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Sample records for b-cell translocation gene

  1. Candidate tumor suppressor B-cell translocation gene 3 impedes neoplastic progression by suppression of AKT

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y-C; Chen, P-H; Chiang, H-Y; Suen, C-S; Hwang, M-J; Lin, T-Y; Yang, H-C; Lin, W-C; Lai, P-L; Shieh, S-Y

    2015-01-01

    BTG3 (B-cell translocation gene 3) is a p53 target that also binds and inhibits E2F1. Although it connects two major growth-regulatory pathways functionally and is downregulated in human cancers, whether and how BTG3 acts as a tumor suppressor remain largely uncharacterized. Here we present evidence that BTG3 binds and suppresses AKT, a kinase frequently deregulated in cancers. BTG3 ablation results in increased AKT activity that phosphorylates and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Consequently, we also observed elevated β-catenin/T-cell factor activity, upregulation of mesenchymal markers, and enhanced cell migration. Consistent with these findings, BTG3 overexpression suppressed tumor growth in mouse xenografts, and was associated with diminished AKT phosphorylation and reduced β-catenin in tissue specimens. Significantly, a short BTG3-derived peptide was identified, which recapitulates these effects in vitro and in cells. Thus, our study provides mechanistic insights into a previously unreported AKT inhibitory pathway downstream of p53. The identification of an AKT inhibitory peptide also unveils a new avenue for cancer therapeutics development. PMID:25569101

  2. Topoisomerase Inhibitors Modulate Gene Expression of B-Cell Translocation Gene 2 and Prostate Specific Antigen in Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX’s attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

  3. Topoisomerase inhibitors modulate gene expression of B-cell translocation gene 2 and prostate specific antigen in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) have been demonstrated to have potent anti-tumor activity. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of CPT and DOX on cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2 and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma cells. Our results indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in LNCaP cells and apoptosis at higher dosage. Immunoblot and transient gene expression assay indicated that CPT or DOX treatments induced p53 and BTG2 gene expression, with the later effect dependent on the p53 response element within BTG2 promoter area since mutation of the p53 response element from GGGAAAGTCC to GGAGTCC or from GGCAGAGCCC to GGCACC by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of CPT or DOX on the BTG2 promoter activity, which is also supported by our results that cotreatments of pifithrin-α, an inhibitor of p53 dependent transcriptional activation, blocked the induction of CPT or DOX on BTG2 gene expression. CPT or DOX also downregulated the protein expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and PSA. Transient gene expression assays suggested that CPT or DOX's attenuation of PSA promoter activity is dependent on both the androgen and p53 response elements within of the PSA promoter. Our results indicated that CPT and DOX attenuate cell proliferation via upregulation of BTG2 gene expression through the p53-dependent pathway. The CPT and DOX block the PSA gene expression by upregulation of p53 activity and downregulation of androgen receptor activity. PMID:24586533

  4. Distinct Patterns of Colocalization of the CCND1 and CMYC Genes With Their Potential Translocation Partner IGH at Successive Stages of B-Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, Ilya; Iarovaia, Olga V; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Pichugin, Andrey; Germini, Diego; Tsfasman, Tatiana; Caron, Gersende; Fest, Thierry; Lipinski, Marc; Razin, Sergey V; Vassetzky, Yegor S

    2016-07-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus is submitted to intra-chromosomal DNA breakages and rearrangements during normal B cell differentiation that create a risk for illegitimate inter-chromosomal translocations leading to a variety of B-cell malignancies. In most Burkitt's and Mantle Cell lymphomas, specific chromosomal translocations juxtapose the IGH locus with a CMYC or Cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene, respectively. 3D-fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on normal peripheral B lymphocytes induced to mature in vitro from a naive state to the stage where they undergo somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). The CCND1 genes were found very close to the IGH locus in naive B cells and further away after maturation. In contrast, the CMYC alleles became localized closer to an IGH locus at the stage of SHM/CSR. The colocalization observed between the two oncogenes and the IGH locus at successive stages of B-cell differentiation occurred in the immediate vicinity of the nucleolus, consistent with the known localization of the RAGs and AID enzymes whose function has been demonstrated in IGH physiological rearrangements. We propose that the chromosomal events leading to Mantle Cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma are favored by the colocalization of CCND1 and CMYC with IGH at the time the concerned B cells undergo VDJ recombination or SHM/CSR, respectively. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1506-1510, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26873538

