-cell lymphomas with inconclusive clinical and cyto/histological diagnosis. PMID:25501347

Kokovic, Ira; Jezersek Novakovic, Barbara; Novakovic, Srdjan

2015-03-01

36

Expression of essential B cell development genes in horses with common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder of B cell differentiation or function with inadequate antibody production. Our laboratory studies a natural form of CVID in horses characterized by late-onset B cell lymphopenia due to impaired B cell production in the bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess the status of B cell differentiation in the bone marrow of CVID-affected horses by measuring the expression of genes essential for early B cell commitment and development. Standard RT-PCR revealed that most of the transcription factors and key signaling molecules that directly regulate B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and precede PAX5 are expressed in the affected horses. Yet, the expression of PAX5 and relevant target genes was variable. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the mRNA expression of E2A, PAX5, CD19, and IGHD was significantly reduced in equine CVID patients when compared to healthy horses (p<0.05). In addition, the PAX5/EBF1 and PAX5/B220 ratios were significantly reduced in CVID patients (p<0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the absence of PAX5-BSAP expression in the bone marrow of affected horses. Our data suggest that B cell development seems to be impaired at the transition between pre-pro-B cells and pro-B cells in equine CVID patients. PMID:22464097

Tallmadge, R L; Such, K A; Miller, K C; Matychak, M B; Felippe, M J B

2012-06-01

37

LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Summary We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of LITAF in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce LPS-mediated TNF? secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal center reaction, and suggest that constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:23795761

Bertolo, Cristina; Roa, Sergio; Sagardoy, Ainara; Mena-Varas, Maria; Robles, Eloy F.; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Orta, Alberto; Lossos, Izidore S.; Amar, Salomon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Briones, Javier; Melnick, Ari; Malumbres, Raquel; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

2014-01-01

38

LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) factor (LITAF) in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal centre reaction, and suggest that the constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:23795761

Bertolo, Cristina; Roa, Sergio; Sagardoy, Ainara; Mena-Varas, Maria; Robles, Eloy F; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Orta, Alberto; Lossos, Izidore S; Amar, Salomon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Briones, Javier; Melnick, Ari; Malumbres, Raquel; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

2013-09-01

39

B cell–specific lentiviral gene therapy leads to sustained B-cell functional recovery in a murine model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (E?) and Ig? (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage–specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec?/? mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of E?B29-Btk-LV–transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage–targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406

Kerns, Hannah M.; Ryu, Byoung Y.; Stirling, Brigid V.; Sather, Blythe D.; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny

2010-01-01

40

Gene flow and endangered species translocations: a topic revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the evolutionary role of gene flow is pivotal to the conservation of endangered populations. Gene flow can be enhanced through population translocations that are conducted to maintain genetic variation and combat the negative consequences of inbreeding depression (two of the major concerns in the conservation of subdivided or isolated populations). While researchers have given extensive consideration to the idea

Andrew Storfer

1999-01-01

41

Novel BLIMP1\\/PRDM1 gene mutations in B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

B lymphocyte–induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1)\\/PR domain containing 1 with zinc finger domain (PRDM1) is a transcriptional repressor with a SET domain and Kruppel-type zinc fingers. BLIMP1\\/PRDM1 is expressed in a subset of germinal center B cells and in all plasma cells, and it is required for terminal B-cell differentiation. Mutations of the BLIMP1 gene have been reported in patients

Genshu Tate; Yoshiko Hirayama-Ohashi; Koji Kishimoto; Toshiyuki Mitsuya

2007-01-01

42

Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement as a diagnostic criterion of B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

We describe the use of the Southern blot hybridization technique to diagnose B-cell lymphoma by detecting clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in lymph node and other biopsy tissues. DNA was isolated from a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic specimens and analyzed for the presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes using radiolabeled DNA probes specific for the heavy- and light-chain immunoglobulin constant region genes. Among the specimens examined, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements were found only in biopsy samples of B-cell lymphoma and not in samples containing reactive lymphoid processes or non-B-cell cancers. In lymphomas, the presence of rearrangements for either the kappa or lambda light-chain gene correlated with expression of one or the other of these chains when cellular immunoglobulins could be detected by frozen-section immunophenotyping techniques. The analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements offers several advantages over conventional diagnostic methods for lymphomas, including improved sensitivity in detecting minor populations of neoplastic lymphocytes composing as little as 1% of the total cell population. In addition, clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements are demonstrable in a subset of lymphomas that lack detectable surface or cytoplasmic immunoglobulin, thus offering positive evidence for both malignancy and the B-cell origin of these tumors. Our studies indicate that detection of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements is a valuable method for diagnosis and classification of various lymphoproliferative disorders that are difficult to evaluate histologically or that lack distinctive antigenic markers. PMID:6607475

Cleary, M L; Chao, J; Warnke, R; Sklar, J

1984-01-01

43

Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation  

SciTech Connect

The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Lampert, F. (Kinderklinik-Universitaet Giessen (Germany)); Kaneko, Y. (Saitama Cancer Centre, Saitama (Japan)); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Van Der Schoot, C.E. (Central Laboratory of the Netherlands Red Cross, Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Ludwig, W.D. (Institut fur Humangenetik und Antrhopologie, Heidelberg (Germany)); Karpas, A. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. (Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom))

1993-09-15

44

Identification of co-expressed gene signatures in mouse B1, marginal zone and B2 B-cell populations  

PubMed Central

In mice, three major B-cell subsets have been identified with distinct functionalities: B1 B cells, marginal zone B cells and follicular B2 B cells. Here, we used the growing body of publicly available transcriptomics data to create an expression atlas of 84 gene expression microarray data sets of distinct mouse B-cell subsets. These data were subjected to network-based cluster analysis using BioLayout Express3D. Using this analysis tool, genes with related functions clustered together in discrete regions of the network graph and enabled the identification of transcriptional networks that underpinned the functional activity of distinct cell populations. Some gene clusters were expressed highly by most of the cell populations included in this analysis (such as those with activity related to house-keeping functions). Others contained genes with expression patterns specific to distinct B-cell subsets. While these clusters contained many genes typically associated with the activity of the cells they were specifically expressed in, many novel B-cell-subset-specific candidate genes were identified. A large number of uncharacterized genes were also represented in these B-cell lineage-specific clusters. Further analysis of the activities of these uncharacterized candidate genes will lead to the identification of novel B-cell lineage-specific transcription factors and regulators of B-cell function. We also analysed 36 microarray data sets from distinct human B-cell populations. These data showed that mouse and human germinal centre B cells shared similar transcriptional features, whereas mouse B1 B cells were distinct from proposed human B1 B cells. PMID:24032749

Mabbott, Neil A; Gray, David

2014-01-01

45

Fucoidan prevents C? germline transcription and NF?B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C? germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100ng\\/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10?g\\/ml),

Souichi Oomizu; Yuhki Yanase; Hidenori Suzuki; Yoshikazu Kameyoshi; Michihiro. Hide

2006-01-01

46

Impaired B cell development and function in mice with a targeted disruption of the homeobox gene Hex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hex is a homeobox gene that is expressed in all stages of B cell development except plasma cells. We studied lymphocyte development in the absence of Hex by using the RAG1-deficient blastocyst complementation system because homozygous disruption of Hex is embryonic lethal. Hex\\/;RAG1-\\/- chimeric mice had severely reduced numbers of mature B cells, pre-B cells, and CD5+ B cells with

Clifford W. Bogue; Ping-Xia Zhang; James McGrath; Harris C. Jacobs; Ramsay L. Fuleihan

2003-01-01

47

Loss of an Ig? Gene Enhancer in Mature B Cells Results in Rapid Gene Silencing and Partial Reversible Dedifferentiation  

PubMed Central

We address here whether there is cellular memory of a transcriptional enhancer once it has served its purpose to establish an active chromatin state. We have previously shown that the mouse Ig? gene's downstream enhancers, E3? and Ed, are essential but play redundant roles for establishing transcriptional activity in the locus during B cell development. To determine whether these enhancers are also necessary for the maintenance of transcriptional activity, we conditionally deleted E3? in mature B cells that possessed Ed?/? alleles. Upon E3? deletion, the locus became rapidly silenced and lost positive histone epigenetic marks, and the mature B cells partially dedifferentiated, induced RAG-1 and -2 along with certain other pro-B cell makers, and then redifferentiated after triggering Ig? gene rearrangements. We conclude that the Ig? gene's downstream enhancers are essential for both the establishment and maintenance of transcriptional activity and that there is no cellular memory of previous transcriptional activity in this locus. Furthermore, upon enhancer loss, the mature B cells unexpectedly underwent reversible retrograde differentiation. This result establishes that receptor editing can occur in mature B cells and raises the possibility that this may provide a tolerance mechanism for eliminating autoreactive B cells in the periphery. PMID:23508106

Zhou, Xiaorong; Xiang, Yougui; Ding, Xiaoling

2013-01-01

48

A Critical Role of the Thy28-MYH9 Axis in B Cell-Specific Expression of the Pax5 Gene in Chicken B Cells  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that Pax5 plays essential roles in B cell lineage commitment. However, molecular mechanisms of B cell-specific expression of Pax5 are not fully understood. Here, we applied insertional chromatin immunoprecipitation (iChIP) combined with stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) (iChIP-SILAC) to direct identification of proteins interacting with the promoter region of the endogenous single-copy chicken Pax5 gene. By comparing B cells with macrophage-like cells trans-differentiated by ectopic expression of C/EBP?, iChIP-SILAC detected B cell-specific interaction of a nuclear protein, Thy28/Thyn1, with the Pax5 1A promoter. Trans-differentiation of B cells into macrophage-like cells caused down-regulation of Thy28 expression. Loss-of-function of Thy28 induced decrease in Pax5 expression and recruitment of myosin-9 (MYH9), one of Thy28-interacting proteins, to the Pax5 1A promoter. Loss-of-function of MYH9 also induced decrease in Pax5 expression. Thus, our analysis revealed that Thy28 is functionally required for B cell-specific expression of Pax5 via recruitment of MYH9 to the Pax5 locus in chicken B cells. PMID:25607658

Fujita, Toshitsugu; Kitaura, Fusako; Fujii, Hodaka

2015-01-01

49

Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common type of non-Hodgkin's lym- phoma (NHL) that is highly heteroge- neous from both clinical and histopatho- logic viewpoints. The immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain variable region genes were examined in 71 patients with un- treated primary DLBCL. Fifty-eight poten- tially functional VH genes were detected in 53 DLBCL cases; VH genes were

I. S. Lossos; C. Y. Okada; R. Tibshirani; R. Warnke; J. M. Vose; T. C. Greiner; R. Levy

2000-01-01

50

Aldehyde dehydrogenase-1a1 induces oncogene suppressor genes in B cell populations.  

PubMed

The deregulation of B cell differentiation has been shown to contribute to autoimmune disorders, hematological cancers, and aging. We provide evidence that the retinoic acid-producing enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a1 (Aldh1a1) is an oncogene suppressor in specific splenic IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and IgG1(+)/CD19(+) B cell populations. Aldh1a1 regulated transcription factors during B cell differentiation in a sequential manner: 1) retinoic acid receptor alpha (Rara) in IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and 2) zinc finger protein Zfp423 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg) in IgG1(+)/CD19(+) splenocytes. In Aldh1a1(-/-) mice, splenic IgG1(+)/CD19(-) and IgG1(+)/CD19(+) B cells acquired expression of proto-oncogenic genes c-Fos, c-Jun, and Hoxa10 that resulted in splenomegaly. Human multiple myeloma B cell lines also lack Aldh1a1 expression; however, ectopic Aldh1a1 expression rescued Rara and Znf423 expressions in these cells. Our data highlight a mechanism by which an enzyme involved in vitamin A metabolism can improve B cell resistance to oncogenesis. PMID:24080087

Yasmeen, R; Meyers, J M; Alvarez, C E; Thomas, J L; Bonnegarde-Bernard, A; Alder, H; Papenfuss, T L; Benson, D M; Boyaka, P N; Ziouzenkova, O

2013-12-01

51

Organizational structure and the periphery of the gene regulatory network in B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background The physical periphery of a biological cell is mainly described by signaling pathways which are triggered by transmembrane proteins and receptors that are sentinels to control the whole gene regulatory network of a cell. However, our current knowledge about the gene regulatory mechanisms that are governed by extracellular signals is severely limited. Results The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, we infer a gene regulatory network from a large-scale B-cell lymphoma expression data set using the C3NET algorithm. Second, we provide a functional and structural analysis of the largest connected component of this network, revealing that this network component corresponds to the peripheral region of a cell. Third, we analyze the hierarchical organization of network components of the whole inferred B-cell gene regulatory network by introducing a new approach which exploits the variability within the data as well as the inferential characteristics of C3NET. As a result, we find a functional bisection of the network corresponding to different cellular components. Conclusions Overall, our study allows to highlight the peripheral gene regulatory network of B-cells and shows that it is centered around hub transmembrane proteins located at the physical periphery of the cell. In addition, we identify a variety of novel pathological transmembrane proteins such as ion channel complexes and signaling receptors in B-cell lymphoma. PMID:22583750

2012-01-01

52

Correlation of Gene Expression and Genome Mutation in Single B-Cells  

PubMed Central

High-throughput measurement of gene-expression and immune receptor repertoires have recently become powerful tools in the study of adaptive immune response. However, despite their now-widespread use, both tend to discard cell identity by treating cell populations in bulk, and therefore lose the correlation between genetic variability and gene-expression at the single cell level. In order to recover this information, we developed a method to simultaneously measure gene expression profiles and genome mutations in single cells. We applied this method by quantifying the relationships between gene expression and antibody mutation in ensembles of individual B-cells from immunized mice. The results reveal correlations reflecting the manner in which information propagates between a B-cell’s antigen receptors, its gene expression, and its mutagenic machinery, and demonstrate the power of this approach to illuminate both heterogeneity and physiology in cell populations. PMID:23840752

Weinstein, Joshua A.; Zeng, Xun; Chien, Yueh-Hsiu; Quake, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

53

Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells  

SciTech Connect

Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

Oomizu, Souichi [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Yanase, Yuhki [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Suzuki, Hidenori [Department of Dermatology, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu [Department of Dermatology, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hide, Michihiro [Department of Dermatology, Division of Molecular Medical Science, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)]. E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

2006-11-24

54

t(8; 14) chromosome translocation of the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Daudi occurred during immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and involved the heavy chain diversity region  

SciTech Connect

Recent molecular analyses of Burkitt lymphomas carrying the t(8;14) chromosome translocation have indicated that a dichotomy exists regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the translocations occur. Most sporadic Burkitt tumors carry translocations that apparently arise due to mistakes in the immunoglobulin isotype-switching process. In contrast, there is evidence that the translocations of most endemic Burkitt lymphomas occur as a consequence of aberrant V-D-J recombination of variable, diversity, and joining gene segments, catalyzed by the recombinase enzymes. This phenomenon was first noted in follicular lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemias of the B-cell lineage and has been described in T-cell malignancies as well. In each of these cases, analysis of the nucleotide sequence at chromosome breakpoints demonstrated the involvement of immunoglobulin heavy chain J/sub H/ or T-cell-receptor ..cap alpha..-chain J..cap alpha.. gene segments in the translocation. The authors now have cloned and sequenced both the 8q- and 14q+ translocation breakpoints deriving from the t(8;14) translocation of the endemic Burkitt lymphoma line Daudi. The data show that the translocation resulted from a reciprocal exchange between the D/sub H/ region on chromosome 14 and sequences far 5' of the MYC protooncogene on chromosome 8. Features of the nucleotide sequences surrounding the breakpoint further implicate the V-D-J joining machinery in the genesis of chromosome translocation in endemic Burkitt lymphomas and, more generally, in other lymphoid malignancies as well.

Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Croce, C.M.

1987-10-01

55

Global gene expression changes of in vitro stimulated human transformed germinal centre B cells as surrogate for oncogenic pathway activation in individual aggressive B cell lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Background Aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of lymphomas derived from germinal centre B cells which display a heterogeneous pattern of oncogenic pathway activation. We postulate that specific immune response associated signalling, affecting gene transcription networks, may be associated with the activation of different oncogenic pathways in aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Methodology The B cell receptor (BCR), CD40, B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-receptors and Interleukin (IL) 21 receptor and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were stimulated in human transformed germinal centre B cells by treatment with anti IgM F(ab)2-fragments, CD40L, BAFF, IL21 and LPS respectively. The changes in gene expression following the activation of Jak/STAT, NF-?B, MAPK, Ca2+ and PI3K signalling triggered by these stimuli was assessed using microarray analysis. The expression of top 100 genes which had a change in gene expression following stimulation was investigated in gene expression profiles of patients with Aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Results ?IgM stimulation led to the largest number of changes in gene expression, affecting overall 6596 genes. While CD40L stimulation changed the expression of 1194 genes and IL21 stimulation affected 902 genes, only 283 and 129 genes were modulated by lipopolysaccharide or BAFF receptor stimulation, respectively. Interestingly, genes associated with a Burkitt-like phenotype, such as MYC, BCL6 or LEF1, were affected by ?IgM. Unique and shared gene expression was delineated. NHL-patients were sorted according to their similarity in the expression of TOP100 affected genes to stimulated transformed germinal centre B cells The ?IgM gene module discriminated individual DLBCL in a similar manner to CD40L or IL21 gene modules. DLBCLs with low module activation often carry chromosomal MYC aberrations. DLBCLs with high module activation show strong expression of genes involved in cell-cell communication, immune responses or negative feedback loops. Using chemical inhibitors for selected kinases we show that mitogen activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-signalling are dominantly involved in regulating genes included in the ?IgM gene module. Conclusion We provide an in vitro model system to investigate pathway activation in lymphomas. We defined the extent to which different immune response associated pathways are responsible for differences in gene expression which distinguish individual DLBCL cases. Our results support the view that tonic or constitutively active MAPK/ERK pathways are an important part of oncogenic signalling in NHL. The experimental model can now be applied to study the therapeutic potential of deregulated oncogenic pathways and to develop individual treatment strategies for lymphoma patients. PMID:23253402

2012-01-01

56

Global mapping of c-Myc binding sites and target gene networks in human B cells  

E-print Network

Global mapping of c-Myc binding sites and target gene networks in human B cells Karen I. Zeller) The protooncogene MYC encodes the c-Myc transcription factor that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, cell what direct Myc-induced transcriptomes promote cell transformation. Here we provide a snapshot

Weng, Zhiping

57

A novel enhancer, the pro-B enhancer, regulates Id1 gene expression in progenitor B cells.  

PubMed Central

The helix-loop-helix (HLH) Id proteins have been reported to function as inhibitors of various differentiation programs. The HLH motif mediates dimer formation between Id and the basic HLH transcription factors. Since Id proteins lack the basic region responsible for DNA binding, the heterodimers cannot bind to DNA. Id proteins have also been found to be involved in early B-cell differentiation. They are expressed at high levels in progenitor B cells (pro-B cells), and the expression is diminished in pre-B cells and mature B cells. This expression pattern correlates inversely with basic HLH protein activity and immunoglobulin enhancer function in B-cell development. Regulation of Id expression may play an important role in transcriptional control of immunoglobulin genes and therefore in B-cell differentiation. We have characterized the regulatory elements of the Id1 gene. Using stable transfectants, transient transfection, and mobility shift assays, we have identified an 8-bp element designated PBE (pro-B enhancer) downstream of the Id1 gene that is responsible for a pro-B-cell-specific enhancer activity. A pro-B-cell-specific protein complex was found to bind to the 8-bp PBE element. Substitution mutagenesis at this binding site showed that it is indeed of functional importance in regulating the pro-B-cell-specific expression of the Id1 gene. PMID:7862144

Saisanit, S; Sun, X H

1995-01-01

58

Human Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 Peripheral Blood B Cells Expressing the CD27 Cell Surface Antigen Carry Somatically Mutated Variable Region Genes: CD27 as a General Marker for Somatically Mutated (Memory) B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Immunoglobulin (Ig)M 1 IgD 1 B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperi- enced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM 1 IgD 1 peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM 1 IgD 1 B cells.

Ulf Klein; Klaus Rajewsky; Ralf Küppers

59

Foxo1 directly regulates the transcription of recombination-activating genes during B cell development  

PubMed Central

Regulated expression of the recombinase RAG-1 and RAG-2 proteins is necessary for generating the vast repertoire of antigen receptors essential for adaptive immunity. Here, a retroviral cDNA library screen showed that the stress-regulated protein GADD45a activated transcription of the genes encoding RAG-1 and RAG-2 in transformed pro-B cells by a pathway requiring the transcription factor Foxo1. Foxo1 directly activated transcription of the Rag1-Rag2 locus throughout early B cell development, and a decrease in Foxo1 protein diminished the induction of Rag1 and Rag2 transcription in a model of receptor editing. We also found that transcription of Rag1 and Rag2 was repressed at the pro-B cell and immature B cell stages by the kinase Akt through its ‘antagonism’ of Foxo1 function. Thus, Foxo1 is a key regulator of Rag1 and Rag2 transcription in primary B cells. PMID:18469817

Amin, Rupesh H

2008-01-01

60

A New Subtype of Large B-Cell Lymphoma Expressing the ALK Kinase and Lacking the 2; 5 Translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven cases of large B-cell lymphoma which define a pre- suggesting that they express the full-length form of this mol- viously unrecognized subgroup are reported. Morphologi- ecule. This was confirmed by Western blotting (in the one cally they are comprised of monomorphic large immu- case tested) which showed a band of 200 kD in tumor cell noblast-like cells, containing large

Georges Delsol; Laurence Lamant; Bernard Mariame; Karen Pulford; Nicole Dastugue; Pierre Brousset; Francoise Rigal-Huguet; Talal Al Saati; Douglas Pat Cerretti; Stephan W. Morris; David Y. Mason

1997-01-01

61

Comparison of Gene Expression Profiles in Chromate Transformed BEAS-2B Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a potent human carcinogen. Occupational exposure has been associated with increased risk of respiratory cancer. Multiple mechanisms have been shown to contribute to Cr(VI) induced carcinogenesis, including DNA damage, genomic instability, and epigenetic modulation, however, the molecular mechanism and downstream genes mediating chromium's carcinogenicity remain to be elucidated. Methods/Results We established chromate transformed cell lines by chronic exposure of normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low doses of Cr(VI) followed by anchorage-independent growth. These transformed cell lines not only exhibited consistent morphological changes but also acquired altered and distinct gene expression patterns compared with normal BEAS-2B cells and control cell lines (untreated) that arose spontaneously in soft agar. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles of six Cr(VI) transformed cell lines were remarkably similar to each other yet differed significantly from that of either control cell lines or normal BEAS-2B cells. A total of 409 differentially expressed genes were identified in Cr(VI) transformed cells compared to control cells. Genes related to cell-to-cell junction were upregulated in all Cr(VI) transformed cells, while genes associated with the interaction between cells and their extracellular matrices were down-regulated. Additionally, expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis were also changed. Conclusion This study is the first to report gene expression profiling of Cr(VI) transformed cells. The gene expression changes across individual chromate exposed clones were remarkably similar to each other but differed significantly from the gene expression found in anchorage-independent clones that arose spontaneously. Our analysis identified many novel gene expression changes that may contribute to chromate induced cell transformation, and collectively this type of information will provide a better understanding of the mechanism underlying chromate carcinogenicity. PMID:21437242

Sun, Hong; Clancy, Harriet A.; Kluz, Thomas; Zavadil, Jiri; Costa, Max

2011-01-01

62

Analysis of the B-cell compartment in plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma: immunoglobulin gene rearrangement of EBV-infected B-cell lines.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is defined as a tumoral expansion of plasma cells occurring in the bone marrow and sometimes in the peripheral blood (plasma-cell leukemia, PCL). Many reports have demonstrated a clonal expansion of B cells bearing the same idiotypic determinants as the myeloma protein (idiotypic B cells) in MM, suggesting that they could belong to the malignant clone. In order to investigate whether the B-cell population is a malignant component or not, either in the peripheral blood of patients with PCL or in the bone marrow of patients with MM, we derived B-cell lines by infecting, with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cultures in limiting dilution of mononuclear cells from six patients. A limiting dilution culture was used to prevent the elimination of slowly proliferating clones by the more rapidly dividing ones, and thus to get the most exact representation of the B-cell repertoire of these patients. The cloning efficiency of the EBV-infected cells was similar in patients and healthy individuals (range: 1 in 100 to 1 in 1650 B cells). All of the clones obtained from a single patient exhibited different clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements (IGR), proving the validity of our cloning technique. No tumoral clones (61 clones analysed) showed the IGR pattern specific of autologous myeloma cells. These results indicate that malignant plasma cells cannot be immortalized with EBV. These results show that, if malignant B cells (pre-switch or post-switch) exist, they could be present only in a minor population, and the corollary of this is that there is a major population of non-malignant B cells in the sites of tumoral proliferation of patients with MM. This is remarkable in view of numerous reports showing a profound defect of the polyclonal B lymphopoiesis in these patients, and even an absence of B lymphocytes. Thus, these results challenge the existence of a major compartment of malignant idiotypic B cells and favor the hypothesis of non-malignant B cells sharing cross-reactive idiotypes with the autologous myeloma protein. PMID:7681918

Commes, T; Clofent, G; Ghanem, N; Zhang, X G; Lefranc, M P; Bataille, R; Klein, B

1993-04-01

63

Compositions and methods for detecting gene rearrangements and translocations  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a series of nucleic acid probes for use in diagnosing and monitoring certain types of leukemia using, e.g., Southern and Northern blot analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These probes detect rearrangements, such as translocations involving chromosome band 11q23 with other chromosomes bands, including 4q21, 6q27, 9p22, 19p13.3, in both dividing leukemic cells and interphase nuclei. The breakpoints in all such translocations are clustered within an 8.3 kb BamHI genomic region of the MLL gene. A novel 0.7 kb BamH1 cDNA fragment derived from this gene detects rearrangements on Southern blot analysis with a single BamHI restriction digest in all patients with the common 11q23 translocations and in patients with other 11q23 anomalies. Northern blot analyses are presented demonstrating that the MLL gene has multiple transcripts and that transcript size differentiates leukemic cells from normal cells. Also disclosed are MLL fusion proteins, MLL protein domains and anti-MLL antibodies.

Rowley, Janet D. (Chicago, IL); Diaz, Manuel O. (Chicago, IL)

2000-01-01

64

Statin-induced changes in gene expression in EBV-transformed and native B-cells  

PubMed Central

Human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), generated through Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) transformation of B-lymphocytes (B-cells), are a commonly used model system for identifying genetic influences on human diseases and on drug responses. We have previously used LCLs to examine the cellular effects of genetic variants that modulate the efficacy of statins, the most prescribed class of cholesterol-lowering drugs used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, statin-induced gene expression differences observed in LCLs may be influenced by their transformation, and thus differ from those observed in native B-cells. To assess this possibility, we prepared LCLs and purified B-cells from the same donors, and compared mRNA profiles after 24 h incubation with simvastatin (2 µm) or sham buffer. Genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were similarly regulated between the two cell types under both the statin and sham-treated conditions, and the statin-induced changes were significantly correlated. Genes whose expression differed between the native and transformed cells were primarily implicated in cell cycle, apoptosis and alternative splicing. We found that ChIP-seq signals for MYC and EBNA2 (an EBV transcriptional co-activator) were significantly enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated in the LCLs compared with the B-cells, and could be involved in the regulation of cell cycle and alternative splicing. Taken together, the results support the use of LCLs for the study of statin effects on cholesterol metabolism, but suggest that drug effects on cell cycle, apoptosis and alternative splicing may be affected by EBV transformation. This dataset is now uploaded to GEO at the accession number GSE51444 PMID:24179175

Bolotin, Eugene; Armendariz, Angela; Kim, Kyungpil; Heo, Seok-Jin; Boffelli, Dario; Tantisira, Kelan; Rotter, Jerome I.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Medina, Marisa W.

2014-01-01

65

Statin-induced changes in gene expression in EBV-transformed and native B-cells.  

PubMed

Human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), generated through Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transformation of B-lymphocytes (B-cells), are a commonly used model system for identifying genetic influences on human diseases and on drug responses. We have previously used LCLs to examine the cellular effects of genetic variants that modulate the efficacy of statins, the most prescribed class of cholesterol-lowering drugs used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, statin-induced gene expression differences observed in LCLs may be influenced by their transformation, and thus differ from those observed in native B-cells. To assess this possibility, we prepared LCLs and purified B-cells from the same donors, and compared mRNA profiles after 24 h incubation with simvastatin (2 µm) or sham buffer. Genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were similarly regulated between the two cell types under both the statin and sham-treated conditions, and the statin-induced changes were significantly correlated. Genes whose expression differed between the native and transformed cells were primarily implicated in cell cycle, apoptosis and alternative splicing. We found that ChIP-seq signals for MYC and EBNA2 (an EBV transcriptional co-activator) were significantly enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated in the LCLs compared with the B-cells, and could be involved in the regulation of cell cycle and alternative splicing. Taken together, the results support the use of LCLs for the study of statin effects on cholesterol metabolism, but suggest that drug effects on cell cycle, apoptosis and alternative splicing may be affected by EBV transformation. This dataset is now uploaded to GEO at the accession number GSE51444. PMID:24179175

Bolotin, Eugene; Armendariz, Angela; Kim, Kyungpil; Heo, Seok-Jin; Boffelli, Dario; Tantisira, Kelan; Rotter, Jerome I; Krauss, Ronald M; Medina, Marisa W

2014-03-01

66

Vaccinia Virus Inhibits NF-?B-Dependent Gene Expression Downstream of p65 Translocation  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) plays a critical role in host defense against viral infection by inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators and type I interferon. Consequently, viruses have evolved many mechanisms to block its activation. The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes numerous inhibitors of NF-?B activation that target multiple points in the signaling pathway. A derivative of VACV strain Copenhagen, called vv811, lacking 55 open reading frames in the left and right terminal regions of the genome was reported to still inhibit NF-?B activation downstream of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), suggesting the presence of one or more additional inhibitors. In this study, we constructed a recombinant vv811 lacking the recently described NF-?B inhibitor A49 (vv811?A49), yielding a virus that lacked all currently described inhibitors downstream of TNF-? and IL-1?. Unlike vv811, vv811?A49 no longer inhibited degradation of the phosphorylated inhibitor of ?B? and p65 translocated into the nucleus. However, despite this translocation, vv811?A49 still inhibited TNF-?- and IL-1?-induced NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression and the transcription and production of cytokines induced by these agonists. This inhibition did not require late viral gene expression. These findings indicate the presence of another inhibitor of NF-?B that is expressed early during infection and acts by a novel mechanism downstream of p65 translocation into the nucleus. PMID:24371075

Sumner, Rebecca P.; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Veyer, David L.

2014-01-01

67

Vaccinia virus inhibits NF-?B-dependent gene expression downstream of p65 translocation.  

PubMed

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) plays a critical role in host defense against viral infection by inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators and type I interferon. Consequently, viruses have evolved many mechanisms to block its activation. The poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes numerous inhibitors of NF-?B activation that target multiple points in the signaling pathway. A derivative of VACV strain Copenhagen, called vv811, lacking 55 open reading frames in the left and right terminal regions of the genome was reported to still inhibit NF-?B activation downstream of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), suggesting the presence of one or more additional inhibitors. In this study, we constructed a recombinant vv811 lacking the recently described NF-?B inhibitor A49 (vv811?A49), yielding a virus that lacked all currently described inhibitors downstream of TNF-? and IL-1?. Unlike vv811, vv811?A49 no longer inhibited degradation of the phosphorylated inhibitor of ?B? and p65 translocated into the nucleus. However, despite this translocation, vv811?A49 still inhibited TNF-?- and IL-1?-induced NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression and the transcription and production of cytokines induced by these agonists. This inhibition did not require late viral gene expression. These findings indicate the presence of another inhibitor of NF-?B that is expressed early during infection and acts by a novel mechanism downstream of p65 translocation into the nucleus. PMID:24371075

Sumner, Rebecca P; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Veyer, David L; Smith, Geoffrey L

2014-03-01

68

Prediction of Survival in Diffuse Large-B-Cell Lymphoma Based on the Expression of Six Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Several gene-expression signatures can be used to predict the prognosis in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma, but the lack of practical tests for a genome-scale analysis has restricted the use of this method. methods We studied 36 genes whose expression had been reported to predict survival in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma. We measured the expression of each of these genes in inde-

Izidore S. Lossos; Debra K. Czerwinski; Mark A. Wechser; Rob Tibshirani; David Botstein; Ronald Levy

2004-01-01

69

B-cell lymphoma gene regulatory networks: biological consistency among inference methods  

PubMed Central

Despite the development of numerous gene regulatory network (GRN) inference methods in the last years, their application, usage and the biological significance of the resulting GRN remains unclear for our general understanding of large-scale gene expression data in routine practice. In our study, we conduct a structural and a functional analysis of B-cell lymphoma GRNs that were inferred using 3 mutual information-based GRN inference methods: C3Net, BC3Net and Aracne. From a comparative analysis on the global level, we find that the inferred B-cell lymphoma GRNs show major differences. However, on the edge-level and the functional-level—that are more important for our biological understanding—the B-cell lymphoma GRNs were highly similar among each other. Also, the ranks of the degree centrality values and major hub genes in the inferred networks are highly conserved as well. Interestingly, the major hub genes of all GRNs are associated with the G-protein-coupled receptor pathway, cell-cell signaling and cell cycle. This implies that hub genes of the GRNs can be highly consistently inferred with C3Net, BC3Net, and Aracne, representing prominent targets for signaling pathways. Finally, we describe the functional and structural relationship between C3Net, BC3Net and Aracne gene regulatory networks. Our study shows that these GRNs that are inferred from large-scale gene expression data are promising for the identification of novel candidate interactions and pathways that play a key role in the underlying mechanisms driving cancer hallmarks. Overall, our comparative analysis reveals that these GRNs inferred with considerably different inference methods contain large amounts of consistent, method independent, biological information. PMID:24379827

de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

2013-01-01

70

Gene Expression Profiling of B Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Reveals a Homogeneous Phenotype Related to Memory B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

B cell-derived chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) represents a common malignancy whose cell derivation and pathogenesis are unknown. Recent studies have shown that ? 50% of CLLs display hypermutated immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) sequences and a more fa- vorable prognosis, suggesting that they may represent a distinct subset of CLLs which have transited through germinal centers (GCs), the physiologic site of

Ulf Klein; Yuhai Tu; Gustavo A. Stolovitzky; Michela Mattioli; Giorgio Cattoretti; Hervé Husson; Arnold Freedman; Giorgio Inghirami; Lilla Cro; Luca Baldini; Antonino Neri; Andrea Califano; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

71

The Utility of B-cell Receptor Gene Rearrangement Studies in Diagnosing Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma with Plasmacytic Differentiation.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 50-year-old man with nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma characterized by CD10, BCL-6, and BCL-2 expression and a complex karyotype, including t(14;18)(q32;q21) and del6q, suggesting transformation from an antecedent follicular lymphoma. Following rituximab-based chemotherapy, residual nodal disease was characterized by a proliferation of plasmacytoid cells positive for CD138, MUM-1, and cytoplasmic kappa light chain. Immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa light chain gene rearrangement studies detected the same clone in the diagnostic and post-therapy lymph node specimens. This case illustrates the diagnostic utility of B-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies in detecting a clonal relationship in lymphoma cases with extensive morphologic and immunophenotypic variation following chemotherapy. PMID:25696015

Alapat, Daisy V; Ramos, Jeanette M; Anderson, Julia; Post, Ginell R

2015-01-01

72

A Gene Panel, Including LRP12, Is Frequently Hypermethylated in Major Types of B-Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modifications and DNA methylation in particular, have been recognized as important mechanisms to alter gene expression in malignant cells. Here, we identified candidate genes which were upregulated after an epigenetic treatment of B-cell lymphoma cell lines (Burkitt's lymphoma, BL; Follicular lymphoma, FL; Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, DLBCL activated B-cell like, ABC; and germinal center like, GCB) and simultaneously expressed at low levels in samples from lymphoma patients. Qualitative methylation analysis of 24 candidate genes in cell lines revealed five methylated genes (BMP7, BMPER, CDH1, DUSP4 and LRP12), which were further subjected to quantitative methylation analysis in clinical samples from 59 lymphoma patients (BL, FL, DLBCL ABC and GCB; and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, PMBL). The genes LRP12 and CDH1 showed the highest methylation frequencies (94% and 92%, respectively). BMPER (58%), DUSP4 (32%) and BMP7 (22%), were also frequently methylated in patient samples. Importantly, all gene promoters were unmethylated in various control samples (CD19+ peripheral blood B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tonsils) as well as in follicular hyperplasia samples, underscoring a high specificity. The combination of LRP12 and CDH1 methylation could successfully discriminate between the vast majority of the lymphoma and control samples, emphasized by receiver operating characteristic analysis with a c-statistic of 0.999. These two genes represent promising epigenetic markers which may be suitable for monitoring of B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25226156

Bethge, Nicole; Honne, Hilde; Andresen, Kim; Hilden, Vera; Trřen, Gunhild; Liestřl, Knut; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Lind, Guro E.; Smeland, Erlend B.

2014-01-01

73

MLL translocations specify a distinct gene expression profile that distinguishes a unique leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute lymphoblastic leukemias carrying a chromosomal translocation involving the mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL, ALL1, HRX) have a particularly poor prognosis. Here we show that they have a characteristic, highly distinct gene expression profile that is consistent with an early hematopoietic progenitor expressing select multilineage markers and individual HOX genes. Clustering algorithms reveal that lymphoblastic leukemias with MLL translocations can clearly

Scott A. Armstrong; Jane E. Staunton; Lewis B. Silverman; Rob Pieters; Monique L. den Boer; Mark D. Minden; Stephen E. Sallan; Eric S. Lander; Todd R. Golub; Stanley J. Korsmeyer

2001-01-01

74

Expression of B-cell-associated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed B?cell?associated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and investigate the gene expression characteristics of the different stages of B?cell activation. A total of 20 patients with pulmonary embolisms (PE) and 20 age? and gender?matched controls were enrolled in the present study. Human complementary DNA microarray analysis was used in order to detect the differential expression of B?cell?associated genes between the PE and control groups. Messenger (m)RNA expression was detected for 82 genes involved in B?cell activation. The results showed that PE patients exhibited significantly increased expression levels of the B?cell receptor genes LYN, CD22, SYK, BTK, PTPRC and NFAM1, whereas expression levels of FYN, FCRL4 and LAX1 were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group. Expression levels of T?cell?dependent B?cell?activation genes, including EMR2, TNFSF9, CD86, ICOSLG, CD37 and CD97, were significantly upregulated in PE patients, whereas SPN mRNA expression was significantly downregulated compared with those of the control group. LILRA1 and TLR9 T cell?independent B?cell activation mRNAs were significantly upregulated in PE patients compared with those of the control group. In addition, the expression levels of B?cell?activation regulator genes, including CR1, LILRB4 and VAV1, were significantly increased, whereas SLAMF7 expression levels were significantly decreased in PE patients compared with those of the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of B?cell?activation?associated cytokine genes demonstrated a significant upregulation of LTA and IL10 and downregulation of L1A, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA8, IFNA14, IL2, IL13 and IFNG in PE patients compared to those of the control group. In conclusion, the differential gene expression at different stages of B?cell activation between healthy controls and PE patients indicated that B?cell function was reduced or disorganized in patients with symptomatic PE. PMID:25411767

Lv, Wei; Duan, Qianglin; Wang, Lemin; Gong, Zhu; Yang, Fan; Song, Yanli

2015-03-01

75

Evaluation of the prognostic significance of BCL6 gene expression in canine high-grade B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical usefulness of BCL6 gene expression was evaluated as a prognostic indicator in dogs with high-grade B-cell lymphoma. Forty-four dogs were diagnosed with centroblastic or B-cell immunoblastic type lymphoma according to the updated Kiel classification. BCL6 mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR and its relationship with prognosis was analyzed. Progression-free and overall survival was not significantly different between

Masahiko Sato; Hideyuki Kanemoto; Yumiko Kagawa; Tetsuya Kobayashi; Yuko Goto-Koshino; Hiroyuki Mochizuki; Masashi Takahashi; Yasuhito Fujino; Koichi Ohno; Hajime Tsujimoto

76

A gene expression-based method to diagnose clinically distinct subgroups of diffuse large B cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

To classify cancer specimens by their gene expression profiles, we created a statistical method based on Bayes' rule that estimates the probability of membership in one of two cancer subgroups. We used this method to classify diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) biopsy samples into two gene expression subgroups based on data obtained from spotted cDNA microarrays. The germinal center

George Wright; Bruce Tan; Andreas Rosenwald; Elaine H. Hurt; Adrian Wiestner; Louis M. Staudt

2003-01-01

77

Summary. Btk is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, which is mainly involved in B cell receptor signalling. Gene  

E-print Network

signalling. Gene targeting experiments revealed that Btk is important for B cell development and function that mutations in the gene coding for Btk are responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in men (Tsukada al., 2000) as well as in primary neuronal cells (Yang et al., 2004). Although btk mutations cause

Ulm, Universität

78

Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor induces Nampt-dependent translocation of the insulin receptor out of lipid microdomains in A549 lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is a highly conserved pleiotropic protein reported to be an alternate ligand for the insulin receptor (IR). We sought to clarify the relationship between PBEF and insulin signaling by evaluating the effects of PBEF on the localization of the IR? chain to lipid rafts in A549 epithelial cells. We isolated lipid rafts from A549 cells and detected the IR by immunoprecipitation from raft fractions or whole cell lysates. Cells were treated with rPBEF, its enzymatic product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), or the Nampt inhibitor daporinad to study the effect of PBEF on IR? movement. We used coimmunoprecipitation studies in cells transfected with PBEF and IR? constructs to detect interactions between PBEF, the IR?, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). PBEF was present in both lipid raft and nonraft fractions, whereas the IR was found only in lipid raft fractions of resting A549 cells. The IR-, PBEF-, and Cav-1-coimmunoprecipitated rPBEF treatment resulted in the movement of IR?- and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav-1 from lipid rafts to nonrafts, an effect that could be blocked by daporinad, suggesting that this effect was facilitated by the Nampt activity of PBEF. The addition of PBEF to insulin-treated cells resulted in reduced Akt phosphorylation of both Ser(473) and Thr(308). We conclude that PBEF can inhibit insulin signaling through the IR by Nampt-dependent promotion of IR translocation into the nonraft domains of A549 epithelial cells. PBEF-induced alterations in the spatial geometry of the IR provide a mechanistic explanation for insulin resistance in inflammatory states associated with upregulation of PBEF. PMID:25516545

Peng, Qianyi; Jia, Song Hui; Parodo, Jean; Ai, Yuhang; Marshall, John C

2015-02-15

79

Active suppression of major histocompatibility complex class II gene expression during differentiation from B cells to plasma cells  

SciTech Connect

Constitutive expression of major histocompatibility complex class II genes is acquired very early in B-cell ontogeny and is maintained up to the B-cell blast stage. Terminal differentiation in plasma cells is, however, accompanied by a loss of class II gene expression. In B cells this gene system is under the control of several loci encoding transacting factors with activator function, one of which, the aIr-1 gene product, operates across species barriers. In this report human class II gene expression is shown to be extinguished in somatic cell hybrids between the human class II-positive B-cell line Raji and the mouse class-II negative plasmacytoma cell line P3-U1. Since all murine chromosomes are retained in these hybrids and no preferential segregation of a specific human chromosome is observed, the results are compatible with the presence of suppressor factors of mouse origin, operating across species barriers and inhibiting class II gene expression. Suppression seems to act at the level of transcription or accumulation of class II-specific mRNA, since no human, and very few murine, class II transcripts are detectable in the hybrids.

Latron, F.; Maffei, A.; Scarpellino, L.; Bernard, M.; Accolla, R.S. (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Epalinges (Switzerland)); Jotterand-Bellomo, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland)); Strominger, J.L. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

1988-04-01

80

Analysis of mutations in immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes of microdissected marginal zone (MGZ) B cells suggests that the MGZ of human spleen is a reservoir of memory B cells  

PubMed Central

The splenic marginal zone (MGZ), which surrounds the mantle zone (MTZ) in human splenic white pulp, contains a phenotypically and morphologically distinct population of B cells. The origin of MGZ B cells is uncertain. Whereas some experiments in rodents have suggested that they are a distinct cell lineage responsible for the immune response to T-independent type 2 antigens, others have suggested that they are memory B cells derived from a germinal center (GC) response. The progeny of a GC reaction is expected to have rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that are mutated. The distribution of mutations would be expected to reflect the selection of Ig by its affinity for antigen. We have analyzed rearranged Ig heavy chain variable region (VH) 6 and VH 4.21 genes in MGZ and MTZ B cells microdissected from frozen sections of human spleen to determine whether these genes have the properties of an affinity-selected memory B cell population. MTZ B cells contained germline Ig VH genes, confirming previous reports and providing an internal control for mutational analysis. MGZ B cells contained Ig VH genes that were mutated, showing that these cells had been subjected to a mutational mechanism characteristically active in the GC. The rearranged VH 6 genes showed patterns of mutation indicative of an antigen selection process, whereas the distribution of mutations in VH 4.21 genes was not characteristic of gene selection by conventional T-dependent antigen. Our studies provide the first evidence that the human splenic MGZ is a reservoir of memory B cells. PMID:7629512

1995-01-01

81

Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

1983-03-01

82

Mutation mismatch repair gene deletions in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

To further unravel the molecular pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization on lymph node biopsies from 70 patients. With this strategy, we identified microdeletions of genes involved in the mutation mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in two samples. The first patient presented with a homozygous deletion of MSH2-MSH6 due to duplication of an unbalanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 2. The other case showed a PMS2 heterozygous deletion. PMS2 and MSH2-MSH6 abnormalities, respectively, resulted in a decrease and complete loss of gene expression. However, unlike tumors associated with the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome or immunodeficiency-related lymphomas, no microsatellite instability was detected. Mutational profiles revealed especially in one patient an aberrant hypermutation without a clear activation-induced cytidine deaminase signature, indicating a breakdown of the high-fidelity repair in favor of the error-prone repair pathway. Our findings suggest that in a rare subset of patients, inactivation of the genes of the MMR pathway is likely an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of DLBCL and does not involve the same molecular mechanisms as other common neoplasms with MMR deficiency. PMID:23066952

Couronné, Lucile; Ruminy, Philippe; Waultier-Rascalou, Agathe; Rainville, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Figeac, Martin; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

2013-05-01

83

B-cell differentiation in the chicken: expression of immunoglobulin genes in the bursal and peripheral lymphocytes.  

