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Sample records for b-cell translocation gene

  1. RCSD1-ABL1 Translocation Associated with IKZF1 Gene Deletion in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Shawana; Raca, Gordana; Nazir, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The RCSD1 gene has recently been identified as a novel gene fusion partner of the ABL1 gene in cases of B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). The RCSD1 gene is located at 1q23 and ABL1 is located at 9q34, so that the RCSD1-ABL1 fusion typically arises through a rare reciprocal translocation t(1;9)(q23;q34). Only a small number of RCSD1-ABL1 positive cases of B-ALL have been described in the literature, and the full spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features associated with this genetic abnormality has not been defined. We describe extensive genetic characterization of a case of B-ALL with RCSD1-ABL1 fusion, by using conventional cytogenetic analysis, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies, and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). The use of CMA resulted in detection of an approximately 70?kb deletion at 7p12.2, which caused a disruption of the IKZF1 gene. Deletions and mutations of IKZF1 are recurring abnormalities in B-ALL and are associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings highlight the association of the deletion of IKZF1 gene with the t(1;9)(q24;q34) and illustrate the importance of comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular evaluation for accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with B-cell ALL. PMID:26600955

  2. RCSD1-ABL1 Translocation Associated with IKZF1 Gene Deletion in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Shawana; Raca, Gordana; Nazir, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The RCSD1 gene has recently been identified as a novel gene fusion partner of the ABL1 gene in cases of B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). The RCSD1 gene is located at 1q23 and ABL1 is located at 9q34, so that the RCSD1-ABL1 fusion typically arises through a rare reciprocal translocation t(1;9)(q23;q34). Only a small number of RCSD1-ABL1 positive cases of B-ALL have been described in the literature, and the full spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features associated with this genetic abnormality has not been defined. We describe extensive genetic characterization of a case of B-ALL with RCSD1-ABL1 fusion, by using conventional cytogenetic analysis, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies, and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). The use of CMA resulted in detection of an approximately 70?kb deletion at 7p12.2, which caused a disruption of the IKZF1 gene. Deletions and mutations of IKZF1 are recurring abnormalities in B-ALL and are associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings highlight the association of the deletion of IKZF1 gene with the t(1;9)(q24;q34) and illustrate the importance of comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular evaluation for accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with B-cell ALL. PMID:26600955

  3. A novel function of B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) in the regulation of hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice via c-Jun.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Deng, Jiali; Yu, Junjie; Guo, Yajie; Chen, Shanghai; Guo, Feifan

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is one of the major factors contributing to metabolic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. As an important cofactor, B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) is involved in many physiologic processes; however, the direct effect of BTG1 on insulin sensitivity has not been described. In our study, BTG1 overexpression or knockdown improved or impaired insulin signaling in vitro, respectively. In addition, adenovirus-mediated BTG1 overexpression improved insulin sensitivity in wild-type (WT) and insulin-resistant leptin-receptor mutated (db/db) mice. In addition, transgenic BTG1-overexpressing mice were resistant to high-carbohydrate diet-induced insulin resistance. Adenovirus-mediated BTG1 knockdown consistently impaired insulin sensitivity in WT and insulin-sensitive leucine-deprived mice. Moreover, hepatic BTG1 expression was increased by leucine deprivation via the mammalian target of rapamycin/ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 pathway. Furthermore, c-Jun expression was up-regulated by BTG1, and adenovirus-mediated c-Jun knockdown blocked BTG1-improved insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, BTG1 promoted c-Jun expression via stimulating c-Jun and retinoic acid receptor activities. Taken together, these results identify a novel function for BTG1 in the regulation of hepatic insulin sensitivity and provide important insights into the nutritional regulation of BTG1 expression.- Xiao, F., Deng, J., Yu, J., Guo, Y., Chen, S., Guo, F. A novel function of B-cell translocation gene 1 (BTG1) in the regulation of hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice via c-Jun. PMID:26396236

  4. L-Mimosine blocks cell proliferation via upregulation of B-cell translocation gene 2 and N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Li-Chuan; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2012-02-15

    L-Mimosine, an iron chelator and a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor, blocks many cancer cells at the late G1 phase. B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) regulates the G1/S transition phases of the cell cycle. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1) is a differentiation-inducing gene upregulated by hypoxia. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of L-mimosine on cell cycle modulation in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. The effect of L-mimosine on cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry assays. L-Mimosine arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase in PC-3 cells and at the S phase in LNCaP cells, thus attenuating cell proliferation. Immunoblot assays indicated that hypoxia and L-mimosine stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induced Btg2 and Ndrg1 protein expression, but downregulated protein levels of cyclin A in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. L-Mimosine treatment decreased cyclin D1 protein in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Dimethyloxalylglycine, a pan-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, also induced Btg2 and Ndrg1 protein expression in LNCaP cells. The transient gene expression assay revealed that L-mimosine treatment or cotransfection with HIF-1α expression vector enhanced the promoter activities of Btg2 and Ndrg1 genes. Knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated the increasing protein levels of both Btg2 and Ndrg1 by hypoxia or L-mimosine in LNCaP cells. Our results indicated that hypoxia and L-mimosine modulated Btg2 and Ndrg1 at the transcriptional level, which is dependent on HIF-1α. L-Mimosine enhanced expression of Btg2 and Ndrg1, which attenuated cell proliferation of the PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. PMID:22116304

  5. Upregulation of B-cell translocation gene 2 by epigallocatechin-3-gallate via p38 and ERK signaling blocks cell proliferation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jehn-Chuan; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a well-known malignancy that accounts for the majority of oral cancers. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is an important regulator of cell cycle dynamics in cancer cells. However, the role of BTG2 in OSCC cells and the influences of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on BTG2 gene expressions have not been well evaluated. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of EGCG-induced BTG2 expression and the potential signal pathways involved. The (3)H-thymidine incorporation and Western-blot assays revealed cell proliferation was attenuated by EGCG via upregulation of BTG2 expression causing cell cycle G1 phase arrest in OSCC cells. BTG2 overexpression decreased tumor cell growth, while BTG2 knockdown illuminated the opposite effect in xenograft animal studies. Overexpressed BTG2 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and downregulated protein expressions of cyclin A, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Western-blot assays indicated that EGCG induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK. However, pretreatments with selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and PD0325901 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), significantly suppressed the activation of EGCG on BTG2 expression. Our results indicate that EGCG attenuates cell proliferation of OSCC cells by upregulating BTG2 expression via p38 and ERK pathways. PMID:25721086

  6. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  7. Clinical significance and prognosis of MYC translocation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Wei; Chen, Zhen Wen; Li, Su Hong; Bai, Wei; Cheng, Niu Liang; Wang, Jin Fen

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that chromosomal aberrations of the MYC gene locus indicate an unfavorable prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, there have been few reports on MYC translocation in Chinese patients. One hundred and six cases of DLBCLs were analyzed using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization. Immunophenotyping analysis (CD20, CD3, CD10, Bcl-6, Mum-1) was also performed. MYC translocation was identified in 13 (12.3%) out of 106 cases. All MYC(+) DLBCLs showed a non-germinal center B-cell type. MYC(+) DLBCLs showed significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival, with a median OS and progression-free survival time of 4.7 and 3.2?months, respectively (p?translocation is a subgroup of non-germinal center B-cell DLBCL with poor outcome. This may be a clinical characteristic that is specific to Chinese patients. Because only a few patients received rituximab, its usefulness could not be assessed. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are required. PMID:21692100

  8. Evolution of B-cell malignancy; Pre-B-cell leukemia resulting from MYC activation in a B-cell neoplasm with a rearranged BCL2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gauwerky, C.E.; Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors have analyzed the molecular genetics of the breakpoints involved in the t(8;14) and t(14;18) translocations of an acute pre-B-cell leukemia from a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma. In this patient's leukemic cells, the breakpoint of the t(14;18) translocation occurred in the major breakpoint-cluster region of the BCL2 gene and became linked to the J{sub H}4 joining-region gene segment of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus on the 14q+ chromosome as previously observed in follicular lymphoma. An N region and heptamer and nonamer signal sequences indicated that this translocation occurred as a mistake in V{sub H}-D{sub H}-J{sub H} joining (where V{sub H} and D{sub H} are the variable and diversity segments). In the t(8;14) translocation, the breakpoint was located immediately 5' of the first exon of the MYC protooncogene, which was juxtaposed with the C{gamma}2 constant gene segment of the second 14q+ chromosome. The finding of repeated sequences typical of switch regions suggested that this translocation occurred during heavy-chain isotype switching, resulting in progression to pre-B-cell leukemia with both the 5(8;14) and the t(14;18) translocations. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive phenotype of the patient's leukemic cells further suggests that the pre-B-cell leukemia was derived from a pre-B cell carrying a t(14;18) translocation in the original follicular lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction method was then used to identify cancer cells in the bone marrow of the patient.

  9. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Prez de Diego, Rebeca; Snchez-Ramn, Silvia; Lpez-Collazo, Eduardo; Martnez-Barricarte, Rubn; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdn, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor ?B in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of eachof the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. PMID:26277595

  10. Biological characterization of adult MYC-translocation-positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Sietse M; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W; Rosolowski, Maciej; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hummel, Michael; Kppers, Ralf; Lenze, Dido; Ott, German; Pott, Christiane; Richter, Julia; Rosenwald, Andreas; Szczepanowski, Monika; Schwaenen, Carsten; Stein, Harald; Trautmann, Heiko; Wessendorf, Swen; Trmper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Spang, Rainer; Kluin, Philip M; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    2014-04-01

    Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biological hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation-positive (MYC(+)) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biological features of these MYC(+) lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation-positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit and 3 MYC(+)-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas more frequently showed a germinal center B-cell-like gene expression profile and had higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6(+)/MYC(+) and BCL2(+)/MYC(+) double-hit lymphomas. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) double-hit lymphomas more frequently showed a germinal center B-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast to the outcome of molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without the MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC(+) lymphomas are biologically quite homogeneous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC(+) lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics. PMID:24179151

  11. Developmental propagation of V(D)J recombination-associated DNA breaks and translocations in mature B cells via dicentric chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiazhi; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Meyers, Robin M.; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W.

    2014-01-01

    Mature IgM+ B-cell lymphomas that arise in certain ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-deficient compound mutant mice harbor translocations that fuse V(D)J recombination-initiated IgH double-strand breaks (DSBs) on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15, generating dicentric chromosomes and c-myc amplification via a breakage-fusion-bridge mechanism. As V(D)J recombination DSBs occur in developing progenitor B cells in the bone marrow, we sought to elucidate a mechanism by which such DSBs contribute to oncogenic translocations/amplifications in mature B cells. For this purpose, we applied high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing to study the fate of introduced c-myc DSBs in splenic IgM+ B cells stimulated for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switch recombination (CSR). We found frequent translocations of c-myc DSBs to AID-initiated DSBs in IgH switch regions in wild-type and ATM-deficient B cells. However, c-myc also translocated frequently to newly generated DSBs within a 35-Mb region downstream of IgH in ATM-deficient, but not wild-type, CSR-activated B cells. Moreover, we found such DSBs and translocations in activated B cells that did not express AID or undergo CSR. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency leads to formation of chromosome 12 dicentrics via recombination-activating gene-initiated IgH DSBs in progenitor B cells and that these dicentrics can be propagated developmentally into mature B cells where they generate new DSBs downstream of IgH via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. We propose that dicentrics formed by joining V(D)J recombination–associated IgH DSBs to DSBs downstream of c-myc in ATM-deficient B lineage cells similarly contribute to c-myc amplification and mature B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24982162

  12. Expression of LMO2 is associated with t(14;18)/IGH-BCL2 fusion but not BCL6 translocations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Durnick, David K; Law, Mark E; Maurer, Matthew J; Natkunam, Yasodha; Levy, Ronald; Lossos, Izidore S; Kurtin, Paul J; McPhail, Ellen D

    2010-08-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be separated for prognostic purposes using gene expression profiling (GEP) into 2 subgroups: germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell phenotypes. However, GEP is impractical for routine clinical use, and immunophenotyping is an imperfect surrogate. Therefore, we studied the relationship between expression of the purported germinal center marker LMO2 and the presence of IGH-BCL2 fusions, BCL6 translocations, and LMO2 translocations. In addition, we investigated the usefulness of LMO2 expression as a marker of GCB subtype in DLBCL. Immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were successfully performed on 101 cases of de novo DLBCL that had been incorporated into a tissue microarray. There was a statistically significant association between IGH-BCL2 fusion and LMO2 protein expression (P = .02) but not between BCL6 translocations and LMO2 expression. LMO2 translocations were not identified. Although uncommon, all cases that had both IGH-BCL2 fusion and BCL6 translocations expressed LMO2. The findings suggest LMO2 as a potential marker for the GCB phenotype. PMID:20660332

  13. Induction of plasmacytoid differentiation by phorbol ester in B-cell lymphoma cell lines bearing 8;14 translocations.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, D; Magrath, I T; Triche, T J; Schroff, R W; Jensen, J P; Korsmeyer, S J

    1984-01-01

    At nanomolar concentrations, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced differentiation in a human Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line, JD 38, derived from an undifferentiated lymphoma and containing an 8;14 translocation. The changes induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate were consistent with differentiation towards plasma cells and included (i) a marked increase (30-fold) in IgM secretion; (ii) a decrease in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio associated with the development of a single prominent nucleolus instead of multiple nucleoli; (iii) the development of parallel arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum, eccentric nuclei, and marginated heterochromatin; (iv) a reduction in the expression of surface markers, including common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen, IgM, and C3 receptors. Essentially all cells showed plasmacytoid differentiation, although the degree varied. Rare cells (less than 1%) appeared to be terminally differentiated into plasma cells. The increase in secreted IgM was preceded by a small increase in mu-chain RNA, with an increase in the ratio of secreted to membrane form. A small increase in c-myc RNA was also detected with differentiation. This might reflect coordinate regulation of the transcription of immunoglobulin and the translocated c-myc gene. Thus, the maturational arrest of this lymphoma cell line can be overcome with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, indicating that translocation of the c-myc gene does not permanently block the capacity for differentiation. Further, this gene continues to be expressed to at least the same level during cell maturation. Similar ultrastructural changes were induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in four of seven additional lines studied. Images PMID:6203124

  14. Nuclear translocation of B-cell-specific transcription factor, BACH2, modulates ROS mediated cytotoxic responses in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng; Pittman, Eric F; Romaguera, Jorge; Fayad, Luis; Wang, Michael; Neelapu, Sattva S; McLaughlin, Peter; Kwak, Larry; McCarty, Nami

    2013-01-01

    BACH2, a B-cell specific transcription factor, plays a critical role in oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis. Bortezomib (Velcade(TM)) is widely used to treat relapsed mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients despite varying clinical outcomes. As one of the potential mechanisms of action, bortezomib was reported to elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress which triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we investigated the redox-sensitive intracellular mechanism that might play a critical role in bortezomib response in MCL cells. We demonstrated that in MCL cells that are sensitive to bortezomib treatments, BACH2 was translocated to the nucleus in response to bortezomib and induced apoptotic responses through the modulation of anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic genes. On the other hand, in bortezomib resistant cells, BACH2 expression was confined in the cytoplasm and no suppression of antiapoptotic or antioxidative genes, Nrf2, Gss, CAT, HO-1 and MCL1, was detected. Importantly, levels of BACH2 were significantly higher in bortezomib sensitive MCL patient cells, indicating that BACH2 levels could be an indicator for clinical bortezomib responses. BACH2 translocation to the cytoplasm after phosphorylation was inhibited by PI3K inhibitors and combinatory regimens of bortezomib and PI3K inhibitors sensitized MCL cells to bortezomib. These data suggest that cellular distribution of BACH2 in response to ROS determines the threshold for the induction of apoptosis. Therapies that inhibit BACH2 phosphorylation could be the key for increasing bortezomib cytotoxic response in patients. PMID:23936317

  15. DNA repair genes are selectively mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda, Noel FCC; Peng, Roujun; Georgiou, Konstantinos; Wu, Chenglin; Srqvist, Elin Falk; Berglund, Mattias; Chen, Longyun; Gao, Zhibo; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lisboa, Susana; Roos, Fredrik; van Wezel, Tom; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Rosenquist, Richard; Sundstrm, Christer; Enblad, Gunilla; Nilsson, Mats; Zeng, Yixin; Kipling, David

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are fundamental for B cell development, which relies on the somatic diversification of the immunoglobulin genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination. Their failure is postulated to promote genomic instability and malignant transformation in B cells. By performing targeted sequencing of 73 key DNA repair genes in 29 B cell lymphoma samples, somatic and germline mutations were identified in various DNA repair pathways, mainly in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Mutations in mismatch repair genes (EXO1, MSH2, and MSH6) were associated with microsatellite instability, increased number of somatic insertions/deletions, and altered mutation signatures in tumors. Somatic mutations in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes (DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS, PRKDC/DNA-PKcs, XRCC5/KU80, and XRCC6/KU70) were identified in four DLBCL tumors and cytogenetic analyses revealed that translocations involving the immunoglobulin-heavy chain locus occurred exclusively in NHEJ-mutated samples. The novel mutation targets, CHEK2 and PARP1, were further screened in expanded DLBCL cohorts, and somatic as well as novel and rare germline mutations were identified in 8 and 5% of analyzed tumors, respectively. By correlating defects in a subset of DNA damage response and repair genes with genomic instability events in tumors, we propose that these genes play a role in DLBCL lymphomagenesis. PMID:23960188

  16. Chromosomal translocations cause deregulated BCL6 expression by promoter substitution in B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, B H; Chaganti, S; Chang, C C; Niu, H; Corradini, P; Chaganti, R S; Dalla-Favera, R

    1995-01-01

    The BCL6 gene codes for a zinc-finger transcription factor and is involved in chromosomal rearrangements in 30-40% of diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL). These rearrangements cluster within the 5' regulatory region of BCL6 spanning its first non-coding exon. To determine the functional consequences of these alterations, we have analyzed the structure of the rearranged BCL6 alleles and their corresponding RNA and protein species in two DLCL biopsies and one tumor cell line which carried the t(3;14)(q27;q32) translocation involving the BCL6 and immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) loci. In all three cases, the breakpoints were mapped within the IgH switch region and the BCL6 first intron, leading to the juxtaposition of part of the IgH locus upstream and in the same transcriptional orientation to the BCL6 coding exons. An analysis of cDNA clones showed that these recombinations generate chimeric IgH-BCL6 transcripts which initiated from IgH germline transcript promoters (I mu or I gamma 3), but retain a normal BCL6 coding domain. In the tumor cell line, the chimeric I gamma 3-BCL6 allele, but not the germline BCL6 gene, was transcriptionally active and produced a normal BCL6 protein. These findings indicate that t(3;14) translocations alter BCL6 expression by promoter substitution and imply that the consequence of these alterations is the deregulated expression of a normal BCL6 protein. Images PMID:8557040

  17. Helicobacter pylori induces apoptosis of T- and B-cell lines and translocates mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor to nucleus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manisha; Prasad, Kashi N; Saxena, Ashish; Yachha, Surender K

    2006-04-01

    Immune cell apoptosis may play a role in human persistent Helicobacter pylori infection. We planned to study the apoptosis of T and B cells by H. pylori strains. T (Jurkat) and B (Raji) cell lines were co-cultured with cagA-positive H. pylori strains carrying different vacA genotypes (s1a/m1, s1a/m2, and s2/m2). Apoptosis was detected by microscopy, DNA fragmentation assay, and flow cytometry. Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) transfer from mitochondria to nucleus was studied by immunoblot analysis. Apoptosis of T and B cells was significantly higher in H. pylori-infected cells than in uninfected controls (s1a/m1 80%, s1a/m2 78%, s2m2 69% vs. control 16% for T cells, P < 0.001; s1 a/m1 78%, s1a/m2 73%, s2m2 62% vs. control 24% for B cells, P < 0.001 by flow cytometry) with no difference among the genotypes. AIF transfer from mitochondria to nucleus was demonstrated in both apoptotic cell lines. Thus, H. pylori induces apoptosis in T- and B-cell lines and translocates AIF. T and B cells deletion through apoptosis may explain the persistence of H. pylori infection; its role in pathogenesis needs further research. PMID:16528467

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel B cell activation gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.X.; Wilson, G.L.; Fox, C.H.; Kehrl, J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    Using subtractive cDNA cloning, the authors have isolated a series of cDNA clones that are differentially expressed between B and T lymphocytes. Whereas some of the isolated cDNA are from known B cell-specific genes, many of them represent previously uncharacterized genes. One of these unknown genes was denoted as BL34. Northern blot analysis performed with the BL34 cDNA revealed a 1.6-kb mRNA transcript that was present at low levels in RNA extracted from resting B lymphocytes, but whose expression was markedly increased in RNA prepared from mitogen-activated B cells. Similarly, RNA prepared from several B cell lines treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) contained high levels of BL34 mRNA. In contrast, RNA from purified T cells treated with phytohemagglutinin and PMA had undetectable amounts of BL34 mRNA. In addition, high levels of BL34 mRNA were detected in RNA purified from PBMC of a patient with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. Southern blot analysis of human DNA from various tissues and cells lines demonstrated that BL34 is a single-copy gene without evidence of rearrangement. Two full length BL34 cDNA were sequenced, and an open reading frame of 588 bp was identified that was predicted to encode for a 196 amino acid protein. Searches of several protein data bases failed to find any homologous proteins. To directly analyze the expression of BL34 mRNA in lymphoid tissues in situ, hybridization studies with human tonsil tissue sections were performed. BL34 mRNA was detected in a portion of the cells in the germinal center region and adjacent to the mantle region. Further characterization of the BL34 gene and its protein should lead to insights to its role in B cell function and the consequences of its over-expression in acute lymphocytic leukemia. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Extensive Gene-Specific Translational Reprogramming in a Model of B Cell Differentiation and Abl-Dependent Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Jamie G.; Salzman, Julia; May, Damon; Garcia, Patty B.; Hogan, Gregory J.; McIntosh, Martin; Schlissel, Mark S.; Brown, Pat O.

    2012-01-01

    To what extent might the regulation of translation contribute to differentiation programs, or to the molecular pathogenesis of cancer? Pre-B cells transformed with the viral oncogene v-Abl are suspended in an immortalized, cycling state that mimics leukemias with a BCR-ABL1 translocation, such as Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Inhibition of the oncogenic Abl kinase with imatinib reverses transformation, allowing progression to the next stage of B cell development. We employed a genome-wide polysome profiling assay called Gradient Encoding to investigate the extent and potential contribution of translational regulation to transformation and differentiation in v-Abl-transformed pre-B cells. Over half of the significantly translationally regulated genes did not change significantly at the level of mRNA abundance, revealing biology that might have been missed by measuring changes in transcript abundance alone. We found extensive, gene-specific changes in translation affecting genes with known roles in B cell signaling and differentiation, cancerous transformation, and cytoskeletal reorganization potentially affecting adhesion. These results highlight a major role for gene-specific translational regulation in remodeling the gene expression program in differentiation and malignant transformation. PMID:22693568

  20. DNA Microarray Gene Expression Profile of Marginal Zone versus Follicular B cells and Idiotype Positive Marginal Zone B cells Before and After Immunization with Streptococcus pneumoniae 1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiabin; Behrens, Timothy W.; Kearney, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Marginal Zone (MZ) B cells play an important role in the clearance of blood-borne bacterial infections via rapid T-independent IgM responses. We have previously demonstrated that MZ B cells respond rapidly and robustly to bacterial particulates. To determine the MZ-specific genes that are expressed to allow for this response, MZ and Follicular (FO) B cells were sort-purified and analyzed via DNA microarray analysis. We identified 181 genes that were significantly different between the two B cell populations. 99 genes were more highly expressed in MZ B cells while 82 genes were more highly expressed in FO B cells. To further understand the molecular mechanisms by which MZ B cells respond so rapidly to bacterial challenge, idiotype positive and negative MZ B cells were sort-purified before (0 hour) or after (1 hour) i.v. immunization with heat killed Streptococcus pneumoniae, R36A, and analyzed via DNA microarray analysis. We identified genes specifically up regulated or down regulated at 1 hour following immunization in the idiotype positive MZ B cells. These results give insight into the gene expression pattern in resting MZ vs. FO B cells and the specific regulation of gene expression in antigen-specific MZ B cells following interaction with antigen. PMID:18453586

  1. The Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene 3’ Enhancers Induce Bcl2 Deregulation and Lymphomagenesis in Murine B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hong; Noonan, Emily J.; Wang, Jinghong; Duan, Hong; Ma, Lawrence; Michie, Sara; Boxer, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    Human follicular B-cell lymphoma is associated with the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation that juxtaposes the Bcl2 proto-oncogene with the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, resulting in the deregulated expression of Bcl2. Our previous studies have shown that the Igh 3’ enhancers deregulate Bcl2 expression in vitro. However, the effects of the Igh 3’ enhancer elements on Bcl2 expression in vivo are not known. To investigate the role of the Igh 3’ enhancers in Bcl2 deregulation, we used gene targeting to generate knock-in mice in which four DNase I hypersensitive regions from the murine Igh 3’ region were integrated 3’ of the Bcl2 locus. Increased levels of Bcl2 mRNA and protein were observed in the B cells of Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice. B cells from Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice demonstrated an extended survival in vitro compared with B cells from wild-type mice. The Bcl2 promoter shift from P1 (the 5’ promoter) to P2 (the 3’ promoter) was observed in B cells from Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice, similar to human t(14;18) lymphomas. The IgH-3’E-bcl2 mice developed monoclonal B-cell follicular lymphomas, which were slowly progressive. These studies demonstrate that the Igh 3’ enhancers play an important role in the deregulation of Bcl2 and B-cell lymphomagenesis in vivo. PMID:21606958

  2. Lentiviral-mediated gene therapy restores B cell tolerance in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Francesca; Morbach, Henner; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Cassani, Barbara; Glauzy, Salome; Romberg, Neil; Candotti, Fabio; Aiuti, Alessandro; Bosticardo, Marita; Villa, Anna; Meffre, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and high susceptibility to developing tumors and autoimmunity. Recent evidence suggests that B cells may be key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity in WAS. Here, we assessed whether WAS protein deficiency (WASp deficiency) affects the establishment of B cell tolerance by testing the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells from 4 WAS patients before and after gene therapy (GT). We found that pre-GT WASp-deficient B cells were hyperreactive to B cell receptor stimulation (BCR stimulation). This hyperreactivity correlated with decreased frequency of autoreactive new emigrant/transitional B cells exiting the BM, indicating that the BCR signaling threshold plays a major role in the regulation of central B cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from WAS patients were enriched in self-reactive clones, revealing that peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint dysfunction is associated with impaired suppressive function of WAS regulatory T cells. The introduction of functional WASp by GT corrected the alterations of both central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We conclude that WASp plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of B cell tolerance in humans and that restoration of WASp by GT is able to restore B cell tolerance in WAS patients. PMID:26368308

  3. Defective B cell tolerance in adenosine deaminase deficiency is corrected by gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha V; Morbach, Henner; Brigida, Immacolata; Ng, Yen-Shing; Aiuti, Alessandro; Meffre, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene defects are among the most common causes of SCID. Restoration of purine metabolism and immune functions can be achieved by enzyme replacement therapy, or more effectively by bone marrow transplant or HSC gene therapy (HSC-GT). However, autoimmune complications and autoantibody production, including anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), frequently occur in ADA-SCID patients after treatment. To assess whether ADA deficiency affects the establishment of B cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells of ADA-SCID patients before and after HSC-GT. We found that before HSC-GT, new emigrant/transitional and mature naive B cells from ADA-SCID patients contained more autoreactive and ANA-expressing clones, indicative of defective central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We further observed impaired B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR functions in B cells after ADA inhibition, which may underlie the defects in B cell tolerance. Strikingly, after HSC-GT, ADA-SCID patients displayed quasi-normal early B cell tolerance checkpoints, as evidenced by restored removal of developing autoreactive and ANA-expressing B cells. Hence, ADA plays an essential role in controlling autoreactive B cell counterselection by regulating BCR and TLR functions. PMID:22622038

  4. Systematic Comparison of Gene Expression between Murine Memory and Naive B Cells Demonstrates That Memory B Cells Have Unique Signaling Capabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Tomayko, Mary M.; Anderson, Shannon M.; Brayton, Catherine E.; Sadanand, Saheli; Steinel, Natalie C.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Shlomchik, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Memory B cells play essential roles in the maintenance of long-term immunity and may be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, but how these cells are distinguished from their naive precursors is poorly understood. To address this, it would be important to understand how gene expression differs between memory and naive B cells to elucidate memory-specific functions. Using model systems that help overcome the lack of murine memory-specific markers and the low frequency of Agspecific memory and naive cells, we undertook a global comparison of gene expression between memory B cells and their naive precursors. We identified genes with differential expression and confirmed the differential expression of many of these by quantitative RT-PCR and of some of these at the protein level. Our initial analysis revealed differential expression patterns of genes that regulate signaling. Memory B cells have increased expression of genes important in regulating adenosine signaling and in modulating cAMP responses. Furthermore, memory B cells up-regulate receptors that are essential for embryonic stem cell self-renewal. We further demonstrate that one of these, leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, can initiate functional signaling in memory B cells whereas it does not in naive B cells. Thus, memory and naive B cells are intrinsically wired to signal differently from one another and express a functional signaling pathway that is known to maintain stem cells in other lineages. PMID:18566367

  5. LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bertolo, Cristina; Roa, Sergio; Sagardoy, Ainara; Mena-Varas, Maria; Robles, Eloy F.; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Orta, Alberto; Lossos, Izidore S.; Amar, Salomon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Briones, Javier; Melnick, Ari; Malumbres, Raquel; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of LITAF in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce LPS-mediated TNFα secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal center reaction, and suggest that constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:23795761

  6. LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Cristina; Roa, Sergio; Sagardoy, Ainara; Mena-Varas, Maria; Robles, Eloy F; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Orta, Alberto; Lossos, Izidore S; Amar, Salomon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Briones, Javier; Melnick, Ari; Malumbres, Raquel; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) factor (LITAF) in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal centre reaction, and suggest that the constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:23795761

  7. High Efficiency Ex Vivo Gene Transfer to Primary Murine B Cells Using Plasmid or Viral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Babak; Zolotukhin, Irene; Sack, Brandon K; Herzog, Roland W; Cao, Ou

    2011-03-15

    Primary autologous B-lymphocytes, following ex vivo gene transfer and re-implantation, have been successfully utilized to prevent autoimmune disease and adaptive responses to therapeutic proteins in several animal models. However, efficient gene transfer to primary B cells requires use of retroviral vectors, which increase the risk of insertional mutagenesis. Here, we evaluated several alternative gene transfer approaches. Resting splenic B cells were purified and activated with LPS, and ex vivo GFP gene transfer was performed by means of nucleofection, lipofectamine, adenoviral infection, or murine retroviral infection. The Adenoviral (Ad) vectors were added to B cell cultures with or without calcium phosphate precipitation. For transfection and nucleofection, naked plasmid DNA was utilized. Nucleofection technology represents a modified electroporation technique for effective transfer of nucleic acids to the nucleus and thus enhances the efficiency of transfer particularly for primary cells. Efficiency of ex vivo gene transfer was determined by flow cytometry using GFP, CD19, and a vital dye as markers. Nucleofection yielded the highest level of gene transfer with 60-65% of B cells being GFP+. Efficiencies were 30-35% for retrovirus, 20% for Ad5/11, 15% for Ad5/35, and 5% for lipofectamine-mediated transfection. Calcium phosphate precipitation increased efficiencies for Ad vectors to 30% (Ad5/11) and 25% (Ad5/35). Lipofectamin caused the greatest cell death at 80%, followed by nucleofection (35%), and viral vector (10-15% in each case). For all methods, gene transfer efficiencies were nearly identical for B cells from C57BL/6 or C3H/HeOuJ mice. In conclusion, recent advances in gene transfer technologies provide alternatives to retroviral vectors for primary B cells. If stable gene transfer is desired, non-integrating vector systems may be combined with transposon- or phage integrase-based systems or future site-specific systems to achieve integration into the host B cell genome. PMID:23565344

  8. Burkitt's lymphoma is a malignancy of mature B cells expressing somatically mutated V region genes.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, U.; Klein, G.; Ehlin-Henriksson, B.; Rajewsky, K.; Küppers, R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The developmental stage from which stems the malignant B cell population in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is unclear. An approach to answering this question is provided by the sequence analysis of rear-ranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region (V) genes from BL for evidence of somatic mutations, together with a phenotypic characterization. As somatic hypermutation of Ig V region genes occurs in germinal center B cells, somatically mutated Ig genes are found in germinal center B cells and their descendents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rearranged V kappa region genes from 10 kappa-expressing sporadic and endemic BL-derived cell lines (9 IgM and 1 IgG positive) and three kappa-expressing endemic BL biopsy specimens were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In addition, VH region gene sequences from these cell lines were determined. RESULTS: All BL cell lines and the three biopsy specimens carried somatically mutated V region genes. The average mutation frequency of rearranged V kappa genes from eight BL cell lines established from sporadic BL was 1.8%. A higher frequency (6%) was found in five endemic cases (three biopsy specimens and two BL cell lines). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of somatic mutations in the rearranged V region genes suggests that both sporadic and endemic BL represent a B-cell malignancy originating from germinal center B cells or their descendants. Interestingly, the mutation frequency detected in sporadic BL is in a range similar to that characteristic for IgM-expressing B cells in the human peripheral blood and for mu chain-expressing germinal center B cells, whereas the mutation frequency found in endemic BL is significantly higher. PMID:8529116

  9. Decreased expression of B cell related genes in leukocytes of women with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disorder caused by genetic, environmental and age-related factors, and it is more prevalent in men. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) that might be involved in PD pathogenesis. Transcriptomes of 30 female PD-patients and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were profiled using GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Samples were from unrelated Ashkenazi individuals, non-carriers of LRRK2 G2019S or GBA founder mutations. Results Differential expression was detected in 115 genes (206 exons), with over-representation of immune response annotations. Thirty genes were related to B cell functions, including the uniquely B cell-expressed IGHM and IGHD, the B cell surface molecules CD19, CD22 and CD79A, and the B cell gene regulator, PAX5. Quantitative-RT-PCR confirmation of these 6 genes in 79 individuals demonstrated decreased expression, mainly in women patients, independent of PD-pharmacotherapy status. Conclusions Our results suggest that the down regulation of genes related to B cell activity reflect the involvement of these cells in PD in Ashkenazi individuals and represents a molecular aspect of gender-specificity in PD. PMID:21943286

  10. Evidence of Dynamically Dysregulated Gene Expression Pathways in Hyperresponsive B Cells from African American Lupus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dozmorov, Igor; Dominguez, Nicolas; Sestak, Andrea L.; Robertson, Julie M.; Harley, John B.; James, Judith A.; Guthridge, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent application of gene expression profiling to the immune system has shown a great potential for characterization of complex regulatory processes. It is becoming increasingly important to characterize functional systems through multigene interactions to provide valuable insights into differences between healthy controls and autoimmune patients. Here we apply an original systematic approach to the analysis of changes in regulatory gene interconnections between in Epstein-Barr virus transformed hyperresponsive B cells from SLE patients and normal control B cells. Both traditional analysis of differential gene expression and analysis of the dynamics of gene expression variations were performed in combination to establish model networks of functional gene expression. This Pathway Dysregulation Analysis identified known transcription factors and transcriptional regulators activated uniquely in stimulated B cells from SLE patients. PMID:23977035

  11. Targeted gene analysis: increased B-cell lymphoma 6 in preeclamptic placentas.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Frank; Muschol-Steinmetz, Cornelia; Friemel, Alexandra; Kmpf, Anne Kristina; Tttel, Eva; Reinhard, Joscha; Yuan, Juping

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a leading cause for maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling has been widely used for identifying genes responsible for preeclampsia. These studies deliver multiple pictures of gene signatures, implying the complicated pathophysiology. In the present work, we designed our own gene array containing genes involved in various signaling transduction pathways and analyzed placental samples from patients with preeclampsia and controls. We verify that genes associated with angiogenesis and migration pathways are mostly altered in preeclamptic placentas. Interestingly, several genes including B-cell lymphoma 6 have been identified to be linked to preeclampsia. Increased expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 is correlated with enhanced FLT1 and LEPTIN, the hallmarks of preeclampsia. Moreover, the protein level of B-cell lymphoma 6 is elevated in preeclamptic placentas and is predominantly localized in the nucleus of villous cytotrophoblasts lying directly underneath the syncytial layer, suggestive of an involvement in the function of villous trophoblasts. Altered B-cell lymphoma 6, a key oncogene in B-cell lymphomagenesis, may be involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, and further investigations are required to decipher the molecular mechanisms. PMID:24767250

  12. Regulatory elements in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene 3'-enhancers induce c-myc deregulation and lymphomagenesis in murine B cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghong; Boxer, Linda M

    2005-04-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is invariably associated with chromosomal translocations that juxtapose the c-myc proto-oncogene with regulatory elements of the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) or light chain loci resulting in the deregulation of c-myc expression. However, the enhancer elements mediating c-myc deregulation in vivo remain largely unidentified. To investigate the role of the IgH 3'-enhancers in c-myc deregulation, we used gene targeting to generate knock-in mice in which four DNase I hypersensitive regions from the murine IgH 3'-region were integrated into the 5'-region of the c-myc locus. The IgH 3'-enhancers induced the up-regulation of c-myc expression specifically in B cells of IgH-3'-E-myc mice. After approximately 10 months, the mice developed a Burkitt-like B cell lymphoma with the phenotype of B220+, IgM+, and IgD(low). Analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements indicated that the lymphoma cells were of clonal origin. The presence of a rapidly expanding population of B cells in the spleen and bone marrow of young knock-in mice at 2-4 months of age was observed. Premalignant splenic B cells of knock-in mice showed higher spontaneous and induced apoptosis; however, malignant B cells were more resistant to apoptosis. The p53-ARF-Mdm2 pathway was disabled in half of the lymphomas examined, in most cases through Mdm2 overexpression. Although c-myc expression was increased in premalignant B cells, the promoter shift from P2 to P1 was observed only in malignant B cells. Our studies demonstrate that the IgH 3'-enhancers play an important role in c-myc deregulation and B cell lymphomagenesis in vivo. PMID:15687498

  13. Characterization of the expression and gene promoter of CD22 in murine B cells.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K B; Draves, K E; Magaletti, D M; Fujioka, S; Holmes, K L; Law, C L; Clark, E A

    1996-12-01

    CD22 is a B cell-restricted surface molecule which may play an important role in interactions between B cells and other cells and in regulating signals through the B cell receptor (BCR) complex. Here we have examined whether the mouse is a suitable in vivo model for studying CD22 functions. In primary and secondary lymphoid organs of adult mice CD22 is on all mature B cells, including resting IgM+IgD+ B cells, IgG+ HSA(lo) memory B cells, syndecan+ plasma cells and CD5+ B cells, but it is not on immature IgM+IgD- B cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that murine CD22 is associated with the IgM receptor in some, but not all, CD22+ B leukemic and lymphoma cell lines; as with human CD22, murine CD22 is rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine after ligation of the BCR. In the CD22- murine pro-B cell line, FEMCL, CD22 expression was inducible by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. A genomic fragment of the cd22b allele containing 1.3 kb 5' of exon 1 was sequenced in order to identify potential DNA regulatory elements in the CD22 promoter region. Consensus sequences for transcription factor binding sites including PU.1, AP-1, AP-2, C/EBP and SP-1 were present, but no classical TATA elements or initiator motifs were evident at relevant positions. The 1.3-kb promoter fragment 5' of exon 1 was sufficient for directing basal promoter activity in B and T cells. There was no significant sequence similarity between the murine and human cd22 gene promoters, although both contain repetitive elements and Sp-1 and AP1 binding sites. Thus, murine CD22 shares a number of features with human CD22 and the mouse provides a suitable model system for elucidating the function of CD22 in vivo. PMID:8977319

  14. Polycomb genes, miRNA, and their deregulation in B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang Greg; Konze, Kyle D.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone proteins represent a fundamental means to define distinctive epigenetic states and regulate gene expression during development and differentiation. Aberrations in various chromatin-modulation pathways are commonly used by tumors to initiate and maintain oncogenesis, including lymphomagenesis. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that polycomb group (PcG) proteins, a subset of histone-modifying enzymes known to be crucial for B-cell maturation and differentiation, play a central role in malignant transformation of B cells. PcG hyperactivity in B-cell lymphomas is caused by overexpression or recurrent mutations of PcG genes and deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) or transcription factors such as c-MYC, which regulate PcG expression. Interplays of PcG and miRNA deregulations often establish a vicious signal-amplification loop in lymphoma associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Importantly, aberrant enzymatic activities associated with polycomb deregulation, notably those caused by EZH2 gain-of-function mutations, have provided a rationale for developing small-molecule inhibitors as novel therapies. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of PcG-mediated gene silencing, interplays of PcG with other epigenetic regulators such as miRNAs during B-cell differentiation and lymphomagenesis, and recent advancements in targeted strategies against PcG as promising therapeutics for B-cell malignancies. PMID:25568352

  15. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL. PMID:26406991

  16. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL. PMID:26406991

  17. Epigenetic Heterogeneity of B-Cell Lymphoma: DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Chromatin States

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Lydia; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Binder, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Mature B-cell lymphoma is a clinically and biologically highly diverse disease. Its diagnosis and prognosis is a challenge due to its molecular heterogeneity and diverse regimes of biological dysfunctions, which are partly driven by epigenetic mechanisms. We here present an integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression data of several lymphoma subtypes. Our study confirms previous results about the role of stemness genes during development and maturation of B-cells and their dysfunction in lymphoma locking in more proliferative or immune-reactive states referring to B-cell functionalities in the dark and light zone of the germinal center and also in plasma cells. These dysfunctions are governed by widespread epigenetic effects altering the promoter methylation of the involved genes, their activity status as moderated by histone modifications and also by chromatin remodeling. We identified four groups of genes showing characteristic expression and methylation signatures among Burkitt’s lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and multiple myeloma. These signatures are associated with epigenetic effects such as remodeling from transcriptionally inactive into active chromatin states, differential promoter methylation and the enrichment of targets of transcription factors such as EZH2 and SUZ12. PMID:26371046

  18. Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oomizu, Souichi; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro . E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

  19. Developmental origins, specificities and immunoglobulin gene biases of murine Ly-1 B cells.

    PubMed

    Hardy, R R; Hayakawa, K

    1992-01-01

    Ly-1 B cells in mouse show numerous phenotypic and functional features that distinguish them from the bulk of IgDhigh/Ly-1- B cells. Their association with autoantibody production and the presence of Ly-1 on a group of murine B lymphomas that also exhibit certain specificities enriched in the normal population has stimulated continuing interest in this population. We have taken two approaches in our investigations of these cells: 1) defining the origins of Ly-1 B cells (the "lineage question"); and 2) studying the expression of particular specificities and associated immunoglobulin V genes enriched in this population. In this review we present the experimental background that supports our current understanding of Ly-1 B cells as the remnant of a fetal B cell differentiation pathway and suggest that the selection of cells from this fetal/neonatal population into the adult long-lived pool results in the over-expression of certain germline-encoded autoreactivities, such as antibody to bromelain-treated mouse red blood cells and intact thymocytes. PMID:1602212

  20. Harnessing Gene Conversion in Chicken B Cells to Create a Human Antibody Sequence Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J.; Izquierdo, Shelley Mettler; Harriman, William D.; Etches, Robert J.; Leighton, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic chickens expressing human sequence antibodies would be a powerful tool to access human targets and epitopes that have been intractable in mammalian hosts because of tolerance to conserved proteins. To foster the development of the chicken platform, it is beneficial to validate transgene constructs using a rapid, cell culture-based method prior to generating fully transgenic birds. We describe a method for the expression of human immunoglobulin variable regions in the chicken DT40 B cell line and the further diversification of these genes by gene conversion. Chicken VL and VH loci were knocked out in DT40 cells and replaced with human VK and VH genes. To achieve gene conversion of human genes in chicken B cells, synthetic human pseudogene arrays were inserted upstream of the functional human VK and VH regions. Proper expression of chimeric IgM comprised of human variable regions and chicken constant regions is shown. Most importantly, sequencing of DT40 genetic variants confirmed that the human pseudogene arrays contributed to the generation of diversity through gene conversion at both the Igl and Igh loci. These data show that engineered pseudogene arrays produce a diverse pool of human antibody sequences in chicken B cells, and suggest that these constructs will express a functional repertoire of chimeric antibodies in transgenic chickens. PMID:24278246

  1. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene utilization by B cell hybridomas derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C M; Longhurst, C; Haynes, G; Plater-Zyberk, C; Malcolm, A; Maini, R N

    1992-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects synovial joints. Activated B lymphocytes and plasma cells are present in the synovial tissue and are thought to contribute to the immunopathology of the rheumatoid joint. To investigate rheumatoid synovial B lymphocytes, we have generated B cell hybridomas from synovial tissue of an RA patient. Here we describe the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire of eight IgM- and 10 IgG-secreting synovial-derived hybridomas. The VH4 gene family is highly represented (38.5%) in this panel of hybridomas compared with the frequency of VH4 gene expression in circulating B lymphocytes reported previously (19-22%) and with the VH4 gene frequency we observed in a panel of hybridomas derived in the same manner from the spleen and tonsil of normal individuals (19%). The increased frequency of VH4 gene expression was not due to the expansion of a single B cell clone in vivo as none of these hybridomas was clonally related. Two synovial-derived hybridomas secreted autoantibodies; one (VH3+) secreted an IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and the other (VH4+) secreted IgM with polyreactive binding to cytoskeletal proteins and cardiolipin. The antibodies secreted by the remaining synovial-derived hybridomas were not reactive with the autoantigens tested. The VH gene usage in a proportion (5/17) of synovial-derived hybridomas that expressed CD5 antigen provided preliminary evidence that CD5+ B cells in RA synovium have a similar increase of VH4 gene expression reported for CD5+ B cells from normal individuals and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:1379132

  2. Role of STAT5 in controlling cell survival and immunoglobin gene recombination during pro-B cell development

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Stephen; McManus, Shane; Cobaleda, Csar; Novatchkova, Maria; Delogu, Alessio; Bouillet, Philippe; Strasser, Andreas; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2010-01-01

    STAT5 and IL-7 signaling are thought to control B-lymphopoiesis by regulating key transcription factor genes and activating VH gene segments at the Igh locus. Using conditional mutagenesis, we demonstrate that transgenic Bcl2 expression rescued the development of Stat5-deleted pro-B cells by compensating for the loss of Mcl-1. Ebf1 and Pax5 expression as well as VH gene recombination were normal in Bcl2-rescued pro-B cells lacking STAT5 or IL-7R?. In agreement with this finding, STAT5-expressing pro-B cells contained little or no active chromatin at most VH genes. In contrast, Igk rearrangements were increased in STAT5-or IL-7R?-deficient pro-B cells. Hence, STAT5 and IL-7 signaling control cell survival and the developmental ordering of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements by suppressing premature Igk recombination in pro-B cells. PMID:19946273

  3. Absence of missense mutations in activated c-myc genes in avian leukosis virus-induced B-cell lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Hayward, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    The authors determined the nucleotide sequences of two independent DNA clones which contained the activated c-myc genes from avian leukosis virus-induced B-cell lymphomas. Neither of these c-myce genes contained missense mutations. This strongly supports the notion that the c-myc photo-oncogene in avian leukosis virus-induced B-cell lymphomas can be oncogenically activated by altered expression of the gene without a change in the primary structure of the gene product.

  4. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. ); Lampert, F. ); Kaneko, Y. ); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. ); Van Der Schoot, C.E. ); Ludwig, W.D. ); Karpas, A. ); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. )

    1993-09-15

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Human immunoglobulin (Ig)M+IgD+ peripheral blood B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry somatically mutated variable region genes: CD27 as a general marker for somatically mutated (memory) B cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, U; Rajewsky, K; Küppers, R

    1998-11-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)M+IgD+ B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperienced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM+IgD+ peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM+IgD+ B cells. IgM+IgD+CD27(+) B cells resemble class-switched and IgM-only memory cells in terms of cell phenotype, and comprise approximately 15% of PB B lymphocytes in healthy adults. Moreover, a very small population (<1% of PB B cells) of highly mutated IgD-only B cells was detected, which likely represent the PB counterpart of IgD-only tonsillar germinal center and plasma cells. Overall, the B cell pool in the PB of adults consists of approximately 40% mutated memory B cells and 60% unmutated, naive IgD+CD27(-) B cells (including CD5(+) B cells). In the somatically mutated B cells, VH region genes carry a two- to threefold higher load of somatic mutation than rearranged Vkappa genes. This might be due to an intrinsically lower mutation rate in kappa light chain genes compared with heavy chain genes and/or result from kappa light chain gene rearrangements in GC B cells. A common feature of the somatically mutated B cell subsets is the expression of the CD27 cell surface antigen which therefore may represent a general marker for memory B cells in humans. PMID:9802980

  6. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mature B cells promotes generation of nongerminal center-derived B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Gostissa, Monica; Bianco, Julia M.; Malkin, Daniel J.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Rodig, Scott J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Bassing, Craig H.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor exerts a central role in protecting cells from oncogenic transformation. Accordingly, the p53 gene is mutated in a large number of human cancers. In mice, germ-line inactivation of p53 confers strong predisposition to development of different types of malignancies, but the early onset of thymic lymphomas in the majority of the animals prevents detailed studies of tumorigenesis in other tissues. Here, we use the Cre/Lox approach to inactivate p53 in mature B cells in mice (referred to as CP B cells) and find that such p53 inactivation results in the routine development of IgM-positive CP peripheral B-cell lymphomas. The CP lymphomas generally appear to arise, even in mice subjected to immunization protocols to activate germinal center reaction, from naive B cells that had not undergone immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain gene class switching or somatic hypermutation. In contrast to thymic lymphomas that arise in p53-deficient mice, which generally lack clonal translocations, nearly all analyzed CP B-cell tumors carried clonal translocations. However, in contrast to spontaneous translocations in other mouse B-cell tumor models, CP B-cell tumor translocations were not recurrent and did not involve Ig loci. Therefore, CP tumors might provide models for human lymphomas lacking Ig translocations, such as splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Our studies indicate that deletion of p53 is sufficient to trigger transformation of mature B cells and support the notion that p53 deficiency may allow accumulation of oncogenic translocations in B cells. PMID:23382223

  7. Statin-induced changes in gene expression in EBV-transformed and native B-cells.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Eugene; Armendariz, Angela; Kim, Kyungpil; Heo, Seok-Jin; Boffelli, Dario; Tantisira, Kelan; Rotter, Jerome I; Krauss, Ronald M; Medina, Marisa W

    2014-03-01

    Human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), generated through Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transformation of B-lymphocytes (B-cells), are a commonly used model system for identifying genetic influences on human diseases and on drug responses. We have previously used LCLs to examine the cellular effects of genetic variants that modulate the efficacy of statins, the most prescribed class of cholesterol-lowering drugs used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, statin-induced gene expression differences observed in LCLs may be influenced by their transformation, and thus differ from those observed in native B-cells. To assess this possibility, we prepared LCLs and purified B-cells from the same donors, and compared mRNA profiles after 24 h incubation with simvastatin (2 m) or sham buffer. Genes involved in cholesterol metabolism were similarly regulated between the two cell types under both the statin and sham-treated conditions, and the statin-induced changes were significantly correlated. Genes whose expression differed between the native and transformed cells were primarily implicated in cell cycle, apoptosis and alternative splicing. We found that ChIP-seq signals for MYC and EBNA2 (an EBV transcriptional co-activator) were significantly enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated in the LCLs compared with the B-cells, and could be involved in the regulation of cell cycle and alternative splicing. Taken together, the results support the use of LCLs for the study of statin effects on cholesterol metabolism, but suggest that drug effects on cell cycle, apoptosis and alternative splicing may be affected by EBV transformation. This dataset is now uploaded to GEO at the accession number GSE51444. PMID:24179175

  8. Gene therapy for immunological tolerance: using 'transgenic' B cells to treat inhibitor formation.

    PubMed

    Scott, D W

    2010-05-01

    B cells have been shown to function as tolerogenic antigen presenting cells (APCs) both in vivo and in vitro. We have taken advantage of this property, as well as the ability of IgG carriers to be potent 'schleppers' for tolerogenic entities, to develop a gene therapy approach to induce unresponsiveness in a number of systems, including the elimination of haemophilia inhibitors. Thus, peptide-IgG constructs have been engineered into retroviral vectors to create 'transgenic' B cells for tolerance applications. In this paper, we discuss our gene therapy approach mediated by B cells (as well as bone marrow cells) for tolerance acquisition in various mouse models for autoimmune disease and haemophilia A. The mechanisms that are the underpinning of this effort and role of regulatory T cells are discussed herein. Our results indicate that gene therapy strategies can successfully reduce the incidence and or onset of autoimmune diseases and prevent/reverse inhibitor formation in haemophilia A mice. Based on recent success with a model for tolerance with human T cell clones in vitro, plans for future application in patients are discussed. PMID:20536991

  9. B-cell lymphoma gene regulatory networks: biological consistency among inference methods

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of numerous gene regulatory network (GRN) inference methods in the last years, their application, usage and the biological significance of the resulting GRN remains unclear for our general understanding of large-scale gene expression data in routine practice. In our study, we conduct a structural and a functional analysis of B-cell lymphoma GRNs that were inferred using 3 mutual information-based GRN inference methods: C3Net, BC3Net and Aracne. From a comparative analysis on the global level, we find that the inferred B-cell lymphoma GRNs show major differences. However, on the edge-level and the functional-levelthat are more important for our biological understandingthe B-cell lymphoma GRNs were highly similar among each other. Also, the ranks of the degree centrality values and major hub genes in the inferred networks are highly conserved as well. Interestingly, the major hub genes of all GRNs are associated with the G-protein-coupled receptor pathway, cell-cell signaling and cell cycle. This implies that hub genes of the GRNs can be highly consistently inferred with C3Net, BC3Net, and Aracne, representing prominent targets for signaling pathways. Finally, we describe the functional and structural relationship between C3Net, BC3Net and Aracne gene regulatory networks. Our study shows that these GRNs that are inferred from large-scale gene expression data are promising for the identification of novel candidate interactions and pathways that play a key role in the underlying mechanisms driving cancer hallmarks. Overall, our comparative analysis reveals that these GRNs inferred with considerably different inference methods contain large amounts of consistent, method independent, biological information. PMID:24379827

  10. Global gene expression changes of in vitro stimulated human transformed germinal centre B cells as surrogate for oncogenic pathway activation in individual aggressive B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of lymphomas derived from germinal centre B cells which display a heterogeneous pattern of oncogenic pathway activation. We postulate that specific immune response associated signalling, affecting gene transcription networks, may be associated with the activation of different oncogenic pathways in aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Methodology The B cell receptor (BCR), CD40, B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-receptors and Interleukin (IL) 21 receptor and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were stimulated in human transformed germinal centre B cells by treatment with anti IgM F(ab)2-fragments, CD40L, BAFF, IL21 and LPS respectively. The changes in gene expression following the activation of Jak/STAT, NF-кB, MAPK, Ca2+ and PI3K signalling triggered by these stimuli was assessed using microarray analysis. The expression of top 100 genes which had a change in gene expression following stimulation was investigated in gene expression profiles of patients with Aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Results αIgM stimulation led to the largest number of changes in gene expression, affecting overall 6596 genes. While CD40L stimulation changed the expression of 1194 genes and IL21 stimulation affected 902 genes, only 283 and 129 genes were modulated by lipopolysaccharide or BAFF receptor stimulation, respectively. Interestingly, genes associated with a Burkitt-like phenotype, such as MYC, BCL6 or LEF1, were affected by αIgM. Unique and shared gene expression was delineated. NHL-patients were sorted according to their similarity in the expression of TOP100 affected genes to stimulated transformed germinal centre B cells The αIgM gene module discriminated individual DLBCL in a similar manner to CD40L or IL21 gene modules. DLBCLs with low module activation often carry chromosomal MYC aberrations. DLBCLs with high module activation show strong expression of genes involved in cell-cell communication, immune responses or negative feedback loops. Using chemical inhibitors for selected kinases we show that mitogen activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-signalling are dominantly involved in regulating genes included in the αIgM gene module. Conclusion We provide an in vitro model system to investigate pathway activation in lymphomas. We defined the extent to which different immune response associated pathways are responsible for differences in gene expression which distinguish individual DLBCL cases. Our results support the view that tonic or constitutively active MAPK/ERK pathways are an important part of oncogenic signalling in NHL. The experimental model can now be applied to study the therapeutic potential of deregulated oncogenic pathways and to develop individual treatment strategies for lymphoma patients. PMID:23253402

  11. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and cell surface antigen expression in acute lymphocytic leukemias of T cell and B cell precursor origins.

    PubMed

    Korsmeyer, S J; Arnold, A; Bakhshi, A; Ravetch, J V; Siebenlist, U; Hieter, P A; Sharrow, S O; LeBien, T W; Kersey, J H; Poplack, D G; Leder, P; Waldmann, T A

    1983-02-01

    We have explored the relationship among immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, cytoplasmic immunoglobulin production, and cell surface antigen expression within 37 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia. All 12 cases of the T cell type had germ-line kappa and lambda genes and 11 of 12 had germ-line heavy chain genes. In contrast, all 25 cases of the "non-T, non-B" classification, which lacked both definitive T cell markers and surface immunoglobulin, had rearranged immunoglobulin genes, indicating that they represent precursor cells already committed to the B cell lineage at the gene level. 14 had rearranged heavy chain genes, yet retained germ-line light chain genes, whereas 11 cases had both heavy and light chain gene reorganizations. All patterns of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement predicted by a model that proceeds from heavy chain gene recombination to light chain genes were observed. Despite the uniform presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes, only five cases produced cytoplasmic mu-chain, one exceptional case produced gamma-chain, and another produced only lambda-chain. The cases of B cell precursor type that do not produce immunoglobulin may represent cells that frequently possess ineffectively rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Included in this group may be a set of cells trapped within the B cell precursor series because their ineffective rearrangements have eliminated certain gene subsegments necessary for the assemblage of an effective heavy chain gene. All seven cases of the non-T, non-B subgroup that bore HLA-DR but lacked CALLA (the common acute lymphocytic leukemia-associated antigen) represented the earliest recognizable stage of B cell precursors with rearranged heavy chain genes but germ-line light chain genes. Correlations here suggest that cells entering B cell development express HLA-DR and rearrange heavy chain genes before the expression of a B cell-associated antigen recognized by the antibody BA-1, the antigen CALLA, and any subsequent light chain gene rearrangements. PMID:6401769

  12. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and cell surface antigen expression in acute lymphocytic leukemias of T cell and B cell precursor origins.

    PubMed Central

    Korsmeyer, S J; Arnold, A; Bakhshi, A; Ravetch, J V; Siebenlist, U; Hieter, P A; Sharrow, S O; LeBien, T W; Kersey, J H; Poplack, D G; Leder, P; Waldmann, T A

    1983-01-01

    We have explored the relationship among immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, cytoplasmic immunoglobulin production, and cell surface antigen expression within 37 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia. All 12 cases of the T cell type had germ-line kappa and lambda genes and 11 of 12 had germ-line heavy chain genes. In contrast, all 25 cases of the "non-T, non-B" classification, which lacked both definitive T cell markers and surface immunoglobulin, had rearranged immunoglobulin genes, indicating that they represent precursor cells already committed to the B cell lineage at the gene level. 14 had rearranged heavy chain genes, yet retained germ-line light chain genes, whereas 11 cases had both heavy and light chain gene reorganizations. All patterns of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement predicted by a model that proceeds from heavy chain gene recombination to light chain genes were observed. Despite the uniform presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes, only five cases produced cytoplasmic mu-chain, one exceptional case produced gamma-chain, and another produced only lambda-chain. The cases of B cell precursor type that do not produce immunoglobulin may represent cells that frequently possess ineffectively rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Included in this group may be a set of cells trapped within the B cell precursor series because their ineffective rearrangements have eliminated certain gene subsegments necessary for the assemblage of an effective heavy chain gene. All seven cases of the non-T, non-B subgroup that bore HLA-DR but lacked CALLA (the common acute lymphocytic leukemia-associated antigen) represented the earliest recognizable stage of B cell precursors with rearranged heavy chain genes but germ-line light chain genes. Correlations here suggest that cells entering B cell development express HLA-DR and rearrange heavy chain genes before the expression of a B cell-associated antigen recognized by the antibody BA-1, the antigen CALLA, and any subsequent light chain gene rearrangements. Images PMID:6401769

  13. Silencing of the expression of the immunoglobulin kappa gene in non-B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, J W; Gifford, A M; Baltimore, D

    1991-01-01

    Although the activating factor NF-kappa B can be present in the nucleus of many cell types, transcription and rearrangement of the immunoglobulin kappa chain gene is restricted to cells of the B lineage. Part of this specificity is determined by sequences within the major intron of the kappa gene that specifically silence gene expression in non-B cells (T cells and HeLa cells). These sequences are found in a 232-bp fragment located 5' of the NF-kappa B binding sequence of the enhancer. When this fragment is added back upstream of an active NF-kappa B site, it specifically decreases the expression of a linked gene by more than 10-fold in activated T cells but it has no effect on expression in B cells. The kappa silencer region acts in an orientation- and distance-independent manner and appears to be composed of multiple negative elements. The kappa silencer may act to restrict transcription and rearrangement of the C kappa locus to cells of the B lineage. PMID:1899907

  14. Using gene therapy to manipulate the immune system in the fight against B cell leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Bouhassira, Diana CG; Thompson, Joshua J; Davila, Marco L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over 20 years ago, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) were created to endow T-cells with new antigen-specificity and create a therapy that could eradicate cancer and provide life-long protection against recurrence. Steady progress has led to significant improvements with CAR design and CAR T-cell production, allowing evaluation of CAR T-cells in patients. The initial trials have targeted CD19, which is expressed on normal and malignant B-cells. Areas covered We review data from trials for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In addition, we discuss the on-target toxicities, B-cell aplasia and cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which is uniquely associated with T-cell immunotherapies. Expert Opinion We compare the results when targeting the same antigen in CLL or B-ALL and speculate on reasons for outcome differences and future directions to enhance outcomes. Furthermore, the dramatic results targeting B-ALL require further analysis in Phase II trials, and we discuss important components of these future trials. We also suggest a management scheme for CRS. The next several years will be critical and may lead to the first clinical indication of a gene-engineered cell therapy for cancer. PMID:25666545

  15. B-cell reconstitution after lentiviral vector–mediated gene therapy in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castiello, Maria Carmina; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Pala, Francesca; Ferrua, Francesca; Uva, Paolo; Brigida, Immacolata; Sereni, Lucia; van der Burg, Mirjam; Ottaviano, Giorgio; Albert, Michael H.; Grazia Roncarolo, Maria; Naldini, Luigi; Aiuti, Alessandro; Villa, Anna; Bosticardo, Marita

    2015-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a severe X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and susceptibility to autoimmunity and lymphomas. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice; however, administration of WAS gene–corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative therapeutic approach. Objective Because B-cell homeostasis is perturbed in patients with WAS and restoration of immune competence is one of the main therapeutic goals, we have evaluated reconstitution of the B-cell compartment in 4 patients who received autologous hematopoietic stem cells transduced with lentiviral vector after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen combined with anti-CD20 administration. Methods We evaluated B-cell counts, B-cell subset distribution, B cell–activating factor and immunoglobulin levels, and autoantibody production before and after gene therapy (GT). WAS gene transfer in B cells was assessed by measuring vector copy numbers and expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Results After lentiviral vector-mediated GT, the number of transduced B cells progressively increased in the peripheral blood of all patients. Lentiviral vector-transduced progenitor cells were able to repopulate the B-cell compartment with a normal distribution of B-cell subsets both in bone marrow and the periphery, showing a WAS protein expression profile similar to that of healthy donors. In addition, after GT, we observed a normalized frequency of autoimmune-associated CD19+CD21−CD35− and CD21low B cells and a reduction in B cell–activating factor levels. Immunoglobulin serum levels and autoantibody production improved in all treated patients. Conclusions We provide evidence that lentiviral vector-mediated GT induces transgene expression in the B-cell compartment, resulting in ameliorated B-cell development and functionality and contributing to immunologic improvement in patients with WAS. PMID:25792466

  16. Compositions and methods for detecting gene rearrangements and translocations

    DOEpatents

    Rowley, Janet D.; Diaz, Manuel O.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a series of nucleic acid probes for use in diagnosing and monitoring certain types of leukemia using, e.g., Southern and Northern blot analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These probes detect rearrangements, such as translocations involving chromosome band 11q23 with other chromosomes bands, including 4q21, 6q27, 9p22, 19p13.3, in both dividing leukemic cells and interphase nuclei. The breakpoints in all such translocations are clustered within an 8.3 kb BamHI genomic region of the MLL gene. A novel 0.7 kb BamH1 cDNA fragment derived from this gene detects rearrangements on Southern blot analysis with a single BamHI restriction digest in all patients with the common 11q23 translocations and in patients with other 11q23 anomalies. Northern blot analyses are presented demonstrating that the MLL gene has multiple transcripts and that transcript size differentiates leukemic cells from normal cells. Also disclosed are MLL fusion proteins, MLL protein domains and anti-MLL antibodies.