  5. L-Mimosine blocks cell proliferation via upregulation of B-cell translocation gene 2 and N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 in prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Li-Chuan; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Lee, Shiow-Ling; Chang, Phei-Lang; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2012-02-15

    L-Mimosine, an iron chelator and a prolyl 4-hydroxylase inhibitor, blocks many cancer cells at the late G1 phase. B-cell translocation gene 2 (Btg2) regulates the G1/S transition phases of the cell cycle. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (Ndrg1) is a differentiation-inducing gene upregulated by hypoxia. We evaluated the molecular mechanisms of L-mimosine on cell cycle modulation in PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. The effect of L-mimosine on cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells was determined by the [3H]thymidine incorporation and flow cytometry assays. L-Mimosine arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase in PC-3 cells and at the S phase in LNCaP cells, thus attenuating cell proliferation. Immunoblot assays indicated that hypoxia and L-mimosine stabilized hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and induced Btg2 and Ndrg1 protein expression, but downregulated protein levels of cyclin A in both PC-3 and LNCaP cells. L-Mimosine treatment decreased cyclin D1 protein in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. Dimethyloxalylglycine, a pan-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, also induced Btg2 and Ndrg1 protein expression in LNCaP cells. The transient gene expression assay revealed that L-mimosine treatment or cotransfection with HIF-1α expression vector enhanced the promoter activities of Btg2 and Ndrg1 genes. Knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated the increasing protein levels of both Btg2 and Ndrg1 by hypoxia or L-mimosine in LNCaP cells. Our results indicated that hypoxia and L-mimosine modulated Btg2 and Ndrg1 at the transcriptional level, which is dependent on HIF-1α. L-Mimosine enhanced expression of Btg2 and Ndrg1, which attenuated cell proliferation of the PC-3 and LNCaP prostate carcinoma cells. PMID:22116304

  6. Upregulation of B-cell translocation gene 2 by epigallocatechin-3-gallate via p38 and ERK signaling blocks cell proliferation in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jehn-Chuan; Chung, Li-Chuan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a well-known malignancy that accounts for the majority of oral cancers. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is an important regulator of cell cycle dynamics in cancer cells. However, the role of BTG2 in OSCC cells and the influences of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on BTG2 gene expressions have not been well evaluated. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of EGCG-induced BTG2 expression and the potential signal pathways involved. The (3)H-thymidine incorporation and Western-blot assays revealed cell proliferation was attenuated by EGCG via upregulation of BTG2 expression causing cell cycle G1 phase arrest in OSCC cells. BTG2 overexpression decreased tumor cell growth, while BTG2 knockdown illuminated the opposite effect in xenograft animal studies. Overexpressed BTG2 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and downregulated protein expressions of cyclin A, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Western-blot assays indicated that EGCG induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK, and ERK. However, pretreatments with selective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors, SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and PD0325901 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), significantly suppressed the activation of EGCG on BTG2 expression. Our results indicate that EGCG attenuates cell proliferation of OSCC cells by upregulating BTG2 expression via p38 and ERK pathways. PMID:25721086

  7. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  8. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway. PMID:24981574

  9. Congenital MLL-positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) switched lineage at relapse to acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) with persistent t(4;11) and t(1;6) translocations and JH gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie-Gen; Roman, Elizabeth; Nandula, Subhadra V; Murty, Vundavalli V S; Bhagat, Govind; Alobeid, Bachir

    2005-08-01

    Congenital acute leukemia is a rare form of childhood leukemia, in which lineage conversion at relapse is very rarely reported. Here we describe a case of congenital B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with t(4;11) and t(1;6) translocations, which at relapse underwent a switch to monocytic lineage with persistence of the original cytogenetic translocations and clonal rearrangement of the JH gene. Similar to the other described cases of congenital acute leukemia with lineage conversion, our case had a MLL gene rearrangement and followed an aggressive clinical course. PMID:16085566

  10. MLL/KMT2A translocations in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Tatyana; Murty, Vundavalli; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind

    2015-12-01

    Translocations of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2A (KMT2A) gene, formerly known as myeloid lymphoid leukemia/mixed-lineage leukemia gene, are commonly associated with high-risk de novo or therapy-associated B-cell and T-cell lymphoblastic leukemias and myeloid neoplasms. Rare B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas harboring KMT2A translocations have been reported, but information regarding the clinical behavior of such cases is limited. Here, we describe two extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs): a primary thyroid DLBCL and a large cell transformation of a splenic marginal zone lymphoma, which displayed complex karyotypes and translocations involving chromosome 11q23 targeting the KMT2A gene. The pathological and clinical characteristics of these cases are discussed in the context of previously reported lymphomas associated with different types of KMT2A genetic aberrations. In contrast to the poor clinical outcomes of patients with acute leukemias and myeloid neoplasms associated with KMT2A translocations, patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, exhibiting similar translocations, appear to respond well to immunochemotherapy. Our findings add to the growing list of histone methyltransferase genes deregulated in DLBCL and highlight the diversity of mechanisms, altering the function of epigenetic modifier genes in lymphomas. PMID:25131304

  11. Genistein reverses hypermethylation and induces active histone modifications in tumor suppressor gene B-cell Translocation Gene 3 (BTG3) in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Shahana; Dar, Altaf A; Shahryari, Varahram; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ahmad, Ardalan; Saini, Sharanjot; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Angela V.; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    Background BTG3/ANA/APRO4 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in some malignancies. We report here that BTG3 is transcriptionally down-regulated in prostate cancer and the mechanism of inactivation is through promoter hypermethylation. Methods Prostate cancer and normal cell lines were treated with different doses of genistein and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5Aza-C). BTG3 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in tissues and cell lines. BS-PCR, cloning and sequencing were used to examine promoter methylation in tumor samples and cell lines. Enzyme activity/inhibition assays were done to check the effect of genistein and 5Aza-C on DNA methyltransferases. ChIP assay was performed to analyze chromatin modifications caused by genistein treatment. Results BTG3 mRNA expression was down-regulated in cancer tissues and cells. Genistein and 5Aza-C induced BTG3 mRNA expression in all PC cell lines. Complete methylation of BTG3 promoter in tumor samples and cancer cell lines was observed. Genistein and 5Aza-C treatment significantly decreased promoter methylation, reactivating BTG3 expression. Genistein and 5Aza-C increased levels of acetylated histones 3, 4, 2H3K4, 3H3K4 and Pol II, decreased DNMTase, MBD2 activity and increased HAT activity. Conclusion This is the first report to show that BTG3 is silenced in prostate cancer and can be reactivated by genistein induced promoter demethylation and active histone modification. Genistein showed similar effects to that of 5Aza-C, which is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials as a treatment for prostate cancer. Since genistein is a natural, non-toxic, dietary isoflavone, these results indicate that genistein is a novel, advantageous therapeutic agent for treating prostate cancer. PMID:19885928

  12. Mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with t(9;11) translocation: a distinct subset of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Lawrence; Draoua, Hediya Y; Osunkwo, Ifeyinwa; Nandula, Subhadra V; Murty, Vundavalli V S; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Bhagat, Govind; Alobeid, Bachir

    2004-07-01

    Mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is typically associated with the FAB-L3 morphology and rearrangement of the MYC gene, features characteristic of the leukemic phase of Burkitt's lymphoma. However, the term 'mature' has also been used to describe other rare cases of B-ALL with light-chain surface immunoglobulin expression. In contrast, infantile B-cell ALL is generally characterized by rearrangement of the MLL gene, an immature pro-B-cell phenotype, and CD10 negativity. We describe two unusual cases of infantile B-ALL with non-L3 morphology, expressing a mature B-cell phenotype (lambda sIg+, CD19+, CD10-, TdT-, and CD34-), and showing MLL rearrangement without MYC rearrangement at presentation. Both infants relapsed after months of morphologic and genetic remission. At relapse, the t(9;11) translocation was detected in both cases by spectral karyotyping. After the initial relapse, both cases followed a rapid and aggressive course. Literature search identified few similar cases, all expressed lambda surface immunoglobulin and showed MLL rearrangement (majority with the t(9;11) translocation). These cases show that B-ALL with MLL rearrangement, especially the t(9;11) translocation, can express a 'mature' B-cell phenotype and may represent a distinct subset. Identification of additional cases will further clarify the significance of MLL rearrangements in mature B-ALL. PMID:15098014

  13. Clinical significance and prognosis of MYC translocation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong Wei; Chen, Zhen Wen; Li, Su Hong; Bai, Wei; Cheng, Niu Liang; Wang, Jin Fen