PubMed

We have studied the expression of immunoglobulin genes in the chicken B-cell precursors, and of a B-cell surface marker (Bu-1) on the bursal and peripheral B cells during normal ontogeny. Since there is no way of distinguishing the precursor cells from the more mature bursal lymphocytes on the basis of surface markers, we chose to study the total bursal lymphocyte population at ages when the numbers of the various precursor cells (bursal, early post-bursal, and post-bursal stem cells) in the bursa are estimated to be at their highest. Thereafter, comparisons with the more mature lymphocytes in the peripheral organs were made. As a result, levels of the lambda and mu transcripts and expression of Bu-1 antigen in the chicken B-cell precursors were found to be unchanged during the post-hatching period. In the light of these experiments, the later events of B-cell differentiation, i.e. the development from the bursal to post-bursal B lymphocytes, occurs without the lambda, mu, and Bu-1 gene loci involved. On the other hand, the higher level of lambda and mu expression in the splenic B lymphocytes indicates that the post-bursal stem cells mature into highly active plasma cells after seeding to the peripheral organs. PMID:2785705

Mansikka, A; Veromaa, T; Vainio, O; Toivanen, P

1989-03-01

84

Differential gene expression in murine large cell B-cell lymphoma metastatic variants.  

PubMed

Previous studies from this laboratory have characterized RAW117-P murine large cell B-cell lymphoma and its in vivo selected highly malignant and liver metastatic RAW117-H10 subline for their biological and biochemical properties. In this study, to understand the molecular basis of low and high metastatic behavior of these variant sublines, we have investigated the molecular phenotypes of these cells using differential display techniques and cDNA array analysis. Differential display analysis indicated a significant difference in expression of several genes between these two metastatic variant lymphoma cells. Further analyses of these cells using microarray showed an increased expression of several genes including uPAR1, CRE-BP1, Chop-10, IGF, insulin-like growth factor-IA, STAT6, Cyclin-D1, Cyclin-E, ERBB-3, Alpha NGF, Kruppel-like factor LKLF, (P)19INK4 in metastatic RAW117-H10 cells compared to parental RAW117-P cells. On the other hand, MIP1beta, CD14 antigen, Cathepsin B and MOD are expressed more in RAW117-P cells compared to RAW117-H10 cells. Differential expression of the selected genes was confirmed using semiquantitative RT-PCR techniques. The combination of plasminogen activator and its receptor and IGF-like growth factors, cell cycle regulatory molecules and transcription factors might provide an ideal environment for RAW117-H10 cells to metastasize to distant organs and colonize. Thus these results identify certain differentially expressed genes that are involved in the metastatic properties of these lymphoma cells and lay foundation for further in depth analyses to use this information to develop therapy for metastatic lymphoma. PMID:18602072

Joshi, Shantaram S; Mittal, Amit K; Wang, Peng; Joshi, Avadhut D; Vu, Eileen; Wang, Xioujun

2008-09-01

85

Patients with activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in high and low infectious disease areas have different inflammatory gene signatures.  

PubMed

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease with an association with inflammation and viral infections. We hypothesize that environmental factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLBCL. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles of lymph node tissues from patients with DLBCL from two different geographical areas with diverse environmental exposures. Specimens from Egyptian and Swedish patients with DLBCL as well as controls were studied. Gene expression analysis using microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated significantly higher expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in Swedish as compared to Egyptian patients and control materials from both countries. This was confirmed at protein level using confocal microscopy. The receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1, a "survival factor" for malignant cells, was overexpressed and significantly related to the STAT3 expression pattern. The difference in the expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and in the tumorigenic process of DLBCL might relate to infectious agents and/or other environmental exposures. PMID:23046110

Högfeldt, Therese; Bahnassy, Abeer A; Kwiecinska, Anna; Osterborg, Anders; Tamm, Katja Pokrovskaja; Porwit, Anna; Zekri, Abdel-Rahman N; Lundahl, Joachim; Khaled, Hussein M; Mellstedt, Hĺkan; Moshfegh, Ali

2013-05-01

86

Immunoglobulin kappa variable region gene selection during early human B cell development in health and systemic lupus erythematosus.  

PubMed

The unique specificity of the B cell receptor is generated by an ordered sequence of gene rearrangement events. Once IGH genes have rearranged, rearrangement at the IGK locus is initiated followed by the IGL locus if functional IGK rearrangement is not achieved. Receptor specificity can subsequently be altered by secondary light chain editing based on the features of the heavy and light chain combination. The final profile of expressed genes is not random and biases in this profile are associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, how and when biases are created is not known. To increase our understanding of the processes of selection and editing of IGK rearrangements, we compared four groups of rearrangements of IGK acquired by next generation sequencing. First, expressed rearrangements of IGK from cDNA of IGK expressing B cells. Second, productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of the same kappa expressing B cells. Third, non-productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of IGK and IGL expressing B cells, and fourth productively rearranged IGK from DNA of IGL expressing B cells. The latter group would have been rejected during B cell development in favour of rearrangement at the IGL locus and are therefore selected against. We saw evidence that rearranged IGK segments can be selected at a checkpoint where the decision to rearrange the IGL locus is made. In addition, our data suggest that mechanisms regulating the expression or not of IGK rearrangements may also contribute to repertoire development and also that this latter component of the selection process is defective in SLE. PMID:25700344

Hehle, Verena; Fraser, Louise D; Tahir, Romeeza; Kipling, David; Wu, Yu-Chang; Lutalo, Pamela M K; Cason, John; Choong, LeeMeng; D'Cruz, David P; Cope, Andrew P; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Spencer, Jo

2015-06-01

87

Disruption of two novel genes by a translocation co-segregating with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A balanced (1;11)(q42.1;q14.3) translocation segregates with schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in a large Scottish family (maximum LOD = 6.0). We hypoth- esize that the translocation is the causative event and that it directly disrupts gene function. We previously reported a dearth of genes in the breakpoint region of chromosome 11 and it is therefore unlikely that the expression of

J. Kirsty Millar; Julie C. Wilson-Annan; Susan Anderson; Sheila Christie; M artin S. Taylor; Colin A. M. Semple; Rebecca S. Devon; D avid M. St Clair; W alter J. Muir; Douglas H. R. Blackwood; David J. Porteous

2000-01-01

88

The effect of translocation-induced nuclear reorganization on gene expression  

PubMed Central

Translocations are known to affect the expression of genes at the breakpoints and, in the case of unbalanced translocations, alter the gene copy number. However, a comprehensive understanding of the functional impact of this class of variation is lacking. Here, we have studied the effect of balanced chromosomal rearrangements on gene expression by comparing the transcriptomes of cell lines from controls and individuals with the t(11;22)(q23;q11) translocation. The number of differentially expressed transcripts between translocation-carrying and control cohorts is significantly higher than that observed between control samples alone, suggesting that balanced rearrangements have a greater effect on gene expression than normal variation. Many of the affected genes are located along the length of the derived chromosome 11. We show that this chromosome is concomitantly altered in its spatial organization, occupying a more central position in the nucleus than its nonrearranged counterpart. Derivative 22-mapping chromosome 22 genes, on the other hand, remain in their usual environment. Our results are consistent with recent studies that experimentally altered nuclear organization, and indicated that nuclear position plays a functional role in regulating the expression of some genes in mammalian cells. Our study suggests that chromosomal translocations can result in hitherto unforeseen, large-scale changes in gene expression that are the consequence of alterations in normal chromosome territory positioning. This has consequences for the patterns of gene expression change seen during tumorigenesis-associated genome instability and during the karyotype changes that lead to speciation. PMID:20212020

Harewood, Louise; Schütz, Frédéric; Boyle, Shelagh; Perry, Paul; Delorenzi, Mauro; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Reymond, Alexandre

2010-01-01

89

Proof of the Concept to Use a Malignant B Cell Line Drug Screen Strategy for Identification and Weight of Melphalan Resistance Genes in Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

In a conceptual study of drug resistance we have used a preclinical model of malignant B-cell lines by combining drug induced growth inhibition and gene expression profiling. In the current report a melphalan resistance profile of 19 genes were weighted by microarray data from the MRC Myeloma IX trial and time to progression following high dose melphalan, to generate an individual melphalan resistance index. The resistance index was subsequently validated in the HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 trial data set to prove the concept. Biologically, the assigned resistance indices were differentially distributed among translocations and cyclin D expression classes. Clinically, the 25% most melphalan resistant, the intermediate 50% and the 25% most sensitive patients had a median progression free survival of 18, 32 and 28 months, respectively (log-rank P-value ?=?0.05). Furthermore, the median overall survival was 45 months for the resistant group and not reached for the intermediate and sensitive groups (log-rank P-value ?=?0.003) following 38 months median observation. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for age, sex and ISS-staging, we found a high resistance index to be an independent variable associated with inferior progression free survival and overall survival. This study provides clinical proof of concept to use in vitro drug screen for identification of melphalan resistance gene signatures for future functional analysis. PMID:24376673

Břgsted, Martin; Bilgrau, Anders E.; Wardell, Christopher P.; Bertsch, Uta; Schmitz, Alexander; Břdker, Julie S.; Kjeldsen, Malene K.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Morgan, Gareth J.; Dybkaer, Karen; Johnsen, Hans E.

2013-01-01

90

Mechanisms of B-cell lymphoma pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin loci are a hallmark of many types of B-cell lymphoma. Other factors, however, also have important roles in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Most B-cell lymphomas depend on the expression of a B-cell receptor (BCR) for survival, and in several B-cell malignancies antigen activation of lymphoma cells through BCR signalling seems to be an important

Ralf Küppers

2005-01-01

91

Hodgkin's disease with a B-cell phenotype often shows a VDJ rearrangement and somatic mutations in the VH genes.  

PubMed

The nature of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells remains in question. Immunophenotypic studies favor a relation to the lymphoid lineage with the existence of B- and T-cell types. However, studies on the detection of antigen (Ag) receptor gene rearrangements provided inconsistent results. They concur in that rearranged Ig and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes are not demonstrable in most Hodgkin's disease (HD) cases. To clarify whether this is because of the insensitivity of the method of detection or a real absence of clonal Ig heavy chain (IgH) rearrangements, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with high sensitivity was applied, allowing the detection of less than 50 cells with clonally rearranged IgH genes in a mixture of 100,000 germline or individually rearranged cells. In 67 cases of HD, most of those (67%) with B-Ag+ HRS cells express clonal VDJ rearrangements of the IgH gene. No cases with T-cell Ag+ HRS cells harbored detectable clonal VDJ rearrangements. Of 10 sequenced rearranged IgH genes, the VH segment of six contained considerable somatic mutations. These results suggest that the demonstrated VDJ rearrangements stem from the HRS cells themselves and that the HRS cells of cases with rearranged IgH genes are B-cell related and correspond in their differentiation stage either to naive pregerminal center B cells or (more commonly) to germinal center/postgerminal center-derived memory B cells. PMID:8043859

Tamaru, J; Hummel, M; Zemlin, M; Kalvelage, B; Stein, H

1994-08-01

92

A Unified 35-Gene Signature for both Subtype Classification and Survival Prediction in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas  

PubMed Central

Cancer subtype classification and survival prediction both relate directly to patients' specific treatment plans, making them fundamental medical issues. Although the two factors are interrelated learning problems, most studies tackle each separately. In this paper, expression levels of genes are used for both cancer subtype classification and survival prediction. We considered 350 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) subjects, taken from four groups of patients (activated B-cell-like subtype dead, activated B-cell-like subtype alive, germinal center B-cell-like subtype dead, and germinal center B-cell-like subtype alive). As classification features, we used 11,271 gene expression levels of each subject. The features were first ranked by mRMR (Maximum Relevance Minimum Redundancy) principle and further selected by IFS (Incremental Feature Selection) procedure. Thirty-five gene signatures were selected after the IFS procedure, and the patients were divided into the above mentioned four groups. These four groups were combined in different ways for subtype prediction and survival prediction, specifically, the activated versus the germinal center and the alive versus the dead. Subtype prediction accuracy of the 35-gene signature was 98.6%. We calculated cumulative survival time of high-risk group and low-risk groups by the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test p-value was 5.98e-08. Our methodology provides a way to study subtype classification and survival prediction simultaneously. Our results suggest that for some diseases, especially cancer, subtype classification may be used to predict survival, and, conversely, survival prediction features may shed light on subtype features. PMID:20856936

Feng, Kai-Yan; Hu, Lele; Xie, Lu

2010-01-01

93

Inhibition of cyclin A gene expression in human B cells by an immunosuppressant mizoribine  

PubMed Central

Mizoribine has been shown to have beneficial effects in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis, in which abnormal B cell functions are involved. Previous studies demonstrated that mizoribine directly suppresses the function of human B cells. The current study explored in detail the mechanism of the suppression of human B cell responses by mizoribine at the molecular level. Highly purified peripheral blood B cells obtained from normal healthy individuals were stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) plus IL-2 in the presence or absence of mizoribine or methotrexate for 48 h to 72 h. The expression of cyclin A mRNA was determined by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern hybridization. Although at pharmacologically attainable concentrations both mizoribine and methotrexate suppressed the production of IgM of SAC-activated B cells, mizoribine, but not methotrexate, decreased the expression of cyclin A protein as well as mRNA in B cells stimulated with SAC + IL-2. Of note, mizoribine facilitated the degradation of cyclin A mRNA in the presence of actinomycin D, indicating that mizoribine shortens the stability of cyclin A mRNA. The results indicate that mizoribine suppresses the expression of cyclin A mRNA in human B cells by down-regulating its stability, and thus down-regulates their responses. PMID:10844522

Hirohata, S; Nakanishi, K; Yanagida, T

2000-01-01

94

Recombination between an expressed immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene and a germline variable gene segment in a Ly 1+ B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early stages of murine B-cell differentiation are characterized by a series of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements which are required for the assembly of heavy(H)- and light(L)-chain variable regions from germline gene segments. Rearrangement at the heavy-chain locus is initiated first and consists of the joining of a diversity (DH) gene segment to a joining (JH) gene segment. This forms a

Robert Kleinfield; Richard R. Hardy; David Tarlinton; Jeffery Dangl; Leonard A. Herzenberg; Martin Weigert

1986-01-01

95

FOXP1 directly represses transcription of proapoptotic genes and cooperates with NF-?B to promote survival of human B cells  

PubMed Central

The forkhead transcription factor FOXP1 is involved in B-cell development and function and is generally regarded as an oncogene in activated B-cell–like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, lymphomas relying on constitutive nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activity for survival. However, the mechanism underlying its putative oncogenic activity has not been established. By gene expression microarray, upon overexpression or silencing of FOXP1 in primary human B cells and DLBCL cell lines, combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing, we established that FOXP1 directly represses a set of 7 proapoptotic genes. Low expression of these genes, encoding the BH3-only proteins BIK and Harakiri, the p53-regulatory proteins TP63, RASSF6, and TP53INP1, and AIM2 and EAF2, is associated with poor survival in DLBCL patients. In line with these findings, we demonstrated that FOXP1 promotes the expansion of primary mature human B cells by inhibiting caspase-dependent apoptosis, without affecting B-cell proliferation. Furthermore, FOXP1 is dependent upon, and cooperates with, NF-?B signaling to promote B-cell expansion and survival. Taken together, our data indicate that, through direct repression of proapoptotic genes, (aberrant) expression of FOXP1 complements (constitutive) NF-?B activity to promote B-cell survival and can thereby contribute to B-cell homeostasis and lymphomagenesis. PMID:25267198

van Keimpema, Martine; Grüneberg, Leonie J.; Mokry, Michal; van Boxtel, Ruben; Koster, Jan; Coffer, Paul J.; Pals, Steven T.

2014-01-01

96

Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in common variable immunodeficiency.  

PubMed Central

The large VH3 family of human immunoglobulin genes is commonly used throughout B cell ontogeny. However, B cells of the fetus and certain autoantibody-producing clones are restricted to a recurrent subset of VH3 genes, and VH3 B cells are deficient in certain immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we have sequenced a set of rearranged VH3 genes generated by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from normal adults and those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). In both groups, all cones were readily identifiable with the fetal VH3 subset, and were further distinguished by limited DH motifs and exclusive use of JH4. In CVI, the residual population of VH3 B cells were notable for predominant use of 56p1-like VH genes. All clones displayed sequence divergence (including somatic mutation) with evidence of strong selection against complementarity-determining region (CDR) coding change. A survey of other V gene families indicates that human V gene diversity may be restricted in general by germline mechanisms. These findings suggest that the expressed antibody repertoire in the human adult may be much smaller than anticipated, and selected by processes in part distinct from the paradigm of maximal antigen-binding diversity. PMID:1569182

Braun, J; Berberian, L; King, L; Sanz, I; Govan, H L

1992-01-01

97

Expression of a single gene, BCL6, strongly predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by a marked degree of mor- phologic and clinical heterogeneity. Es- tablishment of parameters that can pre- dict outcome could help to identify patients who may benefit from risk-ad- justed therapies. BCL-6 is a proto-onco- gene commonly implicated in DLBCL pathogenesis. A real-time reverse tran- scription-polymerase chain reaction as- say was established for

Izidore S. Lossos; Carol D. Jones; Roger Warnke; Yasodha Natkunam; Herbert Kaizer; James L. Zehnder; Rob Tibshirani; Ronald Levy

2001-01-01

98

Molecular mechanisms and selective influences that shape the kappa gene repertoire of IgM+ B cells.  

PubMed Central

To analyze the human kappa chain repertoire and the influences that shape it, a single cell PCR technique was used that amplified Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements from genomic DNA of individual human B cells. More than 350 productive and 250 nonproductive Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements were sequenced. Nearly every functional Vkappa gene segment was used in rearrangements, although six Vkappa gene segments, A27, L2, L6, L12a, A17, and O12/O2 were used preferentially. Of these, A27, L2, L6, and L12a showed evidence of positive selection based on the variable region and not CDR3, whereas A17 was overrepresented because of a rearrangement bias based on molecular mechanisms. Utilization of Jkappa segments was also nonrandom, with Jkappa1 and Jkappa2 being overrepresented and Jkappa3 and Jkappa5 underrepresented in the nonproductive repertoire, implying a molecular basis for the bias. In B cells with two Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements, marked differences were noted in the Vkappa segments used for the initial and subsequent rearrangements, whereas Jkappa segments were used comparably. Junctional diversity was generated by n-nucleotide addition in 60% and by exonuclease trimming in 75% of the Vkappa Jkappa rearrangements analyzed. Despite this large degree of diversity, a strict CDR3 length was maintained in both productive and nonproductive rearrangements. More than 23% of the productive rearrangements, but only 7% of the nonproductive rearrangements contained somatic hypermutations. Mutations were significantly more frequent in Vkappa sequences derived from CD5- as compared with CD5+ B cells. These results document that the gene segment utilization within the Vkappa repertoire is biased by both intrinsic molecular processes as well as selection after light chain expression. Moreover, IgM+ memory cells with highly mutated kappa genes reside within the CD5- but not the CD5+ B cell compartment. PMID:9120005

Foster, S J; Brezinschek, H P; Brezinschek, R I; Lipsky, P E

1997-01-01

99

Hypermutation of multiple proto-oncogenes in B-cell diffuse large-cell lymphomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic instability promotes tumorigenesis and can occur through various mechanisms, including defective segregation of chromosomes or inactivation of DNA mismatch repair. Although B-cell lymphomas are associated with chromosomal translocations that deregulate oncogene expression, a mechanism for genome-wide instability during lymphomagenesis has not been described. During B-cell development, the immunoglobulin variable (V) region genes are subject to somatic hypermutation in germinal-centre

Laura Pasqualucci; Peter Neumeister; Tina Goossens; Gouri Nanjangud; R. S. K. Chaganti; Ralf Küppers; Riccardo Dalla-Favera

2001-01-01

100

AID-induced remodeling of immunoglobulin genes and B cell fate  

PubMed Central

Survival and phenotype of normal and malignant B lymphocytes are critically dependent on constitutive signals by the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen. In addition, either antigen ligation of the BCR or various mitogenic stimuli result in B cell activation and induction of activation-induced deaminase (AID). AID activity can in turn mediate somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) V regions and also deeply remodel the Ig heavy chain locus through class switch recombination (CSR) or locus suicide recombination (LSR). In addition to changes linked to affinity for antigen, modifying the class/isotype (i.e. the structure and function) of the BCR or suddenly deleting BCR expression also modulates the fate of antigen-experienced B cells. PMID:24851241

Laffleur, Brice; Denis-Lagache, Nicolas; Péron, Sophie; Sirac, Christophe; Moreau, Jeanne; Cogné, Michel

2014-01-01

101

VH1-44 gene usage defines a subset of canine B-cell lymphomas associated with better patient survival  

PubMed Central

The use of specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) genes has been associated with increased patient survival in human B-cell lymphomas (hBCL). Given the similarity of human and canine BCL (cBCL) in morphology and clinical treatment, we examined the choice of VH in cBCL and determined whether VH gene selection was a distinct feature associated with survival time in dogs. VH gene selection and mutational status in 52 cBCL, including 29 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (cDLBCL, the most common subtype of cBCL), were analyzed by comparison with the 80 published canine germline VH gene sequences. We further examined the prognostic impact of the subgroups defined by these features on canine survival. We found that VH1-44 was preferentially expressed in the majority of the 52 cBCLs (60%) as well as in the majority of the cDLBCL subset (59%). VH1-44 gene expression was associated with a statistically better overall survival (p=0.039) in cBCL patients, as well as in the cDLBCL subset of patients (p=0.038). These findings suggest that VH gene selection in cBCL is not random and may therefore have functional implications for cBCL lymphomagenesis, in addition to being a useful prognostic biomarker. PMID:24332568

Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Small, George W; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Suter, Steven E.; Richards, Kristy L.

2014-01-01

102

VH1-44 gene usage defines a subset of canine B-cell lymphomas associated with better patient survival.  

PubMed

The use of specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (VH) genes has been associated with increased patient survival in human B-cell lymphomas (hBCL). Given the similarity of human and canine BCL (cBCL) in morphology and clinical treatment, we examined the choice of VH in cBCL and determined whether VH gene selection was a distinct feature associated with survival time in dogs. VH gene selection and mutational status in 52 cBCL, including 29 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (cDLBCL, the most common subtype of cBCL), were analyzed by comparison with the 80 published canine germline VH gene sequences. We further examined the prognostic impact of the subgroups defined by these features on canine survival. We found that VH1-44 was preferentially expressed in the majority of the 52 cBCLs (60%) as well as in the majority of the cDLBCL subset (59%). VH1-44 gene expression was associated with a statistically better overall survival (p=0.039) in cBCL patients, as well as in the cDLBCL subset of patients (p=0.038). These findings suggest that VH gene selection in cBCL is not random and may therefore have functional implications for cBCL lymphomagenesis, in addition to being a useful prognostic biomarker. PMID:24332568

Chen, Hsiao-Wei; Small, George W; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Suter, Steven E; Richards, Kristy L

2014-02-15

103

Analysis of the plastidic phosphate translocator gene family in Arabidopsis and identification of new phosphate translocator-homologous transporters, classified by their putative substrate-binding site.  

PubMed

Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed the complete set of plastidic phosphate translocator (pPT) genes. The Arabidopsis genome contains 16 pPT genes: single copies of genes coding for the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator and the xylulose phosphate/phosphate translocator, and two genes coding for each the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator and the glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator. A relatively high number of truncated phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator genes (six) and glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator genes (four) could be detected with almost conserved intron/exon structures as compared with the functional genes. In addition, a variety of PT-homologous (PTh) genes could be identified in Arabidopsis and other organisms. They all belong to the drug/metabolite transporter superfamily showing significant similarities to nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs). The pPT, PTh, and NST proteins all possess six to eight transmembrane helices. According to the analysis of conserved motifs in these proteins, the PTh proteins can be divided into (a) the lysine (Lys)/arginine group comprising only non-plant proteins, (b) the Lys-valine/alanine/glycine group of Arabidopsis proteins, (c) the Lys/asparagine group of Arabidopsis proteins, and (d) the Lys/threonine group of plant and non-plant proteins. None of these proteins have been characterized so far. The analysis of the putative substrate-binding sites of the pPT, PTh, and NST proteins led to the suggestion that all these proteins share common substrate-binding sites on either side of the membrane each of which contain a conserved Lys residue. PMID:12644669

Knappe, Silke; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Fischer, Karsten

2003-03-01

104

A model system for assessing and comparing the ability of exon microarray and tag sequencing to detect genes specific for malignant B-cells  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant cells in tumours of B-cell origin account for 0.1% to 98% of the total cell content, depending on disease entity. Recently, gene expression profiles (GEPs) of B-cell lymphomas based on microarray technologies have contributed significantly to improved sub-classification and diagnostics. However, the varying degrees of malignant B-cell frequencies in analysed samples influence the interpretation of the GEPs. Based on emerging next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) like tag sequencing (tag-seq) for GEP, it is expected that the detection of mRNA transcripts from malignant B-cells can be supplemented. This study provides a quantitative assessment and comparison of the ability of microarrays and tag-seq to detect mRNA transcripts from malignant B-cells. A model system was established by eight serial dilutions of the malignant B-cell lymphoma cell line, OCI-Ly8, into the embryonic kidney cell line, HEK293, prior to parallel analysis by exon microarrays and tag-seq. Results We identified 123 and 117 differentially expressed genes between pure OCI-Ly8 and HEK293 cells by exon microarray and tag-seq, respectively. There were thirty genes in common, and of those, most were B-cell specific. Hierarchical clustering from all dilutions based on the differentially expressed genes showed that neither technology could distinguish between samples with less than 1% malignant B-cells from non-B-cells. A novel statistical concept was developed to assess the ability to detect single genes for both technologies, and used to demonstrate an inverse proportional relationship with the sample purity. Of the 30 common genes, the detection capability of a representative set of three B-cell specific genes - CD74, HLA-DRA, and BCL6 - was analysed. It was noticed that at least 5%, 13% and 22% sample purity respectively was required for detection of the three genes by exon microarray whereas at least 2%, 4% and 51% percent sample purity of malignant B-cells were required for tag-seq detection. Conclusion A sample purity-dependent loss of the ability to detect genes for both technologies was demonstrated. Taq-seq, in comparison to exon microarray, required slightly less malignant B-cells in the samples analysed in order to detect the two most abundantly expressed of the selected genes. The results show that malignant cell frequency is an important variable, with fundamental impact when interpreting GEPs from both technologies. PMID:23127183

2012-01-01

105

TCL1 in B-cell tumors retains its normal b-cell pattern of regulation and is a marker of differentiation stage.  

PubMed

The high expression of the T-cell oncogene TCL1 in B-cell tumors and the emergence of B-cell lymphomas in TCL1-transgenic mice suggest a pathogenetic role for this kinase coregulator in B-cell malignancies. We compared the expression of TCL1 in B-cell tumors with their differentiation stage. As with normal B-cell subsets, uniform TCL1 expression was characteristic of tumors of pregerminal center derivation such as precursor B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (85%, 47/55) and mantle cell lymphoma (84%, 49/58), and was more variable in follicular lymphoma (57%, 28/49). Large B-cell lymphoma was less frequently positive for TCL1 (36%, 18/50), especially among cases of the activated B-cell type. All types of Hodgkin lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, and post-germinal center-derived tumors, including plasma cell myeloma and MALT lymphoma, were negative for TCL1, except for 1 case. In nearly all TCL1-expressing tumors, as with normal B cells, variations in cellular TCL1 levels were related to the proliferation and microenvironmental factors. In normal B cells, cell lines and primary B-cell tumor samples, TCL1 downmodulation occurred after prolonged cytokine treatment and/or B-cell receptor stimulation. In contrast to mature T-cell tumors where TCL1 expression is always indicative of an activating TCL1 gene translocation, TCL1 expression in B-cell tumors parallels its regulation in non-neoplastic B cells. Therefore, TCL1 expression can be used diagnostically as an indicator of the differentiation stage of a given B-cell tumor. PMID:17592280

Herling, Marco; Patel, Kaushali A; Hsi, Eric D; Chang, Kong-Chao; Rassidakis, George Z; Ford, Richard; Jones, Dan

2007-07-01

106

Distinct types of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

12 Pathology and Microbiology, and 13 Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, is clinically heterogeneous: 40% of patients respond well to current therapy and have prolonged survival, whereas the remainder succumb to the disease. We proposed that this variability in natural history reflects unrecognized molecular heterogeneity in the tumours. Using DNA microarrays, we have

Ash A. Alizadeh; Michael B. Eisen; R. Eric Davis; Izidore S. Lossos; Andreas Rosenwald; Jennifer C. Boldrick; Hajeer Sabet; Truc Tran; Xin Yu; John I. Powell; Liming Yang; Gerald E. Marti; Troy Moore; James Hudson Jr; Lisheng Lu; David B. Lewis; Robert Tibshirani; Gavin Sherlock; Wing C. Chan; Timothy C. Greiner; Dennis D. Weisenburger; James O. Armitage; Roger Warnke; Ronald Levy; Wyndham Wilson; Michael R. Grever; John C. Byrd; David Botstein; Patrick O. Brown; Louis M. Staudt

2000-01-01

107

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene- expression profiling and supervised machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults, is curable in less than 50% of patients. Prognostic models based on pre-treatment characteristics, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI), are currently used to predict outcome in DLBCL. However, clinical outcome models identify neither the molecular basis of clinical heterogeneity, nor specific therapeutic targets. We analyzed the

MARGARET A. SHIPP; KEN N. ROSS; PABLO TAMAYO; ANDREW P. WENG; JEFFERY L. KUTOK; RICARDO C. T. AGUIAR; MICHELLE GAASENBEEK; MICHAEL ANGELO; MICHAEL REICH; GERALDINE S. PINKUS; TANE S. RAY; MARGARET A. KOVAL; KIM W. LAST; T. ANDREW LISTER; JILL MESIROV; DONNA S. NEUBERG; ERIC S. LANDER; JON C. ASTER; TODD R. GOLUB

2002-01-01

108

Abnormalities in DNA rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene loci in precursor B cells derived from X-linked agammaglobulinemia patient and a severe combined immunodeficiency patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to characterize the genes that cause immunodeficiencies such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) we established precursor B-cell lines by transforming the patients' bone marrow cells with Epstein-Barr viruses. DNA rearrangements of immunoglobulin JH gene loci were observed on both chromosomes in pre-B cells derived from an XLA patient. We cloned and characterized both

Yoshikazu Ichihara; Hiroshi Matsuoka; Ikuya Tsuge; Jun-ichi Okada; Shinpei Torii; Hisashi Yasui; Yoshikazu Kurosawa

1988-01-01

109

Promoter methylation and expression levels of selected hematopoietic genes in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-cell ALL) is the most common neoplasm in children and is characterized by genetic and epigenetic aberrations in hematopoietic transcription factor (TF) genes. This study evaluated promoter DNA methylation and aberrant expression levels of early- and late-acting hematopoietic TF genes homeobox A4 and A5 (HOXA4 and HOXA5), Meis homeobox 1 (MEIS1), T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1 (TAL1), and interferon regulatory factors 4 and 8 (IRF4 and IRF8) in pediatric B-cell ALL. Methods Blood samples of 38 ALL patients and 20 controls were obtained. DNA was treated with sodium bisulfite and DNA methylation level of HOXA4, HOXA5, MEIS1, TAL1, IRF4, and IRF8 was assessed using quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Relative gene expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Results Aberrant methylation of TAL1, IRF8, MEIS1, and IRF4 was observed in 26.3%, 7.9%, 5.3%, and 2.6% patients, respectively, but not in controls. HOXA4 and HOXA5 were methylated in some controls and hypermethylated in 16% and 5% patients, respectively. IRF8, MEIS1, and TAL1 expression was lower in patients than in controls. MEIS1 expression was inversely correlated with white blood cell (WBC) count. HOXA4 expression was down-regulated in patients with high risk according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI) classification. TAL1 methylation was slightly elevated in patients aged >9 years and in patients showing relapse, suggesting its potential prognostic value. Conclusion Aberrant methylation and expression of the selected hematopoietic genes were correlated with demographic/clinical prognostic factors of pediatric ALL, such as age, WBC count, and NCI risk classification.

Bujko, Mateusz; Kober, Paulina; Wypych, Agnieszka; Gawle-Krawczyk, Karolina; Matysiak, Michal; Siedlecki, Janusz Aleksander

2015-01-01

110

Myelomatous plasma cells display an aberrant gene expression pattern similar to that observed in normal memory B cells  

PubMed Central

Memory B cells (MBCs) remain in a quiescent state for years, expressing pro-survival and anti-apoptotic factors while repressing cell proliferation and activation genes. During their differentiation into plasma cells (PCs), their expression pattern is reversed, with a higher expression of genes related to cell proliferation and activation, and a lower expression of pro-survival genes. To determine whether myelomatous PCs (mPCs) share characteristics with normal PCs and MBCs and to identify genes involved in the pathophysiology of multiple myeloma (MM), we compared gene expression patterns in these three cell sub-types. We observed that mPCs had features intermediate between those of MBCs and normal PCs, and identified 3455 genes differentially expressed in mPCs relative to normal PCs but with a similar expression pattern to that in MBCs. Most of these genes are involved in cell death and survival, cell growth and proliferation and protein synthesis. According to our findings, mPCs have a gene expression pattern closer to a MBC than a PC with a high expression of genes involved in cell survival. These genes should be physiologically inactivated in the transit from MBC to PC, but remain overexpressed in mPCs and thus may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:25628947

Báez, Alicia; Piruat, José I; Caballero-Velázquez, Teresa; Sánchez-Abarca, Luís I; Álvarez-Laderas, Isabel; Barbado, M Victoria; García-Guerrero, Estefanía; Millán-Uclés, África; Martín-Sánchez, Jesús; Medrano, Mayte; Pérez-Simón, José Antonio

2015-01-01

111

Genomic Hallmarks of Genes Involved in Chromosomal Translocations in Hematological Cancer  

PubMed Central

Reciprocal chromosomal translocations (RCTs) leading to the formation of fusion genes are important drivers of hematological cancers. Although the general requirements for breakage and fusion are fairly well understood, quantitative support for a general mechanism of RCT formation is still lacking. The aim of this paper is to analyze available high-throughput datasets with computational and robust statistical methods, in order to identify genomic hallmarks of translocation partner genes (TPGs). Our results show that fusion genes are generally overexpressed due to increased promoter activity of 5? TPGs and to more stable 3?-UTR regions of 3? TPGs. Furthermore, expression profiling of 5? TPGs and of interaction partners of 3? TPGs indicates that these features can help to explain tissue specificity of hematological translocations. Analysis of protein domains retained in fusion proteins shows that the co-occurrence of specific domain combinations is non-random and that distinct functional classes of fusion proteins tend to be associated with different components of the gene fusion network. This indicates that the configuration of fusion proteins plays an important role in determining which 5? and 3? TPGs will combine in specific fusion genes. It is generally accepted that chromosomal proximity in the nucleus can explain the specific pairing of 5? and 3? TPGS and the recurrence of hematological translocations. Using recently available data for chromosomal contact probabilities (Hi-C) we show that TPGs are preferentially located in early replicated regions and occupy distinct clusters in the nucleus. However, our data suggest that, in general, nuclear position of TPGs in hematological cancers explains neither TPG pairing nor clinical frequency. Taken together, our results support a model in which genomic features related to regulation of expression and replication timing determine the set of candidate genes more likely to be translocated in hematological tissues, with functional constraints being responsible for specific gene combinations. PMID:23236267

Shugay, Mikhail; Ortiz de Mendíbil, Ińigo; Vizmanos, José L.; Novo, Francisco J.

2012-01-01

112

Translocation of Y-Linked Genes to the Dot Chromosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura  

PubMed Central

One of the most striking cases of sex chromosome reorganization in Drosophila occurred in the lineage ancestral to Drosophila pseudoobscura, where there was a translocation of Y-linked genes to an autosome. These genes went from being present only in males, never recombining, and having an effective population size of 0.5N to a state of autosomal linkage, where they are passed through both sexes, may recombine, and their effective population size has quadrupled. These genes appear to be functional, and they underwent a drastic reduction in intron size after the translocation. A Y-autosome translocation may pose problems in meiosis if the rDNA locus responsible for X–Y pairing had also moved to an autosome. In this study, we demonstrate that the Y-autosome translocation moved Y-linked genes onto the dot chromosome, a small, mainly heterochromatic autosome with some sex chromosome–like properties. The rDNA repeats occur exclusively on the X chromosome in D. pseudoobscura, but we found that the new Y chromosome of this species harbors four clusters bearing only the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the rDNA repeats. This arrangement appears analogous to the situation in Drosophila simulans, where X-rDNA to Y-IGS pairing could be responsible for X–Y chromosome pairing. We postulate that the nascent D. pseudoobscura Y chromosome acquired and amplified copies of the IGS, suggesting a potential mechanism for X–Y pairing in D. pseudoobscura. PMID:20147437

Larracuente, Amanda M.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.; Clark, Andrew G.

2010-01-01

113

A Strategy for Full Interrogation of Prognostic Gene Expression Patterns: Exploring the Biology of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression profiling yields quantitative data on gene expression used to create prognostic models that accurately predict patient outcome in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Often, data are analyzed with genes classified by whether they fall above or below the median expression level. We sought to determine whether examining multiple cut-points might be a more powerful technique to investigate the association of gene expression with outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings We explored gene expression profiling data using variable cut-point analysis for 36 genes with reported prognostic value in DLBCL. We plotted two-group survival logrank test statistics against corresponding cut-points of the gene expression levels and smooth estimates of the hazard ratio of death versus gene expression levels. To facilitate comparisons we also standardized the expression of each of the genes by the fraction of patients that would be identified by any cut-point. A multiple comparison adjusted permutation p-value identified 3 different patterns of significance: 1) genes with significant cut-point points below the median, whose loss is associated with poor outcome (e.g. HLA-DR); 2) genes with significant cut-points above the median, whose over-expression is associated with poor outcome (e.g. CCND2); and 3) genes with significant cut-points on either side of the median, (e.g. extracellular molecules such as FN1). Conclusions/Significance Variable cut-point analysis with permutation p-value calculation can be used to identify significant genes that would not otherwise be identified with median cut-points and may suggest biological patterns of gene effects. PMID:21829609

Rimsza, Lisa M.; Unger, Joseph M.; Tome, Margaret E.; LeBlanc, Michael L.

2011-01-01

114

Sequence and Analysis of the Human ABL Gene, the BCR Gene, and Regions Involved in the Philadelphia Chromosomal Translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete human BCR gene (152-141 nt) on chromosome 22 and greater than 80% of the human ABL gene (179-512 nt) on chromosome 9 have been sequenced from mapped cosmid and plasmid clones via a shotgun strategy. Because these two chromosomes are translocated with breakpoints within the BCR and ABL genes in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, knowledge of these sequences also

Stephanie L. Chissoe; Angelika Bodenteich; Yun-Fang Wang; Ying-Ping Wang; Dennis Burian; Sandra W. Clifton; Judy Crabtree; Alexandra Freeman; Kala Iyer; Li Jian; Yichen Ma; Hei-Jen McLaury; Hua-Qin Pan; Omayma H. Sarhan; Steve Toth; Zhili Wang; Guozhong Zhang; Nora Heisterkamp; John Groffen; Bruce A. Roe

1995-01-01

115

Histone H2AX suppresses translocations in lymphomas of E?-c-Myctransgenic mice that contain a germline amplicon of tumor-promoting genes  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response (DDR) can restrain the ability of oncogenes to cause genomic instability and drive malignant transformation. The gene encoding the histone H2AX DDR factor maps to 11q23, a region frequently altered in human cancers. Since H2ax functions as a haploinsufficient suppressor of B lineage lymphomas with c-Myc amplification and/or translocation, we determined the impact of H2ax expression on the ability of deregulated c-Myc expression to cause genomic instability and drive transformation of B cells. Neither H2ax deficiency nor haploinsufficiency affected the rate of mortality of E?-c-Myc mice from B lineage lymphomas with genomic deletions and amplifications. Yet H2ax functioned in a dosage-dependent manner to prevent unbalanced translocations in E?-c-Myc tumors, demonstrating that H2ax functions in a haploinsufficient manner to suppress allelic imbalances and limit molecular heterogeneity within and among E?-c-Myc lymphomas. Regardless of H2ax copy number, all E?-c-Myc tumors contained identical amplification of chromosome 19 sequences spanning 20 genes. Many of these genes encode proteins with tumor-promoting activities, including Cd274, which encodes the PD-L1 programmed death ligand that induces T cell apoptosis and enables cancer cells to escape immune surveillance. This amplicon was in non-malignant B and T cells and non-lymphoid cells, linked to the E?-c-Myc transgene, and associated with overexpression of PD-L1 on non-malignant B cells. Our data demonstrate that, in addition to deregulated c-Myc expression, non-malignant B lineage lymphocytes of E?-c-Myc transgenic mice may have constitutive amplification and increased expression of other tumor-promoting genes. PMID:23966158

Fusello, Angela; Horowitz, Julie; Yang-Iott, Katherine; Brady, Brenna L; Yin, Bu; Rowh, Marta AW; Rappaport, Eric; Bassing, Craig H

2013-01-01

116

Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Remnants of ancient transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes. These sequences harbor multiple regulatory motifs and hence are capable of influencing expression of host genes. In response to environmental changes, TEs are known to be released from epigenetic repression and to become transcriptionally active. Such activation could also lead to lineage-inappropriate activation of oncogenes, as one study described in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, little further evidence for this mechanism in other cancers has been reported. Here, we reanalyzed whole transcriptome data from a large cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared with normal B-cell centroblasts to detect genes ectopically expressed through activation of TE promoters. We have identified 98 such TE-gene chimeric transcripts that were exclusively expressed in primary DLBCL cases and confirmed several in DLBCL-derived cell lines. We further characterized a TE-gene chimeric transcript involving a fatty acid-binding protein gene (LTR2-FABP7), normally expressed in brain, that was ectopically expressed in a subset of DLBCL patients through the use of an endogenous retroviral LTR promoter of the LTR2 family. The LTR2-FABP7 chimeric transcript encodes a novel chimeric isoform of the protein with characteristics distinct from native FABP7. In vitro studies reveal a dependency for DLBCL cell line proliferation and growth on LTR2-FABP7 chimeric protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate the significance of TEs as regulators of aberrant gene expression in cancer and suggest that LTR2-FABP7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL in a subgroup of patients. PMID:25114248

Lock, Frances E.; Rebollo, Rita; Miceli-Royer, Katharine; Gagnier, Liane; Kuah, Sabrina; Babaian, Artem; Sistiaga-Poveda, Maialen; Lai, C. Benjamin; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Serrano, Isabel; Steidl, Christian; Karimi, Mohammad M.; Mager, Dixie L.

2014-01-01

117

Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Remnants of ancient transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes. These sequences harbor multiple regulatory motifs and hence are capable of influencing expression of host genes. In response to environmental changes, TEs are known to be released from epigenetic repression and to become transcriptionally active. Such activation could also lead to lineage-inappropriate activation of oncogenes, as one study described in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, little further evidence for this mechanism in other cancers has been reported. Here, we reanalyzed whole transcriptome data from a large cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared with normal B-cell centroblasts to detect genes ectopically expressed through activation of TE promoters. We have identified 98 such TE-gene chimeric transcripts that were exclusively expressed in primary DLBCL cases and confirmed several in DLBCL-derived cell lines. We further characterized a TE-gene chimeric transcript involving a fatty acid-binding protein gene (LTR2-FABP7), normally expressed in brain, that was ectopically expressed in a subset of DLBCL patients through the use of an endogenous retroviral LTR promoter of the LTR2 family. The LTR2-FABP7 chimeric transcript encodes a novel chimeric isoform of the protein with characteristics distinct from native FABP7. In vitro studies reveal a dependency for DLBCL cell line proliferation and growth on LTR2-FABP7 chimeric protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate the significance of TEs as regulators of aberrant gene expression in cancer and suggest that LTR2-FABP7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL in a subgroup of patients. PMID:25114248

Lock, Frances E; Rebollo, Rita; Miceli-Royer, Katharine; Gagnier, Liane; Kuah, Sabrina; Babaian, Artem; Sistiaga-Poveda, Maialen; Lai, C Benjamin; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Serrano, Isabel; Steidl, Christian; Karimi, Mohammad M; Mager, Dixie L

2014-08-26

118

Characterization of ?-secalin genes from rye, triticale, and a wheat 1BL\\/1RS translocation line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-two DNA sequences for the coding regions of omega-secalin (?-secalin) genes have been characterized from rye (Secale cereale L.), hexaploid and octoploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1BL\\/1RS translocation line. Only 19 out of the 62 ?-secalin gene sequences were full-length open reading frames (ORFs),\\u000a which can be expressed into functional proteins. The other 43 DNA sequences

Q. T. Jiang; Y. M. Wei; L. Andre; Z. X. Lu; Z. E. Pu; Y. Y. Peng; Y. L. Zheng

2010-01-01

119

In multiple myeloma, 14q32 translocations are nonrandom chromosomal fusions driving high expression levels of the respective partner genes.  