  17. Expression of B-cell-associated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with symptomatic pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; Duan, Qianglin; Wang, Lemin; Gong, Zhu; Yang, Fan; Song, Yanli

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed B?cell?associated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and investigate the gene expression characteristics of the different stages of B?cell activation. A total of 20 patients with pulmonary embolisms (PE) and 20 age? and gender?matched controls were enrolled in the present study. Human complementary DNA microarray analysis was used in order to detect the differential expression of B?cell?associated genes between the PE and control groups. Messenger (m)RNA expression was detected for 82 genes involved in B?cell activation. The results showed that PE patients exhibited significantly increased expression levels of the B?cell receptor genes LYN, CD22, SYK, BTK, PTPRC and NFAM1, whereas expression levels of FYN, FCRL4 and LAX1 were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group. Expression levels of T?cell?dependent B?cell?activation genes, including EMR2, TNFSF9, CD86, ICOSLG, CD37 and CD97, were significantly upregulated in PE patients, whereas SPN mRNA expression was significantly downregulated compared with those of the control group. LILRA1 and TLR9 T cell?independent B?cell activation mRNAs were significantly upregulated in PE patients compared with those of the control group. In addition, the expression levels of B?cell?activation regulator genes, including CR1, LILRB4 and VAV1, were significantly increased, whereas SLAMF7 expression levels were significantly decreased in PE patients compared with those of the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of B?cell?activation?associated cytokine genes demonstrated a significant upregulation of LTA and IL10 and downregulation of L1A, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA8, IFNA14, IL2, IL13 and IFNG in PE patients compared to those of the control group. In conclusion, the differential gene expression at different stages of B?cell activation between healthy controls and PE patients indicated that B?cell function was reduced or disorganized in patients with symptomatic PE. PMID:25411767

  18. MicroRNA and gene networks in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kunhao; Xu, Zhiwen; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ting; Zhu, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Molecular biologists have collected considerable data regarding the involvement of genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer. However the underlying mechanisms of cancer with regard to genes and miRNAs remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and construct regulatory networks of genes and miRNAs to gradually reveal the underlying mechanisms of DLBCL development. The first differential expression network that is presented is an experimentally validated network of miRNAs and genes. This network presents known biological regulatory associations among miRNAs and genes in the human body. The second network is a DLBCL differential expression network. Differentially expressed gene and miRNA data regarding DLBCL were collected and, based on the first network and the differentially expressed data, the second network was inferred, which demonstrates the irregular regulatory associations that may lead to the occurrence of DLBCL. The third network is a DLBCL-associated network. This network is comprised of non-differentially expressed genes and miRNAs that contribute to numerous DLBCL processes. The similarities and differences among the three networks were extracted and compared to distinguish key regulatory associations; furthermore, important signaling pathways in DLBCL were identified. The present study partially clarified the pathogenesis of DLBCL and provided an improved understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, as well as a potential treatment for DLBCL. PMID:25289101

  19. Harnessing RNAi-based nanomedicines for therapeutic gene silencing in B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Shiri; Toker, Itai A; Emmanuel, Rafi; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Rosenblum, Daniel; Goldsmith, Meir; Abraham, Avigdor; Benjamini, Ohad; Bairey, Osnat; Raanani, Pia; Nagler, Arnon; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in systemic small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the liver and to solid tumors, systemic siRNA delivery to leukocytes remains challenging. The ability to silence gene expression in leukocytes has great potential for identifying drug targets and for RNAi-based therapy for leukocyte diseases. However, both normal and malignant leukocytes are among the most difficult targets for siRNA delivery as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed in the body. We used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a prototypic blood cancer for validating a novel siRNA delivery strategy. MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that overexpresses cyclin D1 with relatively poor prognosis. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 using RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential therapeutic approach to this malignancy. Here, we designed lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) coated with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies that are specifically taken up by human MCL cells in the bone marrow of xenografted mice. When loaded with siRNAs against cyclin D1, CD38-targeted LNPs induced gene silencing in MCL cells and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice with no observed adverse effects. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cyclin D1 therapy in MCL and present a novel RNAi delivery system that opens new therapeutic opportunities for treating MCL and other B-cell malignancies. PMID:26699502

  20. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A; Gascoyne, Randy D; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-10-01

    The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma; however, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center involution and impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination. Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects methylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4) and expression of a set of genes, including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor and B cell receptor signaling pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3 and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell-activating pathways. PMID:26366710

  1. Fusion genes and chromosome translocations in the common epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Paul A W

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for 25 years that fusion genes play a central role in leukaemias and sarcomas but they have been neglected in the common carcinomas, largely because of technical limitations of cytogenetics. In the last few years it has emerged that gene fusions, caused by chromosome translocations, inversions, deletions, etc., are important in the common epithelial cancers, such as prostate and lung carcinoma. Most prostate cancers, for example, have an androgen-regulated fusion of one of the ETS transcription factor gene family. Early results of genome-wide searches for gene fusions in breast and other epithelial cancers suggest that most individual tumours will have several fused genes. Fusion genes are exceptionally powerful mutations. In their simplest form they can turn on expression by promoter insertion but they can also, for example, force dimerization of a protein or change its subcellular location. They are correspondingly important clinically, in classification and management and as targets for therapy. This review surveys what we know of fusion genes in the carcinomas, summarizes the technical advances that now make it possible to search systematically for such genes, and concludes by putting fusion genes into the current picture of mutation in cancers. PMID:19921709

  2. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W.; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W.; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M.; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-01-01

    The lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center (GC) involution, impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination (CSR). Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects H3K4 methylation and expression of a specific set of genes including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor, and B cell receptor pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3, and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell activating pathways. PMID:26366710

  3. A limited number of genes are involved in the differentiation of germinal center B cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Stabach, Paul; Maher, Stephen E; Mahajan, Milind C; Masiar, Peter; Liao, Cheng; Zhang, Xueqing; Ye, Zhi-jia; Tuck, David; Bothwell, Alfred L M; Newburger, Peter E; Weissman, Sherman M

    2006-12-01

    Mature B cells, upon activation, progressively differentiate through centroblasts into centrocytes and finally to plasmacytes that express large amounts of selected immunoglobulins. A significant part of this maturation is thought to involve induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We have compared gene expression in normal germinal center centroblasts, centrocytes, lymphoblastoid cells undergoing induced UPR, and the CCL155 plasmacytoma cell line. In the centroblast to centrocyte transition there is a change in the expression of a relatively small number of genes. These include a limited subset of the genes upregulated by a fully activated UPR as well as a small number of other transcription factors, some disulphide isomerases, and other genes. This is consistent with a model in which this transition is mediated by changes in the levels of expression of transcription factor B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) (PRDM1), BACH2, X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), and possibly vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression, together with post-transcriptional changes and a limited induction of aspects of the UPR. PMID:16795035

  4. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor induces Nampt-dependent translocation of the insulin receptor out of lipid microdomains in A549 lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qianyi; Jia, Song Hui; Parodo, Jean; Ai, Yuhang; Marshall, John C

    2015-02-15

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is a highly conserved pleiotropic protein reported to be an alternate ligand for the insulin receptor (IR). We sought to clarify the relationship between PBEF and insulin signaling by evaluating the effects of PBEF on the localization of the IR? chain to lipid rafts in A549 epithelial cells. We isolated lipid rafts from A549 cells and detected the IR by immunoprecipitation from raft fractions or whole cell lysates. Cells were treated with rPBEF, its enzymatic product nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), or the Nampt inhibitor daporinad to study the effect of PBEF on IR? movement. We used coimmunoprecipitation studies in cells transfected with PBEF and IR? constructs to detect interactions between PBEF, the IR?, and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). PBEF was present in both lipid raft and nonraft fractions, whereas the IR was found only in lipid raft fractions of resting A549 cells. The IR-, PBEF-, and Cav-1-coimmunoprecipitated rPBEF treatment resulted in the movement of IR?- and tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav-1 from lipid rafts to nonrafts, an effect that could be blocked by daporinad, suggesting that this effect was facilitated by the Nampt activity of PBEF. The addition of PBEF to insulin-treated cells resulted in reduced Akt phosphorylation of both Ser?? and Thr??. We conclude that PBEF can inhibit insulin signaling through the IR by Nampt-dependent promotion of IR translocation into the nonraft domains of A549 epithelial cells. PBEF-induced alterations in the spatial geometry of the IR provide a mechanistic explanation for insulin resistance in inflammatory states associated with upregulation of PBEF. PMID:25516545

  5. Differential gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells induced by apoptosis-related gene BNIPL-2

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Qin, Wen-Xin; He, Xiang-Huo; Shu, Hui-Qun; Yao, Gen-Fu; Wan, Da-Fang; Gu, Jian-Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 ku interacting protein 2-like (BNIPL-2) is a novel protein recently identified in our laboratory. BNIPL-2 is homologous to human BNIP-2, a potentially proapoptotic protein, and can interact with Bcl-2 and Cdc42GAP and promote apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. Here we report the gene-expression profile regulated by BNIPL-2 in human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells and the analysis of its potential roles in cell apoptosis. METHODS: BNIPL-2 was overexpressed in Hep3B cells using tetracycline inducible or Tet-on system. Screened by Western blot, the cells with low background and high induction fold of BNIPL-2 were obtained. We performed Atlas human cDNA expression array hybridization on these cells and analyzed the data with Quantarray software to identify BNIPL-2-regulated genes and their expression profile. RT-PCR was used to confirm the altered expression level of part of genes identified by the Atlas array hybridization. RESULTS: Fifteen of 588 genes spotted on the Atlas membrane showed altered expression levels in BNIPL-2-transfected Hep3B-Tet-on cells, in which 8 genes involved in cell apoptosis or growth inhibition were up-regulated and 7 genes involved in cellular proliferation were down-regulated following overexpression of BNIPL-2. CONCLUSION: cDNA array is a powerful tool to explore gene expression profiles under inducible conditions. The data obtained using the cDNA expression microarray technology indicates that BNIPL-2 may play its roles in apoptosis through regulating the expression of genes associated with cell apoptosis, growth inhibition and cell proliferation. PMID:15112343

  6. DNA repair gene polymorphisms in B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bahceci, Aykut; Paydas, Semra; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Ergin, Melek; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Ucar, Gulsum

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by DNA injury, and genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of the cancers. It is well known that there are association variabilities in DNA repairment and sensitivity against the cancer. The aim of this study is to look for some important gene polymorphisms associated with DNA repair in cases with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Ninety-four cases with NHL and 96 healthy controls were included in this study. ERCC2 (Lys751Gln), XPC (Gln939Lys), ERCC5 (Asp1104His), and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) gene polymorphisms were studied by using Tm Shift Real-Time PCR Technology. ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism showed a protective effect against the B-NHL in individuals carrying this mutant allele (p?=?0.009), and differences were more prominent in males (p?=?0.001). When the patient and control groups were divided according to their smoking habit, the mutant allele of the XPC gene showed a protective effect in the nonsmoker group (p?=?0.040). The mutant allele G of ERCC5 (CG) polymorphism was found to be protective against lymphoma (p?=?0.010). There were no differences among cases with B-NHL and controls for ERCC2 codon 751, XPC codon 939, and XRCC3 codon 241 gene polymorphisms. DNA repair gene polymorphisms can affect the risk of lymphoma, and it will be useful to detect the DNA repair gene polymorphisms in cases with lymphoma in studies covering a higher number of cases. PMID:25400036

  7. Mutation mismatch repair gene deletions in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Couronn, Lucile; Ruminy, Philippe; Waultier-Rascalou, Agathe; Rainville, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Figeac, Martin; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Herv; Jardin, Fabrice

    2013-05-01

    To further unravel the molecular pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization on lymph node biopsies from 70 patients. With this strategy, we identified microdeletions of genes involved in the mutation mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in two samples. The first patient presented with a homozygous deletion of MSH2-MSH6 due to duplication of an unbalanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 2. The other case showed a PMS2 heterozygous deletion. PMS2 and MSH2-MSH6 abnormalities, respectively, resulted in a decrease and complete loss of gene expression. However, unlike tumors associated with the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome or immunodeficiency-related lymphomas, no microsatellite instability was detected. Mutational profiles revealed especially in one patient an aberrant hypermutation without a clear activation-induced cytidine deaminase signature, indicating a breakdown of the high-fidelity repair in favor of the error-prone repair pathway. Our findings suggest that in a rare subset of patients, inactivation of the genes of the MMR pathway is likely an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of DLBCL and does not involve the same molecular mechanisms as other common neoplasms with MMR deficiency. PMID:23066952

  8. Regulation of B cell development by variable gene complexity in mice reconstituted with human immunoglobulin yeast artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Green, L L; Jakobovits, A

    1998-08-01

    The relationship between variable (V) gene complexity and the efficiency of B cell development was studied in strains of mice deficient in mouse antibody production and engineered with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing different sized fragments of the human heavy (H) chain and kappa light (L) chain loci. Each of the two H and the two kappa chain fragments encompasses, in germline configuration, the same core variable and constant regions but contains different numbers of unique VH (5 versus 66) or Vkappa genes (3 versus 32). Although each of these YACs was able to substitute for its respective inactivated murine counterpart to induce B cell development and to support production of human immunoglobulins (Igs), major differences in the efficiency of B cell development were detected. Whereas the YACs with great V gene complexity restored efficient development throughout all the different recombination and expression stages, the YACs with limited V gene repertoire exhibited inefficient differentiation with significant blocks at critical stages of B cell development in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Our analysis identified four key checkpoints regulated by VH and Vkappa gene complexity: (a) production of functional mu chains at the transition from the pre B-I to the pre B-II stage; (b) productive VkappaJkappa recombination at the small pre B-II stage; (c) formation of surface Ig molecules through pairing of mu chains with L chains; and (d) maturation of B cells. These findings demonstrate that V gene complexity is essential not only for production of a diverse repertoire of antigen-specific antibodies but also for efficient development of the B cell lineage. PMID:9687526

  9. Histone acetyltransferase PCAF is involved in transactivation of Bcl-6 and Pax5 genes in immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Nakayama, Masami; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Mimuro, Hitomi; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Nishitoh, Hideki; Nakayama, Tatsuo

    2015-11-20

    Histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) belonging to GCN5 family regulates various epigenetic events for transcriptional regulation through alterations in the chromatin structure. During normal development of B cells, gene expressions of numerous transcription factors are strictly regulated by epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation and deacetylation to complete their development pathways. Here, by analyzing PCAF-deficient DT40 mutants, ?PCAF, we report that PCAF takes part in transcriptional activation of B cell lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) and Paired box gene 5 (Pax5), which are essential transcription factors for normal development of B cells. PCAF-deficiency caused drastic decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-6 and Pax5, and remarkable increase in that of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that PCAF-deficiency caused remarkable decrease in acetylation levels of both H3K9 and H3K14 residues within chromatin surrounding the 5'-flanking regions of Bcl-6 and Pax5 genes invivo, suggesting that their gene expressions may be regulated by PCAF. These results revealed that PCAF is involved in transactivation of Bcl-6 and Pax5 genes, resulting in down-regulation of Blimp-1 gene expression, and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of B cell development. PMID:26456646

  10. GCN5 is essential for IRF-4 gene expression followed by transcriptional activation of Blimp-1 in immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Nakayama, Masami; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Nishitoh, Hideki; Takami, Yasunari; Nakayama, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    During B-cell differentiation, the gene expression of B-cell differentiation-related transcription factors must be strictly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation and deacetylation, to complete the differentiation pathway. GCN5, one of the most important histone acetyltransferases, is involved in epigenetic events for transcriptional regulation through alterations in the chromatin structure. In this study, by analyzing the homozygous DT40 mutants GCN5(-/-), generated with gene targeting techniques, we found that GCN5 was necessary for transcriptional activation of IRF-4, an essential transcription factor for plasma cell differentiation. GCN5 deficiency caused drastic decreases in both the mRNA and the protein levels of Blimp-1 and IRF-4. The ectopic expression of Blimp-1 and IRF-4 suggests that IRF-4, but not Blimp-1, is the target gene of GCN5 in immature B cells. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that GCN5 bound to the IRF-4 gene around its 5'-flanking region and acetylated H3K9 residues within chromatin surrounding the region in vivo, suggesting that gene expression of IRF-4 is certainly regulated by GCN5. These results reveal that GCN5 is essential for IRF-4 gene expression, followed by transcriptional activation of Blimp-1, and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of B-cell differentiation. PMID:24072880

  11. Identification of Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma at Nonmediastinal Sites by Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ji; Wright, George; Rosenwald, Andreas; Steidl, Christian; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Mottok, Anja; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Greiner, Timothy C; Fu, Kai; Smith, Lynette; Rimsza, Lisa M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Campo, Elias; Martinez, Antonio; Delabie, Jan; Braziel, Rita M; Cook, James R; Ott, German; Vose, Julie M; Staudt, Louis M; Chan, Wing C

    2015-10-01

    Mediastinal involvement is considered essential for the diagnosis of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). However, we have observed cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with features of PMBL but without detectable mediastinal involvement. The goal was to assess our previously established gene expression profiling (GEP) signature for PMBL in classifying these cases. In a large series of DLBCL cases, we identified 24 cases with a GEP signature of PMBL, including 9 cases with a submission diagnosis of DLBCL consistent with PMBL (G-PMBL-P) and 15 cases with a submission diagnosis of DLBCL. The pathology reviewers agreed with the diagnosis in the 9 G-PMBL-P cases. Among the other 15 DLBCL cases, 11 were considered to be PMBL or DLBCL consistent with PMBL, 3 were considered to be DLBCL, and 1 case was a gray-zone lymphoma with features intermediate between DLBCL and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. All 9 G-PMBL-P and 9 of the 15 DLBCL cases (G-PMBL-M) had demonstrated mediastinal involvement at presentation. Interestingly, 6 of the 15 DLBCL cases (G-PMBL-NM) had no clinical or radiologic evidence of mediastinal involvement. The 3 subgroups of PMBL had otherwise similar clinical characteristics, and there were no significant differences in overall survival. Genetic alterations of CIITA and PDL1/2 were detected in 26% and 40% of cases, respectively, including 1 G-PMBL-NM case with gain of PDL1/2. In conclusion, PMBL can present as a nonmediastinal tumor without evidence of mediastinal involvement, and GEP offers a more precise diagnosis of PMBL. PMID:26135560

  12. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

    1983-03-01

    A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

  13. Novel Cryptic Rearrangements in Adult B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Involving the MLL Gene.

    PubMed

    Othman, Moneeb A K; Grygalewicz, Beata; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Rincic, Martina; Rittscher, Katharina; Melo, Joana B; Carreira, Isabel M; Meyer, Britta; Marzena, Watek; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    MLL (mixed-lineage-leukemia) gene rearrangements are typical for acute leukemia and are associated with an aggressive course of disease, with a worse outcome than comparable case, and thus require intensified treatment. Here we describe a 69-year-old female with adult B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with hyperleukocytosis and immunophenotype CD10- and CD19+ with cryptic MLL rearrangements. G-banding at the time of diagnosis showed a normal karyotype: 46,XX. Molecular cytogenetics using multitude multicolor banding (mMCB) revealed a complex rearrangement of the two copies of chromosome 11. However, a locus-specific probe additionally identified that the MLL gene at 11q23.3 was disrupted, and that the 5' region was inserted into the chromosomal sub-band 4q21; thus the aberration involved three chromosomes and five break events. Unfortunately, the patient died six months after the initial diagnosis from serious infections and severe complications. Overall, the present findings confirm that, by far not all MLL aberrations are seen by routine chromosome banding techniques and that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) should be regarded as standard tool to access MLL rearrangements in patients with BCP-ALL. PMID:25699572

  14. Novel prognostic genes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma revealed by survival analysis of gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenglong; Zhu, Biao; Chen, Jiao; Huang, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to identify prognostic genes for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), using bioinformatic methods. Methods Five gene expression data sets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Significance analysis of microarrays algorithm was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from two data sets. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for the DEGs with the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery (DAVID). Survival analysis was performed with the KaplanMeier method using function survfit from package survival of R for the other three data sets. Cox univariate regression analysis was used to further screen out prognostic genes. Results Thirty-one common DEGs were identified in the two data sets, mainly enriched in the regulation of lymphocyte activation, immune response, and interleukin-mediated signaling pathway. Combined with 47 DLBCL-related genes acquired by literature retrieval, a total of 78 potential prognostic genes were obtained. Cases from the other three data sets were used in hierarchical clustering, and the 78 genes could cluster them into several subtypes with significant differences in survival curves. Cox univariate regression analysis revealed 45, 33, and eleven prognostic genes in the three data sets, respectively. Five common prognostic genes were revealed, including LCP2, TNFRSF9, FUT8, IRF4, and TLE1, among which LCP2, FUT8, and TLE1 were novel prognostic genes. Conclusion Five prognostic genes of DLBCL were identified in this study. They could not only be used for molecular subtyping of DLBCL but also be potential targets for treatment. PMID:26604798

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of the Response to Interferon Beta in Epstein-Barr-Transformed and Primary B Cells of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Khsheibun, Rana; Paperna, Tamar; Volkowich, Anat; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Avidan, Nili; Miller, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of interferon-beta (IFN-β), one of the key immunotherapies used in multiple sclerosis (MS), on peripheral blood leukocytes and T cells have been extensively studied. B cells are a less abundant leukocyte type, and accordingly less is known about the B cell-specific response to IFN-β. To identify gene expression changes and pathways induced by IFN-β in B cells, we studied the in vitro response of human Epstein Barr-transformed B cells (lymphoblast cell lines-LCLs), and validated our results in primary B cells. LCLs were derived from an MS patient repository. Whole genome expression analysis identified 115 genes that were more than two-fold differentially up-regulated following IFN-β exposure, with over 50 previously unrecognized as IFN-β response genes. Pathways analysis demonstrated that IFN-β affected LCLs in a similar manner to other cell types by activating known IFN-β canonical pathways. Additionally, IFN-β increased the expression of innate immune response genes, while down-regulating many B cell receptor pathway genes and genes involved in adaptive immune responses. Novel response genes identified herein, NEXN, DDX60L, IGFBP4, and HAPLN3, B cell receptor pathway genes, CD79B and SYK, and lymphocyte activation genes, LAG3 and IL27RA, were validated as IFN-β response genes in primary B cells. In this study new IFN-β response genes were identified in B cells, with possible implications to B cell-specific functions. The study's results emphasize the applicability of LCLs for studies of human B cell drug response. The usage of LCLs from patient-based repositories may facilitate future studies of drug response in MS and other immune-mediated disorders with a B cell component. PMID:25025430

  16. Gene expression profiling of the response to interferon beta in Epstein-Barr-transformed and primary B cells of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khsheibun, Rana; Paperna, Tamar; Volkowich, Anat; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Avidan, Nili; Miller, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of interferon-beta (IFN-β), one of the key immunotherapies used in multiple sclerosis (MS), on peripheral blood leukocytes and T cells have been extensively studied. B cells are a less abundant leukocyte type, and accordingly less is known about the B cell-specific response to IFN-β. To identify gene expression changes and pathways induced by IFN-β in B cells, we studied the in vitro response of human Epstein Barr-transformed B cells (lymphoblast cell lines-LCLs), and validated our results in primary B cells. LCLs were derived from an MS patient repository. Whole genome expression analysis identified 115 genes that were more than two-fold differentially up-regulated following IFN-β exposure, with over 50 previously unrecognized as IFN-β response genes. Pathways analysis demonstrated that IFN-β affected LCLs in a similar manner to other cell types by activating known IFN-β canonical pathways. Additionally, IFN-β increased the expression of innate immune response genes, while down-regulating many B cell receptor pathway genes and genes involved in adaptive immune responses. Novel response genes identified herein, NEXN, DDX60L, IGFBP4, and HAPLN3, B cell receptor pathway genes, CD79B and SYK, and lymphocyte activation genes, LAG3 and IL27RA, were validated as IFN-β response genes in primary B cells. In this study new IFN-β response genes were identified in B cells, with possible implications to B cell-specific functions. The study's results emphasize the applicability of LCLs for studies of human B cell drug response. The usage of LCLs from patient-based repositories may facilitate future studies of drug response in MS and other immune-mediated disorders with a B cell component. PMID:25025430

  17. Common patterns of B cell perturbation and expanded V4-34 immunoglobulin gene usage in autoimmunity and infection.

    PubMed

    Mockridge, C Ian; Rahman, Anisur; Buchan, Sarah; Hamblin, Terry; Isenberg, David A; Stevenson, Freda K; Potter, Kathleen N

    2004-02-01

    Features of the lymphocyte population in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) include a disordered B cell profile and production of autoantibodies. An additional distinctive perturbation is the overexpression of V4-34-encoded serum immunoglobulins (Ig). A similar rise in V4-34-encoded Ig occurs in normal subjects following infection with certain herpesviruses, and is found in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM). To assess common and distinctive features of B cells in patients with SLE and IM, we compared the B cell profile and V4-34 gene involvement in patients with SLE and IM. B cell profiles from patients with IM paralleled those of patients with SLE, showing a differential loss of nave and memory B cells and the maintenance of plasmablast/early plasma cells. Class-switched V4-34-encoded IgG from plasmablast/early plasma cells was evident both in patients with SLE and IM and revealed common features of oligoclonal expansions with most having undergone somatic hypermutation. It has been proposed that, in healthy individuals, expression of the V4-34 gene is specifically censored prior to isotype switch as a control on autoreactivity. If so, censoring is bypassed following EBV infection, after which equilibrium is restored. Continuing high serum levels in SLE may arise either by disordered regulation, or by subclinical reactivation of endogenous virus. PMID:15115306

  18. Inherited Inflammatory Response Genes Are Associated with B-Cell Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaspar Ren; Steffensen, Rudi; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Baech, John; Haunstrup, Thure Mors; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Boedker, Julie Stoeveve; Johansen, Preben; Dybkaer, Karen; Boegsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant B-cell clones are affected by both acquired genetic alterations and by inherited genetic variations changing the inflammatory tumour microenvironment. Methods We investigated 50 inflammatory response gene polymorphisms in 355 B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (B-NHL) samples encompassing 216 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 139 follicular lymphoma (FL) and 307 controls. The effect of single genes and haplotypes were investigated and gene-expression analysis was applied for selected genes. Since interaction between risk genes can have a large impact on phenotype, two-way gene-gene interaction analysis was included. Results We found inherited SNPs in genes critical for inflammatory pathways; TLR9, IL4, TAP2, IL2RA, FCGR2A, TNFA, IL10RB, GALNT12, IL12A and IL1B were significantly associated with disease risk and SELE, IL1RN, TNFA, TAP2, MBL2, IL5, CX3CR1, CHI3L1 and IL12A were, associated with overall survival (OS) in specific diagnostic entities of B-NHL. We discovered noteworthy interactions between DLBCL risk alleles on IL10 and IL4RA and FL risk alleles on IL4RA and IL4. In relation to OS, a highly significant interaction was observed in DLBCL for IL4RA (rs1805010) * IL10 (rs1800890) (HR = 0.11 (0.020.50)). Finally, we explored the expression of risk genes from the gene-gene interaction analysis in normal B-cell subtypes showing a different expression of IL4RA, IL10, IL10RB genes supporting a pathogenetic effect of these interactions in the germinal center. Conclusions The present findings support the importance of inflammatory genes in B-cell lymphomas. We found association between polymorphic sites in inflammatory response genes and risk as well as outcome in B-NHL and suggest an effect of gene-gene interactions during the stepwise oncogenesis. PMID:26448050

  19. Generation of B cell-deficient pigs by highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengjiao; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yilin; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Zijian; Jin, Yong; Liu, Xiaorui; Xiong, Qiang; Chen, Qin; Zhang, Manling; Li, Xiaokang; Zhao, Lihua; Li, Ze; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Yanfei; Hu, Feifei; Huang, Juan; Li, Rongfeng; Dai, Yifan

    2015-08-20

    Generating B cell-deficient mutant is the first step to produce human antibody repertoires in large animal models. In this study, we applied the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system to target the JH region of the pig IgM heavy chain gene which is crucial for B cell development and differentiation. Transfection of IgM-targeting Cas9 plasmid in primary porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) enabled inducing gene knock out (KO) in up to 53.3% of colonies analyzed, a quarter of which harbored biallelic modification, which was much higher than that of the traditional homologous recombination (HR). With the aid of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, three piglets with the biallelic IgM heavy chain gene mutation were produced. The piglets showed no antibody-producing B cells which indicated that the biallelic mutation of the IgM heavy chain gene effectively knocked out the function of the IgM and resulted in a B cell-deficient phenotype. Our study suggests that the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT technology is an efficient genome-editing approach in pigs. PMID:26336800

  20. Immunoglobulin kappa variable region gene selection during early human B cell development in health and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena; Fraser, Louise D; Tahir, Romeeza; Kipling, David; Wu, Yu-Chang; Lutalo, Pamela M K; Cason, John; Choong, LeeMeng; D'Cruz, David P; Cope, Andrew P; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Spencer, Jo

    2015-06-01

    The unique specificity of the B cell receptor is generated by an ordered sequence of gene rearrangement events. Once IGH genes have rearranged, rearrangement at the IGK locus is initiated followed by the IGL locus if functional IGK rearrangement is not achieved. Receptor specificity can subsequently be altered by secondary light chain editing based on the features of the heavy and light chain combination. The final profile of expressed genes is not random and biases in this profile are associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, how and when biases are created is not known. To increase our understanding of the processes of selection and editing of IGK rearrangements, we compared four groups of rearrangements of IGK acquired by next generation sequencing. First, expressed rearrangements of IGK from cDNA of IGK expressing B cells. Second, productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of the same kappa expressing B cells. Third, non-productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of IGK and IGL expressing B cells, and fourth productively rearranged IGK from DNA of IGL expressing B cells. The latter group would have been rejected during B cell development in favour of rearrangement at the IGL locus and are therefore selected against. We saw evidence that rearranged IGK segments can be selected at a checkpoint where the decision to rearrange the IGL locus is made. In addition, our data suggest that mechanisms regulating the expression or not of IGK rearrangements may also contribute to repertoire development and also that this latter component of the selection process is defective in SLE. PMID:25700344

  1. Consequences of the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation in follicular lymphoma: deregulated expression of a chimeric and mutated BCL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Hua, C; Zorn, S; Jensen, J P; Coupland, R W; Ko, H S; Wright, J J; Bakhshi, A

    1988-02-01

    The t(14;18) chromosomal translocation of human follicular lymphoma recombines the candidate transforming gene bcl-2, located at 18q21, with the immunoglobulin (Ig) H-chain joining region (JH) at 14q32. To elucidate the consequences of this translocation, we cloned bcl-2 cDNAs from a pre-B cell line (Nall-1) and a t(14;18) lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-6) and compared these sequences with their genomic counterparts. These studies revealed the complexity of bcl-2 gene expression in which six potential polyadenylation signals in exon 3 and two different 5' exons (exons 1 and 2) and promoters are alternatively used to generate different sized bcl-2 mRNAs. A single open reading frame (ORF), at the junction of exons 2 and 3, predicts a 239 amino acid, 26 kD protein. Most chromosome 18 breakpoints cluster within a 150 bp region of exon 3. In SU-DHL-6 the t(14;18) translocation juxtaposes a truncated bcl-2 gene with J6 in a tail-to-head configuration, resulting in the deregulated expression of chimeric bcl-2/Ig transcripts. Importantly, the SU-DHL-6 bcl-2 cDNA also contained several point mutations in the ORF, two of which altered the primary amino acid sequence. The deregulated expression of an altered bcl-2 gene may play a critical role in the disordered growth and differentiation of follicular B cell lymphoma. PMID:3285301

  2. Reconstruction of canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma gene regulatory network: detection of functional modules and hub genes.

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, M; Najafi, A; Nassiri, S M

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoma is one of the most common malignancies in dogs. Canine lymphoma is similar to human non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with shared clinical presentation and histopathological features. This study reports the construction of a comprehensive gene regulatory network (GRN) for canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of canine lymphoma, and performs analysis for detection of major functional modules and hub genes (the most important genes in a GRN). The canine DLBCL GRN was reconstructed from gene expression data (NCBI GEO dataset: GSE30881) using the STRING and MiMI interaction databases. Reconstructed GRNs were then assessed, using various bioinformatics programmes, in order to analyze network topology and identify major pathways and hub genes. The resultant network from both interaction databases had a logically scale-free pattern. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed cell activation, cell cycle phase, immune effector process, immune system development, immune system process, integrin-mediated signalling pathway, intracellular protein kinase cascade, intracellular signal transduction, leucocyte activation and differentiation, lymphocyte activation and differentiation as major GO terms in the biological processes of the networks. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed E2F1, E2F4, PTEN, CDKN1A, PCNA, DKC1, MNAT1, NDUFB4, ATP5J, PRKDC, BRCA1, MYCN, RFC4 and POLA1 as the most important hub genes. The phosphatidyl inositol signalling system, P53 signalling pathway, Rac CycD pathway, G1/S checkpoint, chemokine signalling pathway and telomere maintenance were the main signalling pathways in which the protein products of the hub genes are involved. PMID:25678421

  3. Proof of the Concept to Use a Malignant B Cell Line Drug Screen Strategy for Identification and Weight of Melphalan Resistance Genes in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bgsted, Martin; Bilgrau, Anders E.; Wardell, Christopher P.; Bertsch, Uta; Schmitz, Alexander; Bdker, Julie S.; Kjeldsen, Malene K.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Morgan, Gareth J.; Dybkaer, Karen; Johnsen, Hans E.

    2013-01-01

    In a conceptual study of drug resistance we have used a preclinical model of malignant B-cell lines by combining drug induced growth inhibition and gene expression profiling. In the current report a melphalan resistance profile of 19 genes were weighted by microarray data from the MRC Myeloma IX trial and time to progression following high dose melphalan, to generate an individual melphalan resistance index. The resistance index was subsequently validated in the HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 trial data set to prove the concept. Biologically, the assigned resistance indices were differentially distributed among translocations and cyclin D expression classes. Clinically, the 25% most melphalan resistant, the intermediate 50% and the 25% most sensitive patients had a median progression free survival of 18, 32 and 28 months, respectively (log-rank P-value ?=?0.05). Furthermore, the median overall survival was 45 months for the resistant group and not reached for the intermediate and sensitive groups (log-rank P-value ?=?0.003) following 38 months median observation. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for age, sex and ISS-staging, we found a high resistance index to be an independent variable associated with inferior progression free survival and overall survival. This study provides clinical proof of concept to use in vitro drug screen for identification of melphalan resistance gene signatures for future functional analysis. PMID:24376673

  4. Histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat affects chromatin organization and gene transcription in normal B cells and in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Markozashvili, Diana; Pichugin, Andrei; Barat, Ana; Camara-Clayette, Valerie; Vasilyeva, Natalia V; Lelièvre, Hélène; Kraus-Berthier, Laurence; Depil, Stéphane; Ribrag, Vincent; Vassetzky, Yegor

    2016-04-15

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare lymphoma caused by the t(11:14) juxtaposing the cyclin D1 (CCND1) locus on chromosome 11 and the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus on chromosome 14. Several new treatments are proposed for MCL, including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). We have studied gene expression and chromatin organization in the translocated 11q13 locus in MCL cells as compared to lymphoblastoid cell lines as well as the effect of HDACi abexinostat on chromatin organization and gene expression in the 11q13 locus. We have identified a cluster of genes overexpressed in the translocation region on chromosome 11 in MCL cells. Abexinostat provokes a genome-wide disaggregation of heterochromatin. The genes upregulated after the t(11;14) translocation react to the HDACi treatment by increasing their expression, but their gene promoters do not show significant alterations in H3K9Ac and H3K9me2 levels in abexinostat-treated cells. PMID:26774800

  5. Transgenic mice bearing the human c-myc gene activated by an immunoglobulin enhancer: A pre-B-cell lymphoma model

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.V.; Pattengale, P.K.; Weir, L.; Leder, P. )

    1988-08-01

    Transgenic mice carrying a fusion gene in which the mouse immunoglobulin enhancer has been inserted into an otherwise normal human c-myc gene develop a narrow spectrum of pre-B-cell lymphomas. Tumor occurrence is correlated with expression of the transgene in organs in which large numbers of pre-B cells predominate. These tumors, which arise stochastically, are virtually all lymphoblastic lymphomas of the pre-B-cell type. Evidently the isolated enhancer targets oncogene expression and tumorigenesis to the early B-cell population in preference to more mature B-cell populations. The transgene also confers enhanced in vitro growth properties on nontransformed pre-B cells as observed in bone marrow cultures derived from transgenic animals. These cultured cells represent a population in which the activating function of c-myc can be uncoupled from secondary oncogenic events occurring in vivo.

  6. Epigenetic Regulation of the Blimp-1 Gene (Prdm1) in B Cells Involves Bach2 and Histone Deacetylase 3.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromu; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Katoh, Yasutake; Sax, Nicolas; Tajima, Shinya; Brydun, Andrey; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Naoko; Masai, Hisao; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuo; Nio, Masaki; Ochiai, Kyoko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-18

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) encoded by Prdm1 is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. The transcription factor Bach2 represses Blimp-1 expression in B cells to stall terminal differentiation, by which it supports reactions such as class switch recombination of the antibody genes. We found that histones H3 and H4 around the Prdm1 intron 5 Maf recognition element were acetylated at higher levels in X63/0 plasma cells expressing Blimp-1 than in BAL17 mature B cells lacking its expression. Conversely, methylation of H3-K9 was lower in X63/0 cells than BAL17 cells. Purification of the Bach2 complex in BAL17 cells revealed its interaction with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), nuclear co-repressors NCoR1 and NCoR2, transducin β-like 1X-linked (Tbl1x), and RAP1-interacting factor homolog (Rif1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of HDAC3 and Rif1 to the Prdm1 locus. Reduction of HDAC3 or NCoR1 expression by RNA interference in B cells resulted in an increased Prdm1 mRNA expression. Bach2 is suggested to cooperate with HDAC3-containing co-repressor complexes in B cells to regulate the stage-specific expression of Prdm1 by writing epigenetic modifications at the Prdm1 locus. PMID:26786103

  7. Immune Tolerance Induction to Factor IX through B Cell Gene Transfer: TLR9 Signaling Delineates between Tolerogenic and Immunogenic B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaomei; Moghimi, Babak; Zolotukhin, Irene; Morel, Laurence M; Cao, Ou; Herzog, Roland W

    2014-01-01

    A subset of patients with severe hemophilia B, the X-linked bleeding disorder resulting from absence of coagulation factor IX (FIX), develop pathogenic antibody responses during replacement therapy. These inhibitors block standard therapy and are often associated with anaphylactic reactions to FIX. Established clinical immune tolerance induction protocols often fail for FIX inhibitors. In a murine model of this immune complication, retrovirally transduced primary B cells expressing FIX antigen fused with immunoglobulin-G heavy chain prevented antibody formation to FIX and was also highly effective in desensitizing animals with preexisting response. In contrast, transplant of B cells that received the identical expression cassette via nucleofection of plasmid vector substantially heightened antibody formation against FIX, a response that could be blocked by toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) inhibition. While innate responses to TLR4 activation or to retrovirus were minimal in B cells, plasmid DNA activated TLR9, resulting in CpG-dependent NF-?B activation/IL-6 expression and adaptor protein 3 dependent, CpG-independent induction of IFN-I. Neither response was seen in TLR9-deficient B cells. Therefore, TLR9 signaling in B cells, in particular in response to plasmid vector, is highly immunogenic and has to be avoided in design of tolerance protocols. PMID:24609143

  8. Validation and implementation of a method for microarray gene expression profiling of minor B-cell subpopulations in man

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This report describes a method for the generation of global gene expression profiles from low frequent B-cell subsets by using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RNA amplification. However, some of the differentiating compartments involve a low number of cells and therefore it is important to optimize and validate each step in the procedure. Methods Normal lymphoid tissues from blood, tonsils, thymus and bone marrow were immunophenotyped by the 8-colour Euroflow panel using multiparametric flow cytometry. Subsets of B-cells containing cell numbers ranging from 800 to 33,000 and with frequencies varying between 0.1 and 10 percent were sorted, subjected to mRNA purification, amplified by the NuGEN protocol and finally analysed by the Affymetrix platform. Results Following a step by step strategy, each step in the workflow was validated and the sorting/storage conditions optimized as described in this report. First, an analysis of four cancer cell lines on Affymetrix arrays, using either 100ng RNA labelled with the Ambion standard protocol or 1ng RNA amplified and labelled by the NuGEN protocol, revealed a significant correlation of gene expressions (r???0.9 for all). Comparison of qPCR data in samples with or without amplification for 8 genes showed that a relative difference between six cell lines was preserved (r???0.9). Second, a comparison of cells sorted into PrepProtect, RNAlater or directly into lysis/binding buffer showed a higher yield of purified mRNA following storage in lysis/binding buffer (p?B-cell subsets validated by the cluster of differentiation (CD) membrane profile was highly concordant with the transcriptional gene expression (p-values <0.001). Finally, in normal bone marrow and tonsil samples, eight evaluated genes were expressed in accordance with the biology of lymphopoiesis (p-values?gene-specific B-cell atlas. Conclusion A description of the implementation and validation of commercially available kits in the laboratory has been examined. This included steps for cell sorting, cell lysis/stabilization, RNA isolation, RNA concentration and amplification for microarray analysis. The workflow described in this report will enable the generation of microarray data from minor sorted B-cell subsets. PMID:24483235

  9. PAX5 activates the transcription of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene in B cells.

    PubMed

    Bougel, Stphanie; Renaud, Stphanie; Braunschweig, Richard; Loukinov, Dmitri; Morse, Herbert C; Bosman, Fred T; Lobanenkov, Victor; Benhattar, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes telomeric DNA. Its activity is not detectable in most somatic cells but it is reactivated during tumorigenesis. In most cancers, the combination of hTERT hypermethylation and hypomethylation of a short promoter region is permissive for low-level hTERT transcription. Activated and malignant lymphocytes express high telomerase activity, through a mechanism that seems methylation-independent. The aim of this study was to determine which mechanism is involved in the enhanced expression of hTERT in lymphoid cells. Our data confirm that in B cells, some T cell lymphomas and non-neoplastic lymph nodes, the hTERT promoter is unmethylated. Binding sites for the B cell-specific transcription factor PAX5 were identified downstream of the ATG translational start site through EMSA and ChIP experiments. ChIP assays indicated that the transcriptional activation of hTERT by PAX5 does not involve repression of CTCF binding. In a B cell lymphoma cell line, siRNA-induced knockdown of PAX5 expression repressed hTERT transcription. Moreover, ectopic expression of PAX5 in a telomerase-negative normal fibroblast cell line was found to be sufficient to activate hTERT expression. These data show that activation of hTERT in telomerase-positive B cells is due to a methylation-independent mechanism in which PAX5 plays an important role. PMID:19806612

  10. Transient B cell depletion or improved transgene expression by codon optimization promote tolerance to factor VIII in gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sack, Brandon K; Merchant, Sherin; Markusic, David M; Nathwani, Amit C; Davidoff, Andrew M; Byrne, Barry J; Herzog, Roland W

    2012-01-01

    The major complication in the treatment of hemophilia A is the development of neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) against factor VIII (FVIII). The current method for eradicating inhibitors, termed immune tolerance induction (ITI), is costly and protracted. Clinical protocols that prevent rather than treat inhibitors are not yet established. Liver-directed gene therapy hopes to achieve long-term correction of the disease while also inducing immune tolerance. We sought to investigate the use of adeno-associated viral (serotype 8) gene transfer to induce tolerance to human B domain deleted FVIII in hemophilia A mice. We administered an AAV8 vector with either human B domain deleted FVIII or a codon-optimized transgene, both under a liver-specific promoter to two strains of hemophilia A mice. Protein therapy or gene therapy was given either alone or in conjunction with anti-CD20 antibody-mediated B cell depletion. Gene therapy with a low-expressing vector resulted in sustained near-therapeutic expression. However, supplementary protein therapy revealed that gene transfer had sensitized mice to hFVIII in a high-responder strain but not in mice of a low-responding strain. This heightened response was ameliorated when gene therapy was delivered with anti-murine CD20 treatment. Transient B cell depletion prevented inhibitor formation in protein therapy, but failed to achieve a sustained hypo-responsiveness. Importantly, use of a codon-optimized hFVIII transgene resulted in sustained therapeutic expression and tolerance without a need for B cell depletion. Therefore, anti-CD20 may be beneficial in preventing vector-induced immune priming to FVIII, but higher levels of liver-restricted expression are preferred for tolerance. PMID:22655063

  11. Wnt signaling induces transcription, spatial proximity, and translocation of fusion gene partners in human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Giorgia D; Vargas, Macarena F; Medina, Matías A; León, Pablo; Necuñir, David; Elorza, Alvaro A; Gutiérrez, Soraya E; Moon, Randall T; Loyola, Alejandra; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a wide variety of cancers, particularly hematologic malignancies. A recurrent chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia is the reciprocal translocation t(8;21) that fuses RUNX1 and ETO genes. We report here that Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases the expression of ETO and RUNX1 genes in human hematopoietic progenitors. We found that β-catenin is rapidly recruited into RNA polymerase II transcription factories (RNAPII-Ser5) and that ETO and RUNX1 genes are brought into close spatial proximity upon Wnt3a induction. Notably, long-term treatment of cells with Wnt3a induces the generation a frequent RUNX1-ETO translocation event. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces transcription and translocation of RUNX1 and ETO fusion gene partners, opening a novel window to understand the onset/development of leukemia. PMID:26333776

  12. Prognostic impact of concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements and expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexandar; Deng, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Visco, Carlo; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Zhang, Li; Dybkr, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrs J M; Parsons, Ben M; Mller, Michael B; Piris, Miguel A; Winter, Jane N; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Hu, Shimin; Young, Ken H

    2016-01-19

    Double-hit B-cell lymphoma is a common designation for a group of tumors characterized by concurrent translocations of MYC and BCL2, BCL6, or other genes. The prognosis of concurrent MYC and BCL6 translocations is not well known. In this study, we assessed rearrangements and expression of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 in 898 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab). Neither BCL6 translocation alone (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) nor in combination with MYC translocation (observed in 2.0% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) predicted poorer survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with MYC/BCL6 co-expression did have significantly poorer survival, however, MYC/BCL6 co-expression had no effect on prognosis in the absence of MYC/BCL2 co-expression, and had no additive impact in MYC+/BCL2+ cases. The isolated MYC+/BCL6+/BCL2- subset, more frequent in germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, had significantly better survival compared with the isolated MYC+/BCL2+/BCL6- subset (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). In summary, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with either MYC/BCL6 rearrangements or MYC/BCL6 co-expression did not always have poorer prognosis; MYC expression levels should be evaluated simultaneously; and double-hit B-cell lymphoma needs to be refined based on the specific genetic abnormalities present in these tumors. PMID:26573234

  13. Blimp-1/PRDM1 regulates the transcription of human CS1 (SLAMF7) gene in NK and B cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong R; Mathew, Stephen O; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-01-01

    CS1 (CRACC/CD319/SLAMF7) is a member of SLAM (Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule) family receptors and is expressed on NK cells, a subset of CD8(+) T lymphocytes, activated monocytes, mature dendritic cells and activated B cells. In NK cells, CS1 signaling induces cytolytic function of NK cells against targets whereas in B cells CS1 induces proliferation and autocrine cytokine production. CS1 is upregulated in multiple myeloma cells and contributes to clonogenic growth and tumorigenicity. However, the mechanism of CS1 upregulation is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of human CS1 gene in NK and B cells. The promoter region of CS1 contains a Blimp-1/PRDM1 binding site and relative luciferase activities of successive deletion mutants of CS1 promoter were different between Blimp-1/PRDM1-positive and Blimp-1/PRDM1-negative cells. Proximal region of CS1 promoter contains a CAAT box and atypical TATA-box that might result in common transcription initiation at -29 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start codon. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed Blimp-1/PRDM1 binds to the CS1 promoter region. Mutating the Blimp-1/PRDM1 site at -750 to -746 decreased the transcriptional activity of CS1 promoter implicating a trans-activating function of Blimp-1/PRDM1 in human CS1 gene regulation. The finding that Blimp-1/PRDM1 enhances transcription of CS1 gene in multiple myeloma cells may help in developing novel strategies for therapeutic intervention in multiple myeloma. PMID:26310579

  14. TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recently, the landscape of single base mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was described. Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. Based on this cohort and a further 157 DLBCL cases analyzed by FISH, the incidence in de novo germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL is 5% (6 of 115).

  15. Epstein - Barr Virus Transforming Protein LMP-1 Alters B Cells Gene Expression by Promoting Accumulation of the Oncoprotein ?Np73?

    PubMed Central

    Accardi, Rosita; Fathallah, Ikbal; Gruffat, Henri; Mariggi, Giuseppe; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Voegele, Catherine; Bartosch, Birke; Hernandez-Vargas, Hector; McKay, James; Sylla, Bakary S.; Manet, Evelyne; Tommasino, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have proved that oncogenic viruses develop redundant mechanisms to alter the functions of the tumor suppressor p53. Here we show that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), via the oncoprotein LMP-1, induces the expression of ?Np73?, a strong antagonist of p53. This phenomenon is mediated by the LMP-1 dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1) which in turn favours the recruitment of p73 to ?Np73? promoter. A specific chemical inhibitor of JNK-1 or silencing JNK-1 expression strongly down-regulated ?Np73? mRNA levels in LMP-1-containing cells. Accordingly, LMP-1 mutants deficient to activate JNK-1 did not induce ?Np73? accumulation. The recruitment of p73 to the ?Np73? promoter correlated with the displacement of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 which is part of the transcriptional repressive polycomb 2 complex. Inhibition of ?Np73? expression in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs) led to the stimulation of apoptosis and up-regulation of a large number of cellular genes as determined by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq). In particular, the expression of genes encoding products known to play anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic functions, as well as genes known to be deregulated in different B cells malignancy, was altered by ?Np73? down-regulation. Together, these findings reveal a novel EBV mechanism that appears to play an important role in the transformation of primary B cells. PMID:23516355

  16. Effects of glucose refeeding and glibenclamide treatment on glucokinase and GLUT2 gene expression in pancreatic B-cells and liver from rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tiedge, M; Lenzen, S

    1995-01-01

    The mutual role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of glucokinase and GLUT2 glucose transporter gene expression in pancreatic B-cells and liver has been studied in vivo in the rat. Glucokinase mRNA was quantified by competitive reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis, and GLUT2 mRNA by Northern-blot analysis in total RNA fractions. As in the liver, glucokinase mRNA decreased by 64% in pancreatic B-cells after starvation for 2 days and was induced 3-fold by short-term treatment (1 h) of the rats with oral glucose (4 g/kg body wt.). In contrast the sulphonylurea compound glibenclamide (0.1 mg/kg body wt.) did not significantly stimulate glucokinase gene expression in pancreatic B-cells. But glibenclamide caused a 4-fold increase of glucokinase mRNA in liver which was abolished by concomitant administration of diazoxide, a drug which antagonizes glibenclamide stimulated insulin secretion. GLUT2 gene expression was decreased by 50% in pancreatic B-cells and liver after starvation of the rats for 2 days. Neither short-term treatment (1 h) with glucose nor glibenclamide resulted in a significant increase of GLUT2 gene expression in pancreatic B-cells and liver. The results suggest that it is glucose which stimulates glucokinase gene expression in pancreatic B-cells whereas the transcriptional regulation of the glucokinase gene in liver is directed by insulin. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7755556

  17. Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Frances E.; Rebollo, Rita; Miceli-Royer, Katharine; Gagnier, Liane; Kuah, Sabrina; Babaian, Artem; Sistiaga-Poveda, Maialen; Lai, C. Benjamin; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Serrano, Isabel; Steidl, Christian; Karimi, Mohammad M.; Mager, Dixie L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnants of ancient transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes. These sequences harbor multiple regulatory motifs and hence are capable of influencing expression of host genes. In response to environmental changes, TEs are known to be released from epigenetic repression and to become transcriptionally active. Such activation could also lead to lineage-inappropriate activation of oncogenes, as one study described in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, little further evidence for this mechanism in other cancers has been reported. Here, we reanalyzed whole transcriptome data from a large cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared with normal B-cell centroblasts to detect genes ectopically expressed through activation of TE promoters. We have identified 98 such TE-gene chimeric transcripts that were exclusively expressed in primary DLBCL cases and confirmed several in DLBCL-derived cell lines. We further characterized a TE-gene chimeric transcript involving a fatty acid-binding protein gene (LTR2-FABP7), normally expressed in brain, that was ectopically expressed in a subset of DLBCL patients through the use of an endogenous retroviral LTR promoter of the LTR2 family. The LTR2-FABP7 chimeric transcript encodes a novel chimeric isoform of the protein with characteristics distinct from native FABP7. In vitro studies reveal a dependency for DLBCL cell line proliferation and growth on LTR2-FABP7 chimeric protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate the significance of TEs as regulators of aberrant gene expression in cancer and suggest that LTR2-FABP7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL in a subgroup of patients. PMID:25114248

  18. Targeted Chromosomal Translocations and Essential Gene Knockout Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Mu; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2015-12-01

    Many genes play essential roles in development and fertility; their disruption leads to growth arrest or sterility. Genetic balancers have been widely used to study essential genes in many organisms. However, it is technically challenging and laborious to generate and maintain the loss-of-function mutations of essential genes. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been successfully applied for gene editing and chromosome engineering. Here, we have developed a method to induce chromosomal translocations and produce genetic balancers using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and have applied this approach to edit essential genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. The co-injection of dual small guide RNA targeting genes on different chromosomes resulted in reciprocal translocation between nonhomologous chromosomes. These animals with chromosomal translocations were subsequently crossed with animals that contain normal sets of chromosomes. The F1 progeny were subjected to a second round of Cas9-mediated gene editing. Through this method, we successfully produced nematode strains with specified chromosomal translocations and generated a number of loss-of-function alleles of two essential genes (csr-1 and mes-6). Therefore, our method provides an easy and efficient approach to generate and maintain loss-of-function alleles of essential genes with detailed genetic background information. PMID:26482793

  19. A Strong Promoter Activity of Pre-B Cell Stage-Specific Crlz1 Gene Is Caused by One Distal LEF-1 and Multiple Proximal Ets Sites

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Kyun; Son, Youngsook; Kang, Chang-Joong

    2011-01-01

    The promoter of pre-B cell stage-specific Crlz1 gene, whose protein translocates the cytoplasmic core binding factor ? (CBF?) into the nucleus and thereby allows its heterodimerization with Runx, has a very strong activity, which is about 25% of cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter activity and comparable to the EF-1? promoter activity. Its transcription start site was mapped at 155 nt upstream of translation initiation codon. 5?-truncation analysis of charged amino acids rich leucine zipper 1 (Crlz1) promoter revealed that one distal region from -612 to -536 and one proximal region from -198 to -100 as numbered from the transcription start site were critical for the promoter activity. The 3?-truncation analysis of the promoter revealed that the basal promoter sequence around the transcription start site, which should be necessary for the assembly of transcription initiation complex and the start of RNA polymerase II, was also essential, although not sufficient by itself. When transcription factor binding sites within those two critical regions were searched by in vivo footprinting, one distal LEF-1 and multiple proximal Ets consensus-like sites were found to be footprinted. Indeed, the protein causing a footprint over the distal region was found to be LEF-1, and the ones causing three footprints over the proximal region were found to be such Ets family members as Fli-1 and GABP, as verified by EMSA and ChIP analyses. Furthermore, those LEF-1 and Ets sites were shown to drive additively a strong transcription of Crlz1 gene. PMID:21544627

  20. Four novel non-random chromosome rearrangements in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: 6p24-25 and 12p12-13 translocations, 4q21 anomalies and monosomy 21.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, A; Roberti, M G; Bigoni, R; Minotto, C; Bardi, A; Milani, R; Tieghi, A; Campioni, D; Cavazzini, F; De Angeli, C; Negrini, M; Castoldi, G

    2000-03-01

    Nine patients with previously unreported chromosome changes were identified among 209 B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cases: three patients had a translocation involving 6p24-25; three had a 12p12-13 translocation; two had 4q21 involvement (one with coexisting 6p anomaly); and two had monosomy 21. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) detected some cryptic aberrations (+12, 6q-, 17p-, 11q-) in those patients with 6p translocations, whereas only a cytogenetically undetected 13q14 deletion was found in the remaining cases. Atypical morphology was noted in six cases, including both cases with monosomy 21, two cases with 6p and 4q21 anomaly and one case with 12p involvement. Four of these cases also had more than one phenotype deviation with respect to the classical CLL phenotype. Disease progression after 21-51 months (median 41) was noted in two cases with 6p and 4q21 involvement and in one case with 12p anomaly and monosomy 21. We arrived at the following conclusions: (i) 6p24-25 and, possibly, 4q21 lesions represent non-random events in CLL, occurring in association with other well-known unbalanced rearrangements; (ii) 12p rearrangements and monosomy 21 may possibly represent early chromosome defects that are not associated with the classical DNA gains and losses known to be present in the majority of CLL; and (iii) atypical morphology and immunophenotype as well as disease progression were frequently observed in these cases PMID:10759714

  1. Variant B Cell Receptor Isotype Functions Differ in Hairy Cell Leukemia with Mutated BRAF and IGHV Genes

    PubMed Central

    Weston-Bell, Nicola J.; Forconi, Francesco; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Sahota, Surinder S.