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that chromosomal aberrations of the MYC gene locus indicate an unfavorable prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, there have been few reports on MYC translocation in Chinese patients. One hundred and six cases of DLBCLs were analyzed using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization. Immunophenotyping analysis (CD20, CD3, CD10, Bcl-6, Mum-1) was also performed. MYC translocation was identified in 13 (12.3%) out of 106 cases. All MYC(+) DLBCLs showed a non-germinal center B-cell type. MYC(+) DLBCLs showed significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival, with a median OS and progression-free survival time of 4.7 and 3.2?months, respectively (p?translocation is a subgroup of non-germinal center B-cell DLBCL with poor outcome. This may be a clinical characteristic that is specific to Chinese patients. Because only a few patients received rituximab, its usefulness could not be assessed. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are required. PMID:21692100

  14. Evolution of B-cell malignancy; Pre-B-cell leukemia resulting from MYC activation in a B-cell neoplasm with a rearranged BCL2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Gauwerky, C.E.; Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The authors have analyzed the molecular genetics of the breakpoints involved in the t(8;14) and t(14;18) translocations of an acute pre-B-cell leukemia from a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma. In this patient's leukemic cells, the breakpoint of the t(14;18) translocation occurred in the major breakpoint-cluster region of the BCL2 gene and became linked to the J{sub H}4 joining-region gene segment of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus on the 14q+ chromosome as previously observed in follicular lymphoma. An N region and heptamer and nonamer signal sequences indicated that this translocation occurred as a mistake in V{sub H}-D{sub H}-J{sub H} joining (where V{sub H} and D{sub H} are the variable and diversity segments). In the t(8;14) translocation, the breakpoint was located immediately 5' of the first exon of the MYC protooncogene, which was juxtaposed with the C{gamma}2 constant gene segment of the second 14q+ chromosome. The finding of repeated sequences typical of switch regions suggested that this translocation occurred during heavy-chain isotype switching, resulting in progression to pre-B-cell leukemia with both the 5(8;14) and the t(14;18) translocations. The terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive phenotype of the patient's leukemic cells further suggests that the pre-B-cell leukemia was derived from a pre-B cell carrying a t(14;18) translocation in the original follicular lymphoma. The polymerase chain reaction method was then used to identify cancer cells in the bone marrow of the patient.

  15. Genetic errors of the human caspase recruitment domain-B-cell lymphoma 10-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (CBM) complex: Molecular, immunologic, and clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Prez de Diego, Rebeca; Snchez-Ramn, Silvia; Lpez-Collazo, Eduardo; Martnez-Barricarte, Rubn; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Ferreira Cerdn, Antonio; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Three members of the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) family of adaptors (CARD9, CARD10, and CARD11) are known to form heterotrimers with B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma-translocation gene 1 (MALT1). These 3 CARD-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complexes activate nuclear factor ?B in both the innate and adaptive arms of immunity. Human inherited defects of the 3 components of the CBM complex, including the 2 adaptors CARD9 and CARD11 and the 2 core components BCL10 and MALT1, have recently been reported. Biallelic loss-of-function mutant alleles underlie several different immunologic and clinical phenotypes, which can be assigned to 2 distinct categories. Isolated invasive fungal infections of unclear cellular basis are associated with CARD9 deficiency, whereas a broad range of clinical manifestations, including those characteristic of T- and B-lymphocyte defects, are associated with CARD11, MALT1, and BCL10 deficiencies. Interestingly, human subjects with these mutations have some features in common with the corresponding knockout mice, but other features are different between human subjects and mice. Moreover, germline and somatic gain-of-function mutations of MALT1, BCL10, and CARD11 have also been found in patients with other lymphoproliferative disorders. This broad range of germline and somatic CBM lesions, including loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, highlights the contribution of eachof the components of the CBM complex to human immunity. PMID:26277595

  16. Intrachromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 3q27: an under recognized mechanism of BCL6 translocation in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christian Ernst; Nandula, Subhadra; Vakiani, Efsevia; Alobeid, Bachir; Murty, Vundavalli V; Bhagat, Govind

    2006-08-01

    Balanced reciprocal translocations involving chromosomal region 3q27, which led to identification of the BCL6 protooncogene, are one of the most common recurrent chromosomal abnormalities reported in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL). Cloning of the breakpoints of these translocations has facilitated the identification of a number of BCL6 partners including immunoglobulin genes and more than 20 non-immunoglobulin genes on almost all human chromosomes. Fusion of BCL6 with these genes leads to deregulated BCL6 expression because of substitution of its promoter with that of the translocation partner. Despite the promiscuous nature of BCL6 translocations, intrachromosomal rearrangements of the BCL6 gene have not been well recognized. In the present study, we present evidence for intrachromosomal rearrangements, because of interstitial deletions and inversions, involving region 3q27 as an overlooked mechanism of BCL6 deregulation. These rearrangements accounted for 3/20 (15%) of all BCL6 translocations occurring in B-NHL, including follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, diagnosed at our institute. In addition to confirming previously described partner loci on chromosome 3, we also identified a novel BCL6 partner locus (3p24) that to our knowledge has not been reported previously. Our data should help facilitate the identification of new BCL6 partner genes, which may enhance our understanding of the clinical and biological role of BCL6 in B-NHL pathogenesis. PMID:16867873