PubMed

In studies of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), gene expression profiling (GEP) of myeloma cells demonstrates substantially higher expression of MMSET, FGFR3, CCND3, CCND1, MAF, and MAFB--the partner genes of 14q32 translocations--than GEP of plasma cells from healthy individuals. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to discriminate between chromosomal translocations involving different regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes at 14q32. With special probes designed for the constant region (IGHC) and the variable region (IGHV), IGH translocations were shown to be definite, nonrandom chromosomal fusions of IGHC with the loci of FGFR3, CCND1, CCND3, MAF, and MAFB genes; and IGHV with the locus of MMSET gene. When correlated with GEP results, the IGH translocations were found to drive expression levels of the partner genes to significantly higher levels (spikes) than copy-number variations. Hence, 42% of IGH translocations were identified among newly diagnosed MM patients (448/1,060). As GEP has become essential for assessing cancer risk, this novel approach is highly consistent with the cytogenetic features of the chromosomal translocations to effectively stratify molecular subgroups of MM on the basis of gene expression profiles of the IGH translocation partner genes in myeloma cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24638926

Tian, Erming; Sawyer, Jeffrey R; Heuck, Christoph J; Zhang, Qing; van Rhee, Frits; Barlogie, Bart; Epstein, Joshua

2014-07-01

120

IKAROS Deletions Dictate a Unique Gene Expression Signature in Patients with Adult B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Deletions of IKAROS (IKZF1) frequently occur in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) but the mechanisms by which they influence pathogenesis are unclear. To address this issue, a cohort of 144 adult B-ALL patients (106 BCR-ABL1-positive and 38 B-ALL negative for known molecular rearrangements) was screened for IKZF1 deletions by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays; a sub-cohort of these patients (44%) was then analyzed for gene expression profiling. Principal Findings Total or partial deletions of IKZF1 were more frequent in BCR-ABL1-positive than in BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL cases (75% vs 58%, respectively, p?=?0.04). Comparison of the gene expression signatures of patients carrying IKZF1 deletion vs those without showed a unique signature featured by down-regulation of B-cell lineage and DNA repair genes and up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, JAK-STAT signalling and stem cell self-renewal. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays we corroborated these findings both in vivo and in vitro, showing that Ikaros deleted isoforms lacked the ability to directly regulate a large group of the genes in the signature, such as IGLL1, BLK, EBF1, MSH2, BUB3, ETV6, YES1, CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2C (p18) and MCL1. Conclusions Here we identified and validated for the first time molecular pathways specifically controlled by IKZF1, shedding light into IKZF1 role in B-ALL pathogenesis. PMID:22848414

Messina, Monica; Lonetti, Annalisa; Chiaretti, Sabina; Valli, Emanuele; Ferrari, Anna; Papayannidis, Cristina; Paoloni, Francesca; Vitale, Antonella; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Guadagnuolo, Viviana; Durante, Sandra; Vignetti, Marco; Soverini, Simona; Pane, Fabrizio; Foŕ, Robin; Baccarani, Michele; Müschen, Markus; Perini, Giovanni; Martinelli, Giovanni

2012-01-01

121

Aberrant expression of the CHFR prophase checkpoint gene in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  

PubMed

Checkpoint with FHA and Ring Finger (CHFR) is a checkpoint protein that reportedly initiates a cell cycle delay in response to microtubule stress during prophase in mitosis, which has become an interesting target for understanding cancer pathogenesis. Recently, aberrant methylation of the CHFR gene associated with gene silencing has been reported in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression of CHFR in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the expression level of CHFR mRNA and protein was reduced in B-NHL tissue samples and B cell lines. Furthermore, CHFR methylation was detected in 39 of 122 B-NHL patients, which was not found in noncancerous reactive hyperplasia of lymph node (RH) tissues. CHFR methylation correlated with the reduced expression of CHFR, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores and later pathologic Ann Arbor stages of B-NHL. Treatment with demethylation reagent, 5-Aza-dC, could eliminate the hypermethylation of CHFR, enhance CHFR expression and cell apoptosis and inhibit the cell proliferation of Raji cells, which could be induced by high expression of CHFR in Raji cells. Our results indicated that aberrant methylation of CHFR may be associated with the pathogenesis, progression for B-NHL, which might be a novel molecular marker as prognosis and treatment for B-NHL. PMID:25798877

Song, Aiqin; Ye, Junli; Zhang, Kunpeng; Yu, Hongsheng; Gao, Yanhua; Wang, Hongfang; Sun, Lirong; Xing, Xiaoming; Yang, Kun; Zhao, Min

2015-05-01

122

NK and B cell deficiency in a MPS type II family with novel mutation in the IDS gene.  

PubMed

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorders that are clinically characterized by abnormalities in multiple organ systems and reduced life expectancy. Whereas the lysosome is essential to the functioning of the immune system, some authors suggest that the MPS patients have abnormalities in the immune system similar to the patients with primary immunodeficiency. In this study, we evaluated 8 male MPS type II patients of the same family with novel mutation in the IDS gene. We found in this MPS family a quantitative deficiency of NK and B cells with normal values of IgG, IgM and IgA serum antibodies and normal response to polysaccharide antigens. Interestingly, abnormalities found in these patients were not observed in other MPS patients, suggesting that the type of mutation found in the IDS gene can be implicated in the immunodeficiency. PMID:25038527

Torres, Leuridan Cavalcante; Soares, Diogo Cordeiro de Queiroz; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Franco, Jose Francisco; Kim, Chong Ae

2014-10-01

123

Human balanced translocation and mouse gene inactivation implicate Basonuclin 2 in distal urethral development  

PubMed Central

We studied a man with distal hypospadias, partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, mild limb-length inequality and a balanced translocation involving chromosomes 9 and 13. To gain insight into the etiology of his birth defects, we mapped the translocation breakpoints by high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), using chromosome 9- and 13-specific tiling arrays to analyze genetic material from a spontaneously aborted fetus with unbalanced segregation of the translocation. The chromosome 13 breakpoint was ?400?kb away from the nearest gene, but the chromosome 9 breakpoint fell within an intron of Basonuclin 2 (BNC2), a gene that encodes an evolutionarily conserved nuclear zinc-finger protein. The BNC2/Bnc2 gene is abundantly expressed in developing mouse and human periurethral tissues. In all, 6 of 48 unrelated subjects with distal hypospadias had nine novel nonsynonymous substitutions in BNC2, five of which were computationally predicted to be deleterious. In comparison, two of 23 controls with normal penile urethra morphology, each had a novel nonsynonymous substitution in BNC2, one of which was predicted to be deleterious. Bnc2?/? mice of both sexes displayed a high frequency of distal urethral defects; heterozygotes showed similar defects with reduced penetrance. The association of BNC2 disruption with distal urethral defects and the gene's expression pattern indicate that it functions in urethral development. PMID:21368915

Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Ramos, Purita; Baker, Linda A; Cost, Nicholas; Nordenskjöld, Agneta; Elder, Frederick F; Bleyl, Steven B; Bowles, Neil E; Arrington, Cammon B; Delhomme, Brigitte; Vanhoutteghem, Amandine; Djian, Philippe; Zinn, Andrew R

2011-01-01

124

TP53 mutations are frequent events in double-hit B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 but not MYC and BCL6 translocations.  

PubMed

Abstract Double-hit lymphomas (DHL) with MYC and either BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangements are rare neoplasms with an aggressive clinical presentation and grim prognosis. Moreover, molecular characterization of DHL remains insufficient, and especially the role of TP53 pathway disruption is unknown. We employed a next-generation sequencing approach to investigate the mutational status of TP53 in DHL and correlated genomic data with immunohistochemical reactivity for p53. We identified TP53 mutations in MYC+/BCL2+ lymphomas at a frequency intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma. Remarkably, TP53 mutations were particularly scarce in MYC+/BCL6+ lymphomas. Our findings indicate a significant difference between these two types of DHL at a molecular level with pathogenetic implications, as arguably, TP53 mutations inhibiting p53 mediated promotion of apoptosis pose a synergistic advantage in clonal evolution of cells with malignantly enforced overexpression of BCL2. Immunohistochemical staining appears to be a sensitive surrogate of TP53 mutation status with moderate specificity. PMID:24679006

Gebauer, Niklas; Bernard, Veronica; Gebauer, Wolfgang; Thorns, Christoph; Feller, Alfred C; Merz, Hartmut

2015-01-01

125

Prediction of Gene Activity in Early B Cell Development Based on an Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis  

PubMed Central

An increasingly common method for predicting gene activity is genome-wide chromatin immuno-precipitation of ‘active’ chromatin modifications followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). In order to understand better the relationship between developmentally regulated chromatin landscapes and regulation of early B cell development, we determined how differentially active promoter regions were able to predict relative RNA and protein levels at the pre-pro-B and pro-B stages. Herein, we describe a novel ChIP-seq quantification method (cRPKM) to identify active promoters and a multi-omics approach that compares promoter chromatin status with ongoing active transcription (GRO-seq), steady state mRNA (RNA-seq), inferred mRNA stability, and relative proteome abundance measurements (iTRAQ). We demonstrate that active chromatin modifications at promoters are good indicators of transcription and steady state mRNA levels. Moreover, we found that promoters with active chromatin modifications exclusively in one of these cell states frequently predicted the differential abundance of proteins. However, we found that many genes whose promoters have non-differential but active chromatin modifications also displayed changes in abundance of their cognate proteins. As expected, this large class of developmentally and differentially regulated proteins that was uncoupled from chromatin status used mostly post-transcriptional mechanisms. Strikingly, the most differentially abundant protein in our B-cell development system, 2410004B18Rik, was regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism, which further analyses indicated was mediated by a micro-RNA. These data highlight how this integrated multi-omics data set can be a useful resource in uncovering regulatory mechanisms. This data can be accessed at: https://usegalaxy.org/u/thereddylab/p/prediction-of-gene-activity-based-on-an-integrative-multi-omics-analysis PMID:25544807

Heydarian, Mohammad; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Cutler, Jevon; Mitchell, Christopher J.; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sollner-Webb, Barbara; Reddy, Karen

2014-01-01

126

Application of HSVtk suicide gene to X-SCID gene therapy: Ganciclovir treatment offsets gene corrected X-SCID B cells  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a serious adverse effect of uncontrolled clonal T cell proliferation due to insertional mutagenesis of retroviral vector was reported in X-SCID gene therapy clinical trial. To offset the side effect, we have incorporated a suicide gene into therapeutic retroviral vector for selective elimination of transduced cells. In this study, B-cell lines from two X-SCID patients were transduced with bicistronic retroviral vector carrying human {gamma}c chain cDNA and Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. After confirmation of functional reconstitution of the {gamma}c chain, the cells were treated with ganciclovir (GCV). The {gamma}c chain positive cells were eliminated under low concentration without cytotoxicity on untransduced cells and have not reappeared at least for 5 months. Furthermore, the {gamma}c chain transduced cells were still sensitive to GCV after five months. These results demonstrated the efficacy of the suicide gene therapy although further in vivo studies are required to assess feasibility of this approach in clinical trial.

Uchiyama, Toru [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kumaki, Satoru [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: kumakis@idac.tohoku.ac.jp; Ishikawa, Yoshinori [Department of Microbiology and Immunity, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 2-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Onodera, Masafumi [Major of Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba University, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Sato, Miki [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Du, Wei [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Sasahara, Yoji [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tanaka, Nobuyuki [Department of Microbiology and Immunity, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 2-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Sugamura, Kazuo [Department of Microbiology and Immunity, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 2-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Shigeru [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

2006-03-10

127

A Mouse Variable Gene Fragment Binds to DNA Independently of the BCR Context: A Possible Role for Immature B-Cell Repertoire Establishment  

PubMed Central

B-cell maturation occurs in several steps and requires constant stimulus for its continuing development. From the emergence of the pre-B-cell receptor, signal transduction stimulates and supports B-cell development. Current viewpoints indicate that both positive selection pressure for autoantigens and tonic signaling constitutively stimulate B-cell maturation. In this work, we tested for the presence of a putative DNA binding site in a variable gene segment in a germline configuration, independently of VDJ recombination. After a survey of the public antibody databases, we chose a single mouse heavy variable gene segment that is highly represented in anti-nucleic acid antibodies and tested it for ssDNA binding. A phage display approach was used to search for intrinsic binding to oligo deoxythymidine. The results revealed that binding to an antigen can be influenced by the use of a specific DNA binding V gene segment. Our data support the idea that some variable genes have intrinsic reactivity towards specific types of endogenous autoantigens, and this property may contribute to the establishment of the immature B-cell repertoire. PMID:24023756

Maranhăo, Andrea Queiroz; Costa, Maria Beatriz Walter; Guedes, Leonardo; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro Manoel; Raiol, Tainá; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

2013-01-01

128

Next-Generation Sequencing of Apoptotic DNA Breakpoints Reveals Association with Actively Transcribed Genes and Gene Translocations  

PubMed Central

DNA fragmentation is a well-recognized hallmark of apoptosis. However, the precise DNA sequences cleaved during apoptosis triggered by distinct mechanisms remain unclear. We used next-generation sequencing of DNA fragments generated in Actinomycin D-treated human HL-60 leukemic cells to generate a high-throughput, global map of apoptotic DNA breakpoints. These data highlighted that DNA breaks are non-random and show a significant association with active genes and open chromatin regions. We noted that transcription factor binding sites were also enriched within a fraction of the apoptotic breakpoints. Interestingly, extensive apoptotic cleavage was noted within genes that are frequently translocated in human cancers. We speculate that the non-random fragmentation of DNA during apoptosis may contribute to gene translocations and the development of human cancers. PMID:22087219

Fullwood, Melissa J.; Lee, Joanne; Lin, Lifang; Li, Guoliang; Huss, Mikael; Ng, Patrick; Sung, Wing-Kin; Shenolikar, Shirish

2011-01-01

129

Gene encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor is moved immediately downstream of c-myc in a chromosomal 8;14 translocation in a cell line from a human T-cell leukemia.  

PubMed Central

The SKW-3 cell line, which was established from the malignant cells of a patient with T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is characterized by a translocation involving chromosome 8 (band q24) and chromosome 14 (band q11) [t(8;14)(q24;q11)]. To determine the position of the gene encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor and of the human protooncogene myc (c-myc) in relation to the breakpoint junctions and to evaluate their possible role in the pathogenesis of T-cell neoplasia, we applied the techniques of in situ chromosomal hybridization and Southern blot analysis to SKW-3 cells. Our results indicate that the breakpoint on chromosome 14 at band q11 occurs close to a joining sequence of the gene encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. Additional rearrangements within the alpha-chain locus appear to split the variable region cluster. As a result of the rearrangements, the constant region of this gene, as well as some variable region segments, are translocated to chromosome 8, to the 3' side of the c-myc-coding exons. The identification of a breakpoint to the 3' side of c-myc suggests that this translocation is analogous to the variant (2;8) and t(8;22) translocations observed in the B-cell malignancies. Images PMID:3517860

Shima, E A; Le Beau, M M; McKeithan, T W; Minowada, J; Showe, L C; Mak, T W; Minden, M D; Rowley, J D; Diaz, M O

1986-01-01

130

Tracking Differential Gene Expression in MRL/MpJ Versus C57BL/6 Anergic B Cells: Molecular Markers of Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Background Anergy is a key mechanism controlling expression of autoreactive B cells and a major site for failed regulation in autoimmune diseases. Yet the molecular basis for this differentiated cell state remains poorly understood. The current lack of well-characterized surface or molecular markers hinders the isolation of anergic cells for further study. Global gene profiling recently identified transcripts whose expression differentiates anergic from naďve B cells in model mouse systems. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the molecular and cellular processes that differentiate anergic cells that develop in the healthy C57BL/6 (B6) milieu from those that develop in the autoimmune-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL) background. This approach takes advantage of B6 and MRL mice bearing an anti-laminin Ig transgene with a well characterized anergic B cell phenotype. Results Global gene expression was evaluated in purified transgenic B cells using Operon version 3.0 oligonucleotide microarray assaying >31,000 oligoprobes. Genes with a 2-fold expression difference in B6 as compared to MRL anergic B cells were identified. Expression of selected genes was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. This approach identified 43 probes corresponding to 37 characterized genes, including Ptpn22, CD74, Birc1f/Naip, and Ctla4, as differentially expressed in anergic B cells in the two strains. Gene Ontology classification identified differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and cell death as prominently represented ontology groups. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified two major networks incorporating 27 qualifying genes. Network 1 centers on beta-estradiol and TP53, and Network 2 encompasses RB1, p38 MAPK, and NFkB cell growth, proliferation, and cell cycle signaling pathways. Conclusion Using microarray analysis we identified 37 characterized genes and two functional pathways engaged in maintenance of B cell anergy for which expression is distorted by underlying autoimmune genetic susceptibility. This approach identifes a new biological role for multiple genes and potential new therapeutic targets in autoimmunity. PMID:19578517

Clark, Amy G.; Mackin, Katherine M.; Foster, Mary H.

2008-01-01

131

Cloning and sequencing of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium avium and mapping of B-cell epitopes.  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequence of alpha antigen secreted from Mycobacterium avium (A-alpha) was determined. The gene encodes 330 amino acids, including 40 amino acids for the signal peptide, followed by 290 amino acids for the mature protein with a molecular mass of 30,811 Da. This is the first sequence of A-alpha. Comparisons between A-alpha and alpha antigens of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium kansasii showed highly homologous regions which suggested a conserved functional domain and two less-homologous regions. Serological analysis of recombinant A-alpha, expressed by a series of deletion constructs, indicated the possibility that A-alpha carries at least six B-cell epitopes. The three antigenic determinants were common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium. The results also suggested the possibility that there are three species-specific epitopes. Images PMID:7681039

Ohara, N; Matsuo, K; Yamaguchi, R; Yamazaki, A; Tasaka, H; Yamada, T

1993-01-01

132

Rearrangements and deletions of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the double-producing B cell lymphoma I. 29  

SciTech Connect

The B cell lymphoma I.29 consists of a mixture of cells expressing membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (IgM) (lambda) and IgA (lambda) of identical idiotypes. Whereas most of the cells express either IgM of IgA alone, 1 to 50% of the cells in this tumor express IgM and IgA simultaneously within the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. When IgM/sup +/ cells are purified from the lymphoma and passaged in mice or cultured, a portion of the cells convert to IgA/sup +/. These properties suggest that some cells of the I.29 lymphoma may undergo immunoglobulin heavy chain switching, although it is also possible that the mixed population was derived by a prior switching event in a clone of cells. The authors performed Southern blotting experiments on genomic DNAs isolated from populations of I.29 cells containing variable proportions of IgM/sup +/ and IgA/sup +/ cells and on a number of cell lines derived from the lymphoma. The results were consistent with the deletion model for heavy chain switching, as the IgM/sup +/ cells contained rearranged ..mu.. genes and ..cap alpha..genes in the germ line configuration on both the expressed and nonexpressed heavy chain chromosomes, whereas the IgA/sup +/ cells had deleted both ..mu.. genes and contained one rearranged and one germ line ..cap alpha..gene. In addition, segments of DNA located within the intervening sequence 5' to the ..mu..gene, near the site of switch recombination, were deleted from both the expressed and the nonexpressed chromosomes. Although ..mu.. genes were deleted from both chromosomes in the IgA/sup +/ cells, the sites of DNA recombination differed on the two chromosomes. On the expressed chromosome, S..mu.. sequences were recombined with S..cap alpha.. sequences, whereas on the nonexpressed chromosome, S..mu.. sequences were recombined with S..gamma..3 sequences.

Stavnezer, J.; Marcu, K.B.; Sirlin, S.; Alhadeff, B.; Hammerling, U.

1982-08-01

133

MOZ regulates B-cell progenitors and, consequently, Moz haploinsufficiency dramatically retards MYC-induced lymphoma development.  

PubMed

The histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3, KAT6A) is the target of recurrent chromosomal translocations fusing the MOZ gene to CBP, p300, NCOA3, or TIF2 in particularly aggressive cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we report the role of wild-type MOZ in regulating B-cell progenitor proliferation and hematopoietic malignancy. In the E?-Myc model of aggressive pre-B/B-cell lymphoma, the loss of just one allele of Moz increased the median survival of mice by 3.9-fold. MOZ was required to maintain the proliferative capacity of B-cell progenitors, even in the presence of c-MYC overexpression, by directly maintaining the transcriptional activity of genes required for normal B-cell development. Hence, B-cell progenitor numbers were significantly reduced in Moz haploinsufficient animals. Interestingly, we find a significant overlap in genes regulated by MOZ, mixed lineage leukemia 1, and mixed lineage leukemia 1 cofactor menin. This includes Meis1, a TALE class homeobox transcription factor required for B-cell development, characteristically upregulated as a result of MLL1 translocations in leukemia. We demonstrate that MOZ localizes to the Meis1 locus in pre-B-cells and maintains Meis1 expression. Our results suggest that even partial inhibition of MOZ may reduce the proliferative capacity of MEIS1, and HOX-driven lymphoma and leukemia cells. PMID:25605372

Sheikh, Bilal N; Lee, Stanley C W; El-Saafin, Farrah; Vanyai, Hannah K; Hu, Yifang; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Grabow, Stephanie; Strasser, Andreas; Nutt, Stephen L; Alexander, Warren S; Smyth, Gordon K; Voss, Anne K; Thomas, Tim

2015-03-19

134

Transcriptional analysis of the B cell germinal center reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial for T cell-dependent immune responses and is targeted by B cell lymphomagenesis. Here we analyzed the transcriptional changes that occur in B cells during GC transit (naďve B cells centroblasts centrocytes memory B cells) by gene expression profiling. Naďve B cells, characterized by the expression of cell cycle-inhibitory and antiapoptotic genes, become centroblasts

Ulf Klein; Yuhai Tu; Gustavo A. Stolovitzky; Jeffrey L. Keller; Joseph Haddad Jr.; Vladan Miljkovic; Giorgio Cattoretti; Andrea Califano; Riccardo dalla-Favera

2003-01-01

135

Gene profiling of canine B-cell lymphoma reveals germinal center and post-germinal center subtypes with different survival times, modeling human DLBCL  

PubMed Central

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype, and fewer than half of patients are cured with standard front-line therapy. To improve therapeutic options, better animal models that accurately mimic human DLBCL (hDLBCL) are needed. Canine DLBCL (cDLBCL), one of the most common cancers in veterinary oncology, is morphologically similar to hDLBCL and is treated using similar chemotherapeutic protocols. With genomic technologies, it is now possible to molecularly evaluate dogs as a potential large-animal model for hDLBCL. We evaluated canine B-cell lymphomas (cBCLs) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Canine B-cell lymphoma expression profiles were similar in many ways to hDLBCLs. For instance, a subset had increased expression of NF-?B pathway genes, mirroring human activated B-cell (ABC)-type DLBCL. Furthermore, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) ongoing mutation status, which is correlated with ABC/germinal center B-cell (GCB) cell of origin in hDLBCL, separated cBCL into two groups with statistically different progression-free and overall survival times. In contrast with hDLBCL, cBCL rarely expressed BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, these studies identify molecular similarities to hDLBCL that introduce pet dogs as a representative model of hDLBCL for future studies, including therapeutic clinical trials. PMID:23783577

Richards, Kristy L.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Chen, Hsiao-wei; Fedoriw, Yuri; Fan, Cheng; Nielsen, Dahlia M.; Small, George W.; Thomas, Rachael; Smith, Chris; Dave, Sandeep S.; Perou, Charles M.; Breen, Matthew; Borst, Luke B.; Suter, Steven E.

2013-01-01

136

Transcription of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene is rapidly induced by anti-immunoglobulin and blocked by cyclosporin A and FK506 in human B cells.  

PubMed Central

The human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene encodes a cytokine whose activities have been implicated in many immunopathological processes, including the activation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Originally identified as a monocyte factor, our studies and those of others have demonstrated that B and T lymphocytes produce TNF-alpha when stimulated by a variety of inducers. We report here that TNF-alpha gene transcription is rapidly and highly induced in three independently derived human Burkitt lymphoma cell lines, as well as in freshly isolated human splenic B cells, activated by antibodies to surface immunoglobulin. This burst in TNF-alpha gene transcription is associated with an induction of TNF-alpha bioactivity in the culture supernatants from stimulated splenic B cells. Moreover, induction of TNF-alpha gene transcription by anti-immunoglobulin was blocked by the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A and FK506. These studies demonstrate that TNF-alpha production is an early event in B-cell activation and they establish the efficacy of using immunosuppressants as probes in dissecting transcriptional activation pathways in human B cells. Images PMID:1281550

Goldfeld, A E; Flemington, E K; Boussiotis, V A; Theodos, C M; Titus, R G; Strominger, J L; Speck, S H

1992-01-01

137

Characterization of a gene which is disrupted by a balanced translocation in a meningioma  

SciTech Connect

Meningiomas are tumors of the central nervous system in which loss of heterozygosity for markers on the long arm of chromosome 22 is a frequent event. We have previously described a balanced t(4;22)(p16;q11), which was observed in meningioma 32. We have cloned a gene (MN1), which is disrupted by the translocation breakpoint. The gene spans about 70 kb on chromosome 22q11. A total of 7.5 kb of overlapping cDNA clones were isolated. A comparison of the cDNA clones with the genomic cosmid contig from this region shows that the MN1 gene consists of at least two large exons of approximately 4.7 kb and 2.8 kb. Sequence analysis of the MN1 cDNA revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) of 1 and 2.3 kb which are separated by a region of approximately 1 kb with stop codons in all reading frames. The second ORF is disrupted by the t(4;22) translocation. In the region between the ORFs 2 CAG repeats have been found. These repeats do not display length variation in meningiomas. There is no obvious homology in the nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences with other known genes. The MN1 gene is highly conserved in evolution. The approximately 8 kb MN1 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed with an alternative 4.5 kb transcript in skeletal muscle. In meningiomas the expression pattern is very variable and a 6.5 kb transcript is sometimes also observed. Some, including meningioma 32, show no expression suggesting that the gene could function as a tumor suppressor gene for meningeal cells. Paradoxically, however, a very high expression is sometimes also observed in meningiomas.

Zwarthoff, E.C.; Riegman, P.H.J.; Groen, N.A. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

1994-09-01

138

Systematic design and testing of nested (RT)PCR primers for specific amplification of mouse rearranged\\/expressed immunoglobulin variable region genes from small number of B cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive (RT-)PCR capable of potentially amplifying the rearranged\\/expressed VH and VL gene belonging to any mouse immunoglobulin V gene family from a single or a small number of B cells. A database of germline immunoglobulin sequences was used to design 112 primers for a nested (RT-)PCR based strategy

Soma Rohatgi; Parul Ganju; Devinder Sehgal

2008-01-01

139

Genes within the Idd5 and Idd9/11 diabetes susceptibility loci affect the pathogenic activity of B cells in nonobese diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Autoreactive T cells clearly mediate the pancreatic beta cell destruction causing type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, studies in NOD mice indicate that B cells also contribute to pathogenesis because their ablation by introduction of an Igmunull mutation elicits T1D resistance. T1D susceptibility is restored in NOD.Igmunull mice that are irradiated and reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow plus NOD B cells, but not syngeneic bone marrow alone. Thus, we hypothesized some non-MHC T1D susceptibility (Idd) genes contribute to disease by allowing development of pathogenic B cells. Supporting this hypothesis was the finding that unlike those from NOD donors, engraftment with B cells from H2g7 MHC-matched, but T1D-resistant, nonobese-resistant (NOR) mice failed to restore full disease susceptibility in NOD.Igmunull recipients. T1D resistance in NOR mice is mainly encoded within the Idd13, Idd5.2, and Idd9/11 loci. B cells from NOD congenic stocks containing Idd9/11 or Idd5.1/5.2-resistance loci, respectively, derived from the NOR or C57BL/10 strains were characterized by suppressed diabetogenic activity. Immature autoreactive B cells in NOD mice have an impaired ability to be rendered anergic upon Ag engagement. Interestingly, both Idd5.1/5.2 and Idd9/11-resistance loci were found to normalize this B cell tolerogenic process, which may represent a mechanism contributing to the inhibition of T1D. PMID:17082619

Silveira, Pablo A; Chapman, Harold D; Stolp, Jessica; Johnson, Ellis; Cox, S Lewis; Hunter, Kara; Wicker, Linda S; Serreze, David V

2006-11-15

140

Pretransplant mobilization with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves B-cell reconstitution by lentiviral vector gene therapy in SCID-X1 mice.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a demonstrated effective treatment for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), but B-cell reconstitution and function has been deficient in many of the gene therapy treated patients. Cytoreductive preconditioning is known to improve HSC engraftment, but in general it is not considered for SCID-X1 since the poor health of most of these patients at diagnosis and the risk of toxicity preclude the conditioning used in standard bone marrow stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that mobilization of HSC by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) should create temporary space in bone marrow niches to improve engraftment and thereby B-cell reconstitution. In the present pilot study supplementing our earlier preclinical evaluation (Huston et al., 2011), Il2rg(-/-) mice pretreated with G-CSF were transplanted with wild-type lineage negative (Lin(-)) cells or Il2rg(-/-) Lin(-) cells transduced with therapeutic IL2RG lentiviral vectors. Mice were monitored for reconstitution of lymphocyte populations, level of donor cell chimerism, and antibody responses as compared to 2?Gy total body irradiation (TBI), previously found effective in promoting B-cell reconstitution. The results demonstrate that G-CSF promotes B-cell reconstitution similar to low-dose TBI and provides proof of principle for an alternative approach to improve efficacy of gene therapy in SCID patients without adverse effects associated with cytoreductive conditioning. PMID:25222508

Huston, Marshall W; Riegman, Adriaan R A; Yadak, Rana; van Helsdingen, Yvette; de Boer, Helen; van Til, Niek P; Wagemaker, Gerard

2014-10-01

141

Characterization of a new V gene replacement in the absence of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and its contribution to human B-cell receptor diversity  

PubMed Central

In B cells, B-cell receptor (BCR) immunoglobulin revision is a common route for modifying unwanted antibody specificities via a mechanism called VH replacement. This in vivo process, mostly affecting heavy-chain rearrangement, involves the replacement of all or part of a previously rearranged IGHV gene with another germline IGHV gene located upstream. Two different mechanisms of IGHV replacement have been reported: type 1, involving the recombination activating genes complex and requiring a framework region 3 internal recombination signal; and type 2, involving an unidentified mechanism different from that of type 1. In the case of light-chain loci, BCR immunoglobulin editing ensures that a second V-J rearrangement occurs. This helps to maintain tolerance, by generating a novel BCR with a new antigenic specificity. We report that human B cells can, surprisingly, undergo type 2 replacement associated with ? light-chain rearrangements. The de novo IGKV-IGKJ products result from the partial replacement of a previously rearranged IGKV gene by a new germline IGKV gene, in-frame and without deletion or addition of nucleotides. There are wrcy/rgyw motifs at the ‘IGKV donor–IGKV recipient chimera junction’ as described for type 2 IGHV replacement, but activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression was not detected. This unusual mechanism of homologous recombination seems to be a variant of gene conversion-like recombination, which does not require AID. The recombination phenomenon described here provides new insight into immunoglobulin locus recombination and BCR immunoglobulin repertoire diversity. PMID:24134819

Ouled-Haddou, Hakim; Ghamlouch, Hussein; Regnier, Aline; Trudel, Stephanie; Herent, Didier; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Marolleau, Jean Pierre; Gubler, Brigitte

2014-01-01

142

Gene expression profiles for the prediction of progression-free survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: results of a DASL assay.  

PubMed

We performed the whole genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection and ligation assay with 164 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples to develop robust prognostic gene expression profiles in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The prognostic gene expression profiles were developed and validated by a gradient lasso and leave-one-out cross-validation process. We identified a set of genes whose expression provided prognostic indicators from whole data set (PRKCDBP, CASP10, FAM3C, KCNK12, MAN1A2, PRND, RAB1A, TMEM39B, SLC6A6, MMP12, FEM1B, C3orh37, RBP1, HK1, LOC400464, KIAA0746, and SLC25A23). This gene expression profile-based risk model could classify patients into two cross-validated risk groups with a significant difference in 5-year progression-free survival rates (71.1 vs. 45.5 %) and with a hazard ratio for recurrence of 2.45 (95 % CI, 1.44-4.16, P?=?0.001). This model provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI), and discriminated high-risk group from patients belong to high/high-intermediate risk of IPI and activated B cell-like type. Thus, gene expression profiling from FFPE could provide additional prognostic information for diffuse large B cell lymphoma and our data underscore the need for development of risk-adapted treatment strategies based on gene expression profiles. PMID:23975159

Kim, Seok Jin; Sohn, Insuk; Do, In-Gu; Jung, Sin Ho; Ko, Young Hyeh; Yoo, Hae Yong; Paik, Soonmyung; Kim, Won Seog

2014-03-01

143

B cell Variable genes have evolved their codon usage to focus the targeted patterns of somatic mutation on the complementarity determining regions.  

PubMed

The exceptional ability of B cells to diversify through somatic mutation and improve affinity of the repertoire toward the antigens is the cornerstone of adaptive immunity. Somatic mutation is not evenly distributed and exhibits certain micro-sequence specificities. We show here that the combination of somatic mutation targeting and the codon usage in human B cell receptor (BCR) Variable (V) genes create expected patterns of mutation and post mutation changes that are focused on their complementarity determining regions (CDR). T cell V genes are also skewed in targeting mutations but to a lesser extent and are lacking the codon usage bias observed in BCRs. This suggests that the observed skew in T cell receptors is due to their amino acid usage, which is similar to that of BCRs. The mutation targeting and the codon bias allow B cell CDRs to diversify by specifically accumulating nonconservative changes. We counted the distribution of mutations to CDR in 4 different human datasets. In all four cases we found that the number of actual mutations in the CDR correlated significantly with the V gene mutation biases to the CDR predicted by our models. Finally, it appears that the mutation bias in V genes indeed relates to their long-term survival in actual human repertoires. We observed that resting repertoires of B cells overexpressed V genes that were especially biased toward focused mutation and change in the CDR. This bias in V gene usage was somewhat relaxed at the height of the immune response to a vaccine, presumably because of the need for a wider diversity in a primary response. However, older patients did not retain this flexibility and were biased toward using only highly skewed V genes at all stages of their response. PMID:25660968

Saini, Jasmine; Hershberg, Uri

2015-05-01

144

Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in Neurospora can disrupt genes and create novel open reading frames.  

PubMed

In Neurospora crassa, crosses between normal sequence strains and strains bearing some translocations can yield progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 breakpoint junction sequences of 12 Dp-generating translocations were determined. The breakpoints disrupted 13 genes (including predicted genes), and created 10 novel open reading frames. Insertion of sequences from LG III into LG I as translocation T(UK8-18) disrupts the eat-3 gene, which is the ortholog of the Podospora anserine gene ami1. Since ami1-homozygous Podospora crosses were reported to increase the frequency of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), we performed crosses homozygous for a deficiency in eat-3 to test for a corresponding increase in RIP frequency. However, our results suggested that, unlike in Podospora, the eat-3 gene might be essential for ascus development in Neurospora. Duplication-heterozygous crosses are generally barren in Neurospora; however, by using molecular probes developed in this study, we could identify Dp segregants from two different translocation-heterozygous crosses, and using these we found that the barren phenotype of at least some duplication-heterozygous crosses was incompletely penetrant. PMID:21289436

Singh, Parmit K; Iyer, Srividhya V; Sowjanya, T Naga; Raj, B Kranthi; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

2010-12-01

145

Expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 gene induced by CpG-DNA in human B cells  

SciTech Connect

Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contribution of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.

Han, Su Ho [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jeong-A [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae-Bong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Sun [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Younghee [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ihn-Geun [Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hallym University, Han-Gang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-719 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hallym University, Han-Gang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-719 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyung-Joo, E-mail: hjookwon@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Medical Science Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-11-20

146

Structure and expression of the mouse AhR nuclear translocator (mArnt) gene.  

PubMed

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) nuclear translocator (Arnt) gene has been isolated and characterized from a mouse genomic DNA library. The gene is about 60 kilobases long and split into 22 exons. An unusual exon/intron junctional sequence was found in the 11th intron of the gene that begins with GC at its 5'-end. The exon/intron arrangement of mArnt gene differs greatly from those of the other members of the same basic-helix-loop-helix/PAS family. The gene is TATA-less and has several transcription start sites. The promoter region of the mArnt gene is GC-rich and contains a number of putative regulatory DNA sequences such as two GC-boxes, a cAMP-responsive element, E-box, AP-1 site, and CAAT-box. Deletion experiments revealed that all these DNA elements made substantial contributions to a high level of expression of the gene, except for the cAMP-responsive element. Of all, two GC-boxes displayed the most dominant enhancing effects. It was demonstrated that there exist specific factors binding to these DNA elements in the nuclear extracts of HeLa cells. Among them, Sp1 and Sp3, and CAAT-box binding factor-A were identified to bind the GC-boxes and CAAT-box, respectively. Expression of MyoD in HeLa cells stimulated the Arnt promoter activity by binding to the E-box. PMID:9733792

Wang, F; Gao, J X; Mimura, J; Kobayashi, A; Sogawa, K; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y

1998-09-18

147

Potential tumor suppressive function of miR-196b in B-cell lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Keeping in view the fact that genes coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be localized in chromosomal regions susceptible to genetic translocations, this study was addressed to identify and characterize the miRNAs that are present near/within the regions involved in genetic translocations characteristic of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-cell ALL). Out of six such identified miRNAs miR-196b was not only found to be significantly down-regulated in both EB-3 cell line as well as B-cell ALL patients as compared to that found in the corresponding controls, but also had the inherent capacity to down-regulate the highly expressed c-myc gene, a consequence of genetic translocation characteristic of EB-3 cells at both transcriptional and translational level. This phenomenon was in conformity with the observed reciprocal relationship between the expressed genes coding for miR-196b and c-myc in B-cells derived from ALL patients as well as c-myc gene was found to be a putative target of miR-196b as predicted by bioinformatic algorithms. Also down-regulation of c-myc gene was accompanied by decreased expressions of c-myc effector genes coding for hTERT, Bcl-2, and AATF. Based upon these results, we propose for the first time that miR-196b has the inherent capacity to down-regulate the overamplified c-myc gene recognized as a common pathognomonic feature leading to cancer in general and B-cell ALL in particular. Hence miR-196b can be assigned with the tumor suppressor function and can be of therapeutic importance in paving the way toward the treatment of B-cell ALL. PMID:20549547

Bhatia, Suman; Kaul, Deepak; Varma, Neelam

2010-07-01

148

The Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) gene in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic diseases.  

PubMed

Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) inactivation through loss-of-function mutation, deletion and IDH1/2 (Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2) gene mutation is a common event in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. TET2 gene mutations similar to those observed in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies also accumulate with age in otherwise healthy subjects with clonal hematopoiesis. TET2 is one of the three proteins of the TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) family, which are evolutionarily conserved dioxygenases that catalyze the conversion of 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC) and promote DNA demethylation. TET dioxygenases require 2-oxoglutarate, oxygen and Fe(II) for their activity, which is enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid. TET2 is the most expressed TET gene in the hematopoietic tissue, especially in hematopoietic stem cells. In addition to their hydroxylase activity, TET proteins recruit the O-linked ?-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) enzyme to chromatin, which promotes post-transcriptional modifications of histones and facilitates gene expression. The TET2 level is regulated by interaction with IDAX, originating from TET2 gene fission during evolution, and by the microRNA miR-22. TET2 has pleiotropic roles during hematopoiesis, including stem-cell self-renewal, lineage commitment and terminal differentiation of monocytes. Analysis of Tet2 knockout mice, which are viable and fertile, demonstrated that Tet2 functions as a tumor suppressor whose haploinsufficiency initiates myeloid and lymphoid transformations. This review summarizes the recently identified TET2 physiological and pathological functions and discusses how this knowledge influences our therapeutic approaches in hematological malignancies and possibly other tumor types. PMID:24220273

Solary, E; Bernard, O A; Tefferi, A; Fuks, F; Vainchenker, W

2014-03-01

149

The Capsid Gene of Feline Calicivirus Contains Linear B-Cell Epitopes in both Variable and Conserved Regions  

PubMed Central

In order to map linear B-cell (LBC) epitopes in the major capsid protein of feline calicivirus (FCV), an expression library containing random, short (100- to 200-bp) fragments of the FCV F9 capsid gene was constructed. Analysis of this library showed it to be representative of the region of the capsid gene that encodes the mature capsid protein. The library was screened by using polyclonal antisera from a cat that had been challenged experimentally with F9 to identify immunoreactive clones containing LBC epitopes. Twenty-six clones that reacted positively to feline antisera in immunoblots were identified. FCV-derived sequence from these clones mapped to a region of the capsid that spanned 126 amino acids and included variable regions C and E. An overlapping set of biotinylated peptides corresponding to this region was used to further map LBC epitopes by using F9 antisera. Four principal regions of reactivity were identified. Two fell within the hypervariable region at the 5? end of region E (amino acids [aa] 445 to 451 [antigenic site {ags} 2] and aa 451 to 457 [ags 3]). However, the other two were in conserved regions (aa 415 to 421 [ags 1; region D] and aa 475 to 479 [ags 4; central region E]). The reactivity of the peptide set with antisera from 11 other cats infected with a range of FCV isolates was also determined. Ten of 11 antisera reacted to conserved ags 4, suggesting that this region may be useful for future recombinant vaccine design. PMID:10482602

Radford, Alan D.; Willoughby, Kim; Dawson, Susan; McCracken, Christina; Gaskell, Rosalind M.

1999-01-01

150

Rgs13 Constrains Early B Cell Responses and Limits Germinal Center Sizes  

PubMed Central

Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein ? subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP+ cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells. PMID:23533672

Hwang, Il-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Park, Chung; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Kehrl, John H.

2013-01-01

151

High Basal Expression of Interferon-Stimulated Genes in Human Bronchial Epithelial (BEAS-2B) Cells Contributes to Influenza A Virus Resistance  

PubMed Central

Respiratory epithelial cells play a key role in influenza A virus (IAV) pathogenesis and host innate response. Transformed human respiratory cell lines are widely used in the study of IAV?host interactions due to their relative convenience, and inherent difficulties in working with primary cells. Transformed cells, however, may have altered susceptibility to virus infection. Proper characterization of different respiratory cell types in their responses to IAV infection is therefore needed to ensure that the cell line chosen will provide results that are of relevance in vivo. We compared replication kinetics of human H1N1 (A/USSR/77) IAVs in normal primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and two commonly used respiratory epithelial cell lines namely BEAS-2B and A549 cells. We found that IAV replication was distinctly poor in BEAS-2B cells in comparison with NHBE, A549 and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. IAV resistance in BEAS-2B cells was accompanied by an activated antiviral state with high basal expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), stimulator of IFN genes (STING) and IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with a pan-Janus-activated-kinase (JAK) inhibitor decreased IRF-7 and ISG expression and resulted in increased IAV replication. Therefore, the use of highly resistant BEAS-2B cells in IAV infection may not reflect the cytopathogenicity of IAV in human epithelial cells in vivo. PMID:25313647

Seng, Lai-Giea; Daly, Janet; Chang, Kin-Chow; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.

2014-01-01

152

Gene delivery in malignant B cells using the combination of lentiviruses conjugated to anti-transferrin receptor antibodies and an immunoglobulin promoter  

PubMed Central

Background We previously developed an antibody-avidin fusion protein (ch128.1Av) specific for the human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1; CD71) to be used as a delivery vector for cancer therapy and showed that ch128.1Av delivers the biotinylated plant toxin saporin-6 into malignant B cells. However, due to widespread expression of TfR1, delivery of the toxin to normal cells is a concern. Therefore, we explored the potential of dual targeted lentiviral-mediated gene therapy approaches to restrict gene expression to malignant B cells. Targeting occurs through the use of ch128.1Av or its parental antibody without avidin (ch128.1) and through transcriptional regulation using an immunoglobulin promoter. Methods Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a panel of cell lines. Cell viability after specific delivery of the therapeutic gene FCU1, a chimeric enzyme consisting of cytosine deaminase genetically fused to uracil phosphoribosyltransferse that converts the 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) prodrug into toxic metabolites, was monitored by an MTS assay. Results We found that EGFP was specifically expressed in a panel of human malignant B cells, but not in human T cell lines. EGFP expression was observed in all cell lines when a ubiquitous promoter was used. Furthermore, we show the decrease of cell viability in malignant plasma cells in the presence of 5-FC. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that gene expression can be restricted to malignant B cells and suggest that this dual targeted gene therapy strategy may help to circumvent the potential side effects of certain TfR1-targeted protein delivery approaches. PMID:24436117

Leoh, Lai Sum; Morizono, Kouki; Kershaw, Kathleen M.; Chen, Irvin S. Y.; Penichet, Manuel L.; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R.

2014-01-01

153

A B cell-deficient mouse by targeted disruption of the membrane exon of the immunoglobulin mu chain gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

OF the various classes of antibodies that B lymphocytes can produce, class M (IgM) is the first to be expressed on the membrane of the developing cells. Pre-B cells, the precursors of B-lymphocytes, produce the heavy chain of IgM (mu chain), but not light chains1. Recent data suggest that pre-B cells express mu chains on the membrane together with the

Daisuke Kitamura; Jürgen Roes; Ralf Kühn; Klaus Rajewsky

1991-01-01

154

Specific depletion of the B-cell population induced by aberrant expression of human interferon regulatory factor 1 gene in transgenic mice.  