    2014-01-01

    A functional B-cell receptor (BCR) is critical for survival of normal B-cells, but whether it plays a comparable role in B-cell malignancy is as yet not fully delineated. Typical Hairy Cell Leukemia (HCL) is a rare B-cell tumor, and unique in expressing multiple surface immunoglobulin (sIg) isotypes on individual tumor cells (mult-HCL), to raise questions as to their functional relevance. Typical mult-HCL also displays a mutated BRAF V(600)E lesion. Since wild type BRAF is a primary conduit for transducing normal BCR signals, as revealed by deletion modelling studies, it is as yet not apparent if mutated BRAF alters BCR signal transduction in mult-HCL. To address these questions, we examined BCR signalling in mult-HCL cases uniformly displaying mutated BRAF and IGHV genes. Two apparent functional sets were delineated by IgD co-expression. In sIgD+ve mult-HCL, IgD mediated persistent Ca2+ flux, also evident via >1 sIgH isotype, linked to increased ERK activation and BCR endocytosis. In sIgD?ve mult-HCL however, BCR-mediated signals and downstream effects were restricted to a single sIgH isotype, with sIgM notably dysfunctional and remaining immobilised on the cell surface. These observations reveal discordance between expression and function of individual isotypes in mult-HCL. In dual sIgL expressing cases, only a single sIgL was fully functional. We examined effects of anti-BCR stimuli on mult-HCL survival ex-vivo. Significantly, all functional non-IgD isotypes increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation but triggered apoptosis of tumor cells, in both subsets. IgD stimuli, in marked contrast retained tumor viability. Despite mutant BRAF, BCR signals augment ERK1/2 phosphorylation, but isotype dictates functional downstream outcomes. In mult-HCL, sIgD retains a potential to transduce BCR signals for tumor survival in-vivo. The BCR in mult-HCL emerges as subject to complex regulation, with apparent conflicting signalling by individual isotypes when co-expressed with sIgD. This suggests the possibility that mutant BRAF by-passes BCR constraints in mult-HCL. PMID:24497953

  2. Comparative RNA-Seq and Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression Changes in B-Cell Lymphomas of Canis familiaris

    PubMed Central

    Monks, Noel; Eugster, Emily; Cherba, David; Berlinski, Pamela; Kamerling, Steve; Marotti, Keith; Simpson, Heather; Rusk, Tony; Tembe, Waibhav; Legendre, Christophe; Benson, Hollie; Liang, Winnie; Webb, Craig Paul

    2013-01-01

    Comparative oncology is a developing research discipline that is being used to assist our understanding of human neoplastic diseases. Companion canines are a preferred animal oncology model due to spontaneous tumor development and similarity to human disease at the pathophysiological level. We use a paired RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)/microarray analysis of a set of four normal canine lymph nodes and ten canine lymphoma fine needle aspirates to identify technical biases and variation between the technologies and convergence on biological disease pathways. Surrogate Variable Analysis (SVA) provides a formal multivariate analysis of the combined RNA-Seq/microarray data set. Applying SVA to the data allows us to decompose variation into contributions associated with transcript abundance, differences between the technology, and latent variation within each technology. A substantial and highly statistically significant component of the variation reflects transcript abundance, and RNA-Seq appeared more sensitive for detection of transcripts expressed at low levels. Latent random variation among RNA-Seq samples is also distinct in character from that impacting microarray samples. In particular, we observed variation between RNA-Seq samples that reflects transcript GC content. Platform-independent variable decomposition without a priori knowledge of the sources of variation using SVA represents a generalizable method for accomplishing cross-platform data analysis. We identified genes differentially expressed between normal lymph nodes of disease free dogs and a subset of the diseased dogs diagnosed with B-cell lymphoma using each technology. There is statistically significant overlap between the RNA-Seq and microarray sets of differentially expressed genes. Analysis of overlapping genes in the context of biological systems suggests elevated expression and activity of PI3K signaling in B-cell lymphoma biopsies compared with normal biopsies, consistent with literature describing successful use of drugs targeting this pathway in lymphomas. PMID:23593398

  3. Prediction of Gene Activity in Early B Cell Development Based on an Integrative Multi-Omics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heydarian, Mohammad; Luperchio, Teresa Romeo; Cutler, Jevon; Mitchell, Christopher J.; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Sollner-Webb, Barbara; Reddy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    An increasingly common method for predicting gene activity is genome-wide chromatin immuno-precipitation of active chromatin modifications followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq). In order to understand better the relationship between developmentally regulated chromatin landscapes and regulation of early B cell development, we determined how differentially active promoter regions were able to predict relative RNA and protein levels at the pre-pro-B and pro-B stages. Herein, we describe a novel ChIP-seq quantification method (cRPKM) to identify active promoters and a multi-omics approach that compares promoter chromatin status with ongoing active transcription (GRO-seq), steady state mRNA (RNA-seq), inferred mRNA stability, and relative proteome abundance measurements (iTRAQ). We demonstrate that active chromatin modifications at promoters are good indicators of transcription and steady state mRNA levels. Moreover, we found that promoters with active chromatin modifications exclusively in one of these cell states frequently predicted the differential abundance of proteins. However, we found that many genes whose promoters have non-differential but active chromatin modifications also displayed changes in abundance of their cognate proteins. As expected, this large class of developmentally and differentially regulated proteins that was uncoupled from chromatin status used mostly post-transcriptional mechanisms. Strikingly, the most differentially abundant protein in our B-cell development system, 2410004B18Rik, was regulated by a post-transcriptional mechanism, which further analyses indicated was mediated by a micro-RNA. These data highlight how this integrated multi-omics data set can be a useful resource in uncovering regulatory mechanisms. This data can be accessed at: https://usegalaxy.org/u/thereddylab/p/prediction-of-gene-activity-based-on-an-integrative-multi-omics-analysis PMID:25544807

  4. Loss of the TEL/ETV6 gene by a second translocation in ALL patients with t(12;21).

    PubMed

    Coniat, M B; Poirel, H; Leblanc, T; Bernard, O A; Berger, R

    1999-10-01

    Inactivation of the non translocated TEL/ETV6 gene is commonly associated with translocation (12;21) of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Translocations involving the short arm of chromosome 12 were analysed in two children with t(12;21) ALL. Fluorescence in situ hybridation studies showed that these associated translocations resulted in loss of TEL/ETV6. While hybridization with a YAC probe covering TEL/ETV6 was positive in one patient, analysis with cosmid probes covering the gene demonstrated that the gene was in fact deleted. It is concluded that deletions involving TEL/ETV6 can remain undetected by FISH using only YAC probes. PMID:10573134

  5. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangements: Current perspective on treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangements; case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, A V; Roosma, T J A; Houtenbos, I; Vasmel, W L E; van de Hem, K; de Boer, J P; van Maanen, T; Lindauer-van der Werf, G; Beeker, A; Timmers, G J; Schaar, C G; Soesan, M; Poddighe, P J; de Jong, D; Chamuleau, M E D

    2016-03-01

    In the past decade, patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) therapy. Standard treatment is now changing as a result of deeper understanding of underlying biologic differences of such lymphomas. One of the most powerful predictors of an adverse outcome on R-CHOP therapy is the presence of a MYC gene rearrangement (MYC+ lymphoma). Determination of MYC gene rearrangement by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation) has recently become a standard diagnostic procedure. In this paper, an overview of current literature on MYC function and MYC+ lymphoma patient outcome is presented. Furthermore, we present 26 patients from our tertiary referral centre who were diagnosed with MYC+ lymphoma between 2009 and 2014. In our patient series, we confirm the dismal prognosis of MYC+ lymphoma patients. Intensification of classical chemotherapy does not lead to better overall survival, justifying new treatment modalities. First line therapy should be more specifically targeted against MYC and the genes and proteins that are deregulated by MYC. To this end, the first clinical trial in which MYC+ patients will be offered targeted treatment has recently been launched. PMID:26820684

  6. Application of HSVtk suicide gene to X-SCID gene therapy: Ganciclovir treatment offsets gene corrected X-SCID B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Toru; Kumaki, Satoru . E-mail: kumakis@idac.tohoku.ac.jp; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Onodera, Masafumi; Sato, Miki; Du, Wei; Sasahara, Yoji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2006-03-10

    Recently, a serious adverse effect of uncontrolled clonal T cell proliferation due to insertional mutagenesis of retroviral vector was reported in X-SCID gene therapy clinical trial. To offset the side effect, we have incorporated a suicide gene into therapeutic retroviral vector for selective elimination of transduced cells. In this study, B-cell lines from two X-SCID patients were transduced with bicistronic retroviral vector carrying human {gamma}c chain cDNA and Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. After confirmation of functional reconstitution of the {gamma}c chain, the cells were treated with ganciclovir (GCV). The {gamma}c chain positive cells were eliminated under low concentration without cytotoxicity on untransduced cells and have not reappeared at least for 5 months. Furthermore, the {gamma}c chain transduced cells were still sensitive to GCV after five months. These results demonstrated the efficacy of the suicide gene therapy although further in vivo studies are required to assess feasibility of this approach in clinical trial.

  7. A Mouse Variable Gene Fragment Binds to DNA Independently of the BCR Context: A Possible Role for Immature B-Cell Repertoire Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz; Costa, Maria Beatriz Walter; Guedes, Leonardo; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro Manoel; Raiol, Tainá; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation occurs in several steps and requires constant stimulus for its continuing development. From the emergence of the pre-B-cell receptor, signal transduction stimulates and supports B-cell development. Current viewpoints indicate that both positive selection pressure for autoantigens and tonic signaling constitutively stimulate B-cell maturation. In this work, we tested for the presence of a putative DNA binding site in a variable gene segment in a germline configuration, independently of VDJ recombination. After a survey of the public antibody databases, we chose a single mouse heavy variable gene segment that is highly represented in anti-nucleic acid antibodies and tested it for ssDNA binding. A phage display approach was used to search for intrinsic binding to oligo deoxythymidine. The results revealed that binding to an antigen can be influenced by the use of a specific DNA binding V gene segment. Our data support the idea that some variable genes have intrinsic reactivity towards specific types of endogenous autoantigens, and this property may contribute to the establishment of the immature B-cell repertoire. PMID:24023756

  8. A seven-gene expression panel distinguishing clonal expansions of pre-leukemic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells from normal B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian A; Yancopoulos, Sophia; Tipping, Mike; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xue Ping; Bennett, Fiona; Li, Wentian; Lesser, Martin; Paul, Santanu; Boyle, Erin; Moreno, Carolina; Catera, Rosa; Messmer, Bradley T; Cutrona, Giovanna; Ferrarini, Manlio; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Allen, Steven L; Rai, Kanti R; Rawstron, Andrew C; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression patterns occurring in pre-CLL and CLL B cell populations with an error rate of 2 %. Using Bayesian learning, the expression levels of only two genes, FMOD and PIK3C2B, correctly distinguished 100 % of CLL and MBL cases from normal polyclonal and mono/oligoclonal B lymphocytes. Thus, this study sets forth effective computational approaches that distinguish MBL/CLL from normal B lymphocytes. The findings also support the concept that MBL is a CLL precursor. PMID:26318878

  9. The B cell transcription program mediates hypomethylation and overexpression of key genes in Epstein-Barr virus-associated proliferative conversion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a well characterized etiopathogenic factor for a variety of immune-related conditions, including lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases. EBV-mediated transformation of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblastoid cells occurs in early stages of infection and is an excellent model for investigating the mechanisms associated with acquisition of unlimited growth. Results We investigated the effects of experimental EBV infection of B cells on DNA methylation profiles by using high-throughput analysis. Remarkably, we observed hypomethylation of around 250 genes, but no hypermethylation. Hypomethylation did not occur at repetitive sequences, consistent with the absence of genomic instability in lymphoproliferative cells. Changes in methylation only occurred after cell divisions started, without the participation of the active demethylation machinery, and were concomitant with acquisition by B cells of the ability to proliferate. Gene Ontology analysis, expression profiling, and high-throughput analysis of the presence of transcription factor binding motifs and occupancy revealed that most genes undergoing hypomethylation are active and display the presence of NF-?B p65 and other B cell-specific transcription factors. Promoter hypomethylation was associated with upregulation of genes relevant for the phenotype of proliferating lymphoblasts. Interestingly, pharmacologically induced demethylation increased the efficiency of transformation of resting B cells to lymphoblastoid cells, consistent with productive cooperation between hypomethylation and lymphocyte proliferation. Conclusions Our data provide novel clues on the role of the B cell transcription program leading to DNA methylation changes, which we find to be key to the EBV-associated conversion of resting B cells to proliferating lymphoblasts. PMID:23320978

  10. Rearrangements and deletions of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the double-producing B cell lymphoma I.29.

    PubMed Central

    Stavnezer, J; Marcu, K B; Sirlin, S; Alhadeff, B; Hammerling, U

    1982-01-01

    The B cell lymphoma I.29 consists of a mixture of cells expressing membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (IgM) (lambda) and IgA (lambda) of identical idiotypes. Whereas most of the cells express either IgM or IgA alone, 1 to 5% of the cells in this tumor express IgM and IgA simultaneously within the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane (R. Sitia et al., J. Immunol. 127:1388-1394, 1981; R. Sitia, unpublished data). When IgM+ cells are purified from the lymphoma and passaged in mice or cultured, a portion of the cells convert to IgA+. These properties suggest that some cells of the I.29 lymphoma may undergo immunoglobulin heavy chain switching, although it is also possible that the mixed population was derived by a prior switching event in a clone of cells. We performed Southern blotting experiments on genomic DNAs isolated from populations of I.29 cells containing variable proportions of IgM+ and IgA+ cells and on a number of cell lines derived from the lymphoma. The results were consistent with the deletion model for heavy chain switching, as the IgM+ cells contained rearranged mu genes and alpha genes in the germ line configuration on both the expressed and nonexpressed heavy chain chromosomes, whereas the IgA+ cells had deleted both mu genes and contained one rearranged and one germ line alpha gene. In addition, segments of DNA located within the intervening sequence 5' to the mu gene, near the site of switch recombination, were deleted from both the expressed and the nonexpressed chromosomes. Although mu genes were deleted from both chromosomes in the IgA+ cells, the sites of DNA recombination differed on the two chromosomes. On the expressed chromosome, Smu sequences were recombined with S alpha sequences, whereas on the nonexpressed chromosome, Smu sequences were recombined with S gamma 3 sequences. Images PMID:6290869

  11. Rearrangements and deletions of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the double-producing B cell lymphoma I. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Stavnezer, J.; Marcu, K.B.; Sirlin, S.; Alhadeff, B.; Hammerling, U.

    1982-08-01

    The B cell lymphoma I.29 consists of a mixture of cells expressing membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (IgM) (lambda) and IgA (lambda) of identical idiotypes. Whereas most of the cells express either IgM of IgA alone, 1 to 50% of the cells in this tumor express IgM and IgA simultaneously within the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. When IgM/sup +/ cells are purified from the lymphoma and passaged in mice or cultured, a portion of the cells convert to IgA/sup +/. These properties suggest that some cells of the I.29 lymphoma may undergo immunoglobulin heavy chain switching, although it is also possible that the mixed population was derived by a prior switching event in a clone of cells. The authors performed Southern blotting experiments on genomic DNAs isolated from populations of I.29 cells containing variable proportions of IgM/sup +/ and IgA/sup +/ cells and on a number of cell lines derived from the lymphoma. The results were consistent with the deletion model for heavy chain switching, as the IgM/sup +/ cells contained rearranged ..mu.. genes and ..cap alpha..genes in the germ line configuration on both the expressed and nonexpressed heavy chain chromosomes, whereas the IgA/sup +/ cells had deleted both ..mu.. genes and contained one rearranged and one germ line ..cap alpha..gene. In addition, segments of DNA located within the intervening sequence 5' to the ..mu..gene, near the site of switch recombination, were deleted from both the expressed and the nonexpressed chromosomes. Although ..mu.. genes were deleted from both chromosomes in the IgA/sup +/ cells, the sites of DNA recombination differed on the two chromosomes. On the expressed chromosome, S..mu.. sequences were recombined with S..cap alpha.. sequences, whereas on the nonexpressed chromosome, S..mu.. sequences were recombined with S..gamma..3 sequences.

  12. The V gene repertoires of classical and atypical memory B cells in malaria-susceptible West African children1

    PubMed Central

    Zincker, Severin; Schindler, Christine E.; Skinner, Jeff; Rogosch, Tobias; Waisberg, Michael; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Meffre, Eric; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ongoba, Assata; Traor, Boubacar; Pierce, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is naturally acquired in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas of Africa. Abs play a key role in mediating this immunity, however, the acquisition of the components of Ab immunity, long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells (MBCs), is remarkably inefficient, requiring years of malaria exposure. Although long-lived classical MBCs (CD19+/CD20+/CD21+/CD27+/CD10-) are gradually acquired in response to natural infection, exposure to P. falciparum also results in a large expansion of what we have termed atypical MBCs (CD19+/CD20+/CD21-/CD27-/CD10-). At present, the function of atypical MBCs in malaria is not known nor are the factors that drive their differentiation. To gain insight into the relationship between classical and atypical IgG+MBCs we compared the Ab heavy and light chain variable (V) gene repertoires of children living in a malaria endemic region in Mali. We found that these repertoires were remarkably similar by a variety of criteria including V gene usage, rate of somatic hypermutation and CDR-H3 length and composition. The similarity in these repertoires suggests that classical MBCs and atypical MBCs differentiate in response to similar Ag-dependent selective pressures in malaria exposed children and that atypical MBCs do not express a unique V gene repertoire. PMID:25556245

  13. Interleukin-6 signals activating junB and TIS11 gene transcription in a B-cell hybridoma.

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, K; Wall, R

    1991-01-01

    The events in interleukin-6 (IL-6) signal transduction leading to primary response gene activation were analyzed in murine B-cell hybridoma and plasmacytoma cells which require IL-6 for growth. IL-6 stimulation of IL-6-deprived cells resulted in the rapid and transient tyrosine phosphorylation of a 160-kDa cellular protein (p160). This was followed by the highly selective induction of two primary response genes, junB/AP-1 transcription factor and TIS11. junB and TIS11 inductions were unaffected by cycloheximide, suggesting that posttranslational modifications accounted for their activation. Activation of junB and TIS11 transcription required rapid tyrosine kinase activity as well as a different protein kinase activity sensitive to the potent kinase inhibitor, H7, and activated following p160 tyrosine phosphorylation. This H7-sensitive kinase appears to be distinct from any well-characterized protein kinase-second messenger system. On the basis of these findings, we propose that IL-6-induced signal transduction proceeds through a novel protein kinase cascade which activates junB and TIS11 gene transcription. Images PMID:1705005

  14. A single VH gene is utilized predominantly in anti-BrMRBC hybridomas derived from purified Ly-1 B cells. Definition of the VH11 family.

    PubMed

    Hardy, R R; Carmack, C E; Shinton, S A; Riblet, R J; Hayakawa, K

    1989-05-15

    By establishing hybridomas from two distinct surface IgM+ splenic B cell populations, Ly-1 B cells and "conventional" (Ly-1-) B cells, we found that the Ly-1 B population includes a 30 to 70 times higher frequency (1 to 2%) of cells with specificity for bromelain treated autologous red blood cells (anti-BrMRBC) when compared with conventional B cells (0.03%). We cloned and sequenced the V genes encoding anti-BrMRBC antibody from two hybridomas made with Ly-1 B cells sorted from the spleen of SM/J mice. The VH sequence (for both) is identical with the previously reported sequence associated with this specificity and belongs to a new VH gene family. This gene family, defined here as VH11, has only two members and is the predominant VH rearranged in a collection of Ly-1 B derived anti-BrMRBC hybridomas, always in association with a single VL gene (a member of the V kappa 9 family). Furthermore, analysis of hybridomas made with Ly-1 B cells sorted from the peritoneum reveals a yet higher increased frequency of VH11-encoded anti-BrMRBC specificity (30%). This variation in frequency of anti-BrMRBC in the Ly-1 population depending on location, together with the repeated association of VH11 with a particular V kappa gene suggest that antigen driven selection is (at least in part) responsible for the biased V gene expression seen in this population. Furthermore, a mechanism that might contribute to biased expression, preferential rearrangement due to close proximity to J (as seen in pre-B lines), is excluded by localization of VH11 5' to several of the more J-proximal families (Q52, 7183). PMID:2497178

  15. Gene deregulation and spatial genome reorganization near breakpoints prior to formation of translocations in anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathas, Stephan; Kreher, Stephan; Meaburn, Karen J.; Jhrens, Korinna; Lamprecht, Bjrn; Assaf, Chalid; Sterry, Wolfram; Kadin, Marshall E.; Daibata, Masanori; Joos, Stefan; Hummel, Michael; Stein, Harald; Janz, Martin; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Schrock, Evelin; Misteli, Tom; Drken, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Although the identification and characterization of translocations have rapidly increased, little is known about the mechanisms of how translocations occur in vivo. We used anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with and without the characteristic t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation to study the mechanisms of formation of translocations and of ALCL transformation. We report deregulation of several genes located near the ALCL translocation breakpoint, regardless of whether the tumor contains the t(2;5). The affected genes include the oncogenic transcription factor Fra2 (located on 2p23), the HLH protein Id2 (2p25), and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase CSF1-receptor (5q33.1). Their up-regulation promotes cell survival and repression of T cell-specific gene expression programs that are characteristic for ALCL. The deregulated genes are in spatial proximity within the nuclear space of t(2;5)-negative ALCL cells, facilitating their translocation on induction of double-strand breaks. These data suggest that deregulation of breakpoint-proximal genes occurs before the formation of translocations, and that aberrant transcriptional activity of genomic regions is linked to their propensity to undergo chromosomal translocations. Also, our data demonstrate that deregulation of breakpoint-proximal genes has a key role in ALCL. PMID:19321746

  16. [Expression and significance of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG-3) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Lu-Qin; Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Yu-Lin

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG-3) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the relationship between PIG-3 and the pathogenesis of lymphoma. The expression of PIG-3 in 20 patients with DLBCL and 20 healthy adults (as a control group) was detected by Western blot and RT-PCR. The results showed that the expression of PIG-3 protein in patients with DLBCL was significantly lower than that in controls, but the expression of PIG-3 was higher after chemotherapy for 6 months than that before chemotherapy. RT-PCR detection demonstrated that the size of PIG-3 amplified product is 1285 bp, which is coincident with theoretic value. It is concluded that the down-regulation of PIG-3 expression may be closely related to pathogenesis of DLBCL, so the PIG-3 gene can considered as a important marker for judging therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of patients with DLBCL. PMID:23628040

  17. High-frequency deletional rearrangement of immunoglobulin kappa gene segments introduced into a pre-B-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Engler, P; Storb, U

    1987-01-01

    We describe an immunoglobulin gene recombination indicator in which a specific rearrangement via deletion results in the acquisition of a dominant phenotype. The indicator consists of the Escherichia coli xanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene, whose translation is prevented by the presence of an upstream initiation codon out of frame with respect to the gpt coding sequence. Flanking this barrier initiation codon are the heptamer-spacer-nonamer recognition sequences from a kappa chain variable region (V kappa) and from a kappa chain joining region (J kappa). A proper V-J joint results in the deletion of the translational barrier and allows expression of the selectable marker. When tested by transfection into fibroblasts, no rearrangements were detected and the presence of the barrier initiation codon was sufficient to completely abolish gpt expression in these cells. Similarly, no rearrangements were detected after transfer of the test gene into myeloma cells. However, when the construct was introduced into the pre-B-cell line 38B9, greater than 80% of the transfected cells showed evidence of a specific rearrangement. These rearrangements were associated with the translation of gpt, although no selection for its expression was needed. DNA sequence analysis of six different V-J joints revealed that the rearrangement proceeded with a high degree of accuracy. These results indicate that only very minimal DNA sequences (21 base pairs 5' of the V heptamer and 4 base pairs 3' of its nonamer; less than 45 base pairs 5' of the J nonamer and 3' of its heptamer) are required for efficient rearrangement and provide formal proof that kappa gene segments can rearrange by a deletional mechanism. Images PMID:3110776

  18. Changes in Histone Acetylation Are Associated with Differences in Accessibility of VH Gene Segments to V-DJ Recombination during B-Cell Ontogeny and Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristen; Angelin-Duclos, Cristina; Park, Sinae; Calame, Kathryn L.

    2003-01-01

    Although V(D)J recombination is thought to be regulated by changes in the accessibility of chromatin to the recombinase machinery, the mechanisms responsible for establishing open chromatin are poorly understood. We performed a detailed study of the acetylation status of histones associated with 11 VH gene segments, their flanking regions, and various intergenic elements during B-cell development and ontogeny, when V(D)J recombination is highly regulated. Histone H4 shows higher and more-regulated acetylation than does histone H3 in the VH locus. In adult pro-B cells, VH gene segments are acetylated prior to V(D)J rearrangement, with higher acetylation associated with JH-distal VH gene segments. While large regions of the VH locus have similar patterns of histone acetylation, acetylation is narrowly confined to the gene segments, their flanking promoters, and recombinase signal sequence elements. Thus, histone acetylation in the VH locus is both locally and globally regulated. Increased histone acetylation accompanies preferential recombination of JH-proximal VH gene segments in early B-cell ontogeny, and decreased histone acetylation accompanies inhibition of V-DJ recombination in a transgenic model of immunoglobulin heavy-chain allelic exclusion. Thus, changes in histone acetylation appear to be important for both promotion and inhibition of V-DJ rearrangement during B-cell ontogeny and development. PMID:12640127

  19. Gene profiling of canine B-cell lymphoma reveals germinal center and post-germinal center subtypes with different survival times, modeling human DLBCL

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Kristy L.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Chen, Hsiao-wei; Fedoriw, Yuri; Fan, Cheng; Nielsen, Dahlia M.; Small, George W.; Thomas, Rachael; Smith, Chris; Dave, Sandeep S.; Perou, Charles M.; Breen, Matthew; Borst, Luke B.; Suter, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype, and fewer than half of patients are cured with standard front-line therapy. To improve therapeutic options, better animal models that accurately mimic human DLBCL (hDLBCL) are needed. Canine DLBCL (cDLBCL), one of the most common cancers in veterinary oncology, is morphologically similar to hDLBCL and is treated using similar chemotherapeutic protocols. With genomic technologies, it is now possible to molecularly evaluate dogs as a potential large-animal model for hDLBCL. We evaluated canine B-cell lymphomas (cBCLs) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Canine B-cell lymphoma expression profiles were similar in many ways to hDLBCLs. For instance, a subset had increased expression of NF-?B pathway genes, mirroring human activated B-cell (ABC)-type DLBCL. Furthermore, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) ongoing mutation status, which is correlated with ABC/germinal center B-cell (GCB) cell of origin in hDLBCL, separated cBCL into two groups with statistically different progression-free and overall survival times. In contrast with hDLBCL, cBCL rarely expressed BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, these studies identify molecular similarities to hDLBCL that introduce pet dogs as a representative model of hDLBCL for future studies, including therapeutic clinical trials. PMID:23783577

  20. Shutoff of BZLF1 gene expression is necessary for immortalization of primary B cells by Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xianming; McCarthy, Patrick J; Wang, Zhenxun; Gorlen, Daniel A; Mertz, Janet E

    2012-08-01

    The BZLF1 gene controls the switch between latent and lytic infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We previously reported that both the ZV and ZIIR elements within the BZLF1 promoter, Zp, are potent transcription silencers within the context of an intact EBV genome. We report here identification of another sequence element, ZV', which synergized with ZV in repressing Zp via binding ZEB1 or ZEB2. We then determined the phenotype of a variant of EBV strain B95.8 in which the ZV, ZV', and ZIIR elements were concurrently mutated. HEK293 cell lines infected with this triple mutant (tmt) virus spontaneously synthesized 6- to 10-fold more viral BZLF1, BRLF1, BMRF1, and BLLF1 RNAs, 3- to 6-fold more viral Zta, Rta, and EAD proteins, 3- to 5-fold more viral DNA, and 7- to 9-fold more infectious virus than did 293 cell lines latently infected with either the ZV ZV' double mutant (dmt) or ZIIR mutant (mt) virus. While ZV ZV' ZIIR tmt EBV efficiently infected human primary blood B cells in vitro, it was highly defective in immortalizing them. Instead of the nearly complete silencing of BZLF1 gene expression that occurs within 4 days after primary infection with wild-type EBV, the ZV ZV' ZIIR tmt-infected cells continued to synthesize BZLF1 RNA, with 90% of them dying within 9 days postinfection. BL41 cells infected with this "superlytic" virus also exhibited increased synthesis of BZLF1 and BMRF1 RNAs. Thus, we conclude that the ZV, ZV', and ZIIR silencing elements act synergistically to repress transcription from Zp, thereby tightly controlling BZLF1 gene expression, which is crucial for establishing and maintaining EBV latency. PMID:22623769

  1. X-linked intellectual disability related genes disrupted by balanced X-autosome translocations.

    PubMed

    Moyss-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Di Battista, Adriana; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Bragagnolo, Silvia; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Detailed molecular characterization of chromosomal rearrangements involving X-chromosome has been a key strategy in identifying X-linked intellectual disability-causing genes. We fine-mapped the breakpoints in four women with balanced X-autosome translocations and variable phenotypes, in order to investigate the corresponding genetic contribution to intellectual disability. We addressed the impact of the gene interruptions in transcription and discussed the consequences of their functional impairment in neurodevelopment. Three patients presented with cognitive impairment, reinforcing the association between the disrupted genes (TSPAN7-MRX58, KIAA2022-MRX98, and IL1RAPL1-MRX21/34) and intellectual disability. While gene expression analysis showed absence of TSPAN7 and KIAA2022 expression in the patients, the unexpected expression of IL1RAPL1 suggested a fusion transcript ZNF611-IL1RAPL1 under the control of the ZNF611 promoter, gene disrupted at the autosomal breakpoint. The X-chromosomal breakpoint definition in the fourth patient, a woman with normal intellectual abilities, revealed disruption of the ZDHHC15 gene (MRX91). The expression assays did not detect ZDHHC15 gene expression in the patient, thus questioning its involvement in intellectual disability. Revealing the disruption of an X-linked intellectual disability-related gene in patients with balanced X-autosome translocation is a useful tool for a better characterization of critical genes in neurodevelopment. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26290131

  2. Ectopic T Cell Receptor-? Locus Control Region Activity in B Cells Is Suppressed by Direct Linkage to Two Flanking Genes at Once

    PubMed Central

    Andino, Blanca E.; Harrow, Faith; Erhard, Karl F.; Kovalovsky, Damian; Sant'Angelo, Derek B.; Ortiz, Benjamin D.

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the activity of the TCR? gene are required for the production of the circulating T cell repertoire. Elements of the mouse TCR? locus control region (LCR) play a role in these processes. We previously reported that TCR? LCR DNA supports a gene expression pattern that mimics proper thymus-stage, TCR? gene-like developmental regulation. It also produces transcription of linked reporter genes in peripheral T cells. However, TCR? LCR-driven transgenes display ectopic transcription in B cells in multiple reporter gene systems. The reasons for this important deviation from the normal TCR? gene regulation pattern are unclear. In its natural locus, two genes flank the TCR? LCR, TCR? (upstream) and Dad1 (downstream). We investigated the significance of this gene arrangement to TCR? LCR activity by examining transgenic mice bearing a construct where the LCR was flanked by two separate reporter genes. Surprisingly, the presence of a second, distinct, reporter gene downstream of the LCR virtually eliminated the ectopic B cell expression of the upstream reporter observed in earlier studies. Downstream reporter gene activity was unaffected by the presence of a second gene upstream of the LCR. Our findings indicate that a gene arrangement in which the TCR? LCR is flanked by two distinct transcription units helps to restrict its activity, selectively, on its 5?-flanking gene, the natural TCR? gene position with respect to the LCR. Consistent with these findings, a TCR?/Dad1 locus bacterial artificial chromosome dual-reporter construct did not display the ectopic upstream (TCR?) reporter expression in B cells previously reported for single TCR? transgenes. PMID:21124935

  3. BCL2 Antibodies Targeted At Different Epitopes Detect Varying Levels of Protein Expression and Correlate with Frequent Gene Amplification in Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Samantha L.; Redd, Lucas; Muranyi, Andrea; Henricksen, Leigh A.; Stanislaw, Stacey; Smith, Lynette M.; Perry, Anamarija M.; Fu, Kai; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Campo, Elas; Delabie, Jan; Braziel, Rita M.; Cook, James R.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Staudt, Louis M.; Chan, Wing Chung; Steidl, Christian; Grogan, Thomas M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Patients with aggressive, BCL2 protein-positive (+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) often experience rapid disease progression that is refractory to standard therapy. However, there is potential for false-negative staining of BCL2 using the standard monoclonal mouse 124 antibody that hinders the identification of these high-risk DLBCL patients. Herein, we compare two alternative rabbit monoclonal antibodies (E17 and SP66) to the 124 clone in staining for BCL2 in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues. Overall, in two independent DLBCL cohorts E17 and SP66 detected BCL2 expression more frequently than 124. In the context of MYC expression, cases identified as BCL2 (+) with SP66 demonstrated the strongest correlation with worse OS. The 124 clone failed to detect BCL2 expression in the majority of translocation (+), amplification (+), and activated B-cell DLBCL cases in which high levels of BCL2 protein are expected. Using dual in-situ hybridization (Dual ISH) as a new tool to detect BCL2 translocation and amplification, we observed similar results as previously reported for fluorescence ISH for translocation but a higher amplification frequency, indicating that BCL2 amplification may be under-reported in DLBCL. Among the discrepant cases, phosphorylation of BCL2 at T69 and/or S70 was more common than in the concordant cases and may contribute to the 124 false-negatives, in addition to previously associated mutations within the epitope region. The accurate detection of BCL2 expression is important in the prognosis and treatment of DLBCL particularly with new anti-BCL2 therapies. PMID:25090918

  4. Inducible gene deletion reveals different roles for B-Raf and Raf-1 in B-cell antigen receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, Tilman; Shaw, Peter E.; Reth, Michael; Misawa, Yukiko

    2002-01-01

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) leads to activation of the RafMEKERK pathway and Raf kinases play an important role in the modulation of ERK activity. B lymphocytes express two Raf isoforms, Raf-1 and B-Raf. Using an inducible deletion system in DT40 cells, the contribution of Raf-1 and B-Raf to BCR signalling was dissected. Loss of Raf-1 has no effect on BCR-mediated ERK activation, whereas B-Raf-deficient DT40 cells display a reduced basal ERK activity as well as a shortened BCR-mediated ERK activation. The Raf-1/B-Raf double deficient DT40 cells show an almost complete block both in ERK activation and in the induction of the immediate early gene products c-Fos and Egr-1. In contrast, BCR-mediated activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) relies predominantly on B-Raf. Furthermore, complementation of Raf-1/B-Raf double deficient cells with various Raf mutants demonstrates a requirement for Ras-GTP binding in BCR-mediated activation of both Raf isoforms and also reveals the important role of the S259 residue for the regulation of Raf-1. Our study shows that BCR-mediated ERK activation involves a cooperation of both B-Raf and Raf-1, which are activated specifically in a temporally distinct manner. PMID:12411479

  5. Expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 gene induced by CpG-DNA in human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Su Ho; Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jeong-A; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Yong-Sun; Lee, Younghee; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; Center for Medical Science Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702

    2009-11-20

    Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contribution of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.

  6. Colorimetric in situ hybridization identifies MYC gene signal clusters correlating with increased copy number, mRNA, and protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Carlo; Kendrick, Samantha; Johnson, Nathalie; Gascoyne, Randy; Chan, Wing C; Weisenburger, Dennis; Braziel, Rita; Cook, James R; Tubbs, Raymond; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine; Zhang, Wenjun; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Nitta, Hiro; Grogan, Tom; Rimsza, Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Abnormalities of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8 are characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma and other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We recently described a colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) method for detecting extra copies of the MYC gene in DLBCL and the frequent occurrence of excess copies of discrete MYC signals in the context of diploidy or polyploidy of chromosome 8, which correlated with increased mRNA signals. We further observed enlarged MYC signals, which were counted as a single gene copy but, by their dimension and unusual shape, likely consisted of "clusters" of MYC genes. In this study, we sought to further characterize these clusters of MYC signals by determining whether the presence of these correlated with other genetic features, mRNA levels, protein, and overall survival. We found that MYC clusters correlated with an abnormal MYC locus and with increased mRNA. MYC mRNA correlated with protein levels, and both increased mRNA and protein correlated with poorer overall survival. MYC clusters were seen in both the germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes of DLBCL. Clusters of MYC signals may be an underappreciated, but clinically important, feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance. PMID:23355209

  7. Pretransplant Mobilization with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Improves B-Cell Reconstitution by Lentiviral Vector Gene Therapy in SCID-X1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Marshall W.; Riegman, Adriaan R.A.; Yadak, Rana; van Helsdingen, Yvette; de Boer, Helen; van Til, Niek P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy is a demonstrated effective treatment for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), but B-cell reconstitution and function has been deficient in many of the gene therapy treated patients. Cytoreductive preconditioning is known to improve HSC engraftment, but in general it is not considered for SCID-X1 since the poor health of most of these patients at diagnosis and the risk of toxicity preclude the conditioning used in standard bone marrow stem cell transplantation. We hypothesized that mobilization of HSC by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) should create temporary space in bone marrow niches to improve engraftment and thereby B-cell reconstitution. In the present pilot study supplementing our earlier preclinical evaluation (Huston et al., 2011), Il2rg?/? mice pretreated with G-CSF were transplanted with wild-type lineage negative (Lin?) cells or Il2rg?/? Lin? cells transduced with therapeutic IL2RG lentiviral vectors. Mice were monitored for reconstitution of lymphocyte populations, level of donor cell chimerism, and antibody responses as compared to 2?Gy total body irradiation (TBI), previously found effective in promoting B-cell reconstitution. The results demonstrate that G-CSF promotes B-cell reconstitution similar to low-dose TBI and provides proof of principle for an alternative approach to improve efficacy of gene therapy in SCID patients without adverse effects associated with cytoreductive conditioning. PMID:25222508

  8. MOZ regulates B-cell progenitors and, consequently, Moz haploinsufficiency dramatically retards MYC-induced lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Bilal N; Lee, Stanley C W; El-Saafin, Farrah; Vanyai, Hannah K; Hu, Yifang; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Grabow, Stephanie; Strasser, Andreas; Nutt, Stephen L; Alexander, Warren S; Smyth, Gordon K; Voss, Anne K; Thomas, Tim

    2015-03-19

    The histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3, KAT6A) is the target of recurrent chromosomal translocations fusing the MOZ gene to CBP, p300, NCOA3, or TIF2 in particularly aggressive cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we report the role of wild-type MOZ in regulating B-cell progenitor proliferation and hematopoietic malignancy. In the E?-Myc model of aggressive pre-B/B-cell lymphoma, the loss of just one allele of Moz increased the median survival of mice by 3.9-fold. MOZ was required to maintain the proliferative capacity of B-cell progenitors, even in the presence of c-MYC overexpression, by directly maintaining the transcriptional activity of genes required for normal B-cell development. Hence, B-cell progenitor numbers were significantly reduced in Moz haploinsufficient animals. Interestingly, we find a significant overlap in genes regulated by MOZ, mixed lineage leukemia 1, and mixed lineage leukemia 1 cofactor menin. This includes Meis1, a TALE class homeobox transcription factor required for B-cell development, characteristically upregulated as a result of MLL1 translocations in leukemia. We demonstrate that MOZ localizes to the Meis1 locus in pre-B-cells and maintains Meis1 expression. Our results suggest that even partial inhibition of MOZ may reduce the proliferative capacity of MEIS1, and HOX-driven lymphoma and leukemia cells. PMID:25605372

  9. MOZ regulates B-cell progenitors and, consequently, Moz haploinsufficiency dramatically retards MYC-induced lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Bilal N.; Lee, Stanley C. W.; El-Saafin, Farrah; Vanyai, Hannah K.; Hu, Yifang; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Grabow, Stephanie; Strasser, Andreas; Nutt, Stephen L.; Alexander, Warren S.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Voss, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3, KAT6A) is the target of recurrent chromosomal translocations fusing the MOZ gene to CBP, p300, NCOA3, or TIF2 in particularly aggressive cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we report the role of wild-type MOZ in regulating B-cell progenitor proliferation and hematopoietic malignancy. In the Eμ-Myc model of aggressive pre-B/B-cell lymphoma, the loss of just one allele of Moz increased the median survival of mice by 3.9-fold. MOZ was required to maintain the proliferative capacity of B-cell progenitors, even in the presence of c-MYC overexpression, by directly maintaining the transcriptional activity of genes required for normal B-cell development. Hence, B-cell progenitor numbers were significantly reduced in Moz haploinsufficient animals. Interestingly, we find a significant overlap in genes regulated by MOZ, mixed lineage leukemia 1, and mixed lineage leukemia 1 cofactor menin. This includes Meis1, a TALE class homeobox transcription factor required for B-cell development, characteristically upregulated as a result of MLL1 translocations in leukemia. We demonstrate that MOZ localizes to the Meis1 locus in pre–B-cells and maintains Meis1 expression. Our results suggest that even partial inhibition of MOZ may reduce the proliferative capacity of MEIS1, and HOX-driven lymphoma and leukemia cells. PMID:25605372

  10. B cell variable genes have evolved their codon usage to focus the targeted patterns of somatic mutation on the complementarity determining regions.

    PubMed

    Saini, Jasmine; Hershberg, Uri

    2015-05-01

    The exceptional ability of B cells to diversify through somatic mutation and improve affinity of the repertoire toward the antigens is the cornerstone of adaptive immunity. Somatic mutation is not evenly distributed and exhibits certain micro-sequence specificities. We show here that the combination of somatic mutation targeting and the codon usage in human B cell receptor (BCR) Variable (V) genes create expected patterns of mutation and post mutation changes that are focused on their complementarity determining regions (CDR). T cell V genes are also skewed in targeting mutations but to a lesser extent and are lacking the codon usage bias observed in BCRs. This suggests that the observed skew in T cell receptors is due to their amino acid usage, which is similar to that of BCRs. The mutation targeting and the codon bias allow B cell CDRs to diversify by specifically accumulating nonconservative changes. We counted the distribution of mutations to CDR in 4 different human datasets. In all four cases we found that the number of actual mutations in the CDR correlated significantly with the V gene mutation biases to the CDR predicted by our models. Finally, it appears that the mutation bias in V genes indeed relates to their long-term survival in actual human repertoires. We observed that resting repertoires of B cells overexpressed V genes that were especially biased toward focused mutation and change in the CDR. This bias in V gene usage was somewhat relaxed at the height of the immune response to a vaccine, presumably because of the need for a wider diversity in a primary response. However, older patients did not retain this flexibility and were biased toward using only highly skewed V genes at all stages of their response. PMID:25660968

  11. cDNA sequence of a human skeletal muscle ADP/ATP translocator: lack of a leader peptide, divergence from a fibroblast translocator cDNA, and coevolution with mitochondrial DNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Neckelmann, N.; Li, K.; Wade, R.P.; Shuster, R.; Wallace, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    The authors have characterized a 1400-nucleotide cDNA for the human skeletal muscle ADP/ATP translocator. The deduced amino acid sequence is 94% homologous to the beef heart ADP/ATP translocator protein and contains only a single additional amino-terminal methionine. This implies that the human translocator lacks an amino-terminal targeting peptide, a conclusion substantiated by measuring the molecular weight of the protein synthesized in vitro. A 1400-nucleotide transcript encoding the skeletal muscle translocator was detected on blots of total RNA from human heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and HeLa cells by hybridization with oligonucleotide probes homologous to the coding region and 3' noncoding region of the cDNA. However, the level of this mRNA varied substantially among tissues. Comparison of our skeletal muscle translocator sequence with that of a recently published human fibroblast translocator cognate revealed that the two proteins are 88% identical and diverged about 275 million years ago. Hence, tissues vary both in the level of expression of individual translocator genes and in differential expression of cognate translocator genes. Comparison of the base substitution rates of the ADP/ATP translocator and the oxidative phosphorylation genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA revealed that the mitochondrial DNA genes fix 10 times more synonymous substitutions and 12 times more replacement substitutions; yet, these nuclear and cytoplasmic respiration genes experience comparable evolutionary constraints. This suggest that the mitochondrial DNA genes are highly prone to deleterious mutations.

  12. A Gene Selection Method for Survival Prediction in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas Patients using 1D Discrete Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    FARHADIAN, Maryam; MAHJUB, Hossein; MOGHIMBEIGI, Abbas; POOROLAJAL, Jalal; MANSOORIZADEH, Muharram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background An important aspect of microarray studies includes the prediction of patient survival based on their gene expression profile. To deal with the high dimensionality of this data, use of a dimension reduction procedure along with the survival prediction model is necessary. This study aimed to present a new method based on wavelet transform for survival relevant gene selection. Methods The data included 2042 gene expression measurements from 40 patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas (DLBCL). The pre-processing gene expression data is decomposed using third level of the 1D discrete wavelet transform. The detail coefficients at levels 1 and 2 are filtered out and expression data reconstructed using the approximation and detailed coefficients at the third level. All the genes are then scored based on the t score. Then genes with the highest scores are selected. By using forward selection method in Cox regression model, significant genes were identified. Results The results showed wavelet-based gene selection method presents acceptable survival prediction. Using this method, six significant genes were selected. It was indicated the expression of GENE3359X and GENE3968X decreased the survival time, whereas the expression of GENE967X, GENE3980X, GENE3405X and GENE1813X increased the survival time. Conclusion Wavelet-based gene selection method is a potentially useful tool for the gene selection from microarray data in the context of survival analysis. PMID:25927038

  13. Induction of Interferon-Stimulated Genes on the IL-4 Response Axis by Epstein-Barr Virus Infected Human B Cells; Relevance to Cellular Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wenbin; Vockerodt, Martina; Murray, Paul G.; Woodman, Ciaran B.; Rowe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic virus that is associated with the pathogenesis of several human lymphoid malignancies, including Hodgkin's lymphoma. Infection of normal resting B cells with EBV results in activation to lymphoblasts that are phenotypically similar to those generated by physiological stimulation with CD40L plus IL-4. One important difference is that infection leads to the establishment of permanently growing lymphoblastoid cell lines, whereas CD40L/IL-4 blasts have finite proliferation lifespans. To identify early events which might later determine why EBV infected blasts go on to establish transformed cell lines, we performed global transcriptome analyses on resting B cells and on EBV and CD40L/IL-4 blasts after 7 days culture. As anticipated there was considerable overlap in the transcriptomes of the two types of lymphoblasts when compared to the original resting B cells, reflecting common changes associated with lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Of interest to us was a subset of 255 genes that were differentially expressed between EBV and CD40L/IL-4 blasts. Genes which were more highly expressed in EBV blasts were substantially and significantly enriched for a set of interferon-stimulated genes which on further in silico analyses were found to be repressed by IL-4 in other cell contexts and to be up-regulated in micro-dissected malignant cells from Hodgkin's lymphoma biopsies when compared to their normal germinal center cell counterparts. We hypothesized that EBV and IL-4 were targeting and discordantly regulating a common set of genes. This was supported experimentally in our B cell model where IL-4 stimulation partially reversed transcriptional changes which follow EBV infection and it impaired the efficiency of EBV-induced B cell transformation. Taken together, these data suggest that the discordant regulation of interferon and IL-4 pathway genes by EBV that occurs early following infection of B cells has relevance to the development or maintenance of an EBV-associated malignancy. PMID:23724103

  14. ZPLD1 gene is disrupted in a patient with balanced translocation that exhibits cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, F; Esposito, T; Penco, S; Maglione, V; Liquori, C L; Patrosso, M C; Zuffardi, O; Ciccodicola, A; Marchuk, D A; Squitieri, F

    2008-08-13

    The past few years have seen rapid advances in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) with the identification of the CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3 genes. Recently, we have recruited a patient with an X/3 balanced translocation that exhibits CCM. By fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, sequence analysis tools and database mining procedures, we refined the critical region to an interval of 200-kb and identified the interrupted ZPLD1 gene. We detected that the mRNA expression level of ZPLD1 gene is consistently decreased 2.5-fold versus control (P=0.0006) with allelic loss of gene expression suggesting that this protein may be part of the complex signaling pathway implicated in CCM formation. PMID:18632209

  15. A microarray platform-independent classification tool for cell of origin class allows comparative analysis of gene expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Care, Matthew A; Barrans, Sharon; Worrillow, Lisa; Jack, Andrew; Westhead, David R; Tooze, Reuben M

    2013-01-01

    Cell of origin classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) identifies subsets with biological and clinical significance. Despite the established nature of the classification existing studies display variability in classifier implementation, and a comparative analysis across multiple data sets is lacking. Here we describe the validation of a cell of origin classifier for DLBCL, based on balanced voting between 4 machine-learning tools: the DLBCL automatic classifier (DAC). This shows superior survival separation for assigned Activated B-cell (ABC) and Germinal Center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL classes relative to a range of other classifiers. DAC is effective on data derived from multiple microarray platforms and formalin fixed paraffin embedded samples and is parsimonious, using 20 classifier genes. We use DAC to perform a comparative analysis of gene expression in 10 data sets (2030 cases). We generate ranked meta-profiles of genes showing consistent class-association using ?6 data sets as a cut-off: ABC (414 genes) and GCB (415 genes). The transcription factor ZBTB32 emerges as the most consistent and differentially expressed gene in ABC-DLBCL while other transcription factors such as ARID3A, BATF, and TCF4 are also amongst the 24 genes associated with this class in all datasets. Analysis of enrichment of 12323 gene signatures against meta-profiles and all data sets individually confirms consistent associations with signatures of molecular pathways, chromosomal cytobands, and transcription factor binding sites. We provide DAC as an open access Windows application, and the accompanying meta-analyses as a resource. PMID:23424639

  16. A Diverse Repertoire of Human Immunoglobulin Variable Genes in a Chicken B Cell Line is Generated by Both Gene Conversion and Somatic Hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Philip A; Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Glanville, Jacob; Harriman, William

    2015-01-01

    Chicken immune responses to human proteins are often more robust than rodent responses because of the phylogenetic relationship between the different species. For discovery of a diverse panel of unique therapeutic antibody candidates, chickens therefore represent an attractive host for human-derived targets. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology, specifically new methods for the molecular cloning of antibody genes directly from primary B cells, has ushered in a new era of generating monoclonal antibodies from non-traditional host animals that were previously inaccessible through hybridoma technology. However, such monoclonals still require post-discovery humanization in order to be developed as therapeutics. To obviate the need for humanization, a modified strain of chickens could be engineered to express a human-sequence immunoglobulin variable region repertoire. Here, human variable genes introduced into the chicken immunoglobulin loci through gene targeting were evaluated for their ability to be recognized and diversified by the native chicken recombination machinery that is present in the B-lineage cell line DT40. After expansion in culture the DT40 population accumulated genetic mutants that were detected via deep sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the human targeted constructs are performing as expected in the cell culture system, and provide a measure of confidence that they will be functional in transgenic animals. PMID:25852694

  17. Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of 2 genes reflecting tumor and microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Ash A; Gentles, Andrew J; Alencar, Alvaro J; Liu, Chih Long; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Houot, Roch; Goldstein, Matthew J; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana H; Gascoyne, Randy D; Briones, Javier; Tibshirani, Robert J; Myklebust, June H; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Lossos, Izidore S; Levy, Ronald

    2011-08-01

    Several gene-expression signatures predict survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the lack of practical methods for genome-scale analysis has limited translation to clinical practice. We built and validated a simple model using one gene expressed by tumor cells and another expressed by host immune cells, assessing added prognostic value to the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI). LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) was validated as an independent predictor of survival and the "germinal center B cell-like" subtype. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) from the DLBCL microenvironment was the best gene in bivariate combination with LMO2. Study of TNFRSF9 tissue expression in 95 patients with DLBCL showed expression limited to infiltrating T cells. A model integrating these 2 genes was independent of "cell-of-origin" classification, "stromal signatures," IPI, and added to the predictive power of the IPI. A composite score integrating these genes with IPI performed well in 3 independent cohorts of 545 DLBCL patients, as well as in a simple assay of routine formalin-fixed specimens from a new validation cohort of 147 patients with DLBCL. We conclude that the measurement of a single gene expressed by tumor cells (LMO2) and a single gene expressed by the immune microenvironment (TNFRSF9) powerfully predicts overall survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:21670469

  18. Rgs13 constrains early B cell responses and limits germinal center sizes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Il-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Park, Chung; Harrison, Kathleen A; Kehrl, John H

    2013-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP(+) cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells. PMID:23533672

  19. Molecular Classification of MYC-Driven B-Cell Lymphomas by Targeted Gene Expression Profiling of Fixed Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Christopher D.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Chapuy, Bjoern; Kovach, Alexandra E.; Kluk, Michael J.; Sun, Heather H.; Crossland, Rachel E.; Bacon, Chris M.; Rand, Vikki; Cin, Paola Dal; Le, Long P.; Neuberg, Donna; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Monti, Stefano; Rodig, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are aggressive tumors of mature B cells that are distinguished by a combination of histomorphological, phenotypic, and genetic features. A subset of B-cell lymphomas, however, has one or more characteristics that overlap BL and DLBCL, and are categorized as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable, with features intermediate between BL and DLBCL (BCL-U). Molecular analyses support the concept that there is a biological continuum between BL and DLBCL that includes variable activity of MYC, an oncoprotein once thought to be only associated with BL, but now recognized as a major predictor of survival among patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We tested whether a targeted expression profiling panel could be used to categorize tumors as BL and DLBCL, resolve the molecular heterogeneity of BCL-U, and capture MYC activity using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. A diagnostic molecular classifier accurately predicted pathological diagnoses of BL and DLBCL, and provided more objective subclassification for a subset of BCL-U and genetic double-hit lymphomas as molecular BL or DLBCL. A molecular classifier of MYC activity correlated with MYC IHC and stratified patients with primary DLBCL treated with R-CHOP into high- and low-risk groups. These results establish a framework for classifying and stratifying MYC-driven, aggressive, B-cell lymphomas on the basis of quantitative molecular profiling that is applicable to fixed biopsy specimens. PMID:25468432

  20. Molecular classification of MYC-driven B-cell lymphomas by targeted gene expression profiling of fixed biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Carey, Christopher D; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Chapuy, Bjoern; Kovach, Alexandra E; Kluk, Michael J; Sun, Heather H; Crossland, Rachel E; Bacon, Chris M; Rand, Vikki; Dal Cin, Paola; Le, Long P; Neuberg, Donna; Sohani, Aliyah R; Shipp, Margaret A; Monti, Stefano; Rodig, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are aggressive tumors of mature B cells that are distinguished by a combination of histomorphological, phenotypic, and genetic features. A subset of B-cell lymphomas, however, has one or more characteristics that overlap BL and DLBCL, and are categorized as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable, with features intermediate between BL and DLBCL (BCL-U). Molecular analyses support the concept that there is a biological continuum between BL and DLBCL that includes variable activity of MYC, an oncoprotein once thought to be only associated with BL, but now recognized as a major predictor of survival among patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We tested whether a targeted expression profiling panel could be used to categorize tumors as BL and DLBCL, resolve the molecular heterogeneity of BCL-U, and capture MYC activity using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. A diagnostic molecular classifier accurately predicted pathological diagnoses of BL and DLBCL, and provided more objective subclassification for a subset of BCL-U and genetic double-hit lymphomas as molecular BL or DLBCL. A molecular classifier of MYC activity correlated with MYC IHC and stratified patients with primary DLBCL treated with R-CHOP into high- and low-risk groups. These results establish a framework for classifying and stratifying MYC-driven, aggressive, B-cell lymphomas on the basis of quantitative molecular profiling that is applicable to fixed biopsy specimens. PMID:25468432

  1. A Novel Translocation Breakpoint within the BPTF Gene Is Associated with a Pre-Malignant Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, Doron; Milyavsky, Michael; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Mardoukh, Corine; Solomon, Hilla; Kalo, Eyal; Madar, Shalom; Brosh, Ran; Perelman, Marina; Navon, Roy; Goldfinger, Naomi; Barshack, Iris; Yakhini, Zohar; Rotter, Varda

    2010-01-01

    Partial gain of chromosome arm 17q is an abundant aberrancy in various cancer types such as lung and prostate cancer with a prominent occurrence and prognostic significance in neuroblastoma one of the most common embryonic tumors. The specific genetic element/s in 17q responsible for the cancer-promoting effect of these aberrancies is yet to be defined although many genes located in 17q have been proposed to play a role in malignancy. We report here the characterization of a naturally-occurring, non-reciprocal translocation der(X)t(X;17) in human lung embryonal-derived cells following continuous culturing. This aberrancy was strongly correlated with an increased proliferative capacity and with an acquired ability to form colonies in vitro. The breakpoint region was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the 17q24.3 locus. Further characterization by a custom-made comparative genome hybridization array (CGH) localized the breakpoint within the Bromodomain PHD finger Transcription Factor gene (BPTF), a gene involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Interestingly, this translocation led to elevation in the mRNA levels of the endogenous BPTF. Knock-down of BPTF restricted proliferation suggesting a role for BPTF in promoting cellular growth. Furthermore, the BPTF chromosomal region was found to be amplified in various human tumors, especially in neuroblastomas and lung cancers in which 55% and 27% of the samples showed gain of 17q24.3, respectively. Additionally, 42% percent of the cancer cell lines comprising the NCI-60 had an abnormal BPTF locus copy number. We suggest that deregulation of BPTF resulting from the translocation may confer the cells with the observed cancer-promoting phenotype and that our cellular model can serve to establish causality between 17q aberrations and carcinogenesis. PMID:20300178

  2. Familial cryptic translocation resulting in Angelman syndrome: Implications for imprinting or location of the Angelman gene?

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.W.; Wiley, J.E.; Smith, A.J.W.; Kushnick, T.

    1996-04-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is associated with a loss of maternal genetic information, which typically occurs as a result of a deletion at 15q11-q13 or paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. We report a patient with AS as a result of an unbalanced cryptic translocation whose breakpoint, at 15q11.2, falls within this region. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome, but without a detectable cytogenetic deletion, by using high-resolution G-banding. FISH detected a deletion of D15S11 (IR4-3R), with an intact GABRB3 locus. Subsequent studies of the proband`s mother and sister detected a cryptic reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 and 15 with the breakpoint being between SNRPN and D15S10. The proband was found to have inherited an unbalanced form, being monosomic from 15pter through SNRPN and trisomic for 14pter to 14q11.2. DNA methylation studies showed that the proband had a paternal-only DNA methylation pattern at SNRPN, D15S63 (PW71), and ZNF127. The mother and unaffected sister, both having the balanced translocation, demonstrated normal DNA methylation patterns at all three loci. These data suggest that the gene for AS most likely lies proximal to D15S10, in contrast to the previously published position, although a less likely possibility is that the maternally inherited imprinting center acts in trans in the unaffected balanced translocation carrier sister. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Plasmacytoid differentiation of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells in vivo is associated with reduced expression of viral latent genes.