PubMed Central

Interferons (IFNs) are well known both as antiviral proteins and as potent regulators of cell growth and differentiation. In fact, IFNs inhibit growth of various normal and transformed cell types. Previously, a nuclear factor, IRF-1 (interferon regulatory factor 1), which binds to type I IFN and some IFN-inducible gene promoters, was identified and cloned. Since the IRF-1 gene is both virus and IFN inducible, an intriguing issue is raised as to whether the IRF-1 gene is functioning in IFN-mediated regulation of cell growth and differentiation. In this study, we generated transgenic mice carrying the human IRF-1 gene linked to the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer. In the transgenic mice, all the lymphoid tissues examined showed a dramatic reduction in the number of B lymphocytes (B cells). Preparation and analysis of bone marrow cells from the chimeric mice indicated that the bone marrow is the effective site for specific depletion of the B-cell population. In fact, transgenic bone marrow cells cocultured with a bone marrow-derived stromal cell line revealed an altered B-cell maturation pattern. Images PMID:1988951

Yamada, G; Ogawa, M; Akagi, K; Miyamoto, H; Nakano, N; Itoh, S; Miyazaki, J; Nishikawa, S; Yamamura, K; Taniguchi, T

1991-01-01

155

Noncoding RNA transcription targets AID to divergently transcribed loci in B cells  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of the mammalian genome has the potential to expressnoncoding RNA (ncRNA). The 11-subunit RNA exosome complex is the main source of cellular 3?–5? exoribonucleolytic activity and potentially regulates the mammalian noncoding transcriptome1. Here we generated a mouse model in which the essential subunit Exosc3 of the RNA exosome complex can be conditionally deleted. Exosc3-deficient B cells lack the ability to undergo normal levels of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, two mutagenic DNA processes used to generate antibody diversity via the B-cell mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)2,3. The transcriptome of Exosc3-deficient B cells has revealed the presence of many novel RNA exosome substrate ncRNAs. RNA exosome substrate RNAs include xTSS-RNAs, transcription start site (TSS)-associated antisense transcripts that can exceed 500 base pairs in length and are transcribed divergently from cognate coding gene transcripts. xTSS-RNAs are most strongly expressed at genes that accumulate AID-mediated somatic mutations and/or are frequent translocation partners of DNA double-strand breaks generated at Igh in B cells4,5. Strikingly, translocations near TSSs or within gene bodies occur over regions of RNA exosome substrate ncRNA expression. These RNA exosome-regulated, antisense-transcribed regions of the B-cell genome recruit AID and accumulate single-strand DNA structures containing RNA–DNA hybrids. We propose that RNA exosome regulation of ncRNA recruits AID to single-strand DNA-forming sites of antisense and divergent transcription in the B-cell genome, thereby creating a link between ncRNA transcription and overall maintenance of B-cell genomic integrity. PMID:25119026

Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Chao, Jaime; Rabadan, Raul; Economides, Aris N.; Basu, Uttiya

2015-01-01

156

Induction of interferon-stimulated genes on the IL-4 response axis by Epstein-Barr virus infected human b cells; relevance to cellular transformation.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that is associated with the pathogenesis of several human lymphoid malignancies, including Hodgkin's lymphoma. Infection of normal resting B cells with EBV results in activation to lymphoblasts that are phenotypically similar to those generated by physiological stimulation with CD40L plus IL-4. One important difference is that infection leads to the establishment of permanently growing lymphoblastoid cell lines, whereas CD40L/IL-4 blasts have finite proliferation lifespans. To identify early events which might later determine why EBV infected blasts go on to establish transformed cell lines, we performed global transcriptome analyses on resting B cells and on EBV and CD40L/IL-4 blasts after 7 days culture. As anticipated there was considerable overlap in the transcriptomes of the two types of lymphoblasts when compared to the original resting B cells, reflecting common changes associated with lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Of interest to us was a subset of 255 genes that were differentially expressed between EBV and CD40L/IL-4 blasts. Genes which were more highly expressed in EBV blasts were substantially and significantly enriched for a set of interferon-stimulated genes which on further in silico analyses were found to be repressed by IL-4 in other cell contexts and to be up-regulated in micro-dissected malignant cells from Hodgkin's lymphoma biopsies when compared to their normal germinal center cell counterparts. We hypothesized that EBV and IL-4 were targeting and discordantly regulating a common set of genes. This was supported experimentally in our B cell model where IL-4 stimulation partially reversed transcriptional changes which follow EBV infection and it impaired the efficiency of EBV-induced B cell transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that the discordant regulation of interferon and IL-4 pathway genes by EBV that occurs early following infection of B cells has relevance to the development or maintenance of an EBV-associated malignancy. PMID:23724103

Smith, Nikki; Tierney, Rosemary; Wei, Wenbin; Vockerodt, Martina; Murray, Paul G; Woodman, Ciaran B; Rowe, Martin

2013-01-01

157

Induction of Interferon-Stimulated Genes on the IL-4 Response Axis by Epstein-Barr Virus Infected Human B Cells; Relevance to Cellular Transformation  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that is associated with the pathogenesis of several human lymphoid malignancies, including Hodgkin's lymphoma. Infection of normal resting B cells with EBV results in activation to lymphoblasts that are phenotypically similar to those generated by physiological stimulation with CD40L plus IL-4. One important difference is that infection leads to the establishment of permanently growing lymphoblastoid cell lines, whereas CD40L/IL-4 blasts have finite proliferation lifespans. To identify early events which might later determine why EBV infected blasts go on to establish transformed cell lines, we performed global transcriptome analyses on resting B cells and on EBV and CD40L/IL-4 blasts after 7 days culture. As anticipated there was considerable overlap in the transcriptomes of the two types of lymphoblasts when compared to the original resting B cells, reflecting common changes associated with lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Of interest to us was a subset of 255 genes that were differentially expressed between EBV and CD40L/IL-4 blasts. Genes which were more highly expressed in EBV blasts were substantially and significantly enriched for a set of interferon-stimulated genes which on further in silico analyses were found to be repressed by IL-4 in other cell contexts and to be up-regulated in micro-dissected malignant cells from Hodgkin's lymphoma biopsies when compared to their normal germinal center cell counterparts. We hypothesized that EBV and IL-4 were targeting and discordantly regulating a common set of genes. This was supported experimentally in our B cell model where IL-4 stimulation partially reversed transcriptional changes which follow EBV infection and it impaired the efficiency of EBV-induced B cell transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that the discordant regulation of interferon and IL-4 pathway genes by EBV that occurs early following infection of B cells has relevance to the development or maintenance of an EBV-associated malignancy. PMID:23724103

Wei, Wenbin; Vockerodt, Martina; Murray, Paul G.; Woodman, Ciaran B.; Rowe, Martin

2013-01-01

158

A Microarray Platform-Independent Classification Tool for Cell of Origin Class Allows Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Cell of origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) identifies subsets with biological and clinical significance. Despite the established nature of the classification existing studies display variability in classifier implementation, and a comparative analysis across multiple data sets is lacking. Here we describe the validation of a cell of origin classifier for DLBCL, based on balanced voting between 4 machine-learning tools: the DLBCL automatic classifier (DAC). This shows superior survival separation for assigned Activated B-cell (ABC) and Germinal Center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL classes relative to a range of other classifiers. DAC is effective on data derived from multiple microarray platforms and formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and is parsimonious, using 20 classifier genes. We use DAC to perform a comparative analysis of gene expression in 10 data sets (2030 cases). We generate ranked meta-profiles of genes showing consistent class-association using ?6 data sets as a cut-off: ABC (414 genes) and GCB (415 genes). The transcription factor ZBTB32 emerges as the most consistent and differentially expressed gene in ABC-DLBCL while other transcription factors such as ARID3A, BATF, and TCF4 are also amongst the 24 genes associated with this class in all datasets. Analysis of enrichment of 12323 gene signatures against meta-profiles and all data sets individually confirms consistent associations with signatures of molecular pathways, chromosomal cytobands, and transcription factor binding sites. We provide DAC as an open access Windows application, and the accompanying meta-analyses as a resource. PMID:23424639

Care, Matthew A.; Barrans, Sharon; Worrillow, Lisa; Jack, Andrew; Westhead, David R.; Tooze, Reuben M.

2013-01-01

159

Characterization and functional studies of forkhead box protein 3(-) lymphocyte activation gene 3(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells induced by mucosal B cells.  

PubMed

The induction of mucosal tolerance has been demonstrated to be an effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of allergic diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that Peyer's patch B cells could convert naive T cells into regulatory T cells (so-called Treg -of-B(P) cells); however, it is important to characterize this particular subset of Treg -of-B cells for future applications. This study aimed to investigate the role of lymphocyte activating gene 3 (LAG3) in mediating the regulatory function of Treg -of-B(P) cells induced by mucosal follicular B (FOB) cells. Microarray analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to assess the gene expression pattern of Treg -of-B(P) cells. To evaluate the role of LAG3, the in-vitro suppressive function and the alleviation of airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma was assessed. Our data indicated that FOB cells isolated from Peyer's patches had the ability to generate more suppressive Treg -of-B cells with LAG3 expression, compared with CD23(lo) CD21(lo) B cells. LAG3 is not only a marker for Treg -of-B(P) cells, but also participate in the suppressive ability. Moreover, CCR4 and CCR6 could be detected on the LAG3(+) , not LAG3(-) , Treg -of-B(P) cells and would help cells homing to allergic lung. In the murine model of asthma, the adoptive transfer of LAG3(+) Treg -of-B(P) cells was able to sufficiently suppress T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine production, eosinophil infiltration and alleviate asthmatic symptoms. LAG3 was expressed in Treg -of-B(P) cells and was also involved in the function of Treg -of-B(P) cells. In the future, this particular subset of Treg -of-B cells might be used to alleviate allergic symptoms. PMID:25581421

Chu, K-H; Chiang, B-L

2015-05-01

160

A Diverse Repertoire of Human Immunoglobulin Variable Genes in a Chicken B Cell Line is Generated by Both Gene Conversion and Somatic Hypermutation  

PubMed Central

Chicken immune responses to human proteins are often more robust than rodent responses because of the phylogenetic relationship between the different species. For discovery of a diverse panel of unique therapeutic antibody candidates, chickens therefore represent an attractive host for human-derived targets. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology, specifically new methods for the molecular cloning of antibody genes directly from primary B cells, has ushered in a new era of generating monoclonal antibodies from non-traditional host animals that were previously inaccessible through hybridoma technology. However, such monoclonals still require post-discovery humanization in order to be developed as therapeutics. To obviate the need for humanization, a modified strain of chickens could be engineered to express a human-sequence immunoglobulin variable region repertoire. Here, human variable genes introduced into the chicken immunoglobulin loci through gene targeting were evaluated for their ability to be recognized and diversified by the native chicken recombination machinery that is present in the B-lineage cell line DT40. After expansion in culture the DT40 population accumulated genetic mutants that were detected via deep sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the human targeted constructs are performing as expected in the cell culture system, and provide a measure of confidence that they will be functional in transgenic animals. PMID:25852694

Leighton, Philip A.; Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Glanville, Jacob; Harriman, William

2015-01-01

161

Morphologic and functional effects of gamma secretase inhibition on splenic marginal zone B cells.  

PubMed

The ?-secretase complex is a promising target in Alzheimer's disease because of its role in the amyloidogenic processing of ?-amyloid precursor protein. This enzyme also catalyzes the cleavage of Notch receptor, resulting in the nuclear translocation of intracellular Notch where it modulates gene transcription. Notch signaling is essential in cell fate decisions during embryogenesis, neuronal differentiation, hematopoiesis, and development of T and B cells, including splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This B cell compartment participates in the early phases of the immune response to blood-borne bacteria and viruses. Chronic treatment with the oral ?-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 resulted in dose-dependent decreased cellularity (atrophy) of the MZ of rats and mice. Significant decreases in relative MZ B-cell numbers of RO4929097-treated animals were confirmed by flow cytometry. Numbers of MZ B cells reverted to normal after a sufficient RO4929097-free recovery period. Functional characterization of the immune response in relation to RO4929097-related MZ B cell decrease was assessed in mice vaccinated with inactivated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Compared with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, RO4929097 caused only mild and reversible delayed early neutralizing IgM and IgG responses to VSV. Thus, the functional consequence of MZ B cell decrease on host defense is comparatively mild. PMID:23316412

de Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Regenass-Lechner, Franziska; Ozmen, Laurence; Altmann, Bernd; Festag, Matthias; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz; Jacobsen, Helmut; Flohr, Alexander

2012-01-01

162

Morphologic and Functional Effects of Gamma Secretase Inhibition on Splenic Marginal Zone B Cells  

PubMed Central

The ?-secretase complex is a promising target in Alzheimer's disease because of its role in the amyloidogenic processing of ?-amyloid precursor protein. This enzyme also catalyzes the cleavage of Notch receptor, resulting in the nuclear translocation of intracellular Notch where it modulates gene transcription. Notch signaling is essential in cell fate decisions during embryogenesis, neuronal differentiation, hematopoiesis, and development of T and B cells, including splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells. This B cell compartment participates in the early phases of the immune response to blood-borne bacteria and viruses. Chronic treatment with the oral ?-secretase inhibitor RO4929097 resulted in dose-dependent decreased cellularity (atrophy) of the MZ of rats and mice. Significant decreases in relative MZ B-cell numbers of RO4929097-treated animals were confirmed by flow cytometry. Numbers of MZ B cells reverted to normal after a sufficient RO4929097-free recovery period. Functional characterization of the immune response in relation to RO4929097-related MZ B cell decrease was assessed in mice vaccinated with inactivated vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Compared with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, RO4929097 caused only mild and reversible delayed early neutralizing IgM and IgG responses to VSV. Thus, the functional consequence of MZ B cell decrease on host defense is comparatively mild. PMID:23316412

de Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Regenass-Lechner, Franziska; Ozmen, Laurence; Altmann, Bernd; Festag, Matthias; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz; Jacobsen, Helmut; Flohr, Alexander

2012-01-01

163

Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription.  

PubMed

A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target genes. PMID:18559276

Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M; Hébert, Sébastien S; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U

2008-08-01

164

Dual Targeting and Retrograde Translocation: Regulators of Plant Nuclear Gene Expression Can Be Sequestered by Plastids  

PubMed Central

Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed. PMID:23109840

Krause, Kirsten; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin

2012-01-01

165

Effect of wheat NAM genes on remobilization of Fe and Zn and translocation of minerals to grain during grain fill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We are interested in understanding mineral translocation to seeds to improve their nutritional value. We compared a transgenic wheat (NAM RNAi knock-down) that exhibits low grain Fe and Zn concentrations with its isogenic control to quantify the effects of NAM genes on mineral remobilization from v...

166

Disruption of genes in the retinoid cascade may explain the microscopic neuroblastoma in a fetus with de novo unbalanced translocation  

SciTech Connect

The microscopic neuroblastoma in a fetus with de novo unbalanced translocation (3;10)(q21;q26) may be explained as the disruption of genes in the retinoid cascade, rather than simply a two-hit hypothesis for the development of tumor cells. 5 refs.

Goodman, A.B. [Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, Orangeburg, NY (United States)

1995-03-13

167

A Williams syndrome patient with a familial t(6;7) translocation and deletion of the elastin gene  

SciTech Connect

Discovery of a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation [46,XX,t(6;7)(q11.2;q11.23)] on routine amniocentesis prompted clinical and cytogenetic study of additional family members. The same t(6;7) translocation was found in the clincally normal father and in a sibling with Williams syndrome (WS). WS had been diagnosed previously according to clinical criteria including distinctive facial features, supravalvar aortic stenosis requiring surgical repair, dental abnormalties and developmental delay. A clinically normal female was delivered and the translocation was confirmed with a cord blood specimen. Hemizygosity for the gene, elastin, (which has been mapped to the chromosome 7 translocation breakpoint, 7q11.23, in this family) appears to be a cause of WS. We therefore investigated whether the t(6;7) in the phenotypically normal father represented more than a simple reciprocal translocation. FISH using a chromosome 7 specific library revealed no differences between the cytogenetically identical, yet phenotypically distinct, father and son. Hybridization with a cosmid MR127D4 containing elastin sequence showed that the WS patient was missing one allele from the derivative chromosome 7 whereas both his mother and father had two copies of the elastin gene. This family indicates that the de novo loss of one copy of the elastin gene produces the recognizable phenotype of Williams syndrome. Molecular characterization (with additional probes) of the extent of this de novo deletion near the translocation breakpoint is in progress. This information will be valuable for defining the WS-critical region and will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis for WS.

Pober, B.R.; Gibson, L.H.; Yang-Feng, T.L. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

168

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma outcome prediction by gene-expression profiling and supervised machine learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoid malignancy in adults, is curable in less than 50% of patients. Prognostic models based on pre-treatment characteristics, such as the International Prognostic Index (IPI), are currently used to predict outcome in DLBCL. However, clinical outcome models identify neither the molecular basis of clinical heterogeneity, nor specific therapeutic targets. We analyzed the

Ken N. Ross; Pablo Tamayo; Andrew P. Weng; Jeffery L. Kutok; Ricardo C. T. Aguiar; Michelle Gaasenbeek; Michael Angelo; Michael Reich; Geraldine S. Pinkus; Tane S. Ray; Margaret A. Koval; Kim W. Last; Andrew Norton; T. Andrew Lister; Jill Mesirov; Donna S. Neuberg; Eric S. Lander; Jon C. Aster; Margaret A. Shipp; Todd R. Golub

2002-01-01

169

A Large Gene Network in Immature Erythroid Cells Is Controlled by the Myeloid and B Cell Transcriptional Regulator PU.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

PU.1 is a hematopoietic transcription factor that is required for the development of myeloid and B cells. PU.1 is also expressed in erythroid progenitors, where it blocks erythroid differentiation by binding to and inhibiting the main erythroid promoting factor, GATA-1. However, other mechanisms by which PU.1 affects the fate of erythroid progenitors have not been thoroughly explored. Here, we used

Sandeep N. Wontakal; Xingyi Guo; Britta Will; Minyi Shi; Debasish Raha; Milind C. Mahajan; Sherman Weissman; Michael Snyder; Ulrich Steidl; Deyou Zheng; Arthur I. Skoultchi

2011-01-01

170

IL-21 imposes a type II EBV gene expression on type III and type I B cells by the repression of C- and activation of LMP-1-promoter  

PubMed Central

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a variety of human tumors. Although the EBV-infected normal B cells in vitro and the EBV-carrying B cell lymphomas in immunodeficient patients express the full set of latent proteins (type III latency), the majority of EBV-associated malignancies express the restricted type I (EBNA-1 only) or type II (EBNA-1 and LMPs) viral program. The mechanisms responsible for these different latent viral gene expression patterns are only partially known. IL-21 is a potent B cell activator and plasma cell differentiation-inducer cytokine produced by CD4+ T cells. We studied its effect on EBV-carrying B cells. In type I Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell lines and in the conditional lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) ER/EB2-5, IL-21 potently activated STAT3 and induced the expression of LMP-1, but not EBNA-2. The IL-21-treated type I Jijoye M13 BL line ceased to proliferate, and this was paralleled by the induction of IRF4 and the down-regulation of BCL6 expression. In the type III LCLs and BL lines, IL-21 repressed the C-promoter-derived and LMP-2A mRNAs, whereas it up-regulated the expression of LMP-1 mRNAs. The IL-21-treated type III cells underwent plasma cell differentiation with the induction of Blimp-1, and high levels of Ig and Oct-2. IL-21 might be involved in the EBNA-2-independent expression of LMP-1 in EBV-carrying type II cells. In light of the fact that IL-21 is already in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple malignancies, the in vivo modulation of EBV gene expression by IL-21 might have therapeutic benefits for the EBV-carrying malignancies. PMID:20080768

Kis, Loránd L.; Salamon, Daniel; Persson, Emma K.; Nagy, Noémi; Scheeren, Ferenc A.; Spits, Hergen; Klein, George; Klein, Eva

2009-01-01

171

A novel gene, MALT1 at 18q21, is involved in t(11;18) (q21;q21) found in low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The t(11;18) (q21;q21) translocation is a characteristic chromosomal aberration in low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type. We previously identified a YAC clone y789F3, which includes the breakpoint at 18q21 in a MALT lymphoma patient. BAC and PAC contigs were constructed on the YAC, and BAC 193f9 was found to encompass the breakpoint region. In the present study,

Tomoaki Akagi; Mutsuhito Motegi; Akiko Tamura; Ritsuro Suzuki; Yoshitaka Hosokawa; Hiroko Suzuki; Hiroyoshi Ota; Shigeo Nakamura; Yasuo Morishima; Masafumi Taniwaki; Masao Seto; M Seto

1999-01-01

172

Gene for Human Insulin Receptor: Localization to Site on Chromosome 19 Involved in Pre-B-Cell Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent chromosomal translocations in neoplastic cells may alter the expression of proto-oncogenes that are located near the breakpoints. The complementary DNA sequence of the human insulin receptor is similar to those of the EGF receptor (erbB oncogene) and products of the src family of oncogenes. With in situ hybridization and Southern blot analysis of somatic cell hybrid DNA, the human

Teresa L. Yang-Feng; Uta Francke; Axel Ullrich

1985-01-01

173

Tet2 facilitates the de-repression of myeloid target genes during C/EBPa induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet2 has been implicated in hematopoietic differentiation and the formation of myeloid malignancies when mutated. An ideal system to study the role of Tet2 in myelopoeisis is C/EBPa induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells into macrophages. Here we found that C/EBPa binds to upstream regions of Tet2 and that the gene becomes activated. Tet2 knockdowns impaired the upregulation of macrophage markers as well as phagocytic capacity, suggesting that the enzyme is required for both early and late stage myeloid differentiation. A slightly weaker effect was seen in primary cells with a Tet2 ablation. Expression arrays of transdifferentiating cells with Tet2 knockdowns permitted the identification of a small subset of myeloid genes whose upregulation was blunted. Activation of these target genes was accompanied by rapid increases of promoter hydroxy-methylation. Our observations indicate that Tet2 helps C/EBPa rapidly de-repress myeloid genes during the conversion of pre-B cells into macrophages. PMID:22981865

Kallin, Eric M.; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Christensen, J esper; Cimmino, Luisa; Aifantis, Iannis; Helin, Kristian; Ballestar, Esteban; Graf, Thomas

2013-01-01

174

Comparative gene expression profiling identifies common molecular signatures of NF-?B activation in canine and human diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL).  

PubMed

We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-?B target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-?B/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-?B-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-?B activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-?B activity and the effects of NF-?B inhibition. PMID:24023754

Mudaliar, Manikhandan A V; Haggart, Ross D; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A L; Goodlad, John R; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M; Kurzman, Ilene; Crowther, Daniel; Argyle, David J

2013-01-01

175

Comparative Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Common Molecular Signatures of NF-?B Activation in Canine and Human Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)  

PubMed Central

We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-?B target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-?B/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-?B-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-?B activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-?B activity and the effects of NF-?B inhibition. PMID:24023754

Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, Ross D.; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A. L.; Goodlad, John R.; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M.; Kurzman, Ilene

2013-01-01

176

Subcongenic analyses reveal complex interactions between distal Chromosome 4 genes controlling diabetogenic B cells and CD4 T cells in NOD mice.1  

PubMed Central

Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ~88% of their genome with NOD, including the H2g7 MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related NOR strain fails to develop T1D due to resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to Chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2 and 4. We previously produced an NOD background strain developing a greatly decreased T1D incidence due to a NOR-derived 44.31 Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease resistance alleles decreasing the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region were utilized to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two NOR origin T1D resistance genes within this region. A 6.22Mb region between rs13477999 and D4Mit32, not previously known to contain a locus affecting T1D susceptibility and now designated Idd25, was found to contain the main NOR gene(s) dampening diabetogenic B cell activity, with Ephb2 and/or Padi2 being strong candidates as the causal variants. Penetrance of this Idd25 effect was influenced by genes in surrounding regions controlling B cell responsiveness and anergy induction. Conversely, the gene(s) controlling pathogenic CD4 T cell activity was mapped to a more proximal 24.26Mb region between the rs3674285 and D4Mit203 markers. PMID:22732593

Stolp, Jessica; Chen, Yi-Guang; Cox, Selwyn L.; Henck, Vivien; Zhang, Wenyu; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Chapman, Harold; Stearns, Timothy; Serreze, David V.; Silveira, Pablo A.

2012-01-01

177

Nuclear translocation uncovers the amyloid peptide A?42 as a regulator of gene transcription.  

PubMed

Although soluble species of the amyloid-? peptide A?42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-? (A?). Here, we show that A? peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear A?42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled A? in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of A? in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for A?42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that A?42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic A?42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (A?38 or A?40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic A?42 G33A substitution or A?43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of A?42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of A?42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes. PMID:24878959

Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

2014-07-18

178

The SWI/SNF protein ATRX co-regulates pseudoautosomal genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse genome  

PubMed Central

Background Pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2) in eutherians retain homologous regions between the X and Y chromosomes that play a critical role in the obligatory X-Y crossover during male meiosis. Genes that reside in the PAR1 are exceptional in that they are rich in repetitive sequences and undergo a very high rate of recombination. Remarkably, murine PAR1 homologs have translocated to various autosomes, reflecting the complex recombination history during the evolution of the mammalian X chromosome. Results We now report that the SNF2-type chromatin remodeling protein ATRX controls the expression of eutherian ancestral PAR1 genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse. In addition, we have identified two potentially novel mouse PAR1 orthologs. Conclusion We propose that the ancestral PAR1 genes share a common epigenetic environment that allows ATRX to control their expression. PMID:18842153

Levy, Michael A; Fernandes, Andrew D; Tremblay, Deanna C; Seah, Claudia; Bérubé, Nathalie G

2008-01-01

179

Polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress glycolytic and lipogenic genes through the inhibition of ChREBP nuclear protein translocation  

PubMed Central

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potent inhibitors of hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis. Recently, carbohydrate-responsive element–binding protein (ChREBP) was implicated in the regulation by glucose of glycolytic and lipogenic genes, including those encoding L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The aim of our study was to assess the role of ChREBP in the control of L-PK and FAS gene expression by PUFAs. We demonstrated in mice, both in vivo and in vitro, that PUFAs [linoleate (C18:2), eicosapentanoic acid (C20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6)] suppressed ChREBP activity by increasing ChREBP mRNA decay and by altering ChREBP translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus, independently of an activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase, previously shown to regulate ChREBP activity. In contrast, saturated [stearate (C18)] and monounsaturated fatty acids [oleate (C18:1)] had no effect. Since glucose metabolism via the pentose phosphate pathway is determinant for ChREBP nuclear translocation, the decrease in xylulose 5-phosphate concentrations caused by a PUFA diet favors a PUFA-mediated inhibition of ChREBP translocation. In addition, overexpression of a constitutive nuclear ChREBP isoform in cultured hepatocytes significantly reduced the PUFA inhibition of both L-PK and FAS gene expression. Our results demonstrate that the suppressive effect of PUFAs on these genes is primarily caused by an alteration of ChREBP nuclear translocation. In conclusion, we describe a novel mechanism to explain the inhibitory effect of PUFAs on the genes encoding L-PK and FAS and demonstrate that ChREBP is a pivotal transcription factor responsible for coordinating the PUFA suppression of glycolytic and lipogenic genes. PMID:16184193

Dentin, Renaud; Benhamed, Fadila; Pégorier, Jean-Paul; Foufelle, Fabienne; Viollet, Benoit; Vaulont, Sophie; Girard, Jean; Postic, Catherine

2005-01-01

180

beta2-Agonist modulates epithelial gene expression involved in the T- and B-cell chemotaxis and induces airway sensitization in human isolated bronchi.  

PubMed

Regular use of beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists may enhance non-specific airway responsiveness and inflammation. In earlier experimental studies, we showed that prolonged in vitro fenoterol exposure induced airway sensitization via perturbed epithelial regulation of bronchoconstriction. The aim of the present work was to examine the involvement of inflammatory mediator genes and proinflammatory cells and to investigate the role of the bronchial epithelium in these untoward effects. Bronchial tissues were surgically removed from 17 ex-smokers. Bronchial rings and primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells were incubated with 0.1microM fenoterol for 15h. Levels of mRNA-expression were analyzed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction array. Bronchial rings were contracted with endothelin-1 and immune cell infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Compared to paired controls, fenoterol up-regulated the mRNAs of cytokines/proteins implicated in the recruitment of T and B cells or the activation and proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells (CCL20/MIP-3alpha, FOXA2, PPAR-gamma) in isolated bronchi and in cultured epithelial cells. Fenoterol exposure significantly enhanced CD8(+)-T and differentiated CD138(+)-B-cells infiltration into the bronchi, especially the subepithelial area. Increase in CD8 or CD138 labeling-intensity strongly correlated with rise in maximal contraction to endothelin-1 induced by fenoterol exposure. In summary, our results show that fenoterol modulates the T and B cells chemotaxis possibly via the epithelial chemokine secretion in isolated bronchi from ex-smokers. They also suggest that the infiltration of resident T and B cells into the subepithelial area is associated with an increase in airway responsiveness due to fenoterol exposure. PMID:19683054

Faisy, Christophe; Pinto, Francisco M; Blouquit-Laye, Sabine; Danel, Claire; Naline, Emmanuel; Buenestado, Amparo; Grassin Delyle, Stanislas; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Chapelier, Alain; Advenier, Charles; Candenas, Maria-Luz; Devillier, Philippe

2010-02-01

181

Translocation of the c-myc Gene into the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Locus in Human Burkitt Lymphoma and Murine Plasmacytoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consistent appearance of specific chromosomal translocations in human Burkitt lymphomas and murine plasmacytomas has suggested that these translocations might play a role in malignant transformation. Here we show that transformation of these cells is frequently accompanied by the somatic rearrangement of a cellular analogue of an avian retrovirus transforming gene, c-myc. Moreover, we map c-myc to human chromosome 8

R. Taub; I. Kirsch; C. Morton; G. Lenoir; D. Swan; S. Tronick; S. Aaronson; P. Leder

1982-01-01

182

B-cell neoplasia associated gene with multiple splicing (BCMS): the candidate B-CLL gene on 13q14 comprises more than 560 kb covering all critical regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deletions in chromosomal band 13q14.3 occur in >50% of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma, indicating the localiza- tion of a tumor suppressor gene involved in the pathomechanism of these diseases. Within a 400 kb recurrently deleted segment at least two minimally deleted subregions had been reported. For the two genes residing in the proximal subregion, initially

Stephan Wolf; Claudia Schaffner; Christian Korz; Hartmut Döhner; Stephan Stilgenbauer; Peter Lichter

2001-01-01

183

Evidence for Replicative Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Leading to Oncogenic Translocation and Gene Amplification  

PubMed Central

Nonreciprocal translocations and gene amplifications are commonly found in human tumors. Although little is known about the mechanisms leading to such aberrations, tissue culture models predict that they can arise from DNA breakage, followed by cycles of chromatid fusion, asymmetric mitotic breakage, and replication. Mice deficient in both a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair protein and the p53 tumor suppressor develop lymphomas at an early age harboring amplification of an IgH/c-myc fusion. Here we report that these chromosomal rearrangements are initiated by a recombination activating gene (RAG)-induced DNA cleavage. Subsequent DNA repair events juxtaposing IgH and c-myc are mediated by a break-induced replication pathway. Cycles of breakage-fusion-bridge result in amplification of IgH/c-myc while chromosome stabilization occurs through telomere capture. Thus, mice deficient in NHEJ provide excellent models to study the etiology of unbalanced translocations and amplification events during tumorigenesis. PMID:12186839

Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Petersen, Simone; Chen, Hua Tang; Johnson, Roger; Jasin, Maria; Kanaar, Roland; Ried, Thomas; Nussenzweig, André

2002-01-01

184

Integrated copy number and gene expression profiling analysis of epstein-barr virus-positive diffuse large b-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Viral oncogenes and host immunosenescence have been suggested as causes of Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (EBV?+?DLBCL) of the elderly. To investigate the molecular genetic basis of immune evasion and tumor outgrowth, we analyzed copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression profiles in EBV?+?DLBCL samples compared with EBV?-?DLBCL. There were relatively few genomic alterations in EBV?+?DLBCL compared with those detected in EBV-negative DLBCL. The most frequent CNAs (>30%) in EBV?+?DLBCLs were gains at 1q23.2-23.3, 1q23.3, 1q32.1, 5p15.3, 8q22.3, 8q24.1-24.2, and 9p24.1; losses at 6q27, 7q11.2, and 7q36.2-36.3 were also recurrent. A gene expression profile analysis identified the host immune response as a key molecular signature in EBV?+?DLBCL. Antiviral response genes, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines associated with the innate immune response were overexpressed, indicating the presence of a virusinduced inflammatory microenvironment. Genes associated with the B-cell receptor signaling pathway were downregulated. An integrated analysis indicated that SLAMF1 and PDL2 were key targets of the gains detected at 1q23.2-23.3 and 9p24.1. The chromosomal gain at 9p24.1 was associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, our results led to the identification of recurrent copy number alterations and distinct gene expression associated with the host immune response in EBV?+?DLBCL. We suggest that the upregulation of PDL2 on 9p24.1 promotes immune evasion and is associated with poor prognosis in EBV?+?DLBCL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25832818

Yoon, Heejei; Park, Sanghui; Ju, Hyunjeong; Ha, Sang Yun; Sohn, InSuk; Jo, Jisuk; Do, In-Gu; Min, Sookee; Kim, Seok Jin; Kim, Won Seog; Yoo, Hae Yong; Ko, Young Hyeh

2015-06-01

185

A DNA damage repair mechanism is involved in the origin of chromosomal translocations t(4;11) in primary leukemic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some chromosomal translocations involved in the origin of leukemias and lymphomas are due to malfunctions of the recombinatorial machinery of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor-genes. This mechanism has also been proposed for translocations t(4;11)(q21;q23), which are regularly associated with acute pro-B cell leukemias in early childhood. Here, reciprocal chromosomal breakpoints in primary biopsy material of fourteen t(4;11)-leukemia patients were analysed. In

Esther Gillert; Thomas Leis; Reinald Repp; Martin Reichel; Annette Hösch; Ina Breitenlohner; Sieglinde Angermüller; Arndt Borkhardt; Jochen Harbott; Fritz Lampert; Frank Griesinger; Johann Greil; Georg H Fey; Rolf Marschalek

1999-01-01

186

1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.hilt@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Heine, Guido, E-mail: guido.heine@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany) [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Hartmann, Bjoern, E-mail: bjoern.hartmann@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Baumgrass, Ria, E-mail: baumgrass@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Radbruch, Andreas, E-mail: radbruch@drfz.de [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Worm, Margitta, E-mail: margitta.worm@charite.de [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)] [Allergie-Centrum-Charite, CCM, Klinik fuer Dermatologie und Allergologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-22

187

Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (?zitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (?zitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms. PMID:23344939

Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

2013-03-01

188

Molecular evolution of a central region containing B cell epitopes in the gene encoding the p67 sporozoite antigen within a field population of Theileria parva.  

PubMed

Protective immunity induced by the infective sporozoite stage of Theileria parva indicates a potential role for antibodies directed against conserved serologically reactive regions of the major sporozoite surface antigen p67 in vaccination to control the parasite. We have examined the allelic variation and determined the extent of B cell epitope polymorphism of the gene encoding p67 among field isolates originating from cattle exposed to infected ticks in the Marula area of the rift valley in central Kenya where the African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle co-graze. In the first of two closely juxtaposed epitope sequences in the central region of the p67 protein, an in-frame deletion of a seven-amino acid segment results in a truncation that was observed in parasites derived from cattle that co-grazed with buffalo. In contrast, the variation in the second epitope was primarily due to nonsynonymous substitutions, resulting in relatively low overall amino acid conservation in this segment of the protein. We also observed polymorphism in the region of the protein adjacent to the two defined epitopes, but this was not sufficient to provide statistically significant evidence for positive selection. The data indicates that B cell epitopes previously identified within the p67 gene are polymorphic within the Marula field isolates. Given the complete sequence identity of the p67 gene in all previously characterized T. parva isolates that are transmissible between cattle by ticks, the diversity observed in p67 from the Marula isolates in combination with the clinical reaction of the infected cattle is consistent with them originating from ticks that had acquired T. parva from buffalo. PMID:25673078

Obara, Isaiah; Ulrike, Seitzer; Musoke, Tony; Spooner, Paul R; Jabbar, Ahmed; Odongo, David; Kemp, Stephen; Silva, Joana C; Bishop, Richard P

2015-05-01

189

Generation of Recombination Activating Gene-1-Deficient Neonatal Piglets: A Model of T and B Cell Deficient Severe Combined Immune Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Although severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a very important research model for mice and SCID mice are widely used, there are only few reports describing the SCID pig models. Therefore, additional research in this area is needed. In this study, we describe the generation of Recombination activating gene-1 (Rag-1)-deficient neonatal piglets in Duroc breed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with gene targeting and analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and histology. We constructed porcine Rag-1 gene targeting vectors for the Exon 2 region and obtained heterozygous/homozygous Rag-1 knockout cell colonies using SCNT. We generated two Rag-1-deficient neonatal piglets and compared them with wild-type neonatal piglets. FACS analysis showed that Rag-1 disruption causes a lack of Immunoglobulin M-positive B cells and CD3-positive T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistent with FACS analysis, histological analysis revealed structural defects and an absence of mature lymphocytes in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLNs), and thymus in Rag-1-deficient piglets. These results confirm that Rag-1 is necessary for the generation of lymphocytes in pigs, and Rag-1-deficient piglets exhibit a T and B cell deficient SCID (T-B-SCID) phenotype similar to that of rodents and humans. The T-B-SCID pigs with Rag-1 deficiency generated in this study could be a suitably versatile model for laboratory, translational, and biomedical research, including the development of a humanized model and assessment of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25437445

Ito, Tetsuya; Sendai, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Seki-Soma, Marie; Hirose, Kensuke; Watanabe, Motoo; Fukawa, Kazuo; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

2014-01-01

190

What is the relevance of Ikaros gene deletions as a prognostic marker in pediatric Philadelphia-negative B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia?  

PubMed Central

New prognostic markers are needed for upfront identification of patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia with a high risk of relapse or who are not likely to respond to the most aggressive chemotherapy. We focused our analysis on Ikaros (IKZF1) gene deletions in a homogeneous cohort of 410 pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative, B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia enrolled in Italy into the AIEOP-BFM ALL2000 study. We confirm their reported poor prognostic value, although the associated event-free survival was relatively high (approximately 70%). The difference in the cumulative incidence of relapse between patients positive or not for IKZF1 deletions was not marked: 24.2% (5.9) versus 13.1% (1.8) overall and 23.9% (6.6) versus 16.5% (2.5) in the intermediate-risk subgroup. In line with this, IKZF1 deletions were not an independent prognostic factor for the hazard of relapse. Most IKZF1-deleted cases stratified in the high-risk group relapsed, suggesting that once identified, patients with these deletions require an alternative treatment. In conclusion, the need of and benefit from introducing IKZF1 deletions as an additional stratification marker for patients with Philadelphia-negative B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia remain questionable. PMID:23585525

Palmi, Chiara; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Longinotti, Giulia; Silvestri, Daniela; Carrino, Valentina; Conter, Valentino; Basso, Giuseppe; Biondi, Andrea; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Cazzaniga, Giovanni

2013-01-01

191

GenomicScape: An Easy-to-Use Web Tool for Gene Expression Data Analysis. Application to Investigate the Molecular Events in the Differentiation of B Cells into Plasma Cells  

PubMed Central

DNA microarrays have considerably helped to improve the understanding of biological processes and diseases. Large amounts of publicly available microarray data are accumulating, but are poorly exploited due to a lack of easy-to-use bioinformatics resources. The aim of this study is to build a free and convenient data-mining web site (www.genomicscape.com). GenomicScape allows mining dataset from various microarray platforms, identifying genes differentially expressed between populations, clustering populations, visualizing expression profiles of large sets of genes, and exporting results and figures. We show how easily GenomicScape makes it possible to construct a molecular atlas of the B cell differentiation using publicly available transcriptome data of naďve B cells, centroblasts, centrocytes, memory B cells, preplasmablasts, plasmablasts, early plasma cells and bone marrow plasma cells. Genes overexpressed in each population and the pathways encoded by these genes are provided as well as how the populations cluster together. All the analyses, tables and figures can be easily done and exported using GenomicScape and this B cell to plasma cell atlas is freely available online. Beyond this B cell to plasma cell atlas, the molecular characteristics of any biological process can be easily and freely investigated by uploading the corresponding transcriptome files into GenomicScape. PMID:25633866

Kassambara, Alboukadel; Rčme, Thierry; Jourdan, Michel; Fest, Thierry; Hose, Dirk; Tarte, Karin; Klein, Bernard

2015-01-01

192

An ets-related gene, ERG, is rearranged in human myeloid leukemia with t(16;21) chromosomal translocation.  

PubMed Central

The t(16;21)(p11;q22) translocation is a nonrandom chromosomal abnormality found in several types of myeloid leukemia, which show variable cytomorphological features. We constructed rodent-human somatic cell hybrids containing the der(16) chromosome from leukemic cells of a patient with t(16;21). Using these hybrids, we mapped the translocation breakpoint on the Not I restriction map of chromosome 21 which we had previously constructed. The result showed the proximity of the breakpoint to the ERG gene, a member of the ets oncogene superfamily. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses of genomic DNA from the hybrids and from peripheral blood cells and bone marrow cells of patients with t(16;21) showed that the breakpoints were clustered within a single intron in the coding region of the ERG gene. This finding and the results obtained by Northern blot analysis suggested the formation of a chimeric product(s) by fusion of the ERG gene and an unknown counterpart gene on chromosome 16. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8234289

Shimizu, K; Ichikawa, H; Tojo, A; Kaneko, Y; Maseki, N; Hayashi, Y; Ohira, M; Asano, S; Ohki, M

1993-01-01

193

Molecular cloning and characterization of genes for antibodies generated by orbital tissue-infiltrating B-cells in Graves` ophthalmopathy  

SciTech Connect

Graves` ophthalmopathy is a distressing autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Analysis of the genes for antibodies secreted by orbital tissue-infiltrating plasma cells might provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. The authors, therefore, constructed an immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and an immunoglobulin k light (L) chain cDNA library from the orbital tissue of a patient with active Graves` ophthalmopathy. Analysis of 15 H (IgG1) and 15 L (k) chains revealed a restricted spectrum of variable region genes. Fourteen of 15 variable k genes were about 94% homologous to the closest known germline gene, KL012. Thirteen of 15 H chain genes were 91% and 90% homologous to the closest germline genes, DP10 and hv1263, respectively. Remarkably, these germline genes also code for other autoantibodies to striated muscle (KL012) and thyroid peridase (KL012 and hv1263). These studies raise the possibility that particular germline genes may be associated with autoimmunity in humans. Further, the present study opens the way to identifying ocular autoantigens that may be the target of an humoral immune response. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Jaume, J.C.; Portolano, S.; Prummel, M.F.; McLachlan, S.M.; Rapoport, B. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

1994-02-01

194

Mutations in the HLA class II genes leading to loss of expression of HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Loss of expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules on tumor cells affects the onset and modulation of the immune response through lack of activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Previously, we showed that the frequent loss of expression of HLA class II in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the testis and the central nervous system (CNS) is mainly due to homozygous deletions in the HLA region on chromosome band 6p21.3. A minority of cases showed hemizygous deletions or mitotic recombination, implying that mutation of the remaining copy of the class II genes might be involved. Here, we studied three DLBCLs with loss of HLA-DQ expression for mutations in the DQB1 and DQA1 genes and three tumors with loss of HLA-DR expression for mutations in the DRB1 and DRA genes. In one case, a point mutation in exon 2 of the DQB1 gene, leading to the formation of a stop codon, was detected at position 47. In a second case, a stop codon was found at position 11 due to a deletion of 19 bp in exon 1 of the DRA gene. No mutations were found in the promoter sequences of the DRA, DQA1 and DQB1 genes. We conclude that both homozygous deletions and hemizygous deletions or mitotic recombination with mutations of the remaining allele may lead to loss of expression of the HLA class II genes, which is comparable to the mechanisms affecting HLA class I expression in solid cancers. PMID:12756506

Jordanova, Ekaterina S; Philippo, Katja; Giphart, Marius J; Schuuring, Ed; Kluin, Philip M

2003-07-01

195

Deletion mapping of Ig V[sub H] gene segments expressed in human CD5 B cell lines: J[sub H] proximity is not the sole determinant of the restricted fetal V[sub H] gene repertoire  

SciTech Connect

V[sub H] gene segments expressed in a panel of monoclonal human CD5 B cell lines have been positioned on the IgH locus by deletion mapping. The analysis yielded a relative order of V[sub H] fragments of the V[sub H]2, V[sub H]4, V[sub H]5, and V[sub H]6 gene families that was consistent with, and provided a further refinement of existing maps of the human IgH locus. The authors demonstrate that four of six V[sub H] gene segments expressed in the CD5 B cell lines map > 500 kb from the cluster of J[sub H] segments. Two of the gene segments, positioned at [approximately]850 kb (58p2) and [approximately]500 kb (1-9III) from the J[sub H] segments, respectively, belong to the previously identified small cohort of second trimester fetal V[sub H] gene segments. The data show that J[sub H] proximity is not the sole determinant of restricted V[sub H] gene utilization in early human ontogeny. 45 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Schutte, M.E.M.; Ebeling, S.B.; Akkermans-Koolhaas, K.E.; Logtenberg, T. (University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands))

1992-12-15

196

Frequent Somatic Hypermutation of the 5' Noncoding Region of the BCL6 Gene in B-Cell Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BCL6 gene encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor and is altered by chromosomal rearrangements in its 5' noncoding region in ≈30% of diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL). We report here that, in 22\\/30 (73%) DLCL and 7\\/15 (47%) follicular lymphoma (FL), but not in other tumor types, the BCL6 gene is also altered by multiple (1.4 x 10-3-1.6 x 10-2 per

Anna Migliazza; Stefano Martinotti; Weiyi Chen; Carlo Fusco; Bihui H. Ye; Daniel M. Knowles; Kenneth Offit; R. S. K. Chaganti; Riccardo dalla-Favera

1995-01-01

197

Clonal Progression during the T Cell-Dependent B Cell Antibody Response Depends on the Immunoglobulin DH Gene Segment Repertoire  

PubMed Central

The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the IgH chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH) sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD) immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA). We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb) from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching, and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered ?D-D?FS and ?D-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM-producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR) or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype, which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion, as well as CSR indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response. PMID:25157256

Trad, Ahmad; Tanasa, Radu Iulian; Lange, Hans; Zemlin, Michael; Schroeder, Harry W.; Lemke, Hilmar

2014-01-01

198

Signaling to a B-cell clone by Ek, but not Ak, does not reflect alteration of Ak genes.  

PubMed

The mouse B-cell clone, CH12.LX (Iak, Ly-1+, mu+, delta+), can be induced to differentiate and secrete antibody in an antigen-specific, H-2-restricted manner. Induction requires two signals. One must be provided by the binding of specific antigen to the membrane IgM; the other is delivered by the binding of Ek-specific T-cell hybridomas to the Ek molecules of CH12.LX (Bishop and Haughton 1986). Previous studies demonstrated that Ek-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) could substitute for T cells in delivering the second differentiative signal (Bishop and Haughton 1986). Although CH12.LX cells present Ak to Ak-restricted or alloreactive T-helper cells, neither T cells nor mAbs specific for Ak induce differentiation (Bishop and Haughton 1986). However, since the Akspecific mAbs tested previously were beta-chain-specific and the Ia epitope specificity of the T cells used was unknown, it is possible that the differentiative signal delivered to the CH12.LX class II molecule is chain-specific. Here we report the effects of ten additional Iak-specific mAbs upon the differentiation of CH12.LX. In addition, a cDNA library was prepared from CH12.LX cells, clones corresponding to the alpha and beta chains of the Ak molecule were isolated, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Finally, the Ak and Ek molecules of CH12.LX and H-2k spleen cells were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to examine possible post-translational differences in the Iak molecules of CH12.LX. PMID:3137158

Bishop, G A; McMillan, M S; Haughton, G; Frelinger, J A

1988-01-01

199

Reciprocal translocations  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 26, describes reciprocal translocations of chromosomes: their occurrence, breakpoints, and multiple rearrangements. In addition, phenotypes of balanced and unbalanced translocation carriers and fetal death are discussed. Examples of translocation families are given. Meiosis and genetic risk in translocation carriers is presented. Finally, sperm chromosomes in meiotic segregation analysis is mentioned. 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

NONE

1993-12-31

200

Analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-regulated host gene expression changes through primary B-cell outgrowth reveals delayed kinetics of latent membrane protein 1-mediated NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus that dramatically reorganizes host gene expression to immortalize primary B cells. In this study, we analyzed EBV-regulated host gene expression changes following primary B-cell infection, both during initial proliferation and through transformation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). While most EBV-regulated mRNAs were changed during the transition from resting, uninfected B cells through initial B-cell proliferation, a substantial number of mRNAs changed uniquely from early proliferation through LCL outgrowth. We identified constitutively and dynamically EBV-regulated biological processes, protein classes, and targets of specific transcription factors. Early after infection, genes associated with proliferation, stress responses, and the p53 pathway were highly enriched. However, the transition from early to long-term outgrowth was characterized by genes involved in the inhibition of apoptosis, the actin cytoskeleton, and NF-?B activity. It was previously thought that the major viral protein responsible for NF-?B activation, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), is expressed within 2 days after infection. Our data indicate that while this is true, LCL-level LMP1 expression and NF-?B activity are not evident until 3 weeks after primary B-cell infection. Furthermore, heterologous NF-?B activation during the first week after infection increased the transformation efficiency, while early NF-?B inhibition had no effect on transformation. Rather, inhibition of NF-?B was not toxic to EBV-infected cells until LMP1 levels and NF-?B activity were high. These data collectively highlight the dynamic nature of EBV-regulated host gene expression and support the notion that early EBV-infected proliferating B cells have a fundamentally distinct growth and survival phenotype from that of LCLs. PMID:22855490

Price, Alexander M; Tourigny, Jason P; Forte, Eleonora; Salinas, Raul E; Dave, Sandeep S; Luftig, Micah A

2012-10-01

201

Analysis of Epstein-Barr Virus-Regulated Host Gene Expression Changes through Primary B-Cell Outgrowth Reveals Delayed Kinetics of Latent Membrane Protein 1-Mediated NF-?B Activation  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus that dramatically reorganizes host gene expression to immortalize primary B cells. In this study, we analyzed EBV-regulated host gene expression changes following primary B-cell infection, both during initial proliferation and through transformation into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). While most EBV-regulated mRNAs were changed during the transition from resting, uninfected B cells through initial B-cell proliferation, a substantial number of mRNAs changed uniquely from early proliferation through LCL outgrowth. We identified constitutively and dynamically EBV-regulated biological processes, protein classes, and targets of specific transcription factors. Early after infection, genes associated with proliferation, stress responses, and the p53 pathway were highly enriched. However, the transition from early to long-term outgrowth was characterized by genes involved in the inhibition of apoptosis, the actin cytoskeleton, and NF-?B activity. It was previously thought that the major viral protein responsible for NF-?B activation, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), is expressed within 2 days after infection. Our data indicate that while this is true, LCL-level LMP1 expression and NF-?B activity are not evident until 3 weeks after primary B-cell infection. Furthermore, heterologous NF-?B activation during the first week after infection increased the transformation efficiency, while early NF-?B inhibition had no effect on transformation. Rather, inhibition of NF-?B was not toxic to EBV-infected cells until LMP1 levels and NF-?B activity were high. These data collectively highlight the dynamic nature of EBV-regulated host gene expression and support the notion that early EBV-infected proliferating B cells have a fundamentally distinct growth and survival phenotype from that of LCLs. PMID:22855490

Price, Alexander M.; Tourigny, Jason P.; Forte, Eleonora; Salinas, Raul E.; Dave, Sandeep S.

2012-01-01

202

A Novel Human Homeobox Gene Lies at the Chromosome 10 Breakpoint in Lymphoid Neoplasias With Chromosomal Translocation t (10;14)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The translocation t(10; 14)(q24;qll) is an acquired change seen in 4% to 7% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias IT-ALL). We previously demonstrated that the translocation juxtaposes the T-cell receptor (TCR) &chain gene in chromo- some 14q11 with a novel region in chromosome 10q24 and is likely catalyzed by recombinases normally involved in the generation of immunoglobulin and TCR diversity. We

Ian D. Dube; Suzanne Kamel-Reid; Chiu Chin Yuan; Ming Lu; Xin Wu; George Corpus; Susana C. Raimondi; William M. Crist; Andrew J. Carroll; Jun Minowada; Jason B. Baker

1991-01-01

203

Silencing of B Cell Receptor Signals in Human Naive B Cells  

PubMed Central

To identify changes in the regulation of B cell receptor (BCR) signals during the development of human B cells, we generated genome-wide gene expression profiles using the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique for CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), pre-B cells, naive, germinal center (GC), and memory B cells. Comparing these SAGE profiles, genes encoding positive regulators of BCR signaling were expressed at consistently lower levels in naive B cells than in all other B cell subsets. Conversely, a large group of inhibitory signaling molecules, mostly belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), were specifically or predominantly expressed in naive B cells. The quantitative differences observed by SAGE were corroborated by semiquantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. In a functional assay, we show that down-regulation of inhibitory IgSF receptors and increased responsiveness to BCR stimulation in memory as compared with naive B cells at least partly results from interleukin (IL)-4 receptor signaling. Conversely, activation or impairment of the inhibitory IgSF receptor LIRB1 affected BCR-dependent Ca2+ mobilization only in naive but not memory B cells. Thus, LIRB1 and IL-4 may represent components of two nonoverlapping gene expression programs in naive and memory B cells, respectively: in naive B cells, a large group of inhibitory IgSF receptors can elevate the BCR signaling threshold to prevent these cells from premature activation and clonal expansion before GC-dependent affinity maturation. In memory B cells, facilitated responsiveness upon reencounter of the immunizing antigen may result from amplification of BCR signals at virtually all levels of signal transduction. PMID:12438421

Feldhahn, Niklas; Schwering, Ines; Lee, Sanggyu; Wartenberg, Maria; Klein, Florian; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Guolin; Wang, San Ming; Rowley, Janet D.; Hescheler, Jürgen; Krönke, Martin; Rajewsky, Klaus; Küppers, Ralf; Müschen, Markus

2002-01-01

204

Sequential emergence of MRP- and MDR1-gene over-expression as well as MDR1-gene translocation in homoharringtonine-selected K562 human leukemia cell lines.  

PubMed

To investigate the mechanism of resistance to an antineoplastic natural product homoharringtonine (HHT) in leukemic cells, we have established 5 sub-lines of human myeloid leukemia K562 cells, designated as K-H30, K-H100, K-H200, K-H300 and K-H400, which showed progressive resistance to different concentrations of HHT. These sub-lines were cross-resistant to daunorubicin, vincristine, etoposide and mitoxantrone, but not to melphalan. Immunofluorescence with monoclonal anti-Pgp antibody MRK16 and Northern-blot analysis demonstrated that resistance to HHT is related to the sequential emergence of MRP- and MDR1-gene over-expression. In the low-level-resistant K-H30 sub-line, the MDR1 gene was not over-expressed, but the MRP gene was over-expressed 2.1-fold. In the intermediate-level-resistant K-H100 and K-H200 sublines, both the MRP and the MDR1 genes were over-expressed. However, in the high-level-resistant K-H300 and K-H400 sublines, MDR1-gene over-expression predominated (20- and 21-fold respectively). On the other hand, GST pi-gene expression was decreased in all 5 sub-lines. Southern-blot analysis revealed no MRP-gene amplification in any of the 5 sub-lines, whereas the MDR1 gene was amplified in the high-level-resistant K-H300 and K-H400 sub-lines. The most interesting observation is a homogeneously staining region (HSR) found in chromosome 2 of the K-H300 and K-H400 sub-lines. Chromosome painting and in situ hybridization demonstrated that this HSR was translocated from chromosome 7 and consisted of the amplified MDR1 gene, suggesting that there is a relationship between MDR1-gene, translocation and MDR1-gene amplification. PMID:8575859

Zhou, D C; Ramond, S; Viguie, F; Faussat, A M; Zittoun, R; Marie, J P

1996-01-26

205

The Histological and Biological Spectrum of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma in the WHO Classification  

PubMed Central

Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are aggressive B-cell lymphomas that are clinically, pathologically and genetically diverse, in part reflecting the functional diversity of the B-cell system. The focus in recent years has been towards incorporation of clinical features, morphology, immunohistochemistry and ever evolving genetic data into the classification scheme. The 2008 WHO classification reflects this complexity with the addition of several new entities and variants. The discovery of distinct subtypes by gene expression profiling (GEP) heralded a new era with a focus on pathways of transformation as well as a promise of more targeted therapies, directed at specific pathways. Some DLBCLs exhibit unique clinical characteristics with a predilection for specific anatomic sites; the anatomic site often reflects underlying biological distinctions. Recently, the spectrum of EBV-driven B-cell proliferations in patients without iatrogenic or congenital immunosuppression has been better characterized; most of these occur in patients of advanced age, and include EBV-positive large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly. HHV-8 is involved in the pathogenesis of primary effusion lymphoma, which can present as a “solid variant.” Two borderline categories were created; one deals with tumors at the interface between classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and DLBCL. The second confronts the interface between Burkitt Lymphoma (BL) and DLBCL, so called “B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma” in the 2008 classification. Most cases harbor both MYC and BCL2 translocations, and are highly aggressive. Another interesting entity is ALK+ DLBCL, which renders itself potentially targetable by ALK inhibitors. Ongoing investigations at the genomic level, with both exome and whole genome sequencing, are sure to reveal new pathways of transformation in the future. PMID:23006945

Menon, Madhu P.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S.

2012-01-01

206

Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).  

PubMed

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. PMID:25101868

Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

2014-10-25

207

BAL is a novel risk-related gene in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas that enhances cellular migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

nuclear protein with a duplicated N- terminal domain homologous to the non- histone portion of histone-macroH2A and a C-terminal alpha-helical region with 2 short coiled-coil domains. Of note, the BAL N-terminus and secondary structure resemble those of a recently identified human protein, KIAA1268. In addition, both BAL and KIAA1268 map to chromo- some 3q21, further suggesting that these genes belong

Ricardo C. T. Aguiar; Yoshihiro Yakushijin; Samir Kharbanda; Ravi Salgia; Jonathan A. Fletcher; Margaret A. Shipp

2000-01-01

208

Effects of B-Cell Lymphoma 2 Gene Transfer to Myoblast Cells on Skeletal Muscle Tissue Formation Using Magnetic Force-Based Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle should possess a high cell-dense structure with unidirectional cell alignment. However, limited nutrient and/or oxygen supply within the artificial tissue constructs might restrict cell viability and muscular functions. In this study, we genetically modified myoblast cells with the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene and evaluated their function in artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. Magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of skeletal muscle bundles by applying a magnetic force. Bcl-2-overexpressing muscle bundles formed highly cell-dense and viable tissue constructs, while muscle bundles without Bcl-2 overexpression exhibited substantial necrosis/apoptosis at the central region of the bundle. Bcl-2-overexpressing muscle bundles contracted in response to electrical pulses and generated a significantly higher physical force. These findings indicate that the incorporation of anti-apoptotic gene-transduced myoblast cells into tissue constructs significantly enhances skeletal muscle formation and function. PMID:23088454

Sato, Masanori; Ito, Akira; Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kawabe, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

209

Detection of two distinct malignant B cell clones in a single patient using anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis and somatic cell hybridization techniques were used to examine the malignant cell population in an unusual patient with hairy cell leukemia and macroglobulinemia (N Engl J Med 296:92, 1977). Although previous investigations suggested that the IgM macroglobulin was secreted by the circulating leukemia cells, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies raised to the IgM macroglobulin failed to react with the malignant cells in the circulation and bone marrow. In contrast, approximately 50% of the mononuclear cells from an enlarged inguinal lymph node reacted strongly with the anti-idiotype antibodies. Subsequent reanalysis of all cell populations demonstrated that whereas the circulating and bone marrow cells were IgM kappa-bearing, the macroglobulin was IgM gamma-bearing and the lymph node cells were evenly divided among IgM kappa-bearing and IgM gamma-bearing. Immunofluorescence flow cytometry indicated that those lymph node cells that reacted strictly with the anti-idiotype antibody were IgM gamma-bearing, demonstrating that they were the source of macroglobulin. An analysis of immunoglobulin gene DNA confirmed the coexistence of two distinct malignant B cell populations in the lymph node and indicated that the IgM kappa-bearing lymph node cells were identical to the circulating and bone marrow leukemic cells. PMID:3931723

Giardina, S L; Schroff, R W; Woodhouse, C S; Golde, D W; Oldham, R K; Cleary, M L; Sklar, J; Pritikin, N; Foon, K A

1985-11-01

210

Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG Translocations in Human Prostate Cancer by Expression Profiling Using GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays  

PubMed Central

Translocation of TMPRSS2 to the ERG gene, found in a high proportion of human prostate cancer, results in overexpression of the 3?-ERG sequences joined to the 5?-TMPRSS2 promoter. The studies presented here were designed to test the ability of expression analysis on GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays to detect 5?-TMPRSS2-ERG-3? hybrid transcripts encoded by this translocation. Monitoring the relative expression of each ERG exon revealed altered transcription of the ERG gene in 15 of a series of 27 prostate cancer samples. In all cases, exons 4 to 11 exhibited enhanced expression compared with exons 2 and 3. This pattern of expression indicated that the most abundant hybrid transcripts involve fusions to ERG exon 4, and RT-PCR analyses confirmed the joining of TMPRSS2 exon 1 to ERG exon 4 in all 15 cases. The exon expression patterns also indicated that TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts commonly contain deletion of ERG exon 8. Analysis of gene-level data from the arrays allowed the identification of genes whose expression levels significantly correlated with the presence of the translocation. These studies demonstrate that expression analyses using exon arrays represent a valuable approach for detecting ETS gene translocation in prostate cancer, in parallel with analyses of gene expression profiles. PMID:18165275

Jhavar, Sameer; Reid, Alison; Clark, Jeremy; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Christmas, Timothy; Thompson, Alan; Woodhouse, Christopher; Ogden, Christopher; Fisher, Cyril; Corbishley, Cathy; De-Bono, Johann; Eeles, Rosalind; Brewer, Daniel; Cooper, Colin

2008-01-01

211

Gene fusion with an ETS DNA-binding domain caused by chromosome translocation in human tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

EWING'S sarcoma and related subtypes of primitive neuroectodermal tumours share a recurrent and specific t(ll;22) (q24;q12) chromosome translocation1-8, the breakpoints of which have recently been cloned9. Phylogenetically conserved restriction fragments in the vicinity of EWSR1 and EWSR2, the genomic regions where the breakpoints of chromosome 22 and chromosome 11 are, respectively, have allowed identification of transcribed sequences from these regions

Olivier Delattre; Jessica Zucman; Béatrice Plougastel; Chantal Desmaze; Thomas Melot; Martine Peter; Heinrich Kovar; Isabelle Joubert; Pieter de Jong; Guy Rouleau; Alain Aurias; Gilles Thomas

1992-01-01

212

GLI3 zinc-finger gene interrupted by translocations in Greig syndrome families  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is an auto-somal dominant disorder affecting limb and craniofacial development in humans1,2. GCPS-affected individuals are characterized by postaxial polysyndactyly of hands, preaxial polysyndactyly of feet, macroephaly, a broad base of the nose with mild hypertelorism and a prominent forehead. The genetic locus has been pinpointed to chromosome 7pl3 by three balanced translocations associated with GCPS

Andrea Vortkamp; Manfred Gessler; Karl-Heinz Grzeschik

1991-01-01

213

Structural organization of the bcr gene and its role in the Ph' translocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Philadelphia (Ph') chromosome, an abnormal chromosome 22 (ref. 1), is one of the best-known examples of a specific human chromosomal abnormality strongly associated with one form of human leukaemia, chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML). The finding2 that a small region of chromosome 9 which includes the c-abl oncogene is translocated to chromosome 22 prompted studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms

Nora Heisterkamp; Kees Stam; John Groffen; Annelies de Klein; Gerard Grosveld

1985-01-01

214

Rapid enhancement of. beta. /sub 2/-interferon/B-cell differentiation factor BSF-2 gene expression in human fibroblasts by diacylglycerols and the calcium ionophore A23187  

SciTech Connect

The expression in human fibroblasts of the ..beta../sub 2/-interferon (IFN-..beta../sub 2/) gene, which is now recognized to be identical to the gene encoding B-cell differentiation factor BSF-2, is enhanced by several cytokines that affect cell growth (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, platelet-derived growth factor, and ..beta../sub 1/-interferon). The authors have examined the possibility that IFN-..beta../sub 2/ gene expressions is regulated through activation, by diacylglycerol of the protein kinase C pathway. The synthetic diacylglycerols 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol strongly enhanced IFN-..beta../sub 2/, but not IFN-..beta../sub 1/, gene expression in human fibroblasts (FS-4 strain). An increase in IFN-..beta../sub 2/ mRNA level was detected within 15 min after addition of diC/sub 8/ (290 ..mu..M) to FS-4 cells and was maximal approximately 20 hr later. An increase in IFN-..beta../sub 2/ gene transcription was detected within 5 min of addition of diC/sub 8/, and the rate of transcription was near-maximal by 15-30 min. The enhancement of IFN-..beta../sub 2/ gene expression by diC/sub 8/, interleukin 1, or tumor necrosis factor was not prevented by H8, a preferential inhibitor of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, but was blocked by H7, an inhibitor of protein kinases C as well as of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. The calcium ionophore A23187 (1-10 ..mu..M) also elicited an increase in the level of IFN-..beta../sub 2/ mRNA in FS-4 fibroblasts; appropriate combinations of A23187 and diC/sub 8/ had at least an additive effect in enhancing IFN-..beta../sub 2/ mRNA levels. These results show that protein kinase C-activating or (Ca/sup 2 +/)-elevating agents rapidly increase the expression of the IFN-..beta../sub 2/ gene in human fibroblasts.

Sehgal, P.B.; Walther, Z.; Tamm, I.

1987-06-01

215

Analysis of Host Gene Expression Changes Reveals Distinct Roles for the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Epstein-Barr Virus Receptor/CD21 in B-Cell Maturation, Activation, and Initiation of Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) attachment to human CD21 on the B-cell surface initiates infection. Whether CD21 is a simple tether or conveys vital information to the cell interior for production of host factors that promote infection of primary B cells is controversial, as the cytoplasmic fragment of CD21 is short, though highly conserved. The ubiquity of CD21 on normal B cells, the diversity of this population, and the well-known resistance of primary B cells to gene transfer technologies have all impeded resolution of this question. To uncover the role(s) of the CD21 cytoplasmic domain during infection initiation, the full-length receptor (CD21 = CR), a mutant lacking the entire cytoplasmic tail (CT), and a control vector (NEO) were stably expressed in two pre-B-cell lines that lack endogenous receptor. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis demonstrated that stable CD21 surface expression alone (either CR or CT) produced multiple independent changes in gene expression, though both dramatically decreased class I melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family RNAs and upregulated genes associated with B-cell differentiation (e.g., C2TA, HLA-II, IL21R, MIC2, CD48, and PTPRCAP/CD45-associated protein). Temporal analysis spanning 72 h revealed that not only CR- but also CT-expressing lines initiated latency. In spite of this, the number and spectrum of transcripts altered in CR- compared with CT-bearing lines at 1 h after infection further diverged. Differential modulation of immediate early cellular transcripts (e.g., c-Jun and multiple histones), both novel and previously linked to CD21-initiated signaling, as well as distinct results from pathway analyses support a separate role for the cytoplasmic domain in initiation of intracellular signals. IMPORTANCE Membrane proteins that mediate virus attachment tether virus particles to the cell surface, initiating infection. In addition, upon virus interaction such proteins may transmit signals to the interior of the cell that support subsequent steps in the infection process. Here we show that expression of the Epstein-Barr virus B-cell attachment receptor, CD21, in B cells that lack this receptor results in significant changes in gene expression, both before and rapidly following EBV-CD21 interaction. These changes translate into major signaling pathway alterations that are predicted to support stable infection. PMID:24600013

Arredouani, Mohamed S.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Sage, David R.; Dunn, Laura K.; Gill, Michael B.; Agnani, Deep; Libermann, Towia A.

2014-01-01

216

The UDP-galactose translocator gene is mapped to band Xp11. 23-p11. 22 containing the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Locus  

SciTech Connect

The authors have cloned a segment of the human gene encoding UDP-galactose translocator by genetic complementation of its defective mutant in mouse FM3A cells. Chromosome mapping using fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the cloned gene hybridized to the Xp11.23-11.23 region of the X chromosome. This region is shared by the locus of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by defective sugar chains on cell surface components. Genetic and phenotypic similarities suggest a possible link between UDP-galactose translocator and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

Hara, Takahiko; Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Kazuhisa; Ayusawa, Dai; Kawakita, Masao (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Yamauchi, Masatake; Takahashi, Ei-ichi (National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

1993-11-01

217

Detection of clone-specific immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the bone marrow of B-cell-lineage lymphoma after treatment.  

PubMed

In order to determine the appropriate treatment of malignant lymphoma, it is important to know the degree to which extra-nodal invasion of lymphoma cells has occurred. We amplified complementarity-determining region (CDR) III genes in 64% of lymph node samples at the onset or relapse of B-cell-lineage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in 22 patients. By using a clone-specific CDR III probe in each patient, we were able to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) of lymphoma cells in the bone marrow and/or blood in 9 out of 14 cases (64.2%) at the onset of the disease or relapse, whereas abnormal cells in the bone marrow and/or blood were identified by routine morphological analysis in only 4 out of 22 cases (18.2%). This indicates that extranodal invasion of malignant cells may be common in patients with NHL. In some cases, the clone-specific CDR III gene was still expressed in the samples of bone marrow and/or peripheral blood even after chemotherapy, when other markers associated with NHL were no longer expressed. Five out of six cases in this group had a worse outcome associated with NHL. On the other hand, most of the cases whose clone-specific CDR III gene was no longer expressed in the bone marrow and/or in circulation after treatment had a relatively fair prognosis. These results indicate that the detection at molecular level of MRD in extranodal organs may prove useful as a predictor of prognosis for NHL. PMID:15240924

Hoshino, Atsushi; Funato, Tadao; Munakata, Yasuhiko; Ishii, Tomonori; Abe, Shori; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Kameoka, Junichi; Meguro, Kuniaki; Sasaki, Takeshi

2004-07-01

218

Effects of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicobacter pylori infection on anti-platelet glycoprotein antibody producing B cells in patients with primary idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the effects of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) positive Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori or HP) infection on circulating B cells producing specific platelet glycoprotein antibodies and the association between therapeutic outcomes in primary idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. Methods: A total of 76 newly diagnosed primary ITP patients were included in the study which was conducted at the first affiliated hospital of Shantou University Medical college, in Shantou city China, between January 2013 and January 2014. These patients were tested for H. pylori infection by 13C urea breath test and for anti-CagA antibody in H. pylori positive cases by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Anti-GPIb and anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells were measured using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay in all ITP patients and 30 controls. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) was also detected in ITP patients. Results: The numbers of anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibody-producing B cells in HP+CagA+ patients were higher than in HP+CagA- or HP- patients. However, anti-GPIb antibody-producing B cells were found higher in HP- patients. Analysis of treatment outcomes showed that a therapeutic response was more likely in patients presenting anti-GPIIb/IIIa B cells, but the poor response was found to be associated with anti-GPIb B cells and ANA presences. Conclusion: CagA antigen of H. pylori may induce anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibodies production by a molecular mimicry mechanism. Anti-GPIIb/IIIa and anti-GPIb antibody producing B Cells detection is useful for predicting treatment effects of primary ITP.

Cheng, Yuan-Shan; Kuang, Li-Ping; Zhuang, Chun-Lan; Jiang, Jia-Dian; Shi, Man

2015-01-01

219

The Flavones Apigenin and Luteolin Induce FOXO1 Translocation but Inhibit Gluconeogenic and Lipogenic Gene Expression in Human Cells  

PubMed Central

The flavones apigenin (4?,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) and luteolin (3?,4?,5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone) are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1), an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, and S6-phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin indicating a direct inhibition of the PKB/AKT-signaling pathway distal to the IGF-1 receptor. N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these flavones do not act via oxidative stress. The roles of FOXO1, FOXO3a, AKT, sirtuin1 (SIRT1), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2)-like2 (NRF2), investigated by siRNA knockdown, showed differential patterns of signal pathways involved and a role of NRF2 in the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. We conclude that these flavones show an antidiabetic potential due to reduction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacity despite inhibition of the PKB/AKT pathway which justifies detailed investigation in vivo. PMID:25136826

Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Osterhoff, Martin A.; Borchert, Andrea; Guzman-Perez, Valentina; Sarem, Zeinab; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Bähr, Volker; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.

2014-01-01

220

Evaluation of the NOD/SCID xenograft model for glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone are critical drugs used in multi-agent chemotherapy protocols used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and response to glucocorticoids is highly predictive of outcome. The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model of ALL is a clinically relevant model in which the mice develop a systemic leukemia which retains the fundamental biological characteristics of the original disease. Here we report a study evaluating the NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model to investigate glucocorticoid-induced gene expression. Cells from a glucocorticoid-sensitive xenograft derived from a child with B-cell precursor ALL were inoculated into NOD/SCID mice. When highly engrafted the mice were randomized into groups of 4 to receive dexamethasone 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection or vehicle control. Leukemia cells were harvested from mice spleens at 0, 8, 24 or 48 hours thereafter, and gene expression analyzed on Illumina WG-6_V3 chips, comparing all groups to time 0 hours. Results The 8 hour dexamethasone-treated timepoint had the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes, with fewer observed at the 24 and 48 hour timepoints, and with minimal changes seen across the time-matched controls. When compared to publicly available datasets of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression from an in vitro cell line study and from an in vivo study of patients with ALL, at the level of pathways, expression changes in the 8 hour xenograft samples showed a similar response to patients treated with glucocorticoids. Replicate analysis revealed that at the 8 hour timepoint, a dataset with high signal and differential expression, using data from 3 replicates instead of 4 resulted in excellent recovery scores of > 0.9. However at other timepoints with less signal very poor recovery scores were obtained with 3 replicates. Conclusions The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model provides a reproducible experimental system in which to investigate clinically-relevant mechanisms of drug-induced gene regulation in ALL; the 8 hour timepoint provides the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes; time-matched controls are redundant and excellent recovery scores can be obtained with 3 replicates. PMID:22093874

2011-01-01

221

Increased Thymic B Cells but Maintenance of Thymic Structure, T Cell Differentiation and Negative Selection in Lymphotoxin-? and TNF Gene-Targeted Mice  

PubMed Central

TNF, lymphotoxin (LT) and their receptors are expressed constitutively in the thymus. It remains unclear whether these cytokines play a role in normal thymic structure or function. We have investigated thymocyte differentiation, selection and thymic organogenesis in gene targeted mice lacking LT?, TNF, or both (TNF/LT?-/-). The thymus was normal in TNF/LT?-/- mice with regard to cell yields and stromal architecture. Detailed analysis of ?? and ?? T cell-lineage thymocyte subsets revealed no abnormalities, implying that neither TNF nor LT play an essential role in T cell differentiation or positive selection. The number and distribution of thymic CD11c+ dendritic cells was also normal in the absence of both TNF and LT?. A three-fold increase in B cell numbers was observed consistently in the TNF/LT?-/- thymus. This phenotype was due entirely to the LT? deficiency and associated with changes in the hemopoietic compartment, rather than the thymic stromal compartment of LT?-/- mice. Finally, specific V?8+ T cell deletion within the thymus following intrathymic injection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was TNF/LT independent. Thus, despite the presence of these cytokines and their receptors in the normal thymus, there appears no essential role for either TNF or LT in development of organ structure or for those processes associated with T cell repertoire selection. PMID:11293812

Grech, Adrian P.; Riminton, D. Sean; Gabor, Melinda J.; Hardy, Charles L.; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.

2000-01-01

222

Epigenetic Silencing of MicroRNA34b\\/c and B-Cell Translocation Gene 4 Is Associated with CpG Island Methylation in Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered expression of microRNA (miRNA) is strongly impli- cated in cancer, and recent studies have shown that, in cancer, expression of some miRNAs cells is silenced in association with CpG island hypermethylation. To identify epigenetically silenced miRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC), we screened for miRNAs induced in CRC cells by 5-aza-2¶-deoxycytidine (DAC) treatment or DNA methyltransferase knockout. We found that

Minoru Toyota; Hiromu Suzuki; Yasushi Sasaki; Reo Maruyama; Kohzoh Imai; Yasuhisa Shinomura; Takashi Tokino

2008-01-01

223

A phylogeny of the temperate seabasses (Moronidae) characterized by a translocation of the mt-nd6 gene.  

PubMed

The entire mitochondrial genome of the striped bass Morone saxatilis was sequenced together with the mitochondrial (mt) control regions of the white bass Morone chrysops, white perch Morone americana, yellow bass Morone mississippiensis, spotted seabass Dicentrarchus punctatus, European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. The resultant 17 580 base pair circular genome of M. saxatilis contains 38 genes (13 proteins, 23 transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs) and a control region bordered by the proline and phenylalanine mitochondrial tRNAs. Gene arrangement was similar to other vertebrates, except that the mt-nd6 gene was found within the control region rather than the canonical position between the mt-nd5 and mt-cyb genes. This translocation was found in all the Morone and Dicentrarchus species studied without functional copies or pseudogenes in the ancestral position. In L. japonicus, the mt-nd6 gene was found in the canonical position without evidence of an mt-nd6 gene in the control region. A Bayesian analysis of these and published mt-nd6 sequences from 45 other Perciformes grouped the Morone and Dicentrarchus species monophyletically with a probability of 1·00 with respect to L. japonicus and all other perciforms, and placed the Dicentrarchus species in the basal position. These data reinforce current placement of L. japonicus outside the Moronidae and provide a clear evolutionary character to define this family. The phylogeny of the Moronidae presented here also supports the hypothesis of an anadromous common ancestor to this family that gave rise to the North American estuarine and freshwater species. A series of tandem repeats previously reported in M. saxatilis was found in the control region of all Morone species between the mt-nd6 and mt-rnr1 genes, but not in either Dicentrarchus species, which reinforces the continued use of these two separate genera. PMID:22220893

Williams, E P; Peer, A C; Miller, T J; Secor, D H; Place, A R

2012-01-01

224

Disruption of the ATE1 and SLC12A1 Genes by Balanced Translocation in a Boy with Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

We report on a boy with non-syndromic hearing loss and an apparently balanced translocation t(10;15)(q26.13;q21.1). The same translocation was found in the normally hearing brother, father and paternal grandfather; however, this does not exclude its involvement in disease pathogenesis, for example, by unmasking a second mutation. Breakpoint analysis via FISH with BAC clones and long-range PCR products revealed a disruption of the arginyltransferase 1 (ATE1) gene on translocation chromosome 10 and the solute carrier family 12, member 1 gene (SLC12A1) on translocation chromosome 15. SNP array analysis revealed neither loss nor gain of chromosomal regions in the affected child, and a targeted gene enrichment panel consisting of 130 known deafness genes was negative for pathogenic mutations. The expression patterns in zebrafish and humans did not provide evidence for ear-specific functions of the ATE1 and SLC12A1 genes. Sanger sequencing of the 2 genes in the boy and 180 GJB2 mutation-negative hearing-impaired individuals did not detect homozygous or compound heterozygous pathogenic mutations. Our study demonstrates the many difficulties in unraveling the molecular causes of a heterogeneous phenotype. We cannot directly implicate disruption of ATE1 and/or SLC12A1 to the abnormal hearing phenotype; however, mutations in these genes may have a role in polygenic or multifactorial forms of hearing impairment. On the other hand, it is conceivable that our patient carries a disease-causing mutation in a so far unidentified deafness gene. Evidently, disruption of ATE1 and/or SLC12A1 gene function alone does not have adverse effects. PMID:24550759

Vona, B.; Neuner, C.; El Hajj, N.; Schneider, E.; Farcas, R.; Beyer, V.; Zechner, U.; Keilmann, A.; Poot, M.; Bartsch, O.; Nanda, I.; Haaf, T.

2014-01-01

225

Small Molecule Inhibitors of IKB Kinase Are Selectively Toxic for Subgroups of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Defined by Gene Expression Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constitutive activation of the NF-KB pathway is required for survival of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here we show that a small molecule IKB kinase (IKK) inhibitor, PS-1145, and related compounds are toxic for ABC DLBCL cell lines but not for cell lines derived from the other prevalent form of DLBCL, germinal center

Lloyd T. Lam; R. Eric Davis; Jackie Pierce; Michael Hepperle; Yajun Xu; Maria Hottelet; Yuhua Nong; Danyi Wen; Julian Adams; Lenny Dang; Louis M. Staudt

2005-01-01

226

Primary Mediastinal (Thymic) B-Cell Lymphoma Is Characterized by Gains of Chromosomal Material Including 9p and Amplification of the REL Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIMARY MEDIASTINAL (thymic) B-cell lymphoma is a tumor with clinical, immunologic, and histologic features that, in their combination, are quite unique. It occurs in all age groups but predominates in young ad~1ts.l.~ Typi- cally, it is localized in the anterior mediastinum, and a thymic involvement has been repeatedly shown. Accordingly, it is assumed that this B-cell lymphoma is a primary

Stefan Joos; Marta I. Otafio-Joos; Susanne Ziegler; Silke Bruderlein; Martin Bentz; Peter Moller; Peter Lichter

1996-01-01

227

A candidate gene for congenital bilateral isolated ptosis identified by molecular analysis of a de novo balanced translocation.  

PubMed

Ptosis is defined as drooping of the upper eyelid and can impair full visual acuity. It occurs in a number of forms including congenital bilateral isolated ptosis, which may be familial and for which two linkage groups are known on chromosomes 1p32-34.1 and Xq24-27.1. We describe the analysis of the chromosome breakpoints in a patient with congenital bilateral isolated ptosis and a de novo balanced translocation 46,XY,t(1;8)(p34.3;q21.12). Both breakpoints were localized by fluorescence in situ hybridisation with yeast artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes and P1 artificial chromosomes. The derived chromosomes were isolated by flow-sorting, amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by sequence tagged sites amplification to map the breakpoints at a resolution that enabled molecular characterization by DNA sequencing. The 1p breakpoint lies ~13 Mb distal to the previously reported linkage locus at 1p32-1p34.1 and does not disrupt a coding sequence, whereas the chromosome 8 breakpoint disrupts a gene homologous to the mouse zfh-4gene. Murine zfh-4 codes for a zinc finger homeodomain protein and is a transcription factor expressed in both muscle and nerve tissue. Human ZFH-4 is therefore a candidate gene for congenital bilateral isolated ptosis. PMID:11935336

McMullan, Tristan W; Crolla, John A; Gregory, Simon G; Carter, Nigel P; Cooper, Rachel A; Howell, Gareth R; Robinson, David O

2002-03-01

228

Integrative Gene Expression Profiling Reveals G6PD-Mediated Resistance to RNA-Directed Nucleoside Analogues in B-Cell Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

The nucleoside analogues 8-amino-adenosine and 8-chloro-adenosine have been investigated in the context of B-lineage lymphoid malignancies by our laboratories due to the selective cytotoxicity they exhibit toward multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines and primary cells. Encouraging pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of 8-chloro-adenosine being documented in an ongoing Phase I trial in CLL provide additional impetus for the study of these promising drugs. In order to foster a deeper understanding of the commonalities between their mechanisms of action and gain insight into specific patient cohorts positioned to achieve maximal benefit from treatment, we devised a novel two-tiered chemoinformatic screen to identify molecular determinants of responsiveness to these compounds. This screen entailed: 1) the elucidation of gene expression patterns highly associated with the anti-tumor activity of 8-chloro-adenosine in the NCI-60 cell line panel, 2) characterization of altered transcript abundances between paired MM and MCL cell lines exhibiting differential susceptibility to 8-amino-adenosine, and 3) integration of the resulting datasets. This approach generated a signature of seven unique genes including G6PD which encodes the rate-determining enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Bioinformatic analysis of primary cell gene expression data demonstrated that G6PD is frequently overexpressed in MM and CLL, highlighting the potential clinical implications of this finding. Utilizing the paired sensitive and resistant MM and MCL cell lines as a model system, we go on to demonstrate through loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies that elevated G6PD expression is necessary to maintain resistance to 8-amino- and 8-chloro-adenosine but insufficient to induce de novo resistance in sensitive cells. Taken together, these results indicate that G6PD activity antagonizes the cytotoxicity of 8-substituted adenosine analogues and suggests that administration of these agents to patients with B-cell malignancies exhibiting normal levels of G6PD expression may be particularly efficacious. PMID:22848499

McBrayer, Samuel K.; Yarrington, Michael; Qian, Jun; Feng, Gang; Shanmugam, Mala; Gandhi, Varsha; Krett, Nancy L.; Rosen, Steven T.

2012-01-01

229

A recurrent 11q aberration pattern characterizes a subset of MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants leading to activation of the MYC oncogene. It is a matter of debate whether true BL without MYC translocation exists. Here, we identified 59 lymphomas concordantly called BL by 2 gene expression classifiers among 753 B-cell lymphomas. Only 2 (3%) of these 59 molecular BL lacked a MYC translocation, which both shared a peculiar pattern of chromosome 11q aberration characterized by interstitial gains including 11q23.2-q23.3 and telomeric losses of 11q24.1-qter. We extended our analysis to 17 MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas with a similar 11q aberration and showed this aberration to be recurrently associated with morphologic and clinical features of BL. The minimal region of gain was defined by high-level amplifications in 11q23.3 and associated with overexpression of genes including PAFAH1B2 on a transcriptional and protein level. The recurrent region of loss contained a focal homozygous deletion in 11q24.2-q24.3 including the ETS1 gene, which was shown to be mutated in 4 of 16 investigated cases. These findings indicate the existence of a molecularly distinct subset of B-cell lymphomas reminiscent of BL, which is characterized by deregulation of genes in 11q. PMID:24398325

Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Wagener, Rabea; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W.; Richter, Julia; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Adam, Patrick; Burkhardt, Birgit; Claviez, Alexander; Damm-Welk, Christine; Drexler, Hans G.; Hummel, Michael; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Küppers, Ralf; Lefebvre, Christine; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Löffler, Markus; Macleod, Roderick A. F.; Nagel, Inga; Oschlies, Ilske; Rosolowski, Maciej; Russell, Robert B.; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Schindler, Detlev; Schlesner, Matthias; Scholtysik, René; Schwaenen, Carsten; Spang, Rainer; Szczepanowski, Monika; Trümper, Lorenz; Vater, Inga; Wessendorf, Swen; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

2014-01-01

230

The location and translocation of ndh genes of chloroplast origin in the Orchidaceae family.  

PubMed

The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies. Four orchid cp genome sequences were found to contain a complete set of ndh genes. In other genomes, ndh deletions did not correlate to known taxonomic or evolutionary relationships and deletions occurred independently after the orchid family split into different subfamilies. In orchids lacking cp encoded ndh genes, non cp localized ndh sequences were identified. In Erycina pusilla, at least 10 truncated ndh gene fragments were found transferred to the mitochondrial (mt) genome. The phenomenon of orchid ndh transfer to the mt genome existed in ndh-deleted orchids and also in ndh containing species. PMID:25761566

Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J W; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Daniell, Henry; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Liao, Chen-Fu; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Chou, Ming-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yi; Shih, Ming-Che

2015-01-01

231

The location and translocation of ndh genes of chloroplast origin in the Orchidaceae family  

PubMed Central

The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies. Four orchid cp genome sequences were found to contain a complete set of ndh genes. In other genomes, ndh deletions did not correlate to known taxonomic or evolutionary relationships and deletions occurred independently after the orchid family split into different subfamilies. In orchids lacking cp encoded ndh genes, non cp localized ndh sequences were identified. In Erycina pusilla, at least 10 truncated ndh gene fragments were found transferred to the mitochondrial (mt) genome. The phenomenon of orchid ndh transfer to the mt genome existed in ndh-deleted orchids and also in ndh containing species. PMID:25761566

Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Daniell, Henry; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Liao, Chen-Fu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A.; Chou, Ming-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yi; Shih, Ming-Che

2015-01-01

232

Variability of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene.  

PubMed

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) plays an essential role in vertebrate transcriptional regulation as the common subunit of transcriptionally active complexes like the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)/ARNT heterodimer and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, mediating cellular responses to certain xenobiotics and to hypoxia, respectively. A cohort of healthy Caucasian volunteers was screened for genetic variations of ARNT. Six polymorphic sites could be identified, a variation in a G-stretch upstream of the ATG translation start site, a frequent silent mutation (G567C), two polymorphic sites in intron 9, and two single nucleotide substitutions leading to amino acid exchanges, G1531A (D511N) and T1551G (D517E). The frequencies were 0.005 for the Asn-coding allele and for the Glu-coding allele, respectively, with no linkage between these two mutations. Although no significant correlation with activities of CYP1A2, which is under regulatory control of the AHR/ARNT transcription complex, could be established, metabolic or pathological phenotypes may be associated with these variations. PMID:12032587

Scheel, Julia; Hussong, Ragna; Schrenk, Dieter; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim

2002-01-01

233

IFN Regulatory Factor 8 Regulates MDM2 in Germinal Center B Cells1  

E-print Network

IFN Regulatory Factor 8 Regulates MDM2 in Germinal Center B Cells1 Jeff X. Zhou,2,3 Chang Hoon Lee-dependent and -independent apoptosis pathways, in germinal center (GC) B cells. In GC B cells of IRF8 to specific patho- gens, Ig genes undergo genomic sequence rearrange- ments in germinal center (GC)4 B cells

234

Heterozygous submicroscopic inversions involving olfactory receptor-gene clusters mediate the recurrent t(4;8)(p16;p23) translocation.  

PubMed

The t(4;8)(p16;p23) translocation, in either the balanced form or the unbalanced form, has been reported several times. Taking into consideration the fact that this translocation may be undetected in routine cytogenetics, we find that it may be the most frequent translocation after t(11q;22q), which is the most common reciprocal translocation in humans. Case subjects with der(4) have the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, whereas case subjects with der(8) show a milder spectrum of dysmorphic features. Two pairs of the many olfactory receptor (OR)-gene clusters are located close to each other, on both 4p16 and 8p23. Previously, we demonstrated that an inversion polymorphism of the OR region at 8p23 plays a crucial role in the generation of chromosomal imbalances through unusual meiotic exchanges. These findings prompted us to investigate whether OR-related inversion polymorphisms at 4p16 and 8p23 might also be involved in the origin of the t(4;8)(p16;p23) translocation. In seven case subjects (five of whom both represented de novo cases and were of maternal origin), including individuals with unbalanced and balanced translocations, we demonstrated that the breakpoints fell within the 4p and 8p OR-gene clusters. FISH experiments with appropriate bacterial-artificial-chromosome probes detected heterozygous submicroscopic inversions of both 4p and 8p regions in all the five mothers of the de novo case subjects. Heterozygous inversions on 4p16 and 8p23 were detected in 12.5% and 26% of control subjects, respectively, whereas 2.5% of them were scored as doubly heterozygous. These novel data emphasize the importance of segmental duplications and large-scale genomic polymorphisms in the evolution and pathology of the human genome. PMID:12058347

Giglio, Sabrina; Calvari, Vladimiro; Gregato, Giuliana; Gimelli, Giorgio; Camanini, Silvia; Giorda, Roberto; Ragusa, Angela; Guerneri, Silvana; Selicorni, Angelo; Stumm, Marcus; Tonnies, Holger; Ventura, Mario; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni; Barber, John; Wieczorek, Dagmar; Rocchi, Mariano; Zuffardi, Orsetta

2002-08-01

235

[Detection of fusion genes associated with specific translocations in acute leukemia patients with normal karyotypes by using multiplex RT-PCR].  

PubMed

This study was aimed to explore the usefulness of multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (multiplex RT-PCR) in detection of fusion genes associated with specific translocations in acute leukemia (AL) patients with normal karyotypes. 37 AL patients with normal karyotypes were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR. The results showed that 4 types of fusion genes such as PML/RARA, AML1/ETO, CBFbeta/MYH11, BCR/ABL were detected in 8 (21.6%) patients by multiplex RT-PCR. In conclusion, multiplex RT-PCR is useful in detection of fusion genes associated with specific translocations in acute leukemia (AL) with normal karyotypes and it would refine the karyotype analysis. When the normal karyotypes were detected in acute leukemia patients by conventional cytogenetic method, the multiplex RT-PCR should be performed for them. PMID:16638186

Ma, Li; Xue, Yong-Quan; Pan, Jin-Lan; He, Jun; Wu, Ya-Fang; Cen, Jian-Nong; Wen, Bin-Zhao

2006-04-01

236

Frequent occurrence of deletions and duplications during somatic hypermutation: Implications for oncogene translocations and heavy chain disease  

PubMed Central

Human naive and germinal center (GC) B cells were sorted by flow cytometry and rearranged VH region genes were amplified and sequenced from single cells. Whereas no deletions or insertions were found in naive B cells, ?4% of in-frame and >40% of out-of-frame rearrangements of GC B cells harbored deletions and/or insertions of variable length. The pattern of deletions/insertions and their restriction to mutated V genes strongly suggests that they result from somatic hypermutation. Deletions and insertions account for ?6% of somatic mutations introduced into rearranged VH region genes of GC B cells. These deletions/insertions seem to be the main cause for the generation of heavy chain disease proteins. Furthermore, it appears that several types of oncogene translocations (like c-myc translocations in Burkitt’s lymphoma) occur as a byproduct of somatic hypermutation within the GC—and not during V(D)J recombination in the bone marrow as previously thought. PMID:9482908

Goossens, Tina; Klein, Ulf; Küppers, Ralf

1998-01-01

237

Restoring balance to B cells in ADA deficiency.  