    PubMed Central

    Rochford, R; Hobbs, M V; Garnier, J L; Cooper, N R; Cannon, M J

    1993-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders that arise in immunosuppressed individuals are considered to resemble EBV-transformed in vitro lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) with a mature activated B-cell phenotype. In this study of human lymphoproliferative disorders in the severe combined immunodeficiency mouse model, however, we demonstrate that EBV-infected tumor cells are not LCL-like but are predominantly plasmacytoid and that this phenotype correlates with reduced expression of EBV latent genes. B-cell tumors developed within 3-6 weeks after injection of LCLs into severe combined immunodeficiency mice. The tumors and the injected LCLs were analyzed by flow cytofluorometry for B-cell differentiation and activation markers and by ribonuclease protection assay for cellular and viral gene expression. No differences in the expression of CD19 and CD21 were observed. However, a decrease in CD23, CD11a (lymphocyte function-associated antigen LFA-1), and CD58 (LFA-3) expression and an increase in CD38 (a plasma-cell-associated antigen), CD54 (intracellular adhesion molecule ICAM-1), and HLA class I in the tumor cells relative to the LCLs was observed. Two-color flow cytofluorometric analysis showed that the predominant population (> 80%) in LCLs was CD23hi/CD38lo and that the major population in LCL-derived tumors was CD23lo/CD38hi. Cell cycle analysis showed that, in contrast to actively cycling LCLs, the majority of tumor cells had exited the cell cycle and were restricted to G0/G1 phase. Finally, and most important, a reduction in mRNA for the EBV latent genes EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) and latent membrane protein (LMP1) was observed in the tumors. Images PMID:8380497

  4. Determining cell-of-origin subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Scott, David W; Wright, George W; Williams, P Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian; Walsh, William; Jaffe, Elaine S; Rosenwald, Andreas; Campo, Elias; Chan, Wing C; Connors, Joseph M; Smeland, Erlend B; Mottok, Anja; Braziel, Rita M; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Tubbs, Raymond R; Cook, James R; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Greiner, Timothy C; Glinsmann-Gibson, Betty J; Fu, Kai; Staudt, Louis M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Rimsza, Lisa M

    2014-02-20

    The assignment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into cell-of-origin (COO) groups is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of novel therapies that have selective biological activity in germinal center B cell-like or activated B cell-like groups. The Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project's Lymph2Cx assay is a parsimonious digital gene expression (NanoString)-based test for COO assignment in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). The 20-gene assay was trained using 51 FFPET biopsies; the locked assay was then validated using an independent cohort of 68 FFPET biopsies. Comparisons were made with COO assignment using the original COO model on matched frozen tissue. In the validation cohort, the assay was accurate, with only 1 case with definitive COO being incorrectly assigned, and robust, with >95% concordance of COO assignment between 2 independent laboratories. These qualities, along with the rapid turnaround time, make Lymph2Cx attractive for implementation in clinical trials and, ultimately, patient management. PMID:24398326

  5. [Linkage disequilibrium and haplotypes of rs1042522, rs1625895 and rs17878362 gene TP53 markers in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Voropaeva, E N; Voevoda, M I; Pospelova, T I; Maksimov, V N

    2014-01-01

    Association of rs1042522, rs17878362 and rs1625895 markers with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk is not well studied. Large number of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma entities, as well as a small effect of each of the polymorphisms on the lymphomas risk, leads to the analyses of these markers in each of histological subtypes of lymphoma and to study the polymorphisms in the haplotype groups. The goal of this work was to analyze the frequency, haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium of rs1042522, rs1625895 and rs17878362 in the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in control group. The differences in the structure of LD between rs17878362, rs1042522 and rs1625895 TP53 gene in the population of the Siberian region were shown. Haplotype approach wasmore informative in the analyses of association of the gene TP53 polymorphisms and the diffuse large B-cell lymphomas risk in case-control study than the study of each polymorphism. The association of haplotype wArgG with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma risk, and the protective effect of haplotypes wProG or dupProG were identified. The difference in the effects of the haplotype TP53 was noted depending on the homozygous or heterozygous diplotype. PMID:25842861

  6. Comparative Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Common Molecular Signatures of NF-?B Activation in Canine and Human Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL)

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, Ross D.; Miele, Gino; Sellar, Grant; Tan, Karen A. L.; Goodlad, John R.; Milne, Elspeth; Vail, David M.; Kurzman, Ilene

    2013-01-01

    We present the first comparison of global transcriptional changes in canine and human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with particular reference to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. Microarray data generated from canine DLBCL and normal lymph nodes were used for differential expression, co-expression and pathway analyses, and compared with analysis of microarray data from human healthy and DLBCL lymph nodes. The comparisons at gene level were performed by mapping the probesets in canine microarrays to orthologous genes in humans and vice versa. A considerable number of differentially expressed genes between canine lymphoma and healthy lymph node samples were also found differentially expressed between human DLBCL and healthy lymph node samples. Principal component analysis using a literature-derived NF-?B target gene set mapped to orthologous canine array probesets and human array probesets clearly separated the healthy and cancer samples in both datasets. The analysis demonstrated that for both human and canine DLBCL there is activation of the NF-?B/p65 canonical pathway, indicating that canine lymphoma could be used as a model to study NF-?B-targeted therapeutics for human lymphoma. To validate this, tissue arrays were generated for canine and human NHL and immunohistochemistry was employed to assess NF-?B activation status. In addition, human and canine B-cell lymphoma lines were assessed for NF-?B activity and the effects of NF-?B inhibition. PMID:24023754

  7. Tet2 facilitates the de-repression of myeloid target genes during C/EBPa induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells

    PubMed Central

    Kallin, Eric M.; Rodrguez-Ubreva, Javier; Christensen, J esper; Cimmino, Luisa; Aifantis, Iannis; Helin, Kristian; Ballestar, Esteban; Graf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet2 has been implicated in hematopoietic differentiation and the formation of myeloid malignancies when mutated. An ideal system to study the role of Tet2 in myelopoeisis is C/EBPa induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells into macrophages. Here we found that C/EBPa binds to upstream regions of Tet2 and that the gene becomes activated. Tet2 knockdowns impaired the upregulation of macrophage markers as well as phagocytic capacity, suggesting that the enzyme is required for both early and late stage myeloid differentiation. A slightly weaker effect was seen in primary cells with a Tet2 ablation. Expression arrays of transdifferentiating cells with Tet2 knockdowns permitted the identification of a small subset of myeloid genes whose upregulation was blunted. Activation of these target genes was accompanied by rapid increases of promoter hydroxy-methylation. Our observations indicate that Tet2 helps C/EBPa rapidly de-repress myeloid genes during the conversion of pre-B cells into macrophages. PMID:22981865

  8. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Jun; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Tomizawa, Hitoshi

    1995-04-10

    Bone marrow stromal cells regulate B-cell growth and development through their surface molecules and cytokines. In this study, we generated a mAb, RS38, that recognized a novel human membrane protein, BST-2, expressed on bone marrow stromal cell lines and synovial cell lines. We cloned a cDNA encoding BST-2 from a rheumatoid arthritis-derived synovial cell line. BST-2 is a 30- to 36-kDa type II transmembrane protein, consisting of 180 amino acids. The BST-2 gene (HGMW-approved symbol BST2) is located on chromosome 19p13.2. BST-2 is expressed not only on certain bone marrow stromal cell lines but also on various normal tissues, although its expression pattern is different from that of another bone marrow stromal cell surface molecule, BST-1. BST-2 surface expression on fibroblast cell lines facilitated the stromal cell-dependent growth of a murine bone marrow-derived pre-B-cell line, DW34. The results suggest that BST-2 may be involved in pre-B-cell growth. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A lipopolysaccharide-induced DNA-binding protein for a class II gene in B cells is distinct from NF-kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Gravallese, E M; Boothby, M R; Smas, C M; Glimcher, L H

    1989-01-01

    Class II (Ia) major histocompatibility complex molecules are cell surface proteins normally expressed by a limited subset of cells of the immune system. These molecules regulate the activation of T cells and are required for the presentation of antigens and the initiation of immune responses. The expression of Ia in B cells is determined by both the developmental stage of the B cell and by certain external stimuli. It has been demonstrated previously that treatment of B cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in increased surface expression of Ia protein. However, we have confirmed that LPS treatment results in a significant decrease in mRNA encoding the Ia proteins which persists for at least 18 h. Within the upstream regulatory region of A alpha k, an NF-kappa B-like binding site is present. We have identified an LPS-induced DNA-binding protein in extracts from athymic mice whose spleens consist predominantly of B cells. Binding activity is present in low levels in unstimulated spleen cells and is increased by LPS treatment. This protein binds to two sites in a regulatory region of the Ia A alpha k gene, one of which contains the NF-kappa B-like binding site. DNA fragments containing these sites cross-compete for protein binding. Analysis by DNase I footprinting identified a target binding sequence, named the LPS-responsive element. Although this target sequence contains an NF-kappa B-like binding site, competition with a mutant oligonucleotide demonstrated that bases critical for NF-kappa B binding are not required for binding of the LPS-inducible protein. Therefore, we hypothesized that this inducible protein represents a new mediator of LPS action, distinct from NF-kappa B, and may be one mechanism to account for the decrease in mRNA encoding the Ia proteins. Images PMID:2477682

  10. Kras Is Critical for B Cell Lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhong; Zheng, Yongwei; You, Xiaona; Yu, Mei; Fu, Guoping; Su, Xinlin; Zhou, Fen; Zhu, Wen; Wu, Zhihong; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Renren; Wang, Demin

    2016-02-15

    The three major Ras members, Kras, Hras, and Nras, are highly homologous and individual Ras genes can have distinct biological functions. Embryonic lethality of Kras-deficient mice precludes study of the biological functions of this Ras family member. In this study, we generated and examined mice with hematopoietic-specific deletion of Kras and bone marrow (BM) chimeric mice with B cell-specific targeted deletion of Kras. Hematopoietic-specific deletion of Kras impaired early B cell development at the pre-B cell stage and late B cell maturation, resulting in the reduction of BM pre-, immature, and mature B cells and peripheral follicular, marginal zone, and B1 mature B cells. In contrast, Kras deficiency did not affect T cell development. Studies of BM chimeric mice with B cell-specific deletion of Kras demonstrated that Kras deficiency intrinsically impaired B cell development. Kras deficiency reduced BCR-induced B cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, Kras deficiency specifically impaired pre-BCR- and BCR-induced activation of the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway in pre-B and mature B cells, respectively. Thus, Kras is the unique Ras family member that plays a critical role in early B cell development and late B cell maturation through controlling the Raf-1/MEK/ERK pathway. PMID:26773157

  11. Signal transduction through mu kappa B-cell receptors expressed on pre-B cells is different from that through B-cell receptors on mature B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, T; Koyama, M; Yoneyama, A; Higashihara, M; Kawakami, T; Yamamura, H; Sada, K; Okumura, K; Kurokawa, K

    1996-01-01

    We introduced kappa light chain genes into pre-B cells to increase the surface mu HC expression, and established transfectants expressing mature type of B-cell receptors (BCR) on pre-B-cell surfaces. Since the cytoplasmic conformations of the reconstituted BCR and intrinsic pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) are identical, they would be connected with the identical signal transduction pathways in pre-B cells. By using the transfectants, we revealed that the reconstituted BCR on pre-B cells was functionally equivalent to BCR on mature B cells in terms of the induction of intracellular Ca++ mobilization. However, we found that the signal-transduction pathways through BCR on pre-B cells were quantitatively different from those mature B cells in two ways. First, cross-linkage of the reconstituted BCR on pre-B cells induced preferential tyrosine phosphorylation of p120 and p100, which was not observed when BCR on mature B cells was cross-linked. Second, BCR in pre-B cells was physically associated with a larger amount of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K) than BCR in mature B cells in spite of the fact that both pre-B and B cells expressed a similar amount of PI-3K in cytoplasm. Signals through pre-BCR and BCR are known to cause distinct biological effects in B-cell development. The biochemical features in the downstream of reconstituted BCR on pre-B cells, which we revealed in this study, will be of help in understanding the mechanism of functional differences between pre-BCR and BCR. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8881762

  12. EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-j? and EBF1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang; Chen, Horng-Shen; Kossenkov, Andrew V; DeWispeleare, Karen; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transforms resting B-lymphocytes into proliferating lymphoblasts to establish latent infections that can give rise to malignancies. We show here that EBV-encoded transcriptional regulator EBNA2 drives the cooperative and combinatorial genome-wide binding of two master regulators of B-cell fate, namely EBF1 and RBP-j?. Previous studies suggest that these B-cell factors are statically bound to target gene promoters. In contrast, we found that EBNA2 induces the formation of new binding for both RBP-j? and EBF1, many of which are in close physical proximity in the cellular and viral genome. These newly induced binding sites co-occupied by EBNA2-EBF1-RBP-j? correlate strongly with transcriptional activation of linked genes that are important for B-lymphoblast function. Conditional expression or repression of EBNA2 leads to a rapid alteration in RBP-j? and EBF1 binding. Biochemical and shRNA depletion studies provide evidence for cooperative assembly at co-occupied sites. These findings reveal that EBNA2 facilitate combinatorial interactions to induce new patterns of transcription factor occupancy and gene programming necessary to drive B-lymphoblast growth and survival. PMID:26752713

  13. Frequency of copy number abnormalities in common genes associated with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cytogenetic subtypes in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Conceio Barbosa, Thayana; Terra-Granado, Eugenia; Quezado Magalhes, Isis M; Neves, Gustavo Ribeiro; Gadelha, Andrea; Guedes Filho, Gilson Espinola; Souza, Marcelo Santos; Melaragno, Renato; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2015-10-01

    Copy number alterations (CNAs) in genes committed to B-cell precursors have been associated with poor survival in subgroups of patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). We investigated submicroscopic alterations in a series of 274 Brazilian children with BCP-ALL by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and evaluated their correlation with clinical and laboratory features. The relevance of overlapping CNA abnormalities was also explored. Deletions/amplifications in at least one gene were identified in 83% of the total series. In children older than 2 years, there was a predominance of CNAs involving deletions in IKZF1, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B, whereas the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) had deletions that were found more frequently in infants (P?<0.05). Based on the cytogenetic subgroups, favorable cytogenetic subgroups showed more deletions than other subgroups that occurred simultaneously, specifically ETV6 deletions (P?<0.05). TCF3-PBX1 was frequently deleted in RB1, and an absence of deletions was observed in IKZF1 and genes localized to the PAR1 region. The results corroborate with previous genome-wide studies and aggregate new markers for risk stratification of BCP-ALL in Brazil. PMID:26277549

  14. EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-j? and EBF1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang; Chen, Horng-Shen; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; DeWispeleare, Karen; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transforms resting B-lymphocytes into proliferating lymphoblasts to establish latent infections that can give rise to malignancies. We show here that EBV-encoded transcriptional regulator EBNA2 drives the cooperative and combinatorial genome-wide binding of two master regulators of B-cell fate, namely EBF1 and RBP-j?. Previous studies suggest that these B-cell factors are statically bound to target gene promoters. In contrast, we found that EBNA2 induces the formation of new binding for both RBP-j? and EBF1, many of which are in close physical proximity in the cellular and viral genome. These newly induced binding sites co-occupied by EBNA2-EBF1-RBP-j? correlate strongly with transcriptional activation of linked genes that are important for B-lymphoblast function. Conditional expression or repression of EBNA2 leads to a rapid alteration in RBP-j? and EBF1 binding. Biochemical and shRNA depletion studies provide evidence for cooperative assembly at co-occupied sites. These findings reveal that EBNA2 facilitate combinatorial interactions to induce new patterns of transcription factor occupancy and gene programming necessary to drive B-lymphoblast growth and survival. PMID:26752713

  15. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  16. Proposal of a Twin Aarginine Translocator System-Mediated Constraint against Loss of ATP Synthase Genes from Nonphotosynthetic Plastid Genomes.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Tanifuji, Goro; Ishikawa, Sohta A; Ishii, Ken-Ichiro; Matsuno, Yusei; Onodera, Naoko T; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Miyashita, Hideaki; Mayama, Shigeki; Inagaki, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    Organisms with nonphotosynthetic plastids often retain genomes; their gene contents provide clues as to the functions of these organelles. Yet the functional roles of some retained genes-such as those coding for ATP synthase-remain mysterious. In this study, we report the complete plastid genome and transcriptome data of a nonphotosynthetic diatom and propose that its ATP synthase genes may function in ATP hydrolysis to maintain a proton gradient between thylakoids and stroma, required by the twin arginine translocator (Tat) system for translocation of particular proteins into thylakoids. Given the correlated retention of ATP synthase genes and genes for the Tat system in distantly related nonphotosynthetic plastids, we suggest that this Tat-related role for ATP synthase was a key constraint during parallel loss of photosynthesis in multiple independent lineages of algae/plants. PMID:26048548

  17. Influence of Burkitt's lymphoma and primary B cells on latent gene expression by the nonimmortalizing P3J-HR-1 strain of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, C; Howe, J G; Speck, S H; Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genes expressed in B lymphocytes immortalized in vitro or in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells infected in vivo have been characterized previously; however, the viral products which are essential for immortalization or for establishment of EBV latency are still not known. To approach this question, we compared the kinetics of expression of EBV nuclear antigens and the two EBV-encoded small RNAs, EBER1 and EBER2, after infection of primary B cells or EBV genome-negative BL cells with either an immortalizing EBV strain (B95-8) or the nonimmortalizing deletion mutant (HR-1). Following infection of primary cells with B95-8 virus, EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-2 was expressed first, followed by EBNA-1, -3, and -4 (also called leader protein [LP]) and the two small RNAs. Infection of EBV genome-negative BL cells with the same strain of virus resulted in a similar pattern of gene expression, except that the EBNAs appeared together and more rapidly. EBERs were not apparent in one BL cell line converted by B95-8. The only products detected after infection of primary B lymphocytes with the HR-1 deletion mutant were the EBNA-4 (LP) family and trace amounts of EBER1. Although HR-1 could express neither EBNA-1, EBNA-3, nor EBER2 in primary cells, all these products were expressed rapidly after HR-1 infection of EBV genome-negative BL cell lines. The results indicate that the mutation in HR-1 virus affects immortalization not only through failure to express EBNA-2, a gene which is deleted, but also indirectly by curtailing expression of several other EBV genes whose coding regions are intact in the HR-1 virus and normally expressed during latency. The pattern of latent EBV gene expression after HR-1 infection is dependent on the host cell, perhaps through products specific for the cell cycle or the state of B-cell differentiation. Images PMID:2538644

  18. Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of 2 genes reflecting tumor and microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Gentles, Andrew J.; Alencar, Alvaro J.; Liu, Chih Long; Kohrt, Holbrook E.; Houot, Roch; Goldstein, Matthew J.; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana H.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Briones, Javier; Tibshirani, Robert J.; Myklebust, June H.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2011-01-01

    Several gene-expression signatures predict survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the lack of practical methods for genome-scale analysis has limited translation to clinical practice. We built and validated a simple model using one gene expressed by tumor cells and another expressed by host immune cells, assessing added prognostic value to the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI). LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) was validated as an independent predictor of survival and the “germinal center B cell–like” subtype. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) from the DLBCL microenvironment was the best gene in bivariate combination with LMO2. Study of TNFRSF9 tissue expression in 95 patients with DLBCL showed expression limited to infiltrating T cells. A model integrating these 2 genes was independent of “cell-of-origin” classification, “stromal signatures,” IPI, and added to the predictive power of the IPI. A composite score integrating these genes with IPI performed well in 3 independent cohorts of 545 DLBCL patients, as well as in a simple assay of routine formalin-fixed specimens from a new validation cohort of 147 patients with DLBCL. We conclude that the measurement of a single gene expressed by tumor cells (LMO2) and a single gene expressed by the immune microenvironment (TNFRSF9) powerfully predicts overall survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:21670469

  19. Effect of wheat NAM genes on remobilization of Fe and Zn and translocation of minerals to grain during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in understanding mineral translocation to seeds to improve their nutritional value. We compared a transgenic wheat (NAM RNAi knock-down) that exhibits low grain Fe and Zn concentrations with its isogenic control to quantify the effects of NAM genes on mineral remobilization from v...

  20. The phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator is required for phenolic metabolism, palisade cell development, and plastid-dependent nuclear gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, S J; Weber, A; Kinsman, E A; Husler, R E; Li, J; Post-Beittenmiller, D; Kaiser, W M; Pyke, K A; Flgge, U I; Chory, J

    1999-01-01

    The Arabidopsis chlorophyll a/b binding protein (CAB) gene underexpressed 1 (cue1) mutant underexpresses light-regulated nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. cue1 also exhibits mesophyll-specific chloroplast and cellular defects, resulting in reticulate leaves. Both the gene underexpression and the leaf cell morphology phenotypes are dependent on light intensity. In this study, we determine that CUE1 encodes the plastid inner envelope phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (PPT) and define amino acid residues that are critical for translocator function. The biosynthesis of aromatics is compromised in cue1, and the reticulate phenotype can be rescued by feeding aromatic amino acids. Determining that CUE1 encodes PPT indicates the in vivo role of the translocator in metabolic partitioning and reveals a mesophyll cell-specific requirement for the translocator in Arabidopsis leaves. The nuclear gene expression defects in cue1 suggest that a light intensity-dependent interorganellar signal is modulated through metabolites dependent on a plastid supply of phosphoenolpyruvate. PMID:10488230

  1. Disruption of genes in the retinoid cascade may explain the microscopic neuroblastoma in a fetus with de novo unbalanced translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.B.

    1995-03-13

    The microscopic neuroblastoma in a fetus with de novo unbalanced translocation (3;10)(q21;q26) may be explained as the disruption of genes in the retinoid cascade, rather than simply a two-hit hypothesis for the development of tumor cells. 5 refs.

  2. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  3. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120-specificity of HIV-1 Envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared to those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women

    PubMed Central

    Sacha, C.R.; Vandergrift, N.; Jeffries, T.L.; McGuire, E.; Fouda, G.G.; Liebl, B.; Marshall, D.J.; Gurley, T.C.; Stiegel, L.; Whitesides, J.F.; Friedman, J.; Badiabo, A.; Foulger, A.; Yates, N.L.; Tomaras, G.D.; Kepler, T.B.; Liao, H.X.; Haynes, B.F.; Moody, M.A.; Permar, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were IgG1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1~69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% versus 20%, p = 0.006, Fishers exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120-specific than those isolated from blood (44% versus 16%, p = 0.005, Fishers exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  4. Gene expression predicts overall survival in paraffin-embedded tissues of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Michael L.; Unger, Joseph M.; Miller, Thomas P.; Grogan, Thomas M.; Persky, Daniel O.; Martel, Ralph R.; Sabalos, Constantine M.; Seligmann, Bruce; Braziel, Rita M.; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Connors, Joseph M.; Sehn, Laurie H.; Johnson, Nathalie; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) on frozen tissues has identified genes predicting outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Confirmation of results in current patients is limited by availability of frozen samples and addition of monoclonal antibodies to treatment regimens. We used a quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks for 36 previously identified genes (N = 209, 93 chemotherapy; 116 rituximab + chemotherapy). By qNPA, 208 cases were successfully analyzed (99.5%). In addition, 15 of 36 and 11 of 36 genes, representing each functional group previously identified by GEP, were associated with survival (P < .05) in the 2 treatment groups, respectively. In addition, 30 of 36 hazard ratios of death trended in the same direction versus the original studies. Multivariate and variable cut-off point analysis identified low levels of HLA-DRB (< 20%) and high levels of MYC (> 80%) as independent indicators of survival, together distinguishing cases with the worst prognosis. Our results solve a clinical research problem by demonstrating that prognostic genes can be meaningfully quantified using qNPA technology on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues; previous GEP findings in DLBCL are relevant with current treatments; and 2 genes, representing immune escape and proliferation, are the common features of the most aggressive DLBCL. PMID:18544678

  5. The BCL6 transcriptional program features repression of multiple oncogenes in primary B cells and is deregulated in DLBCL.

    PubMed

    Ci, Weimin; Polo, Jose M; Cerchietti, Leandro; Shaknovich, Rita; Wang, Ling; Yang, Shao Ning; Ye, Kenny; Farinha, Pedro; Horsman, Douglas E; Gascoyne, Randy D; Elemento, Olivier; Melnick, Ari

    2009-05-28

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is required for development of germinal center (GC) B cells and when expressed constitutively causes diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). We examined genome-wide BCL6 promoter binding in GC B cells versus DLBCLs to better understand its function in these settings. BCL6 bound to both distinct and common sets of functionally related gene in normal GC cells versus DLBCL cells. Certain BCL6 target genes were preferentially repressed in GC B cells, but not DLBCL cells. Several such genes have prominent oncogenic functions, such as BCL2, MYC, BMI1, EIF4E, JUNB, and CCND1. BCL6 and BCL2 expression was negatively correlated in primary DLBCLs except in the presence of BCL2 translocations. The specific BCL6 inhibitor retro-inverso BCL6 peptidomimetic inhibitor-induced expression of BCL2 and other oncogenes, consistent with direct repression effects by BCL6. These data are consistent with a model whereby BCL6 can directly silence oncogenes in GC B cells and counterbalance its own tumorigenic potential. Finally, a BCL6 consensus sequence and binding sites for other physiologically relevant transcription factors were highly enriched among target genes and distributed in a pathway-dependent manner, suggesting that BCL6 forms specific regulatory circuits with other B-cell transcriptional factors. PMID:19307668

  6. Generation of antibody- and B cell-deficient pigs by targeted disruption of the J-region gene segment of the heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Mendicino, M; Ramsoondar, J; Phelps, C; Vaught, T; Ball, S; LeRoith, T; Monahan, J; Chen, S; Dandro, A; Boone, J; Jobst, P; Vance, A; Wertz, N; Bergman, Z; Sun, X-Z; Polejaeva, I; Butler, J; Dai, Y; Ayares, D; Wells, K

    2011-06-01

    A poly(A)-trap gene targeting strategy was used to disrupt the single functional heavy chain (HC) joining region (J(H)) of swine in primary fibroblasts. Genetically modified piglets were then generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and bred to yield litters comprising J(H) wild-type littermate (+/+), J(H) heterozygous knockout () and J(H) homozygous knockout (-/-) piglets in the expected Mendelian ratio of 1:2:1. There are only two other targeted loci previously published in swine, and this is the first successful poly(A)-trap strategy ever published in a livestock species. In either blood or secondary lymphoid tissues, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA detected no circulating IgM(+) B cells, and no transcription or secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. Histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies failed to detect lymph node (LN) follicles or CD79?(+) B cells, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. T cell receptor (TCR)(?) transcription and T cells were detected in J(H) -/- pigs. When reared conventionally, J(H) -/- pigs succumbed to bacterial infections after weaning. These antibody (Ab)- and B cell-deficient pigs have significant value as models for both veterinary and human research to discriminate cellular and humoral protective immunity to infectious agents. Thus, these pigs may aid in vaccine development for infectious agents such as the pandemic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H1N1 swine flu. These pigs are also a first significant step towards generating a pig that expresses fully human, antigen-specific polyclonal Ab to target numerous incurable infectious diseases with high unmet clinical need. PMID:20872248

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes for antibodies generated by orbital tissue-infiltrating B-cells in Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaume, J.C.; Portolano, S.; Prummel, M.F.; McLachlan, S.M.; Rapoport, B.

    1994-02-01

    Graves` ophthalmopathy is a distressing autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Analysis of the genes for antibodies secreted by orbital tissue-infiltrating plasma cells might provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. The authors, therefore, constructed an immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and an immunoglobulin k light (L) chain cDNA library from the orbital tissue of a patient with active Graves` ophthalmopathy. Analysis of 15 H (IgG1) and 15 L (k) chains revealed a restricted spectrum of variable region genes. Fourteen of 15 variable k genes were about 94% homologous to the closest known germline gene, KL012. Thirteen of 15 H chain genes were 91% and 90% homologous to the closest germline genes, DP10 and hv1263, respectively. Remarkably, these germline genes also code for other autoantibodies to striated muscle (KL012) and thyroid peridase (KL012 and hv1263). These studies raise the possibility that particular germline genes may be associated with autoimmunity in humans. Further, the present study opens the way to identifying ocular autoantigens that may be the target of an humoral immune response. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The analysis of VH and VL genes repertoires of Fab library built from peripheral B cells of human rabies virus vaccinated donors.

    PubMed

    Houimel, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    A human combinatorial Fab antibody library was generated from immune repertoire based on peripheral B cells of ten rabies virus vaccinated donors. The analysis of random Fab fragments from the unselected library presented some bias of V gene usage towards IGHV-genes and IGLV-gen families. The screening of the Fab library on rabies virus allowed specific human Fab antibody fragments characterized for their gene encoding sequences, binding and specificities to RV. Genetic analysis of selected Fabs indicated that the IGHV and IGLV differ from the germ-line sequence. At the level of nucleotide sequences, the IGHV and IGLV domains were found to share 74-92% and 90-96% homology with sequences encoded by the corresponding human germ-line genes respectively. IGHV domains are characterized most frequently by IGHV3 genes, and large proportions of the anti-RV heavy chain IGHV domains are obtained following a VDJ recombination process that uses IGHD3, IGHD2, IGHD1 and IGHD6 genes. IGHJ3 and IGHJ4 genes are predominantly used in RV-Fab. The IGLV domains are dominated by IGKV1, IGLV1 and IGLV3 genes. Numerous somatic hypermutations in the RV-specific IGHV are detected, but only limited amino acid replacement in most of the RV-specific IGLV particularly in those encoded by J proximal IGLV or IGKV genes are found. Furthermore, IGHV3-IGKV1, IGHV3-IGVL1, and IGHV3-IGLV3 germ-line family pairings are preferentially enriched after the screening on rabies virus. PMID:24862931

  9. Nuclear Translocation Uncovers the Amyloid Peptide Aβ42 as a Regulator of Gene Transcription*♦

    PubMed Central

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L.; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes. PMID:24878959

  10. Nuclear translocation uncovers the amyloid peptide A?42 as a regulator of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-07-18

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-? peptide A?42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-? (A?). Here, we show that A? peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear A?42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled A? in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of A? in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for A?42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that A?42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic A?42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (A?38 or A?40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic A?42 G33A substitution or A?43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of A?42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of A?42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes. PMID:24878959

  11. Molecular evolution of a central region containing B cell epitopes in the gene encoding the p67 sporozoite antigen within a field population of Theileria parva.

    PubMed

    Obara, Isaiah; Ulrike, Seitzer; Musoke, Tony; Spooner, Paul R; Jabbar, Ahmed; Odongo, David; Kemp, Stephen; Silva, Joana C; Bishop, Richard P

    2015-05-01

    Protective immunity induced by the infective sporozoite stage of Theileria parva indicates a potential role for antibodies directed against conserved serologically reactive regions of the major sporozoite surface antigen p67 in vaccination to control the parasite. We have examined the allelic variation and determined the extent of B cell epitope polymorphism of the gene encoding p67 among field isolates originating from cattle exposed to infected ticks in the Marula area of the rift valley in central Kenya where the African cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle co-graze. In the first of two closely juxtaposed epitope sequences in the central region of the p67 protein, an in-frame deletion of a seven-amino acid segment results in a truncation that was observed in parasites derived from cattle that co-grazed with buffalo. In contrast, the variation in the second epitope was primarily due to nonsynonymous substitutions, resulting in relatively low overall amino acid conservation in this segment of the protein. We also observed polymorphism in the region of the protein adjacent to the two defined epitopes, but this was not sufficient to provide statistically significant evidence for positive selection. The data indicates that B cell epitopes previously identified within the p67 gene are polymorphic within the Marula field isolates. Given the complete sequence identity of the p67 gene in all previously characterized T. parva isolates that are transmissible between cattle by ticks, the diversity observed in p67 from the Marula isolates in combination with the clinical reaction of the infected cattle is consistent with them originating from ticks that had acquired T. parva from buffalo. PMID:25673078

  12. Generation of Recombination Activating Gene-1-Deficient Neonatal Piglets: A Model of T and B Cell Deficient Severe Combined Immune Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuya; Sendai, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Seki-Soma, Marie; Hirose, Kensuke; Watanabe, Motoo; Fukawa, Kazuo; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Although severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a very important research model for mice and SCID mice are widely used, there are only few reports describing the SCID pig models. Therefore, additional research in this area is needed. In this study, we describe the generation of Recombination activating gene-1 (Rag-1)-deficient neonatal piglets in Duroc breed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with gene targeting and analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and histology. We constructed porcine Rag-1 gene targeting vectors for the Exon 2 region and obtained heterozygous/homozygous Rag-1 knockout cell colonies using SCNT. We generated two Rag-1-deficient neonatal piglets and compared them with wild-type neonatal piglets. FACS analysis showed that Rag-1 disruption causes a lack of Immunoglobulin M-positive B cells and CD3-positive T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistent with FACS analysis, histological analysis revealed structural defects and an absence of mature lymphocytes in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLNs), and thymus in Rag-1-deficient piglets. These results confirm that Rag-1 is necessary for the generation of lymphocytes in pigs, and Rag-1-deficient piglets exhibit a T and B cell deficient SCID (T-B-SCID) phenotype similar to that of rodents and humans. The T-B-SCID pigs with Rag-1 deficiency generated in this study could be a suitably versatile model for laboratory, translational, and biomedical research, including the development of a humanized model and assessment of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25437445

  13. Bortezomib induces nuclear translocation of I?B? resulting in gene-specific suppression of NF-?B--dependent transcription and induction of apoptosis in CTCL.

    PubMed

    Juvekar, Ashish; Manna, Subrata; Ramaswami, Sitharam; Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vu, Hai-Yen; Ghosh, Chandra C; Celiker, Mahmut Y; Vancurova, Ivana

    2011-02-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is characterized by constitutive activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which plays a crucial role in the survival of CTCL cells and their resistance to apoptosis. NF-?B activity in CTCL is inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib; however, the mechanisms remained unknown. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which bortezomib suppresses NF-?B activity in CTCL Hut-78 cells. We demonstrate that bortezomib and MG132 suppress NF-?B activity in Hut-78 cells by a novel mechanism that consists of inducing nuclear translocation and accumulation of I?B? (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha), which then associates with NF-?B p65 and p50 in the nucleus and inhibits NF-?B DNA binding activity. Surprisingly, however, while expression of NF-?B-dependent antiapoptotic genes cIAP1 and cIAP2 is inhibited by bortezomib, expression of Bcl-2 is not suppressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that cIAP1 and cIAP2 promoters are occupied by NF-?B p65/50 heterodimers, whereas Bcl-2 promoter is occupied predominantly by p50/50 homodimers. Collectively, our data reveal a novel mechanism of bortezomib function in CTCL and suggest that the inhibition of NF-?B-dependent gene expression by bortezomib is gene specific and depends on the subunit composition of NF-?B dimers recruited to NF-?B-responsive promoters. PMID:21224428

  14. Clonal Progression during the T Cell-Dependent B Cell Antibody Response Depends on the Immunoglobulin DH Gene Segment Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Ahmad; Tanasa, Radu Iulian; Lange, Hans; Zemlin, Michael; Schroeder, Harry W.; Lemke, Hilmar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the IgH chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH) sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD) immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA). We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb) from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching, and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered ?D-D?FS and ?D-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM-producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR) or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype, which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion, as well as CSR indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response. PMID:25157256

  15. EBNA3C Directs Recruitment of RBPJ (CBF1) to Chromatin during the Process of Gene Repression in EBV Infected B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalchschmidt, Jens S.; Gillman, Adam C. T.; Paschos, Kostas; Bazot, Quentin; Kempkes, Bettina; Allday, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) can act as a potent repressor of gene expression, but little is known about the sequence of events occurring during the repression process. To explore further the role of EBNA3C in gene repression–particularly in relation to histone modifications and cell factors involved–the three host genes previously reported as most robustly repressed by EBNA3C were investigated. COBLL1, a gene of unknown function, is regulated by EBNA3C alone and the two co-regulated disintegrin/metalloproteases, ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 have been described previously as targets of both EBNA3A and EBNA3C. For the first time, EBNA3C was here shown to be the main regulator of all three genes early after infection of primary B cells. Using various EBV-recombinants, repression over orders of magnitude was seen only when EBNA3C was expressed. Unexpectedly, full repression was not achieved until 30 days after infection. This was accurately reproduced in established LCLs carrying EBV-recombinants conditional for EBNA3C function, demonstrating the utility of the conditional system to replicate events early after infection. Using this system, detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the initial repression was associated with loss of activation-associated histone modifications (H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and was independent of recruitment of polycomb proteins and deposition of the repressive H3K27me3 modification, which were only observed later in repression. Most remarkable, and in contrast to current models of RBPJ in repression, was the observation that this DNA-binding factor accumulated at the EBNA3C-binding sites only when EBNA3C was functional. Transient reporter assays indicated that repression of these genes was dependent on the interaction between EBNA3C and RBPJ. This was confirmed with a novel EBV-recombinant encoding a mutant of EBNA3C unable to bind RBPJ, by showing this virus was incapable of repressing COBLL1 or ADAM28/ADAMDEC1 in newly infected primary B cells. PMID:26751214

  16. EBNA3C Directs Recruitment of RBPJ (CBF1) to Chromatin during the Process of Gene Repression in EBV Infected B Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalchschmidt, Jens S; Gillman, Adam C T; Paschos, Kostas; Bazot, Quentin; Kempkes, Bettina; Allday, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) can act as a potent repressor of gene expression, but little is known about the sequence of events occurring during the repression process. To explore further the role of EBNA3C in gene repression-particularly in relation to histone modifications and cell factors involved-the three host genes previously reported as most robustly repressed by EBNA3C were investigated. COBLL1, a gene of unknown function, is regulated by EBNA3C alone and the two co-regulated disintegrin/metalloproteases, ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 have been described previously as targets of both EBNA3A and EBNA3C. For the first time, EBNA3C was here shown to be the main regulator of all three genes early after infection of primary B cells. Using various EBV-recombinants, repression over orders of magnitude was seen only when EBNA3C was expressed. Unexpectedly, full repression was not achieved until 30 days after infection. This was accurately reproduced in established LCLs carrying EBV-recombinants conditional for EBNA3C function, demonstrating the utility of the conditional system to replicate events early after infection. Using this system, detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the initial repression was associated with loss of activation-associated histone modifications (H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and was independent of recruitment of polycomb proteins and deposition of the repressive H3K27me3 modification, which were only observed later in repression. Most remarkable, and in contrast to current models of RBPJ in repression, was the observation that this DNA-binding factor accumulated at the EBNA3C-binding sites only when EBNA3C was functional. Transient reporter assays indicated that repression of these genes was dependent on the interaction between EBNA3C and RBPJ. This was confirmed with a novel EBV-recombinant encoding a mutant of EBNA3C unable to bind RBPJ, by showing this virus was incapable of repressing COBLL1 or ADAM28/ADAMDEC1 in newly infected primary B cells. PMID:26751214

  17. Paraffin-based 6-gene model predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Raquel; Chen, Jun; Tibshirani, Rob; Johnson, Nathalie A; Sehn, Laurie H; Natkunam, Yaso; Briones, Javier; Advani, Ranjana; Connors, Joseph M; Byrne, Gerald E; Levy, Ronald; Gascoyne, Randy D; Lossos, Izidore S

    2008-06-15

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical outcomes. Outcome prediction at the time of diagnosis is of paramount importance. Previously, we constructed a 6-gene model for outcome prediction of DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapies. However, the standard therapy has evolved into rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). Herein, we evaluated the predictive power of a paraffin-based 6-gene model in R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients. RNA was successfully extracted from 132 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Expression of the 6 genes comprising the model was measured and the mortality predictor score was calculated for each patient. The mortality predictor score divided patients into low-risk (below median) and high-risk (above median) subgroups with significantly different overall survival (OS; P = .002) and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .038). The model also predicted OS and PFS when the mortality predictor score was considered as a continuous variable (P = .002 and .010, respectively) and was independent of the IPI for prediction of OS (P = .008). These findings demonstrate that the prognostic value of the 6-gene model remains significant in the era of R-CHOP treatment and that the model can be applied to routine FFPE tissue from initial diagnostic biopsies. PMID:18445689

  18. Paraffin-based 6-gene model predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres, Raquel; Chen, Jun; Tibshirani, Rob; Johnson, Nathalie A.; Sehn, Laurie H.; Natkunam, Yaso; Briones, Javier; Advani, Ranjana; Connors, Joseph M.; Byrne, Gerald E.; Levy, Ronald; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical outcomes. Outcome prediction at the time of diagnosis is of paramount importance. Previously, we constructed a 6-gene model for outcome prediction of DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapies. However, the standard therapy has evolved into rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). Herein, we evaluated the predictive power of a paraffin-based 6-gene model in R-CHOP–treated DLBCL patients. RNA was successfully extracted from 132 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Expression of the 6 genes comprising the model was measured and the mortality predictor score was calculated for each patient. The mortality predictor score divided patients into low-risk (below median) and high-risk (above median) subgroups with significantly different overall survival (OS; P = .002) and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .038). The model also predicted OS and PFS when the mortality predictor score was considered as a continuous variable (P = .002 and .010, respectively) and was independent of the IPI for prediction of OS (P = .008). These findings demonstrate that the prognostic value of the 6-gene model remains significant in the era of R-CHOP treatment and that the model can be applied to routine FFPE tissue from initial diagnostic biopsies. PMID:18445689

  19. Moderate-level gene amplification in methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells is accompanied by chromosomal translocations at or near the site of the amplified DHFR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Flintoff, W F; Livingston, E; Duff, C; Worton, R G

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies, we have described several classes of methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Although the RI class is resistant because of an altered target enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, the RIII class derived from RI cells is somewhat more resistant because of a moderate amplification of the altered dhfr structural gene (Flintoff et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 2:275-285, 1982). In one RIII line, a translocation between the short arm (p) of chromosome 2 and the long arm (q) of chromosome 5 was observed, and the amplified RIII gene complex was mapped to the p arm of the 2p-marker chromosome derived from the translocation (Worton et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 1:330-335, 1981). We tested the hypothesis that chromosomal translocation is a general feature of RIII cells and that such translocation involves a site at or near the dhfr structural gene. Thus, we examined four independently derived RIII-type mutants and found that each had a moderate amplification of the dhfr gene sequences, and karyotype analysis revealed that each carried a translocation involving the 2p arm at or near band 2p25. That this chromosomal rearrangement involves a site near the dhfr locus was demonstrated by mapping the altered but unamplified structural gene coding for the RI phenotype to the short arm of an unaltered chromosome 2. This suggests that a highly specific rearrangement involving an exchange at or near the site of the unamplified gene is a necessary prerequisite for the amplification process. A model for gene amplification involving chromosomal rearrangements and sister chromatid exchange is described. Images PMID:6700586

  20. Chronic TCDD exposure results in the dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes and in the impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Jijing; Krylova, Irina; Xu, Tuan; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Guo, Tai L; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure in humans is associated with marked immune suppressions and increased incidence of lymphoblastic diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of impairments in humoral immune responses, we used a murine model. Following a 20-week administration of low doses of TCDD, we observed severely reduced antibody titers, dramatically decreased number of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells and an increase in CD19(+) B cells. Transcriptional profiling of CD19(+) B cells showed that markers of pre-B cells were significantly elevated, indicating delayed B cell maturation. These changes in B cells were accompanied by decreases of T helper cell numbers and reduced IgM and IgG titers. A transcriptome analysis of splenic B cells followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a set of differentially expressed genes known to play roles in tumorigenesis, cell-proliferation and cell-migration. The most up-regulated transcript gene was Eph receptor A2 (EphA2), a known oncogene, and the most down-regulated transcript was ZBTB16 that codes for a negative transcriptional regulator important in epigenetic chromatin remodeling. IPA identified cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) and cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) as top upstream regulators. Consistently, a MAPPER promoter database analysis showed that all top dysregulated genes had CREM and/or CREB1 binding sites in their promoter regions. In summary, our data showed that chronic TCDD exposure in mice caused suppressed humoral immunity accompanied with profound dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes, likely through cAMP-dependent pathways. This dysregulation resulted in impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation and activation of the tumorigenic transcription program. PMID:26899660

  1. Curcumin regulates gene expression of insulin like growth factor, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of curcumin on the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (G-ST), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic rats were studied. Methods Twenty four rats were assigned to three groups (8 rats for each). Rats of first group were non diabetic and rats of the second group were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Both groups received vehicle, corn oil only (5 ml/kg body weight) and served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Rats of the third group were rendered diabetic and received oral curcumin dissolved in corn oil at a dose of 15 mg/5 ml/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Results Diabetic rats showed significant increase of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of all antioxidant enzymes with significant reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) compare to the control non diabetic group. Gene expression of Bcl2, SOD, CAT, GPX and GST was increased significantly in diabetic untreated rats compare to the control non diabetic group. The administration of curcumin to diabetic rats normalized significantly their blood sugar level and TBARS values and increased the activities of all antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration. In addition, curcumin treated rats showed significant increase in gene expression of IGF-1, Bcl2, SOD and GST compare to non diabetic and diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion Curcumin was antidiabetic therapy, induced hypoglycemia by up-regulation of IGF-1 gene and ameliorate the diabetes induced oxidative stress via increasing the availability of GSH, increasing the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Bcl2. Further studies are required to investigate the actual mechanism of action of curcumin regarding the up regulation of gene expression of examined parameters. PMID:24364912

  2. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin; Heine, Guido; Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin ; Hartmann, Bjoern; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Worm, Margitta

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  3. Sequence homologies, N sequence insertion and JH gene utilization in VHDJH joining: implications for the joining mechanism and the ontogenetic timing of Ly1 B cell and B-CLL progenitor generation.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, H; Frster, I; Rajewsky, K

    1990-01-01

    Sequence analysis of rearranged VHDJH genes of B lineage cells from various stages of ontogeny indicates that short sequence homologies at the breakpoints of recombination contribute to V region gene assembly. Such homologies are regularly seen at DJH junctions of neonatal pre-B cells, most of which do not contain N sequences. In the same cells, but not at later developmental stages, preferential usage of the JH1 element is observed. After birth, N sequence insertion increases with time and is always more prominent at the VHD border than the DJH border. In pre-B cells from adult animals and in mature B cells, in cases where N sequences were not detectable, sequence homologies at the DJH border were found in only half of the instances. This lower incidence could be due to N sequence addition to one of the recombining DNA ends and/or cellular selection. Inspection of VHDJH junctions for N sequence insertion, sequence homologies at the DJH border and JH1 usage allows the estimation of the timepoint in ontogeny at which particular B cell subsets are seeded into the immune system. Specifically, the present data show that the cells of the Ly1 B cell subset are generated not only neonatally but also beyond the first weeks of life. However, the DJH junctions of the progenitors of chronic B cell leukemias which originate from the same B cell subset resemble those of neonatal pre-B cells, suggesting that these cells have already undergone a transforming event at this early developmental stage. PMID:2113468

  4. Disruption of the APC gene by t(5;7) translocation in a Turcot family.

    PubMed

    Sahnane, Nora; Bernasconi, Barbara; Carnevali, Ileana; Furlan, Daniela; Viel, Alessandra; Sessa, Fausto; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia

    2016-03-01

    Turcot syndrome (TS) refers to the combination of colorectal polyps and primary tumours of the central nervous system. TS is a heterogeneous genetic condition due to APC and/or mismatch repair germline mutations. When APC is involved the vast majority of mutations are truncating, but in approximately 20%-30% of patients with familial polyposis no germline mutation can be found. A 30-year-old Caucasian woman with a positive pedigree for TS was referred to our Genetic Counselling Service. She was negative for APC and MUTYH but showed a reciprocal balanced translocation t(5;7)(q22;p15) at chromosome analysis. FISH analysis using specific BAC probes demonstrated that 5q22 breakpoint disrupted the APC gene. Transcript analysis by MLPA and digital PCR revealed that the cytogenetic rearrangement involving the 3' end of the APC gene caused a defective expression of a truncated transcript. This result allowed cytogenetic analysis to be offered to all the other family members and segregation analysis clearly demonstrated that all the carriers were affected, whereas non-carriers did not have the polyposis. A cytogenetic approach permitted the identification of the mutation-causing disease in this family, and the segregation analysis together with the transcript study supported the pathogenetic role of this mutation. Karyotype analysis was used as a predictive test in all members of this family. This family suggests that clinically positive TS and FAP cases, which test negative with standard molecular analysis, could be easily and cost-effectively resolved by a classical and molecular cytogenetic approach. PMID:26797314

  5. Evidence for Replicative Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Leading to Oncogenic Translocation and Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Petersen, Simone; Chen, Hua Tang; Johnson, Roger; Jasin, Maria; Kanaar, Roland; Ried, Thomas; Nussenzweig, Andr

    2002-01-01

    Nonreciprocal translocations and gene amplifications are commonly found in human tumors. Although little is known about the mechanisms leading to such aberrations, tissue culture models predict that they can arise from DNA breakage, followed by cycles of chromatid fusion, asymmetric mitotic breakage, and replication. Mice deficient in both a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair protein and the p53 tumor suppressor develop lymphomas at an early age harboring amplification of an IgH/c-myc fusion. Here we report that these chromosomal rearrangements are initiated by a recombination activating gene (RAG)-induced DNA cleavage. Subsequent DNA repair events juxtaposing IgH and c-myc are mediated by a break-induced replication pathway. Cycles of breakage-fusion-bridge result in amplification of IgH/c-myc while chromosome stabilization occurs through telomere capture. Thus, mice deficient in NHEJ provide excellent models to study the etiology of unbalanced translocations and amplification events during tumorigenesis. PMID:12186839

  6. Plasmodium Infection Promotes Genomic Instability and AID Dependent B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Robbiani, Davide F.; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Feldhahn, Niklas; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Callen, Elsa; Wang, Qiao; Jankovic, Mila; Silva, Israel T.; Rommel, Philipp C.; Bosque, David; Eisenreich, Tom; Nussenzweig, Andr; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chronic infection with Plasmodium falciparum was epidemiologically associated with endemic Burkitts lymphoma, a mature B cell cancer characterized by chromosome translocation between the c-myc oncogene and Igh, over 50 years ago. Whether infection promotes B cell lymphoma, and if so by what mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the relationship between parasitic disease and lymphomagenesis we used Plasmodium chabaudi (Pc) to produce chronic malaria infection in mice. Pc induces prolonged expansion of germinal centers (GCs), unique compartments where B cells undergo rapid clonal expansion and express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a DNA mutator. GC B cells elicited during Pc infection suffer widespread DNA damage leading to chromosome translocations. Although infection does not change the overall rate, it modifies lymphomagenesis to favor mature B cell lymphomas that are AID dependent and show chromosome translocations. Thus, malaria infection favors mature B cell cancers by eliciting protracted AID expression in GC B cells. PMID:26276629

  7. Plasmodium Infection Promotes Genomic Instability and AID-Dependent B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Robbiani, Davide F; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Feldhahn, Niklas; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Callen, Elsa; Wang, Qiao; Jankovic, Mila; Silva, Israel T; Rommel, Philipp C; Bosque, David; Eisenreich, Tom; Nussenzweig, Andr; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-08-13

    Chronic infection with Plasmodium falciparum was epidemiologically associated with endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, a mature B cell cancer characterized by chromosome translocation between the c-myc oncogene and Igh, over 50 years ago. Whether infection promotes B cell lymphoma, and if so by which mechanism, remains unknown. To investigate the relationship between parasitic disease and lymphomagenesis, we used Plasmodium chabaudi (Pc) to produce chronic malaria infection in mice. Pc induces prolonged expansion of germinal centers (GCs), unique compartments in which B cells undergo rapid clonal expansion and express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a DNA mutator. GC B cells elicited during Pc infection suffer widespread DNA damage, leading to chromosome translocations. Although infection does not change the overall rate, it modifies lymphomagenesis to favor mature B cell lymphomas that are AID dependent and show chromosome translocations. Thus, malaria infection favors mature B cell cancers by eliciting protracted AID expression in GC B cells. PAPERCLIP. PMID:26276629

  8. CD19 is a major B cell receptorindependent activator of MYC-driven B-lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Elaine Y.; Psathas, James N.; Yu, Duonan; Li, Yimei; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Thomas-Tikhonenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    PAX5, a B cellspecific transcription factor, is overexpressed through chromosomal translocations in a subset of B cell lymphomas. Previously, we had shown that activation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) proteins and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling by PAX5 contributes to B-lymphomagenesis. However, the effect of PAX5 on other oncogenic transcription factor-controlled pathways is unknown. Using a MYC-induced murine lymphoma model as well as MYC-transformed human B cell lines, we found that PAX5 controls c-MYC protein stability and steady-state levels. This promoter-independent, posttranslational mechanism of c-MYC regulation was independent of ITAM/BCR activity. Instead it was controlled by another PAX5 target, CD19, through the PI3K-AKT-GSK3? axis. Consequently, MYC levels in B cells from CD19-deficient mice were sharply reduced. Conversely, reexpression of CD19 in murine lymphomas with spontaneous silencing of PAX5 boosted MYC levels, expression of its key target genes, cell proliferation in vitro, and overall tumor growth in vivo. In human B-lymphomas, CD19 mRNA levels were found to correlate with those of MYC-activated genes. They also negatively correlated with the overall survival of patients with lymphoma in the same way that MYC levels do. Thus, CD19 is a major BCR-independent regulator of MYC-driven neoplastic growth in B cell neoplasms. PMID:22546857

  9. Effects of B-Cell Lymphoma 2 Gene Transfer to Myoblast Cells on Skeletal Muscle Tissue Formation Using Magnetic Force-Based Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masanori; Ito, Akira; Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kawabe, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle should possess a high cell-dense structure with unidirectional cell alignment. However, limited nutrient and/or oxygen supply within the artificial tissue constructs might restrict cell viability and muscular functions. In this study, we genetically modified myoblast cells with the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene and evaluated their function in artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. Magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of skeletal muscle bundles by applying a magnetic force. Bcl-2-overexpressing muscle bundles formed highly cell-dense and viable tissue constructs, while muscle bundles without Bcl-2 overexpression exhibited substantial necrosis/apoptosis at the central region of the bundle. Bcl-2-overexpressing muscle bundles contracted in response to electrical pulses and generated a significantly higher physical force. These findings indicate that the incorporation of anti-apoptotic gene-transduced myoblast cells into tissue constructs significantly enhances skeletal muscle formation and function. PMID:23088454

  10. MODY-like diabetes associated with an apparently balanced translocation: possible involvement of MPP7 gene and cell polarity in the pathogenesis of diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bhoj, Elizabeth J; Romeo, Stefano; Baroni, Marco G; Bartov, Guy; Schultz, Roger A; Zinn, Andrew R

    2009-01-01

    Background Characterization of disease-associated balanced translocations has led to the discovery of genes responsible for many disorders, including syndromes that include various forms of diabetes mellitus. We studied a man with unexplained maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)-like diabetes and an apparently balanced translocation [46,XY,t(7;10)(q22;p12)] and sought to identify a novel diabetes locus by characterizing the translocation breakpoints. Results Mutations in coding exons and splice sites of known MODY genes were first ruled out by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) studies demonstrated that the translocation did not disrupt two known diabetes-related genes on 10p12. The translocation breakpoints were further mapped to high resolution using FISH and somatic cell hybrids and the junctions PCR-amplified and sequenced. The translocation did not disrupt any annotated transcription unit. However, the chromosome 10 breakpoint was 220 kilobases 5' to the Membrane Protein, Palmitoylated 7 (MPP7) gene, which encodes a protein required for proper cell polarity. This biological function is shared by HNF4A, a known MODY gene. Databases show MPP7 is highly expressed in mouse pancreas and is expressed in human islets. The translocation did not appear to alter lymphoblastoid expression of MPP7 or other genes near the breakpoints. Conclusion The balanced translocation and MODY-like diabetes in the proband could be coincidental. Alternatively, the translocation may cause islet cell dysfunction by altering MPP7 expression in a subtle or tissue-specific fashion. The potential roles of MPP7 mutations in diabetes and perturbed islet cell polarity in insulin secretion warrant further study. PMID:19216786

  11. QuantiGene Plex Represents a Promising Diagnostic Tool for Cell-of-Origin Subtyping of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hall, John S; Usher, Suzanne; Byers, Richard J; Higgins, Rebekah C; Memon, Danish; Radford, John A; Linton, Kim M

    2015-07-01

    Emerging therapies targeting the molecularly distinct GCB and non-GCB/ABC subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have created the need to develop an accurate subtyping assay for routine use. We investigated the potential of QuantiGene Plex (QGP)-branched DNA signal amplification assay-for DLBCL subtyping. We performed in silico analysis of public DLBCL datasets to develop and validate a naïve Bayes classifier, and migrated the resulting 21-gene classifier to QGP and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Forty DLBCL formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors of known subtype (20 per subtype by gene expression profiling of paired fresh-frozen tissues) were reclassified, and results for QGP (on 38/40 for 21/21 targets) and qPCR (on 40/40 samples for 19/21 targets) compared for recapitulation of microarray data and classification accuracy. The 21-gene bayesian classifier achieved mean area under the curve values >0.9 on independent validation. QGP showed a higher correlation with microarray data (mean R(2) = 0.66 ± 0.05 versus 0.34 ± 0.07; P < 0.0001) and classification accuracy (92.1% versus 78.9%). The proportion of validated targets was also higher for QGP (85.7% versus 47.4%). The QGP protocol was rapid and simple to perform, at a cost similar to qPCR. These promising preliminary results strongly support ongoing work to develop a QGP companion diagnostic assay for DLBCL subtyping. PMID:25982535

  12. Tcr? translocations that delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene promote atm-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Lori A; Yang-Iott, Katherine; Bassing, Craig H

    2014-01-01

    ATM is the master regulator of the cellular response to DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Deficiency of ATM predisposes humans and mice to ?? T lymphoid cancers with clonal translocations between the T cell receptor (TCR) ?/? locus and a 450kb region of synteny on human chromosome 14 and mouse chromosome 12. While these translocations target and activate the TCL1 oncogene at 14q32 to cause T cell pro-lymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), the TCR?/?;14q32 translocations in ATM-deficient T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) have not been characterized and their role in cancer pathogenesis remains unknown. The corresponding lesion in Atm-deficient mouse T-ALLs is a chromosome t(12;14) translocation with Tcr? genes fused to sequences on chromosome 12; although these translocations do not activate Tcl1, they delete the Bcl11b haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. To assess whether Tcr? translocations that inactivate one copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient cells, we analyzed Atm?/? mice with mono-allelic Bcl11b deletion initiating in thymocytes concomitant with Tcr? recombination. Inactivation of one Bcl11b copy had no effect on the predisposition of Atm?/? mice to clonal T-ALLs. Yet, none of these T-ALLs had a clonal chromosome t(12;14) translocation that deleted Bcl11b indicating that Tcr? translocations that inactivate a copy of Bcl11b promote transformation of Atm-deficient thymocytes. Our data demonstrate that antigen receptor locus translocations can cause cancer by deleting a tumor suppressor gene. We discuss the implications of these findings for the etiology and therapy of T-ALLs associated with ATM deficiency and TCR?/? translocations targeting the 14q32 cytogenetic region. PMID:25486566

  13. Evaluation of the NOD/SCID xenograft model for glucocorticoid-regulated gene expression in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone and dexamethasone are critical drugs used in multi-agent chemotherapy protocols used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and response to glucocorticoids is highly predictive of outcome. The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model of ALL is a clinically relevant model in which the mice develop a systemic leukemia which retains the fundamental biological characteristics of the original disease. Here we report a study evaluating the NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model to investigate glucocorticoid-induced gene expression. Cells from a glucocorticoid-sensitive xenograft derived from a child with B-cell precursor ALL were inoculated into NOD/SCID mice. When highly engrafted the mice were randomized into groups of 4 to receive dexamethasone 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection or vehicle control. Leukemia cells were harvested from mice spleens at 0, 8, 24 or 48 hours thereafter, and gene expression analyzed on Illumina WG-6_V3 chips, comparing all groups to time 0 hours. Results The 8 hour dexamethasone-treated timepoint had the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes, with fewer observed at the 24 and 48 hour timepoints, and with minimal changes seen across the time-matched controls. When compared to publicly available datasets of glucocorticoid-induced gene expression from an in vitro cell line study and from an in vivo study of patients with ALL, at the level of pathways, expression changes in the 8 hour xenograft samples showed a similar response to patients treated with glucocorticoids. Replicate analysis revealed that at the 8 hour timepoint, a dataset with high signal and differential expression, using data from 3 replicates instead of 4 resulted in excellent recovery scores of > 0.9. However at other timepoints with less signal very poor recovery scores were obtained with 3 replicates. Conclusions The NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model provides a reproducible experimental system in which to investigate clinically-relevant mechanisms of drug-induced gene regulation in ALL; the 8 hour timepoint provides the highest number of significantly differentially expressed genes; time-matched controls are redundant and excellent recovery scores can be obtained with 3 replicates. PMID:22093874

  14. Dysregulated CXCR4 expression promotes lymphoma cell survival and independently predicts disease progression in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lijuan; Shen, Qi; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Martinez-Lopez, Azahara; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexandar; Yin, Lihui; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W.L.; van Krieken, J. Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrs J.M.; Zhao, Xiaoying; Mller, Michael B.; Farnen, John P.; Winter, Jane N.; Piris, Miguel A.; Pham, Lan; Young, Ken H.

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an essential role in tumor cell dissemination and disease progression. However, the significance of CXCR4 overexpression in de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. In 743 patients with de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who received standard Rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy, we assessed the expression of CXCR4 and dissected its prognostic significance in various DLBCL subsets. Our results showed that CXCR4+ patients was associated with male, bulky tumor, high Ki-67 index, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, and Myc, Bcl-2 or p53 overexpression. Moreover, CXCR4+ was an independent factor predicting poorer progression-free survival in germinal-center B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCL, but not in ABC-DLBCL; and in patients with an IPI of ?2, but not in those with an IPI>2. The lack of prognostic significance of CXCR4 in ABC-DLBCL was likely due to the activation of p53 tumor suppressor attenuating CXCR4 signaling. Furthermore, concurrent CXCR4+ and BCL2 translocation showed dismal outcomes resembling but independent of MYC/BCL2 double-hit DLBCL. Gene expression profiling suggested that alterations in the tumor microenvironment and immune responses, increased tumor proliferation and survival, and the dissemination of CXCR4+ tumor cells to distant organs or tissues were underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the CXCR4+ associated poor prognosis. PMID:25704881

  15. A novel IGH@ gene rearrangement associated with CDKN2A/B deletion in young adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    OTHMAN, MONEEB A.K.; GRYGALEWICZ, BEATA; PIENKOWSKA-GRELA, BARBARA; RYGIER, JOLANTA; EJDUK, ANNA; RINCIC, MARTINA; MELO, JOANA B.; CARREIRA, ISABEL M.; MEYER, BRITTA; LIEHR, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    Acquired copy number changes are common in acute leukemia. They are reported as recurrent amplifications or deletions (del), and may be indicative of involvement of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in acquired disease, as well as serving as potential biomarkers for prognosis or as targets for molecular therapy. The present study reported a gain of copy number of 14q13 to 14q32, leading to immunoglobulin heavy chain locus splitting in a young adult female. To the best of our knowledge, this rearrangement has not been previously reported in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Low resolution banding cytogenetics performed at the time of diagnosis revealed a normal karyotype. However, retrospective application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) banding and locus-specific FISH probes, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization, revealed previously hidden aberrations. Overall, a karyotype of 46, XX, del(9) (p21.3 p21.3),derivative(14) (pter-> q32.33:: q32.33-> q13 ::q32.33-> qter) was determined. The patient was treated according to the Polish Adult Leukemia Group protocol and achieved complete remission. The results of the present study indicate that a favorable prognosis is associated with these aberrations when the aforementioned treatment is administered. PMID:26998132

  16. Analysis of Host Gene Expression Changes Reveals Distinct Roles for the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Epstein-Barr Virus Receptor/CD21 in B-Cell Maturation, Activation, and Initiation of Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arredouani, Mohamed S.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Sage, David R.; Dunn, Laura K.; Gill, Michael B.; Agnani, Deep; Libermann, Towia A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) attachment to human CD21 on the B-cell surface initiates infection. Whether CD21 is a simple tether or conveys vital information to the cell interior for production of host factors that promote infection of primary B cells is controversial, as the cytoplasmic fragment of CD21 is short, though highly conserved. The ubiquity of CD21 on normal B cells, the diversity of this population, and the well-known resistance of primary B cells to gene transfer technologies have all impeded resolution of this question. To uncover the role(s) of the CD21 cytoplasmic domain during infection initiation, the full-length receptor (CD21 = CR), a mutant lacking the entire cytoplasmic tail (CT), and a control vector (NEO) were stably expressed in two pre-B-cell lines that lack endogenous receptor. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis demonstrated that stable CD21 surface expression alone (either CR or CT) produced multiple independent changes in gene expression, though both dramatically decreased class I melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) family RNAs and upregulated genes associated with B-cell differentiation (e.g., C2TA, HLA-II, IL21R, MIC2, CD48, and PTPRCAP/CD45-associated protein). Temporal analysis spanning 72 h revealed that not only CR- but also CT-expressing lines initiated latency. In spite of this, the number and spectrum of transcripts altered in CR- compared with CT-bearing lines at 1 h after infection further diverged. Differential modulation of immediate early cellular transcripts (e.g., c-Jun and multiple histones), both novel and previously linked to CD21-initiated signaling, as well as distinct results from pathway analyses support a separate role for the cytoplasmic domain in initiation of intracellular signals. IMPORTANCE Membrane proteins that mediate virus attachment tether virus particles to the cell surface, initiating infection. In addition, upon virus interaction such proteins may transmit signals to the interior of the cell that support subsequent steps in the infection process. Here we show that expression of the Epstein-Barr virus B-cell attachment receptor, CD21, in B cells that lack this receptor results in significant changes in gene expression, both before and rapidly following EBV-CD21 interaction. These changes translate into major signaling pathway alterations that are predicted to support stable infection. PMID:24600013

  17. Renal translocation carcinomas: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiling analysis of 31 cases with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Camparo, Philippe; Vasiliu, Viorel; Molinie, Vincent; Couturier, Jerome; Dykema, Karl J; Petillo, David; Furge, Kyle A; Comperat, Eva M; Lae, Marick; Bouvier, Raymonde; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Denoux, Yves; Ferlicot, Sophie; Forest, Eric; Fromont, Gaelle; Hintzy, Marie C; Laghouati, Myriam; Sibony, Mathilde; Tucker, Marie L; Weber, Nina; Teh, Bin T; Vieillefond, Annick

    2008-05-01

    We report clinicopathologic features of a large series of renal translocation carcinomas from a multicentric study. Diagnosis was performed by cytogenetic examination of fresh material and/or by immunochemistry with antibodies directed against the C-terminal part of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and native transcription factor EB (TFEB) proteins. Clinical data, follow-up, and histologic features were assessed. Antibodies against CK7, CD10, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1-AE3, E-cadherin, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, melan A, and HMB45 were tested on tissue microarrays. Whole-genome microarray expression profiling was performed on 4 tumors. Twenty-nine cases were diagnosed as TFE3 and 2 as TFEB renal translocation carcinomas, including 13 males and 18 females, mean age 24.6 years. Two patients had a previous history of chemotherapy and 1 had a history of renal failure. Mean size of the tumor was 6.9 cm. Thirteen cases were > or = pT3 stage. Twelve cases were N+ or M+. Mean follow-up was 29.5 months. Three patients presented metastases and 5 have died. Mixed papillary and nested patterns with clear and/or eosinophilic cells represented the most consistent histologic appearance, with common foci of calcifications regardless of the type of translocation. Using a 30 mn incubation at room temperature, TFE3 immunostainings were positive in only 82% of our TFE3 translocation carcinomas. Both TFE3 and TFEB renal translocation carcinomas expressed CD10 and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in all cases. An expression of E-cadherin was observed in two-third of cases. Cytokeratins were expressed in less than one-third of cases. Melanocytic markers were expressed at least weakly in all cases except two. Unsupervised clustering on the basis of the gene expression profiling indicated a distinct subgroup of tumors. TRIM 63 glutathione S-transferase A1 and alanyl aminopeptidase are the main differentially expressed genes for this group of tumors. Our results suggest that these differentially expressed genes may serve as novel diagnostic or prognostic markers. PMID:18344867

  18. An additional segment at 1p36 derived from der(18)t(14;18) in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas transformed from follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kenichi; Kanda-Akano, Yumiko; Shimizu, Daisuke; Okuda, Takashi; Yoshida, Naohisa; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Nishida, Kazuhiro; Taki, Tomohiko; Yokota, Shohei; Horiike, Shigeo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2005-07-01

    The particular translocation in follicular lymphomas (FLs) is a t(14;18)(q32;q21), recombining the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene on chromosome 14 with the B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene on chromosome 18. Some low-grade FLs are aggressively transformed into diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, presumably by acquisition of secondary chromosomal changes, including chromosomal band 1p36. A common example is add(1)(p36). Because it is difficult to identify the origin of add(1)(p36) even on high-resolution G-banding analysis, we used spectral karyotyping (SKY) and double-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (DC-FISH) to define the t(14;18) and the extra band at 1p36 in two cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). SKY revealed that the extra chromosomal segment on 1p36 was derived from chromosome 18. DC-FISH defined BCL2/IgH fusion signals at 1p36 in addition to t(14;18), suggesting that BCL2/IgH fusion at 1p36 was an evolutionary alteration following the primary BCL2/IgH translocation on der(18) in both cases. Our results indicate that IgH alleles, implicated in chromosomal rearrangement, may themselves frequently be targets for secondary translocations, suggesting that multiple IgH translocations and insertions are associated with the progression of FL. PMID:15700138

  19. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression in Human B Cell Precursors Is Essential for Central B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cantaert, Tineke; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Bannock, Jason M; Ng, Yen-Shing; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Wu, Renee; Lavoie, Aubert; Walter, Jolan E; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Al-Herz, Waleed; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Ochs, Hans D; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Durandy, Anne; Meffre, Eric

    2015-11-17

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme-mediating class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes, is essential for the removal of developing autoreactive B cells. How AID mediates central B cell tolerance remains unknown. We report that AID enzymes were produced in a discrete population of immature B cells that expressed recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2), suggesting that they undergo secondary recombination to edit autoreactive antibodies. However, most AID+ immature B cells lacked anti-apoptotic MCL-1 and were deleted by apoptosis. AID inhibition using lentiviral-encoded short hairpin (sh)RNA in B cells developing in humanized mice resulted in a failure to remove autoreactive clones. Hence, B cell intrinsic AID expression mediates central B cell tolerance potentially through its RAG-coupled genotoxic activity in self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:26546282

  20. Reciprocal translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 26, describes reciprocal translocations of chromosomes: their occurrence, breakpoints, and multiple rearrangements. In addition, phenotypes of balanced and unbalanced translocation carriers and fetal death are discussed. Examples of translocation families are given. Meiosis and genetic risk in translocation carriers is presented. Finally, sperm chromosomes in meiotic segregation analysis is mentioned. 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Novel Translocation Involving RUNX1 and HOXA Gene Clusters in a Case of Acute Myeloid Leukemia with t(7;21)(p15;q22).