PubMed

It is paradoxical that immunodeficiency disorders are associated with autoimmunity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, a cause of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is a case in point. In this issue of the JCI, Sauer and colleagues investigate the B cell defects in ADA-deficient patients. They demonstrate that ADA patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy had B cell tolerance checkpoint defects. Remarkably, gene therapy with a retrovirus that expresses ADA resulted in the apparent correction of these defects, with normalization of peripheral B cell autoantibody frequencies. In vitro, agents that either block ADA or overexpress adenosine resulted in altered B cell receptor and TLR signaling. Collectively, these data implicate a B cell-intrinsic mechanism for alterations in B cell tolerance in the setting of partial ADA deficiency that is corrected by gene therapy. PMID:22622034

Luning Prak, Eline T

2012-06-01

238

elk, Tissue-Specific ets-Related Genes on Chromosomes X and 14 near Translocation Breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The myb-ets-containing acute leukemia virus, E26, transforms myeloblasts and erythroblasts in culture and causes a mixed erythroid and myeloid leukemia in chicks. Genes (ets-1, ets-2, and erg) with variable relatedness to the v-ets oncogene of the E26 virus have been identified, cloned, and characterized in several species. Two new members (elk-1 and elk-2) of the ets oncogene superfamily have now

Veena N. Rao; Kay Huebner; Masaharu Isobe; Abbas Ar-Rushdi; Carlo M. Croce; E. Shyam P. Reddy

1989-01-01

239

A mannosyltransferase gene at 11q23 is disrupted by a translocation breakpoint that co-segregates with bipolar affective disorder in a small family  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disease characterized by extreme mood swings. Genetic influences\\u000a affect the disease susceptibility substantially, yet the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We previously described a pedigree\\u000a in which all five individuals with BPAD and one individual with recurrent major depression were carriers of a reciprocal chromosomal\\u000a translocation t(9;11)(p24;q23). Gene content analyses of the

Bora E. Baysal; Joan E. Willett-Brozick; Judith A. Badner; Winston Corona; Robert E. Ferrell; Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar; Sevilla D. Detera-Wadleigh

2002-01-01

240

B Cell Aortic Homing and Atheroprotection Depend on Id3  

PubMed Central

Rationale B cells are abundant in the adventitia of normal and diseased vessels. Yet, the molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating homing of B cells to the vessel wall and B cell effects on atherosclerosis are poorly understood. Inhibitor of Differentiation-3 (Id3), is important for atheroprotection in mice and polymorphism in the human ID3 gene has been implicated as a potential risk marker of atherosclerosis in humans. Yet the role of Id3 in B cell regulation of atherosclerosis is unknown. Objective To determine if Id3 regulates B cell homing to the aorta and atheroprotection, and identify molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this effect. Methods and Results Loss of Id3 in Apoe?/? mice resulted in early and increased atherosclerosis. Flow cytometry revealed a defect in Id3?/? Apoe?/? mice in the number of B cells in the aorta, but not the spleen, lymph nodes and circulation. Similarly, B cells transferred from Id3?/? Apoe?/? mice into B cell deficient micereconstituted spleen, lymph node and blood similarly to B cells from Id3+/+ Apoe?/? mice, but aortic reconstitution and B cell-mediated inhibition of diet-induced atherosclerosis was significantly impaired. In addition to retarding initiation of atherosclerosis, B cells homed to regions of existing atherosclerosis, reduced macrophage content in plaque and attenuated progression of disease. The chemokine receptor, CCR6, was identified as an important Id3 target mediating aortic homing and atheroprotection. Conclusions Together, these results are the first to identify the Id3-CCR6 pathway in B cells and demonstrate its role in aortic B cell homing and B cell mediated protection from early atherosclerosis. PMID:22034493

Doran, Amanda C.; Lipinski, Michael J.; Oldham, Stephanie N.; Garmey, James C.; Campbell, Kirsti A.; Skaflen, Marcus D.; Cutchins, Alexis; Lee, Daniel J.; Glover, David K.; Kelly, Kimberly A.; Galkina, Elena V.; Ley, Klaus; Witztum, Joseph L.; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

2011-01-01

241

Attenuation of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vaccine Vectors by Gene Translocations and G Gene Truncation Reduces Neurovirulence and Enhances Immunogenicity in Mice?  

PubMed Central

Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) has shown great potential as a new viral vector for vaccination. However, the prototypic rVSV vector described previously was found to be insufficiently attenuated for clinical evaluation when assessed for neurovirulence in nonhuman primates. Here, we describe the attenuation, neurovirulence, and immunogenicity of rVSV vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag. These rVSV vectors were attenuated by combinations of the following manipulations: N gene translocations (N4), G gene truncations (CT1 or CT9), noncytopathic M gene mutations (Mncp), and positioning of the gag gene into the first position of the viral genome (gag1). The resulting N4CT1-gag1, N4CT9-gag1, and MncpCT1-gag1 vectors demonstrated dramatically reduced neurovirulence in mice following direct intracranial inoculation. Surprisingly, in spite of a very high level of attenuation, the N4CT1-gag1 and N4CT9-gag1 vectors generated robust Gag-specific immune responses following intramuscular immunization that were equivalent to or greater than immune responses generated by the more virulent prototypic vectors. MncpCT1-gag1 also induced Gag-specific immune responses following intramuscular immunization that were equivalent to immune responses generated by the prototypic rVSV vector. Placement of the gag gene in the first position of the VSV genome was associated with increased in vitro expression of Gag protein, in vivo expression of Gag mRNA, and enhanced immunogenicity of the vector. These findings demonstrate that through directed manipulation of the rVSV genome, vectors that have reduced neurovirulence and enhanced immunogenicity can be made. PMID:17942549

Cooper, David; Wright, Kevin J.; Calderon, Priscilla C.; Guo, Min; Nasar, Farooq; Johnson, J. Erik; Coleman, John W.; Lee, Margaret; Kotash, Cheryl; Yurgelonis, Irene; Natuk, Robert J.; Hendry, R. Michael; Udem, Stephen A.; Clarke, David K.

2008-01-01

242

Distinct pathways regulated by menin and by MLL1 in hematopoietic stem cells and developing B cells  

PubMed Central

Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL1) translocations encode fusion proteins retaining the N terminus of MLL1, which interacts with the tumor suppressor, menin. This interaction is essential for leukemogenesis and thus is a promising drug target. However, wild-type MLL1 plays a critical role in sustaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); therefore, disruption of an essential MLL1 cofactor would be expected to obliterate normal hematopoiesis. Here we show that rather than working together as a complex, menin and MLL1 regulate distinct pathways during normal hematopoiesis, particularly in HSCs and B cells. We demonstrate the lack of genetic interaction between menin and MLL1 in steady-state or regenerative hematopoiesis and in B-cell differentiation despite the fact that MLL1 is critical for these processes. In B cells, menin- or MLL1-regulated genes can be classified into 3 categories: (1) a relatively small group of coregulated genes including previously described targets Hoxa9 and Meis1 but also Mecom and Eya1, and much larger groups of (2) exclusively menin-regulated and (3) exclusively MLL1-regulated genes. Our results highlight the large degree of independence of these 2 proteins and demonstrate that menin is not a requisite cofactor for MLL1 during normal hematopoiesis. Furthermore, our data support the development of menin-MLL1–disrupting drugs as safe and selective leukemia targeting agents. PMID:23908472

Li, Bin E.; Gan, Tao; Meyerson, Matthew; Rabbitts, Terence H.

2013-01-01

243

B Cell-Intrinsic CD84 and Ly108 Maintain Germinal Center B Cell Tolerance.  

PubMed

Signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (SLAMs) play an integral role in immune regulation. Polymorphisms in the SLAM family receptors are implicated in human and mouse model of lupus disease. The lupus-associated, somatically mutated, and class-switched pathogenic autoantibodies are generated in spontaneously developed germinal centers (GCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. The role and mechanism of B cell-intrinsic expression of polymorphic SLAM receptors that affect B cell tolerance at the GC checkpoint are not clear. In this study, we generated several bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice that overexpress C57BL/6 (B6) alleles of different SLAM family genes on an autoimmune-prone B6.Sle1b background. B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6-derived Ly108 and CD84 exhibit a significant reduction in the spontaneously developed GC response and autoantibody production compared with B6.Sle1b mice. These data suggest a prominent role for Sle1b-derived Ly108 and CD84 in altering the GC checkpoint. We further confirm that expression of lupus-associated CD84 and Ly108 specifically on GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice is sufficient to break B cell tolerance, leading to an increase in autoantibody production. In addition, we observe that B6.Sle1b B cells have reduced BCR signaling and a lower frequency of B cell-T cell conjugates; the reverse is seen in B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6 alleles of CD84 and Ly108. Finally, we find a significant decrease in apoptotic GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice compared with B6 controls. Our study establishes a central role for GC B cell-specific CD84 and Ly108 expression in maintaining B cell tolerance in GCs and in preventing autoimmunity. PMID:25801429

Wong, Eric B; Soni, Chetna; Chan, Alice Y; Domeier, Phillip P; Shwetank; Abraham, Thomas; Limaye, Nisha; Khan, Tahsin N; Elias, Melinda J; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Wakeland, Edward K; Rahman, Ziaur S M

2015-05-01

244

The majority of human memory B cells recognizing RhD and tetanus resides in IgM+ B cells.  

PubMed

B cell memory to T cell-dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27(+) cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D(+) erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid-specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27(-) B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27(+)IgG(+) B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D(+) erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27(-)IgM(+) and CD27(+)IgM(+) B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27(-)IgM(+), CD27(+)IgM(+), and CD27(+)IgG(+) B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM(+) B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27(+) B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E; Verhagen, Onno J H M; Berkowska, Magdalena A; Vidarsson, Gestur; Ellen van der Schoot, C

2014-08-01

245

The 3;21 translocation in myelodysplasia results in a fusion transcript between the AML1 gene and the gene for EAP, a highly conserved protein associated with the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1.  

PubMed Central

In the 8;21 translocation, the AML1 gene, located at chromosome band 21q22, is translocated to chromosome 8 (q22), where it is fused to the ETO gene and transcribed as a chimeric gene. AML1 is the human homolog of the recently cloned mouse gene pebp2 alpha B, homologous to the DNA binding alpha subunit of the polyoma enhancer factor pebp2. AML1 is also involved in a translocation with chromosome 3 that is seen in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome and in chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. We have isolated a fusion cDNA clone from a t(3;21) library derived from a patient with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome; this clone contains sequences from AML1 and from EAP, which we have now localized to band 3q26. EAP has previously been characterized as a highly expressed small nuclear protein of 128 residues (EBER 1) associated with Epstein-Barr virus small RNA. The fusion clone contains the DNA binding 5' part of AML1 that is fused to ETO in the t(8;21) and, in addition, at least one other exon. The translocation replaces the last nine codons of AML1 with the last 96 codons of EAP. The fusion does not maintain the correct reading frame of EAP and may not lead to a functional chimeric protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8395054

Nucifora, G; Begy, C R; Erickson, P; Drabkin, H A; Rowley, J D

1993-01-01

246

A Unique Gene Encodes Spliceoforms of the B-Cell Adhesion Molecule Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Epithelial Cancer and of the Lutheran Blood Group Glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new members of the lg superfamily, the Lutheran (Lu) blood group glycoprotein and the B-cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM) epithelial cancer antigen, have been recently cloned from human placenta and colon cancer HT29 cell line, respec- tively. Although amino acid sequences deduced from cDNA analysis suggested that B-CAM should represent an abridged form of the Lu glycoprotein lacking the last

Cecile Rahuel; Marie Genevieve Mattei; Jean Pierre Cartron; Yves Colin

2010-01-01

247

Targeted Deletion of the Gene Encoding the La Autoantigen (Sjögren's Syndrome Antigen B) in B Cells or the Frontal Brain Causes Extensive Tissue Loss  

PubMed Central

La antigen (Sjögren's syndrome antigen B) is a phosphoprotein associated with nascent precursor tRNAs and other RNAs, and it is targeted by autoantibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Increased levels of La are associated with leukemias and other cancers, and various viruses usurp La to promote their replication. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) genetically depleted of La grow and proliferate, whereas deletion from mice causes early embryonic lethality, raising the question of whether La is required by mammalian cells generally or only to surpass a developmental stage. We developed a conditional La allele and used it in mice that express Cre recombinase in either B cell progenitors or the forebrain. B cell Mb1Cre La-deleted mice produce no B cells. Consistent with ?CamKII Cre, which induces deletion in hippocampal CA1 cells in the third postnatal week and later throughout the neocortex, brains develop normally in La-deleted mice until ?5 weeks and then lose a large amount of forebrain cells and mass, with evidence of altered pre-tRNA processing. The data indicate that La is required not only in proliferating cells but also in nondividing postmitotic cells. Thus, La is essential in different cell types and required for normal development of various tissue types. PMID:24190965

Gaidamakov, Sergei; Maximova, Olga A.; Chon, Hyongi; Blewett, Nathan H.; Wang, Hongsheng; Crawford, Amanda K.; Day, Amanda; Tulchin, Natalie; Crouch, Robert J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Blitzer, Robert D.

2014-01-01

248

Translocations in epithelial cancers  

PubMed Central

Genomic translocations leading to the expression of chimeric transcripts characterize several hematologic, mesenchymal and epithelial malignancies. While several gene fusions have been linked to essential molecular events in hematologic malignancies, the identification and characterization of recurrent chimeric transcripts in epithelial cancers has been limited. However, the recent discovery of the recurrent gene fusions in prostate cancer has sparked a revitalization of the quest to identify novel rearrangements in epithelial malignancies. Here, the molecular mechanisms of gene fusions that drive several epithelial cancers and the recent technological advances that increase the speed and reliability of recurrent gene fusion discovery are explored. PMID:19406209

Chad Brenner, J.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

2009-01-01

249

Activation Induced Deaminase in Antibody Diversification and Chromosome Translocation  

PubMed Central

DNA damage, rearrangement and mutation of the human genome are the basis of carcinogenesis and thought to be avoided at all costs. An exception is the adaptive immune system where lymphocytes utilize programmed DNA damage to effect antigen receptor diversification. Both B and T lymphocytes diversify their antigen receptors through RAG1/2 mediated recombination, but B cells undergo two additional processes – somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR), both initiated by Activation Induced Deaminase (AID). AID deaminates cytidines in DNA resulting in U:G mismatches that are processed into point mutations in SHM or double strand breaks in CSR. Although AID activity is focused at Immunoglobulin (Ig) gene loci, it also targets a wide array of non-Ig genes including oncogenes associated with lymphomas. Here we review the molecular basis of AID regulation, targeting, and initiation of CSR and SHM, as well as AID's role in generating chromosome translocations that contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:22429855

Gazumyan, Anna; Bothmer, Anne; Klein, Isaac A.; Nussenzweig, Michel C; McBride, Kevin M.

2015-01-01

250

Over-expression of cyclin D1 in chronic B-cell malignancies with abnormality of chromosome 11q13.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of B-cell chronic malignancies is sometimes uncertain, despite careful cytologic and immunophenotypic evaluation. Cytogenetics and molecular biology studies may therefore prove useful, because some of these disorders are associated with non-random abnormalities, such as the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation and bcl-1 rearrangement mainly observed in mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL). We studied the expression of cyclin D1 in malignant lymphoid cells from the peripheral blood of 32 patients with various B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders, using Northern blot (NB) and RNA in situ hybridization (ISH). Cytogenetic analysis was informative in 18 cases, and most of the missing karyotype data were from typical B-CLL cases where a t(11;14) is unlikely to be found. Over-expression of cyclin D1 mRNA was observed by both NB and ISH in four samples (MCL; two cases; lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma: one case, unclassified B-cell chronic disorder: one case). In each of these cases there was an abnormality of chromosome 11q13, either a t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation (three cases) or a del(11)(q13) without evidence of chromosome 14 involvement (one case). Cytogenetic and gene rearrangement studies are not available in all institutions and have some technical pitfalls. Because of its close association with bcl-1 rearrangement and/or t(11;14), the demonstration of cyclin D1 mRNA over-expression either by NB, or, more conveniently, by ISH, may represent additional information which could be of help for the identification of B-cell malignancies. PMID:7772515

Delmer, A; Ajchenbaum-Cymbalista, F; Tang, R; Ramond, S; Faussat, A M; Marie, J P; Zittoun, R

1995-04-01

251

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in a female with a de novo, balanced translocation involving 7q32: Probable disruption of an SLOS gene  

SciTech Connect

A 3-month-old infant girl had manifestations of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) including typical positional anomalies of the limbs, apparent Hirschsprung disease, cataracts, ptosis, anteverted nares, cleft of the posterior palate, small tongue, broad maxillary alveolar ridges, and abnormally low serum cholesterol levels. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation interpreted as 46,XX,t(7;20)(q32.1;q13.2). We hypothesize that the translocation breakpoint in this case interrupts one SLOS allele and that the other allele at the same locus has a more subtle mutation that was inherited from the other parent. This case, as well as cytogenetic observations in other SLOS cases, suggests that SLOS could be due to autosomal recessive mutation at a gene in 7q32. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Wallace, M.; Zori, R.T.; Alley, T.; Whidden, E.; Gray, B.A.; Williams, C.A. [Univ. of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1994-05-01

252

Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass. The degree of condensation of the chromatin fiber is modeled by changing length of the string: e.g. loosening of the structure is achieved by distributing the chromosome mass into a higher number of smaller beads and tighter configuration corresponds to a lower number of fragments (balls) with a bigger radius. Additionally, for each configuration, a degree of possible overlapping between domains is assumed. This procedure effectively intensifies loosening/tightening of the chromosome structure by changing the radial dimension of the domain while keeping a constant volume of the polymer chain. Such a positioning model is confronted with a minimalistic molecular dynamics model [5] on a similar structure, in which a chain of beads becomes connected by entropic spring energy and subjected to thermal fluctuations. Comparison of both Monte Carlo models allows to discuss variability of possible configurations as observed in static and dynamic models of chromosome territories along with the effect of compaction and relative arrangements of territorial polymer structures. Acknowledgements: Project is operated within the Foundation for Polish Science International Ph.D. Projects Programme co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund covering, under the agreement no. MPD/2009/6, the Jagiellonian University International Ph.D. Studies in Physics of Complex Systems. References: [1] F. Ballarini, M. Biaggi, and A. Ottolenghi, Radiation Protection Dosimetry 99, 175 (2002). [2] M. Nicodemi and A. Prisco, Biophysical Journal 96, 2168 (2009). [3] P. Cook and D. Marenduzzo, Journal of Cell Biology 186, 825 (2009). [4] M. Tark-Dame, R. van Driel, and D. Heermann, Journal of Cell Science 124, 839 (2011). [5] W. Swope, H. Andersen, P. Berens, and K. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 637 (1982).

Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

2012-07-01

253

Comparative analyses of B cell populations in trout kidney and mouse bone marrow; establishing “B cell signatures”  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to identify the frequency and distribution of developing B cell populations in the kidney of the rainbow trout, using four molecular B cell markers that are highly conserved between species, including two transcription factors, Pax5 and EBF1, recombination activating gene RAG1, and the immunoglobulin heavy chain mu. Three distinct B cell stages were defined: early developing B cells (CLP, pro-B, and early pre-B cells), late developing B cell (late pre-B, immature B, and mature B cells), and IgM-secreting cells. Developmental stage-specific, combinatorial expression of Pax5, EBF1, RAG1 and immunoglobulin mu was determined in trout anterior kidney cells by flow cytometry. Trout staining patterns were compared to a well-defined primary immune tissue, mouse bone marrow, and using mouse surface markers B220 and CD43. A remarkable level of similarity was uncovered between the primary immune tissues of both species. Subsequent analysis of the entire trout kidney, divided into five contiguous segments K1-K5, revealed a complex pattern of early developing, late developing, and IgM-secreting B cells. Patterns in anterior kidney segment K1 were most similar to those of mouse bone marrow, while the most posterior part of the kidney, K5, had many IgM-secreting cells, but lacked early developing B cells. A potential second B lymphopoiesis site was uncovered in segment K4 of the kidney. The B cell patterns, or “B cell signatures” described here provide information on the relative abundance of distinct developing B cell populations in the trout kidney, and can be used in future studies on B cell development in other vertebrate species. PMID:20705088

Zwollo, Patty; Mott, Katrina; Barr, Maggie

2010-01-01

254

Amplification of IGH/MYC fusion in clinically aggressive IGH/BCL2-positive germinal center B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

Activation of an oncogene via its juxtaposition to the IGH locus by a chromosomal translocation or, less frequently, by genomic amplification is considered a major mechanism of B-cell lymphomagenesis. However, amplification of an IGH/oncogene fusion, coined a complicon, is a rare event in human cancers and has been associated with poor outcome and resistance to treatment. In this article are descriptions of two cases of germinal-center-derived B-cell lymphomas with IGH/BCL2 fusion that additionally displayed amplification of an IGH/MYC fusion. As shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization, the first case contained a IGH/MYC complicon in double minutes, whereas the second case showed a BCL2/IGH/MYC complicon on a der(8)t(8;14)t(14;18). Additional molecular cytogenetic and mutation analyses revealed that the first case also contained a chromosomal translocation affecting the BCL6 oncogene and a biallelic inactivation of TP53. The second case harbored a duplication of REL and acquired a translocation affecting IGL and a biallelic inactivation of TP53 during progression. Complicons affecting Igh/Myc have been reported previously in lymphomas of mouse models simultaneously deficient in Tp53 and in genes of the nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that IGH/MYC complicons have been reported in human lymphomas. Our findings imply that the two mechanisms resulting in MYC deregulation, that is, translocation and amplification, can occur simultaneously. PMID:15852472

Martín-Subero, José Ignacio; Odero, María Dolores; Hernandez, Roberto; Cigudosa, Juan Cruz; Agirre, Xabier; Saez, Borja; Sanz-García, Eduardo; Ardanaz, María T; Novo, Francisco Javier; Gascoyne, Randy D; Calasanz, María José; Siebert, Reiner

2005-08-01

255

Aggressive B-cell lymphomas: a review of new and old entities in the WHO classification.  

PubMed

Aggressive B-cell lymphomas are clinically and pathologically diverse and reflect multiple pathways of transformation. The 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) classification reflects this complexity with the addition of several new entities and variants. Whereas MYC translocations have long been associated with Burkitt lymphoma (BL), deregulation of MYC has been shown to occur in other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, most often as a secondary event. Lymphomas with translocations of both MYC and BCL2 are highly aggressive tumors, with a high failure rate with most treatment protocols. These "double-hit" lymphomas are now separately delineated in the WHO classification as B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and BL. A MYC translocation is also found uncommonly in DLBCL, but the clinical consequences of this in the absence of a double hit are not yet fully delineated. Most recently, MYC translocations have been identified as a common secondary event in plasma cell neoplasms, seen in approximately 50% of plasmablastic lymphoma. Another area that has received recent attention is the spectrum of EBV-driven B-cell proliferations in patients without iatrogenic or congenital immunosuppression; most of these occur in patients of advanced age and include the EBV-positive large B-cell lymphomas of the elderly. PMID:22160082

Jaffe, Elaine S; Pittaluga, Stefania

2011-01-01

256

Disruption of friend of GATA 2 gene (FOG-2) by a de novo t(8;10) chromosomal translocation is associated with heart defects and gonadal dysgenesis.  

PubMed

FOG-2 (Friend of GATA 2) is a transcriptional cofactor able to differentially regulate the expression of GATA-target genes in different promoter contexts. Mouse models evidenced that FOG-2 plays a role in congenital heart disease and normal testis development. In human, while FOG-2 mutations have been identified in sporadic cases of tetralogy of Fallot, no mutations are described to be associated with impaired gonadal function. We here describe a young boy with a balanced t(8;10)(q23.1;q21.1) translocation who was born with congenital secundum-type atrial septal defect and gonadal dysgenesis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapped the chromosome 8 translocation breakpoint (bkp) to within the IVS4 of the FOG-2 gene, whereas the chromosome 10 bkp was found to lie in a desert gene region. Quantitative analysis of FOG-2 expression revealed the presence of a truncated transcript but there was no detectable change in the expression of the genes flanking the 10q bkp, thus making it possible to assign the observed clinical phenotype to altered FOG-2 expression. Genetic and clinical analyses provide insights into the signaling pathways by which FOG-2 affects not only cardiac development but also gonadal function and its preservation. PMID:17309641

Finelli, P; Pincelli, A I; Russo, S; Bonati, M T; Recalcati, M P; Masciadri, M; Giardino, D; Cavagnini, F; Larizza, L

2007-03-01

257

Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies  

PubMed Central

Research over the role of Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

2014-01-01

258

Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders  

PubMed Central

Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesăo, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

2014-01-01

259

The clinical impact of chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints upstream of the SOX9 gene: two novel de novo balanced translocations associated with acampomelic campomelic dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Background The association of balanced rearrangements with breakpoints near SOX9 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9] with skeletal abnormalities has been ascribed to the presumptive altering of SOX9 expression by the direct disruption of regulatory elements, their separation from SOX9 or the effect of juxtaposed sequences. Case presentation We report on two sporadic apparently balanced translocations, t(7;17)(p13;q24) and t(17;20)(q24.3;q11.2), whose carriers have skeletal abnormalities that led to the diagnosis of acampomelic campomelic dysplasia (ACD; MIM 114290). No pathogenic chromosomal imbalances were detected by a-CGH. The chromosome 17 breakpoints were mapped, respectively, 917–855 kb and 601–585 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene. A distal cluster of balanced rearrangements breakpoints on chromosome 17 associated with SOX9-related skeletal disorders has been mapped to a segment 932–789 kb upstream of SOX9. In this cluster, the breakpoint of the herein described t(17;20) is the most telomeric to SOX9, thus allowing the redefining of the telomeric boundary of the distal breakpoint cluster region related to skeletal disorders to 601–585 kb upstream of SOX9. Although both patients have skeletal abnormalities, the t(7;17) carrier presents with relatively mild clinical features, whereas the t(17;20) was detected in a boy with severe broncheomalacia, depending on mechanical ventilation. Balanced and unbalanced rearrangements associated with disorders of sex determination led to the mapping of a regulatory region of SOX9 function on testicular differentiation to a 517–595 kb interval upstream of SOX9, in addition to TESCO (Testis-specific enhancer of SOX9 core). As the carrier of t(17;20) has an XY sex-chromosome constitution and normal male development for his age, the segment of chromosome 17 distal to the translocation breakpoint should contain the regulatory elements for normal testis development. Conclusions These two novel translocations illustrate the clinical variability in carriers of balanced translocations with breakpoints near SOX9. The translocation t(17;20) breakpoint provides further evidence for an additional testis-specific SOX9 enhancer 517 to 595 kb upstream of the SOX9 gene. PMID:23648064

2013-01-01

260

Structure of the human receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene (PTPRG) and relation to the familial RCC t(3;8) chromosome translocation  

SciTech Connect

The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase {gamma} gene, PTP{gamma} (locus name PTPRG), was previously mapped to chromosome region 3p14.2, within a 2- to 4-Mb region centromeric to the 3p14.2 breakpoint of the t(3;8) familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated constitutional chromosome translocation. Because of its chromosomal position, its enzymatic properties as a receptor phosphatase, which might oppose a growth activating kinase activity, its homozygous deletion in murine L cells, and its transcriptional activity in numerous normal tissues, including kidney, the PTP{gamma} gene was an attractive tumor suppressor gene candidate for renal cell carcinoma. To determine whether the PTP{gamma} gene was a target of loss of heterozygosity or mutation in RCCs and to determine its map position relative to the t(3;8) break at 3p14.2, we have isolated YAC and {lambda} genomic clones for the PTP{gamma} gene and other 3p14.2 markers and determined the relative positions of the t(3;8) break, a 3p14.2 de novo break possibly in a fragile site, and the 5{prime} end of the PTP{gamma} gene. Additionally, the genomic structure, position of the proximal promotor, and intron-exon border sequences of the 30-exon {approximately} 780-kb PTP{gamma} gene have been determined, which will facilitate analysis of the PTP{gamma} gene in tumors. 49 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Kastury, K.; Ohta, M.; Druck, T.; Huebner, K. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others] [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); and others

1996-03-01

261

E?-BCL10 mice exhibit constitutive activation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-?B pathways generating marginal zone (MZ) B-cell expansion as a precursor to splenic MZ lymphoma  

PubMed Central

BCL10, required for nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation during antigen-driven lymphocyte responses, is aberrantly expressed in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type marginal zone (MZ) lymphomas because of chromosomal translocations. E?-driven human BCL10 transgenic (Tg) mice, which we created and characterize here, had expanded populations of MZ B cells and reduced follicular and B1a cells. Splenic B cells from Tg mice exhibited constitutive activation of both canonical and noncanonical NF-?B signaling pathways is associated with increased expression of NF-?B target genes. These genes included Tnfsf13b, which encodes the B-cell activating factor (BAFF). In addition, levels of BAFF were significantly increased in sera from Tg mice. MZ B cells of Tg mice exhibited reduced turnover in vivo and enhanced survival in vitro, indicative of lymphoaccumulation rather than lymphoproliferation as the cause of MZ expansion. In vivo antibody responses to both T-independent, and especially T-dependent, antigens were significantly reduced in Tg mice. Mortality was accelerated in Tg animals, and some mice older than 8 months had histologic and molecular findings indicative of clonal splenic MZ lymphoma. These results suggest that, in addition to constitutive activation of BCL10 in MZ B cells, other genetic factors or environmental influences are required for short latency oncogenic transformation. PMID:19696203

Li, Zhaoyang; Wang, Hongsheng; Xue, Liquan; Shin, Dong-Mi; Roopenian, Derry; Xu, Wu; Qi, Chen-Feng; Sangster, Mark Y.; Orihuela, Carlos J.; Tuomanen, Elaine; Rehg, Jerold E.; Cui, Xiaoli

2009-01-01

262

Next-generation sequencing of translocation renal cell carcinoma reveals novel RNA splicing partners and frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes  

PubMed Central

Purpose MITF/TFE translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer. Its incidence and the genome-wide characterization of its genetic origin have not been fully elucidated. Experimental design We performed RNA and exome sequencing on an exploratory set of TRCC (n=7), and validated our findings using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) dataset (n=460). Results Using the TCGA dataset, we identified 7 TRCC (1.5%) cases and determined their genomic profile. We discovered three novel partners of MITF/TFE (LUC7L3, KHSRP and KHDRBS2), which are involved in RNA splicing. TRCC displayed a unique gene expression signature as compared to other RCC types, and showed activation of MITF, the transforming growth factor ?1 and the PI3K complex targets. Genes differentially spliced between TRCC and other RCC types were enriched for MITF and ID2 targets. Exome sequencing of TRCC revealed a distinct mutational spectrum as compared to ccRCC, with frequent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes (six of eight cases, three of which from the TCGA). In two cases, we identified mutations in INO80D, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling gene, previously shown to control the amplitude of the S phase. Knockdown of INO80D decreased cell proliferation in a novel cell line bearing LUC7L3-TFE3 translocation. Conclusions This genome-wide study defines the incidence of TRCC within a ccRCC-directed project and expands the genomic spectrum of TRCC by identifying novel MITF/TFE partners involved in RNA splicing and frequent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes. PMID:24899691

Malouf, Gabriel G.; Su, Xiaoping; Yao, Hui; Gao, Jianjun; Xiong, Liangwen; He, Qiuming; Compérat, Eva; Couturier, Jérôme; Molinié, Vincent; Escudier, Bernard; Camparo, Philippe; Doss, Denaha J.; Thompson, Erika J; Khayat, David; Wood, Christopher G.; Yu, Willie; Teh, Bin T.; Weinstein, John; Tannir, Nizar M.

2014-01-01

263

B-cell-activating factor inhibits CD20-mediated and B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in human B cells  

PubMed Central

B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a survival and maturation factor for B cells belonging to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily. Among three identified functional receptors, the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) is thought to be responsible for the effect of BAFF on B cells though details of how remain unclear. We determined that a hairy-cell leukaemia line, MLMA, expressed a relatively high level of BAFF-R and was susceptible to apoptosis mediated by either CD20 or B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Using MLMA cells as an in vitro model of mature B cells, we found that treatment with BAFF could inhibit apoptosis mediated by both CD20 and BCR. We also observed, using immunoblot analysis and microarray analysis, that BAFF treatment induced activation of nuclear factor-?B2 following elevation of the expression level of Bcl-2, which may be involved in the molecular mechanism of BAFF-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, BAFF treatment was also found to induce the expression of a series of genes, such as that for CD40, related to cell survival, suggesting the involvement of a multiple mechanism in the BAFF-mediated anti-apoptotic effect. MLMA cells should provide a model for investigating the molecular basis of the effect of BAFF on B cells in vitro and will help to elucidate how B cells survive in the immune system in which BAFF-mediated signalling is involved. PMID:18540961

Saito, Yohei; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Onda, Keiko; Nakajima, Hideki; Sato, Ban; Horiuchi, Yasuomi; Okita, Hajime; Katagiri, Yohko U; Saito, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

2008-01-01

264

Essential role of EBF1 in the generation and function of distinct mature B cell types  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor EBF1 is essential for lineage specification in early B cell development. In this study, we demonstrate by conditional mutagenesis that EBF1 is required for B cell commitment, pro–B cell development, and subsequent transition to the pre–B cell stage. Later in B cell development, EBF1 was essential for the generation and maintenance of several mature B cell types. Marginal zone and B-1 B cells were lost, whereas follicular (FO) and germinal center (GC) B cells were reduced in the absence of EBF1. Activation of the B cell receptor resulted in impaired intracellular signaling, proliferation and survival of EBF1-deficient FO B cells. Immune responses were severely reduced upon Ebf1 inactivation, as GCs were formed but not maintained. ChIP- and RNA-sequencing of FO B cells identified EBF1-activated genes that encode receptors, signal transducers, and transcriptional regulators implicated in B cell signaling. Notably, ectopic expression of EBF1 efficiently induced the development of B-1 cells at the expense of conventional B cells. These gain- and loss-of-function analyses uncovered novel important functions of EBF1 in controlling B cell immunity. PMID:22473956

Vilagos, Bojan; Hoffmann, Mareike; Souabni, Abdallah; Sun, Qiong; Werner, Barbara; Medvedovic, Jasna; Bilic, Ivan; Minnich, Martina; Axelsson, Elin; Jaritz, Markus

2012-01-01

265

B Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease. PMID:23248624

Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

2012-01-01

266

Human B cell defects in perspective  

PubMed Central

While primary immune defects are generally considered to lead to severe and easily recognized disease in infants and children, a number of genetic defects impairing B cell function may not be clinically apparent or diagnosed until adult life. The commonest of these is common variable immune deficiency, the genetic origins of which are beginning to be at least partially understood. CVID affects ? 1/25,000 Caucasians and is characterized by a marked reduction in serum IgG, almost always in serum IgA, and reduced serum IgM in about half of all cases; these defects continue to provide an opportunity to investigate the genes necessary for B cell function in humans. Recently, a small number of genes necessary for normal B cell function have been identified in consanguineous families leading to varying degrees of hypogammaglobulinemia and loss of antibody production. In other studies, whole-exome sequencing and copy number variation, applied to large cohorts, have extended research into understanding both the genetic basis of this syndrome and the clinical phenotypes of CVID. PMID:22477523

2012-01-01

267

Molecular programming of B cell memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of high-affinity B cell memory is regulated through three separable phases, each involving antigen recognition by specific B cells and cognate T helper cells. Initially, antigen-primed B cells require cognate T cell help to gain entry into the germinal centre pathway to memory. Once in the germinal centre, B cells with variant B cell receptors must access antigens

Shinji Okitsu; Nathaniel Wang; Louise McHeyzer-Williams; Michael McHeyzer-Williams

2011-01-01

268

IRF4 controls the positioning of mature B cells in the lymphoid microenvironments by regulating NOTCH2 expression and activity  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4) is expressed in B cells at most developmental stages. In antigen-activated B cells, IRF4 controls germinal center formation, class-switch recombination, and the generation of plasma cells. Here we describe a novel function for IRF4 in the homeostasis of mature B cells. Inducible deletion of irf4 specifically in B cells in vivo led to the aberrant accumulation of irf4-deleted follicular B cells in the marginal zone (MZ) area. IRF4-deficient B cells showed elevated protein expression and activation of NOTCH2, a transmembrane receptor and transcriptional regulator known to be required for MZ B cell development. Administration of a NOTCH2-inhibitory antibody abolished nuclear translocation of NOTCH2 in B cells within 12 h and caused a rapid and progressive disintegration of the MZ that was virtually complete 48 h after injection. The disappearance of the MZ was accompanied by a transient increase of MZ-like B cells in the blood rather than increased B cell apoptosis, demonstrating that continued NOTCH2 activation is critical for the retention of B cells in the MZ. Our results suggest that IRF4 controls the positioning of mature B cells in the lymphoid microenvironments by regulating NOTCH2 expression. These findings may have implications for the understanding of B cell malignancies with dysregulated IRF4 and NOTCH2 activity. PMID:24323359

Simonetti, Giorgia; Carette, Amanda; Silva, Kathryn; Wang, Haowei; De Silva, Nilushi S.; Heise, Nicole; Siebel, Christian W.; Shlomchik, Mark J.

2013-01-01

269

Robertsonian translocations  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 27, describes the occurrence of Robertsonian translocations (RTs), which refer to the recombination of whole chromosome arms, in both monocentric and dicentric chromosomes. The nonrandom participation of acrocentric chromosomes in RTs is documented by various methods, including unbiased ascertainment and ascertainment through trisomy, infertility, unspecified mental retardation, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Causes of nonrandom participation of chromosomes in RTs is presented, as are the following topics: segregation in carriers of RTs and segregation in sperm cells of RT carriers, interchromosomal effects and conclusions. 48 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

NONE

1993-12-31

270

Multiple Translocation of the AVR-Pita Effector Gene among Chromosomes of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and Related Species  

PubMed Central

Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens) and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2) is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation. PMID:21829350

Chuma, Izumi; Isobe, Chihiro; Hotta, Yuma; Ibaragi, Kana; Futamata, Natsuru; Kusaba, Motoaki; Yoshida, Kentaro; Terauchi, Ryohei; Fujita, Yoshikatsu; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Valent, Barbara; Tosa, Yukio

2011-01-01

271

UBE2QL1 is disrupted by a constitutional translocation associated with renal tumor predisposition and is a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene.  

PubMed

Investigation of rare familial forms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has led to the identification of genes such as VHL and MET that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of sporadic RCC. In order to identify a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene, we characterized the breakpoints of a constitutional balanced translocation, t(5;19)(p15.3;q12), associated with familial RCC and found that a previously uncharacterized gene UBE2QL1 was disrupted by the chromosome 5 breakpoint. UBE2QL1 mRNA expression was downregulated in 78.6% of sporadic RCC and, although no intragenic mutations were detected, gene deletions and promoter region hypermethylation were detected in 17.3% and 20.3%, respectively, of sporadic RCC. Reexpression of UBE2QL1 in a deficient RCC cell line suppressed anchorage-independent growth. UBE2QL1 shows homology to the E2 class of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and we found that (1) UBE2QL1 possesses an active-site cysteine (C88) that is monoubiquitinated in vivo, and (2) UBE2QL1 interacts with FBXW7 (an F box protein providing substrate recognition to the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase) and facilitates the degradation of the known FBXW7 targets, CCNE1 and mTOR. These findings suggest UBE2QL1 as a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene. PMID:24000165

Wake, Naomi C; Ricketts, Christopher J; Morris, Mark R; Prigmore, Elena; Gribble, Susan M; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Brown, Michael; Clarke, Noel; Banks, Rosamonde E; Hodgson, Shirley; Turnell, Andrew S; Maher, Eamonn R; Woodward, Emma R

2013-12-01

272

Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene usage and mutational status of the leukemic B cells in Iranian patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

The mutational status of the immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain genes (IGHV) is an important prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The data accumulated in the literature has largely been derived from studies conducted on Caucasian Western populations. Little is known about Asian CLL patients. In this study the IGHV genes usage and somatic hypermutation status have been investigated in 87 Iranian CLL patients. Based on a cut-off of 98% nucleotide sequence homology, 64.4% and 35.6% of the patients expressed mutated and unmutated IGHV genes, respectively, with most non-progressive patients being in the mutated group (35/44 vs 19/40; P = 0.009). Progression-free survival (PFS) and time to first treatment (TTFT) were significantly higher in our mutated and non-progressive patients compared to unmutated and progressive subtypes, respectively. The most frequently used IGHV gene was IGHV3-7 (12.6%) followed by IGHV3-30 (11.4%), IGHV3-48 (9.2%), IGHV4-39 (6.9%), and IGHV1-8 (6.9%) genes, which taken together comprised nearly half of the IGHV genes expressed in the Iranian CLL patients. Of the IGHV genes, IGHV3-7 was significantly over-represented in non-progressive compared to progressive CLL patients (P = 0.036), whereas IGHV1-69 and IGHV1-2 were expressed at a higher frequency in unmutated compared to mutated CLL patients (P < 0.03). Comparison of IGHV gene usage in our patients with that of Western CLL patients revealed significant differences in expression of IGHV1-69, IGHV3-7, IGHV3-21, and IGHV4-34 genes. Analysis of the IGHV third complementary determining region (HCDR3) sequences revealed a high frequency use of certain HCDR3 motifs, such as YYYGMDV, in our samples. These findings imply contribution of antigen selection and regional (ethnic/geographic) parameters in the leukomogenesis of CLL. PMID:19824994

Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Sharifian, Ramazan Ali; Mellstedt, Hakan; Shokri, Fazel; Rabbani, Hodjatallah

2009-12-01

273

Downregulation of FOXP1 is required during germinal center B-cell function  

PubMed Central

B-cell maturation and germinal center (GC) formation are dependent on the interplay between BCL6 and other transcriptional regulators. FOXP1 is a transcription factor that regulates early B-cell development, but whether it plays a role in mature B cells is unknown. Analysis of human tonsillar B-cell subpopulations revealed that FOXP1 shows the opposite expression pattern to BCL6, suggesting that FOXP1 regulates the transition from resting follicular B cell to activated GC B cell. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and gene expression assays on B cells indicated that FOXP1 acts as a transcriptional activator and repressor of genes involved in the GC reaction, half of which are also BCL6 targets. To study FOXP1 function in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing human FOXP1 in lymphoid cells. These mice exhibited irregular formation of splenic GCs, showing a modest increase in naďve and marginal-zone B cells and a significant decrease in GC B cells. Furthermore, aberrant expression of FOXP1 impaired transcription of noncoding ?1 germline transcripts and inhibited efficient class switching to the immunoglobulin G1 isotype. These studies show that FOXP1 is physiologically downregulated in GC B cells and that aberrant expression of FOXP1 impairs mechanisms triggered by B-cell activation, potentially contributing to B-cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:23580662

Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Roa, Sergio; Bunting, Karen L.; Aznar, María Angela; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita; Fontán, Lorena; Fresquet, Vicente; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; Robles, Eloy F.; De Smedt, Linde; Sagaert, Xavier

2013-01-01

274

Chemokine-mediated B cell trafficking during early rabbit GALT development.  

PubMed

Microbial and host cell interactions stimulate rabbit B cells to diversify the primary Ab repertoire in GALT. B cells at the base of appendix follicles begin proliferating and diversifying their V-(D)-J genes around 1 wk of age, ?5 d after B cells first begin entering appendix follicles. To gain insight into the microbial and host cell interactions that stimulate B cells to diversify the primary Ab repertoire, we analyzed B cell trafficking within follicles during the first week of life. We visualized B cells, as well as chemokines that mediate B cell homing in lymphoid tissues, by in situ hybridization, and we examined B cell chemokine receptor expression by flow cytometry. We found that B cells were activated and began downregulating their BCRs well before a detectable B cell proliferative region appeared at the follicle base. The proliferative region was similar to germinal center dark zones, in that it exhibited elevated CXCL12 mRNA expression, and B cells that upregulated CXCR4 mRNA in response to signals acquired from selected intestinal commensals localized in this region. Our results suggest that after entering appendix follicles, B cells home sequentially to the follicle-associated epithelium, the follicular dendritic cell network, the B cell/T cell boundary, and, ultimately, the base of the follicle, where they enter a proliferative program and diversify the primary Ab repertoire. PMID:25385821

Zhai, Shi-Kang; Volgina, Veronica V; Sethupathi, Periannan; Knight, Katherine L; Lanning, Dennis K

2014-12-15

275

Modeling the evolution of ETV6-RUNX1-induced B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in mice  

PubMed Central

The t(12;21) translocation which generates the ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1) fusion gene, is the most common chromosomal rearrangement in childhood cancer and is exclusively associated with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). The translocation arises in utero and is necessary but insufficient for the development of leukemia. SNP array analysis of ETV6-RUNX1 patient samples have identified multiple additional genetic alterations, however the role of these lesions in leukemogenesis remains undetermined. Moreover, murine models of ETV6-RUNX1 ALL that faithfully recapitulate the human disease are lacking. To identify novel genes that co-operate with ETV6-RUNX1 in leukemogenesis, we generated a mouse model that uses the endogenous Etv6 locus to co-express the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion and Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase. An insertional mutagenesis screen was performed by intercrossing these mice with those carrying a SB transposon array. In contrast to previous models, a substantial proportion (20%) of the offspring developed BCP-ALL. Isolation of the transposon insertion sites identified genes known to be associated with BCP-ALL, including Ebf1 and Epor, in addition to other novel candidates. This is the first mouse model of ETV6-RUNX1 to develop BCP-ALL and provides important insights into the cooperating genetic alterations in ETV6-RUNX1 leukemia. PMID:21628403

van der Weyden, Louise; Giotopoulos, George; Rust, Alistair G.; Matheson, Louise S.; van Delft, Frederik W.; Kong, Jun; Corcoran, Anne E.; Greaves, Mel F.; Mullighan, Charles G.; Huntly, Brian J.; Adams, David J.

2013-01-01

276

Generation of antibody- and B cell-deficient pigs by targeted disruption of the J-region gene segment of the heavy chain locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A poly(A)-trap gene targeting strategy was used to disrupt the single functional heavy chain (HC) joining region (JH) of swine in primary fibroblasts. Genetically modified piglets were then generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)\\u000a and bred to yield litters comprising JH wild-type littermate (+\\/+), JH heterozygous knockout (±) and JH homozygous knockout (?\\/?) piglets in the expected Mendelian ratio

M. Mendicino; J. Ramsoondar; C. Phelps; T. Vaught; S. Ball; T. LeRoith; J. Monahan; S. Chen; A. Dandro; J. Boone; P. Jobst; A. Vance; N. Wertz; Z. Bergman; X. Z. Sun; I. Polejaeva; J. Butler; Y. Dai; D. Ayares; K. Wells

2011-01-01

277

DAP-kinase loss of expression in various carcinoma and B-cell lymphoma cell lines: possible implications for role as tumor suppressor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

DAP-kinase is a novel calmodulin dependent serine\\/threonine kinase that carries ankyrin repeats and the death domain. It was recently isolated, by a functional selection approach of gene cloning, as a positive mediator of programmed cell death. In this study the expression of DAP-kinase was examined in the cell lines derived from various human neoplasms. DAP-kinase mRNA and protein expression were

Joseph L Kissil; Elena Feinstein; Ofer Cohen; Peter A Jones; Yvonne C Tsai; Margaret A Knowles; Marian E Eydmann; Adi Kimchi; A Kimchi

1997-01-01

278

FcgammaRIIB is differentially expressed during B cell maturation and in B-cell lymphomas.  