    PubMed

    Moon, Yeonsook; Horsman, Douglas E; Humphries, R Keith; Park, Gyeongsin

    2013-10-01

    Translocations involving chromosome 21q22 are frequently observed in hematologic malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most of which have been known to be involved in malignant transformation through transcriptional dysregulation of Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) target genes. Nineteen RUNX1 translocational partner genes, at least, have been identified, but not Homeobox A (HOXA) genes so far. We report a novel translocation of RUNX1 into the HOXA gene cluster in a 57-year-old female AML patient who had been diagnosed with myelofibrosis 39 months ahead. G-banding showed 46,XX,t(7;21)(p15;q22). The involvement of RUNX1 and HOXA genes was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. PMID:24198749

  2. The Effect of Fc?RIIIA Gene Polymorphism on the Treatment of Diffuse Large B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Bykkurt, Nurhilal; zcan, Mehmet Ali; Ergene, lk; Payz?n, Bahriye; Tunal?, Sunay; Demirkan, Fatih; zsan, Hayri; Pi?kin, zden; ndar, Blent

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The curative treatment approach for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is controversial even in the rituximab (R) era. The aim of this study was to examine the Fc?RIIIA gene polymorphism distribution of DLBCL patients who had been treated with R-CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) chemotherapy. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of Fc?RIIIA gene polymorphism on the overall response rate (ORR) and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods: Patients from 3 centers in the Aegean region of Turkey who had newly diagnosed CD20-positive DLBCL were enrolled in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Fc?RIIIA gene were analyzed by real time-PCR. The response to treatment was determined in the middle and at the end of the protocol. During 2 years of follow-up, the patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated for disease status every 3 months. Results: Thirty-six patients were included in the study and the distributions of F/F, V/F, and V/V types of alleles of Fc?RIIIA were 25%, 50%, and 25%, respectively. Twenty-seven patients were considered as evaluable according to ORR and OS. The patients ORR was 87.5%, 100%, and 50% in the F/F, V/F, and V/V allele groups, respectively. We did not establish any statistically significant differences among the 3 alleles groups in respect to ORR (p=0.93). The OS within 2 years in the F/F, V/F, and V/V allele groups was 62.5%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The OS in the F/F allele group was found to be lower than in the other 2 allele groups (p=0.01). Conclusion: The distribution of gene polymorphisms in our study group was similar to those of previous studies. While ORR was similar between the groups, our results highlight a lower OS in F/F patients compared to other allele groups of Fc?RIIIA. PMID:26316483

  3. A complex three-way translocation with deletion of the TP53 gene in a blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia patient.

    PubMed

    Kokate, Prajakta; Dalvi, Rupa; Mandava, Swarna

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome created by the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11), resulting in the chimeric BCR-ABL oncogene. Variant Ph' chromosome translocations involving additional chromosomes are seen in 5-10% of CML cases. In the present study, a novel case of Ph' chromosome-positive CML is reported, with a three-way translocation involving chromosomal regions, 9q34, 22q11.2 and 17p11.2, with additional secondary changes. The three-way translocation has resulted in a deletion of the TP53 gene located on the chromosome 17p13.1 locus. Deletion of the TP53 gene may be a major contributing factor in the development of resistance to imatinib and blast crisis. PMID:26881646

  4. Expression of ribosomal RNA genes in lines of barley with a standard karyotype and with a translocated nucleolar organizer

    SciTech Connect

    Karag'ozov, L.K.; Ananiev, E.D.; Mateeva, Z.E.; Khadzhiolov, A.A.

    1986-10-01

    The authors have investigated the rRNA synthesis and the sensitivity of rRNA genes to the action of DNAase I in developing embryos of two forms of barley. The Frigga variety has a standard karyotype and the T/sub 506/ line is characterized by translocation of the nucleolar organizer, which leads to a reduction in the number of nucleoli observed in the telophase. The results of the investigation of rRNA synthesis in vivo and of the activity of RNA polymerase I in isolated nuclei revealed the absence of differences between the two barley forms. They have established that the genes of ribosomal RNAs possess greater sensitivity to digestion by DNAase the authors compared to that of the total nuclear DNA. They conclude that the translocation of one of the nucleolar organizers causes a delay in the appearance of its activity during the telophase, this not changing the expression of the rRNA genes in the subsequent stages of cell development.

  5. Clinical features, tumor biology, and prognosis associated with MYC rearrangement and Myc overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Tu, Meifeng; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Tzankov, Alexander; Xia, Yi; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ruifang; Visco, Carlo; Dybkaer, Karen; Yin, Lihui; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William Wl; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrs Jm; Mller, Michael B; Parsons, Ben M; Zhao, Xiaoying; Winter, Jane N; Piris, Miguel A; McDonnell, Timothy J; Miranda, Roberto N; Li, Yong; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2015-12-01

    MYC dysregulation, including MYC gene rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, is of increasing clinical importance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the roles of MYC and the relative importance of rearrangement vs overexpression remain to be refined. Gaining knowledge about the tumor biology associated with MYC dysregulation is important to understand the roles of MYC and MYC-associated biology in lymphomagenesis. In this study, we determined MYC rearrangement status (n=344) and Myc expression (n=535) in a well-characterized DLBCL cohort, individually assessed the clinical and pathobiological features of patients with MYC rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, and analyzed the prognosis and gene expression profiling signatures associated with these MYC abnormalities in germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like DLBCL. Our results showed that the prognostic importance of MYC rearrangement vs Myc overexpression is significantly different in germinal center B-cell-like vs activated B-cell-like DLBCL. In germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL, MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients with Myc overexpression significantly contributed to the clinical, biological, and prognostic characteristics of the overall Myc-overexpressing germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL group. In contrast, in activated B-cell-like DLBCL, the occurrence, clinical and biological features, and prognosis of Myc overexpression were independent of MYC rearrangement. High Myc levels and Myc-independent mechanisms, either tumor cell intrinsic or related to tumor microenvironment, conferred significantly worse survival to MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients, even among Myc(high)Bcl-2(high) DLBCL patients. This study provides new insight into the tumor biology and prognostic effects associated with MYC dysregulation and suggest that detection of both MYC translocations and evaluation of Myc and Bcl-2 expression is necessary to predict the prognosis of DLBCL patients. PMID:26541272

  6. Balanced translocation in a patient with craniosynostosis disrupts the SOX6 gene and an evolutionarily conserved non-transcribed region.

    PubMed

    Tagariello, A; Heller, R; Greven, A; Kalscheuer, V M; Molter, T; Rauch, A; Kress, W; Winterpacht, A

    2006-06-01

    Craniosynostosis is a congenital developmental disorder involving premature fusion of cranial sutures, which results in an abnormal shape of the skull. Significant progress in understanding the molecular basis of this phenotype has been made for a small number of syndromic craniosynostosis forms. Nevertheless, in the majority of the approximately 100 craniosynostosis syndromes and in non-syndromic craniosynostosis the underlying gene defects and pathomechanisms are unknown. Here we report on a male infant presenting at birth with brachycephaly, proptosis, midfacial hypoplasia, and low set ears. Three dimensional cranial computer tomography showed fusion of the lambdoid sutures and distal part of the sagittal suture with a gaping anterior fontanelle. Mutations in the genes for FGFR2 and FGFR3 were excluded. Standard chromosome analysis revealed a de novo balanced translocation t(9;11)(q33;p15). The breakpoint on chromosome 11p15 disrupts the SOX6 gene, known to be involved in skeletal growth and differentiation processes. SOX6 mutation screening of another 104 craniosynostosis patients revealed one missense mutation leading to the exchange of a highly conserved amino acid (p.D68N) in a single patient and his reportedly healthy mother. The breakpoint on chromosome 9 is located in a region without any known or predicted genes but, interestingly, disrupts patches of evolutionarily highly conserved non-genic sequences and may thus led to dysregulation of flanking genes on chromosome 9 or 11 involved in skull vault development. The present case is one of the very rare reports of an apparently balanced translocation in a patient with syndromic craniosynostosis, and reveals novel candidate genes for craniosynostoses and cranial suture formation. PMID:16258006

  7. MicroRNA 28 controls cell proliferation and is down-regulated in B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christof; Setty, Manu; Holmes, Antony B; Maute, Roy L; Leslie, Christina S; Mussolin, Lara; Rosolen, Angelo; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Basso, Katia

    2014-06-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), which originates from germinal center (GC) B cells and harbors translocations deregulating v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC). A comparative analysis of microRNAs expressed in normal and malignant GC B cells identified microRNA 28 (miR-28) as significantly down-regulated in BL, as well as in other GC-derived B-NHL. We show that reexpression of miR-28 impairs cell proliferation and clonogenic properties of BL cells by modulating several targets including MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1, MAD2L1, a component of the spindle checkpoint whose down-regulation is essential in mediating miR-28-induced proliferation arrest, and BCL2-associated athanogene, BAG1, an activator of the ERK pathway. We identify the oncogene MYC as a negative regulator of miR-28 expression, suggesting that its deregulation by chromosomal translocation in BL leads to miR-28 suppression. In addition, we show that miR-28 can inhibit MYC-induced transformation by directly targeting genes up-regulated by MYC. Overall, our data suggest that miR-28 acts as a tumor suppressor in BL and that its repression by MYC contributes to B-cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:24843176

  8. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3(+) (LAG3(+)) forkhead box protein 3(-) (FOXP3(-)) regulatory T cells induced by B cells alleviates joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Hsu, Wan-Tseng; Chen, Yi-Lien; Chien, Chien-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which dysregulated immune cells primarily target synovial joints. Despite recent advances in the treatment of RA, including the introduction of biologic therapies and employment of combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug strategies, remission rates remain suboptimal. Previous studies have demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) was effective in treating a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The objective of this study was to develop optimal potential iTreg-based therapy for CIA by adoptively transferring LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells. B-cell-induced Treg-of-B cells expressed LAG3 but not Foxp3 (designated LAG3(+) Treg-of-B), and secreted IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. Furthermore, LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells suppressed the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) responder T cells through both LAG3 and IL-10 production. In the murine CIA model, adoptive transfer of LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells alleviated the joint severity as well as local and systemic inflammation. Treatment with LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells also promoted IL-10 production in lymphocytes isolated from the spleen and draining lymph nodes. Moreover, mice receiving LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cell treatment showed significantly less pronounced osteolysis in the hind footpads, which correlated with the downregulation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. In conclusion, we identified a novel subset of Tregs for CIA treatment. This insight may facilitate exploring novel regulatory T-cell-based therapies for human autoimmune diseases. PMID:26908164

  9. IRF4 Is a Critical Gene in Retinoic Acid-Mediated Plasma Cell Formation and Is Deregulated in Common Variable Immunodeficiency-Derived B Cells.

    PubMed

    Indrevær, Randi L; Moskaug, Jan Ø; Paur, Ingvild; Bøhn, Siv K; Jørgensen, Silje F; Blomhoff, Rune; Aukrust, Pål; Fevang, Børre; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed at identifying the mechanisms whereby the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) promotes the formation of plasma cells upon stimulation of B cells via the innate immunity receptors TLR9 and RP105. Most often, differentiation of B cells involves the sequential events of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutations characteristic of germinal center reactions, followed by plasma cell formation. By studying the regulatory networks known to drive these reactions, we revealed that RA enhances the expression of the plasma cell-generating transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 and Blimp1, and paradoxically also activation-induced deaminase (AID) involved in somatic hypermutations/class switch recombination, in primary human B cells. IRF4 was identified as a particularly important protein involved in the RA-mediated production of IgG in TLR9/RP105-stimulated B cells. Based on kinetic studies, we present a model suggesting that the initial induction of IRF4 by RA favors AID expression. According to this model, the higher level of IRF4 that eventually arises results in sustained elevated levels of Blimp1. Regarded as a master regulator of plasma cell development, Blimp1 will in turn suppress AID expression and drive the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells. Notably, we demonstrated IRF4 to be deregulated in B cells from common variable immunodeficiency patients, contributing to the observed aberrant expression of AID in these patients. Taken together, the present study both provides new insight into the mechanisms whereby RA induces differentiation of B cells and identifies IRF4 as a key to understand the defective functions of B cells in common variable immunodeficiency patients. PMID:26276871

  10. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    PubMed

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. PMID:25101868

  11. Xp pseudoautosomal gene haploinsufficiency and linear growth deficiency in three girls with chromosome Xp22;Yq11 translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, M; Cantú, E S; Pai, G S; Willi, S M; Papenhausen, P R; Weiss, L

    1996-01-01

    Colony stimulating factor-2 receptor alpha (CSF2RA) and interleukin-3 receptor alpha (IL3RA), two genes from the chromosome Xp and Yp pseudoautosomal region (PAR), have been suggested as candidate genes for short stature in Turner syndrome. We report three girls with X;Y translocation (46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22;q11) initially detected by amniocentesis. The terminal portion of the X chromosome distal to the translocation breakpoint at Xp22 was deleted on the derivative X chromosome in all three patients. Each had normal stature at birth, with greater than expected deceleration of growth velocity by the second year. Using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), we have shown deletion of the CSF2RA and IL3RA loci on the derivative X chromosomes of all three patients. The role of CSF2RA and IL3RA haploinsufficiency in linear growth and final adult stature is discussed. Additional studies, particularly of molecular deletions within the PAR, are needed to improve our understanding of the role of these and other PAR loci in the genetic control of adult stature. Images PMID:8950669

  12. Location and nucleotide sequence of the gene for the proton-translocating subunit of wheat chloroplast ATP synthase

    PubMed Central

    Howe, C. J.; Auffret, A. D.; Doherty, A.; Bowman, C. M.; Dyer, T. A.; Gray, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The proton-translocating subunit of wheat chloroplast ATP synthase is encoded by a chloroplast gene that has been accurately mapped and whose nucleotide sequence has been determined. The predicted sequence of 81 amino acids has been confirmed in part by determination of the sequence of the first 40 amino acids from the NH2 terminus of the protein, and it shows 100% homology with the known amino acid sequence of the spinach protein but no more than 35% homology with the amino acid sequences of bacterial and mitochondrial proteins. The gene shows no deviation from the universal genetic code and is not split. A potential ribosome binding site is located 12 nucleotides upstream from the initiation codon, but sequences homologous to prokaryotic promotors and transcription terminators are not apparent. Images PMID:16593250

  13. A Constitutional Translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2) in a Neuroblastoma Patient Disrupts the Human NBPF1 and ACCN1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Staes, Katrien; Vandesompele, Jo; Laureys, Genevive; De Smet, Els; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; van Roy, Frans

    2008-01-01

    The human 1p36 region is deleted in many different types of tumors, and so it probably harbors one or more tumor suppressor genes. In a Belgian neuroblastoma patient, a constitutional balanced translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2) may have led to the development of the tumor by disrupting or activating a gene. Here, we report the cloning of both translocation breakpoints and the identification of a novel gene that is disrupted by this translocation. This gene, named NBPF1 for Neuroblastoma BreakPoint Family member 1, belongs to a recently described gene family encoding highly similar proteins, the functions of which are unknown. The translocation truncates NBPF1 and gives rise to two chimeric transcripts of NBPF1 sequences fused to sequences derived from chromosome 17. On chromosome 17, the translocation disrupts one of the isoforms of ACCN1, a potential glioma tumor suppressor gene. Expression of the NBPF family in neuroblastoma cell lines is highly variable, but it is decreased in cell lines that have a deletion of chromosome 1p. More importantly, expression profiling of the NBPF1 gene showed that its expression is significantly lower in cell lines with heterozygous NBPF1 loss than in cell lines with a normal 1p chromosome. Meta-analysis of the expression of NBPF and ACCN1 in neuroblastoma tumors indicates a role for the NBPF genes and for ACCN1 in tumor aggressiveness. Additionally, DLD1 cells with inducible NBPF1 expression showed a marked decrease of clonal growth in a soft agar assay. The disruption of both NBPF1 and ACCN1 genes in this neuroblastoma patient indicates that these genes might suppress development of neuroblastoma and possibly other tumor types. PMID:18493581

  14. Cloning of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene: Identification of cDNAs associated with CpG islands mapped near translocation breakpoint in two female patients

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D.; Kere, J.

    1994-09-01

    The gene for the X chromosomal developmental disorder anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) has been mapped to Xq12-q13 by linkage analysis and is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving band Xq12-q13. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig (2.0 Mb) spanning two translocation breakpoints has been assembled by sequence-tagged site (STS)-based chromosomal walking. The two translocation breakpoints (X:autosome translocations from the affected female patients) have been mapped less than 60 kb apart within a YAC contig. Unique probes and intragenic STSs (mapped between the two translocations) have been developed and a somatic cell hybrid carrying the translocated X chromosome from the AK patient has been analyzed by isolating unique probes that span the breakpoint. Several STSs made from intragenic sequences have been found to be conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, but we have detected no mRNAs in a number of tissues tested. However, a probe and STS developed from the DNA spanning the AK breakpoint is conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, and we have detected expressed sequences in skin cells and cDNA libraries. In addition, unique sequences have been obtained from two CpG islands in the region that maps proximal to the breakpoints. cDNAs containing these sequences are being studied as candidates for the gene affected in the etiology of EDA.

  15. Clues to pathogenesis of Waldenstrm macroglobulinemia and immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance provided by analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and clustering of B-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Varettoni, Marzia; Zibellini, Silvia; Capello, Daniela; Arcaini, Luca; Rossi, Davide; Pascutto, Cristiana; Rattotti, Sara; Mangiacavalli, Silvia; Pochintesta, Lara; Gotti, Manuel; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-11-01

    We characterized immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements and searched for clusters of stereotyped B-cell receptors in 123 patients with Waldenstrm macroglobulinemia (WM; n = 59) or immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM-MGUS) (n = 64). A productive monoclonal IGHV-D-J rearrangement was obtained in 99/123 patients (80%). Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes were mutated in 94/99 patients (95%) with a median somatic hypermutation rate of 6.7% (2.1-14.5). Compared with the normal B-cell repertoire, patients with WM/IgM-MGUS showed an over-representation of the IGHV3 subgroup (83% vs. 55%, p < 0.0001) and an under-representation of IGHV1 (7% vs. 14%, p = 0.04) and IGHV4 (7% vs. 23%, p = 0.0001) subgroups. At the gene level, in WM/IgM-MGUS there was an over-representation of IGHV3-23 (24% vs. 12%, p = 0.0003), IGHV3-64 (3% vs. < 1%, p = 0.003), IGHV3-7 (12% vs. 4%, p = 0.0001) and IGHV3-74 (9% vs. 2%, p < 0.0001), while IGHV4-39 was never used (0 vs. 5%, p = 0.03). Intra-WM/IgM-MGUS search for HCDR3 similarity showed no association fulfilling criteria for stereotyped receptors. WM/IgM-MGUS sequences were unrelated to known chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) subsets. In conclusion, the IGHV gene usage in WM and IgM-MGUS is remarkably biased as compared to the normal B-cell repertoire. WM and IgM-MGUS-specific HCDR3 clusters do not occur with a frequency detectable with currently available databases, not supporting a B-cell receptor-driven pathogenesis in WM and IgM-MGUS. PMID:23442064

  16. The High Expression of the microRNA 17-92 Cluster and its Paralogs, and the Downregulation of the Target Gene PTEN, Is Associated with Primary Cutaneous B-Cell Lymphoma Progression.

    PubMed

    Battistella, Maxime; Romero, Martha; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Gapihan, Guillaume; Bouhidel, Fatiha; Bagot, Martine; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Janin, Anne

    2015-06-01

    The oncogenic microRNA (miR) 17-92 cluster has a causative role in the lymphomagenesis of nodal B-cell lymphomas, by activating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. Here we analyzed primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas for the miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs miR-106a-363 and miR-106b-25. In 22 primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) compared with 22 primary cutaneous follicle center lymphomas (PCFCLs), we found that miR-20a and miR-106a were overexpressed. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that higher miR-20a and miR-20b expression levels were associated with shorter disease-free and overall survival, independently from histological type. Gene expression profiling also showed a downregulation of 8 candidate target genes of miR-20a, miR-20b, and miR-106a in PCLBCL-LT compared with PCFCL. Among the candidate target genes, PTEN, NCOA3, and CAPRIN2 were confirmed to be underexpressed in PCLBCL-LT using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR on CD20-positive laser-microdissected tumor cells. In multivariate Cox analysis, lower PTEN mRNA expression level was associated with shorter disease-free survival (DFS), independently from the histological type. Altogether, this molecular and bioinformatic study of 44 patient skin biopsy samples showed that the oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster and its paralogs were involved in cutaneous B-cell lymphoma progression, and that the downregulation of the target gene PTEN was associated with shorter DFS. PMID:25634356

  17. B Cell Super-Enhancers and Regulatory Clusters Recruit AID Tumorigenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jason; Wang, Qiao; Dose, Marei; Pruett, Nathanael; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Resch, Wolfgang; Liang, Genqing; Tang, Zhonghui; Math, Ewy; Benner, Christopher; Dubois, Wendy; Nelson, Steevenson; Vian, Laura; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Jankovic, Mila; Hakim, Ofir; Gazumyan, Anna; Pavri, Rushad; Awasthi, Parirokh; Song, Bin; Liu, Geng; Chen, Longyun; Zhu, Shida; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Staudt, Louis; Murre, Cornelis; Ruan, Yijun; Robbiani, Davide F.; Pan-Hammarstrm, Qiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Casellas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The antibody gene mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promiscuously damages oncogenes, leading to chromosomal translocations and tumorigenesis. Why nonimmunoglobulin loci are susceptible to AID activity is unknown. Here, we study AID-mediated lesions in the context of nuclear architecture and the B cell regulome. We show that AID targets are not randomly distributed across the genome but are predominantly grouped within super-enhancers and regulatory clusters. Unexpectedly, in these domains, AID deaminates active promoters and eRNA+ enhancers interconnected in some instances over megabases of linear chromatin. Using genome editing, we demonstrate that 3D-linked targets cooperate to recruit AID-mediated breaks. Furthermore, a comparison of hypermutation in mouse B cells, AID-induced kataegis in human lymphomas, and translocations in MEFs reveals that AID damages different genes in different cell types. Yet, in all cases, the targets are predominantly associated with topological complex, highly transcribed super-enhancers, demonstrating that these compartments are key mediators of AID recruitment. PMID:25483777

  18. B cell super-enhancers and regulatory clusters recruit AID tumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jason; Wang, Qiao; Dose, Marei; Pruett, Nathanael; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Resch, Wolfgang; Liang, Genqing; Tang, Zhonghui; Math, Ewy; Benner, Christopher; Dubois, Wendy; Nelson, Steevenson; Vian, Laura; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Jankovic, Mila; Hakim, Ofir; Gazumyan, Anna; Pavri, Rushad; Awasthi, Parirokh; Song, Bin; Liu, Geng; Chen, Longyun; Zhu, Shida; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Staudt, Louis; Murre, Cornelis; Ruan, Yijun; Robbiani, Davide F; Pan-Hammarstrm, Qiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

    2014-12-18

    The antibody gene mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promiscuously damages oncogenes, leading to chromosomal translocations andtumorigenesis. Why nonimmunoglobulin loci are susceptible to AID activity is unknown. Here, we study AID-mediated lesions in the context of nuclear architecture and the B cell regulome. We show that AID targets are not randomly distributed across thegenome but are predominantly grouped within super-enhancers and regulatory clusters. Unexpectedly, in these domains, AID deaminates active promoters and eRNA(+) enhancers interconnected in some instances over megabases of linear chromatin. Using genome editing, we demonstrate that 3D-linked targets cooperate to recruit AID-mediated breaks. Furthermore, a comparison of hypermutation in mouse B cells, AID-induced kataegis in human lymphomas, and translocations in MEFs reveals that AID damages different genes in different cell types. Yet, in all cases, the targets are predominantly associated with topological complex, highly transcribed super-enhancers, demonstrating that these compartments are key mediators of AID recruitment. PMID:25483777

  19. The Flavones Apigenin and Luteolin Induce FOXO1 Translocation but Inhibit Gluconeogenic and Lipogenic Gene Expression in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Osterhoff, Martin A.; Borchert, Andrea; Guzman-Perez, Valentina; Sarem, Zeinab; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Bähr, Volker; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.

    2014-01-01

    The flavones apigenin (4′,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) and luteolin (3′,4′,5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone) are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1), an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, and S6-phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin indicating a direct inhibition of the PKB/AKT-signaling pathway distal to the IGF-1 receptor. N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these flavones do not act via oxidative stress. The roles of FOXO1, FOXO3a, AKT, sirtuin1 (SIRT1), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2)-like2 (NRF2), investigated by siRNA knockdown, showed differential patterns of signal pathways involved and a role of NRF2 in the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. We conclude that these flavones show an antidiabetic potential due to reduction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacity despite inhibition of the PKB/AKT pathway which justifies detailed investigation in vivo. PMID:25136826

  20. The flavones apigenin and luteolin induce FOXO1 translocation but inhibit gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Osterhoff, Martin A; Borchert, Andrea; Guzman-Perez, Valentina; Sarem, Zeinab; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Bähr, Volker; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2014-01-01

    The flavones apigenin (4',5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) and luteolin (3',4',5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone) are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1), an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, and S6-phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin indicating a direct inhibition of the PKB/AKT-signaling pathway distal to the IGF-1 receptor. N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these flavones do not act via oxidative stress. The roles of FOXO1, FOXO3a, AKT, sirtuin1 (SIRT1), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2)-like2 (NRF2), investigated by siRNA knockdown, showed differential patterns of signal pathways involved and a role of NRF2 in the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. We conclude that these flavones show an antidiabetic potential due to reduction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacity despite inhibition of the PKB/AKT pathway which justifies detailed investigation in vivo. PMID:25136826

  1. B Cells, Antibodies, and More.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, William; Lakkis, Fadi G; Chalasani, Geetha

    2016-01-01

    B cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritides and transplant rejection. B cells secrete antibodies that contribute to tissue injury via multiple mechanisms. In addition, B cells contribute to disease pathogenesis in autoimmunity and alloimmunity by presenting antigens as well as providing costimulation and cytokines to T cells. B cells also play an immunomodulatory role in regulating the immune response by secreting cytokines that inhibit disease onset and/or progression. B cell-targeted approaches for treating immune diseases of the kidney and other organs have gained significant momentum. However, much remains to be understood about B-cell biology in order to determine the timing, duration, and context of optimal therapeutic response to B cell-targeted approaches. In this review, we discuss the multifaceted roles of B cells as enhancers and regulators of immunity with relevance to kidney disease and transplantation. PMID:26700440

  2. The UDP-galactose translocator gene is mapped to band Xp11. 23-p11. 22 containing the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Locus

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Takahiko; Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Kazuhisa; Ayusawa, Dai; Kawakita, Masao ); Yamauchi, Masatake; Takahashi, Ei-ichi )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have cloned a segment of the human gene encoding UDP-galactose translocator by genetic complementation of its defective mutant in mouse FM3A cells. Chromosome mapping using fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the cloned gene hybridized to the Xp11.23-11.23 region of the X chromosome. This region is shared by the locus of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by defective sugar chains on cell surface components. Genetic and phenotypic similarities suggest a possible link between UDP-galactose translocator and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

  3. CD38 gene polymorphisms contribute to genetic susceptibility to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evidence from two case-control studies in Polish Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Szemraj, Zofia; Grzybowska-Izydorczyk, Olga; Szemraj, Janusz; Bieniasz, Magdalena; Cebula, Barbara; Giannopoulos, Krzysztof; Balcerczak, Ewa; Jesionek-Kupnicka, Dorota; Kowal, Malgorzata; Kostyra, Aleksandra; Calbecka, Malgorzata; Wawrzyniak, Ewa; Mirowski, Marek; Kordek, Radzislaw; Robak, Tadeusz

    2009-03-01

    Given the recent findings on the importance of CD38 signaling in the pathogenesis of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the CD38 gene may be related to B-CLL risk. We evaluated two potentially functional CD38 SNPs, intronic rs6449182 (184C>G) and missense rs1800561 (418C>T, Arg140Trp) in two hospital-based case-control studies (study A and validation study B). Genotyping was done using PCR-based assays in a total of 460 Polish Caucasian patients with B-CLL and 503 age-matched and gender-matched controls. We found that frequencies of both variant alleles (rs6449182 G and rs1800561 T) were significantly higher in B-CLL. In study A, logistic regression analysis revealed an association between B-CLL and genotypes: rs6449182 CG [odds ratio (OR), 3.57; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.4-5.3], rs6449182 GG (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.36-11.5), and rs1800561 CT (OR, 6.72; 95% CI, 1.5-30.1), although no homozygous rs1800561 TT genotype was detected in either study. These results were confirmed in study B, which showed an association between B-CLL and genotypes rs6449182 CG (OR, 4.00; 95% CI, 2.7-6.0), rs6449182 GG (OR, 12.84; 95% CI, 4.3-38.7), and rs1800561 CT (OR, 10.12; 95% CI, 1.3-81.6), and in the combined analysis of both studies. We also observed that rs6449182 G carriers had more advanced clinical stage (P=0.002) and tended to be younger at diagnosis (P=0.056). Furthermore, we found higher CD38 transcript levels and higher proportions of CD38-positive cells in carriers of rs6449182 G and rs1800561 T alleles (P<0.05 for all comparisons). In conclusion, our data show that CD38 SNPs may affect CD38 expression and contribute to the increased risk of B-CLL carcinogenesis. PMID:19240243

  4. T cell CD40LG gene expression and the production of IgG by autologous B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Jun; Pan, Yujun; Fei, Yiping; Qiu, Xiangning; Hu, Nan; Luo, Yongqi; Lei, Wenzhi; Li, Yaping; Long, Hai; Sawalha, Amr H; Richardson, Bruce; Lu, Qianjin

    2009-01-01

    CD40 ligand (CD40LG), encoded on the X chromosome, has been reported to be overexpressed on lupus Tcells. Herein, we investigated the effect of DNA demethylation on Tcell CD40LG expression and the production of IgG by autologous B cells in lupus. We found normal human T cells transfected with CD40LG induced autologous B cell activation and plasma cell differentiation. Both female lupus CD4+ T cells and demethylating agents treated CD4+ T cells overexpressed CD40LG mRNA. Further, lupus T cells from both genders or demethylated CD4+ T cells from healthy women overstimulated autologous B cells, and this could be reversed with anti-CD40LG Ab in only females. We demonstrated that female lupus CD4+ T cells and demethylated CD4+ T cells express high level of CD40LG and overstimulate B cells to produce IgG. This is due to DNA demethylation and thereby reactivation of the inactive X chromosome in female. PMID:19520616

  5. Genetic pathway to recurrent chromosome translocations in murine lymphoma involves V(D)J recombinase

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Gary J.; Halbrook, James; Thomas, Sushma; Burgess, Abigail; Hoekstra, Merl F.; Disteche, Christine M.; Willerford, Dennis M.

    1999-01-01

    Chromosome translocations involving antigen receptor loci are a genetic hallmark of non-Hodgkins lymphomas in humans. Most commonly, these translocations result in juxtaposition of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus with one of several cellular proto-oncogenes, leading to deregulated oncogene expression. The V(D)J recombinase, which mediates physiologic rearrangements of antigen receptor genes, may play a mechanistic role in some lymphoma translocations, although evidence is indirect. A high incidence of B-lineage lymphomas has been observed in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and p53-null mutations. We show that these tumors are characteristic of the proB-cell stage of development and that they harbor recurrent translocations involving chromosomes 12 and 15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) shows retention of IgH sequences on the derivative chromosome 12, implying that breakpoints involve the IgH locus. ProB-cell lymphomas were suppressed in SCID p53/ mice by a Rag-2null mutation, demonstrating that DNA breaks generated during V(D)J recombination are required for oncogenic transformation, and suggesting that t(12;15) arise during attempted IgH rearrangement in pro-B cells. These studies indicate that the oncogenic potential inherent in antigen receptor diversification is controlled in vivo by efficient rejoining of DNA ends generated during V(D)J recombination and an intact cellular response to DNA damage. J. Clin. Invest. 103:16691675 (1999). PMID:10377173

  6. Induction of tolerance to factor VIII inhibitors by gene therapy with immunodominant A2 and C2 domains presented by B cells as Ig fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tie Chi; Scott, David W

    2005-06-15

    Up to 30% of patients with hemophilia A given therapeutic factor VIII (fVIII) can make inhibitory antibodies, the majority of which are reactive with its C2 and A2 domains. We have previously demonstrated that antigen-specific tolerance to several antigens can be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated B-cell blasts transduced with immunoglobulin (IgG)-antigen fusion constructs. To apply this system to hemophilia A inhibitor formation, we created retroviral vectors expressing fVIII amino acids S2173-Y2332 (C2 domain) and S373-R740 (A2 domain) in frame with an IgG heavy chain backbone. These vectors were transduced into B-cell blasts to induce tolerance in both naive and fVIII-primed hemophilic (E16 fVIII(-/-)) mice. Thus, treatment of E16 fVIII(-/-) mice with B cells expressing fVIII C2 and A2 domains led to tolerance in terms of specific humoral response (including inhibitory antibody titers) and cellular responses to fVIII and its C2 or A2 domains. Moreover, a significant reduction in immune responses to fVIII could be achieved in immunized hemophilic mice with existing anti-fVIII titers. This hyporesponsive state persisted for at least 2 months and withstood additional challenge with fVIII. Further experiments, in which mice were treated with a depleting monoclonal anti-CD25, suggested that a regulatory T cell may be required for the tolerogenic effect of transduced B cells. These findings demonstrate that B-cell presentation of fVIII domains on an Ig backbone specifically prevents or decreases existing antibodies in hemophilia A mice. PMID:15769892

  7. Genomic structure of the EWS gene and its relationship to EWSR1, a site of tumor-associated chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Plougastel, B.; Zucman, J.; Peter, M.; Thomas, G.; Delattre, O. )

    1993-12-01

    The EWS gene has been identified based on its location at the chromosome 22 breakpoint of the t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation that characterizes Ewing sarcoma and related neuroectodermal tumors. The EWS gene spans about 40 kb of DNA and is encoded by 17 exons. The nucleotide sequence of the exons is identical to that of the previously described cDNA. The first 7 exons encode the N-terminal domain of EWS, which consists of a repeated degenerated polypeptide of 7 to 12 residues rich in tyrosine, serine, threonine, glycine, and glutamine. Exons 11, 12, and 13 encode the putative RNA binding domain. The three glycine- and arginine-rich motifs of the gene are mainly encoded by exons 8-9, 14, and 16. The DNA sequence in the 5[prime] region of the gene has features of a CpG-rich island and lacks canonical promoter elements, such as TATA and CCAAT consensus sequences. Positions of the chromosome 22 breakpoints were determined for 19 Ewing tumors. They were localized in introns 7 or 8 in 18 cases and in intron 10 in 1 case. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Human c-myc onc gene is located on the region of chromosome 8 that is translocated in Burkitt lymphoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dalla-Favera, R; Bregni, M; Erikson, J; Patterson, D; Gallo, R C; Croce, C M

    1982-01-01

    Human sequences related to the transforming gene (v-myc) of avian myelocytomatosis virus (MC29) are represented by at least one gene and several related sequences that may represent pseudogenes. By using a DNA probe that is specific for the complete gene (c-myc), different somatic cell hybrids possessing varying numbers of human chromosomes were analyzed by the Southern blotting technique. The results indicate that the human c-myc gene is located on chromosome 8. The analysis of hybrids between rodent cells and human Burkitt lymphoma cells, which carry a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 8 and 14, allowed the mapping of the human c-myc gene on region (q24 leads to qter) of chromosome 8. This chromosomal region is translocated to either human chromosome 2, 14, or 22 in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Images PMID:6961453

  9. Restoring balance to B cells in ADA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luning Prak, Eline T

    2012-06-01

    It is paradoxical that immunodeficiency disorders are associated with autoimmunity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency, a cause of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), is a case in point. In this issue of the JCI, Sauer and colleagues investigate the B cell defects in ADA-deficient patients. They demonstrate that ADA patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy had B cell tolerance checkpoint defects. Remarkably, gene therapy with a retrovirus that expresses ADA resulted in the apparent correction of these defects, with normalization of peripheral B cell autoantibody frequencies. In vitro, agents that either block ADA or overexpress adenosine resulted in altered B cell receptor and TLR signaling. Collectively, these data implicate a B cell-intrinsic mechanism for alterations in B cell tolerance in the setting of partial ADA deficiency that is corrected by gene therapy. PMID:22622034

  10. DISSECTING TELEOST B CELL DIFFERENTIATION USING TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Zwollo, Patty

    2011-01-01

    B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. Research on alternative splicing of both the Ikaros and Pax5 genes in rainbow trout is presented, including their functional significance. An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. Lastly, broader impacts and practical applications are discussed. PMID:21251922

  11. Rapid amplification of immunoglobulin heavy chain switch (IGHS) translocation breakpoints using long-distance inverse PCR.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, T; Willis, T G; Oscier, D G; Karran, E L; Siebert, R; Dyer, M J S

    2004-12-01

    Molecular cloning of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) translocation breakpoints identifies genes of biological importance in the development of normal and malignant B cells. Long-distance inverse PCR (LDI-PCR) was first applied to amplification of IGH gene translocations targeted to the joining (IGHJ) regions. We report here successful amplification of the breakpoint of IGH translocations targeted to switch (IGHS) regions by LDI-PCR. To detect IGHS translocations, Southern blot assays using 5' and 3' switch probes were performed. Illegitimate Smu rearrangements were amplified from the 5' end (5'Smu LDI-PCR) from the alternative derivative chromosome, and those of Sgamma or Salpha were amplified from the 3' end (3'Sgamma or 3'alpha LDI-PCR) from the derivative chromosome 14. Using a combination of these methods, we have succeeded in amplifying IGHS translocation breakpoints involving FGFR3/MMSET on 4p16, BCL6 on 3q27, MYC on 8q24, IRTA1 on 1q21 and PAX5 on 9p13 as well as BCL11A on 2p13 and CCND3 on 6p21. The combination of LDI-PCR for IGHJ and IGHS allows rapid molecular cloning of almost all IGH gene translocation breakpoints. PMID:15496980

  12. Targeted Deletion of the Gene Encoding the La Autoantigen (Sjgren's Syndrome Antigen B) in B Cells or the Frontal Brain Causes Extensive Tissue Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaidamakov, Sergei; Maximova, Olga A.; Chon, Hyongi; Blewett, Nathan H.; Wang, Hongsheng; Crawford, Amanda K.; Day, Amanda; Tulchin, Natalie; Crouch, Robert J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Blitzer, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    La antigen (Sjgren's syndrome antigen B) is a phosphoprotein associated with nascent precursor tRNAs and other RNAs, and it is targeted by autoantibodies in patients with Sjgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Increased levels of La are associated with leukemias and other cancers, and various viruses usurp La to promote their replication. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) genetically depleted of La grow and proliferate, whereas deletion from mice causes early embryonic lethality, raising the question of whether La is required by mammalian cells generally or only to surpass a developmental stage. We developed a conditional La allele and used it in mice that express Cre recombinase in either B cell progenitors or the forebrain. B cell Mb1Cre La-deleted mice produce no B cells. Consistent with ?CamKII Cre, which induces deletion in hippocampal CA1 cells in the third postnatal week and later throughout the neocortex, brains develop normally in La-deleted mice until ?5 weeks and then lose a large amount of forebrain cells and mass, with evidence of altered pre-tRNA processing. The data indicate that La is required not only in proliferating cells but also in nondividing postmitotic cells. Thus, La is essential in different cell types and required for normal development of various tissue types. PMID:24190965

  13. The life and death of a B cell.

    PubMed

    Defrance, Thierry; Casamayor-Pallejà, Montserrat; Krammer, Peter H

    2002-01-01

    Regulation of apoptosis in the B cell lineage has implications for homeostasis, quality control of the antibody response, and tolerance. In this chapter we examine the different checkpoints that control life and death decisions of B cells during the antigen-independent and antigen-dependent phases of their development. We discuss the cell death mechanism involved in elimination of unwanted B cells at different stages of their development as well as the signals that trigger or repress the apoptotic process. At the steady state, before or after development of an immune response, B cell apoptosis ensures that the antigen receptor (BCR) on newly produced B cells is functional and does not recognize self-antigens with high avidity. It also ensures that the size of the peripheral B cell compartment remains constant in spite of the continuous input of B cells from the bone marrow. All these processes are controlled by the mitochondrial death pathway and are thus perturbed by overexpression of the antiapoptotic members of the bcl-2 gene family. By contrast, the death receptor pathway plays a prominent role during the antigen-dependent phase of B cell development. Three sets of membrane molecules stand as crucial regulators of B cell survival. First, the BCR which plays a central but ambiguous role. On the one hand, it triggers death of B cells that recognize self-antigens or have been exposed to repeated antigenic stimulations. On the other hand, it promotes survival of the peripheral mature B cell pool and protects activated B cells from CD95-induced killing. Second, the death receptor Fas/CD95 which is instrumental in censoring B cells activated in a bystander fashion at the initiation of the response to T-dependent antigens. It also drives elimination of low-affinity and self-reactive B cell clones that arise through the process of somatic mutations during the germinal center reaction. As such, it contributes to the affinity maturation of the antibody response. Finally, three membrane receptors (TACI, BCMA, and BAFF-R) which bind a newly discovered member of the tumor necrosis factor family named BAFF. BAFF acts specifically on peripheral B cells but its cellular targets seem to be restricted to two splenic B cell populations: (i) transitional immature B cells and (ii) marginal zone B cells, known to be responsible for the response to thymus-independent type 2 antigens. This suggests its possible implication in positive selection of peripheral B cells and in the antibacterial B cell responses. PMID:12374279

  14. A cryptic wheatAegilops triuncialis translocation with leaf rust resistance gene Lr58

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes transferred to crop plants from wild species are often associated with deleterious traits. Using molecular markers, we detected a cryptic introgression with a leaf rust resistance gene transferred from Aegilops triuncialis L. into common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). One agronomically desirabl...

  15. Lymphomagenic CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling drives malignant B-cell proliferation via cooperative NF-?B and JNK activation.

    PubMed

    Knies, Nathalie; Alankus, Begm; Weilemann, Andre; Tzankov, Alexandar; Brunner, Kristina; Ruff, Tanja; Kremer, Marcus; Keller, Ulrich B; Lenz, Georg; Ruland, Jrgen

    2015-12-29

    The aggressive activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and constitutive nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation, which is required for tumor cell survival. BCR-induced NF-?B activation requires caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11), and CARD11 gain-of-function mutations are recurrently detected in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To investigate the consequences of dysregulated CARD11 signaling in vivo, we generated mice that conditionally express the human DLBCL-derived CARD11(L225LI) mutant. Surprisingly, CARD11(L225LI) was sufficient to trigger aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferation, leading to early postnatal lethality. CARD11(L225LI) constitutively associated with B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) to simultaneously activate the NF-?B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades. Genetic deficiencies of either BCL10 or MALT1 completely rescued the phenotype, and pharmacological inhibition of JNK was, similar to NF-?B blockage, toxic to autonomously proliferating CARD11(L225LI)-expressing B cells. Moreover, constitutive JNK activity was observed in primary human activated B cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL specimens, and human ABC-DLBCL cells were also sensitive to JNK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that enforced activation of CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling is sufficient to drive transformed B-cell expansion in vivo and identify the JNK pathway as a therapeutic target for ABC-DLBCL. PMID:26668357

  16. Lymphomagenic CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling drives malignant B-cell proliferation via cooperative NF-κB and JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Nathalie; Alankus, Begüm; Weilemann, Andre; Tzankov, Alexandar; Brunner, Kristina; Ruff, Tanja; Kremer, Marcus; Keller, Ulrich B.; Lenz, Georg; Ruland, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and constitutive nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation, which is required for tumor cell survival. BCR-induced NF-κB activation requires caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11), and CARD11 gain-of-function mutations are recurrently detected in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To investigate the consequences of dysregulated CARD11 signaling in vivo, we generated mice that conditionally express the human DLBCL-derived CARD11(L225LI) mutant. Surprisingly, CARD11(L225LI) was sufficient to trigger aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferation, leading to early postnatal lethality. CARD11(L225LI) constitutively associated with B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) to simultaneously activate the NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades. Genetic deficiencies of either BCL10 or MALT1 completely rescued the phenotype, and pharmacological inhibition of JNK was, similar to NF-κB blockage, toxic to autonomously proliferating CARD11(L225LI)-expressing B cells. Moreover, constitutive JNK activity was observed in primary human activated B cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL specimens, and human ABC-DLBCL cells were also sensitive to JNK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that enforced activation of CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling is sufficient to drive transformed B-cell expansion in vivo and identify the JNK pathway as a therapeutic target for ABC-DLBCL. PMID:26668357

  17. B cell-intrinsic CD84 and Ly108 maintain germinal center B cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eric B; Soni, Chetna; Chan, Alice Y; Domeier, Phillip P; Shwetank; Abraham, Thomas; Limaye, Nisha; Khan, Tahsin N; Elias, Melinda J; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Wakeland, Edward K; Rahman, Ziaur S M

    2015-05-01

    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (SLAMs) play an integral role in immune regulation. Polymorphisms in the SLAM family receptors are implicated in human and mouse model of lupus disease. The lupus-associated, somatically mutated, and class-switched pathogenic autoantibodies are generated in spontaneously developed germinal centers (GCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. The role and mechanism of B cell-intrinsic expression of polymorphic SLAM receptors that affect B cell tolerance at the GC checkpoint are not clear. In this study, we generated several bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice that overexpress C57BL/6 (B6) alleles of different SLAM family genes on an autoimmune-prone B6.Sle1b background. B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6-derived Ly108 and CD84 exhibit a significant reduction in the spontaneously developed GC response and autoantibody production compared with B6.Sle1b mice. These data suggest a prominent role for Sle1b-derived Ly108 and CD84 in altering the GC checkpoint. We further confirm that expression of lupus-associated CD84 and Ly108 specifically on GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice is sufficient to break B cell tolerance, leading to an increase in autoantibody production. In addition, we observe that B6.Sle1b B cells have reduced BCR signaling and a lower frequency of B cell-T cell conjugates; the reverse is seen in B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6 alleles of CD84 and Ly108. Finally, we find a significant decrease in apoptotic GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice compared with B6 controls. Our study establishes a central role for GC B cell-specific CD84 and Ly108 expression in maintaining B cell tolerance in GCs and in preventing autoimmunity. PMID:25801429

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhiza affects nickel translocation and expression of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes in Festuca arundinacea.

    PubMed

    Shabani, Leila; Sabzalian, Mohammad R; Mostafavi Pour, Sodabeh

    2016-01-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are key microorganisms for enhancing phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. In this study, the effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae (=Glomus mosseae) on physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the nickel (Ni) tolerance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea?=?Schedonorus arundinaceus) were investigated. Nickel addition had a pronounced negative effect on tall fescue growth and photosynthetic pigment contents, as well as on AMF colonization. Phosphorus content increased markedly in mycorrhizal plants (M) compared to non-inoculated (NM) ones. However, no significant difference was observed in root carbohydrate content between AMF-inoculated and non-inoculated plants. For both M and NM plants, Ni concentrations in shoots and roots increased according to the addition of the metal into soil, but inoculation with F. mosseae led to significantly lower Ni translocation from roots to the aboveground parts compared to non-inoculated plants. ABC transporter and metallothionein transcripts accumulated to considerably higher levels in tall fescue plants colonized by F. mosseae than in the corresponding non-mycorrhizal plants. These results highlight the importance of mycorrhizal colonization in alleviating Ni-induced stress by reducing Ni transport from roots to shoots of tall fescue plants. PMID:26041568

  19. A recurrent 11q aberration pattern characterizes a subset of MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Wagener, Rabea; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W.; Richter, Julia; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Adam, Patrick; Burkhardt, Birgit; Claviez, Alexander; Damm-Welk, Christine; Drexler, Hans G.; Hummel, Michael; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Kppers, Ralf; Lefebvre, Christine; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Lffler, Markus; Macleod, Roderick A. F.; Nagel, Inga; Oschlies, Ilske; Rosolowski, Maciej; Russell, Robert B.; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Schindler, Detlev; Schlesner, Matthias; Scholtysik, Ren; Schwaenen, Carsten; Spang, Rainer; Szczepanowski, Monika; Trmper, Lorenz; Vater, Inga; Wessendorf, Swen; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    The genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants leading to activation of the MYC oncogene. It is a matter of debate whether true BL without MYC translocation exists. Here, we identified 59 lymphomas concordantly called BL by 2 gene expression classifiers among 753 B-cell lymphomas. Only 2 (3%) of these 59 molecular BL lacked a MYC translocation, which both shared a peculiar pattern of chromosome 11q aberration characterized by interstitial gains including 11q23.2-q23.3 and telomeric losses of 11q24.1-qter. We extended our analysis to 17 MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas with a similar 11q aberration and showed this aberration to be recurrently associated with morphologic and clinical features of BL. The minimal region of gain was defined by high-level amplifications in 11q23.3 and associated with overexpression of genes including PAFAH1B2 on a transcriptional and protein level. The recurrent region of loss contained a focal homozygous deletion in 11q24.2-q24.3 including the ETS1 gene, which was shown to be mutated in 4 of 16 investigated cases. These findings indicate the existence of a molecularly distinct subset of B-cell lymphomas reminiscent of BL, which is characterized by deregulation of genes in 11q. PMID:24398325

  20. Translocation alters the activation rate of a trypanosome surface antigen gene.

    PubMed

    Laurent, M; Pays, E; Van der Werf, A; Aerts, D; Magnus, E; Van Meirvenne, N; Steinert, M

    1984-11-26

    We report here the characterization of the gene coding for AnTat 1.13, a very late variable antigen type (VAT) from Trypanosoma b. brucei. This gene is chromosome-internal and it is activated by the duplicative mechanism. Like in another case of late VAT expression (1), its expression-linked copy (ELC) is flanked by "companion" sequences. It was possible to convert the late expression of this VAT into an early one, by changing the location of the gene in the genome. This has been achieved by selecting an AnTat 1.6 clone among heterotypes arising in the AnTat 1.13 cloned population. Indeed, this particular derivation leads to the conservation of the AnTat 1.13 ELC as a new telomeric member of the gene family, and this conserved ELC (or ex-ELC) appears to be preferentially activable. The telomeric position and other factors possibly involved in early or late antigen gene expression are discussed; in this respect, we propose that some antigen genes are rarely activated because their duplicative transposition requires the presence, in the expression site, of "companion" sequences only shared by a limited number of other genes. PMID:6095196

  1. The location and translocation of ndh genes of chloroplast origin in the Orchidaceae family.

    PubMed

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J W; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Daniell, Henry; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Liao, Chen-Fu; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Chou, Ming-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yi; Shih, Ming-Che

    2015-01-01

    The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies. Four orchid cp genome sequences were found to contain a complete set of ndh genes. In other genomes, ndh deletions did not correlate to known taxonomic or evolutionary relationships and deletions occurred independently after the orchid family split into different subfamilies. In orchids lacking cp encoded ndh genes, non cp localized ndh sequences were identified. In Erycina pusilla, at least 10 truncated ndh gene fragments were found transferred to the mitochondrial (mt) genome. The phenomenon of orchid ndh transfer to the mt genome existed in ndh-deleted orchids and also in ndh containing species. PMID:25761566

  2. The location and translocation of ndh genes of chloroplast origin in the Orchidaceae family

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Daniell, Henry; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Liao, Chen-Fu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A.; Chou, Ming-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yi; Shih, Ming-Che

    2015-01-01

    The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies. Four orchid cp genome sequences were found to contain a complete set of ndh genes. In other genomes, ndh deletions did not correlate to known taxonomic or evolutionary relationships and deletions occurred independently after the orchid family split into different subfamilies. In orchids lacking cp encoded ndh genes, non cp localized ndh sequences were identified. In Erycina pusilla, at least 10 truncated ndh gene fragments were found transferred to the mitochondrial (mt) genome. The phenomenon of orchid ndh transfer to the mt genome existed in ndh-deleted orchids and also in ndh containing species. PMID:25761566

  3. TALEN-Induced Translocations in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Piganeau, Marion; Renouf, Benjamin; Ghezraoui, Hind; Brunet, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Induction of chromosomal translocations in human cells is of a great interest to study tumorigenesis and genome instability. Here, we explain in detail a method to induce translocations using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We describe how to detect translocation formation by PCR, calculate translocation frequency by 96-well PCR screen, and analyze breakpoint junctions. When inducing cancer translocations, it is also possible to detect the fusion gene by FISH analysis or western blot. PMID:26443217

  4. Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research over the role of Brutons agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

  5. B Cells, Antibodies, and More

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, William; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2016-01-01

    B cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritides and transplant rejection. B cells secrete antibodies that contribute to tissue injury via multiple mechanisms. In addition, B cells contribute to disease pathogenesis in autoimmunity and alloimmunity by presenting antigens as well as providing costimulation and cytokines to T cells. B cells also play an immunomodulatory role in regulating the immune response by secreting cytokines that inhibit disease onset and/or progression. B cell–targeted approaches for treating immune diseases of the kidney and other organs have gained significant momentum. However, much remains to be understood about B-cell biology in order to determine the timing, duration, and context of optimal therapeutic response to B cell–targeted approaches. In this review, we discuss the multifaceted roles of B cells as enhancers and regulators of immunity with relevance to kidney disease and transplantation. PMID:26700440

  6. Nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin heavy chain joining segments between translocated VH and mu constant regions genes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Gough, N M

    1980-06-01

    To investigate the mechanism of recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable and constant region genes, we have determined the nucleotide sequence of a large portion of the recombination region between an active C mu gene and its associated VH gene, isolated from an IgM-secreting mouse plasmacytoma, HPC76. By comparison with the sequence of the mu mRNA, we determined the exact boundaries of the intervening sequence between the VH76 and C mu genes. The rearranged VH76 gene encodes up to amino acid 116 without interruption, the 3' 39 nucleotides (the JH76 region) being derived from an embryonic JH segment (JH315) whose sequence was recently determined [Early, P., Huang, H., Davis, M., Calame, K. & Hood, L. (1980) Cell 195, 981-992]. The active JH76 does not use the first two codons of the embryonic JH315 from which it is derived. This indicates that V-J recombination is important in generating diversity within the third hypervariable region of heavy chains. We have identified another JH segment (JHA4), located 336 nucleotides 3' to the rearranged JH76 segment. This JH segment is expressed in the heavy chains of anti-levan myeloma proteins, which have truncated third hypervariable regions. We propose that the nucleotide sequence 5' to JHA4 is important for generating V region genes with shortened third hypervariable regions. PMID:6251474

  7. Incidence of TCR and TCL1 Gene Translocations and Isochromosome 7q in Peripheral T-cell Lymphomas Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Andrew L.; Law, Mark; Grogg, Karen L.; Thorland, Erik C.; Fink, Stephanie; Kurtin, Paul J.; Macon, William R.; Remstein, Ellen D.; Dogan, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Translocations involving the T-cell receptor (TCR) and TCL1 genes occur in T-precursor lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and prolymphocytic leukemia; isochromosome 7q has been associated with hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma. However, the incidence of these abnormalities in PTCLs as a whole has not been well defined. We studied genetic abnormalities in 124 PTCLs seen at Mayo Clinic between 1987 and 2007. Tissue microarrays were screened using two-color breakapart fluorescence in situ hybridization probes flanking the TCR alpha (A, 14q11), beta (B, 7q35), and gamma (G, 7p15) genes and the TCL1 gene (14q32). Isochromosome 7q was analyzed using a two-color probe to 7p and 7q32.1. Translocations involved TCRA in 2.9% of cases and TCRB in 1.1%. Isochromosome 7q was detected in 2 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and 2 cases of ALK-negative ALCL. One of the latter cases also had a translocation of TCRA, and further studies confirm a novel t(5;14) translocation. PMID:18628085

  8. Acidity-responsive gene delivery for "superfast" nuclear translocation and transfection with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Yi; Zeng, Xuan; Qin, Si-Yong; Wan, Shuang-Shuang; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2016-03-01

    In principle, not only efficient but rapid transfection is required since it can maximize the bioavailability of vector-carried gene prior to the cellular excretion. However, the "rapid" goal has been paid few attentions so far in the research field of vector-aided transfection. As a pioneering attempt, the present study designed a lysosome-targeting acidity-responsive nanoassembly as gene vectors, which proved the amazing potency to mediate the "Superfast" transnuclear gene transport and gene transfection with high efficiency in vitro and in vivo. The nanoassembly was constructed on the pH-reversible covalent boronic acid-diol coupling between 1,3-diol-rich oligoethylenimine (OEI-EHDO) and phenylboronic acid modified cholesterol (Chol-PBA). The rapid and efficient nuclei-tropic delivery and transfection was demonstrated to highly rely on the lysosome-acidity induced assembly destruction followed by the easy liberation of gene payloads inside cells. The nanoassembly-mediated transfection at 8 h can afford the outcome even comparable to that achieved at 48 h by the golden standard of PEI25k, and the transfection efficiency can still remain at a high level during 48 h. In contrast, time-dependent efficiency enhancement was identified for the transfections using PEI25k and OEI-EHDO as delivery vectors. Moreover, owing to the hydroxyl-rich surface, this delivery nanosystem presented strong tolerance to the serum-induced transfection inhibition that frequently occurred for the polycationic gene vectors such as PEI25k. The in vitro and in vivo results manifested the low toxicity of this bio-decomposable nanoassembly. PMID:26773666

  9. Gene expression patterns associated with recurrent chromosomal translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fine, Bernard M; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Ho, Minh; Viehmann, Susanne; Harbott, Jochen; Boxer, Linda M

    2004-02-01

    We obtained a global view of gene expression in both cell lines and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) samples that harbor one of several selected chromosomal abnormalities. When the cell lines were studied alone, we found that these chromosomal abnormalities were associated with the predominant variation in transcriptional programs across the set of cell lines studied. When cell lines and clinical samples were studied together, we found that each chromosomal abnormality (TEL/AML1, BCR/ABL, or MLL abnormalities) was associated with a characteristic gene expression signature that was shared by both cell lines and clinical samples. However, BCR/ABL was associated with a much more heterogeneous pattern of expression than were TEL/AML1 and MLL abnormalities. This observation has important implications for the study of BCR/ABL ALL. In addition, we systematically identified genes whose expression was associated with TEL/AML1, BCR/ABL, or MLL abnormalities in both clinical samples and cell lines. Although some of these genes have previously been described, many have not previously been reported to be associated with one of these chromosomal abnormalities. Notably, we found that the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is consistently highly expressed in TEL/AML1 ALL compared with BCR/ABL or MLL. PMID:14525776

  10. Functional Characterization of the Human Translocator Protein (18 kDa) Gene Promoter in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Batarseh, Amani; Barlow, Keith D.; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    The translocator protein (18 kDa; TSPO) is a mitochondrial drug- and cholesterol-binding protein that has been implicated in several processes, including steroidogenesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Expression of the human TSPO gene is elevated in several cancers. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate TSPO expression in human breast cancer cells, the TSPO promoter was identified, cloned, and functionally characterized in poor-in-TSPO hormone-dependent, non-aggressive MCF-7 cells and rich-in-TSPO hormone-independent, aggressive, and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RNA ligase-mediated 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis indicated transcription initiated at multiple sites downstream of a GC-rich promoter that lacks functional TATA and CCAAT boxes. Deletion analysis indicated that the region from ?121 to +66, which contains five putative regulatory sites known as GC boxes, was sufficient to induce reporter activity up to 24-fold in MCF-7 and nearly 120-fold in MDA-MB-231 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 bind to these GC boxes in vitro and to the endogenous TSPO promoter. Silencing of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 gene expression reduced TSPO levels. In addition, TSPO expression was epigenetically regulated at one or more of the identified GC boxes. Disruption of the sequence downstream of the main start site of TSPO differentially regulated TSPO promoter activity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating that essential elements contribute to its differential expression in these cells. Taken together, these experiments constitute the first in-depth functional analysis of the human TSPO gene promoter and its transcriptional regulation. PMID:21958735

  11. Role of B Cells in Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Magee, D. Mitchell; Friedberg, Rhonda L.; Woitaske, Melanie D.; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Cox, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated secondary immunity against coccidioidomycosis by using gene expression microarrays. Surprisingly, a high percentage of B-cell-related genes were associated with protective immunity. A functional confirmation of the importance of B cells against coccidioidomycosis was achieved by demonstrating that vaccination was not fully protective in B-cell-deficient MuMT mice. PMID:16177382

  12. Comparative analyses of B cell populations in trout kidney and mouse bone marrow; establishing B cell signatures

    PubMed Central

    Zwollo, Patty; Mott, Katrina; Barr, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the frequency and distribution of developing B cell populations in the kidney of the rainbow trout, using four molecular B cell markers that are highly conserved between species, including two transcription factors, Pax5 and EBF1, recombination activating gene RAG1, and the immunoglobulin heavy chain mu. Three distinct B cell stages were defined: early developing B cells (CLP, pro-B, and early pre-B cells), late developing B cell (late pre-B, immature B, and mature B cells), and IgM-secreting cells. Developmental stage-specific, combinatorial expression of Pax5, EBF1, RAG1 and immunoglobulin mu was determined in trout anterior kidney cells by flow cytometry. Trout staining patterns were compared to a well-defined primary immune tissue, mouse bone marrow, and using mouse surface markers B220 and CD43. A remarkable level of similarity was uncovered between the primary immune tissues of both species. Subsequent analysis of the entire trout kidney, divided into five contiguous segments K1-K5, revealed a complex pattern of early developing, late developing, and IgM-secreting B cells. Patterns in anterior kidney segment K1 were most similar to those of mouse bone marrow, while the most posterior part of the kidney, K5, had many IgM-secreting cells, but lacked early developing B cells. A potential second B lymphopoiesis site was uncovered in segment K4 of the kidney. The B cell patterns, or B cell signatures described here provide information on the relative abundance of distinct developing B cell populations in the trout kidney, and can be used in future studies on B cell development in other vertebrate species. PMID:20705088

  13. VDJ-Seq: Deep Sequencing Analysis of Rearranged Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene to Reveal Clonal Evolution Patterns of B Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanwen; Nie, Kui; Redmond, David; Melnick, Ari M; Tam, Wayne; Elemento, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Understanding tumor clonality is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and disease progression. In addition, understanding the clonal composition changes that occur within a tumor in response to certain micro-environment or treatments may lead to the design of more sophisticated and effective approaches to eradicate tumor cells. However, tracking tumor clonal sub-populations has been challenging due to the lack of distinguishable markers. To address this problem, a VDJ-seq protocol was created to trace the clonal evolution patterns of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) relapse by exploiting VDJ recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM), two unique features of B cell lymphomas. In this protocol, Next-Generation sequencing (NGS) libraries with indexing potential were constructed from amplified rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) VDJ region from pairs of primary diagnosis and relapse DLBCL samples. On average more than half million VDJ sequences per sample were obtained after sequencing, which contain both VDJ rearrangement and SHM information. In addition, customized bioinformatics pipelines were developed to fully utilize sequence information for the characterization of IgH-VDJ repertoire within these samples. Furthermore, the pipeline allows the reconstruction and comparison of the clonal architecture of individual tumors, which enables the examination of the clonal heterogeneity within the diagnosis tumors and deduction of clonal evolution patterns between diagnosis and relapse tumor pairs. When applying this analysis to several diagnosis-relapse pairs, we uncovered key evidence that multiple distinctive tumor evolutionary patterns could lead to DLBCL relapse. Additionally, this approach can be expanded into other clinical aspects, such as identification of minimal residual disease, monitoring relapse progress and treatment response, and investigation of immune repertoires in non-lymphoma contexts. PMID:26780364

  14. The DIRC1 gene at chromosome 2q33 spans a familial RCC-associated t(2;3)(q33;q21) chromosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Druck, T; Podolski, J; Byrski, T; Wyrwicz, L; Zajaczek, S; Kata, G; Borowka, A; Lubinski, J; Huebner, K

    2001-01-01

    A reciprocal, balanced, constitutional chromosome translocation, t(2;3)(q33;q21), which is associated with familial clear cell renal cancer, has been described and the genomic regions surrounding the 2q and 3q breakpoints have been characterized. Based on the genomic map of the 2q break, EST AI468595 was positioned near the 2q33 translocation and the full-length gene and cDNA were isolated. This 57-kb gene, designated the DIRC1 gene, was disrupted between exons 1 and 2 by the familial translocation. The 1.5-kb mRNA encodes an 11-kDa predicted protein of 104 amino acids. Low-level expression of DIRC1 was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification in adult placenta, testis, ovary, and prostate and in fetal kidney, spleen, and skeletal muscle. A GFP-Dirc1 fusion protein was expressed in vitro and a polyclonal anti-Dircl peptide serum was prepared. A panel of cancer and cancer-derived cell line DNAs was examined for DIRC1 mutations, but only a rare polymorphism was observed. Two familial tumors showed loss of the derivative 3 chromosome, as observed in a Dutch kindred with t(2;3)associated renal cancers. Mutations in the second DIRC1 allele were not detected. Further studies will be required to determine if disruption of the DIRC1 gene contributed to development of the associated familial clear cell renal cancers. PMID:11587072

  15. B Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease. PMID:23248624

  16. LMO2 at 25 years: a paradigm of chromosomal translocation proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jennifer; Rabbitts, Terence H.

    2015-01-01

    LMO2 was first discovered through proximity to frequently occurring chromosomal translocations in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Subsequent studies on its role in tumours and in normal settings have highlighted LMO2 as an archetypical chromosomal translocation oncogene, activated by association with antigen receptor gene loci and a paradigm for translocation gene activation in T-ALL. The normal function of LMO2 in haematopoietic cell fate and angiogenesis suggests it is a master gene regulator exerting a dysfunctional control on differentiation following chromosomal translocations. Its importance in T cell neoplasia has been further emphasized by the recurrent findings of interstitial deletions of chromosome 11 near LMO2 and of LMO2 as a target of retroviral insertion gene activation during gene therapy trials for X chromosome-linked severe combined immuno-deficiency syndrome, both types of event leading to similar T cell leukaemia. The discovery of LMO2 in some B cell neoplasias and in some epithelial cancers suggests a more ubiquitous function as an oncogenic protein, and that the current development of novel inhibitors will be of great value in future cancer treatment. Further, the role of LMO2 in angiogenesis and in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) bodes well for targeting LMO2 in angiogenic disorders and in generating autologous induced HSCs for application in various clinical indications. PMID:26108219

  17. LMO2 at 25 years: a paradigm of chromosomal translocation proteins.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jennifer; Rabbitts, Terence H

    2015-06-01

    LMO2 was first discovered through proximity to frequently occurring chromosomal translocations in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Subsequent studies on its role in tumours and in normal settings have highlighted LMO2 as an archetypical chromosomal translocation oncogene, activated by association with antigen receptor gene loci and a paradigm for translocation gene activation in T-ALL. The normal function of LMO2 in haematopoietic cell fate and angiogenesis suggests it is a master gene regulator exerting a dysfunctional control on differentiation following chromosomal translocations. Its importance in T cell neoplasia has been further emphasized by the recurrent findings of interstitial deletions of chromosome 11 near LMO2 and of LMO2 as a target of retroviral insertion gene activation during gene therapy trials for X chromosome-linked severe combined immuno-deficiency syndrome, both types of event leading to similar T cell leukaemia. The discovery of LMO2 in some B cell neoplasias and in some epithelial cancers suggests a more ubiquitous function as an oncogenic protein, and that the current development of novel inhibitors will be of great value in future cancer treatment. Further, the role of LMO2 in angiogenesis and in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) bodes well for targeting LMO2 in angiogenic disorders and in generating autologous induced HSCs for application in various clinical indications. PMID:26108219

  18. Btk levels set the threshold for B-cell activation and negative selection of autoreactive B cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Kil, Laurens P; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; van Nimwegen, Menno; Corneth, Odilia B J; van Hamburg, Jan Piet; Dingjan, Gemma M; Thaiss, Friedrich; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Elewaut, Dirk; Delsing, Dianne; van Loo, Pieter Fokko; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2012-04-19

    On antigen binding by the B-cell receptor (BCR), B cells up-regulate protein expression of the key downstream signaling molecule Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk), but the effects of Btk up-regulation on B-cell function are unknown. Here, we show that transgenic mice overexpressing Btk specifically in B cells spontaneously formed germinal centers and manifested increased plasma cell numbers, leading to antinuclear autoantibody production and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoimmune pathology affecting kidneys, lungs, and salivary glands. Autoimmunity was fully dependent on Btk kinase activity, because Btk inhibitor treatment (PCI-32765) could normalize B-cell activation and differentiation, and because autoantibodies were absent in Btk transgenic mice overexpressing a kinase inactive Btk mutant. B cells overexpressing wild-type Btk were selectively hyperresponsive to BCR stimulation and showed enhanced Ca(2+) influx, nuclear factor (NF)-?B activation, resistance to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and defective elimination of selfreactive B cells in vivo. These findings unravel a crucial role for Btk in setting the threshold for B-cell activation and counterselection of autoreactive B cells, making Btk an attractive therapeutic target in systemic autoimmune disease such as SLE. The finding of in vivo pathology associated with Btk overexpression may have important implications for the development of gene therapy strategies for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, the immunodeficiency associated with mutations in BTK. PMID:22383797

  19. Attenuation of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vaccine Vectors by Gene Translocations and G Gene Truncation Reduces Neurovirulence and Enhances Immunogenicity in Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David; Wright, Kevin J.; Calderon, Priscilla C.; Guo, Min; Nasar, Farooq; Johnson, J. Erik; Coleman, John W.; Lee, Margaret; Kotash, Cheryl; Yurgelonis, Irene; Natuk, Robert J.; Hendry, R. Michael; Udem, Stephen A.; Clarke, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) has shown great potential as a new viral vector for vaccination. However, the prototypic rVSV vector described previously was found to be insufficiently attenuated for clinical evaluation when assessed for neurovirulence in nonhuman primates. Here, we describe the attenuation, neurovirulence, and immunogenicity of rVSV vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag. These rVSV vectors were attenuated by combinations of the following manipulations: N gene translocations (N4), G gene truncations (CT1 or CT9), noncytopathic M gene mutations (Mncp), and positioning of the gag gene into the first position of the viral genome (gag1). The resulting N4CT1-gag1, N4CT9-gag1, and MncpCT1-gag1 vectors demonstrated dramatically reduced neurovirulence in mice following direct intracranial inoculation. Surprisingly, in spite of a very high level of attenuation, the N4CT1-gag1 and N4CT9-gag1 vectors generated robust Gag-specific immune responses following intramuscular immunization that were equivalent to or greater than immune responses generated by the more virulent prototypic vectors. MncpCT1-gag1 also induced Gag-specific immune responses following intramuscular immunization that were equivalent to immune responses generated by the prototypic rVSV vector. Placement of the gag gene in the first position of the VSV genome was associated with increased in vitro expression of Gag protein, in vivo expression of Gag mRNA, and enhanced immunogenicity of the vector. These findings demonstrate that through directed manipulation of the rVSV genome, vectors that have reduced neurovirulence and enhanced immunogenicity can be made. PMID:17942549

  20. Complex Oncogenic Translocations with Gene Amplification are Initiated by Specific DNA Breaks in Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Sarah M.; Woo, Yong H.; Alley, Travis L.; Shirley, Bobbi-Jo; Akeson, Ellen C.; Snow, Kathy J.; Maas, Sarah A.; Elwell, Rachel L.; Foreman, Oded; Mills, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of many tumor types. Complex chromosomal rearrangements with associated gene amplification, known as complicons, characterize many hematologic and solid cancers. While chromosomal aberrations, including complicons, are useful diagnostic and prognostic cancer markers, their molecular origins are not known. Although accumulating evidence has implicated DNA double strand break repair in suppression of oncogenic genome instability, the genomic elements required for chromosome rearrangements, especially complex lesions, have not been elucidated. Using a mouse model of B-lineage lymphoma, characterized by complicon formation involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus and the c-myc oncogene, we have now investigated the requirement for specific genomic segments as donors for complex rearrangements. We now demonstrate that specific DNA double strand breaks, occurring within a narrow segment of Igh are necessary to initiate complicon formation. By contrast, neither specific DNA breaks nor the powerful intronic enhancer E? are required for complicon-independent oncogenesis. This study is the first to delineate mechanisms of complex versus simple instability, and the first to identify specific chromosomal elements required for complex chromosomal aberrations. These findings will illuminate genomic cancer susceptibility and risk factors. PMID:19435904

  1. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodrguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lcrevisse, Quentin; Gonzlez, Marcos; Corteso, Emlia; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  2. Fusion of platelet-derived growth receptor {beta} to a novel ets-like gene, tel, in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with t(5;12) chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, T.; Barker, G.; Gilliland, D.G.

    1994-09-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by abnormal clonal myeloid proliferation, and by progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A recently recognized subgroup of CMML has a t(5;12) (q33;p13) balanced translocation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the translocation breakpoint near the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) locus on chromosome 5q. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed rearrangements near CSF1R, but involvement of CSF1R itself was excluded. Southern blotting showed a rearrangement within the closely linked PDGF receptor {beta} (PDGFR{beta}) gene. Ribonuclease protection assays localized the translocation breakpoint to nucleotide 1766 in PDGFR{beta} RNA. Anchored PCR was used to identify the chromosome 12 fusion partner, a novel ets-like protein, tel. Tel contains a highly conserved carboxy terminal ets-like DNA-binding domain, and an amino terminal domain with a predicted helix-loop-helix (HLH) secondary structure. The consequence of the t(5;12) translocation is fusion of the tel HLH domain to the PDGFR{beta} transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. The tel HLH domain may contribute a dimerization motif which serves to constitutively activate PDGFR{beta} tyrosine kinase activity. The tel-PDGFR{beta} fusion demonstrates the oncogenic potential of PDGFR{beta}, and may provide a paradigm for early events in the pathogenesis of AML.

  3. Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass. The degree of condensation of the chromatin fiber is modeled by changing length of the string: e.g. loosening of the structure is achieved by distributing the chromosome mass into a higher number of smaller beads and tighter configuration corresponds to a lower number of fragments (balls) with a bigger radius. Additionally, for each configuration, a degree of possible overlapping between domains is assumed. This procedure effectively intensifies loosening/tightening of the chromosome structure by changing the radial dimension of the domain while keeping a constant volume of the polymer chain. Such a positioning model is confronted with a minimalistic molecular dynamics model [5] on a similar structure, in which a chain of beads becomes connected by entropic spring energy and subjected to thermal fluctuations. Comparison of both Monte Carlo models allows to discuss variability of possible configurations as observed in static and dynamic models of chromosome territories along with the effect of compaction and relative arrangements of territorial polymer structures. Acknowledgements: Project is operated within the Foundation for Polish Science International Ph.D. Projects Programme co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund covering, under the agreement no. MPD/2009/6, the Jagiellonian University International Ph.D. Studies in Physics of Complex Systems. References: [1] F. Ballarini, M. Biaggi, and A. Ottolenghi, Radiation Protection Dosimetry 99, 175 (2002). [2] M. Nicodemi and A. Prisco, Biophysical Journal 96, 2168 (2009). [3] P. Cook and D. Marenduzzo, Journal of Cell Biology 186, 825 (2009). [4] M. Tark-Dame, R. van Driel, and D. Heermann, Journal of Cell Science 124, 839 (2011). [5] W. Swope, H. Andersen, P. Berens, and K. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 637 (1982).

  4. Stemness of B cell progenitors in multiple myeloma bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Kelly; Parquet, Nancy; Widen, Raymond; Shain, Kenneth; Baz, Rachid; Alsina, Melissa; Koomen, John; Anasetti, Claudio; Dalton, William; Perez, Lia E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In myeloma, B cells and plasma cells show a clonal relationship. Clonotypic B cells may represent a tumor-initiating compartment or cancer stem cell responsible for minimal residual disease in myeloma. Experimental Design We report a study of 58 patients with myeloma at time of diagnosis or relapse. B cells in bone marrow were evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry and sorting. Clonality was determined by light chain and/or immunoglobulin chain gene rearrangement PCR. We also determined aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and colony formation growth. Drug sensitivity was tested with conventional and novel agents. Results Marrow CD19+ cells express a light chain identical to plasma cells and are therefore termed light chain restricted (LCR). The LCR B cell mass is small in both newly diagnosed and relapsed patients (?1%). Few marrow LCR B cells (~10%) are CD19+/CD34+, with the rest being more differentiated CD19+/CD34? B cells. Marrow LCR CD19+ B cells exhibit enhanced aldehyde dehydrogenase activity versus healthy controls. Both CD19+/CD34+ and CD19+/CD34? cells showed colony formation activity, with colony growth efficiency optimized when stroma-conditioned medium was used. B cell progenitors showed resistance to melphalan, lenalidomide, and bortezomib. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induced apoptosis of LCR B cells and CD138+ cells. LCR B cells are CD117, survivin, and Notch positive. Conclusions We propose that antigen-independent B cell differentiation stages are involved in disease origination and progression in myeloma. Further investigations of myeloma putative stem cell progenitors may lead to novel treatments to eradicate the potential reservoir of minimal residual disease. PMID:22988056

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) with control region translocation and tRNA-Gln gene inversion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2014-11-27

    Abstract Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Cynoglossidae, Soleoidei) is characterized by a bilaterally asymmetrical with both eyes on the left side. In this study, the complete mitogenome of this tongue sole has been reported for the first time. The gene order in C. abbreviatus mitogenome possesses a novel rearrangement like other tonguefish. The tRNA-Gln gene moves from the light strand to the heavy strand, accompanied by tRNA-Ile gene shuffling, leaving a large non-coding region (88?bp) between these two tRNAs. Additionally, the control region translocates to the place between ND1 and tRNA-Gln genes. The total length is 16,417?bp, with 30.9%, 29.5%, 24.9% and 14.7% for A, T, C and G, respectively (60.4% for AT content). These molecular data will provide useful information about the mechanism of gene reorganization in Cynoglossidae mitogenome and further phylogenetic study on Pleuronectiformes. PMID:25427811

  6. Immunohistochemical Detection of MYC-driven Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Kluk, Michael J.; Chapuy, Bjoern; Sinha, Papiya; Roy, Alyssa; Cin, Paola Dal; Neuberg, Donna S.; Monti, Stefano; Pinkus, Geraldine S.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Rodig, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. A small subset of DLBCLs has translocations involving the MYC locus and an additional group has a molecular signature resembling Burkitt lymphoma (mBL). Presently, identification of such cases by morphology is unreliable and relies on cytogenetic or complex molecular methods such as gene transcriptional profiling. Herein, we describe an immunohistochemical (IHC) method for identifying DLBCLs with increased MYC protein expression. We tested 77 cases of DLBCL and identified 15 cases with high MYC protein expression (nuclear staining in >50% of tumor cells). All MYC translocation positive cases had increased MYC protein expression by this IHC assay. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the DLBCL transcriptional profiles revealed that tumors with increased MYC protein expression (regardless of underlying MYC translocation status) had coordinate upregulation of MYC target genes, providing molecular confirmation of the IHC results. We then generated a molecular classifier derived from the MYC IHC results in our cases and employed it to successfully classify mBLs from two previously reported independent case series, providing additional confirmation that the MYC IHC results identify clinically important subsets of DLBCLs. Lastly, we found that DLBCLs with high MYC protein expression had inferior overall survival when treated with R-CHOP. In conclusion, the IHC method described herein can be used to readily identify the biologically and clinically distinct cases of MYC-driven DLBCL, which represent a clinically significant subset of DLBCL cases due to their inferior overall survival. PMID:22511926

  7. Transcription-associated processes cause DNA double-strand breaks and translocations in neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Schwer, Bjoern; Wei, Pei-Chi; Chang, Amelia N; Kao, Jennifer; Du, Zhou; Meyers, Robin M; Alt, Frederick W

    2016-02-23

    High-throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS) studies of activated B cells have revealed that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) capable of translocating to defined bait DSBs are enriched around the transcription start sites (TSSs) of active genes. We used the HTGTS approach to investigate whether a similar phenomenon occurs in primary neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We report that breakpoint junctions indeed are enriched around TSSs that were determined to be active by global run-on sequencing analyses of NSPCs. Comparative analyses of transcription profiles in NSPCs and B cells revealed that the great majority of TSS-proximal junctions occurred in genes commonly expressed in both cell types, possibly because this common set has higher transcription levels on average than genes transcribed in only one or the other cell type. In the latter context, among all actively transcribed genes containing translocation junctions in NSPCs, those with junctions located within 2 kb of the TSS show a significantly higher transcription rate on average than genes with junctions in the gene body located at distances greater than 2 kb from the TSS. Finally, analysis of repair junction signatures of TSS-associated translocations in wild-type versus classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ)-deficient NSPCs reveals that both C-NHEJ and alternative end-joining pathways can generate translocations by joining TSS-proximal DSBs to DSBs on other chromosomes. Our studies show that the generation of transcription-associated DSBs is conserved across divergent cell types. PMID:26873106

  8. B-cell-activating factor inhibits CD20-mediated and B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yohei; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Onda, Keiko; Nakajima, Hideki; Sato, Ban; Horiuchi, Yasuomi; Okita, Hajime; Katagiri, Yohko U; Saito, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a survival and maturation factor for B cells belonging to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily. Among three identified functional receptors, the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) is thought to be responsible for the effect of BAFF on B cells though details of how remain unclear. We determined that a hairy-cell leukaemia line, MLMA, expressed a relatively high level of BAFF-R and was susceptible to apoptosis mediated by either CD20 or B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Using MLMA cells as an in vitro model of mature B cells, we found that treatment with BAFF could inhibit apoptosis mediated by both CD20 and BCR. We also observed, using immunoblot analysis and microarray analysis, that BAFF treatment induced activation of nuclear factor-?B2 following elevation of the expression level of Bcl-2, which may be involved in the molecular mechanism of BAFF-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, BAFF treatment was also found to induce the expression of a series of genes, such as that for CD40, related to cell survival, suggesting the involvement of a multiple mechanism in the BAFF-mediated anti-apoptotic effect. MLMA cells should provide a model for investigating the molecular basis of the effect of BAFF on B cells in vitro and will help to elucidate how B cells survive in the immune system in which BAFF-mediated signalling is involved. PMID:18540961

  9. The mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation is closely linked to the B-cell-specific developmental genes VpreB and lambda 5.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Ozaki, J H; Riblet, R

    1993-06-01

    The mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) phenotype is due to a recessive, autosomal mutation which results in failed development of lymphocytes. An important step during normal lymphocyte development is the germline rearrangement of DNA segments to assemble functional immunoglobulin or T cell receptor genes. scid lymphocytes fail to rearrange these genes properly, resulting in the absence of mature B and T lymphocytes. This mutation was originally mapped to chromosome 16 by linkage to the immunoglobulin lambda light chain genes (Igl-1) and the coat color mutation mahoganoid. We have typed 288 progeny from backcrosses between MOLF/Ei or CAST/Ei and C.B-17-scid for the scid phenotype and nine other loci mapped to the centromeric region of MMU16. We have established a refined map of this region which places the scid gene between Prm-2 and Igl-1. In addition, no recombinations were found between scid and three other loci, VpreB, lambda 5, and D16Mit31, providing markers useful for isolating the scid gene by positional cloning. PMID:8100803

  10. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in a female with a de novo, balanced translocation involving 7q32: Probable disruption of an SLOS gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.; Zori, R.T.; Alley, T.; Whidden, E.; Gray, B.A.; Williams, C.A.

    1994-05-01

    A 3-month-old infant girl had manifestations of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) including typical positional anomalies of the limbs, apparent Hirschsprung disease, cataracts, ptosis, anteverted nares, cleft of the posterior palate, small tongue, broad maxillary alveolar ridges, and abnormally low serum cholesterol levels. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation interpreted as 46,XX,t(7;20)(q32.1;q13.2). We hypothesize that the translocation breakpoint in this case interrupts one SLOS allele and that the other allele at the same locus has a more subtle mutation that was inherited from the other parent. This case, as well as cytogenetic observations in other SLOS cases, suggests that SLOS could be due to autosomal recessive mutation at a gene in 7q32. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. B-cell lymphoma 6 and the molecular pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ci, Weimin; Polo, Jose M; Melnick, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is the most commonly involved oncogene in B-cell lymphomas. Sustained expression of BCL6 causes malignant transformation of germinal center (GC) B-cells. Understanding the mechanism of action of BCL6 is crucial for the study of how aberrant transcriptional programming leads to lymphomagenesis and development of targeted anti-lymphoma therapy. Recent findings Identification of BCL6 target genes indicate a critical role for BCL6 in facilitating a state of physiological genomic instability required for GC B-cells to undergo affinity maturation, and suggest its contribution to several additional cellular functions. The discovery of several layers of counter-regulatory mechanisms reveals how B-cells can control and fine-tune the potentially lymphomagenic actions of BCL6. From the biochemical standpoint, BCL6 can regulate distinct biological pathways through different cofactors. This observation explains how the biological actions of BCL6 can be physiologically controlled through separate mechanisms and affords the means for improved therapeutic targeting. The fact that patients with BCL6-dependent lymphoma can be identified based on gene signatures suggests that therapeutic trials of BCL6 inhibitors could be personalized to these individuals. Summary BCL6 plays a fundamental role in lymphomagenesis and is an excellent therapeutic target for development of improved anti-lymphoma therapeutic regimens. PMID:18536578

  12. Transcriptional Control of Early T and B Cell Developmental Choices

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2014-01-01

    T and B cells share a common somatic gene rearrangement mechanism for assembling the genes that code for their antigen receptors and developmental pathways with many parallels. Shared usage of basic helix-loop-helix E proteins as transcriptional drivers underlies these common features. However, the transcription factor networks in which these E proteins are embedded are different both in membership and in architecture for T and B cell gene regulatory programs. These differences permit lineage commitment decisions to be made in different hierarchical orders. Furthermore, in a contrast to B-cell gene networks, the T-cell gene network architecture for effector differentiation is sufficiently modular so that E protein inputs can be removed. Complete T-cell-like effector differentiation can proceed without T-cell receptor rearrangement or selection when E proteins are neutralized, yielding natural killer and other innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24471430

  13. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

  14. The complex translocation (9;14;14) involving IGH and CEBPE genes suggests a new subgroup in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Rachid; Benhassine, Traki; Bensaada, Mustapha; Lauzon, Patricia; Trabzi, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    Many subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with specific chromosomal rearrangements. The complex translocation t(9;14;14), a variant of the translocation (14;14)(q11;q32), is a rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality involving the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBPE) genes in B-lineage ALL (B-ALL) and may represent a new B-ALL subgroup. We report here the case of a 5-year-old girl with B-ALL, positive for CD19, CD38 and HLA-DR. A direct technique and G-banding were used for chromosomal analysis and fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH) with BAC probes was used to investigate a possible rearrangement of the IGH andCEBPE genes. The karyotype exhibit the chromosomal aberration 46,XX,del(9)(p21),t(14;14)(q11;q32). FISH with dual-color break-apartIGH-specific and CEPBE-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes showed a complex t(9;14;14) associated with a deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and paired box gene 5 (PAX5) at 9p21-13 and duplication of the fusion gene IGH-CEBPE. PMID:27007892

  15. Clinical Implications of Phosphorylated STAT3 Expression in de novo Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Chi Young; Chen, Jiayu; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Tzankov, Alexandar; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Li, Ling; Visco, Carlo; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkr, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W. L.; Han van Krieken, J.; Huh, Jooryung; Zhao, Xiaoying; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrs J. M.; Bertoni, Francesco; Farnen, John P.; Mller, Michael B.; Piris, Miguel A.; Winter, Jane N.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates tumor growth, invasion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, immune response and survival. Data regarding expression of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the impact of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) on prognosis are limited. Experimental Design We evaluated expression of pSTAT3 in de novo DLBCL using immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and gene set enrichment analysis. Results are analyzed in correlation with cell-of-origin, critical lymphoma biomarkers and genetic translocations. Results pSTAT3 expression was observed in 16% of DLBCL and was associated with advanced stage, multiple extranodal sites of involvement, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, MYC expression and MYC/BCL2 expression. Expression of pSTAT3 predicted inferior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in de novo DLBCL patients. When DLBCL cases were stratified according to cell-of-origin or MYC expression, pSTAT3 expression did not predict inferior outcome, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic predictability of pSTAT3 expression was due to its association with the ABC subtype, MYC expression and adverse clinical features. Gene expression profiling demonstrated up-regulation of genes, which can potentiate function of STAT3. Gene set enrichment analysis showed the JAK-STAT pathway to be enriched in pSTAT3+ DLBCL. Conclusions The results of this study provide a rationale for the ongoing successful clinical trials targeting the JAK-STAT pathway in DLBCL. PMID:25124685

  16. DNA Repair and Chromosomal Translocations.

    PubMed

    Bohlander, Stefan K; Kakadia, Purvi M

    2015-01-01

    The balance between DNA damage, especially double strand breaks, and DNA damage repair is a critical determinant of chromosomal translocation frequency. The non-homologous end-joining repair (NHEJ) pathways seem to play the major role in the generation of chromosomal translocations. The "landscape" of chromosomal translocation identified in malignancies is largely due to selection processes which operate on the growth advantages conveyed to the cells by the functional consequences of chromosomal translocations (i.e., oncogenic fusion proteins and overexpression of oncogenes, both compromising tumor suppressor gene functions). Newer studies have shown that there is an abundance of local rearrangements in many tumors, like small deletions and inversions. A better understanding of the interplay between DNA repair mechanisms and the generation of tumorigenic translocations will, among many other things, depend on an improved understanding of DNA repair mechanisms and their interplay with chromatin and the 3D organization of the interphase nucleus. PMID:26376870

  17. Polymorphisms in B Cell Co-Stimulatory Genes Are Associated with IgG Antibody Responses against Blood-Stage Proteins of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Cassiano, Gustavo C; Furini, Adriana A C; Capobianco, Marcela P; Storti-Melo, Luciane M; Cunha, Maristela G; Kano, Flora S; Carvalho, Luzia H; Soares, Irene S; Santos, Sidney E; Póvoa, Marinete M; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective immune response can help decrease mortality from malaria and its clinical symptoms. However, this mechanism is complex and has significant inter-individual variation, most likely owing to the genetic contribution of the human host. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in the costimulation of B-lymphocytes in the naturally acquired humoral immune response against proteins of the asexual stage of Plasmodium vivax. A total of 319 individuals living in an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped for four SNPs in the genes CD40, CD40L, BLYS and CD86. In addition, IgG antibodies against P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA-1), Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-119) were detected by ELISA. The SNP BLYS -871C>T was associated with the frequency of IgG responders to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119. The SNP CD40 -1C>T was associated with the IgG response against PvDBP, whereas IgG antibody titers against PvMSP-119 were influenced by the polymorphism CD86 +1057G>A. These data may help to elucidate the immunological aspects of vivax malaria and consequently assist in the design of malaria vaccines. PMID:26901523

  18. Polymorphisms in B Cell Co-Stimulatory Genes Are Associated with IgG Antibody Responses against Blood–Stage Proteins of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Cassiano, Gustavo C.; Furini, Adriana A. C.; Capobianco, Marcela P.; Storti-Melo, Luciane M.; Cunha, Maristela G.; Kano, Flora S.; Carvalho, Luzia H.; Soares, Irene S.; Santos, Sidney E.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Machado, Ricardo L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective immune response can help decrease mortality from malaria and its clinical symptoms. However, this mechanism is complex and has significant inter-individual variation, most likely owing to the genetic contribution of the human host. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in the costimulation of B-lymphocytes in the naturally acquired humoral immune response against proteins of the asexual stage of Plasmodium vivax. A total of 319 individuals living in an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped for four SNPs in the genes CD40, CD40L, BLYS and CD86. In addition, IgG antibodies against P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA–1), Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP–119) were detected by ELISA. The SNP BLYS –871C>T was associated with the frequency of IgG responders to PvAMA–1 and PvMSP–119. The SNP CD40 –1C>T was associated with the IgG response against PvDBP, whereas IgG antibody titers against PvMSP–119 were influenced by the polymorphism CD86 +1057G>A. These data may help to elucidate the immunological aspects of vivax malaria and consequently assist in the design of malaria vaccines. PMID:26901523

  19. Oncogenic activation of the Lck protein accompanies translocation of the LCK gene in the human HSB2 T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wright, D D; Sefton, B M; Kamps, M P

    1994-04-01

    The tyrosine protein kinase p56lck transduces signals important for antigen-induced T-cell activation. In transgenic mice, p56lck is oncogenic when overexpressed or expressed as a mutant, catalytically activated enzyme. In humans, the LCK gene is located at the breakpoint of the t(1;7)(p34;q34) chromosomal translocation. This translocation positions the beta T-cell receptor constant region enhancer upstream of the LCK gene without interrupting the LCK coding sequences, and a translocation of this sort occurs in both the HSB2 and the SUP-T-12 T-cell lines. We have found that, although the level of the p56lck protein in HSB2 cells is elevated approximately 2-fold in comparison with that in normal T-cell lines, total cellular tyrosine protein phosphorylation is elevated approximately 10-fold. Increased levels of phosphotyrosine in HSB2 cells resulted from mutations in the LCK gene that activated its function as a phosphotransferase and converted it into a dominant transforming oncogene. The oncogenic p56lck in HSB2 cells contained one amino acid substitution within the CD4/CD8-binding domain, two substitutions in the kinase domain, and an insertion of Gln-Lys-Pro (QKP) between the SH2 and kinase domains. In NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, three of these mutations cooperated to produce the fully oncogenic form of this p56lck variant. These results suggest that mutation of LCK may contribute to some human T-cell leukemias. PMID:8139546

  20. Long Noncoding RNA Expression during Human B-Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Andreas; Dybkær, Karen; Bøgsted, Martin; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Hagedorn, Peter H.; Schmitz, Alexander; Bødker, Julie Støve; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n = 7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n = 6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as “guilt by association”. By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations. PMID:26394393

  1. Long Noncoding RNA Expression during Human B-Cell Development.

    PubMed

    Petri, Andreas; Dybkr, Karen; Bgsted, Martin; Thrue, Charlotte Albk; Hagedorn, Peter H; Schmitz, Alexander; Bdker, Julie Stve; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n = 7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n = 6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as "guilt by association". By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations. PMID:26394393

  2. BCL6 suppression of BCL2 via Miz1 and its disruption in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masumichi; Novak, Urban; Piovan, Erich; Basso, Katia; Sumazin, Pavel; Schneider, Christof; Crespo, Marta; Shen, Qiong; Bhagat, Govind; Califano, Andrea; Chadburn, Amy; Pasqualucci, Laura; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2009-07-01

    The BCL6 proto-oncogene encodes a transcriptional repressor that is required for germinal center (GC) formation and whose deregulation by genomic lesions is implicated in the pathogenesis of GC-derived diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and, less frequently, follicular lymphoma (FL). The biological function of BCL6 is only partially understood because no more than a few genes have been functionally characterized as direct targets of BCL6 transrepression activity. Here we report that the anti-apoptotic proto-oncogene BCL2 is a direct target of BCL6 in GC B cells. BCL6 binds to the BCL2 promoter region by interacting with the transcriptional activator Miz1 and suppresses Miz1-induced activation of BCL2 expression. BCL6-mediated suppression of BCL2 is lost in FL and DLBCL, where the 2 proteins are pathologically coexpressed, because of BCL2 chromosomal translocations and other mechanisms, including Miz1 deregulation and somatic mutations in the BCL2 promoter region. These results identify an important function for BCL6 in facilitating apoptosis of GC B cells via suppression of BCL2, and suggest that blocking this pathway is critical for lymphomagenesis. PMID:19549844

  3. Genomic Comparison of Translocating and Non-Translocating Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Nathan L.; Katouli, Mohammad; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Translocation of E. coli across the gut epithelium can result in fatal sepsis in post-surgical patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments have identified the existence of a novel pathotype of translocating E. coli (TEC) that employs an unknown mechanism for translocating across epithelial cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes and the blood stream in both humans and animal models. In this study the genomes of four TEC strains isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of a fatal case of hospitalised patient (HMLN-1), blood of pigs after experimental shock (PC-1) and after non-lethal haemorrhage in rats (KIC-1 and KIC-2) were sequenced in order to identify the genes associated with their adhesion and/or translocation. To facilitate the comparison, the genomes of a non-adhering, non-translocating E. coli (46–4) and adhering but non-translocating E. coli (73–89) were also sequenced and compared. Whole genome comparison revealed that three (HMLN-1, PC-1 and KIC-2) of the four TEC strains carried a genomic island that encodes a Type 6 Secretion System that may contribute to adhesion of the bacteria to gut epithelial cells. The human TEC strain HMLN-1 also carried the invasion ibeA gene, which was absent in the animal TEC strains and is likely to be associated with host-specific translocation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four TEC strains were distributed amongst three distinct E. coli phylogroups, which was supported by the presence of phylogroup specific fimbriae gene clusters. The genomic comparison has identified potential genes that can be targeted with knock-out experiments to further characterise the mechanisms of E. coli translocation. PMID:26317913

  4. Isoniazid prevents Nrf2 translocation by inhibiting ERK1 phosphorylation and induces oxidative stress and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ajeet Kumar; Yadav, Arti; Dewangan, Jayant; Singh, Sarvendra Vikram; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid is used either alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. It is also used for the prevention of tuberculosis. Chronic treatment of Isoniazid may cause severe liver damage leading to acute liver failure. The mechanism through which Isoniazid causes liver damage is investigated. Isoniazid treatment generates reactive oxygen species and induces apoptosis in Hep3B cells. It induces antioxidative and apoptotic genes leading to increase in mRNA expression and protein levels in Hep3B cells. Whole genome expression analysis of Hep3B cells treated with Isoniazid has resulted in differential expression of various genes playing prime role in regulation of apoptotic, antioxidative, DNA damage, cell signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation pathways. Isoniazid increased cytosolic Nrf2 protein level while decreased nuclear Nrf2 protein level. It also decreased ERK1 phosphorylation and treatment of Hep3B cells with ERK inhibitor followed by Isoniazid resulting in increased apoptosis in these cells. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis results have also shown differential expression of various protein species including heat shock proteins, proteins playing important role in oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Results suggest that Isoniazid induces apoptosis through oxidative stress and also prevents Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus by reducing ERK1 phosphorylation thus preventing cytoprotective effect. PMID:26202867

  5. BTK Signaling in B Cell Differentiation and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Corneth, Odilia B J; Klein Wolterink, Roel G J; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2016-01-01

    Since the original identification of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) as the gene defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in 1993, our knowledge on the physiological function of BTK has expanded impressively. In this review, we focus on the role of BTK during B cell differentiation in vivo, both in the regulation of expansion and in the developmental progression of pre-B cells in the bone marrow and as a crucial signal transducer of signals downstream of the IgM or IgG B cell antigen receptor (BCR) in mature B cells governing proliferation, survival, and differentiation. In particular, we highlight BTK function in B cells in the context of host defense and autoimmunity. Small-molecule inhibitors of BTK have very recently shown impressive anti-tumor activity in clinical studies in patients with various B cell malignancies. Since promising effects of BTK inhibition were also seen in experimental animal models for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, BTK may be a good target for controlling autoreactive B cells in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:26341110

  6. Structure of the human receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene (PTPRG) and relation to the familial RCC t(3;8) chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Kastury, K.; Ohta, M.; Druck, T.; Huebner, K.

    1996-03-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase {gamma} gene, PTP{gamma} (locus name PTPRG), was previously mapped to chromosome region 3p14.2, within a 2- to 4-Mb region centromeric to the 3p14.2 breakpoint of the t(3;8) familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated constitutional chromosome translocation. Because of its chromosomal position, its enzymatic properties as a receptor phosphatase, which might oppose a growth activating kinase activity, its homozygous deletion in murine L cells, and its transcriptional activity in numerous normal tissues, including kidney, the PTP{gamma} gene was an attractive tumor suppressor gene candidate for renal cell carcinoma. To determine whether the PTP{gamma} gene was a target of loss of heterozygosity or mutation in RCCs and to determine its map position relative to the t(3;8) break at 3p14.2, we have isolated YAC and {lambda} genomic clones for the PTP{gamma} gene and other 3p14.2 markers and determined the relative positions of the t(3;8) break, a 3p14.2 de novo break possibly in a fragile site, and the 5{prime} end of the PTP{gamma} gene. Additionally, the genomic structure, position of the proximal promotor, and intron-exon border sequences of the 30-exon {approximately} 780-kb PTP{gamma} gene have been determined, which will facilitate analysis of the PTP{gamma} gene in tumors. 49 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Structure of the human receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene (PTPRG) and relation to the familial RCC t(3;8) chromosome translocation.

    PubMed

    Kastury, K; Ohta, M; Lasota, J; Moir, D; Dorman, T; LaForgia, S; Druck, T; Huebner, K

    1996-03-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene, PTP gamma (locus name PTPRG), was previously mapped to chromosome region 3p14.2, within a 2- to 4-Mb region centromeric to the 3p14.2 breakpoint of the t(3;8) familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated constitutional chromosome translocation. Because of its chromosomal position, its enzymatic properties as a receptor phosphatase, which might oppose a growth activating kinase activity, its homozygous deletion in murine L cells, and its transcriptional activity in numerous normal tissues, including kidney, the PTP gamma gene was an attractive tumor suppressor gene candidate for renal cell carcinoma. To determine whether the PTP gamma gene was a target of loss of heterozygosity or mutation in RCCs and to determine its map position relative to the t(3;8) break at 3p14.2, we have isolated YAC and lambda genomic clones for the PTP gamma gene and other 3p14.2 markers and determined the relative positions of the t(3;8) break, a 3p14.2 de novo break possibly in a fragile site, and the 5' end of the PTP gamma gene. Additionally, the genomic structure, position of the proximal promotor, and intron-exon border sequences of the 30-exon 780-kb PTP gamma gene have been determined, which will facilitate analysis of the PTP gamma gene in tumors. PMID:8833149

  8. Characterization of a familial t(16;22) balanced translocation associated with congenital cataract leads to identification of a novel gene, TMEM114, expressed in the lens and disrupted by the translocation.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Robyn V; Farrar, Nicola; Stewart, Katrina; Perveen, Rahat; Mihelec, Marija; Carette, Martin; Grigg, John R; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J; Tam, Patrick P L; Scambler, Peter; Lloyd, I Christopher; Donnai, Dian; Black, Graeme C M

    2007-10-01

    Molecular characterization of chromosomal rearrangements is a powerful resource in identification of genes associated with monogenic disorders. We describe the molecular characterization of a balanced familial chromosomal translocation, t(16;22)(p13.3;q11.2), segregating with congenital lamellar cataract. This led to the discovery of a cluster of lens-derived expressed sequence tags (ESTs) close to the 16p13.3 breakpoint. This region harbors a locus associated with cataract and microphthalmia. Long-range PCR and 16p13.3 breakpoint sequencing identified genomic sequence in a human genome sequence gap, and allowed identification of a novel four-exon gene, designated TMEM114, which encodes a predicted protein of 223 amino acids. The breakpoint lies in the promoter region of TMEM114 and separates the gene from predicted eye-specific upstream transcription factor binding sites. There is sequence conservation among orthologs down to zebrafish. The protein is predicted to contain four transmembrane domains with homology to the lens intrinsic membrane protein, LIM2 (also known as MP20), in the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. TMEM114 mutation screening in 130 congenital cataract patients revealed missense mutations leading to the exchange of highly-conserved amino acids in the first extracellular domain of the protein (p.I35T, p.F106L) in two separate patients and their reportedly healthy sibling and mother, respectively. In the lens, Tmem114 shows expression in the lens epithelial cells extending into the transitional zone where early fiber differentiation occurs. Our findings implicate dysregulation of expression of this novel human gene, TMEM114, in mammalian cataract formation. PMID:17492639

  9. BCL6 is regulated by p53 through a response element frequently disrupted in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Ofer; Amram, Hila; Amariglio, Ninette; Simon, Amos J; Shaklai, Sigal; Granot, Galit; Minsky, Neri; Shimoni, Avichai; Harmelin, Alon; Givol, David; Shohat, Mordechai; Oren, Moshe; Rechavi, Gideon

    2006-02-15

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor mediates survival, proliferation, and differentiation blockade of B cells during the germinal-center reaction and is frequently misregulated in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (BNHL). The p53 tumor-suppressor gene is central to tumorigenesis. Microarray analysis identified BCL6 as a primary target of p53. The BCL6 intron 1 contains a region in which 3 types of genetic alterations are frequent in BNHL: chromosomal translocations, point mutations, and internal deletions. We therefore defined it as TMDR (translocations, mutations, and deletions region). The BCL6 gene contains a p53 response element (p53RE) residing within the TMDR. This p53RE contains a motif known to be preferentially targeted by somatic hypermutation. This p53RE is evolutionarily conserved only in primates. The p53 protein binds to this RE in vitro and in vivo. Reporter assays revealed that the BCL6 p53RE can confer p53-dependent transcriptional activation. BCL6 mRNA and protein levels increased after chemotherapy/radiotherapy in human but not in murine tissues. The increase in BCL6 mRNA levels was attenuated by the p53 inhibitor PFT-alpha. Thus, we define the BCL6 gene as a new p53 target, regulated through a RE frequently disrupted in BNHL. PMID:16249378

  10. Nucleotide sequence of the afimbrial-adhesin-encoding afa-3 gene cluster and its translocation via flanking IS1 insertion sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, M I; Labigne, A; Le Bouguenec, C

    1994-01-01

    The afa gene clusters encode afimbrial adhesins (AFAs) that are expressed by uropathogenic and diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli strains. The plasmid-borne afa-3 gene cluster is responsible for the biosynthesis of the AFA-III adhesin that belongs to the Dr family of hemagglutinins. Reported in this work is the nucleotide sequence of the 9.2-kb insert of the recombinant plasmid pILL61, which contains the afa-3 gene cluster cloned from a cystitis-associated E. coli strain (A30). The afa-3 gene cluster was shown to contain six open reading frames, designated afaA to afaF. It was organized in two divergent transcriptional units. Five of the six Afa products showed marked homologies with proteins encoded by previously described adhesion systems that allowed us to attribute to each of them a putative function in the biogenesis of the AFA-III adhesin. AfaE was identified as the structural adhesin product, whereas AfaB and AfaC were recognized as periplasmic chaperone and outer membrane anchor proteins, respectively. The AfaA and AfaF products were shown to be homologous to the PapI-PapB transcriptional regulatory proteins. No function could be attributed to the AfaD product, the gene of which was previously shown to be dispensable for the synthesis of a functional adhesin. Upstream of the afa-3 gene cluster, a 1.2-kb region was found to be 96% identical to the RepFIB sequence of one of the enterotoxigenic E. coli plasmids (P307), suggesting a common ancestor plasmid. This region contains an integrase-like gene (int). Sequence analysis revealed the presence of an IS1 element between the int gene and the afa-3 gene cluster. Two other IS1 elements were detected and located in the vicinity of the afa-3 gene cluster by hybridization experiments. The afa-3 gene cluster was therefore found to be flanked by two IS1 elements in direct orientation and two in opposite orientations. The afa-3 gene cluster, flanked by two directly oriented IS1 elements, was shown to translocate from a recombinant plasmid to the E. coli chromosome. This translocation event occurred via IS1-specific recombination mediated by a recA-independent mechanism. Images PMID:8002584

  11. Downregulation of FOXP1 is required during germinal center B-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Roa, Sergio; Bunting, Karen L.; Aznar, María Angela; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita; Fontán, Lorena; Fresquet, Vicente; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; Robles, Eloy F.; De Smedt, Linde; Sagaert, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation and germinal center (GC) formation are dependent on the interplay between BCL6 and other transcriptional regulators. FOXP1 is a transcription factor that regulates early B-cell development, but whether it plays a role in mature B cells is unknown. Analysis of human tonsillar B-cell subpopulations revealed that FOXP1 shows the opposite expression pattern to BCL6, suggesting that FOXP1 regulates the transition from resting follicular B cell to activated GC B cell. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and gene expression assays on B cells indicated that FOXP1 acts as a transcriptional activator and repressor of genes involved in the GC reaction, half of which are also BCL6 targets. To study FOXP1 function in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing human FOXP1 in lymphoid cells. These mice exhibited irregular formation of splenic GCs, showing a modest increase in naïve and marginal-zone B cells and a significant decrease in GC B cells. Furthermore, aberrant expression of FOXP1 impaired transcription of noncoding γ1 germline transcripts and inhibited efficient class switching to the immunoglobulin G1 isotype. These studies show that FOXP1 is physiologically downregulated in GC B cells and that aberrant expression of FOXP1 impairs mechanisms triggered by B-cell activation, potentially contributing to B-cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:23580662

  12. Chemokine-mediated B cell trafficking during early rabbit GALT development

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Shi-Kang; Volgina, Veronica V.; Sethupathi, Periannan; Knight, Katherine L.; Lanning, Dennis K.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial and host cell interactions stimulate rabbit B cells to diversify the primary antibody repertoire in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). B cells at the base of appendix follicles begin proliferating and diversifying their V-(D)-J genes around 1 week of age, ∼5 days after B cells first begin entering appendix follicles, To gain insight into the microbial and host cell interactions that stimulate B cells to diversify the primary antibody repertoire, we analyzed B cell trafficking within follicles during the first week of life. We visualized B cells, as well as chemokines that mediate B cell homing in lymphoid tissues, by in situ hybridization, and examined B cell chemokine receptor expression by flow cytometry. We found that B cells were activated, and began downregulating their BCRs, well before a detectable B cell proliferative region appeared at the follicle base. The proliferative region was similar to germinal center dark zones, in that it exhibited elevated CXCL12 mRNA expression, and B cells that upregulated CXCR4 mRNA in response to signals acquired from select intestinal commensals localized in this region. Our results suggest that, after entering appendix follicles, B cells home sequentially to the FAE, the FDC network, the B cell:T cell boundary and, ultimately, the base of the follicle, where they enter a proliferative program and diversify the primary antibody repertoire. PMID:25385821

  13. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Version 1.2016.

    PubMed

    Zelenetz, Andrew D; Gordon, Leo I; Wierda, William G; Abramson, Jeremy S; Advani, Ranjana H; Andreadis, C Babis; Bartlett, Nancy; Byrd, John C; Fayad, Luis E; Fisher, Richard I; Glenn, Martha J; Habermann, Thomas M; Lee Harris, Nancy; Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, Francisco; Hoppe, Richard T; Horwitz, Steven M; Kaminski, Mark S; Kelsey, Christopher R; Kim, Youn H; Krivacic, Susan; LaCasce, Ann S; Lunning, Matthew; Nademanee, Auayporn; Porcu, Pierluigi; Press, Oliver; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Reddy, Nishitha; Reid, Erin; Roberts, Kenneth; Saad, Ayman A; Sokol, Lubomir; Swinnen, Lode J; Vose, Julie M; Yahalom, Joachim; Zafar, Nadeem; Dwyer, Mary; Sundar, Hema

    2016-02-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are now considered a heterogeneous group of distinct molecular subtypes (germinal center B-cell DLBCL, activated B-cell DLBCL, and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) with varied natural history and response to therapy. In addition, a subset of patients with DLBCL have concurrent MYC and/or BCL2 gene rearrangements (double-hit lymphomas; DHL) and others have a dual expression of both MYC and BCL2 proteins (double-expressing DLBCL; DEL). The standard of care for the treatment of patients with PMBL, DHL, or DEL has not been established. Adequate immunophenotyping and molecular testing (in selected circumstances) are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of different subtypes of DLBCL. The NCCN Guidelines included in this issue, part of the NCCN Guidelines for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, address the diagnosis and management of DLBCL and its subtypes. PMID:26850490

  14. Why do B cells mutate their immunoglobulin receptors?

    PubMed

    Longo, Nancy S; Lipsky, Peter E

    2006-08-01

    B cells have the unique ability to acquire large numbers of point mutations in the variable segment of rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes during a germinal center reaction. It is broadly accepted that somatic hypermutation (SHM) and affinity maturation are required to generate memory B cells and to produce antibodies capable of accomplishing the host defense functions of the humoral component of the adaptive immune system. However, several studies illustrate that low-avidity interactions between antigen and the B-cell receptor can induce deletion, receptor editing and a T-dependent immune response, suggesting that the high-avidity binding of antigen is not essential. If enhanced antigen binding is not essential for immune responses, what is the purpose of SHM? An alternative benefit of SHM might be to enhance the ability of B cells to track antigens expressed by rapidly mutating microorganisms. PMID:16809065

  15. Impact of Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection on Hepatic B Cells.

    PubMed

    Colliou, Natacha; Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Owen, Jennifer L; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Ingestion of Bacillus anthracis results in rapid gastrointestinal (GI) infection, known as GI anthrax. We previously showed that during GI anthrax, there is swift deterioration of intestinal barrier function leading to translocation of gut-associated bacteria into systemic circulation. Additionally, we described dysfunction in colonic B cells. In concordance with our previous studies, here, we report early migration of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis along with other gut-resident bacteria into the infected murine liver. Additionally, despite a global decrease in the B cell population, we observed an increase in both B-1a and marginal zone (MZ)-like B cells. Both of these cell types are capable of producing immunoglobulins against common pathogens and commensals, which act as a general antibody barrier before an antigen-specific antibody response. Accumulation of these cells in the liver was associated with an increase in chemokine expression. These data suggest that the presence of Sterne and other commensals in the liver trigger migration of MZ-like B cells from the spleen to the liver to neutralize systemic spread. Further research is required to evaluate the possible cause of their failure to clear the infection within the liver, including the potential role of dysfunctional mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. PMID:26402706

  16. Impact of Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection on Hepatic B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colliou, Natacha; Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Owen, Jennifer L.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of Bacillus anthracis results in rapid gastrointestinal (GI) infection, known as GI anthrax. We previously showed that during GI anthrax, there is swift deterioration of intestinal barrier function leading to translocation of gut-associated bacteria into systemic circulation. Additionally, we described dysfunction in colonic B cells. In concordance with our previous studies, here, we report early migration of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis along with other gut-resident bacteria into the infected murine liver. Additionally, despite a global decrease in the B cell population, we observed an increase in both B-1a and marginal zone (MZ)-like B cells. Both of these cell types are capable of producing immunoglobulins against common pathogens and commensals, which act as a general antibody barrier before an antigen-specific antibody response. Accumulation of these cells in the liver was associated with an increase in chemokine expression. These data suggest that the presence of Sterne and other commensals in the liver trigger migration of MZ-like B cells from the spleen to the liver to neutralize systemic spread. Further research is required to evaluate the possible cause of their failure to clear the infection within the liver, including the potential role of dysfunctional mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. PMID:26402706

  17. The B-cell development in tonsillar lymphoid follicles.

    PubMed

    Brandtzaeg, P

    1996-01-01

    The palatine tonsils, and particularly the nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), may be functionally comparable to nasal-associated lymphoid tissue in rodents. Primary follicles occur in human tonsils at 16 weeks' gestation, and formation of germinal centres (GC) takes place shortly after birth. The GC arise in T-cell-dependent B-cell responses and are associated with: i) clonal expansion; ii) somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin variable (Ig V)-region genes; iii) positive selection of B cells based on affinity for antigen; iv) differentiation to memory B cells and plasma cells; and v) induction of the J-chain gene. The follicular dendritic cells (FDC) of GC retain native antigen which stimulates growth of B-cell blasts and hypermutation of their Ig V genes. The resulting centrocytes die by apoptosis unless they are selected by antigen. Cognate interaction between CD4+ helper T cells and B cells is important to promote downstream switching of the heavy chain constant (CH) genes. In human tonsillar GC this process normally gives rise mainly to IgG (55%-72%) and IgA (13%-18%) immunocytes, both isotypes normally being partially associated with J-chain expression (36% and 29%, respectively). Because J chain is a key peptide in secretory IgA, tonsillar GC may contribute precursor cells to mucosal effector sites. Thus, mucosal immunity can be induced in the airways by nasal immunization, and the level of nasopharyngeal and salivary secretory IgA is decreased after adenotonsillectomy. PMID:9082810

  18. Robertsonian translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 27, describes the occurrence of Robertsonian translocations (RTs), which refer to the recombination of whole chromosome arms, in both monocentric and dicentric chromosomes. The nonrandom participation of acrocentric chromosomes in RTs is documented by various methods, including unbiased ascertainment and ascertainment through trisomy, infertility, unspecified mental retardation, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Causes of nonrandom participation of chromosomes in RTs is presented, as are the following topics: segregation in carriers of RTs and segregation in sperm cells of RT carriers, interchromosomal effects and conclusions. 48 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Variegated silencing through epigenetic modifications of a large Xq region in a case of balanced X;2 translocation with Incontinentia Pigmenti-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Genesio, Rita; Melis, Daniela; Gatto, Sole; Izzo, Antonella; Ronga, Valentina; Cappuccio, Gerarda; Lanzo, Ambra; Andria, Generoso; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Matarazzo, Maria R; Conti, Anna; Nitsch, Lucio

    2011-10-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant phenotypes in balanced X;autosome translocations are scarcely understood. We report the case of a de novo reciprocal balanced translocation X;2(q23;q33) presenting phenotypic alterations highly suggestive of Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) syndrome, a genodermatosis with abnormal skin pigmentation and neurological failure, segregating as X-linked dominant disorder. Through molecular studies, we demonstrated that the altered phenotype could not be ascribed to chromosome microdeletions or to XIST-mediated inactivation of Xq24-qter. Interestingly, we found that the Xq24-qter region, which translocated downstream of the heterochromatic band 2q34, undergoes epigenetic silencing mediated by DNA methylation and histone alterations. Among the downregulated genes, we found the inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase gamma (IKBKG/NEMO), the causative gene of IP. We hypothesize that a mosaic functional nullisomy of the translocated genes, through a Position Effect Variegation-like heterochromatization, might be responsible for the proband's phenotypic anomalies. Partial silencing of IKBKG may be responsible for the skin anomalies observed, thereby mimicking the IP pathological condition. In addition to its clinical relevance, this paper addresses fundamental issues related to the chromatin status and nuclear localization of a human euchromatic region translocated proximally to heterochromatin. In conclusion, the study provides new insight into long-range gene silencing mechanisms and their direct impact in human disease. PMID:21931280

  20. Next-generation sequencing of translocation renal cell carcinoma reveals novel RNA splicing partners and frequent mutations of chromatin remodeling genes

    PubMed Central

    Malouf, Gabriel G.; Su, Xiaoping; Yao, Hui; Gao, Jianjun; Xiong, Liangwen; He, Qiuming; Comprat, Eva; Couturier, Jrme; Molini, Vincent; Escudier, Bernard; Camparo, Philippe; Doss, Denaha J.; Thompson, Erika J; Khayat, David; Wood, Christopher G.; Yu, Willie; Teh, Bin T.; Weinstein, John; Tannir, Nizar M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose MITF/TFE translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer. Its incidence and the genome-wide characterization of its genetic origin have not been fully elucidated. Experimental design We performed RNA and exome sequencing on an exploratory set of TRCC (n=7), and validated our findings using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) clear-cell RCC (ccRCC) dataset (n=460). Results Using the TCGA dataset, we identified 7 TRCC (1.5%) cases and determined their genomic profile. We discovered three novel partners of MITF/TFE (LUC7L3, KHSRP and KHDRBS2), which are involved in RNA splicing. TRCC displayed a unique gene expression signature as compared to other RCC types, and showed activation of MITF, the transforming growth factor ?1 and the PI3K complex targets. Genes differentially spliced between TRCC and other RCC types were enriched for MITF and ID2 targets. Exome sequencing of TRCC revealed a distinct mutational spectrum as compared to ccRCC, with frequent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes (six of eight cases, three of which from the TCGA). In two cases, we identified mutations in INO80D, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling gene, previously shown to control the amplitude of the S phase. Knockdown of INO80D decreased cell proliferation in a novel cell line bearing LUC7L3-TFE3 translocation. Conclusions This genome-wide study defines the incidence of TRCC within a ccRCC-directed project and expands the genomic spectrum of TRCC by identifying novel MITF/TFE partners involved in RNA splicing and frequent mutations in chromatin remodeling genes. PMID:24899691

  1. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. {yields} Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. {yields} Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. {yields} O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. {yields} O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  2. IgVH genes from different anatomical regions, with different histopathological patterns, of a rheumatoid arthritis patient suggest cyclic re-entry of mature synovial B-cells in the hypermutation process

    PubMed Central

    Souto-Carneiro, Maria M; Krenn, Veit; Hermann, Ralph; Knig, Achim; Mller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Although IgV genes in rheumatoid B cells have been intensively analyzed, many questions concerning antigen driven B-cell maturation and recirculation remain unanswered. It would be interesting to know whether B-cell maturation in rheumatoid tissue is different from that in secondary lymphatic organs. Moreover, it would be interesting to know whether there exists a restricted number of antigens that act on the lesions of different anatomical sites of the RA patient, and whether B cells recirculate between the different joints. Methods: RNA and genomic DNA were prepared from tissue sections from three different anatomical sites, with different histopathologies and different onsets (left and right peroneal tendons and cubita synovial membrane), of a RA patient. Genomic DNA was amplified by seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the cDNA corresponding to the RNA was amplified by PCR using primers specific for each IgVH family. The obtained sequences were compared with their germline counterparts on the V-Base data Bank [1]. An immunohisto-chemical analysis of the infiltrate and the clinical data of local disease activity were also included. Results: In the locations with longer disease duration (right peroneal tendon 5 months, left peroneal tendon 2 months) a very intense inflammatory infiltrate with germinal centers containing Ki-M4-positive follicular dendritic cells (FDC) was observed. In the location with shorter disease duration (right cubita 2 weeks) a low, diffuse and nonfollicular infiltration with marked oedema was detected. From the 55 analyzed clones seven expressed nonfunctional rearrangements (pseudogenes) with stop codons, and 48 were found to express functional genes. Among the 48 clones that expressed functional genes, there were two that had amino acid deletions on their complementarity determining region (CDR)2 - clones K194/1 and K194/111 - similar to the ones described by Wilson et al [2] and Goossens et al [3]. Two types of mixed molecules were found. Mixed molecules of the first type (k194/57, k194/67 and k194/109) are composed of rearrangements of two different IgV genes. Mixed molecules of the second type (k194/126, k194/119, k194/30 and k194/99) are composed of a IgV gene rearrangement that is fragmented by insertions of small random sequences. These insertions are different from the ones described by Wilson et al [2] since they are not duplicates or parts of IgV genes. The ratio of replacement mutations to silent mutations (R/S ratio) increased with disease duration. There was strong heterogeneity among the CDR3 segments. The amino acid sequences that belonged to the VH1-family obtained from the three anatomical regions were primarily compared with the amino acid sequences of their closest germline counterparts (Fig. 1a). One result from this comparison was the heterogeneity in the CDR3 rearrangements. Moreover, sequences k194/58 and k194/82 are clonally related (confirmed at nucleotide level). Then, the 21 amino acid sequences were compared with the most widely used germline counterpart IgHV1-18*01 (Fig. 1b). All of these VH1 sequences had mainly conservative mutations in the framework region (FR) and nonconservative mutations in the CDR. Also, there was an almost overall conservation of the mutational cold spots and 'structural cold spots' [4] among the 19 VH1 segments. The replacement (11 from 19 replacements resulted in a proline residue) in position 34 of CDR2 could be interpreted as an antigen-selected mutational hotspot. The comparison of the five sequences belonging to IgHV4-30-1/4-31*02 resulted in two types of clonal relation (Fig. 2a). The first type of clonal relation, between sequences k194/100 and k194/101 (Fig. 2b), suggests that both sequences are derived from a single progenitor cell. The second type of clonal relation is between sequences k194/23, k194/102 and k194/103 (Fig. 2c). It suggests that an unmutated progenitor cell gave rise to k194/23 (left peroneal tendon), from which k194/103 (right cubita) derived and later generated k194/102 (right cubita). Dis

  3. Accumulation of Self-Reactive Nave and Memory B Cell Reveals Sequential Defects in B Cell Tolerance Checkpoints in Sjgrens Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Bombardieri, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sjgrens syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by breach of self-tolerance towards nuclear antigens resulting in high affinity circulating autoantibodies. Although peripheral B cell disturbances have been described in SS, with predominance of nave and reduction of memory B cells, the stage at which errors in B cell tolerance checkpoints accumulate in SS is unknown. Here we determined the frequency of self- and poly-reactive B cells in the circulating nave and memory compartment of SS patients. Single CD27?IgD+ nave, CD27+IgD+ memory unswitched and CD27+IgD? memory switched B cells were sorted by FACS from the peripheral blood of 7 SS patients. To detect the frequency of polyreactive and autoreactive clones, paired Ig VH and VL genes were amplified, cloned and expressed as recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) displaying identical specificity of the original B cells. IgVH and VL gene usage and immunoreactivity of SS rmAbs were compared with those obtained from healthy donors (HD). From a total of 353 VH and 293 VL individual sequences, we obtained 114 rmAbs from circulating nave (n?=?66) and memory (n?=?48) B cells of SS patients. Analysis of the Ig V gene repertoire did not show significant differences in SS vs. HD B cells. In SS patients, circulating nave B cells (with germline VH and VL genes) displayed a significant accumulation of clones autoreactive against Hep-2 cells compared to HD (43.1% vs. 25%). Moreover, we demonstrated a progressive increase in the frequency of circulating anti-nuclear nave (9.3%), memory unswitched (22.2%) and memory switched (27.3%) B cells in SS patients. Overall, these data provide novel evidence supporting the existence of both early and late defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints in patients with SS resulting in the accumulation of autoreactive nave and memory B cells. PMID:25535746

  4. The Down-Regulation of Mt4-Like Genes by Phosphate Fertilization Occurs Systemically and Involves Phosphate Translocation to the Shoots1

    PubMed Central

    Burleigh, Stephen H.; Harrison, Maria J.