PubMed

FcgammaRIIB, a low affinity receptor for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG), is thought to drive negative selection of B cells in germinal centers (GC) by inducing apoptosis upon interaction with immune complexes. Its expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 22 reactive lymphoid tissues and 112 B-cell lymphomas. Pre-GC mantle cells, marginal zone cells and their neoplastic counterparts expressed FcgammaRIIB. The B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphomas were also positive. Not detected in GC, FcgammaRIIB was expressed in 52% of follicular lymphomas and in 20% of diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL). In DLBCL, FcgammaRIIB expression was linked to transformation (P < 0.001). Re-analysis of a gene profile data set from the Lymphochip microarrays showed that FcgammaRIIB expression in the activated B-like DLBCL subgroup was higher than in the GC-like one (P < 0.04), and was associated with an adverse prognostic both in univariate (P < 0.003) and in multivariate analysis including the International Prognostic Indicator (IPI) (P < 0.01). Thus these results challenge the potential role of FcgammaRIIB during B-cell selection in GC, and suggest a prognostic value of FcgammaRIIB expression in DLBCL. PMID:14675408

Camilleri-Broët, Sophie; Cassard, Lydie; Broët, Philippe; Delmer, Alain; Le Touneau, Agnčs; Diebold, Jacques; Fridman, Wolf Herman; Molina, Thierry Jo; Sautčs-Fridman, Catherine

2004-01-01

279

Accumulation of Self-Reactive Naďve and Memory B Cell Reveals Sequential Defects in B Cell Tolerance Checkpoints in Sjögren’s Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by breach of self-tolerance towards nuclear antigens resulting in high affinity circulating autoantibodies. Although peripheral B cell disturbances have been described in SS, with predominance of naďve and reduction of memory B cells, the stage at which errors in B cell tolerance checkpoints accumulate in SS is unknown. Here we determined the frequency of self- and poly-reactive B cells in the circulating naďve and memory compartment of SS patients. Single CD27?IgD+ naďve, CD27+IgD+ memory unswitched and CD27+IgD? memory switched B cells were sorted by FACS from the peripheral blood of 7 SS patients. To detect the frequency of polyreactive and autoreactive clones, paired Ig VH and VL genes were amplified, cloned and expressed as recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) displaying identical specificity of the original B cells. IgVH and VL gene usage and immunoreactivity of SS rmAbs were compared with those obtained from healthy donors (HD). From a total of 353 VH and 293 VL individual sequences, we obtained 114 rmAbs from circulating naďve (n?=?66) and memory (n?=?48) B cells of SS patients. Analysis of the Ig V gene repertoire did not show significant differences in SS vs. HD B cells. In SS patients, circulating naďve B cells (with germline VH and VL genes) displayed a significant accumulation of clones autoreactive against Hep-2 cells compared to HD (43.1% vs. 25%). Moreover, we demonstrated a progressive increase in the frequency of circulating anti-nuclear naďve (9.3%), memory unswitched (22.2%) and memory switched (27.3%) B cells in SS patients. Overall, these data provide novel evidence supporting the existence of both early and late defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints in patients with SS resulting in the accumulation of autoreactive naďve and memory B cells. PMID:25535746

Corsiero, Elisa; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Bombardieri, Michele

2014-01-01

280

Evolution of B Cell Immunity  

PubMed Central

Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

Sunyer, J. Oriol

2013-01-01

281

B Lymphocyte Lineage Specification, Commitment and Epigenetic Control of Transcription by Early B Cell Factor 1  

PubMed Central

Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) is a transcription factor that is critical for both B lymphopoiesis and B cell function. EBF1 is a requisite component of the B lymphocyte transcriptional network and is essential for B lineage specification. Recent studies revealed roles for EBF1 in B cell commitment. EBF1 binds its target genes via a DNA-binding domain including a unique ‘zinc knuckle’, which mediates a novel mode of DNA recognition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of EBF1 in pro-B cells defined hundreds of new, as well as previously identified, target genes. Notably, expression of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), BCR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways is controlled by EBF1. In this review, we highlight these current developments and explore how EBF1 functions as a tissue-specific regulator of chromatin structure at B cell-specific genes. PMID:21735360

Hagman, James; Ramírez, Julita; Lukin, Kara

2014-01-01

282

Inactivation of the CDKL3 gene at 5q31.1 by a balanced t(X;5) translocation associated with nonspecific mild mental retardation.  

PubMed

We have investigated the breakpoints of a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 5, [46,X,t(X;5)(p11.1;q31.1)], in a woman with mild mental retardation (MR). Methylation studies showed a 100% skewed X-inactivation in patient-derived lymphocytes. Cloning and sequencing of the junction fragment from the X derivative showed that the breakpoint occurred in intron 3 of the CDKL3 gene on chromosome 5 and in a region devoid of genes on chromosome X. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses on patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells documented a significant 50% decrease of the CDKL3 transcript level. Allelic expression analysis, using an intronic SNP that was RT-PCR amplified from CDKL3 pre-mRNA, provided further evidence that the CDKL3 gene was transcribed from only one allele. Decreased CDKL3 gene expression was definitively confirmed at the protein level by immunoblot analysis. CDKL3 is a member of a subset of the cdc2-related protein kinase family that shows similarity to both mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cyclin-dependant kinases (cdks). Importantly, one member of the family, CDKL5, has been implicated in atypical Rett syndrome, West syndrome, and X-linked infantile spasm, all including MR as a manifestation. Expression studies demonstrated that the mouse homologue, mCdkl3, was expressed in all brain regions investigated and throughout mouse development, a pattern that is consistent with a role in development and brain function. Together the data suggest that haploinsufficiency of CDKL3 in the t(X;5) patient contributes to her phenotype, and that the CDKL3 gene is a strong candidate for nonsyndromal autosomal dominant MR. PMID:18412109

Dubos, Aline; Pannetier, Solange; Hanauer, André

2008-05-15

283

Molecular Diagnosis of Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma Identifies a Clinically Favorable Subgroup of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Related to Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using current diagnostic criteria, primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) cannot be distinguished from other types of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) reliably. We used gene expression profiling to develop a more precise molecular diagnosis of PMBL. PMBL patients were considerably younger than other DLBCL patients, and their lymphomas fre- quently involved other thoracic structures but not extrathoracic sites

Andreas Rosenwald; George Wright; Karen Leroy; Xin Yu; Philippe Gaulard; Randy D. Gascoyne; Wing C. Chan; Tong Zhao; Corinne Haioun; Timothy C. Greiner; Dennis D. Weisenburger; James C. Lynch; Julie Vose; James O. Armitage; Erlend B. Smeland; Stein Kvaloy; Harald Holte; Jan Delabie; Elias Campo; Emili Montserrat; Armando Lopez-Guillermo; German Ott; H. Konrad Muller-Hermelink; Joseph M. Connors; Rita Braziel; Thomas M. Grogan; Richard I. Fisher; Thomas P. Miller; Michael LeBlanc; Michael Chiorazzi; Hong Zhao; Liming Yang; John Powell; Wyndham H. Wilson; Elaine S. Jaffe; Richard Simon; Richard D. Klausner; Louis M. Staudt

284

Bcl10 is an essential regulator for A20 gene expression.  

PubMed

A20, a tumor suppressor in several types of lymphomas, has been suggested to be an nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) target gene; conversely, the deubiquitylation activity of A20 is required for inhibition of Bcl10-mediated activation of NF-?B. BCL10, which is activated in a recurrent chromosomal translocation that causes human mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, is known to be essential for NF-?B activation in B cells. We report here that Bcl10 upregulates endogenous A20 gene expression in B lymphocytes upon B-cell receptor engagement of anti-IgM. Transient transfection assays in HEK 293 cells indicate that Bcl10 can activate the A20 promoter, which contains NF-?B-binding sites. We also construct a theoretical structure of mouse Bcl10 and analyze the structure by molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation. Lastly, we found that marginal zone B cells from BCL10-transgenic mice proliferate more readily than wild-type B cells, whereas, surprisingly, the transgenic follicular B cells from these mice proliferate comparably to wild-type cells. Collectively, our results indicate that Bcl10 is an essential regulator of A20 gene expression and B-cell proliferation mediated by B-cell receptor signaling. PMID:23677497

Xu, Wu; Xue, Liquan; Sun, Yi; Henry, Aline; Battle, Jennifer M; Micault, Mathieu; Morris, Stephan W

2013-12-01

285

DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation  

SciTech Connect

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L. [Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Yang, J.-J. [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-W. [Department of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hawwen@csmu.edu.tw

2007-12-15

286

IL-10-Producing B Cells Are Induced Early in HIV-1 Infection and Suppress HIV-1-Specific T Cell Responses  

PubMed Central

A rare subset of IL-10-producing B cells, named regulatory B cells (Bregs), suppresses adaptive immune responses and inflammation in mice. In this study, we examined the role of IL-10-producing B cells in HIV-1 infection. Compared to uninfected controls, IL-10-producing B cell frequencies were elevated in both blood and sigmoid colon during the early and chronic phase of untreated HIV-1 infection. Ex vivo IL-10-producing B cell frequency in early HIV-1 infection directly correlated with viral load. IL-10-producing B cells from HIV-1 infected individuals were enriched in CD19+TIM-1+ B cells and were enriched for specificity to trimeric HIV-1 envelope protein. Anti-retroviral therapy was associated with reduced IL-10-producing B cell frequencies. Treatment of B cells from healthy donors with microbial metabolites and Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists could induce an IL-10 producing phenotype, suggesting that the elevated bacterial translocation characteristic of HIV-1 infection may promote IL-10-producing B cell development. Similar to regulatory B cells found in mice, IL-10-producing B cells from HIV-1-infected individuals suppressed HIV-1-specific T cell responses in vitro, and this suppression is IL-10-dependent. Also, ex vivo IL-10-producing B cell frequency inversely correlated with contemporaneous ex vivo HIV-1-specific T cell responses. Our findings show that IL-10-producing B cells are induced early in HIV-1 infection, can be HIV-1 specific, and are able to inhibit effective anti-HIV-1 T cell responses. HIV-1 may dysregulate B cells toward Bregs as an immune evasion strategy. PMID:24586620

Kim, Connie J.; Clayton, Kiera; Zhao, Hanqi; Lee, Erika; Cao, Jin Chao; Ziegler, Blake; Gregor, Alexander; Yue, Feng Yun; Huibner, Sanja; MacParland, Sonya; Schwartz, Jordan; Song, Hai Han; Benko, Erika; Gyenes, Gabor; Kovacs, Colin; Kaul, Rupert; Ostrowski, Mario

2014-01-01

287

Characterization of a presecretory phase in B-cell differentiation.  

PubMed

We have identified and characterized an inducible in vitro subclone of the CH12 B-cell lymphoma, CH12-LBK, which appears to represent a transitional phase in the B-cell differentiation pathway. This phase, which we call the "presecretory" phase, falls between replicating B cells that are not secreting antibodies and B cells that secrete antibody at a high rate. Presecretory cells are characterized by abundant steady-state levels of immunoglobulin and joining (J) chain transcripts and of protein but low levels of mouse mammary tumor virus envelope transcripts and low rates of immunoglobulin secretion. Additional stimulation is required for presecretory cells to differentiate into cells that secrete antibodies at a high rate. The existence of cells with this phenotype suggests that high-level expression of immunoglobulin and J-chain protein does not necessarily commit a B cell to polymerize and secrete multimeric immunoglobulin. Rather, other gene products, expressed after immunoglobulin and J-chain transcripts have been upregulated late in B-cell differentiation, appear responsible for inducing high rates of antibody secretion. PMID:2495536

King, L B; Corley, R B

1989-04-01

288

The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) in a young girl with dysgerminoma  

PubMed Central

Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC) and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22) in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR) involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN), a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA. PMID:19642973

Gimelli, Stefania; Beri, Silvana; Drabkin, Harry A; Gambini, Claudio; Gregorio, Andrea; Fiorio, Patrizia; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Gemmill, Robert M; Giorda, Roberto; Gimelli, Giorgio

2009-01-01

289

Double-hit mantle cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangement or amplification: a report of four cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Mature B-cell lymphomas with both BCL2 and MYC translocations are known as “double hit” lymphomas. These lymphomas are aggressive and show high proliferation rate due to the growth advantages provided by MYC and BCL2 translocation and overexpression. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a neoplasm of mature B-lymphocytes with characteristic t(11;14) and subsequent Cyclin D1 overexpression. Secondary cytogenetic changes are frequent in MCL, but MYC translocation has only been rarely reported. In this study, we report four cases of MCL with MYC translocation or MYC gene amplification detected by conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization and whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, and determined the clinicopathologic features. Our study provides further evidence supporting the concept of “double hit” MCL with co-involvement of MYC gene rearrangement and/or amplification and CCND1 gene rearrangement. PMID:23330001

Setoodeh, Reza; Schwartz, Stuart; Papenhausen, Peter; Zhang, Ling; Sagatys, Elizabeth M; Moscinski, Lynn C; Shao, Haipeng

2013-01-01

290

Structural and functional studies of FKHR-PAX3, a reciprocal fusion gene of the t(2;13) chromosomal translocation in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.  

PubMed

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive pediatric cancer of skeletal muscle. More than 70% of ARMS tumors carry balanced t(2;13) chromosomal translocation that leads to the production of two novel fusion genes, PAX3-FKHR and FKHR-PAX3. While the PAX3-FKHR gene has been intensely studied, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 gene has rarely been described. We report here the cloning and functional characterization of the FKHR-PAX3 gene as the first step towards a better understanding of its potential impact on ARMS biology. From RH30 ARMS cells, we detected and isolated three versions of FKHR-PAX3 cDNAs whose C-terminal sequences corresponded to PAX3c, PAX3d, and PAX3e isoforms. Unlike the nuclear-specific localization of PAX3-FKHR, the reciprocal FKHR-PAX3 proteins stayed predominantly in the cytoplasm. FKHR-PAX3 potently inhibited myogenesis in both non-transformed myoblast cells and ARMS cells. We showed that FKHR-PAX3 was not a classic oncogene but could act as a facilitator in oncogenic pathways by stabilizing PAX3-FKHR expression, enhancing cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and matrix adhesion in vitro, and accelerating the onset of tumor formation in xenograft mouse model in vivo. In addition to these pro-oncogenic behaviors, FKHR-PAX3 also negatively affected cell migration and invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Taken together, these functional characteristics suggested that FKHR-PAX3 might have a critical role in the early stage of ARMS development. PMID:23799156

Hu, Qiande; Yuan, Yewen; Wang, Chiayeng

2013-01-01

291

The BiP Cochaperone ERdj4 Is Required for B Cell Development and Function  

PubMed Central

ERdj4 is a BiP cochaperone regulated by the unfolded protein response to facilitate degradation of unfolded and/or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. As the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in B cell maturation and antibody production, ERdj4 gene trap mice were generated to determine if this chaperone was required for B cell homeostasis. Homozygosity for the trapped allele resulted in hypomorphic expression of ERdj4 in bone marrow cells and abnormal development of hematopoietic lineages in the bone marrow. The number of myeloid cells was increased, while the number of erythroid and B lymphoid cells was reduced in ERdj4 gene trap mice compared to controls. An intrinsic B cell defect was identified that decreased survival of B cell precursors including large and small pre-B, and immature B cells. Consistent with impaired B lymphopoiesis, the number of mature follicular B cells was reduced in both the bone marrow and spleen of ERdj4 gene trap mice. Paradoxically, unchallenged ERdj4 gene trap mice showed non-specific hypergammaglobulinemia and gene trap B cells exhibited increased proliferation, survival and isotype switching in response to LPS stimulation. Although ERdj4 gene trap mice responded normally to T cell-independent antigen, they failed to mount a specific antibody response to T cell-dependent antigen in vivo. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the chaperone activity of ERdj4 is required for survival of B cell progenitors and normal antibody production. PMID:25222125

Fritz, Jill M.; Weaver, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

292

Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Polymer Translocation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a flexible chain is pulled or sucked, it can initially respond only locally, and sequential nonequilibrium processes with large conformational distortion follow in line with the propagation of tensile force along the chain backbone. This is a generic dynamical response property of polymers, the understanding of which provides us with a viewpoint to capture an essential aspect of the driven translocation process. In the meeting, I will summarize a basic framework to analyze the nonequilibrium dynamics of driven translocation process alongside of recent progresses. [4pt] References:[0pt] T. Sakaue, Phys. Rev. E, 76, 021803 (2007) ``Nonequilibrium dynamics of polymer translocation and straightening''[0pt] T. Sakaue, Phys. Rev. E, 81, 041808 (2010) ``Sucking genes into pores: Insight into driven translocation''[0pt] T. Saito and T. Sakaue, Eur. Phys. J. E, 34, 145 (2011) ``Dynamical diagram and scaling in polymer driven translocation''[0pt] T. Saito and T. Sakaue, Phys. Rev. E, 85, 061803 (2012) ``Process time distribution of driven polymer transport''

Sakaue, Takahiro

2013-03-01

293

Blimp1 Is Required for the Formation of Immunoglobulin Secreting Plasma Cells and Pre-Plasma Memory B Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blimp-1 is a transcriptional repressor able to drive the terminal differentiation of B cells into Ig-secreting plasma cells. We have created mice with a B cell-specific deletion of prdm1, the gene encoding Blimp-1. B cell development and the number of B cells responding to antigen appear to be normal in these mice. However, in response to either TD or TI

Miriam Shapiro-Shelef; Kuo-I Lin; Louise J McHeyzer-Williams; Jerry Liao; Michael G McHeyzer-Williams; Kathryn Calame

2003-01-01

294

Expression pattern of the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in the B cell and antibody repertoire suggests a role of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM antibodies in early ontogeny  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a mAb (JE-6) that recognizes an Id encoded by the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in or near germ-line configuration. This mAb was used to determine the frequency of Id JE6[sup +] B cells in large collections of monoclonal EBV-transformed and short term B cell lines derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult lymphoid tissues. Moreover, they investigated the presence of Id JE-6[sup +] lg in sera from neonates and adults and determined the (auto)antigen binding properties of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM mAb. They detected a fivefold overrepresentation of V[sub H]6-expression IgM producing B cells in fetal tissues, cord blood, and adult bone marrow relative to adult blood. In cord blood, but not in adult blood sera, germ-line V[sub H]6-encoded IgM molecules were readily detectable. IgM secreted by V[sub H]6-expressing B cell clones displayed highly conserved and virtually identical autoantigen binding properties, independent of the length and composition of the IgH chain CDR3 region and L chain isotype. Collectively, these results suggest that the V[sub H]6 gene and the antibodies it encodes play an important role in early human ontogeny. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Van Es, J.H.; Tol, M.J.D. van; Gmelig Meyling, F.H.J.; Logtenberg, T. (University Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands)); Raaphorst, F.M. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

295

Positive and negative roles of the tyrosine kinase Lyn in B cell function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of Lyn in B cell activation has been studied recently by examining the properties of B cells from mice in which thelyngene has been inactivated by gene targeting. These mice show evidence of B cell hyperreactivityin vivo,as the number of B lymphoblastoid cells greatly increase with age, IgM levels increase by 10-fold or more, and auto- antibodies to

Anthony L. DeFranco; Vivien W. F. Chan; Clifford A. Lowell

1998-01-01

296

B-cell activation and development within chronically inflamed synovium in rheumatoid and reactive arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In autoimmune diseases, B cells often accumulate in the affected tissue. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis or reactive arthritis, germinal center-like structures may develop in the inflamed synovial tissue. B cells from these structures were isolated and their V-gene repertoire determined. The majority of synovial B cells are long-term memory cells and thus are part of the chronic inflammatory reaction.

Claudia Berek; Hye-Jung Kim

1997-01-01

297

An integrated genomic analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated inhibition of B-cell differentiation.  

PubMed

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) alters differentiation of B cells and suppresses antibody production. A combination of whole-genome, microarray-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip), and time course gene expression microarray analysis was performed on the mouse B-cell line CH12.LX following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS and TCDD to identify the primary and downstream transcriptional elements of B-cell differentiation that are altered by the AHR. ChIP-on-chip analysis identified 1893 regions with a significant increase in AHR binding with TCDD treatment. Transcription factor binding site analysis on the ChIP-on-chip data showed enrichment in AHR response elements. Other transcription factors showed significant coenrichment with AHR response elements. When ChIP-on-chip regions were compared with gene expression changes at the early time points, 78 genes were identified as potential direct targets of the AHR. AHR binding and expression changes were confirmed for a subset of genes in primary mouse B cells. Network analysis examining connections between the 78 potential AHR target genes and three transcription factors known to regulate B-cell differentiation indicated multiple paths for potential regulation by the AHR. Enrichment analysis on the differentially expressed genes at each time point evaluated the downstream impact of AHR-regulated gene expression changes on B-cell-related processes. AHR-mediated impairment of B-cell differentiation occurred at multiple nodes of the B-cell differentiation network and potentially through multiple mechanisms including direct cis-acting effects on key regulators of B-cell differentiation, indirect regulation of B-cell differentiation-related pathways, and transcriptional coregulation of target genes by AHR and other transcription factors. PMID:20819909

De Abrew, K Nadira; Kaminski, Norbert E; Thomas, Russell S

2010-12-01

298

Notch signaling is a potent inducer of growth arrest and apoptosis in a wide range of B-cell malignancies.  

PubMed

Although Notch receptor expression on malignant B cells is widespread, the effect of Notch signaling in these cells is poorly understood. To investigate Notch signaling in B-cell malignancy, we assayed the effect of Notch activation in multiple murine and human B-cell tumors, representing both immature and mature subtypes. Expression of constitutively active, truncated forms of the 4 mammalian Notch receptors (ICN1-4) inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in both murine and human B-cell lines but not T-cell lines. Similar results were obtained in human precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lines when Notch activation was achieved by coculture with fibroblasts expressing the Notch ligands Jagged1 or Jagged2. All 4 truncated Notch receptors, as well as the Jagged ligands, induced Hes1 transcription. Retroviral expression of Hairy/Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) recapitulated the Notch effects, suggesting that Hes1 is an important mediator of Notch-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells. Among the B-cell malignancies that were susceptible to Notch-mediated growth inhibition/apoptosis were mature B-cell and therapy-resistant B-cell malignancies, including Hodgkin, myeloma, and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-translocated cell lines. These results suggest that therapies capable of activating Notch/Hes1 signaling may have therapeutic potential in a wide range of human B-cell malignancies. PMID:16118316

Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A; He, Yiping; Xu, Lanwei; Rodriguez, Carlos G; Karnell, Fredrick G; Carpenter, Andrea C; Aster, Jon C; Allman, David; Pear, Warren S

2005-12-01

299

Notch signaling is a potent inducer of growth arrest and apoptosis in a wide range of B-cell malignancies  

PubMed Central

Although Notch receptor expression on malignant B cells is widespread, the effect of Notch signaling in these cells is poorly understood. To investigate Notch signaling in B-cell malignancy, we assayed the effect of Notch activation in multiple murine and human B-cell tumors, representing both immature and mature subtypes. Expression of constitutively active, truncated forms of the 4 mammalian Notch receptors (ICN1-4) inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in both murine and human B-cell lines but not T-cell lines. Similar results were obtained in human precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lines when Notch activation was achieved by coculture with fibroblasts expressing the Notch ligands Jagged1 or Jagged2. All 4 truncated Notch receptors, as well as the Jagged ligands, induced Hes1 transcription. Retroviral expression of Hairy/Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) recapitulated the Notch effects, suggesting that Hes1 is an important mediator of Notch-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells. Among the B-cell malignancies that were susceptible to Notch-mediated growth inhibition/apoptosis were mature B-cell and therapy-resistant B-cell malignancies, including Hodgkin, myeloma, and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)–translocated cell lines. These results suggest that therapies capable of activating Notch/Hes1 signaling may have therapeutic potential in a wide range of human B-cell malignancies. PMID:16118316

Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A.; He, Yiping; Xu, Lanwei; Rodriguez, Carlos G.; Karnell, Fredrick G.; Carpenter, Andrea C.; Aster, Jon C.; Allman, David; Pear, Warren S.

2005-01-01

300

A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.  

PubMed

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:21437597

Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

2011-06-01

301

B-B cell interactions in the spontaneous activation of B cells in autoimmune NZB mice.  

PubMed

We analyzed the mechanism of spontaneous B cell activation in lupus mice by using anticlass-II antibody in vitro. The in vitro culture of B cells from old NZB mice markedly produced Ig without any stimulation, while B cells from NZW mice did not. The addition of anticlass-II antibody (anti-Iad antibody) to the culture inhibited Ig production of NZB B cells in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the addition of anticlass-I antibody (anti-H-2Dd antibody) and anticlass-II antibody with different specificity (anti-Iak) gave no effect on the Ig production of NZB B cells. When mitomycin C-treated B cells were added to in vitro culture of responder B cells as a stimulator, Ig production of responder B cells was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the enhancing effect of the stimulator B cells was abrogated by the pretreatment with anticlass-II antibody. The stimulator B-cell activity to NZB B cells was marked in NZB B cells, moderate in NZB/W F1 B cells, and weak in NZW B cells. Furthermore, the stimulator B-cell activity with regard to NZB B cells was marked in old female NZB B cells, moderate in old male NZB B cells, and weak in young NZB B cells. The expression of class II antigens on the surface of old female NZB B cells was significantly higher than that of old male NZB and young NZB B cells. These results suggest that in lupus mice the spontaneous B-cell activation is induced by an abnormal B-B cell interaction mediated by class II antigens. PMID:1808470

Saito, K; Tanaka, Y; Ota, T; Eto, S; Yamashita, U

1991-01-01

302

Translocation of DNA across bacterial membranes.  

PubMed Central

DNA translocation across bacterial membranes occurs during the biological processes of infection by bacteriophages, conjugative DNA transfer of plasmids, T-DNA transfer, and genetic transformation. The mechanism of DNA translocation in these systems is not fully understood, but during the last few years extensive data about genes and gene products involved in the translocation processes have accumulated. One reason for the increasing interest in this topic is the discussion about horizontal gene transfer and transkingdom sex. Analyses of genes and gene products involved in DNA transfer suggest that DNA is transferred through a protein channel spanning the bacterial envelope. No common model exists for DNA translocation during phage infection. Perhaps various mechanisms are necessary as a result of the different morphologies of bacteriophages. The DNA translocation processes during conjugation, T-DNA transfer, and transformation are more consistent and may even be compared to the excretion of some proteins. On the basis of analogies and homologies between the proteins involved in DNA translocation and protein secretion, a common basic model for these processes is presented. PMID:7968916

Dreiseikelmann, B

1994-01-01

303

Selected Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterial Isolates with the Capacity to Reduce Salmonella Translocation and Virulence Gene Expression in Chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3–1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (106–7 CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (104 CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. Conclusions/Significance The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one of the strategies for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens. PMID:24728092

Yang, Xiaojian; Brisbin, Jennifer; Yu, Hai; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fugui; Zhang, Yonggang; Sabour, Parviz; Sharif, Shayan; Gong, Joshua

2014-01-01

304

Dual-reactive B cells are autoreactive and highly enriched in the plasmablast and memory B cell subsets of autoimmune mice  

PubMed Central

Rare dual-reactive B cells expressing two types of Ig light or heavy chains have been shown to participate in immune responses and differentiate into IgG+ cells in healthy mice. These cells are generated more often in autoreactive mice, leading us to hypothesize they might be relevant in autoimmunity. Using mice bearing Igk allotypic markers and a wild-type Ig repertoire, we demonstrate that the generation of dual-? B cells increases with age and disease progression in autoimmune-prone MRL and MRL/lpr mice. These dual-reactive cells express markers of activation and are more frequently autoreactive than single-reactive B cells. Moreover, dual-? B cells represent up to half of plasmablasts and memory B cells in autoimmune mice, whereas they remain infrequent in healthy mice. Differentiation of dual-? B cells into plasmablasts is driven by MRL genes, whereas the maintenance of IgG+ cells is partly dependent on Fas inactivation. Furthermore, dual-? B cells that differentiate into plasmablasts retain the capacity to secrete autoantibodies. Overall, our study indicates that dual-reactive B cells significantly contribute to the plasmablast and memory B cell populations of autoimmune-prone mice suggesting a role in autoimmunity. PMID:22927551

Fournier, Emilie M.; Velez, Maria-Gabriela; Leahy, Katelyn; Swanson, Cristina L.; Rubtsov, Anatoly V.; Torres, Raul M.

2012-01-01

305

Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression  

PubMed Central

It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C.; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J.; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

2014-01-01

306

Molecular Pathogenesis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Over the past years, substantial insight regarding the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma has been obtained. Particularly, based on gene expression profile analysis this disease can be classified in distinct phenotypic subgroups and specific transcriptional programs have been identified. New technologies like next-generation whole genome/exome sequencing and genome wide SNP array analysis revealed novel lesions involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. This Review focuses on the diversity of genetic lesions found in the different subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:21842702

Schneider, Christof; Pasqualucci, Laura; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

2012-01-01

307

The cellular origins of memory B cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence indicates that memory B cells may originate from a precursor cell subset that is distinct from AFC precursors. Most convincing is the finding that fractionation of naive peripheral B-cell populations on the basis of surface heat stable antigen (HSA) expression yields two populations; one greatly enriched for progenitors of memory B cells (HSAlo), and the other enriched for

Norman R. Klinman

1997-01-01

308

Early B-cell Factor 1 Regulates the Expansion of B-cell Progenitors in a Dose-dependent Manner*  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor doses are of importance for normal and malignant B-lymphocyte development; however, the understanding of underlying mechanisms and functional consequences of reduced transcription factor levels is limited. We have analyzed progenitor and B-lineage compartments in mice carrying heterozygote mutations in the E2a, Ebf1, or Pax5 gene. Although lymphoid progenitors from Ebf1 or Pax5 heterozygote mice were specified and lineage-restricted in a manner comparable with Wt progenitors, this process was severely impaired in E2a heterozygote mutant mice. This defect was not significantly enhanced upon combined deletion of E2a with Ebf1 or Pax5. Analysis of the pre-B-cell compartment in Ebf1 heterozygote mice revealed a reduction in cell numbers. These cells expressed Pax5 and other B-lineage-associated genes, and global gene expression analysis suggested that the reduction of the pre-B-cell compartment was a result of impaired pre-B-cell expansion. This idea was supported by a reduction in IL2R?-expressing late pre-B-cells as well as by cell cycle analysis and by the finding that the complexity of the VDJ rearrangement patterns was comparable in Wt and Ebf1+/? pre-B-cells, although the number of progenitors was reduced. Heterozygote deletion of Ebf1 resulted in impaired response to IL7 in vitro and reduced expression levels of pre-BCR on the cell surface, providing possible explanations for the observed stage-specific reduction in cellular expansion. Thus, transcription factor doses are critical for specification as well as expansion of B-lymphoid progenitors, providing increased insight into the molecular regulation of B-cell development. PMID:24078629

?hsberg, Josefine; Ungerbäck, Jonas; Strid, Tobias; Welinder, Eva; Stjernberg, Jenny; Larsson, Malin; Qian, Hong; Sigvardsson, Mikael

2013-01-01

309

The PI3K Isoforms p110? and p110? are Essential for Pre-B Cell Receptor Signaling and B Cell Development  

PubMed Central

B cell development is controlled by a series of checkpoints that ensure that the immunoglobulin (Ig)-encoding genes are assembled in frame to produce a functional B cell receptor (BCR) and antibodies. The BCR consists of Ig proteins in complex with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing Ig? and Ig? chains. Whereas the activation of Src and Syk tyrosine kinases is essential for BCR signaling, the pathways that act downstream of these kinases are incompletely defined. Previous work has revealed a key role for the p110? isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in agonist-induced BCR signaling; however, early B cell development and mature B cell survival, which depend on tonic BCR signaling, are not substantially affected by a deficiency in p110?. Here, we show that in the absence of p110?, p110?, but not p110?, can compensate to promote early B cell development in the bone marrow and B cell survival in the spleen. In the absence of both p110? and p110? activities, pre-BCR signaling fails to suppress the production of recombination-activating gene (Rag) protein and to promote developmental progression of B cell progenitors. By contrast, p110? does not contribute to agonist-induced BCR signaling. These studies indicate that either p110? or p110? can mediate tonic signaling from the BCR, but that only p110? can contribute to antigen-dependent activation of B cells. PMID:20699475

Ramadani, Faruk; Bolland, Daniel J.; Garcon, Fabien; Emery, Juliet L.; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart; Corcoran, Anne E.; Okkenhaug, Klaus

2013-01-01

310

Gene expression identifies heterogeneity of metastatic behavior among high-grade non-translocation associated soft tissue sarcomas  

PubMed Central

Background The biologic heterogeneity of soft tissue sarcomas (STS), even within histological subtypes, complicates treatment. In earlier studies, gene expression patterns that distinguish two subsets of clear cell renal carcinoma (RCC), serous ovarian carcinoma (OVCA), and aggressive fibromatosis (AF) were used to separate 73 STS into two or four groups with different probabilities of developing metastatic disease (PrMet). This study was designed to confirm our earlier observations in a larger independent data set. Methods We utilized these gene sets, hierarchical clustering (HC), and Kaplan-Meier analysis, to examine 309 STS, using Affymetrix chip expression profiling. Results HC using the combined AF-, RCC-, and OVCA-gene sets identified subsets of the STS samples. Analysis revealed differences in PrMet between the clusters defined by the first branch point of the clustering dendrogram (p = 0.048), and also among the four different clusters defined by the second branch points (p < 0.0001). Analysis also revealed differences in PrMet between the leiomyosarcomas (LMS), dedifferentiated liposarcomas (LipoD), and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS) (p = 0.0004). HC of both the LipoD and UPS sample sets divided the samples into two groups with different PrMet (p = 0.0128, and 0.0002, respectively). HC of the UPS samples also showed four groups with different PrMet (p = 0.0007). HC found no subgroups of the LMS samples. Conclusions These data confirm our earlier studies, and suggest that this approach may allow the identification of more than two subsets of STS, each with distinct clinical behavior, and may be useful to stratify STS in clinical trials and in patient management. PMID:24950699

2014-01-01

311

Hepatocyte- Specific Deletion of ARNT (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) Results in Altered Fibrotic Gene Expression in the Thioacetamide Model of Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Recent studies have shown that increased expression of liver hypoxia inducible factor 2-? (HIF-2?) leads to liver inflammation and a pro-fibrotic gene expression signature. Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) is required for HIF-2? transcriptional activity and has previously been shown to regulate hepatic metabolism in mice. In these studies we examined the role of hepatocyte ARNT in the thioacetamide (TAA)-induced model of liver fibrosis. Methods Hepatocyte-specific ARNT-null (LARNT) mice were created using an albumin promoter-driven Cre recombinase. LARNT and floxed control (FC) littermates were placed on chow diet and received twice weekly intraperitoneal injections of 0.15mg/g body weight of TAA for 13 weeks. Results TAA treated LARNT and FC mice had a similar pattern of fibrosis. Quantification of Sirius red histology staining and hydroxyproline content revealed mixed results in terms of collagen deposition in LARNT livers. There was no significant difference in hepatocyte apoptosis or proliferation, as assessed by cleaved Caspase-3 and Ki67 respectively. LARNT mice had decreased macrophage accumulation, and decreased liver mRNA expression of Col1A1, Col1A2, Col5A1, Tgf?1, Tgf?2, Timp1 and Timp2. Conclusions Deletion of hepatocyte ARNT leads to altered expression of collagen associated mRNA and reduced macrophage infiltration in the TAA-induced model of liver fibrosis. It appears that hepatocyte ARNT is not a requirement for initiation of liver fibrogenesis, but does regulate pro-fibrotic gene expression and macrophage accumulation. PMID:25812120

Scott, Christopher; Cha, Kuan; Rao, Renuka; Liddle, Christopher; George, Jacob; Gunton, Jenny E.

2015-01-01

312

Selective regulation of autoreactive B cells by Fc?RIIB  

PubMed Central

Fc?RIIB is an inhibitory receptor which plays a role in limiting B cell and DC activation. Since Fc?RIIB is known to dampen the signaling strength of the BCR, we wished to determine the impact of Fc?RIIB on the regulation of BCRs which differ in their affinity for DNA. For these studies, Fc?RIIB deficient BALB/c mice were bred with mice expressing the transgene-encoded H chain of the R4A anti-DNA antibody which gives rise to BCRs which express high, low or no affinity for DNA. The deletion of Fc?RIIB in R4A BALB/c mice led to an alteration in the B cell repertoire, allowing for the expansion and activation of high affinity DNA-reactive B cells. By 6 to 8 months of age, R4A × Fc?RIIB-/- BALB/c mice spontaneously developed anti-DNA antibody titers. These mice also displayed an induction of IFN-inducible genes and an elevation in levels of the B cell survival factor, BAFF. These data demonstrate that Fc?RIIB preferentially limits activation of high affinity autoreactive B cells and can influence the activation of DC through an immune complex-mediated mechanism. PMID:19327966

Venkatesh, Jeganathan; Kawabata, Daisuke; Kim, Sunjung; Xu, Xiaonan; Chinnasamy, Prameladevi; Paul, Elahna; Diamond, Betty; Grimaldi, Christine M.

2009-01-01

313

B cells from periodontal disease patients express surface Toll-like receptor 4  

PubMed Central

Chronic systemic inflammation links periodontal disease (PD) to increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Activation of TLRs, particularly TLR4, promotes chronic inflammation in PD by stimulating myeloid cells. B cells from healthy individuals are generally refractory to TLR4 agonists as a result of low surface TLR4 expression. Unexpectedly, a significantly increased percentage of gingival and peripheral blood B cells from patients with PD expressed surface TLR4. Surface expression correlated with an active TLR4 promoter that mimicked the TLR4 promoter in neutrophils. B cells from PD patients were surface myeloid differentiation protein 2-positive and also packaged the enhancer of a proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1?, into an active structure, demonstrating that these cells harbor key characteristics of proinflammatory cell types. Furthermore, B cells lacked activating signatures of a natural IL-1? inhibitor, IL-1 receptor antagonist. Surprisingly, despite multiple signatures of proinflammatory cells, freshly isolated B cells from PD patients had decreased expression of TLR pathway genes compared with B cells from healthy individuals. Decreases in inflammatory gene expression were even more dramatic in B cells stimulated with a TLR4 ligand from a periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS 1690. In contrast, B cell TLR4 was not activated by the prototypic TLR4 ligand Escherichia coli LPS. These findings raise the unexpected possibility that TLR4 engagement modulates B cell activation in PD patients. PMID:19118102

Shin, Hyunjin; Zhang, Yue; Jagannathan, Madhumita; Hasturk, Hatice; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Liu, Hongsheng; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Ganley-Leal, Lisa M.; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S.

2009-01-01

314

Anomalous dynamics of forced translocation Yacov Kantor1,  

E-print Network

. INTRODUCTION Translocation of a polymer through a narrow pore in a membrane is important to many biological, and gene swapping through bacterial pili 1 . Translocation also has practical applica- tions in genetics as in cell transformation by DNA electropo- ration 1 , and in gene therapy 2 . This has inspired a num- ber

Kantor, Yacov

315

1q12 chromosome translocations form aberrant heterochromatic foci associated  

E-print Network

in nuclear architecture and gene expression in B cell lymphoma Alexandra Fournier1,2,y , Anne McLeer-Florin1,2,3 , Mary B. Callanan1,2,3* Keywords: B cell lymphoma; GMCL1; heterochromatic foci; nuclear architecture; 1q to chromosome 2p, in a case of human B cell lymphoma, aberrant aHCF were shown to be localized to the nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

316

BCL2 translocation frequency rises with age in humans  

SciTech Connect

The background frequency of t(14;18) (q32;q21) chromosomal translocations at the locus associated with B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) was determined from a survey of the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 53 living individuals and from tissues of 31 autopsies by using a nested PCR assay. The translocation was detected in 55% of PBLs and 35% of autopsied spleens with a frequency of between less than 1 to 853 translocations per million cells. Translocations copurified with B lymphocytes. The frequency of translocations significantly increased with age in PBLs and spleens, as does human risk for lymphoma. Average translocation frequency was more than 40 times greater in the spleen and 13 times greater in the peripheral blood in the oldest individuals (61 yr and older) compared with the youngest individuals (20 yr or younger). Particular t(14;18)-bearing clones persisted over a period of 5 months in two individuals. These findings demonstrate that clones harboring the oncogenic t(14;18) chromosomal translocation are commonly present in normal humans, that such clones are long-lived, and that they rise in frequency with age. A multihit model of lymphomagenesis involving t(14;18) translocation followed by antigen stimulation is proposed. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Liu, Y.; Hernandez, A.M.; Shibata, D.; Cortopassi, G.A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-09-13

317

Rearrangement and selection of VH11 in the Ly-1 B cell lineage  

PubMed Central

One of the predominant VH genes utilized to encode the anti-BrMRBC specificity is a member of the small VH11 family rearranged to JH1. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we have determined that the frequency of B cells with a VH11 rearrangement is 10-20 times higher in Ly-1 B than in Ly-1- "conventional" B cells regardless of location (spleen or peritoneal cavity). Conventional B cells rearrange this gene at comparable levels in pre-B cells and in mature B cells utilizing all JH gene segments. In contrast, the increased levels of VH11 rearrangement in Ly-1 B are restricted to JH1 (and some JH2) and therefore appear to be the result of selection. Furthermore, most peritoneal Ly-1 B cells with VH11 rearrangements fall in a fraction stained by anti-BrMRBC antibody, likely bearing multivalent natural (likely self) antigen constitutively bound to their surface Ig receptors. Thus, we suggest that autoantigens are largely responsible for the accumulation of autoantibody specificities in the Ly-1 B cell lineage with time, whereas they do not exert this effect in the conventional B cells. PMID:2358782

1990-01-01

318

A novel selection system for chromosome translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal translocations are common genetic abnormalities found in both leukemias and solid tumors. While much has been learned about the effects of specific translocations on cell proliferation, much less is known about what causes these chromosome rearrangements. This article describes the development and use of a system that genetically selects for rare translocation events using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A translocation YAC was created that contains the breakpoint cluster region from the human MLL gene, a gene frequently involved in translocations in leukemia patients, flanked by positive and negative selection markers. A translocation between the YAC and a yeast chromosome, whose breakpoint falls within the MLL DNA, physically separates the markers and forms the basis for the selection. When RAD52 is deleted, essentially all of the selected and screened cells contain simple translocations. The detectable translocation rates are the same in haploids and diploids, although the mechanisms involved and true translocation rates may be distinct. A unique double-strand break induced within the MLL sequences increases the number of detectable translocation events 100- to 1000-fold. This novel system provides a tractable assay for answering basic mechanistic questions about the development of chromosomal translocations. PMID:11973293

Tennyson, Rachel B; Ebran, Nathalie; Herrera, Anissa E; Lindsley, Janet E

2002-01-01

319

Clinicopathologic Characterization of Diffuse-Large-B-Cell Lymphoma with an Associated Serum Monoclonal IgM Component  

PubMed Central

Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p?=?.002) stage III-IV(p?=?.003), ?2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p?=?.002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3–5 (p?=?.009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p?=?.005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p?=?.005, expB?=?0.339, CI?=?0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3–5 (p?=?.010, expB?=?0.274, CI?=?0.102–0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immmunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement. PMID:24705344

Scarpino, Stefania; Salerno, Gerardo; Tatarelli, Caterina; Talerico, Caterina; Lombardi, Mariangela; Monarca, Bruno; Amadori, Sergio; Ruco, Luigi

2014-01-01

320

Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in early mouse B cells are mediated by B cell- and Toll-like receptors.  

PubMed Central

Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and somatic hyperconversion. In general high levels of AID expression are found in mature B cells responding to antigens. However, AID expression and SHM have also been detected in developing B cells from transgenic mice that have a limited Ig repertoire. Here we demonstrate that AID expression and active CSR/SHM occur in developing B cells from wild-type mice. Further, our results suggest that somatic variants arising from developing B cells in the bone marrow further diversify in the spleen of unimmunized mice. AID expression in developing B cells is T-cell independent but involves engagement of B cell and Toll-like receptors. Early AID expression can increase the pre-immune repertoire of developing B cells, may provide an innate population of IgG- and IgA-expressing cells, and could be involved in receptor-editing of self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:17658280

Han, Jin-Hwan; Akira, Shizuo; Calame, Kathryn; Beutler, Bruce; Selsing, Erik

2007-01-01

321

The A-myb transcription factor in neoplastic and normal B cells.  