    1999-01-01

    Mt4 is a cDNA representing a phosphate-starvation-inducible gene from Medicago truncatula that is down-regulated in roots in response to inorganic phosphate (Pi) fertilization and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Split-root experiments revealed that the expression of the Mt4 gene in M. truncatula roots is down-regulated systemically by both Pi fertilization and colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A comparison of Pi levels in these tissues suggested that this systemic down-regulation is not caused by Pi accumulation. Using a 30-bp region of the Mt4 gene as a probe, Pi-starvation-inducible Mt4-like genes were detected in Arabidopsis and soybean (Glycine max L.), but not in corn (Zea mays L.). Analysis of the expression of the Mt4-like Arabidopsis gene, At4, in wild-type Arabidopsis and pho1, a mutant unable to load Pi into the xylem, suggests that Pi must first be translocated to the shoot for down-regulation to occur. The data from the pho1 and split-root studies are consistent with the presence of a translocatable shoot factor responsible for mediating the systemic down-regulation of Mt4-like genes in roots. PMID:9880366

  5. Molecular breakpoint cloning and gene expression studies of a novel translocation t(4;15)(q27;q11.2) associated with Prader-Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schle, Birgitt; Albalwi, Mohammed; Northrop, Emma; Francis, David I; Rowell, Margaret; Slater, Howard R; Gardner, RJ McKinlay; Francke, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (MIM #176270; PWS) is caused by lack of the paternally-derived copies, or their expression, of multiple genes in a 4 Mb region on chromosome 15q11.2. Known mechanisms include large deletions, maternal uniparental disomy or mutations involving the imprinting center. De novo balanced reciprocal translocations in 5 reported individuals had breakpoints clustering in SNRPN intron 2 or exon 20/intron 20. To further dissect the PWS phenotype and define the minimal critical region for PWS features, we have studied a 22 year old male with a milder PWS phenotype and a de novo translocation t(4;15)(q27;q11.2). Methods We used metaphase FISH to narrow the breakpoint region and molecular analyses to map the breakpoints on both chromosomes at the nucleotide level. The expression of genes on chromosome 15 on both sides of the breakpoint was determined by RT-PCR analyses. Results Pertinent clinical features include neonatal hypotonia with feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, short stature, late-onset obesity, learning difficulties, abnormal social behavior and marked tolerance to pain, as well as sticky saliva and narcolepsy. Relative macrocephaly and facial features are not typical for PWS. The translocation breakpoints were identified within SNRPN intron 17 and intron 10 of a spliced non-coding transcript in band 4q27. LINE and SINE sequences at the exchange points may have contributed to the translocation event. By RT-PCR of lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, we find that upstream SNURF/SNRPN exons and snoRNAs HBII-437 and HBII-13 are expressed, but the downstream snoRNAs PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438A/B snoRNAs are not. Conclusion As part of the PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNA cluster is highly conserved between human and mice, while no copy of HBII-438 has been found in mouse, we conclude that PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNAs is likely to play a major role in the PWS- phenotype. PMID:15877813

  6. MSH6- or PMS2-deficiency causes re-replication in DT40 B cells, but it has little effect on immunoglobulin gene conversion or on repair of AID-generated uracils

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Vanina A.; Patenaude, Anne-Marie; Kaden, Svenja; Horb, Lori; Firka, Daniel; Jiricny, Josef; Di Noia, Javier M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian antibody repertoire is shaped by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of B lymphocytes. SHM and CSR are triggered by non-canonical, error-prone processing of G/U mismatches generated by activation-induced deaminase (AID). In birds, AID does not trigger SHM, but it triggers Ig gene conversion (GC), a ‘homeologous’ recombination process involving the Ig variable region and proximal pseudogenes. Because recombination fidelity is controlled by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, we investigated whether MMR affects GC in the chicken B cell line DT40. We show here that Msh6−/− and Pms2−/− DT40 cells display cell cycle defects, including genomic re-replication. However, although IgVλ GC tracts in MMR-deficient cells were slightly longer than in normal cells, Ig GC frequency, donor choice or the number of mutations per sequence remained unaltered. The finding that the avian MMR system, unlike that of mammals, does not seem to contribute towards the processing of G/U mismatches in vitro could explain why MMR is unable to initiate Ig GC in this species, despite initiating SHM and CSR in mammalian cells. Moreover, as MMR does not counteract or govern Ig GC, we report a rare example of ‘homeologous’ recombination insensitive to MMR. PMID:23314153

  7. B Lymphocyte Lineage Specification, Commitment and Epigenetic Control of Transcription by Early B Cell Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, James; Ramírez, Julita; Lukin, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) is a transcription factor that is critical for both B lymphopoiesis and B cell function. EBF1 is a requisite component of the B lymphocyte transcriptional network and is essential for B lineage specification. Recent studies revealed roles for EBF1 in B cell commitment. EBF1 binds its target genes via a DNA-binding domain including a unique ‘zinc knuckle’, which mediates a novel mode of DNA recognition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of EBF1 in pro-B cells defined hundreds of new, as well as previously identified, target genes. Notably, expression of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), BCR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways is controlled by EBF1. In this review, we highlight these current developments and explore how EBF1 functions as a tissue-specific regulator of chromatin structure at B cell-specific genes. PMID:21735360

  8. Light-Activated Nuclear Translocation of Adeno-Associated Virus Nanoparticles Using Phytochrome B for Enhanced, Tunable, and Spatially Programmable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eric J; Gerhardt, Karl; Judd, Justin; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Suh, Junghae

    2016-01-26

    Gene delivery vectors that are activated by external stimuli may allow improved control over the location and the degree of gene expression in target populations of cells. Light is an attractive stimulus because it does not cross-react with cellular signaling networks, has negligible toxicity, is noninvasive, and can be applied in space and time with unparalleled precision. We used the previously engineered red (R)/far-red (FR) light-switchable protein phytochrome B (PhyB) and its R light dependent interaction partner phytochrome interacting factor 6 (PIF6) from Arabidopsis thaliana to engineer an adeno-associated virus (AAV) platform whose gene delivery efficiency is controlled by light. Upon exposure to R light, AAV engineered to display PIF6 motifs on the capsid bind to PhyB tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), resulting in significantly increased translocation of viruses into the host cell nucleus and overall gene delivery efficiency. By modulating the ratio of R to FR light, the gene delivery efficiency can be tuned to as little as 35% or over 600% of the unengineered AAV. We also demonstrate spatial control of gene delivery using projected patterns of codelivered R and FR light. Overall, our successful use of light-switchable proteins in virus capsid engineering extends these important optogenetic tools into the adjacent realm of nucleic acid delivery and enables enhanced, tunable, and spatially controllable regulation of viral gene delivery. Our current light-triggered viral gene delivery prototype may be broadly useful for genetic manipulation of cells ex vivo or in vivo in transgenic model organisms, with the ultimate prospect of achieving dose- and site-specific gene expression profiles for either therapeutic (e.g., regenerative medicine) or fundamental discovery research efforts. PMID:26618393

  9. Characterization of a presecretory phase in B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    King, L B; Corley, R B

    1989-01-01

    We have identified and characterized an inducible in vitro subclone of the CH12 B-cell lymphoma, CH12-LBK, which appears to represent a transitional phase in the B-cell differentiation pathway. This phase, which we call the "presecretory" phase, falls between replicating B cells that are not secreting antibodies and B cells that secrete antibody at a high rate. Presecretory cells are characterized by abundant steady-state levels of immunoglobulin and joining (J) chain transcripts and of protein but low levels of mouse mammary tumor virus envelope transcripts and low rates of immunoglobulin secretion. Additional stimulation is required for presecretory cells to differentiate into cells that secrete antibodies at a high rate. The existence of cells with this phenotype suggests that high-level expression of immunoglobulin and J-chain protein does not necessarily commit a B cell to polymerize and secrete multimeric immunoglobulin. Rather, other gene products, expressed after immunoglobulin and J-chain transcripts have been upregulated late in B-cell differentiation, appear responsible for inducing high rates of antibody secretion. Images PMID:2495536

  10. Circadian clock gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like polymorphisms are associated with seasonal affective disorder: An Indian family study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Bhagya; Janakarajan, Veeramahali Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Polymorphisms in aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL) gene, the key component of circadian clock manifests circadian rhythm abnormalities. As seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is associated with disrupted circadian rhythms, the main objective of this study was to screen an Indian family with SAD for ARNTL gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 members of close-knit family with SAD, 30 age- and sex-matched controls of the same caste with no prior history of psychiatric illness and 30 age- and sex-matched controls belonging to 17 different castes with no prior history of psychiatric illness were genotyped for five different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ARNTL gene by TaqMan allele-specific genotyping assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical significance was assessed by more powerful quasi-likelihood score test-XM. Results: Most of the family members carried the risk alleles and we observed a highly significant SNP rs2279287 (A/G) in ARNTL gene with an allelic frequency of 0.75. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in ARNTL gene disrupt circadian rhythms causing SAD and genetic predisposition becomes more deleterious in the presence of adverse environment. PMID:26985106

  11. Effects of aging, CMV infection, and EBV infection on human B cell repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Yi; Xu, Lan T.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Pham, Tho D.; Laserson, Jonathan; Marshall, Eleanor L.; Seo, Katie; Lee, Ji-Yeun; Furman, David; Koller, Daphne; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Boyd, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Elderly humans show decreased humoral immunity to pathogens and vaccines, yet the effects of aging on B cells are not fully known. Chronic viral infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is implicated as a driver of clonal T cell proliferations in some aging humans, but whether CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to alterations in the B cell repertoire with age is unclear. We have used high-throughput DNA sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements to study the B cell receptor repertoires over two successive years in 27 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 89 years. Some features of the B cell repertoire remain stable with age, but elderly subjects show increased numbers of B cells with long CDR3 regions, a trend toward accumulation of more highly mutated IgM and IgG immunoglobulin genes, and persistent clonal B cell populations in the blood. Seropositivity for CMV or EBV infection alters B cell repertoires, regardless of the individual's age: EBV infection correlates with the presence of persistent clonal B cell expansions, while CMV infection correlates with the proportion of highly mutated antibody genes. These findings isolate effects of aging from those of chronic viral infection on B cell repertoires, and provide a baseline for understanding human B cell responses to vaccination or infectious stimuli. PMID:24337376

  12. Variant translocation partners of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene in two cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma, identified by inverse cDNA polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Kayo; Okumura, Atsuko; Honjo, Gen; Ohno, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    In anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is rearranged with diverse partners due to variant translocations/inversions. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man who developed multiple tumors in the mediastinum, psoas muscle, lung, and lymph nodes. A biopsy specimen of the inguinal node was effaced by large tumor cells expressing CD30, epithelial membrane antigen, and cytoplasmic ALK, which led to a diagnosis of ALK(+) ALCL. Case 2 was a 51-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with undifferentiated carcinoma. He developed multiple skin tumors eight years after his initial presentation, and was finally diagnosed with ALK(+) ALCL. He died of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization using an ALK break-apart probe revealed the rearrangement of ALK and suggested variant translocation in both cases. We applied an inverse cDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy to identify the partner of ALK. Nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products and a database search revealed that the sequences of ATIC in case 1 and TRAF1 in case 2 appeared to follow those of ALK. We subsequently confirmed ATIC-ALK and TRAF1-ALK fusions by reverse transcriptase PCR and nucleotide sequencing. We successfully determined the partner gene of ALK in two cases of ALK(+) ALCL. ATIC is the second most common partner of variant ALK rearrangements, while the TRAF1-ALK fusion gene was first reported in 2013, and this is the second reported case of ALK(+) ALCL carrying TRAF1-ALK. PMID:25501114

  13. Mechanisms That Can Promote Peripheral B Cell Lymphoma in ATM-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Hu, Jiazhi; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W

    2014-01-01

    The Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase senses DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and facilitates their repair. In humans, ATM deficiency predisposes to B- and T-cell lymphomas, but in mice leads only to thymic lymphomas. We tested the hypothesis that increased DSB frequency at a cellular oncogene could promote B-cell lymphoma by generating ATM-deficient mice with a V(D)J recombination target (“DJβ” cassette) within c-myc intron one (“DA” mice). We also generated ATM-deficient mice carrying an Eμ-Bcl-2 transgene (“AB” mice) to test whether enhanced cellular survival could promote B-cell lymphomas. About 30% of DA or AB mice and nearly 100% of mice harboring the combined genotypes (“DAB” mice) developed mature B-cell lymphomas. In all genotypes, B-cell tumors harbored oncogenic c-myc amplification generated by breakage-fusion-bridge (“BFB”) from dicentric chromosomes formed through fusion of IgH V(D)J recombination-associated DSBs on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15. AB tumors demonstrate that B lineage cells harboring spontaneous DSBs leading to IgH/c-myc dicentrics are blocked from progressing to B cell lymphomas by cellular apoptotic responses. DA and DAB tumor translocations were strictly linked to the cassette, but occurred downstream, frequently in a 6-kb region adjacent to c-myc that harbors multiple cryptic V(D)J recombination targets, suggesting that bona fide V(D)J target sequences may activate linked cryptic targets. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency allows IgH V(D)J recombination DSBs in developing B cells to generate dicentric translocations that via BFB cycles lead to c-myc-activating oncogenic translocations and amplifications in mature B cells. PMID:24913718

  14. Epstein-Barr Virus Immortalization of Human B-Cells Leads to Stabilization of Hypoxia-Induced Factor 1 Alpha, Congruent with the Warburg Effect

    PubMed Central

    Darekar, Suhas; Georgiou, Konstantinos; Yurchenko, Mariya; Yenamandra, Surya Pavan; Chachami, Georgia; Simos, George

    2012-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) encodes six nuclear transformation-associated proteins that induce extensive changes in cellular gene expression and signaling and induce B-cell transformation. The role of HIF1A in EBV-induced B-cell immortalization has not been previously studied. Methods and Findings Using Western blotting and Q-PCR, we found that HIF1A protein is stabilized in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells. Western blotting, GST pulldown assays, and immunoprecipitation showed that EBV-encoded nuclear antigens EBNA-5 and EBNA-3 bind to prolylhydroxylases 1 and 2, respectively, thus inhibiting HIF1A hydroxylation and degradation. Immunostaining and Q-PCR showed that the stabilized HIF1A translocates to the nucleus, forms a heterodimer with ARNT, and transactivates several genes involved in aerobic glycolysis. Using biochemical assays and Q-PCR, we also found that lymphoblastoid cells produce high levels of lactate, lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate. Conclusions Our data suggest that activation of the aerobic glycolytic pathway, corresponding to the Warburg effect, occurs in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cells, in contrast to mitogen-activated B-cells. PMID:22848707

  15. Ten-Eleven Translocation 1 (Tet1) Is Regulated by O-Linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase (Ogt) for Target Gene Repression in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Kim, Hyeung; Lu, Weisi; He, Quanyuan; Liu, Dan; Goodell, Margaret A.; Wan, Ma; Songyang, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    As a member of the Tet (Ten-eleven translocation) family proteins that can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), Tet1 has been implicated in regulating global DNA demethylation and gene expression. Tet1 is highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells and appears primarily to repress developmental genes for maintaining pluripotency. To understand how Tet1 may regulate gene expression, we conducted large scale immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry of endogenous Tet1 in mouse ES cells. We found that Tet1 could interact with multiple chromatin regulators, including Sin3A and NuRD complexes. In addition, we showed that Tet1 could also interact with the O-GlcNAc transferase (Ogt) and be O-GlcNAcylated. Depletion of Ogt led to reduced Tet1 and 5hmC levels on Tet1-target genes, whereas ectopic expression of wild-type but not enzymatically inactive Ogt increased Tet1 levels. Mutation of the putative O-GlcNAcylation site on Tet1 led to decreased O-GlcNAcylation and level of the Tet1 protein. Our results suggest that O-GlcNAcylation can positively regulate Tet1 protein concentration and indicate that Tet1-mediated 5hmC modification and target repression is controlled by Ogt. PMID:23729667

  16. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with a four-way variant translocation originating the RBM15-MKL1 fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lurdes; Lisboa, Susana; Vieira, Joana; Cerveira, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Correia, Ceclia; Bizarro, Susana; Almeida, Marta; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2011-05-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) with t(1;22)(p13;q13) is a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) representing <1% of all cases and about 70% of pediatric AMKL in the first year of life. We present a case of a 7-month-old female in whom the bone marrow karyotype showed the derivative chromosome der(22)t(1;22)(p13;q13). The RBM15-MKL1 fusion transcript was detected by RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing analyses. FISH analyses revealed the presence of the four-way translocation t(1;22;17;18)(p13;q13;q22;q12). PMID:21370421

  17. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate acting through protein kinase C? induces translocator protein (18-kDa) Tspo gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Batarseh, Amani; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18-kDa cholesterol-binding protein that is expressed at high levels in steroid synthesizing and several cancer cells where it is involved in steroidogenesis and cell proliferation, respectively. The factors regulating Tspo expression are unknown. We analyzed Tspo transcriptional responses to the tumor promoter, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in cells with varying TSPO levels. PMA induced Tspo promoter activity and Tspo mRNA levels in TSPO-poor non-steroidogenic cells (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and COS-7 kidney), but not in TSPO-rich steroidogenic cells (MA-10 Leydig) with high basal Tspo transcriptional activity. The stimulatory effect of PMA was mediated by an 805-515-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that PMA induced binding of c-jun and GA-binding protein transcription factor (GABP-?) to their respective activator protein 1(AP1) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (Ets) sites in this region. Protein kinase C (PKC)-specific inhibitors blocked PMA induction of Tspo promoter activity with an inhibition profile suggestive of involvement of PKC?. PKC? expression correlated with TSPO content in the three cell lines. In NIH-3T3 cells, PKC? overexpression induced Tspo promoter activity, mRNA levels and enhanced PMA-induced up regulation of c-jun and TSPO. In MA-10 cells, a PKC?-specific translocation inhibitor peptide reduced basal Tspo promoter activity. PKC? siRNA pool reduced PKC? and TSPO levels in MA-10 cells indicating a role for PKC? in regulating TSPO expression. Taken together, these data suggest that elevated TSPO expression in steroidogenic cells maybe due to high constitutive expression of PKC? that renders them unresponsive to further induction while PMA activation of PKC? drives inducible TSPO expression in non-steroidogenic cells, likely through AP1 and Ets. PMID:18975922

  18. B-cell development and functions and therapeutic options in adenosine deaminase–deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Brigida, Immacolata; Sauer, Aisha V.; Ferrua, Francesca; Giannelli, Stefania; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Pistoia, Valentina; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Barendregt, Barbara H.; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Casiraghi, Miriam; Brombin, Chiara; Puck, Jennifer; Müller, Klaus; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Montin, Davide; van Montfrans, Joris M.; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe cellular and humoral immune defects and dysregulation because of metabolic toxicity. Alterations in B-cell development and function have been poorly studied. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy (GT) are therapeutic options for patients lacking a suitable bone marrow (BM) transplant donor. Objective We sought to study alterations in B-cell development in ADA-deficient patients and investigate the ability of ERT and HSC-GT to restore normal B-cell differentiation and function. Methods Flow cytometry was used to characterize B-cell development in BM and the periphery. The percentage of gene-corrected B cells was measured by using quantitative PCR. B cells were assessed for their capacity to proliferate and release IgM after stimulation. Results Despite the severe peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, patients with ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency showed a partial block in central BM development. Treatment with ERT or HSC-GT reverted most BM alterations, but ERT led to immature B-cell expansion. In the periphery transitional B cells accumulated under ERT, and the defect in maturation persisted long-term. HSC-GT led to a progressive improvement in B-cell numbers and development, along with increased levels of gene correction. The strongest selective advantage for ADA-transduced cells occurred at the transition from immature to naive cells. B-cell proliferative responses and differentiation to immunoglobulin secreting IgM after B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor triggering were severely impaired after ERT and improved significantly after HSC-GT. Conclusions ADA-deficient patients show specific defects in B-cell development and functions that are differently corrected after ERT and HSC-GT. PMID:24506932

  19. Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characteristics with Prognostic Significance in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  20. Immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics with prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  1. The BiP Cochaperone ERdj4 Is Required for B Cell Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jill M.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    ERdj4 is a BiP cochaperone regulated by the unfolded protein response to facilitate degradation of unfolded and/or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. As the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in B cell maturation and antibody production, ERdj4 gene trap mice were generated to determine if this chaperone was required for B cell homeostasis. Homozygosity for the trapped allele resulted in hypomorphic expression of ERdj4 in bone marrow cells and abnormal development of hematopoietic lineages in the bone marrow. The number of myeloid cells was increased, while the number of erythroid and B lymphoid cells was reduced in ERdj4 gene trap mice compared to controls. An intrinsic B cell defect was identified that decreased survival of B cell precursors including large and small pre-B, and immature B cells. Consistent with impaired B lymphopoiesis, the number of mature follicular B cells was reduced in both the bone marrow and spleen of ERdj4 gene trap mice. Paradoxically, unchallenged ERdj4 gene trap mice showed non-specific hypergammaglobulinemia and gene trap B cells exhibited increased proliferation, survival and isotype switching in response to LPS stimulation. Although ERdj4 gene trap mice responded normally to T cell-independent antigen, they failed to mount a specific antibody response to T cell-dependent antigen in vivo. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the chaperone activity of ERdj4 is required for survival of B cell progenitors and normal antibody production. PMID:25222125

  2. Antigen-specific memory B cell development.

    PubMed

    McHeyzer-Williams, Louise J; McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    Helper T (Th) cell-regulated B cell immunity progresses in an ordered cascade of cellular development that culminates in the production of antigen-specific memory B cells. The recognition of peptide MHC class II complexes on activated antigen-presenting cells is critical for effective Th cell selection, clonal expansion, and effector Th cell function development (Phase I). Cognate effector Th cell-B cell interactions then promote the development of either short-lived plasma cells (PCs) or germinal centers (GCs) (Phase II). These GCs expand, diversify, and select high-affinity variants of antigen-specific B cells for entry into the long-lived memory B cell compartment (Phase III). Upon antigen rechallenge, memory B cells rapidly expand and differentiate into PCs under the cognate control of memory Th cells (Phase IV). We review the cellular and molecular regulators of this dynamic process with emphasis on the multiple memory B cell fates that develop in vivo. PMID:15771579

  3. Memory B cells in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, B; Grimsholm, O; Thorarinsdottir, K; Ren, W; Jirholt, P; Gjertsson, I; Mårtensson, I-L

    2013-08-01

    One of the principles behind vaccination, as shown by Edward Jenner in 1796, and host protection is immunological memory, and one of the cells central to this is the antigen-experienced memory B cell that responds rapidly upon re-exposure to the initiating antigen. Classically, memory B cells have been defined as progenies of germinal centre (GC) B cells expressing isotype-switched and substantially mutated B cell receptors (BCRs), that is, membrane-bound antibodies. However, it has become apparent over the last decade that this is not the only pathway to B cell memory. Here, we will discuss memory B cells in mice, as defined by (1) cell surface markers; (2) multiple layers; (3) formation in a T cell-dependent and either GC-dependent or GC-independent manner; (4) formation in a T cell-independent fashion. Lastly, we will touch upon memory B cells in; (5) mouse models of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23679222

  4. Establishment and characterization of human B cell precursor-leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Y; Drexler, H G

    1998-07-01

    A large number of continuous human leukemia cell lines have been established over the last three decades. Clearly, leukemia cell lines have become important research tools. Here, we have summarized the immunological, molecular and standard cytogenetic features of a panel of well characterized B cell precursor (BCP)-leukemia cell lines which were derived from patients with acute lymphoblastic/undifferentiated leukemia (ALL/AUL) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis. Following the recently proposed immunological EGIL classification, we assigned our panel of 27 BCP-cell lines to one of the following categories: B-I pro-B cell line; B-II common-B cell line; and B-III pre-B cell line. All cell lines express general B-lineage associated surface markers (HLA-DR, CD22, CD79a) being negative for surface immunoglobulin (Ig); the differences between the subgroups reside in expression of CD10 and cytoplasmic Ig. Several BCP-cell lines show the myelomonocytic cell-associated markers CD13 and/or CD33. These immunologically 'biphenotypic' BCP-cell lines are generally TdT+ CD10+ CD13+ CD19+ CD22+ CD34+ and carry the Philadelphia (Ph) translocation. The BCP-cell lines display surface receptors for interferon-gamma (CD119), interleukin-7 (CD127) and FLT-3 ligand (CD135). All BCP-cell lines examined have complex numerical and structural chromosomal alterations including translocations commonly seen in BCP-ALL such as t(4;11), t(9;22), t(11;19), t(12;21), and t(17;19) involving the fusion genes MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL, ENL-MLL, TEL/ETV6-AML1 and E2A-HLF, respectively. Besides the expected rearrangement of the Ig heavy chain receptor gene, several cell lines also have rearrangements of the T cell receptor genes beta, gamma or delta. While some BCP-cell lines express (aberrantly) myeloperoxidase at the mRNA level, most lines are negative in the immunological or cytochemical staining. Several large series documented the difficulty in establishing such BCP cell lines with success rates in the range of 10-20% (on average 15%). Still, since the establishment of the first bonafide BCP-cell line in 1974 (cell line REH), some 150 cell lines have been established of which, however, only a small percentage have been sufficiently well characterized and described. A higher success rate for immortalizing any given leukemia cell might depend on a closer emulation of the physiological in vivo microenvironment. The possibility to grow in vitro leukemia cells at will would represent ideal experimental systems permitting basic research and patient-specific investigations. In summary, the use of well-characterized BCP-cell lines provide unprecedented opportunities for studying a multitude of biological aspects related to normal and neoplastic B-lymphocytes. PMID:9680106

  5. Sox4 is required for the survival of pro-B cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baohua; Mallampati, Saradhi; Gong, Yun; Wang, Donghai; Lefebvre, Vronique; Sun, Xiaoping

    2013-03-01

    The development of mature B cells from hematopoietic stem cells is a strictly orchestrated process involving multiple regulatory genes. The transcription factor Sox4 is required for this process, but its role has not been systematically studied, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To determine when and how Sox4 functions in the stepwise process of B cell development, we used mice harboring conditional null alleles for Sox4 and a Cre transgene. Sox4 deletion in hematopoietic stem cells almost entirely eliminated pro-B cells in both fetal livers and adult bone marrow, resulting in a severe deficiency in later stage B cells, including circulating mature B cells. Sox4-deficient pro-B cells, particularly those expressing the stem cell factor receptor c-Kit, readily underwent apoptosis, and even more so when c-Kit activity was inhibited by imatinib. C-Kit-expressing pro-B cells showed decreased activation of the c-Kit downstream protein Src upon Sox4 deletion. Likewise, the level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein was decreased in residual pro-B cells, and its restoration using a Bcl2 transgene allowed not only partial rescue of pro-B cell survival but also B cell maturation in the absence of Sox4. Our findings indicate that Sox4 is required for the survival of pro-B cells and may functionally interact with c-Kit and Bcl2. PMID:23345330

  6. Sox4 is required for the survival of pro-B cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baohua; Mallampati, Saradhi; Gong, Yun; Wang, Donghai; Lefebvre, Vronique; Sun, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    The development of mature B cells from hematopoietic stem cells is a strictly orchestrated process involving multiple regulatory genes. The transcription factor Sox4 is required for this process but its role has not been systematically studied, and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To determine when and how Sox4 functions in the stepwise process of B cell development, we used mice harboring conditional null alleles for Sox4 and a Cre transgene. Sox4 deletion in hematopoietic stem cells almost entirely eliminated pro-B cells in both fetal livers and adult bone marrow, resulting in a severe deficiency in later stage B cells including circulating mature B cells. Sox4-deficient pro-B cells, particularly those expressing the stem cell factor receptor c-Kit, readily underwent apoptosis, and even more so when c-Kit activity was inhibited by imatinib. C-Kit-expressing pro-B cells showed decreased activation of the c-Kit downstream protein Src upon Sox4 deletion. Likewise, the level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein was decreased in residual pro-B cells, and its restoration using a Bcl2 transgene not only allowed partial rescue of pro-B cell survival, but also B cell maturation in the absence of Sox4. Our findings indicate that Sox4 is required for the survival of pro-B cells and may functionally interact with c-Kit and Bcl2. PMID:23345330

  7. Functional characterisation of human cells harbouring a novel t(2p;7p) translocation involving TNS3 and EXOC6B genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tensin3 is an intracellular cytoskeleton-regulating protein, the loss of which is associated with increased cell motility, as has been observed in some human cancers. A novel chromosomal translocation, t(2;7)(p13;p12), present in a patient with a complex syndromic phenotype, directly involves Tensin3 (TNS3) and EXOC6B genes. This translocation could impair the expression of Tensin3 and ExoC6B proteins, and potentially produce two novel fusion transcripts. In the present study, we have investigated the expression and phenotypic features of these potential products in cultured cells from the proband. Methods Skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband as well as an age-matched control were grown in cell culture. Cells were used for quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescent confocal microscopy, which determined Tensin3 gene and protein expression. Phase-contrast and confocal microscopy additionally revealed cellular phenotype differences. A scratch wound assay monitored by live cell imaging measured cellular migration rates. Results The levels of Tensin3 at both mRNA and protein levels were lower in proband cells versus control fibroblasts. Proband cells displayed broader and shorter morphologies versus control fibroblasts, and immunofluorescent staining revealed additional Tensin3 expression along cytoskeletal filaments and the cell periphery only in control fibroblasts. In addition, proband fibroblasts showed a significantly higher migration rate than control cells over 24h. Conclusions The phenotypic changes observed in proband cells may arise from TNS3 haploinsufficiency, causing partial loss of full-length Tensin3 protein. These results further expose a role for Tensin3 in cytoskeletal organisation and cell motility and may also help to explain the syndromic features observed in the patient. PMID:23809228

  8. Curcumin diminishes the impacts of hyperglycemia on the activation of hepatic stellate cells by suppressing membrane translocation and gene expression of glucose transporter-2

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianguo; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is featured by elevated levels of blood glucose, i.e. hyperglycemia, which might be a risk factor for hepatic fibrogenesis in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major effectors during hepatic fibrogenesis. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of high levels of glucose on HSC activation, assess roles of the phytochemical curcumin in attenuating the glucose impacts, and elucidate underlying mechanisms. In this report, levels of intracellular glucose were measured. Contents and gene expression of glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2) in cell fractions were examined. Levels of cellular glutathione and oxidative stress were analyzed. We observed that high levels of glucose induced cell proliferation, type I collagen production and expression of genes relevant to HSC activation, and elevated intracellular glucose levels in cultured HSCs. Curcumin eliminated the stimulatory impacts. Curcumin abrogated the membrane translocation of GLUT2 by interrupting the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, curcumin suppressed glut2 expression by stimulating the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) and de novo synthesis of glutathione. In conclusion, hyperglycemia stimulated HSC activation in vitro by increasing intracellular glucose, which was eliminated by curcumin by blocking the membrane translocation of GLUT2 and suppressing glut2 expression. The latter was mediated by activating PPAR? and attenuating oxidative stress. Our results presented evidence to impacts of hyperglycemia on stimulating HSC activation and hepatic fibrogenesis, and provided novel insights into the mechanisms by which curcumin eliminated the hyperglycemia-caused HSC activation and potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes-associated hepatic fibrogenesis. PMID:21195127

  9. Changes in Caspase-3, B Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma-2, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Expression after Human Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transfusion in Pulmonary Hypertension Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwan Chang; Lee, Jae Chul; Lee, Hyeryon; Cho, Min-Sun; Choi, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Failure of vascular smooth muscle apoptosis and inflammatory response in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a current research focus. The goals of this study were to determine changes in select gene expressions in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) transfusion. Materials and Methods The rats were separated into 3 groups i.e., control group (C group), M group (MCT 60 mg/kg), and U group (hUCB-MSCs transfusion) a week after MCT injection. Results TUNEL assay showed that the U group had significantly lowered positive apoptotic cells in the lung tissues, as compared with the M group. mRNA of caspase-3, B cell leukemia/lymphoma (Bcl)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the lung tissues were greatly reduced at week 4 in the U group. Immunohistochemical staining of the lung tissues also demonstrated a similar pattern, with the exception of IL-6. The protein expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α and brain natriuretic peptide in the heart tissues were significantly lower in the U group, as compared with the M group at week 2. Furthermore, the protein expression of VEGF, IL-6 and BNP in the heart tissues were significantly lower in the U group at week 4. Collagen content in the heart tissues was significantly lower in the U group, as compared with M group at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. Conclusion hUCB-MSCs could prevent inflammation, apoptosis and remodeling in MCT-induced PAH rat models. PMID:26798389

  10. Bortezomib induces nuclear translocation of I?B? resulting in gene specific suppression of NF?B-dependent transcription and induction of apoptosis in CTCL

    PubMed Central

    Juvekar, Ashish; Manna, Subrata; Ramaswami, Sitharam; Chang, Tzu-Pei; Vu, Hai-Yen; Ghosh, Chandra C; Celiker, Mahmut Y; Vancurova, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) is characterized by constitutive activation of NF?B, which plays a crucial role in the survival of CTCL cells and their resistance to apoptosis. NF?B activity in CTCL is inhibited by the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib; however, the mechanisms remained unknown. In this study, we investigated mechanisms by which bortezomib suppresses NF?B activity in CTCL Hut-78 cells. We demonstrate that bortezomib and MG132 suppress NF?B activity in Hut-78 cells by a novel mechanism that consists of inducing nuclear translocation and accumulation of I?B?, which then associates with NF?B p65 and p50 in the nucleus and inhibits NF?B DNA binding activity. Surprisingly, however, while expression of NF?B-dependent anti-apoptotic genes cIAP1 and cIAP2 is inhibited by bortezomib, expression of Bcl-2 is not suppressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that cIAP1 and cIAP2 promoters are occupied by NF?B p65/50 heterodimers, while Bcl-2 promoter is occupied predominantly by p50/50 homodimers. Collectively, our data reveal a novel mechanism of bortezomib function in CTCL and suggest that the inhibition of NF?B-dependent gene expression by bortezomib is gene specific and depends on the subunit composition of NF?B dimers recruited to NF?B-responsive promoters. PMID:21224428

  11. Molecular characterization of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P.; Cesarman, E.; Chadburn, A.; Liu, Y. F.; Knowles, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLCL) postulated to arise from noncirculating thymic B lymphocytes. Because of its distinctive clinical and morphological features and putative unique cellular origin, PMBL is generally considered a distinct clinicopathological entity. Little is known, however, about the molecular characteristics of PMBL. Therefore, we analyzed 16 PMBLs for molecular alterations involving the bcl-1, bcl-2, bcl-6, c-myc, H-ras, K-ras, N-ras, and p53 genes and for Epstein-Barr virus infection, which are commonly involved in lymphoid neoplasia. Employing a combination of Southern blotting and/or polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, we detected genetic alterations in 7 of the 16 (44%) PMBLs. Whereas the bcl-6 gene is rearranged in up to 45% of DLCLs, rearrangement of the bcl-6 gene was detected in only 1 of these 16 (6%) PMBLS. Point mutations of the 5' noncoding region of the c-myc gene were demonstrated in 3 other cases (19%), although c-myc gene rearrangements were not seen by Southern blotting. Missense point mutations of the p53 gene were identified in 3 additional PMBLs (19%). Alterations of the bcl-1, bcl-2, or ras genes and evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection were not observed. In conclusion, a variety of molecular lesions occur in PMBLs and may be involved in their pathogenesis. This molecular genetic pattern bears little resemblance to that known for other B cell malignancies, including DLCL. In particular, the infrequent occurrence of bcl-6 gene rearrangement in PMBLs distinguishes them from other DLCLs of B cell origin, suggesting that PMBLs do not represent a distinct subtype of DLCL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8669486

  12. Dataset of transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation.

    PubMed

    Garruss, Alexander S; Fowler, Trent

    2015-09-01

    Signaling via B cell receptors (BCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) result in activation of B cells with distinct physiological outcomes, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive activation and distinguish these pathways remain unknown. At early time points after BCR and TLR ligand exposure, 0.5 and 2h, RNA-seq was performed allowing observations on rapid transcriptional changes. At 2h, ChIP-seq was performed to allow observations on important regulatory mechanisms potentially driving transcriptional change. The dataset includes RNA-seq, ChIP-seq of control (Input), RNA Pol II, H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and a separate RNA-seq for miRNA expression, which can be found at Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset GSE61608. Here, we provide details on the experimental and analysis methods used to obtain and analyze this dataset and to examine the transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation. PMID:26484262

  13. Regulation of germinal center B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Garcia-Ibanez, Laura; Toellner, Kai-Michael

    2016-03-01

    Germinal centers (GC) are the main sites where antigen-activated B-cell clones expand and undergo immunoglobulin gene hypermutation and selection. Iterations of this process will lead to affinity maturation, replicating Darwinian evolution on the cellular level. GC B-cell selection can lead to four different outcomes: further expansion and evolution, apoptosis (non-selection), or output from the GC with differentiation into memory B cells or plasma cells. T-helper cells in GC have been shown to have a central role in regulating B-cell selection by sensing the density of major histocompatibility complex (MHC):peptide antigen complexes. Antigen is provided on follicular dendritic cells in the form of immune complex. Antibody on these immune complexes regulates antigen accessibility by shielding antigen from B-cell receptor access. Replacement of antibody on immune complexes by antibody generated from GC-derived plasma cell output will gradually reduce the availability of antigen. This antibody feedback can lead to a situation where a slow rise in selection stringency caused by a changing environment leads to directional evolution toward higher affinity antibody. PMID:26864101

  14. Impairment of Mature B Cell Maintenance upon Combined Deletion of the Alternative NF-κB Transcription Factors RELB and NF-κB2 in B Cells.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Nilushi S; Silva, Kathryn; Anderson, Michael M; Bhagat, Govind; Klein, Ulf

    2016-03-15

    BAFF is critical for the survival and maturation of mature B cells. BAFF, via BAFFR, activates multiple signaling pathways in B cells, including the alternative NF-κB pathway. The transcription factors RELB and NF-κB2 (p100/p52) are the downstream mediators of the alternative pathway; however, the B cell-intrinsic functions of these NF-κB subunits have not been studied in vivo using conditional alleles, either individually or in combination. We in this study report that B cell-specific deletion of relb led to only a slight decrease in the fraction of mature splenic B cells, whereas deletion of nfkb2 caused a marked reduction. This phenotype was further exacerbated upon combined deletion of relb and nfkb2 and most dramatically affected the maintenance of marginal zone B cells. BAFF stimulation, in contrast to CD40 activation, was unable to rescue relb/nfkb2-deleted B cells in vitro. RNA-sequencing analysis of BAFF-stimulated nfkb2-deleted versus normal B cells suggests that the alternative NF-κB pathway, in addition to its critical role in BAFF-mediated cell survival, may control the expression of genes involved in the positioning of B cells within the lymphoid microenvironment and in the establishment of T cell-B cell interactions. Thus, by ablating the downstream transcription factors of the alternative NF-κB pathway specifically in B cells, we identify in this study a critical role for the combined activity of the RELB and NF-κB2 subunits in B cell homeostasis that cannot be compensated for by the canonical NF-κB pathway under physiological conditions. PMID:26851215

  15. TLR9 expressed on plasma membrane acts as a negative regulator of human B cell response.

    PubMed

    Guerrier, Thomas; Pochard, Pierre; Lahiri, Ayan; Youinou, Pierre; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Jamin, Christophe

    2014-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are positioned at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Unlike others, those such as TLR9, that recognize nucleic acids, are confined to the endosomal compartment and are scarce on the cell surface. Here, we present evidence for TLR9 expression on the plasma membrane of B cells. In contrast to endosomal TLR9, cell surface TLR9 does not bind CpG-B oligodeoxynucleotides. After B cell-receptor (BCR) stimulation, TLR9 was translocated into lipid rafts with the BCR, suggesting that it could serve as a co-receptor for BCR. Nevertheless, stimulation of B cells with anti-TLR9 antibodies did not modify the BCR-induced responses despite up-regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins. However, CpG-B activation of B cells, acting synergistically with BCR signals, was inhibited by anti-TLR9 stimulation. Induction of CD25 expression and proliferation of B cells were thus down-regulated by the engagement of cell surface TLR9. Overall, our results indicate that TLR9 expressed on the plasma membrane of B cells might be a negative regulator of endosomal TLR9, and could provide a novel control by which activation of autoreactive B cells is restrained. PMID:24582318

  16. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression.

    PubMed

    Sungalee, Stphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grgoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z; Morehouse, Christopher A; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Cline; Menard, Cdric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stphane J; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A; Higgs, Brandon W; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)(+) memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)(+) precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  17. CD5+ B cells are preferentially expanded in rabbit appendix: the role of CD5 in B cell development and selection.

    PubMed

    Pospisil, Richard; Alexander, Cornelius B; Obiakor, Harold; Sinha, Rajesh K; Mage, Rose G

    2006-01-01

    Although only a small proportion of mouse and human B cells are CD5(+), most adult rabbit B cells express CD5. However, CD5 was not detectable on the majority of B cells in neonatal appendix 1 and 3days after birth. Cell trafficking studies demonstrated that CD5(+) and CD5(-) CD62L(+) B cells from bone marrow migrated into appendix. There, CD5(+) B cells were preferentially expanded and predominated by approximately 2weeks of age. In mutant ali/ali rabbits, VHa2(+) B cells develop through gene conversion-like alteration of rearranged VH genes upstream of deleted VH1a2. Correlated appearance of individual CD5(+) germinal centers and VHa2(+) B-cells in mutant appendix suggests that CD5 binding positively selects cells with a2(+) framework regions that bind CD5. Following negative and positive selection, cells with diversified rearranged heavy- and light-chain sequences exit appendix, migrate to peripheral tissues and constitute the preimmune repertoire of CD5(+) B cells that encounter foreign antigens. PMID:16375969

  18. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  19. Multiple routes to B-cell memory.

    PubMed

    Good-Jacobson, Kim L; Tarlinton, David M

    2012-07-01

    B-cell memory describes the populations of cells that provide long-term humoral immunity: long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells that reside mainly in the bone marrow and memory B cells. Interestingly, the memory B-cell population is heterogenous, although the importance of this heterogeneity has been unclear. Recent studies have investigated the formation and function of memory in different settings. In particular, T-independent memory-like cells and T-dependent (TD) IgM memory B cells qualitatively differ from canonical TD class-switched memory B cells; however, these studies suggest that IgM memory cells preserve the memory population over long periods of time. These subsets are evocative of the evolution of the humoral immune response, with memory-like cells appearing before acquisition of germinal centers, suggesting that there are multiple pathways to producing B-cell memory. PMID:22451529

  20. The impact of TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1) expression in precursor B cells and implications for leukaemia using three different genome-wide screening methods

    PubMed Central

    Linka, Y; Ginzel, S; Krger, M; Novosel, A; Gombert, M; Kremmer, E; Harbott, J; Thiele, R; Borkhardt, A; Landgraf, P

    2013-01-01

    The reciprocal translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22), the most common structural genomic alteration in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, results in a chimeric transcription factor TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1). We identified directly and indirectly regulated target genes utilizing an inducible TEL-AML1 system derived from the murine pro B-cell line BA/F3 and a monoclonal antibody directed against TEL-AML1. By integration of promoter binding identified with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip, gene expression and protein output through microarray technology and stable labelling of amino acids in cell culture, we identified 217 directly and 118 indirectly regulated targets of the TEL-AML1 fusion protein. Directly, but not indirectly, regulated promoters were enriched in AML1-binding sites. The majority of promoter regions were specific for the fusion protein and not bound by native AML1 or TEL. Comparison with gene expression profiles from TEL-AML1-positive patients identified 56 concordantly misregulated genes with negative effects on proliferation and cellular transport mechanisms and positive effects on cellular migration, and stress responses including immunological responses. In summary, this work for the first time gives a comprehensive insight into how TEL-AML1 expression may directly and indirectly contribute to alter cells to become prone for leukemic transformation. PMID:24121163

  1. The impact of TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1) expression in precursor B cells and implications for leukaemia using three different genome-wide screening methods.

    PubMed

    Linka, Y; Ginzel, S; Krger, M; Novosel, A; Gombert, M; Kremmer, E; Harbott, J; Thiele, R; Borkhardt, A; Landgraf, P

    2013-01-01

    The reciprocal translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22), the most common structural genomic alteration in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children, results in a chimeric transcription factor TEL-AML1 (ETV6-RUNX1). We identified directly and indirectly regulated target genes utilizing an inducible TEL-AML1 system derived from the murine pro B-cell line BA/F3 and a monoclonal antibody directed against TEL-AML1. By integration of promoter binding identified with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip, gene expression and protein output through microarray technology and stable labelling of amino acids in cell culture, we identified 217 directly and 118 indirectly regulated targets of the TEL-AML1 fusion protein. Directly, but not indirectly, regulated promoters were enriched in AML1-binding sites. The majority of promoter regions were specific for the fusion protein and not bound by native AML1 or TEL. Comparison with gene expression profiles from TEL-AML1-positive patients identified 56 concordantly misregulated genes with negative effects on proliferation and cellular transport mechanisms and positive effects on cellular migration, and stress responses including immunological responses. In summary, this work for the first time gives a comprehensive insight into how TEL-AML1 expression may directly and indirectly contribute to alter cells to become prone for leukemic transformation. PMID:24121163

  2. Clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-Ying; Tao, Li; Zhao, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zeng, Gu-Cheng; Cai, Song-Wang; Li, Yun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hui-Guo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (SIT) on asthma is supposed to be improved. Published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. B cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This study aims to modulate antigen specific B cell property by the administration of Clostridium butyrate (CB) in combination with SIT. The results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific IgE were improved in the patients treated with SIT, which was further improved in those treated with both SIT and CB, but not in those treated with CB alone. Treatment with SIT and CB increased p300 and STAT3 activation, up regulated the IL-10 gene transcription and increased the frequency of peripheral antigen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration with SIT in combination with CB converts Der p 1 specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthma patients allergic to Der p 1. The data suggest a potential therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26857726

  3. Clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hong-Ying; Tao, Li; Zhao, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zeng, Gu-Cheng; Cai, Song-Wang; Li, Yun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hui-Guo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (SIT) on asthma is supposed to be improved. Published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. B cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This study aims to modulate antigen specific B cell property by the administration of Clostridium butyrate (CB) in combination with SIT. The results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific IgE were improved in the patients treated with SIT, which was further improved in those treated with both SIT and CB, but not in those treated with CB alone. Treatment with SIT and CB increased p300 and STAT3 activation, up regulated the IL-10 gene transcription and increased the frequency of peripheral antigen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration with SIT in combination with CB converts Der p 1 specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthma patients allergic to Der p 1. The data suggest a potential therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26857726

  4. Reprogramming of primary human Philadelphia chromosome-positive B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells into nonleukemic macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, James Scott; Dove, Christopher; Gentles, Andrew J.; Ryan, Christine E.; Majeti, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    BCRABL1+ precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCRABL1+ B-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic neoplasm characterized by a block in differentiation due in part to the somatic loss of transcription factors required for B-cell development. We hypothesized that overcoming this differentiation block by forcing cells to reprogram to the myeloid lineage would reduce the leukemogenicity of these cells. We found that primary human BCRABL1+ B-ALL cells could be induced to reprogram into macrophage-like cells by exposure to myeloid differentiation-promoting cytokines in vitro or by transient expression of the myeloid transcription factor C/EBP? or PU.1. The resultant cells were clonally related to the primary leukemic blasts but resembled normal macrophages in appearance, immunophenotype, gene expression, and function. Most importantly, these macrophage-like cells were unable to establish disease in xenograft hosts, indicating that lineage reprogramming eliminates the leukemogenicity of BCRABL1+ B-ALL cells, and suggesting a previously unidentified therapeutic strategy for this disease. Finally, we determined that myeloid reprogramming may occur to some degree in human patients by identifying primary CD14+ monocytes/macrophages in BCRABL1+ B-ALL patient samples that possess the BCRABL1+ translocation and clonally recombined VDJ regions. PMID:25775523

  5. High MN1 expression increases the in vitro clonogenic activity of primary mouse B-cells.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masashi; Yener, Mehmet Deniz; Ekmeki, Sema S?rma; Ayd?n, Mge; Grosveld, Gerard; Cardone, Monica; Terranova, Sabrina; Geltink, Ramon Klein; zbek, U?ur; zelik, Emrah; Gle, a?r?; Anak, Sema; Karaman, Serap; ztrk, Glyz; Akb?y?k, Meral; Kandilci, Ayten

    2015-08-01

    The MN1 (Meningioma 1) gene is overexpressed in certain subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high levels of MN1 expression in mouse bone marrow cells results in myeloid leukemia. We showed that compared with control bone marrow (BM) MN1 expression was increased (2-fold or more) in 29 out of 73 (40%) pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patient BM. Additional analysis of MN1 expression in sub-groups within our cohort carrying different chromosome translocations showed that carriers of the good prognostic marker t(12;21)(TEL-AML1) (n=27) expressed significantly more MN1 than both healthy controls (n=9) (P=0.02) and the group carrying the t(9;22)(BCR-ABL) (n=9) (P=0.001). In addition, AML1 expression was also upregulated in 31 out of 45 (68%) B-ALL patient BM compared with control and there was a significant correlation between MN1 and AML1 expression (r=0.3552, P=0.0167). Retroviral MN1 overexpression increased the colony forming activity of mouse Pro-B/Pre-B cells in vitro. Our results suggest that deregulated MN1 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of pediatric B-ALL. Further investigation into the clinical and biological significance of elevated MN1 expression in TEL-AML1(positive) leukemia might provide insight into additional molecular mechanisms contributing to B-ALL and may lead to improved treatment options for patients. PMID:26111797

  6. The expanding family of regulatory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Madhvi

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade it has become evident that in addition to producing antibody, B cells activate the immune system by producing cytokines and via antigen presentation. In addition, B cells also exhibit immunosuppressive functions via diverse regulatory mechanisms. This subset of B cells, known as regulatory B cells (Bregs), contributes to the maintenance of tolerance, primarily via the production of IL-10. Studies in experimental animal models, as well as in patients with autoimmune diseases, have identified multiple Breg subsets exhibiting diverse mechanisms of immune suppression. In this review, we describe the different Breg subsets identified in mice and humans, and their diverse mechanisms of suppression in different disease settings. PMID:26071023

  7. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-15

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  8. Reprint of: Environments of B cell development.

    PubMed

    Tsuneto, Motokazu; Kajikhina, Ekaterina; Seiler, Katharina; Reimer, Andreas; Tornack, Julia; Bouquet, Corinne; Simmons, Szandor; Knoll, Marko; Wolf, Ingrid; Tokoyoda, Koji; Hauser, Anja; Hara, Takahiro; Tani-ichi, Shizue; Ikuta, Koichi; Grn, Joachim R; Grtzkau, Andreas; Engels, Niklas; Wienands, Jrgen; Yanagisawa, Yuki; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Melchers, Fritz

    2014-08-01

    B lymphocyte development in the mouse begins with the generation of long-term reconstituting, pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, over multipotent myeloid/lymphoid progenitors and common lymphoid progenitors to B-lineage committed pro/pre B and pre B cells, which first express pre B cell receptors and then immunoglobulins, B cell receptors, to generate the repertoires of peripheral B cells. This development is influenced and guided by cells of non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic origins. We review here some of the recent developments, and our contributions in this fascinating field of developmental immunology. PMID:24852107

  9. Atacicept: targeting B cells in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2010-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered to be a T-cell-mediated disease. However, there is an increasing body of evidence for the involvement of B cells and autoantibodies in the pathology of this disease, providing a rationale for treatments directed against B cells. In this paper we summarize evidence for the key role of B cells in the immunopathology of MS and review data supporting the use of a novel B-cell targeted therapy, atacicept, in this condition. Atacicept is a human recombinant fusion protein that comprises the binding portion of a receptor for both BLyS (B-Lymphocyte Stimulator) and APRIL (A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand), two cytokines that have been identified as important regulators of B-cell maturation, function and survival. Atacicept has shown selective effects on cells of the B-cell lineage, acting on mature B cells and blocking plasma cells and late stages of B-cell development while sparing B-cell progenitors and memory cells. The efficacy of atacicept in animal models of autoimmune disease and the biological activity of atacicept in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been demonstrated. Clinical studies were initiated to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of atacicept in patients with MS. An unexpected increase in inflammatory activity in one of the trials, however, led to suspension of all atacicept trials in MS. PMID:21179612

  10. Mincle and human B cell function

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Kazuhito; Illarionov, Petr; Kenny, Thomas; Zhang, Weici; Tsuda, Masanobu; Ando, Yugo; Leung, Patrick; Ansari, Aftab A.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors are pattern recognition receptors that are critical for autoimmunity and the immune response. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by a variety of antigen presenting cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and B cells; a variety of stimuli including stress are known to induce the expression of Mincle. Mincle is an FcR?-associated activation receptor that senses damaged cells and upon ligation induces activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. Recently, while several studies have reported that Mincle plays an important role in macrophage responses to fungal infection its function on B cells remains to be defined. In efforts to elucidate the function of Mincle expressed by B cells, we studied the expression of Mincle on subsets of B cells and analyzed cytokines and synthesized immunoglobulin upon ligation of Mincle. The expression of Mincle on CD27?CD19+ nave B cells is significantly higher than CD27+CD19+ memory B cells. The stimulation of TLR9 ligand induced Mincle expression on B cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation of TLR9 and Mincle ligand reduced IgG and IgA production from B cells without a significant change in the inflammatory cytokines TNF?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Our data identifies Mincle as a potentially critical player in human B cell responses. PMID:22698596

  11. Mincle and human B cell function.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Kazuhito; Illarionov, Petr; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Kenny, Thomas P; Zhang, Weici; Tsuda, Masanobu; Ando, Yugo; Leung, Patrick S C; Ansari, Aftab A; Eric Gershwin, M

    2012-12-01

    C-type lectin receptors are pattern recognition receptors that are critical for autoimmunity and the immune response. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by a variety of antigen presenting cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and B cells; a variety of stimuli including stress are known to induce the expression of Mincle. Mincle is an FcR?-associated activation receptor that senses damaged cells and upon ligation induces activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. Recently, while several studies have reported that Mincle plays an important role in macrophage responses to fungal infection its function on B cells remains to be defined. In efforts to elucidate the function of Mincle expressed by B cells, we studied the expression of Mincle on subsets of B cells and analyzed cytokines and synthesized immunoglobulin upon ligation of Mincle. The expression of Mincle on CD27-CD19(+) nave B cells is significantly higher than CD27 + CD19(+) memory B cells. The stimulation of TLR9 ligand induced Mincle expression on B cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation of TLR9 and Mincle ligand reduced IgG and IgA production from B cells without a significant change in the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Our data identifies Mincle as a potentially critical player in human B cell responses. PMID:22698596

  12. Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Scriber, Jon Mark

    2013-01-01

    Comprising 50%–75% of the world’s fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including “invasive species” in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. “Invasive genes” (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. “Genetic rescue” via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced “reshuffling” (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become increasingly ecologically and evolutionarily predictable, but future conservation management programs are more likely to remain constrained by human behavior than by lack of academic knowledge. PMID:26462579

  13. Selective Induction of DNA Repair Pathways in Human B Cells Activated by CD4+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosheng; Tschumper, Renee C.; Gutierrez, Albert; Mihalcik, Stephen A.; Nowakowski, Grzegorz S.; Jelinek, Diane F.

    2010-01-01

    Greater than 75% of all hematologic malignancies derive from germinal center (GC) or post-GC B cells, suggesting that the GC reaction predisposes B cells to tumorigenesis. Because GC B cells acquire expression of the highly mutagenic enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), GC B cells may require additional DNA repair capacity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether normal human B cells acquire enhanced expression of DNA repair factors upon AID induction. We first demonstrated that several DNA mismatch repair, homologous recombination, base excision repair, and ATR signaling genes were overexpressed in GC B cells relative to nave and memory B cells, reflecting activation of a process we have termed somatic hyperrepair (SHR). Using an in vitro system, we next characterized activation signals required to induce AID expression and SHR. Although AID expression was induced by a variety of polyclonal activators, SHR induction strictly required signals provided by contact with activated CD4+ T cells, and B cells activated in this manner displayed reduced levels of DNA damage-induced apoptosis. We further show the induction of SHR is independent of AID expression, as GC B cells from AID -/- mice retained heightened expression of SHR proteins. In consideration of the critical role that CD4+ T cells play in inducing the SHR process, our data suggest a novel role for CD4+ T cells in the tumor suppression of GC/post-GC B cells. PMID:21179576

  14. B cell tolerance--how to make it and how to break it.

    PubMed

    Melchers, F; Rolink, A R

    2006-01-01

    A series of checkpoints for antigen receptor fitness and specificity during B cell development ensures the elimination or anergy of primary, high-avidity-autoantigen-reactive B cells. Defects in genes encoding molecules with which this purging of the original B cell repertoires is achieved may break this B cell tolerance, allowing the development of B cell- and autoantibody-mediated immune diseases. Furthermore, whenever tolerance of helper T cells to a part of an autoantigen is broken, a T cell-dependent germinal center-type response of the remaining low--or no--autoreactive B cells is activated. It induces longevity of these B cells, and expression of AiD, which effects Ig class switching and IgV-region hypermutation. The development of V-region-mutant B cells and the selections of high-avidity-autoantigen-reactive antibodies producing B cells by autoantigens from them, again, can lead to the development and propagation of autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus or chronic inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis by the autoantibody BcR-expressing B cells and their secreted autoantibodies. PMID:16724798

  15. The genome sequence of the popular hexose-transport-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EBY.VW4000 reveals LoxP/Cre-induced translocations and gene loss.