PubMed

The myb family of transcription factors has been strongly implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation in the haematopoietic system. The v-myb oncogene, carried by avian defective retroviruses, causes leukaemias in the chicken and transforms haematopoietic cells in vitro. Its normal cellular equivalent c-myb, has been shown to promote the proliferation and block the differentiation of haematopoietic cells in several experimental models and is required for fetal haematopoiesis. Two other members of the family have been cloned more recently, A-myb and B-myb, which show sequence homology with c-myb in several domains, of which the DNA binding domain as well as other regulatory domains. Both have been shown to be transcription factors. B-myb is also involved in the control of proliferation and differentiation, but, unlike c-myb, it is expressed in many cell types. The third member of the family, A-myb, shows the most restricted pattern of expression, suggesting a very specific role for this transcription factor. A-myb is expressed in a subpopulation of normal B lymphocytes activated in vivo and localised in the germinal center of peripheral lymphoid organs and is not detected at significant levels in all other mature or immature haematopoietic populations studied, including bone marrow cells, T lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, either at rest or after in vitro activation. These studies indicate that A-myb plays a role during a narrow window of normal B cell differentiation. A-myb expression has also been studied in a wide range of neoplastic B cells, representing the whole spectrum of B cell differentiation. A-myb is strongly expressed in Burkitt's lymphomas (BL) and slg+ B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (B-ALL) and not in all other leukaemias/lymphomas tested, with the exception of a subset of CLL (about 25% of cases). It is intriguing that the A-myb genome has been localised relatively close to the c-myc gene on chromosome 8, suggesting that the c-myc translocation in BL and B-ALL may affect A-myb transcription. Studies are in progress to investigate the functional relationship between A-myb and c-myc, particularly in the context of BL cells and to determine whether A-myb is deregulated in these cells. PMID:9322889

Golay, J; Facchinetti, V; Ying, G; Introna, M

1997-07-01

322

Translocator protein (Tspo) gene promoter-driven green fluorescent protein synthesis in transgenic mice: an in vivo model to study Tspo transcription  

PubMed Central

Translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a ubiquitous drug- and cholesterol-binding protein primarily found in the outer mitochondrial membrane as part of a mitochondrial cholesterol transport complex. TSPO is present at higher levels in steroid-synthesizing and rapidly proliferating tissues, and its biological role has been mainly linked to mitochondrial function, steroidogenesis, and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Aberrant TSPO levels have been linked to multiple diseases, including cancer, endocrine disorders, brain injury, neurodegeneration, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and inflammatory diseases. Investigation of the functions of this protein in vitro and in vivo have been mainly carried out using high-affinity drug ligands, such as isoquinoline carboxamides and benzodiazepines, and more recently, gene silencing methods. To establish a model to study the regulation of Tspo transcription in vivo, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea coerulescens under control of the Tspo promoter region (Tspo-AcGFP). The expression profiles of Tspo-AcGFP, endogenous TSPO, and Tspo mRNA were found to be well correlated. Tspo-AcGFP synthesis in the transgenic mice was seen in almost every tissue examined, and as with TSPO in wild-type mice, Tspo-AcGFP was highly expressed in steroidogenic cells of the endocrine and reproductive systems, epithelial cells of the digestive system, skeletal muscle, and other organs. In summary, this transgenic Tspo-AcGFP mouse model recapitulates endogenous Tspo expression patterns and could be a useful, tractable tool for monitoring the transcriptional regulation and function of Tspo in live animal experiments. PMID:22868914

Wang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Jinjiang; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2013-01-01

323

Genomes of Ashbya Fungi Isolated from Insects Reveal Four Mating-Type Loci, Numerous Translocations, Lack of Transposons, and Distinct Gene Duplications  

PubMed Central

The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is a cotton pathogen transmitted by insects. It is readily grown and manipulated in the laboratory and is commercially exploited as a natural overproducer of vitamin B2. Our previous genome analysis of A. gossypii isolate ATCC10895, collected in Trinidad nearly 100 years ago, revealed extensive synteny with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, leading us to use it as a model organism to understand the evolution of filamentous growth. To further develop Ashbya as a model system, we have investigated the ecological niche of A. gossypii and isolated additional strains and a sibling species, both useful in comparative analysis. We isolated fungi morphologically similar to A. gossypii from different plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera, generated a phylogenetic tree based on rDNA-ITS sequences, and performed high coverage short read sequencing with one A. gossypii isolate from Florida, a new species, Ashbya aceri, isolated in North Carolina, and a genetically marked derivative of ATCC10895 intensively used for functional studies. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, all strains carry four not three mating type loci, adding a new puzzle in the evolution of Ashbya species. Another surprise was the genome identity of 99.9% between the Florida strain and ATCC10895, isolated in Trinidad. The A. aceri and A. gossypii genomes show conserved gene orders rearranged by eight translocations, 90% overall sequence identity, and fewer tandem duplications in the A. aceri genome. Both species lack transposable elements. Finally, our work identifies plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera as the most likely natural reservoir of Ashbya, and that infection of cotton and other plants may be incidental to the growth of the fungus in its insect host. PMID:23749448

Dietrich, Fred S.; Voegeli, Sylvia; Kuo, Sidney; Philippsen, Peter

2013-01-01

324

MDCT Findings of Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated With Xp11.2 Translocation and TFE3 Gene Fusion and Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the MDCT features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11 RCC) and papillary RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study included 19 and 39 patients with histologically proven Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC, respectively, who underwent multiphase renal MDCT before nephrectomy. CT findings were compared between Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC using the Student t test and chi-square test. Subgroup analyses of small (< 4 cm) renal masses for these features were performed. RESULTS. Patients with Xp11 RCC were younger (p < 0.001), and it was more prevalent in women (p = 0.007). Tumor size was greater in Xp11 RCC (p = 0.004) and more common in cystic change (p < 0.001). Calcification and unenhanced high-attenuating areas were more frequent in Xp11 RCC (p = 0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Xp11 RCCs were more prevalent in lymph node and distant metastasis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC showed no significant difference in epicenter, margin, and venous and collecting duct invasion (p = 0.403-1.000). Although Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC had lower attenuation than the renal cortex on corticomedullary and early excretory phases (p < 0.001), only Xp11 RCCs were hyperattenuating to the cortex on the unenhanced phase (p < 0.001). Xp11 RCCs had significantly higher attenuation compared with papillary RCCs on all phases (p ? 0.02). Regarding small masses, cystic change, calcification, and lymph node metastasis were still more frequent in Xp11 RCCs (p ? 0.016). CONCLUSION. Greater size, more cystic change, calcification, high-attenuating areas on unenhanced imaging, and lymph node and distant metastasis were helpful for differentiating Xp11 RCC from papillary RCC. PMID:25714283

Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn; Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, See Hyung; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

2015-03-01

325

Antibody repertoire deep sequencing reveals antigen-independent selection in maturing B cells  

PubMed Central

Antibody repertoires are known to be shaped by selection for antigen binding. Unexpectedly, we now show that selection also acts on a non–antigen-binding antibody region: the heavy-chain variable (VH)–encoded “elbow” between variable and constant domains. By sequencing 2.8 million recombined heavy-chain genes from immature and mature B-cell subsets in mice, we demonstrate a striking gradient in VH gene use as pre-B cells mature into follicular and then into marginal zone B cells. Cells whose antibodies use VH genes that encode a more flexible elbow are more likely to mature. This effect is distinct from, and exceeds in magnitude, previously described maturation-associated changes in heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3, a key antigen-binding region, which arise from junctional diversity rather than differential VH gene use. Thus, deep sequencing reveals a previously unidentified mode of B-cell selection. PMID:24927543

Kaplinsky, Joseph; Li, Anthony; Sun, Amy; Coffre, Maryaline; Koralov, Sergei B.; Arnaout, Ramy

2014-01-01

326

Germline antibody V regions as determinants of clonal persistence and malignant growth in the B cell compartment.  

PubMed Central

Antibody V gene expression was studied in a subpopulation of murine B cells (Ly1 B) which was enriched by cell transfer and had earlier been shown to persist in the immune system over long periods of time. Among 17 hybridomas derived from Ly1 B cells of two different mice, eight were progeny of only three different B cell precursors which apparently had expanded to clones of large size, in the absence of detectable somatic mutation of their antibody V regions. Furthermore, several clonally independent cells expressed identical, unmutated V genes. These data define a novel pathway of B cell development in which cells expressing a selected set of germline antibodies are continuously propagated in the organism. A Ly1 B cell leukemia derived from a similar transfer experiment expressed a VH gene that had been isolated in three independent Ly1 B cell hybridomas, suggesting that the leukemic cells had been equally selected in this pathway. Images PMID:3264787

Förster, I; Gu, H; Rajewsky, K

1988-01-01

327

Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen  

PubMed Central

Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/?CD21+CD38? B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

2013-01-01

328

Differential effect of heat shock on RNA metabolism in human Burkitt's lymphoma B-cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stress induces expression of a family of heat shock proteins which may regulate the synthesis of various cellular genes. We investigated the effect of heat shock on polyadenylation in Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) negative and EBV transformed human Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) B-cell lines. Incubation of the BL B-cell line P3HR-1, carrying the defective EBV genome [EBV nuclear antigen-2 gene deletion

Ashok Kumar; Rabinder N. Kurl; Marko Kryworuchko; Francisco Diaz-Mitoma; Surendra Sharma

1995-01-01

329

Genetic manipulation of B cells for the isolation of rare therapeutic antibodies from the human repertoire.  

PubMed

Antibody based therapies are increasingly applied to prevent and treat human disease. While the majority of antibodies currently on the market are chimeric or humanized antibodies from rodents, the focus has now shifted to the isolation and development of fully human antibodies. By retroviral transduction of B cell lymphoma-6 (BCL-6), which prevents terminal differentiation of B cells and, the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) into primary human B cells we efficiently immortalize antibody-producing B cells allowing the isolation of therapeutic antibodies. Selection of antigen-specific B cell clones was greatly facilitated because the transduced B cells retain surface immunoglobulin expression and secrete immunoglobulin into the culture supernatant. Surface immunoglobulin expression can be utilized to stain and isolate antigen specific B cell clones with labeled antigen. Immunoglobulins secreted in culture supernatant can directly be tested in functional assays to identify unique B cell clones. Here we describe the key features of our Bcl-6/Bcl-xL culture platform (AIMSelect). PMID:23867338

Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; van Helden, Pauline M; Wagner, Koen; Yasuda, Etsuko; Spits, Hergen; Beaumont, Tim

2014-01-01

330

Targeting CD22 Reprograms B-Cells and Reverses Autoimmune Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate a B-cell–depleting strategy to reverse diabetes in naďve NOD mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We targeted the CD22 receptor on B-cells of naďve NOD mice to deplete and reprogram B-cells to effectively reverse autoimmune diabetes. RESULTS—Anti-CD22/cal monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy resulted in early and prolonged B-cell depletion and delayed disease in pre-diabetic mice. Importantly, when new-onset hyperglycemic mice were treated with the anti-CD22/cal mAb, 100% of B-cell–depleted mice became normoglycemic by 2 days, and 70% of them maintained a state of long-term normoglycemia. Early therapy after onset of hyperglycemia and complete B-cell depletion are essential for optimal efficacy. Treated mice showed an increase in percentage of regulatory T-cells in islets and pancreatic lymph nodes and a diminished immune response to islet peptides in vitro. Transcriptome analysis of reemerging B-cells showed significant changes of a set of proinflammatory genes. Functionally, reemerging B-cells failed to present autoantigen and prevented diabetes when cotransferred with autoreactive CD4+ T-cells into NOD.SCID hosts. CONCLUSIONS—Targeting CD22 depletes and reprograms B-cells and reverses autoimmune diabetes, thereby providing a blueprint for development of novel therapies to cure autoimmune diabetes. PMID:18689692

Fiorina, Paolo; Vergani, Andrea; Dada, Shirine; Jurewicz, Mollie; Wong, Masie; Law, Kenneth; Wu, Erxi; Tian, Ze; Abdi, Reza; Guleria, Indira; Rodig, Scott; Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyri; Bluestone, Jeffrey; Sayegh, Mohamed H.

2008-01-01

331

Molecular characterization of the cervical and systemic B-cell repertoire  

PubMed Central

The cervical mucosa of women who are highly exposed to HIV-1, yet remain persistently seronegative (HEPS), presents a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of an immune compartment potentially capable of preventing HIV-1 infection. Herein, we provide a detailed characterization of the immunoglobulin repertoire of cervical and systemic B cells from one such HEPS individual from Nairobi, Kenya. Analysis was done on 512 VH sequences that were RT-PCR amplified from B cells in a paired sample from the cervix and peripheral blood. The VH3 and DH repertoire of class switched cervical B cells differs significantly from that of systemic B cells, indicating that the cervical environment affects local B-cell populations and hence VH gene expression. Six networks of clonally related, heavily mutated B cells were identified that spanned the systemic and cervical B-cell compartments. Analysis of somatic mutations suggests this is likely the result of systemic, class switched B cells homing to the cervical mucosa. Multiple networks of somatically mutated V-gene sequences, unique to the cervical mucosa, were also identified. This supports the notion that site specific responses occur and have unique regulation of tolerance and recruitment into local memory or blast B-cell compartments. We conclude that while the nature of the cervical environment shapes the local B cell repertoire, the infusion of post germinal center B cells to the human cervix is a common occurrence, and represents a means by which systemic immunization could provide the local antibodies necessary to prevent HIV-1 at the site of initial contact. PMID:21293180

Gaudet, Ryan G; Breden, Felix; Plummer, Frank

2011-01-01

332

Identification of a negative regulatory role for spi-C in the murine B cell lineage.  

PubMed

Spi-C is an E26 transformation-specific family transcription factor that is highly related to PU.1 and Spi-B. Spi-C is expressed in developing B cells, but its function in B cell development and function is not well characterized. To determine whether Spi-C functions as a negative regulator of Spi-B (encoded by Spib), mice were generated that were germline knockout for Spib and heterozygous for Spic (Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-)). Interestingly, loss of one Spic allele substantially rescued B cell frequencies and absolute numbers in Spib(-/-) mouse spleens. Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-) B cells had restored proliferation compared with Spib(-/-) B cells in response to anti-IgM or LPS stimulation. Investigation of a potential mechanism for the Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-) phenotype revealed that steady-state levels of Nfkb1, encoding p50, were elevated in Spib(-/-)Spic(+/-) B cells compared with Spib(-/-) B cells. Spi-B was shown to directly activate the Nfkb1 gene, whereas Spi-C was shown to repress this gene. These results indicate a novel role for Spi-C as a negative regulator of B cell development and function. PMID:25769919

Li, Stephen K H; Solomon, Lauren A; Fulkerson, Patricia C; DeKoter, Rodney P

2015-04-15

333

Proteomic Changes during B Cell Maturation: 2D-DIGE Approach  

PubMed Central

B cells play a pivotal role in adaptive immune system, since they maintain a delicate balance between recognition and clearance of foreign pathogens and tolerance to self. During maturation, B cells progress through a series of developmental stages defined by specific phenotypic surface markers and the rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. To get insight into B cell proteome during the maturation pathway, we studied differential protein expression in eight human cell lines, which cover four distinctive developmental stages; early pre-B, pre-B, plasma cell and immature B cell upon anti-IgM stimulation. Our two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry based proteomic study indicates the involvement of large number of proteins with various functions. Notably, proteins related to cytoskeleton were relatively highly expressed in early pre-B and pre-B cells, whereas plasma cell proteome contained endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi system proteins. Our long time series analysis in anti-IgM stimulated Ramos B cells revealed the dynamic regulation of cytoskeleton organization, gene expression and metabolic pathways, among others. The findings are related to cellular processes in B cells and are discussed in relation to experimental information for the proteins and pathways they are involved in. Representative 2D-DIGE maps of different B cell maturation stages are available online at http://structure.bmc.lu.se/BcellProteome/. PMID:24205016

Salonen, Johanna; Rönnholm, Gunilla; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Vihinen, Mauno

2013-01-01

334

Early B cell Factor: regulator of B lineage specification and commitment  

PubMed Central

B lymphocytes are generated from hematopoietic stem cells in a series of steps controlled by transcription factors. One of the most important regulators of this process is Early B cell Factor (EBF). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that expression of EBF is a principle determinant of the B cell fate. In the absence of EBF, progenitor cells fail to express classical markers of B cells, including immunoglobulins. EBF drives B cell differentiation by activating the Pax5 gene and other genes required for the pre-B and B cell receptors. New evidence suggests that expression of EBF in common lymphoid progenitors directs B cell fate decisions. Specification and commitment of cells to the B cell lineage are further established by Pax5, which increases expression of EBF. Recently, it was demonstrated that both EBF and Pax5 contribute to the commitment of cells to the B lineage. Together, these studies confirm that EBF is a keystone in a regulatory network that coordinates B cell lineage specification and commitment. PMID:18722139

Lukin, Kara; Fields, Scott; Hartley, Jacqueline; Hagman, James

2008-01-01

335

PDK1 regulates VDJ recombination, cell-cycle exit and survival during B-cell development  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) controls the activation of a subset of AGC kinases. Using a conditional knockout of PDK1 in haematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that PDK1 is essential for B cell development. B-cell progenitors lacking PDK1 arrested at the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells, due to a cell autonomous defect. Loss of PDK1 decreased the expression of the IgH chain in pro-B cells due to impaired recombination of the IgH distal variable segments, a process coordinated by the transcription factor Pax5. The expression of Pax5 in pre-B cells was decreased in PDK1 knockouts, which correlated with reduced expression of the Pax5 target genes IRF4, IRF8 and Aiolos. As a result, Ccnd3 is upregulated in PDK1 knockout pre-B cells and they have an impaired ability to undergo cell-cycle arrest, a necessary event for Ig light chain rearrangement. Instead, these cells underwent apoptosis that correlated with diminished expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2A1. Reintroduction of both Pax5 and Bcl2A1 together into PDK1 knockout pro-B cells restored their ability to differentiate in vitro into mature B cells. PMID:23463102

Venigalla, Ram K C; McGuire, Victoria A; Clarke, Rosemary; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Najafov, Ayaz; Toth, Rachel; McCarthy, Pierre C; Simeons, Frederick; Stojanovski, Laste; Arthur, J Simon C

2013-01-01

336

The molecular signature of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma differs from that of other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and shares features with classical Hodgkin lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (MLBCL) is a recently identified subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that char- acteristically presents as localized tu- mors in young female patients. Although MLBCL has distinctive pathologic fea- tures, it clinically resembles the nodular sclerosis subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). To elucidate the molecu- lar features of MLBCL, we compared the gene expression

Kerry J. Savage; Stefano Monti; Jeffery L. Kutok; Giorgio Cattoretti; Donna Neuberg; Laurence de Leval; Paul Kurtin; Paola Dal Cin; Christine Ladd; Friedrich Feuerhake; Ricardo C. T. Aguiar; Sigui Li; Gilles Salles; Francoise Berger; Wen Jing; Geraldine S. Pinkus; Thomas Habermann; Riccardo Dalla-Favera; Lee Harris; Jon C. Aster; Todd R. Golub; Margaret A. Shipp

2003-01-01

337

Formation of complex and unstable chromosomal translocations in yeast.  

PubMed

Genome instability, associated with chromosome breakage syndromes and most human cancers, is still poorly understood. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, numerous genes with roles in the preservation of genome integrity have been identified. DNA-damage-checkpoint-deficient yeast cells that lack Sgs1, a RecQ-like DNA helicase related to the human Bloom's-syndrome-associated helicase BLM, show an increased rate of genome instability, and we have previously shown that they accumulate recurring chromosomal translocations between three similar genes, CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1. Here, the chromosomal location, copy number and sequence similarity of the translocation targets ALP1 and LYP1 were altered to gain insight into the formation of complex translocations. Among 844 clones with chromosomal rearrangements, 93 with various types of simple and complex translocations involving CAN1, LYP1 and ALP1 were identified. Breakpoint sequencing and mapping showed that the formation of complex translocation types is strictly dependent on the location of the initiating DNA break and revealed that complex translocations arise via a combination of interchromosomal translocation and template-switching, as well as from unstable dicentric intermediates. Template-switching occurred between sequences on the same chromosome, but was inhibited if the genes were transferred to different chromosomes. Unstable dicentric translocations continuously gave rise to clones with multiple translocations in various combinations, reminiscent of intratumor heterogeneity in human cancers. Base substitutions and evidence of DNA slippage near rearrangement breakpoints revealed that translocation formation can be accompanied by point mutations, and their presence in different translocation types within the same clone provides evidence that some of the different translocation types are derived from each other rather than being formed de novo. These findings provide insight into eukaryotic genome instability, especially the formation of translocations and the sources of intraclonal heterogeneity, both of which are often associated with human cancers. PMID:20711256

Schmidt, Kristina H; Viebranz, Emilie; Doerfler, Lillian; Lester, Christina; Rubenstein, Aaron

2010-01-01

338

Cernunnos influences human immunoglobulin class switch recombination and may be associated with B cell lymphomagenesis  

PubMed Central

Cernunnos is involved in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we studied immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR), a physiological process which relies on proper repair of the DSBs, in B cells from Cernunnos-deficient patients. The pattern of in vivo generated CSR junctions is altered in these cells, with unusually long microhomologies and a lack of direct end-joining. The CSR junctions from Cernunnos-deficient patients largely resemble those from patients lacking DNA ligase IV, Artemis, or ATM, suggesting that these factors are involved in the same end-joining pathway during CSR. By screening 269 mature B cell lymphoma biopsies, we also identified a somatic missense Cernunnos mutation in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma sample. This mutation has a dominant-negative effect on joining of a subset of DNA ends in an in vitro NHEJ assay. Translocations involving both Ig heavy chain loci and clonal-like, dynamic IgA switching activities were observed in this tumor. Collectively, our results suggest a link between defects in the Cernunnos-dependent NHEJ pathway and aberrant CSR or switch translocations during the development of B cell malignancies. PMID:22312109

Du, Likun; Peng, Roujun; Björkman, Andrea; Filipe de Miranda, Noel; Rosner, Cornelia; Kotnis, Ashwin; Berglund, Mattias; Liu, Chonghai; Rosenquist, Richard; Enblad, Gunilla; Sundström, Christer; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Revy, Patrick; Durandy, Anne; Zeng, Yixin; Gennery, Andrew R.; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01

339

11q23 Translocations split the [open quotes]AT-hook[close quotes] cruciform DNA-binding region and the transcriptional repression domain from the activation domain of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene  

SciTech Connect

Translocations involving chromosome band 11q23, found in acute lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, disrupt the MLL gene. This gene encodes a putative transcription factor with homology to the zinc fingers and other domains of the Drosophila trithorax gene product and to the [open quotes]AT-hook[close quotes] motif of high mobility group proteins. To map potential transcriptional activation or repression domains of the MLL protein, yeast GAL4 DNA-binding domain and MLL hybrid protein-expressing plasmids were cotransfected with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter plasmids in a transient transfection system. We found that MLL contains a strong activation domain and a repression domain. The former, located telomeric (3[prime]) to the breakpoint region, activated transcription 18-fold to >200-fold, depending on the promoter and cell line used for transfection. A repression domain that repressed transcription 4-fold was located centromeric (5[prime]) to the breakpoint region of MLL. The MLL AT-hook domain protein was expressed in bacteria and was utilized in a gel mobility shift assay to assess DNA-binding activity. The MLL AT-hook domain could bind cruciform DNA, recognizing structure rather than sequence of the target DNA. In translocations involving MLL, loss of an activation domain with retention of a repression domain and a DNA-binding domain on the der(11) chromosome could alter the expression of downstream target genes, suggesting a potential mechanism of action for MLL in leukemia. 35 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Zeleznik-Le, N.J.; Harden, A.M.; Rowley, J.D. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States))

1994-10-25

340

A Novel VHH Antibody Targeting the B Cell-Activating Factor for B-Cell Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: To construct an immune alpaca phage display library, in order to obtain a single domain anti-BAFF (B cell-activating factor) antibody. Methods: Using phage display technology, we constructed an immune alpaca phage display library, selected anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (sdAbs), cloned three anti-BAFF single-domain antibody genes into expression vector pSJF2, and expressed them efficiently in Escherichia coli. The affinity of different anti-BAFF sdAbs were measured by Bio layer interferometry. The in vitro biological function of three sdAbs was investigated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We obtained three anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (anti-BAFF64, anti-BAFF52 and anti-BAFFG3), which were produced in high yield in Escherichia coli and inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusion: The selected anti-BAFF antibodies could be candidates for B-cell lymphoma therapies. PMID:24879522

Wu, Wen; Li, Shenghua; Zhang, Weijing; Sun, Jian; Ren, Guangda; Dong, Quanchao

2014-01-01

341

Novel approaches to immunotherapy for B-cell malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunotherapy for cancer refers to a wide array of novel therapeutic interventions that harness the immune system to target\\u000a and eradicate malignant cells in the host. Advances in the understanding of how tumor cells evade host immune detection, coupled\\u000a with improved gene transduction technologies, have enabled investigators to propose and test novel immune-based therapies\\u000a for B-cell malignancies. As a result,

Renier J. Brentjens

2004-01-01

342

Requirement for Autophagy in the Long-Term Persistence but not Initial Formation of Memory B cells.  

PubMed

Autophagy is required for the long-term maintenance of Ag-specific memory B cells. However, whether autophagy is also important for the initial formation of memory B cells remains unclear. In this study, we show that newly generated memory B cells do not display active autophagy but are capable of forming Ab-secreting cells after rechallenge with Ags. Increases in autophagy took place over time after the initial formation of memory B cells. The expression of transcription factors involved in autophagy, but not changes in epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation, was required for autophagy gene expression and the development of active autophagy in memory B cells. This indicates that autophagy is not critical for the initial generation of memory B cells but is required for their long-term persistence. Our results suggest that promoting autophagy to improve Ab-dependent immunological memory is more effective during memory B cell maintenance stage. PMID:25672753

Chen, Min; Kodali, Srikanth; Jang, Albert; Kuai, Le; Wang, Jin

2015-03-15

343

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent suppression by 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin of IgM secretion in activated B cells.  

PubMed

The immune system has been identified as a sensitive target for the toxic effects produced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Furthermore, the B cell has been identified as a sensitive cellular target of TCDD by previous cell-type fractionation studies from this laboratory. The mechanism responsible for the immunotoxic effects produced by TCDD is unclear; however, many of the biological effects of TCDD are thought to be mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here, we describe two B cell lines that differ considerably in their expression of the AhR and in their sensitivity to TCDD. Our results demonstrated a marked expression of the AhR protein in the CH12.LX B cell line but not in the BCL-1 B cell line. Transcripts for the AhR were not detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the BCL-1 cells. The AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein was highly expressed in both cell lines. In addition, the AhR and ARNT are functional in CH12.LX cells as demonstrated by TCDD-induced CYP1A1 induction. TCDD did not induce CYP1A1 in BCL-1 cells. Furthermore, TCDD treatment resulted in suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IgM secretion in CH12.LX cells. Conversely, TCDD-induced inhibition of IgM secretion was not demonstrated in LPS-stimulated BCL-1 cells, implicating a role for the AhR in the inhibition of B cell effector function. LPS-induced differentiation of the CH12.LX cells also resulted in a marked induction of Ahr expression which was not induced in LPS-stimulated BCL-1 cells. These studies have implicated the AhR as a critical factor in TCDD-induced inhibition of IgM secretion and have demonstrated an induction of AhR gene and protein expression after B cell activation. PMID:9547351

Sulentic, C E; Holsapple, M P; Kaminski, N E

1998-04-01

344

Molecular underpinning of B-cell anergy  

PubMed Central

Summary A byproduct of the largely stochastic generation of a diverse B-cell specificity repertoire is production of cells that recognize autoantigens. Indeed, recent studies indicate that more than half of the primary repertoire consists of autoreactive B cells that must be silenced to prevent autoimmunity. While this silencing can occur by multiple mechanisms, it appears that most autoreactive B cells are silenced by anergy, wherein they populate peripheral lymphoid organs and continue to express unoccupied antigen receptors yet are unresponsive to antigen stimulation. Here we review molecular mechanisms that appear operative in maintaining the antigen unresponsiveness of anergic B cells. In addition, we present new data indicating that the failure of anergic B cells to mobilize calcium in response to antigen stimulation is not mediated by inactivation of stromal interacting molecule 1, a critical intermediary in intracellular store depletion-induced calcium influx. PMID:20727040

Yarkoni, Yuval; Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C.

2010-01-01

345

Expression and function of a novel isoform of Sox5 in malignant B cells  

PubMed Central

Using a mouse model with the tumor suppressor TRAF3 deleted from B cells, we identified Sox5 as a gene strikingly up-regulated in B lymphomas. Sox5 proteins were not detected in normal or premalignant TRAF3-/-B cells even after treatment with B cell stimuli. The Sox5 expressed in TRAF3-/-B lymphomas represents a novel isoform of Sox5, and was localized in the nucleus of malignant B cells. Overexpression of Sox5 inhibited cell cycle progression, and up-regulated the protein levels of p27 and ?-catenin in human multiple myeloma cells. Together, our findings indicate that Sox5 regulates the proliferation of malignant B cells. PMID:24418753

Edwards, Shanique K.E.; Desai, Anand; Liu, Yan; Moore, Carissa R.; Xie, Ping

2014-01-01

346

A de novo X;8 translocation creates a PTK2-THOC2 gene fusion with THOC2 expression knockdown in a patient with psychomotor retardation and congenital cerebellar hypoplasia  

PubMed Central

We identified a balanced de novo translocation involving chromosomes Xq25 and 8q24 in an eight year-old girl with a non-progressive form of congenital ataxia, cognitive impairment and cerebellar hypoplasia. Breakpoint definition showed that the promoter of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase 2 (PTK2, also known as Focal Adhesion Kinase, FAK) gene on chromosome 8q24.3 is translocated 2 kb upstream of the THO complex subunit 2 (THOC2) gene on chromosome Xq25. PTK2 is a well-known non-receptor tyrosine kinase whereas THOC2 encodes a component of the evolutionarily conserved multiprotein THO complex, involved in mRNA export from nucleus. The translocation generated a sterile fusion transcript under the control of the PTK2 promoter, affecting expression of both PTK2 and THOC2 genes. PTK2 is involved in cell adhesion and, in neurons, plays a role in axonal guidance, and neurite growth and attraction. However, PTK2 haploinsufficiency alone is unlikely to be associated with human disease. Therefore, we studied the role of THOC2 in the CNS using three models: 1) THOC2 ortholog knockout in C. elegans which produced functional defects in specific sensory neurons; 2) Thoc2 knockdown in primary rat hippocampal neurons which increased neurite extension; 3) Thoc2 knockdown in neuronal stem cells (LC1) which increased their in vitro growth rate without modifying apoptosis levels. We suggest that THOC2 can play specific roles in neuronal cells and, possibly in combination with PTK2 reduction, may affect normal neural network formation, leading to cognitive impairment and cerebellar congenital hypoplasia. PMID:23749989

Di Gregorio, Eleonora; Bianchi, Federico T.; Schiavi, Alfonso; Chiotto, Alessandra M.A.; Rolando, Marco; di Cantogno, Ludovica Verdun; Grosso, Enrico; Cavalieri, Simona; Calcia, Alessandro; Lacerenza, Daniela; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Stevanin, Giovanni; Marelli, Cecilia; Durr, Alexandra; Forlani, Sylvie; Chelly, Jamel; Montarolo, Francesca; Tempia, Filippo; Beggs, Hilary E.; Reed, Robin; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria C.; Brussino, Alessandro; Ventura, Natascia; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Brusco, Alfredo

2014-01-01

347

New case of trichorinophalangeal syndrome-like phenotype with a de novo t(2;8)(p16.1;q23.3) translocation which does not disrupt the TRPS1 gene  

PubMed Central

Background Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterised by distinctive craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. TRPS is generally associated with mutations in the TRPS1 gene at 8q23.3 or microdeletions of the 8q23.3-q24.11 region. However, three deletions affecting the same chromosome region and a familial translocation t(8;13) co-segregating with TRPS, which do not encompass or disrupt the TRPS1 gene, have been reported. A deregulated expression of TRPS1 has been hypothesised as cause of the TRPS phenotype of these patients. Case presentation We report the clinical and molecular characterisation of a 57-year-old Caucasian woman carrying the t(2;8)(p16.1;q23.3) de novo balanced translocation. The proband presented with peculiar clinical features (severe craniofacial dysmorphism, alopecia universalis, severe scoliosis, mitral valve prolapse, mild mental impairment and normal growth parameters) that partially overlap with TRPS I. Mutational and array CGH analyses ruled out any genetic defect affecting TRPS1 or genomic alteration at the translocation breakpoint or elsewhere in the genome. Breakpoint mapping excluded disruption of TRPS1, and revealed that the chromosome 8q23.3 breakpoint was located within the IVS10 of the long intergenic non-coding RNA LINC00536, at approximately 300 kb from the TRPS1 5’ end. Conversely, the 2p16.1 breakpoint mapped within a LINE sequence, in a region that lacks transcriptional regulatory elements. As a result of the translocation, nucleotide base pair additions and deletions were detected at both breakpoint junction fragments, and an evolutionarily conserved VISTA enhancer element from 2p16.1 was relocated at approximately 325 kb from the TRPS1 promoter. Conclusions We suggest that the disruption of the genomic architecture of cis regulatory elements downstream the TRPS1 5? region, combined with the translocation of a novel enhancer element nearby TRPS1, might be the pathogenetic mechanism underpinning the proband’s phenotype. The clinical and genetic characterisation of the present subject allowed us to make a genetic diagnosis in the context of a known syndrome, contributing to a better comprehension of the complex transcriptional regulation of TRPS1 and TRPS ethiopathogenesis. PMID:24886451

2014-01-01

348

Functionally Responsive Self-Reactive B Cells of Low-Affinity Express Reduced Levels of Surface IgM1  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Somatic gene rearrangement generates a diverse repertoire of B cells, including B cell receptors (BCR) possessing a range of affinities for self-Ag. Newly generated B cells express high and relatively uniform amounts of surface IgM (sIgM), while follicular (FO) B cells express sIgM at widely varying levels. It is plausible, therefore, that down-modulation of sIgM serves as a mechanism to maintain weakly self-reactive B cells in a responsive state by decreasing their avidity for self-Ag. We tested this hypothesis by performing comparative functional tests with FO IgMhi and IgMlo B cells from the unrestricted repertoire of wildtype (WT) mice. We found that FO IgMlo B cells mobilized Ca2+ equivalently to IgMhi B cells when the same number of sIgM molecules was engaged. In agreement, FO IgMlo B cells were functionally competent to produce an antibody response following adoptive transfer. The FO IgMlo cell population had elevated levels of Nur77 transcript, and was enriched with nuclear-reactive specificities. Hybridoma sampling revealed that these BCR were of low affinity. Collectively, these results suggest that sIgM down-modulation by low-affinity, self-reactive B cells preserves their immunocompetence and circumvents classical peripheral tolerance mechanisms that would otherwise reduce diversity within the B cell compartment. PMID:24375379

Kirchenbaum, Greg A.; St. Clair, James B.; Detanico, Thiago; Aviszus, Katja; Wysocki, Lawrence J.

2014-01-01

349

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein deficiency perturbs the homeostasis of B-cell compartment in humans.  

PubMed

Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) regulates the cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells and mutations in its gene cause the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), a primary immunodeficiency with microthrombocytopenia, eczema and a higher susceptibility to develop tumors. Autoimmune manifestations, frequently observed in WAS patients, are associated with an increased risk of mortality and still represent an unsolved aspect of the disease. B cells play a crucial role both in immune competence and self-tolerance and defects in their development and function result in immunodeficiency and/or autoimmunity. We performed a phenotypical and molecular analysis of central and peripheral B-cell compartments in WAS pediatric patients. We found a decreased proportion of immature B cells in the bone marrow correlating with an increased presence of transitional B cells in the periphery. These results could be explained by the defective migratory response of WAS B cells to SDF-1?, essential for the retention of immature B cells in the BM. In the periphery, we observed an unusual expansion of CD21(low) B-cell population and increased plasma BAFF levels that may contribute to the high susceptibility to develop autoimmune manifestations in WAS patients. WAS memory B cells were characterized by a reduced in vivo proliferation, decreased somatic hypermutation and preferential usage of IGHV4-34, an immunoglobulin gene commonly found in autoreactive B cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that WASp-deficiency perturbs B-cell homeostasis thus adding a new layer of immune dysregulation concurring to the increased susceptibility to develop autoimmunity in WAS patients. PMID:24369837

Castiello, Maria Carmina; Bosticardo, Marita; Pala, Francesca; Catucci, Marco; Chamberlain, Nicolas; van Zelm, Menno C; Driessen, Gertjan J; Pac, Malgorzata; Bernatowska, Ewa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Aiuti, Alessandro; Sauer, Aisha V; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Meffre, Eric; Villa, Anna; van der Burg, Mirjam

2014-05-01

350

Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein deficiency perturbs the homeostasis of B-cell compartment in humans?  

PubMed Central

Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) regulates the cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells and mutations in its gene cause the Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome (WAS), a primary immunodeficiency with microthrombocytopenia, eczema and a higher susceptibility to develop tumors. Autoimmune manifestations, frequently observed in WAS patients, are associated with an increased risk of mortality and still represent an unsolved aspect of the disease. B cells play a crucial role both in immune competence and self-tolerance and defects in their development and function result in immunodeficiency and/or autoimmunity. We performed a phenotypical and molecular analysis of central and peripheral B-cell compartments in WAS pediatric patients. We found a decreased proportion of immature B cells in the bone marrow correlating with an increased presence of transitional B cells in the periphery. These results could be explained by the defective migratory response of WAS B cells to SDF-1?, essential for the retention of immature B cells in the BM. In the periphery, we observed an unusual expansion of CD21low B-cell population and increased plasma BAFF levels that may contribute to the high susceptibility to develop autoimmune manifestations in WAS patients. WAS memory B cells were characterized by a reduced in vivo proliferation, decreased somatic hypermutation and preferential usage of IGHV4-34, an immunoglobulin gene commonly found in autoreactive B cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that WASp-deficiency perturbs B-cell homeostasis thus adding a new layer of immune dysregulation concurring to the increased susceptibility to develop autoimmunity in WAS patients. PMID:24369837

Castiello, Maria Carmina; Bosticardo, Marita; Pala, Francesca; Catucci, Marco; Chamberlain, Nicolas; van Zelm, Menno C.; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Pac, Malgorzata; Bernatowska, Ewa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Aiuti, Alessandro; Sauer, Aisha V.; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Meffre, Eric; Villa, Anna; van der Burg, Mirjam

2014-01-01

351

Pax5 immunostaining in paraffin-embedded sections of canine non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A novel canine pan pre-B- and B-cell marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pax5 gene encodes the B-cell specific activator protein (BSAP), a member of the highly conserved paired box (PAX)-domain family of transcription factors and a key regulator in the development and differentiation of B-cells. Pax5 serves as a valuable B-cell marker in the classification of human lymphoma patients as it is restricted to lymphomas of B-cell lineage. In dogs, detection

M. Willmann; L. Müllauer; A. Guija de Arespacochaga; M. Reifinger; I. Mosberger; J. G. Thalhammer

2009-01-01

352

Confirmation of the molecular classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be divided into prognostically impor- tant subgroups with germinal center B- cell-like (GCB), activated B-cell-like (ABC), and type 3 gene expression pro- files using a cDNA microarray. Tissue microarray (TMA) blocks were created from 152 cases of DLBCL, 142 of which had been successfully evaluated by cDNA microarray (75 GCB, 41 ABC, and 26

Christine P. Hans; Dennis D. Weisenburger; Timothy C. Greiner; Randy D. Gascoyne; Jan Delabie; German Ott; H. Konrad Muller-Hermelink; Elias Campo; Rita M. Braziel; Elaine S. Jaffe; Zenggang Pan; Pedro Farinha; Lynette M. Smith; Brunangelo Falini; Alison H. Banham; Andreas Rosenwald; Louis M. Staudt; Joseph M. Connors; James O. Armitage; Wing C. Chan

2004-01-01

353

A translocation, insertion and deletion distance formula for sorting genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorting genomes by translocation, insertion and deletions has already been researched for years such as in. However, the authors in did not consider the case that a gene in the target genome does not appear in the source genome. Translocation is a reciprocal operation in sorting genomes, and deletion and insertion are reciprocal to each other. In this paper, we

Hao Fanchang; Luan Junfeng; Zhu Daming; Feng Haodi

2009-01-01

354

CVID-associated TACI mutations affect autoreactive B cell selection and activation  

PubMed Central

Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is an assorted group of primary diseases that clinically manifest with antibody deficiency, infection susceptibility, and autoimmunity. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member TACI are associated with CVID and autoimmune manifestations, whereas two mutated alleles prevent autoimmunity. To assess how the number of TACI mutations affects B cell activation and tolerance checkpoints, we analyzed healthy individuals and CVID patients carrying one or two TACI mutations. We found that TACI interacts with the cleaved, mature forms of TLR7 and TLR9 and plays an important role during B cell activation and the central removal of autoreactive B cells in healthy donors and CVID patients. However, only subjects with a single TACI mutation displayed a breached immune tolerance and secreted antinuclear antibodies (ANAs). These antibodies were associated with the presence of circulating B cell lymphoma 6–expressing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, likely stimulating autoreactive B cells. Thus, TACI mutations may favor CVID by altering B cell activation with coincident impairment of central B cell tolerance, whereas residual B cell responsiveness in patients with one, but not two, TACI mutations enables autoimmune complications. PMID:24051380

Romberg, Neil; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Saadoun, David; Gentile, Maurizio; Kinnunen, Tuure; Ng, Yen Shing; Virdee, Manmeet; Menard, Laurence; Cantaert, Tineke; Morbach, Henner; Rachid, Rima; Martinez-Pomar, Natalia; Matamoros, Nuria; Geha, Raif; Grimbacher, Bodo; Cerutti, Andrea; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Meffre, Eric

2013-01-01

355

Themis2 is not required for B cell development, activation, and antibody responses.  

PubMed

Themis1 is a protein implicated in transducing signals from the TCR. Mice deficient in Themis1 show a strong impairment in T cell selection in the thymus and defective T cell activation. The related Themis2 protein is expressed in B cells where it associates with signaling proteins Grb2 and Vav1, and is tyrosine phosphorylated after BCR stimulation. Thus, it has been proposed that Themis2 may transduce BCR signals, and hence play important roles in B cell development and activation. In this article, we show that Themis2 is expressed in all developing subsets of B cells, in mature follicular and marginal zone B cells, and in activated B cells, including germinal center B cells and plasma cells. In contrast, B lineage cells express no other Themis-family genes. Activation of B cells leads to reduced Themis2 expression, although it remains the only Themis-family protein expressed. To analyze the physiological function of Themis2, we generated a Themis2-deficient mouse strain. Surprisingly, we found that Themis2 is not required for B cell development, for activation, or for Ab responses either to model Ags or to influenza viral infection. PMID:24907343

Hartweger, Harald; Schweighoffer, Edina; Davidson, Sophia; Peirce, Matthew J; Wack, Andreas; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

2014-07-15

356

Rituximab induces sustained reduction of pathogenic B cells in patients with peripheral nervous system autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

The B cell–depleting IgG1 monoclonal antibody rituximab can persistently suppress disease progression in some patients with autoimmune diseases. However, the mechanism underlying these long-term beneficial effects has remained unclear. Here, we evaluated Ig gene usage in patients with anti–myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) neuropathy, an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system that is mediated by IgM autoantibodies binding to MAG antigen. Patients with anti-MAG neuropathy showed substantial clonal expansions of blood IgM memory B cells that recognized MAG antigen. The group of patients showing no clinical improvement after rituximab therapy were distinguished from clinical responders by a higher load of clonal IgM memory B cell expansions before and after therapy, by persistence of clonal expansions despite efficient peripheral B cell depletion, and by a lack of substantial changes in somatic hypermutation frequencies of IgM memory B cells. We infer from these data that the effectiveness of rituximab therapy depends on efficient depletion of noncirculating B cells and is associated with qualitative immunological changes that indicate reconfiguration of B cell memory through sustained reduction of autoreactive clonal expansions. These findings support the continued development of B cell–depleting therapies for autoimmune diseases. PMID:22426210

Maurer, Michael A.; Rakocevic, Goran; Leung, Carol S.; Quast, Isaak; Luka?išin, Martin; Goebels, Norbert; Münz, Christian; Wardemann, Hedda; Dalakas, Marinos; Lünemann, Jan D.

2012-01-01

357

A Novel Mechanism for B Cell Repertoire Maturation Based on Response by B Cell Precursors to Pre–B Receptor Assembly  

PubMed Central

The expression of different sets of immunoglobulin specificities by fetal and adult B lymphocytes is a long-standing puzzle in immunology. Recently it has become clear that production of immunoglobulin ? heavy chain and subsequent assembly with a surrogate light chain to form the pre-B cell receptor complex is critical for development of B cells. Here we show that instead of promoting pre–B cell progression as in adult bone marrow, this complex inhibits pre–B cell growth in fetal liver. Curiously, we identify a fetal-associated VH11 ? heavy chain that allows continued pre-B proliferation in fetal liver. Interestingly, this heavy chain does not associate efficiently with a surrogate light chain, providing a previously unrecognized mechanism for skewing the expression of distinctive VH genes toward fetal through early neonatal life. PMID:9432984

Wasserman, R.; Li, Y.-S.; Shinton, S.A.; Carmack, C.E.; Manser, T.; Wiest, D.L.; Hayakawa, K.; Hardy, R.R.

1998-01-01

358

MHC class II transactivator CIITA is a recurrent gene fusion partner in lymphoid cancers.  

PubMed

Chromosomal translocations are critically involved in the molecular pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas, and highly recurrent and specific rearrangements have defined distinct molecular subtypes linked to unique clinicopathological features. In contrast, several well-characterized lymphoma entities still lack disease-defining translocation events. To identify novel fusion transcripts resulting from translocations, we investigated two Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines by whole-transcriptome paired-end sequencing (RNA-seq). Here we show a highly expressed gene fusion involving the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator CIITA (MHC2TA) in KM-H2 cells. In a subsequent evaluation of 263 B-cell lymphomas, we also demonstrate that genomic CIITA breaks are highly recurrent in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (38%) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (15%). Furthermore, we find that CIITA is a promiscuous partner of various in-frame gene fusions, and we report that CIITA gene alterations impact survival in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL). As functional consequences of CIITA gene fusions, we identify downregulation of surface HLA class II expression and overexpression of ligands of the receptor molecule programmed cell death 1 (CD274/PDL1 and CD273/PDL2). These receptor-ligand interactions have been shown to impact anti-tumour immune responses in several cancers, whereas decreased MHC class II expression has been linked to reduced tumour cell immunogenicity. Thus, our findings suggest that recurrent rearrangements of CIITA may represent a novel genetic mechanism underlying tumour-microenvironment interactions across a spectrum of lymphoid cancers. PMID:21368758

Steidl, Christian; Shah, Sohrab P; Woolcock, Bruce W; Rui, Lixin; Kawahara, Masahiro; Farinha, Pedro; Johnson, Nathalie A; Zhao, Yongjun; Telenius, Adele; Neriah, Susana Ben; McPherson, Andrew; Meissner, Barbara; Okoye, Ujunwa C; Diepstra, Arjan; van den Berg, Anke; Sun, Mark; Leung, Gillian; Jones, Steven J; Connors, Joseph M; Huntsman, David G; Savage, Kerry J; Rimsza, Lisa M; Horsman, Douglas E; Staudt, Louis M; Steidl, Ulrich; Marra, Marco A; Gascoyne, Randy D