    PubMed

    Solis-Escalante, Daniel; van den Broek, Marcel; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Pronk, Jack T; Boles, Eckhard; Daran, Jean-Marc; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2015-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbours a large group of tightly controlled hexose transporters with different characteristics. Construction and characterization of S. cerevisiae EBY.VW4000, a strain devoid of glucose import, was a milestone in hexose-transporter research. This strain has become a widely used platform for discovery and characterization of transporters from a wide range of organisms. To abolish glucose uptake, 21 genes were knocked out, involving 16 successive deletion rounds with the LoxP/Cre system. Although such intensive modifications are known to increase the risk of genome alterations, the genome of EBY.VW4000 has hitherto not been characterized. Based on a combination of whole genome sequencing, karyotyping and molecular confirmation, the present study reveals that construction of EBY.VW4000 resulted in gene losses and chromosomal rearrangements. Recombinations between the LoxP scars have led to the assembly of four neo-chromosomes, truncation of two chromosomes and loss of two subtelomeric regions. Furthermore, sporulation and spore germination are severely impaired in EBY.VW4000. Karyotyping of the EBY.VW4000 lineage retraced its current chromosomal architecture to four translocations events occurred between the 6th and the 12th rounds of deletion. The presented data facilitate further studies on EBY.VW4000 and highlight the risks of genome alterations associated with repeated use of the LoxP/Cre system. PMID:25673752

  16. Mechanisms of action of BCL6 during germinal center B cell development.

    PubMed

    Huang, ChuanXin; Melnick, Ari

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) controls a large transcriptional network that is required for the formation and maintenance of germinal centers (GC). GC B cells represent the normal counterpart of most human B-cell lymphomas, which are often characterized by deregulated BCL6 expression or BCL6-mediated pathways. BCL6 suppresses gene transcription largely through recruitment of its co-repressors through its distinct repression domain. Understanding the precise biological roles of each repression domain in normal and malignant B cells is helpful for development of targeted inhibition of BCL6 functions that is emerging as the basis for design of anti-lymphoma therapies. This review focuses on recent progress in the molecular mechanisms of action of BCL6 in B cells and discusses remaining unresolved questions related to how these mechanisms are linked to normal and malignant B cell development. PMID:26566802

  17. Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Breaks Tolerance and Drives Polyclonal Expansion of Autoreactive B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roughan, Jill E.; Reardon, Kathryn M.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Quendler, Heribert; Pockros, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been linked with B cell lymphoproliferative disorders and several autoimmune-related diseases. The mechanisms of how chronic viral infection affects B cell development and predisposes the patients to autoimmune manifestations are poorly understood. In this study, we established an experimental system to probe the B cell responses and characterize the antibodies from chronic-HCV-infected individuals. We identified an unusual polyclonal expansion of the IgM memory B cell subset in some patients. This B cell subset is known to be tightly regulated, and autoreactive cells are eliminated by tolerance mechanisms. Genetic analysis of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain variable gene (VH) sequences of the expanded cell population showed that the levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) correlate with the extent of cell expansion in the patients and that the VH genes exhibit signs of antigen-mediated selection. Functional analysis of the cloned B cell receptors demonstrated autoreactivity in some of the expanded IgM memory B cells in the patients which is not found in healthy donors. In summary, this study demonstrated that, in some patients, chronic HCV infection disrupts the tolerance mechanism that normally deletes autoreactive B cells, therefore increasing the risk of developing autoimmune antibodies. Long-term follow-up of this expanded B cell subset within the infected individuals will help determine whether these cells are predictors of more-serious clinical manifestations. PMID:22623650

  18. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) in a young girl with dysgerminoma

    PubMed Central

    Gimelli, Stefania; Beri, Silvana; Drabkin, Harry A; Gambini, Claudio; Gregorio, Andrea; Fiorio, Patrizia; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Gemmill, Robert M; Giorda, Roberto; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC) and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22) in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR) involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN), a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA. PMID:19642973

  19. AID-associated DNA repair pathways regulate malignant transformation in a murine model of BCL6-driven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiwen; Booth, Carmen J; Liu, Zongzhi; Strout, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes occur in germinal center (GC) B cells and are initiated through deamination of cytidine to uracil by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Resulting uracil-guanine mismatches are processed by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)-mediated base-excision repair and MSH2-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) to yield mutations and DNA strand lesions. Although off-target AID activity also contributes to oncogenic point mutations and chromosome translocations associated with GC and post-GC B-cell lymphomas, the role of downstream AID-associated DNA repair pathways in the pathogenesis of lymphoma is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous deficiency of UNG and MSH2 or MSH2 alone causes genomic instability and a shorter latency to the development of BCL6-driven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a murine model. The additional development of several BCL6-independent malignancies in these mice underscores the critical role of MMR in maintaining general genomic stability. In contrast, absence of UNG alone is highly protective and prevents the development of BCL6-driven DLBCL. We further demonstrate that clonal and nonclonal mutations arise within non-Ig AID target genes in the combined absence of UNG and MSH2 and that DNA strand lesions arise in an UNG-dependent manner but are offset by MSH2. These findings lend insight into a complex interplay whereby potentially deleterious UNG activity and general genomic instability are opposed by the protective influence of MSH2, producing a net protective effect that promotes immune diversification while simultaneously attenuating malignant transformation of GC B cells. PMID:26385350

  20. A new recurrent and specific cryptic translocation, t(5;14)(q35;q32), is associated with expression of the Hox11L2 gene in T acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O A; Busson-LeConiat, M; Ballerini, P; Mauchauffé, M; Della Valle, V; Monni, R; Nguyen Khac, F; Mercher, T; Penard-Lacronique, V; Pasturaud, P; Gressin, L; Heilig, R; Daniel, M T; Lessard, M; Berger, R

    2001-10-01

    FISH identified a cryptic t(5;14)(q35;q32) in T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas it was not observed in B ALL samples. This translocation is present in five out of 23 (22%) children and adolescents with T ALL tested. RanBP17, a gene coding for a member of the importin beta protein family, and Hox11Like2, an orphan homeobox gene were mapped close to the chromosome 5 breakpoints and CTIP2, which is highly expressed during normal T cell differentiation, was localized in the vicinity of the chromosome 14 breakpoints. The Hox11L2 gene was found to be transcriptionally activated as a result of the translocation, probably under the influence of CTIP2 transcriptional regulation elements. These data establish the t(5;14)(q35;q32) as a major abnormality, and Hox11 family member activation as an important pathway in T ALL leukemogenesis. PMID:11587205

  1. Transcription factors regulating B cell fate in the germinal centre.

    PubMed

    Recaldin, T; Fear, D J

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of the antibody repertoire is essential for the normal operation of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Following antigen encounter, B cells are activated, proliferate rapidly and undergo two diversification events; somatic hypermutation (followed by selection), which enhances the affinity of the antibody for its cognate antigen, and class-switch recombination, which alters the effector functions of the antibody to adapt the response to the challenge faced. B cells must then differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. These activities take place in specialized immunological environments called germinal centres, usually located in the secondary lymphoid organs. To complete the germinal centre activities successfully, a B cell adopts a transcriptional programme that allows it to migrate to specific sites within the germinal centre, proliferate, modify its DNA recombination and repair pathways, alter its apoptotic potential and finally undergo terminal differentiation. To co-ordinate these processes, B cells employ a number of 'master regulator' transcription factors which mediate wholesale transcriptomic changes. These master transcription factors are mutually antagonistic and form a complex regulatory network to maintain distinct gene expression programs. Within this network, multiple points of positive and negative feedback ensure the expression of the 'master regulators', augmented by a number of 'secondary' factors that reinforce these networks and sense the progress of the immune response. In this review we will discuss the different activities B cells must undertake to mount a successful T cell-dependent immune response and describe how a regulatory network of transcription factors controls these processes. PMID:26352785

  2. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS6V#3L and T6AL6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16C, partially effective at 24C, and ineffective at 28C. The T6AS6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:21437597

  3. A Novel VHH Antibody Targeting the B Cell-Activating Factor for B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen; Li, Shenghua; Zhang, Weijing; Sun, Jian; Ren, Guangda; Dong, Quanchao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To construct an immune alpaca phage display library, in order to obtain a single domain anti-BAFF (B cell-activating factor) antibody. Methods: Using phage display technology, we constructed an immune alpaca phage display library, selected anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (sdAbs), cloned three anti-BAFF single-domain antibody genes into expression vector pSJF2, and expressed them efficiently in Escherichia coli. The affinity of different anti-BAFF sdAbs were measured by Bio layer interferometry. The in vitro biological function of three sdAbs was investigated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: We obtained three anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (anti-BAFF64, anti-BAFF52 and anti-BAFFG3), which were produced in high yield in Escherichia coli and inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusion: The selected anti-BAFF antibodies could be candidates for B-cell lymphoma therapies. PMID:24879522

  4. Extinction of Ig genes expression in myeloma x fibroblast somatic cell hybrids is accompanied by repression of the oct-2 gene encoding a B-cell specific transcription factor.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Y; Strich, B; Sharir, H; Ber, R; Laskov, R

    1990-01-01

    In most instances, fusion of differentiated cell types with fibroblasts has resulted in the extinction of differentiation-specific traits of the nonfibroblast parental cell. To explore the genetic basis of this phenomenon, we have used a series of somatic cell hybrids between myeloma cells and fibroblasts. Previous findings show that in these hybrids expression of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes was extinguished at the transcriptional level. Our present results show that NF-kappa B transcription factor, known to be critical for kappa-chain enhancer activity, is present although in a lower amount, in the nucleus and in the cytosolic fraction of most of these hybrids (probably attached to the previously postulated I-kappa B inhibitor). In contrast, the expression of the NF-A2/OTF-2 transcription factor encoded by the oct-2 gene, which binds to the octameric motif located in the Ig promoters and heavy chain gene enhancer, is extinguished at the transcriptional level. Our data thus suggest that extinction of Ig genes expression occurs via an indirect mechanism in which a fibroblast factor suppresses transcription factor(s) which are critical for Ig transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2107075

  5. Selected Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterial Isolates with the Capacity to Reduce Salmonella Translocation and Virulence Gene Expression in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojian; Brisbin, Jennifer; Yu, Hai; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fugui; Zhang, Yonggang; Sabour, Parviz; Sharif, Shayan; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3–1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (106–7 CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (104 CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. Conclusions/Significance The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one of the strategies for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens. PMID:24728092

  6. MRI phenotypes with high neurodegeneration are associated with peripheral blood B-cell changes.

    PubMed

    Comabella, Manuel; Cantó, Ester; Nurtdinov, Ramil; Río, Jordi; Villar, Luisa M; Picón, Carmen; Castilló, Joaquín; Fissolo, Nicolás; Aymerich, Xavier; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier

    2016-01-15

    Little is known about the mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of peripheral blood cells in this neurodegenerative component. We aimed to correlate brain radiological phenotypes defined by high and low neurodegeneration with gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from MS patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 64 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were classified into radiological phenotypes characterized by low (N = 27) and high (N = 37) neurodegeneration according to the number of contrast-enhancing lesions, the relative volume of non-enhancing black holes on T1-weighted images, and the brain parenchymal fraction. Gene expression profiling was determined in PBMC using microarrays, and validation of selected genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). B-cell immunophenotyping was conducted by flow cytometry. Microarray analysis revealed the B-cell specific genes FCRL1, FCRL2, FCRL5 (Fc receptor-like 1, 2 and 5 respectively), and CD22 as the top differentially expressed genes between patients with high and low neurodegeneration. Levels for these genes were significantly down-regulated in PBMC from patients with MRI phenotypes characterized by high neurodegeneration and microarray findings were validated by PCR. In patients with high neurodegeneration, immunophenotyping showed a significant increase in the expression of the B-cell activation markers CD80 in naïve B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27-/IgD+), unswitched memory B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27+/IgD+), and switched memory B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27+/IgD-), and CD86 in naïve and switched memory B cells. These results suggest that RRMS patients with radiological phenotypes showing high neurodegeneration have changes in B cells characterized by down-regulation of B-cell-specific genes and increased activation status. PMID:26604134

  7. Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in early mouse B cells are mediated by B cell- and Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hwan; Akira, Shizuo; Calame, Kathryn; Beutler, Bruce; Selsing, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and somatic hyperconversion. In general high levels of AID expression are found in mature B cells responding to antigens. However, AID expression and SHM have also been detected in developing B cells from transgenic mice that have a limited Ig repertoire. Here we demonstrate that AID expression and active CSR/SHM occur in developing B cells from wild-type mice. Further, our results suggest that somatic variants arising from developing B cells in the bone marrow further diversify in the spleen of unimmunized mice. AID expression in developing B cells is T-cell independent but involves engagement of B cell and Toll-like receptors. Early AID expression can increase the pre-immune repertoire of developing B cells, may provide an innate population of IgG- and IgA-expressing cells, and could be involved in receptor-editing of self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:17658280

  8. Early B-cell-specific inactivation of ATM synergizes with ectopic CyclinD1 expression to promote pre-germinal center B-cell lymphomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Lee, B J; Li, C; Dubois, R L; Hobeika, E; Bhagat, G; Zha, S

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B cells causes cell autonomous, clonal mature B-cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly, naive B-cell-specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. Although E?CyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, E?CyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increases the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas toward pre-GC-derived small lymphocytic neoplasms, sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naive B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.e. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-GC B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL. PMID:25676421

  9. Evolution of a pentameral body plan was not linked to translocation of anterior Hox genes: the echinoderm HOX cluster revisited.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Martinez, Pedro; Morris, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    Echinodermata is a large phylum of marine invertebrates characterized by an adult, pentameral body plan. This morphology is clearly derived as all members of Deuterostomia (the superphylum to which they belong) have a bilateral body plan. The origin of the pentameral plan has been the subject of intense debate. It is clear that the ancestor of Echinodermata had a bilateral plan but how this ancestor transformed its body "architecture" in such a drastic manner is not clear. Data from the fossil record and ontogeny are sparse and, so far, not very informative. The sequencing of the sea urchin genome a decade ago opened the possibility that the pentameral body plan was a consequence of a broken Hox cluster and a series of papers dwelt on the putative relationship between Hox gene arrangements in the chromosomes and the origin of pentamery. This relationship, sound as it was, is challenged by the revelation that the sea star HOX cluster is, in fact, intact, thus falsifying the hypothesis of a direct relationship between HOX cluster arrangement and the origin of the pentameral body plan. Here, we explore the relationship between Hox gene arrangements and echinoderm body "architecture," the expression of Hox genes in development and alternative scenarios for the origin of pentamery, with putative roles for signaling centers in generating multiple axes. PMID:26763653

  10. Brg1 activates enhancer repertoires to establish B cell identity and modulate cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Bossen, Claudia; Murre, Caroline S; Chang, Aaron N; Mansson, Robert; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Murre, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Early B cell development is orchestrated by the combined activities of the transcriptional regulators E2A, EBF1, Foxo1 and Ikaros. However, how the genome-wide binding patterns of these regulators are modulated during B-lineage development remains to be determined. Here, we found that in lymphoid progenitors the chromatin remodeler Brg1 specified the B cell fate. In committed pro-B cells Brg1 regulated Igh locus contraction and controlled Myc expression to modulate the expression of genes that regulate ribosome biogenesis. In committed pro-B cells Brg1 suppressed a pre-B lineage-specific pattern of gene expression. Finally, we found that Brg1 acted mechanistically to establish B cell fate and modulate cell growth by facilitating access of lineage-specific transcription factors to poised enhancer repertoires. PMID:25985234

  11. B Cell Linker Protein (BLNK) Is a Selective Target of Repression by PAX5-PML Protein in the Differentiation Block That Leads to the Development of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Naoto; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Kurahashi, Shingo; Morishita, Takanobu; Kojima, Yuki; Yasuda, Takahiko; Sugimoto, Keiki; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Naoe, Tomoki; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2016-02-26

    PAX5 is a transcription factor that is required for the development and maintenance of B cells. Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a tumor suppressor and proapoptotic factor. The fusion gene PAX5-PML has been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(9;15)(p13;q24). We have reported previously that PAX5-PML dominant-negatively inhibited PAX5 transcriptional activity and impaired PML function by disrupting PML nuclear bodies (NBs). Here we demonstrated the leukemogenicity of PAX5-PML by introducing it into normal mouse pro-B cells. Arrest of differentiation was observed in PAX5-PML-introduced pro-B cells, resulting in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia after a long latency in mice. Among the transactivation targets of PAX5, B cell linker protein (BLNK) was repressed selectively in leukemia cells, and enforced BLNK expression abrogated the differentiation block and survival induced by PAX5-PML, indicating the importance of BLNK repression for the formation of preleukemic state. We also showed that PML NBs were intact in leukemia cells and attributed this to the low expression of PAX5-PML, indicating that the disruption of PML NBs was not required for the PAX5-PML-induced onset of leukemia. These results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of leukemia by PAX5 mutations. PMID:26703467

  12. New B-cell CD molecules.

    PubMed

    Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Sintes, Jordi; Llins, Laia; de Salort, Jose; Lzaro, Adriana; Engel, Pablo

    2011-01-30

    B cells not only play a pivotal role in humoral immunity, but also are involved in a broad spectrum of immune responses, including antigen presentation and T-cell function regulation. The identification of cell-surface CD molecules derived from a series of Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA) Workshops has been instrumental to the discovery and functional characterization of human B-cell populations. Moreover, many events regulating B-cell development, activation, and effector functions are orchestrated by these cell-surface molecules. During the Ninth HLDA Workshop (HLDA9) eighteen new CDs were allocated to cell-surface molecules expressed on B cells: CD210a (IL10RA), CD215 (IL15RA), CD270 (TNFRSF14), CD307a (FCRL1), CD307b (FCRL2), CD307c (FCRL3), CD307d (FCRL4), CD351 (FCAMR), CD352 (SLAMF6), CD353 (SLAMF8), CD354 (TREM1), CD355 (CRTAM), CD357 (TNFRSF18), CD358 (TNFRSF21), CD360 (IL21RA), CD361 (EVI2B), CD362 (SDC2), and CD363 (S1PR1). Here we present their expression patterns on leukocytes, including T lymphocytes, NK cells, granulocytes, monocytes, plasmacytoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and several B-cell subsets. These new CD molecules are expressed on B cells at various stages of differentiation; from bone marrow precursor pro-B cells to plasma cells. Three of them, CD307a, CD307b and CD307d, exhibit a B-cell restricted expression pattern, whereas the rest are also present on other leukocytes. In this paper we also review the structural characteristics, expression, and function of these new CD molecules. The availability of monoclonal antibodies directed against novel B cell-surface molecules will have broad implications not only for B-cell biology, but also for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. PMID:20933010

  13. B cell lymphoma and myeloma in murine Gaucher's disease.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, E V; Wang, S Z; Archer, J; Dekker, N; Aerts, J M F G; Karlsson, S; Cox, T M

    2013-09-01

    Multiple myeloma and B cell lymphoma are leading causes of death in Gaucher's disease but the nature of the stimulus driving the often noted clonal expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting B cells and cognate lymphoid malignancy is unknown. We investigated the long-term development of B cell malignancies in an authentic model of non-neuronopathic Gaucher's disease in mice: selective deficiency of β-glucocerebrosidase in haematopoietic cells [Gba(tm1Karl/tm1Karl)Tg(Mx1-cre)1Cgn/0, with excision of exons 9-11 of the murine GBA1 gene, is induced by poly[I:C]. Mice with Gaucher's disease showed visceral storage of β-glucosylceramide and greatly elevated plasma β-glucosylsphingosine [median 57.9 (range 19.8-159) nm; n = 39] compared with control mice from the same strain [median 0.56 (range 0.04-1.38) nm; n = 29] (p < 0.0001). Sporadic fatal B cell lymphomas developed in 11 of 21 GD mice (6-24 months) but only two of eight control animals developed tumours by age 24 months. Unexpectedly, most mice with overt lymphoma had absent or few Gaucher cells but local inflammatory macrophages were present. Eleven of 39 of Gaucher mice developed monoclonal gammopathy, but in the control group only one animal of 25 had clonal immunoglobulin abnormalities. Seven of 10 of the B cell lymphomas were found to secrete a monoclonal paraprotein and the lymphomas stained intensely for pan-B cell markers; reactive T lymphocytes were also present in tumour tissue. In the Gaucher mouse strain, it was notable that, as in patients with this disease, CD138(+) plasma cells frequently surrounded splenic macrophages engorged with glycosphingolipid. Our strain of mice, with inducible deficiency of β-glucocerebrosidase in haematopoietic cells and a high frequency of sporadic lethal B cell malignancies, faithfully recapitulates human Gaucher's disease: it serves as a tractable model to investigate the putative role of bioactive sphingolipids in the control of B cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of myelomatosis-the most prevalent human cancer associated with this disorder. PMID:23775597

  14. Memory in the B-cell compartment: antibody affinity maturation.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, M S; Ehrenstein, M R; Rada, C; Sale, J; Batista, F D; Williams, G; Milstein, C

    2000-03-29

    In the humoral arm of the immune system, the memory response is not only more quickly elicited and of greater magnitude than the primary response, but it is also different in quality. In the recall response to antigen, the antibodies produced are of higher affinity and of different isotype (typically immunoglobulin G rather than immunoglobulin M). This maturation rests on the antigen dependence of B-cell maturation and is effected by programmed genetic modifications of the immunoglobulin gene loci. Here we consider how the B-cell response to antigen depends on the affinity of the antigen receptor interaction. We also compare and draw parallels between the two processes, which underpin the generation of secondary-response antibodies: V gene somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin heavy-chain class switching. PMID:10794054

  15. Lack of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) deregulates B-cell survival and results in B-cell lymphocytosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Bruscoli, Stefano; Biagioli, Michele; Sorcini, Daniele; Frammartino, Tiziana; Cimino, Monica; Sportoletti, Paolo; Mazzon, Emanuela; Bereshchenko, Oxana; Riccardi, Carlo

    2015-10-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used as antiinflammatory/immunosuppressive drugs and antitumor agents in several types of lymphoma and leukemia. Therapeutic doses of GC induce growth-suppressive and cytotoxic effects on various leukocytes including B cells. Molecular mechanisms of GC action include induction of GC target genes. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a rapidly, potently, and invariably GC-induced gene. It mediates a number of GC effects, such as control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we show that deletion of GILZ in mice leads to an accumulation of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues. Gilz knockout (KO) mice develop a progressive nonlethal B lymphocytosis, with expansion of B220(+) cells in the bone marrow and in the periphery, dependent on increased B-cell survival. Decreased B-cell apoptosis in mice lacking GILZ correlates with increased NF-?B transcriptional activity and Bcl-2 expression. B cell-specific gilz KO mice confirmed that the effect of GILZ deletion is B-cell self-intrinsic. These results establish GILZ as an important regulator of B-cell survival and suggest that the deregulation of GILZ expression could be implicated in the pathogenesis of B-cell disorders. PMID:26276664

  16. B cellintrinsic deficiency of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) causes severe abnormalities of the peripheral B-cell compartment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Recher, Mike; Burns, Siobhan O.; de la Fuente, Miguel A.; Volpi, Stefano; Dahlberg, Carin; Walter, Jolan E.; Moffitt, Kristin; Mathew, Divij; Honke, Nadine; Lang, Philipp A.; Patrizi, Laura; Falet, Herv; Keszei, Marton; Mizui, Masayuki; Csizmadia, Eva; Candotti, Fabio; Nadeau, Kari; Bouma, Gerben; Delmonte, Ottavia M.; Frugoni, Francesco; Fomin, Angela B. Ferraz; Buchbinder, David; Lundequist, Emma Maria; Massaad, Michel J.; Tsokos, George C.; Hartwig, John; Manis, John; Terhorst, Cox; Geha, Raif S.; Snapper, Scott; Lang, Karl S.; Malley, Richard; Westerberg, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Wiskott Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by mutations in the WAS gene that encodes for a protein (WASp) involved in cytoskeleton organization in hematopoietic cells. Several distinctive abnormalities of T, B, and natural killer lymphocytes; dendritic cells; and phagocytes have been found in WASp-deficient patients and mice; however, the in vivo consequence of WASp deficiency within individual blood cell lineages has not been definitively evaluated. By conditional gene deletion we have generated mice with selective deficiency of WASp in the B-cell lineage (B/WcKO mice). We show that this is sufficient to cause a severe reduction of marginal zone B cells and inability to respond to type II T-independent Ags, thereby recapitulating phenotypic features of complete WASp deficiency. In addition, B/WcKO mice showed prominent signs of B-cell dysregulation, as indicated by an increase in serum IgM levels, expansion of germinal center B cells and plasma cells, and elevated autoantibody production. These findings are accompanied by hyperproliferation of WASp-deficient follicular and germinal center B cells in heterozygous B/WcKO mice in vivo and excessive differentiation of WASp-deficient B cells into class-switched plasmablasts in vitro, suggesting that WASp-dependent B cellintrinsic mechanisms critically contribute to WAS-associated autoimmunity. PMID:22302739

  17. Translocation of DNA across bacterial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Dreiseikelmann, B

    1994-01-01

    DNA translocation across bacterial membranes occurs during the biological processes of infection by bacteriophages, conjugative DNA transfer of plasmids, T-DNA transfer, and genetic transformation. The mechanism of DNA translocation in these systems is not fully understood, but during the last few years extensive data about genes and gene products involved in the translocation processes have accumulated. One reason for the increasing interest in this topic is the discussion about horizontal gene transfer and transkingdom sex. Analyses of genes and gene products involved in DNA transfer suggest that DNA is transferred through a protein channel spanning the bacterial envelope. No common model exists for DNA translocation during phage infection. Perhaps various mechanisms are necessary as a result of the different morphologies of bacteriophages. The DNA translocation processes during conjugation, T-DNA transfer, and transformation are more consistent and may even be compared to the excretion of some proteins. On the basis of analogies and homologies between the proteins involved in DNA translocation and protein secretion, a common basic model for these processes is presented. PMID:7968916

  18. Transcriptional down-regulation of N-myc expression during B-cell development.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R K; Zimmerman, K; Yancopoulos, G D; Ma, A; Alt, F W

    1992-01-01

    We have used nuclear run-on and DNase I sensitivity analyses to study the activity of the N-myc genes in cell lines that represent different stages of B-cell development. Both transformed pre-B-cell lines and a nontransformed pre-B-cell clone transcribe the N- and c-myc genes at substantial levels; in the nontransformed clone, transcription of these genes is regulated by the pre-B-cell growth factor interleukin-7. In contrast, transformed cell lines that represent the more mature stages of the B-cell pathway and mitogen-stimulated normal splenic B lymphocytes express the c-myc gene but do not express the N-myc gene at detectable levels. Down-regulation of N-myc expression in these cells occurs at the level of transcriptional initiation. Correspondingly, a set of DNase I-hypersensitive sites present in the 5' region of the N-myc promoter of pre-B-cell lines are absent in B-cell lines. To further elucidate this process, we have constructed fusion cell lines between an N-myc-expressing pre-B-cell line and a nonexpressing myeloma line; the hybrid cell lines transcriptionally down-regulate the pre-B copies of the N-myc gene. Lack of N-myc expression in a number of nonlymphoid cell lines also resulted from lack of N-myc transcription. Together, our findings demonstrate that the down-regulation of N-myc expression in the later stages of B-cell development is mediated primarily at the level of transcriptional initiation. They further show that dominant, trans-acting factors present in more mature B-lineage cell lines act to down-regulate the transcription of N-myc. Images PMID:1549113

  19. A DNA-binding factor specific for xenobiotic responsive elements of P-450c gene exists as a cryptic form in cytoplasm: Its possible translocation to nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa-Sehara, Atsuko; Yamane, Miyuki; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-08-01

    Transcription of the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P-450c gene is induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Previously, the authors defined two xenobiotic responsive elements (XREs) of {approx}15 base pairs, both of which activate transcription in cis in response to these xenobiotics. Using a gel mobility shift assay, they have identified a factor that specifically binds to the XREs. This factor appears in nuclei of mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1 only when the cells are treated with the xenobiotics, while the factor is undetectable in the nuclei of a 3-methylcholanthrene-treated mutant of Hepa-1 with defective function of a xenobiotic receptor. In addition, the nuclear factor bound to the XRE in the gel was found to be associated with ({sup 3}H)TCDD when the cells were treated with it, suggesting that the xenobiotic receptor is at least a component of the DNA-binding factor. The cytoplasmic fraction from nontreated Hepa-1 cells also contains the factor as a cryptic form and prominently reveals its DNA-binding activity by incubation with 3-methylcholanthrene in vitro. These results not only suggest the involvement of the XRE-binding factor in transcriptional activation via XREs but also provide evidence that the binding of ligands to the preexisting factor in a cryptic form induces its XRE-binding activity, which is probably followed by its translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus.

  20. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Erin K.; Schrader, Carol E.; Stavnezer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq). We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID. PMID:26263206

  1. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3K s in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  2. Regulation of the B cell receptor repertoire and self-reactivity by BAFF.

    PubMed

    Ota, Miyo; Duong, Bao H; Torkamani, Ali; Doyle, Colleen M; Gavin, Amanda L; Ota, Takayuki; Nemazee, David

    2010-10-01

    The TNF-family cytokine BAFF (BLyS) promotes B lymphocyte survival and is overexpressed in individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjgren's Syndrome. BAFF can rescue anergic autoreactive B cells from death, but only when competition from nonautoreactive B cells is lacking. Yet, high BAFF levels promote autoantibody formation in individuals possessing diverse B cells. To better understand how excess BAFF promotes autoimmunity in a polyclonal immune system, Ig L chain usage was analyzed in 3H9 site-directed IgH chain transgenic mice, whose B cells recognize DNA and chromatin when they express certain endogenous L chains. BAFF levels were manipulated in 3H9 mice by introducing transgenes expressing either BAFF or its natural inhibitor ?BAFF. B cells in BAFF/3H9 mice were elevated in number, used a broad L chain repertoire, including L chains generating high-affinity autoreactivity, and produced abundant autoantibodies. Comparison of spleen and lymph node B cells suggested that highly autoreactive B cells were expanded. By contrast, ?BAFF/3H9 mice had reduced B cell numbers with a repertoire similar to that of 3H9 mice, but lacking usage of a subset of V? genes. The results show that limiting BAFF signaling only slightly selects against higher affinity autoreactive B cells, whereas its overexpression leads to broad tolerance escape and positive selection of autoreactive cells. The results have positive implications for the clinical use of BAFF-depleting therapy. PMID:20817867

  3. miR-150 regulates obesity-associated insulin resistance by controlling B cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wei; Tseng, Alexander; Chang, Richard Cheng-An; Wang, Haiqing; Lin, Yu-lieh; Kanameni, Srikanth; Brehm, Tyler; Morin, Andrew; Jones, Benjamin; Splawn, Taylor; Criscitiello, Michael; Golding, Michael C.; Bazer, Fuller W.; Safe, Stephen; Zhou, Beiyan

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue resident B cells account for more than 20% of stromal cells within visceral adipose tissues; however, their functions in the adipose tissue niche are poorly elucidated. Here we report that miR-150 modulates adipose tissue function by controlling activation of B cells and their interactions with other immune cells. miR-150KO mice displayed exacerbated obesity-associated tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, which is recapitulated by adoptive transfer of B cells, but not purified immunoglobulin, into obese Bnull mice. Using purified cell populations, we found that enhanced proinflammatory activation of adipose tissue T cells and macrophages was due to miR-150KO B cells action but not cell-autologous mechanisms. miR-150KO B cells displayed significantly enhanced antigen presentation upon stimulation, ultimately leading to elevated inflammation and insulin resistance, compared to wild type B cells. Knockdown of identified miR-150 target genes, Elk1, Etf1 or Myb attenuated B cell action by altering B cell receptor pathways and MHCII cell surface presentation. Our results demonstrate a critical role for miR-150 in regulating B cell functions in adipose tissue which ultimately regulate both metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the adipose tissue niche. PMID:26833392

  4. Genetic manipulation of B cells for the isolation of rare therapeutic antibodies from the human repertoire.

    PubMed

    Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; van Helden, Pauline M; Wagner, Koen; Yasuda, Etsuko; Spits, Hergen; Beaumont, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Antibody based therapies are increasingly applied to prevent and treat human disease. While the majority of antibodies currently on the market are chimeric or humanized antibodies from rodents, the focus has now shifted to the isolation and development of fully human antibodies. By retroviral transduction of B cell lymphoma-6 (BCL-6), which prevents terminal differentiation of B cells and, the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) into primary human B cells we efficiently immortalize antibody-producing B cells allowing the isolation of therapeutic antibodies. Selection of antigen-specific B cell clones was greatly facilitated because the transduced B cells retain surface immunoglobulin expression and secrete immunoglobulin into the culture supernatant. Surface immunoglobulin expression can be utilized to stain and isolate antigen specific B cell clones with labeled antigen. Immunoglobulins secreted in culture supernatant can directly be tested in functional assays to identify unique B cell clones. Here we describe the key features of our Bcl-6/Bcl-xL culture platform (AIMSelect). PMID:23867338

  5. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    PubMed Central

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3Ks in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  6. B Cells and Autoantibodies in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin; Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Derfuss, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    While over the past decades T cells have been considered key players in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), it has only recently become evident that B cells have a major contributing role. Our understanding of the role of B cells has evolved substantially following the clinical success of B cell-targeting therapies and increasing experimental evidence for significant B cell involvement. Rather than mere antibody-producing cells, it is becoming clear that they are team players with the capacity to prime and regulate T cells, and function both as pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. However, despite tremendous efforts, the target antigen(s) of B cells in MS have yet to be identified. The first part of this review summarizes the clinical evidence and results from animal studies pointing to the relevance of B cells in the pathogenesis of MS. The second part gives an overview of the currently known potential autoantigen targets. The third part recapitulates and critically appraises the currently available B cell-directed therapies. PMID:26197319

  7. Clinicopathologic Characterization of Diffuse-Large-B-Cell Lymphoma with an Associated Serum Monoclonal IgM Component

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Stefania; Salerno, Gerardo; Tatarelli, Caterina; Talerico, Caterina; Lombardi, Mariangela; Monarca, Bruno; Amadori, Sergio; Ruco, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p = .002) stage III-IV(p = .003), ≥2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p = .002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3–5 (p = .009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p = .005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p = .005, expB = 0.339, CI = 0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3–5 (p = .010, expB = 0.274, CI = 0.102–0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immmunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement. PMID:24705344

  8. Hepatocyte- Specific Deletion of ARNT (Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) Results in Altered Fibrotic Gene Expression in the Thioacetamide Model of Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christopher; Cha, Kuan; Rao, Renuka; Liddle, Christopher; George, Jacob; Gunton, Jenny E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Recent studies have shown that increased expression of liver hypoxia inducible factor 2-? (HIF-2?) leads to liver inflammation and a pro-fibrotic gene expression signature. Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) is required for HIF-2? transcriptional activity and has previously been shown to regulate hepatic metabolism in mice. In these studies we examined the role of hepatocyte ARNT in the thioacetamide (TAA)-induced model of liver fibrosis. Methods Hepatocyte-specific ARNT-null (LARNT) mice were created using an albumin promoter-driven Cre recombinase. LARNT and floxed control (FC) littermates were placed on chow diet and received twice weekly intraperitoneal injections of 0.15mg/g body weight of TAA for 13 weeks. Results TAA treated LARNT and FC mice had a similar pattern of fibrosis. Quantification of Sirius red histology staining and hydroxyproline content revealed mixed results in terms of collagen deposition in LARNT livers. There was no significant difference in hepatocyte apoptosis or proliferation, as assessed by cleaved Caspase-3 and Ki67 respectively. LARNT mice had decreased macrophage accumulation, and decreased liver mRNA expression of Col1A1, Col1A2, Col5A1, Tgf?1, Tgf?2, Timp1 and Timp2. Conclusions Deletion of hepatocyte ARNT leads to altered expression of collagen associated mRNA and reduced macrophage infiltration in the TAA-induced model of liver fibrosis. It appears that hepatocyte ARNT is not a requirement for initiation of liver fibrogenesis, but does regulate pro-fibrotic gene expression and macrophage accumulation. PMID:25812120

  9. Bipolar Disorder is associated with the rs6971 polymorphism in the gene encoding 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO).

    PubMed

    Colasanti, Alessandro; Owen, David R; Grozeva, Detelina; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Matthews, Paul M; Craddock, Nick; Young, Allan H

    2013-11-01

    TSPO mediated transport of cholesterol into the mitochondrion is a necessary step in steroid synthesis. The rs6971 polymorphism in the TSPO gene causes an amino acid substitution (Ala147Thr) within the transmembrane domain where the cholesterol-binding pocket is located, and has been shown to affect the steroidogenic pathway. We report a nominal association between this TSPO polymorphism and the diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder in both the genome-wide dataset of the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium and the Psychiatric Genome-Wide Association Study Consortium Bipolar Disorder group (OR=1.11, p=0.007; OR=1.10, p=0.011, respectively). We propose that the amino acid substitution affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) regulation, and hence may predispose to Bipolar Disorder. This supports the hypothesis that HPA dysregulation has a causal role in Bipolar Disorder, and is not just a consequence of the disease. PMID:23942012

  10. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation. PMID:26775846

  11. Ikaros is absolutely required for pre-B cell differentiation by attenuating IL-7 signals

    PubMed Central

    Heizmann, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR) signaling and migration from IL-7rich environments cooperate to drive pre-B cell differentiation via transcriptional programs that remain unclear. We show that the Ikaros transcription factor is required for the differentiation of large pre-B to small pre-B cells. Mice deleted for Ikaros in pro/pre-B cells show a complete block of differentiation at the fraction C? stage, and Ikaros-null pre-B cells cannot differentiate upon withdrawal of IL-7 in vitro. Restoration of Ikaros function rescues pre-B cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo and depends on DNA binding. Ikaros is required for the down-regulation of the pre-BCR, Ig? germline transcription, and Ig L chain recombination. Furthermore, Ikaros antagonizes the IL-7dependent regulation of >3,000 genes, many of which are up- or down-regulated between fractions C? and D. Affected genes include those important for survival, metabolism, B cell signaling, and function, as well as transcriptional regulators like Ebf1, Pax5, and the Foxo1 family. Our data thus identify Ikaros as a central regulator of IL-7 signaling and pre-B cell development. PMID:24297995

  12. Whole-genome fingerprint of the DNA methylome during human B cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Marta; Merkel, Angelika; Heath, Simon; Queirs, Ana C; Schuyler, Ronald P; Castellano, Giancarlo; Beekman, Rene; Raineri, Emanuele; Esteve, Anna; Clot, Guillem; Verdaguer-Dot, Nria; Duran-Ferrer, Mart; Russiol, Nuria; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Roser; Ecker, Simone; Pancaldi, Vera; Rico, Daniel; Agueda, Lidia; Blanc, Julie; Richardson, David; Clarke, Laura; Datta, Avik; Pascual, Marien; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe; Alignani, Diego; Paiva, Bruno; Caron, Gersende; Fest, Thierry; Muench, Marcus O; Fomin, Marina E; Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L; Valencia, Alfonso; Gut, Marta; Flicek, Paul; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Siebert, Reiner; Kppers, Ralf; Gut, Ivo G; Campo, Elas; Martn-Subero, Jos I

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed the DNA methylome of ten subpopulations spanning the entire B cell differentiation program by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density microarrays. We observed that non-CpG methylation disappeared upon B cell commitment, whereas CpG methylation changed extensively during B cell maturation, showing an accumulative pattern and affecting around 30% of all measured CpG sites. Early differentiation stages mainly displayed enhancer demethylation, which was associated with upregulation of key B cell transcription factors and affected multiple genes involved in B cell biology. Late differentiation stages, in contrast, showed extensive demethylation of heterochromatin and methylation gain at Polycomb-repressed areas, and genes with apparent functional impact in B cells were not affected. This signature, which has previously been linked to aging and cancer, was particularly widespread in mature cells with an extended lifespan. Comparing B cell neoplasms with their normal counterparts, we determined that they frequently acquire methylation changes in regions already undergoing dynamic methylation during normal B cell differentiation. PMID:26053498

  13. PDK1 regulates VDJ recombination, cell-cycle exit and survival during B-cell development.

    PubMed

    Venigalla, Ram K C; McGuire, Victoria A; Clarke, Rosemary; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Najafov, Ayaz; Toth, Rachel; McCarthy, Pierre C; Simeons, Frederick; Stojanovski, Laste; Arthur, J Simon C

    2013-04-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) controls the activation of a subset of AGC kinases. Using a conditional knockout of PDK1 in haematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that PDK1 is essential for B cell development. B-cell progenitors lacking PDK1 arrested at the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells, due to a cell autonomous defect. Loss of PDK1 decreased the expression of the IgH chain in pro-B cells due to impaired recombination of the IgH distal variable segments, a process coordinated by the transcription factor Pax5. The expression of Pax5 in pre-B cells was decreased in PDK1 knockouts, which correlated with reduced expression of the Pax5 target genes IRF4, IRF8 and Aiolos. As a result, Ccnd3 is upregulated in PDK1 knockout pre-B cells and they have an impaired ability to undergo cell-cycle arrest, a necessary event for Ig light chain rearrangement. Instead, these cells underwent apoptosis that correlated with diminished expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2A1. Reintroduction of both Pax5 and Bcl2A1 together into PDK1 knockout pro-B cells restored their ability to differentiate in vitro into mature B cells. PMID:23463102

  14. Proteomic Changes during B Cell Maturation: 2D-DIGE Approach

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Johanna; Rnnholm, Gunilla; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Vihinen, Mauno

    2013-01-01

    B cells play a pivotal role in adaptive immune system, since they maintain a delicate balance between recognition and clearance of foreign pathogens and tolerance to self. During maturation, B cells progress through a series of developmental stages defined by specific phenotypic surface markers and the rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. To get insight into B cell proteome during the maturation pathway, we studied differential protein expression in eight human cell lines, which cover four distinctive developmental stages; early pre-B, pre-B, plasma cell and immature B cell upon anti-IgM stimulation. Our two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry based proteomic study indicates the involvement of large number of proteins with various functions. Notably, proteins related to cytoskeleton were relatively highly expressed in early pre-B and pre-B cells, whereas plasma cell proteome contained endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi system proteins. Our long time series analysis in anti-IgM stimulated Ramos B cells revealed the dynamic regulation of cytoskeleton organization, gene expression and metabolic pathways, among others. The findings are related to cellular processes in B cells and are discussed in relation to experimental information for the proteins and pathways they are involved in. Representative 2D-DIGE maps of different B cell maturation stages are available online at http://structure.bmc.lu.se/BcellProteome/. PMID:24205016

  15. The oncoprotein LMO2 is expressed in normal germinal-center B cells and in human B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Natkunam, Yasodha; Zhao, Shuchun; Mason, David Y.; Chen, Jun; Taidi, Behnaz; Jones, Margaret; Hammer, Anne S.; Hamilton Dutoit, Stephen; Lossos, Izidore S.; Levy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    We previously developed a multivariate model based on the RNA expression of 6 genes (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3, and BCL2) that predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Since LMO2 emerged as the strongest predictor of superior outcome, we generated a monoclonal anti-LMO2 antibody in order to study its tissue expression pattern. Immunohistologic analysis of over 1200 normal and neoplastic tissue and cell lines showed that LMO2 protein is expressed as a nuclear marker in normal germinal-center (GC) B cells and GC-derived B-cell lines and in a subset of GC-derived B-cell lymphomas. LMO2 was also expressed in erythroid and myeloid precursors and in megakaryocytes and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. It was rarely expressed in mature T, natural killer (NK), and plasma cell neoplasms and was absent from nonhematolymphoid tissues except for endothelial cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of immunohistologic data in DLBCL demonstrated that the expression profile of the LMO2 protein was similar to that of other GC-associated proteins (HGAL, BCL6, and CD10) but different from that of non-GC proteins (MUM1/IRF4 and BCL2). Our results warrant inclusion of LMO2 in multivariate analyses to construct a clinically applicable immunohistologic algorithm for predicting survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:17038524

  16. The oncoprotein LMO2 is expressed in normal germinal-center B cells and in human B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Natkunam, Yasodha; Zhao, Shuchun; Mason, David Y; Chen, Jun; Taidi, Behnaz; Jones, Margaret; Hammer, Anne S; Hamilton Dutoit, Stephen; Lossos, Izidore S; Levy, Ronald

    2007-02-15

    We previously developed a multivariate model based on the RNA expression of 6 genes (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3, and BCL2) that predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Since LMO2 emerged as the strongest predictor of superior outcome, we generated a monoclonal anti-LMO2 antibody in order to study its tissue expression pattern. Immunohistologic analysis of over 1200 normal and neoplastic tissue and cell lines showed that LMO2 protein is expressed as a nuclear marker in normal germinal-center (GC) B cells and GC-derived B-cell lines and in a subset of GC-derived B-cell lymphomas. LMO2 was also expressed in erythroid and myeloid precursors and in megakaryocytes and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. It was rarely expressed in mature T, natural killer (NK), and plasma cell neoplasms and was absent from nonhematolymphoid tissues except for endothelial cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of immunohistologic data in DLBCL demonstrated that the expression profile of the LMO2 protein was similar to that of other GC-associated proteins (HGAL, BCL6, and CD10) but different from that of non-GC proteins (MUM1/IRF4 and BCL2). Our results warrant inclusion of LMO2 in multivariate analyses to construct a clinically applicable immunohistologic algorithm for predicting survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:17038524

  17. Normal and malignant B-cell development with special reference to Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed

    Rajewsky, K; Kanzler, H; Hansmann, M L; Küppers, R

    1997-01-01

    During their development, B lymphocytes are repeatedly selected for the expression of an appropriate surface receptor: the pre-B-cell receptor at the pre-B-cell stage and surface immunoglobulin (Ig) at the transition from a pre-B cell to a mature B cell. Furthermore, stringent selection for B cells expressing high affinity antibodies operates when antigen-activated B cells proliferate within germinal centers (GC). Here, somatic point mutations are introduced into rearranged V region genes at a high rate, and B cells acquiring favorable mutations are selected to differentiate into memory B cells or plasma cells. In the frame of this developmental scheme, extending a recent analysis, we investigated 10 primary cases of Hodgkin's disease (HD) for B-lineage origin and clonality [1]. Single Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (H-RS) cells were micromanipulated from frozen tissue sections and analyzed by PCR for rearranged V genes. Clonal VH and/or V kappa/ V delta gene rearrangements were obtained from 9 of the cases. This shows that H-RS cells represent a clonal, B-lineage-derived population of tumor cells. Somatic mutations were found in all clonal VH gene rearrangements. Interestingly, mutations leading to stop codons in in-frame V gene rearrangements were detected in four cases. Since GC B cells acquiring such crippling mutations are usually efficiently eliminated within the GC, the finding of those mutations indicates that H-RS cells are derived from precursors within the GC that escaped apoptosis by a transforming event. PMID:9209647

  18. Cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted surgery for the treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma with a tumor thrombus within the inferior vena cava: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, GUANCHEN; QIU, XUEFENG; CHEN, XIANCHEN; LIU, GUANGXIANG; ZHANG, GUTIAN; GAN, WEIDONG; GUO, HONGQIAN

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 8590% of kidney cancers, which in turn account for 23% of all malignant tumors in adults. Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC is currently classified as a distinct type of RCC. RCC is capable of invading the renal vein and inferior vena cava to form a tumor thrombus. The incidence of RCC with tumor thrombi within the renal vein or inferior vena cava is 710% in China. In the present case report, the patient underwent radical resection of the renal tumor and removal of the tumor thrombus, assisted by cardiopulmonary bypass, for the treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC. The patient was followed-up for 12 months subsequent to treatment. The patient's renal function remained within the normal range, and computed tomography examination revealed no evidence of disease recurrence or metastases. The present case report aimed to provide a reference for the development of guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion RCC.

  19. Identification of disrupted AUTS2 and EPHA6 genes by array painting in a patient carrying a de novo balanced translocation t(3;7) with intellectual disability and neurodevelopment disorder.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Anouck; Puechberty, Jacques; Ng, Bee Ling; Coubes, Christine; Gatinois, Vincent; Tournaire, Magali; Girard, Manon; Dumont, Bruno; Bouret, Pauline; Magnetto, Julia; Baghdadli, Amaria; Pellestor, Franck; Geneviève, David

    2015-12-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a frequent feature but is highly clinically and genetically heterogeneous. The establishment of the precise diagnosis in patients with ID is challenging due to this heterogeneity but crucial for genetic counseling and appropriate care for the patients. Among the etiologies of patients with ID, apparently balanced de novo rearrangements represent 0.6%. Several mechanisms explain the ID in patients with apparently balanced de novo rearrangement. Among them, disruption of a disease gene at the breakpoint, is frequently evoked. In this context, technologies recently developed are used to characterize precisely such chromosomal rearrangements. Here, we report the case of a boy with ID, facial features and autistic behavior who is carrying a de novo balanced reciprocal translocation t(3;7)(q11.2;q11.22)dn. Using microarray analysis, array painting (AP) technology combined with molecular study, we have identified the interruption of the autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2) and EPH receptor A6 gene (EPHA6). We consider that the disruption of AUTS2 explains the phenotype of the patient; the exact role of EPHA6 in human pathology is not well defined. Based on the observation of recurrent germinal and somatic translocations involving AUTS2 and the molecular environment content, we put forward the hypothesis that the likely chromosomal mechanism responsible for the translocation could be due either to replicative stress or to recombination-based mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26333717

  20. Pro-B cells sense productive immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement irrespective of polypeptide production.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Johannes; Heideman, Marinus R; Roth, Edith; van den Berk, Paul; Mller, Werner; Raman, Chander; Wabl, Matthias; Jacobs, Heinz; Jck, Hans-Martin

    2011-06-28

    B-lymphocyte development is dictated by the protein products of functionally rearranged Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chain genes. Ig rearrangement begins in pro-B cells at the IgH locus. If pro-B cells generate a productive allele, they assemble a pre-B cell receptor complex, which signals their differentiation into pre-B cells and their clonal expansion. Pre-B cell receptor signals are also thought to contribute to allelic exclusion by preventing further IgH rearrangements. Here we show in two independent mouse models that the accumulation of a stabilized ?H mRNA that does not encode ?H chain protein specifically impairs pro-B cell differentiation and reduces the frequency of rearranged IgH genes in a dose-dependent manner. Because noncoding IgH mRNA is usually rapidly degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay machinery, we propose that the difference in mRNA stability allows pro-B cells to distinguish between productive and nonproductive Ig gene rearrangements and that ?H mRNA may thus contribute to efficient H chain allelic exclusion. PMID:21670279

  1. Essential control of early B-cell development by Mef2 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Herglotz, Julia; Unrau, Ludmilla; Hauschildt, Friderike; Fischer, Meike; Kriebitzsch, Neele; Alawi, Malik; Indenbirken, Daniela; Spohn, Michael; Müller, Ursula; Ziegler, Marion; Schuh, Wolfgang; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Stocking, Carol

    2016-02-01

    The sequential activation of distinct developmental gene networks governs the ultimate identity of a cell, but the mechanisms involved in initiating downstream programs are incompletely understood. The pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR) is an important checkpoint of B-cell development and is essential for a pre-B cell to traverse into an immature B cell. Here, we show that activation of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (Mef2) transcription factors (TFs) by the pre-BCR is necessary for initiating the subsequent genetic network. We demonstrate that B-cell development is blocked at the pre-B-cell stage in mice deficient for Mef2c and Mef2d TFs and that pre-BCR signaling enhances the transcriptional activity of Mef2c/d through phosphorylation by the Erk5 mitogen-activating kinase. This activation is instrumental in inducing Krüppel-like factor 2 and several immediate early genes of the AP1 and Egr family. Finally, we show that Mef2 proteins cooperate with the products of their target genes (Irf4 and Egr2) to induce secondary waves of transcriptional regulation. Our findings uncover a novel role for Mef2c/d in coordinating the transcriptional network that promotes early B-cell development. PMID:26660426

  2. Ageing of the B-cell repertoire.

    PubMed

    Martin, Victoria; Bryan Wu, Yu-Chang; Kipling, David; Dunn-Walters, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Older people are more susceptible to infection, less responsive to vaccination and have a more inflammatory immune environment. Using spectratype analysis, we have previously shown that the B-cell repertoire of older people shows evidence of inappropriate clonal expansions in the absence of challenge, and that this loss of B-cell diversity correlates with poor health. Studies on response to vaccination, using both spectratyping and high-throughput sequencing of the repertoire, indicate that older responses to challenge are lacking in magnitude and/or delayed significantly. Also that some of the biologically significant differences may be in different classes of antibody. We have also previously shown that normal young B-cell repertoires can vary between different phenotypic subsets of B cells. In this paper, we present an analysis of immunoglobulin repertoire in different subclasses of antibody in five different populations of B cell, and show how the repertoire in these different groups changes with age. Although some age-related repertoire differences occur in naive cells, before exogenous antigen exposure, we see indications that there is a general dysregulation of the selective forces that shape memory B-cell populations in older people. PMID:26194751

  3. The NIK of time for B cells.

    PubMed

    Myles, Arpita; Cancro, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    NF-?B-inducing kinase (NIK) is a key mediator of the noncanonical NF-?B signaling pathway, which is critical for B-cell development and function. Although complete deletion of NIK in mice has been shown to result in defective B cells and impaired secondary lymphoid organogenesis, the consequences of deleting NIK exclusively in B cells have not been determined. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Hahn etal. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46: 732-741] describe mice in which the NF-?B2 pathway mediator, NIK, is deleted at different points in B-cell lineage differentiation and activation. The results show that the survival of mature peripheral B cells, as well as appropriate kinetics of germinal center reactions, rely on noncanonical NF-?B signaling. These findings confirm and extend prior observations implicating a nonredundant role for NF-?B2 downstream of BAFF signaling via BAFF-R, and prompt assessment of the growing literature regarding the relative roles of BCR and BAFF signals in B-cell homeostasis, as well as the downstream pathways responsible. PMID:26873522

  4. Histone modifications predispose genome regions to breakage and translocation

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Bharat; Zhang, Zhuzhu Z.; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Lieb, Jason D.; Misteli, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are well-established hallmarks of cancer cells and often occur at nonrandom sites in the genome. The molecular features that define recurrent chromosome breakpoints are largely unknown. Using a combination of bioinformatics, biochemical analysis, and cell-based assays, we identify here specific histone modifications as facilitators of chromosome breakage and translocations. We show enrichment of several histone modifications over clinically relevant translocation-prone genome regions. Experimental modulation of histone marks sensitizes genome regions to breakage by endonuclease challenge or irradiation and promotes formation of chromosome translocations of endogenous gene loci. Our results demonstrate that histone modifications predispose genome regions to chromosome breakage and translocations. PMID:26104467

  5. B cells generated by B-1 development can progress to chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Kyoko; Formica, Anthony M; Colombo, Matthew J; Ichikawa, Daiju; Shinton, Susan A; Brill-Dashoff, Joni; Hardy, Richard R

    2015-12-01

    B cells generated early during fetal/neonatal B-1 development in mice include autoreactive cells with detectable CD5 upregulation induced by B cell receptor (BCR) signaling (B1a cells). A fraction of B1a cells are maintained by self-renewal for life, with the potential risk of dysregulated growth and progression to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/lymphoma during aging. In studies using the Eμ-hTCL1 transgenic mouse system, it became clear that this B1a subset has a higher potential than other B cell subsets for progression to CLL. We have generated several autoreactive germline BCR gene models to compare B cells generated under conditions of natural exposure to autoantigen. Analysis of the mice has been key in understanding the importance of the BCR and BCR signaling for generating different B cell subsets and for investigating the cellular origin of B-CLL. PMID:25907284

  6. BCL2 translocation frequency rises with age in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hernandez, A.M.; Shibata, D.; Cortopassi, G.A.

    1994-09-13

    The background frequency of t(14;18) (q32;q21) chromosomal translocations at the locus associated with B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (BCL2) was determined from a survey of the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of 53 living individuals and from tissues of 31 autopsies by using a nested PCR assay. The translocation was detected in 55% of PBLs and 35% of autopsied spleens with a frequency of between less than 1 to 853 translocations per million cells. Translocations copurified with B lymphocytes. The frequency of translocations significantly increased with age in PBLs and spleens, as does human risk for lymphoma. Average translocation frequency was more than 40 times greater in the spleen and 13 times greater in the peripheral blood in the oldest individuals (61 yr and older) compared with the youngest individuals (20 yr or younger). Particular t(14;18)-bearing clones persisted over a period of 5 months in two individuals. These findings demonstrate that clones harboring the oncogenic t(14;18) chromosomal translocation are commonly present in normal humans, that such clones are long-lived, and that they rise in frequency with age. A multihit model of lymphomagenesis involving t(14;18) translocation followed by antigen stimulation is proposed. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. MDCT findings of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE3 gene fusion and papillary renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sungmin; Kim, Sang Youn; Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, See Hyung; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the MDCT features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation and TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11 RCC) and papillary RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The study included 19 and 39 patients with histologically proven Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC, respectively, who underwent multiphase renal MDCT before nephrectomy. CT findings were compared between Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC using the Student t test and chi-square test. Subgroup analyses of small (< 4 cm) renal masses for these features were performed. RESULTS. Patients with Xp11 RCC were younger (p < 0.001), and it was more prevalent in women (p = 0.007). Tumor size was greater in Xp11 RCC (p = 0.004) and more common in cystic change (p < 0.001). Calcification and unenhanced high-attenuating areas were more frequent in Xp11 RCC (p = 0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Xp11 RCCs were more prevalent in lymph node and distant metastasis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.031, respectively). Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC showed no significant difference in epicenter, margin, and venous and collecting duct invasion (p = 0.403-1.000). Although Xp11 RCC and papillary RCC had lower attenuation than the renal cortex on corticomedullary and early excretory phases (p < 0.001), only Xp11 RCCs were hyperattenuating to the cortex on the unenhanced phase (p < 0.001). Xp11 RCCs had significantly higher attenuation compared with papillary RCCs on all phases (p ≤ 0.02). Regarding small masses, cystic change, calcification, and lymph node metastasis were still more frequent in Xp11 RCCs (p ≤ 0.016). CONCLUSION. Greater size, more cystic change, calcification, high-attenuating areas on unenhanced imaging, and lymph node and distant metastasis were helpful for differentiating Xp11 RCC from papillary RCC. PMID:25714283

  8. Pseudocapsule of renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion: a clue for tumor enucleation?

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiangming; He, Jian; Gan, Weidong; Fan, Xiangshan; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Bin; Guo, Hongqian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of tumor enucleation (TE) for patients with small renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion (Xp11.2 RCC) by analyzing the pseudocapsule characteristics of Xp11.2 RCCs comparing with that of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: From June 2007 to February 2014, 22 patients with Xp11.2 RCC who were diagnosed by fluorescence in-situ hybridization polyclonal (FISH) assay and 32 patients with ccRCC treated in our institution were comparatively studied. 12 patients with ccRCC underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 20 received TE. Among 22 patients with Xp11.2 RCC, 19 were treated by RN and 3 by TE (1 by radiofrequency ablation assisted TE). Pseudocapsule and other clinicopathological characteristics of the two subtypes of RCC were compared. Survival of patients treated with different surgical methods was evaluated and compared. Results: Pseudocapsule incidence of Xp11.2 RCC (14/22, 63.6%) was lower than that of ccRCC (32/32, 100%, P<0.001). However, pseudocapsule integrity rate of Xp11.2 RCC (10/14, 71.4%) was comparable with that of ccRCC (23/32, 71.9%, P=1.000). The 5-year overall survival of patients with ccRCC treated with RN and TE was 86% and 81%, respectively (P=0.845). Three patients with small Xp11.2 RCC performed well after TE. Conclusions: Over half Xp11.2 RCC had pseudocapsules, whose integrity rate was comparable to that of ccRCC. Treatment effectives of TE and RN were comparable in ccRCC. A preliminary attempt to treat small Xp11.2 RCC with intact pseudocapsule by using TE produced a favorable treatment outcome. PMID:26191243

  9. Translocator protein (Tspo) gene promoter-driven green fluorescent protein synthesis in transgenic mice: an in vivo model to study Tspo transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Jinjiang; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2013-01-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a ubiquitous drug- and cholesterol-binding protein primarily found in the outer mitochondrial membrane as part of a mitochondrial cholesterol transport complex. TSPO is present at higher levels in steroid-synthesizing and rapidly proliferating tissues, and its biological role has been mainly linked to mitochondrial function, steroidogenesis, and cell proliferation/apoptosis. Aberrant TSPO levels have been linked to multiple diseases, including cancer, endocrine disorders, brain injury, neurodegeneration, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and inflammatory diseases. Investigation of the functions of this protein in vitro and in vivo have been mainly carried out using high-affinity drug ligands, such as isoquinoline carboxamides and benzodiazepines, and more recently, gene silencing methods. To establish a model to study the regulation of Tspo transcription in vivo, we generated a transgenic mouse model expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea coerulescens under control of the Tspo promoter region (Tspo-AcGFP). The expression profiles of Tspo-AcGFP, endogenous TSPO, and Tspo mRNA were found to be well correlated. Tspo-AcGFP synthesis in the transgenic mice was seen in almost every tissue examined, and as with TSPO in wild-type mice, Tspo-AcGFP was highly expressed in steroidogenic cells of the endocrine and reproductive systems, epithelial cells of the digestive system, skeletal muscle, and other organs. In summary, this transgenic Tspo-AcGFP mouse model recapitulates endogenous Tspo expression patterns and could be a useful, tractable tool for monitoring the transcriptional regulation and function of Tspo in live animal experiments. PMID:22868914

  10. Genomes of Ashbya Fungi Isolated from Insects Reveal Four Mating-Type Loci, Numerous Translocations, Lack of Transposons, and Distinct Gene Duplications

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Fred S.; Voegeli, Sylvia; Kuo, Sidney; Philippsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii is a cotton pathogen transmitted by insects. It is readily grown and manipulated in the laboratory and is commercially exploited as a natural overproducer of vitamin B2. Our previous genome analysis of A. gossypii isolate ATCC10895, collected in Trinidad nearly 100 years ago, revealed extensive synteny with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, leading us to use it as a model organism to understand the evolution of filamentous growth. To further develop Ashbya as a model system, we have investigated the ecological niche of A. gossypii and isolated additional strains and a sibling species, both useful in comparative analysis. We isolated fungi morphologically similar to A. gossypii from different plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera, generated a phylogenetic tree based on rDNA-ITS sequences, and performed high coverage short read sequencing with one A. gossypii isolate from Florida, a new species, Ashbya aceri, isolated in North Carolina, and a genetically marked derivative of ATCC10895 intensively used for functional studies. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, all strains carry four not three mating type loci, adding a new puzzle in the evolution of Ashbya species. Another surprise was the genome identity of 99.9% between the Florida strain and ATCC10895, isolated in Trinidad. The A. aceri and A. gossypii genomes show conserved gene orders rearranged by eight translocations, 90% overall sequence identity, and fewer tandem duplications in the A. aceri genome. Both species lack transposable elements. Finally, our work identifies plant-feeding insects of the suborder Heteroptera as the most likely natural reservoir of Ashbya, and that infection of cotton and other plants may be incidental to the growth of the fungus in its insect host. PMID:23749448

  11. Design of Targeted B Cell Killing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Natalia A.; Stremovskiy, Oleg A.; Kozlov, Leonid V.; Bichucher, Anna M.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; Shamborant, Olga G.; Balabashin, Dmitry S.; Sashchenko, Lidia P.; Tonevitsky, Alexander G.; Friboulet, Alain; Gabibov, Alexander G.; Deyev, Sergey M.

    2011-01-01

    B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs), fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgGγ1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti-c-myc antibodies in culture of native splenocytes, suggesting their highest therapeutic potential as targeted B cell killing agents. PMID:21677771

  12. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B.; Kppers, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG+ memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM+(IgD+)CD27+ and IgG+ memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG+ memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-? caused differentiation of IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG+ post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils. PMID:25624468

  13. Vitamin A and immune function: Retinoic acid modulates population dynamics in antigen receptor and CD38-stimulated splenic B cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuyan; Ross, A. Catharine

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin A and its active metabolite, all-trans retinoic acid (RA), regulate the antibody response in vivo, although the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We have investigated the regulation by RA of B cell population dynamics and Ig gene expression in purified splenic mouse B cells stimulated through the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and/or CD38, a BCR coreceptor. After ligation of the BCR and/or CD38, B cells became more heterogeneous in size. RA substantially restrained this change, concomitant with inhibition of cell proliferation. To examine B cell heterogeneity more closely, we categorized stimulated B cells by size (forward angle light scatter) and determined cell division dynamics, germ-line Ig heavy chain gene transcription and surface IgG1 (sIgG1) expression. Flow cytometric analysis of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester-labeled B cells costained for sIgG1 showed that the more proliferative groups of B cells were smaller, whereas cells expressing more sIgG1 were larger. RA enriched the latter population, whereas cell division frequency in general and the number of smaller B cells that had undergone division cycles were reduced. Although RA significantly inhibited Ig germ-line transcript levels in the total B cell population, CD19-IgG1+ B cells, which represent a more differentiated phenotype, were enriched. Furthermore, pax-5 mRNA was decreased and activation-induced cytidine deaminase mRNA was increased in RA-treated stimulated B cells. Thus, RA regulated factors known to be required for Ig class switch recombination and modulated the population dynamics of ligation-stimulated B cells, while promoting the progression of a fraction of B cells into differentiated sIgG-expressing cells. PMID:16093312

  14. WiskottAldrich Syndrome protein deficiency perturbs the homeostasis of B-cell compartment in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Castiello, Maria Carmina; Bosticardo, Marita; Pala, Francesca; Catucci, Marco; Chamberlain, Nicolas; van Zelm, Menno C.; Driessen, Gertjan J.; Pac, Malgorzata; Bernatowska, Ewa; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Aiuti, Alessandro; Sauer, Aisha V.; Traggiai, Elisabetta; Meffre, Eric; Villa, Anna; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    WiskottAldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) regulates the cytoskeleton in hematopoietic cells and mutations in its gene cause the WiskottAldrich Syndrome (WAS), a primary immunodeficiency with microthrombocytopenia, eczema and a higher susceptibility to develop tumors. Autoimmune manifestations, frequently observed in WAS patients, are associated with an increased risk of mortality and still represent an unsolved aspect of the disease. B cells play a crucial role both in immune competence and self-tolerance and defects in their development and function result in immunodeficiency and/or autoimmunity. We performed a phenotypical and molecular analysis of central and peripheral B-cell compartments in WAS pediatric patients. We found a decreased proportion of immature B cells in the bone marrow correlating with an increased presence of transitional B cells in the periphery. These results could be explained by the defective migratory response of WAS B cells to SDF-1?, essential for the retention of immature B cells in the BM. In the periphery, we observed an unusual expansion of CD21low B-cell population and increased plasma BAFF levels that may contribute to the high susceptibility to develop autoimmune manifestations in WAS patients. WAS memory B cells were characterized by a reduced invivo proliferation, decreased somatic hypermutation and preferential usage of IGHV4-34, an immunoglobulin gene commonly found in autoreactive B cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that WASp-deficiency perturbs B-cell homeostasis thus adding a new layer of immune dysregulation concurring to the increased susceptibility to develop autoimmunity in WAS patients. PMID:24369837

  15. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Mediate Synergistic Effects of HIV and Lipopolysaccharide on CD27+ IgD– Memory B Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lumin; Luo, Zhenwu; Sieg, Scott F.; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Yu, Xiaocong; Fu, Pingfu; Wu, Hao; Jiao, Yanmei; Gao, Yong; Greenspan, Neil S.; Harding, Clifford V.; Kilby, J. Michael; Li, Zihai; Lederman, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of heightened microbial translocation on B cells during HIV infection are unknown. We examined the in vitro effects of HIV and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on apoptosis of CD27+ IgD− memory B (mB) cells from healthy controls. In vivo analysis was conducted on a cohort of 82 HIV+ donors and 60 healthy controls. In vitro exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to LPS and HIV led to mB