  17. The spectrum of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas with dual IgH-BCL2 and BCL6 translocations.

    PubMed

    Keller, Christian E; Nandula, Subhadra; Fisher, Julie; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Vakiani, Efsevia; Savage, David G; Murty, Vundavalli V; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind

    2008-08-01

    Dual IgH/BCL2 and BCL6 translocations are rarely observed in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs). We investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and cytogenetic spectrum of B-NHL with such dual translocations. Dual IgH/BCL2 and BCL6 translocations were detected in follicular lymphomas (FLs) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), representing 6.1% of 132 B-NHLs in our series, including 6 (11%) of 56 FLs (grades 1, 2, and 3a) and 2 (3%) of 76 DLBCLs; 33% of FLs with dual translocations had variant morphologic features. All dual-translocation FLs were CD10+/BCL6+/BCL2+/MUM1-, and the DLBCLs demonstrated "activated" germinal center (CD10+/BCL6+/MUM1+) and non-germinal center (CD10-/BCL6+/MUM1+) phenotypes. BCL6 translocations in all cases involved nonimmunoglobulin genes/loci. Mean chromosome abnormalities in dual-translocation FLs and DLBCLs did not differ from IgH/BCL2 FLs and DLBCLs. Detection of dual translocations predominantly in low-grade FLs suggests that BCL6 abnormalities are acquired early in the histologic evolution of a subset of IgH/BCL2-associated FLs. PMID:18628087

  18. Developmental propagation of V(D)J recombination-associated DNA breaks and translocations in mature B cells via dicentric chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jiazhi; Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Meyers, Robin M.; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W.

    2014-01-01

    Mature IgM+ B-cell lymphomas that arise in certain ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-deficient compound mutant mice harbor translocations that fuse V(D)J recombination-initiated IgH double-strand breaks (DSBs) on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15, generating dicentric chromosomes and c-myc amplification via a breakage-fusion-bridge mechanism. As V(D)J recombination DSBs occur in developing progenitor B cells in the bone marrow, we sought to elucidate a mechanism by which such DSBs contribute to oncogenic translocations/amplifications in mature B cells. For this purpose, we applied high-throughput genome-wide translocation sequencing to study the fate of introduced c-myc DSBs in splenic IgM+ B cells stimulated for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent IgH class switch recombination (CSR). We found frequent translocations of c-myc DSBs to AID-initiated DSBs in IgH switch regions in wild-type and ATM-deficient B cells. However, c-myc also translocated frequently to newly generated DSBs within a 35-Mb region downstream of IgH in ATM-deficient, but not wild-type, CSR-activated B cells. Moreover, we found such DSBs and translocations in activated B cells that did not express AID or undergo CSR. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency leads to formation of chromosome 12 dicentrics via recombination-activating gene-initiated IgH DSBs in progenitor B cells and that these dicentrics can be propagated developmentally into mature B cells where they generate new DSBs downstream of IgH via breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. We propose that dicentrics formed by joining V(D)J recombination–associated IgH DSBs to DSBs downstream of c-myc in ATM-deficient B lineage cells similarly contribute to c-myc amplification and mature B-cell lymphomas. PMID:24982162

  19. Expression of LMO2 is associated with t(14;18)/IGH-BCL2 fusion but not BCL6 translocations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Durnick, David K; Law, Mark E; Maurer, Matthew J; Natkunam, Yasodha; Levy, Ronald; Lossos, Izidore S; Kurtin, Paul J; McPhail, Ellen D

    2010-08-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be separated for prognostic purposes using gene expression profiling (GEP) into 2 subgroups: germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell phenotypes. However, GEP is impractical for routine clinical use, and immunophenotyping is an imperfect surrogate. Therefore, we studied the relationship between expression of the purported germinal center marker LMO2 and the presence of IGH-BCL2 fusions, BCL6 translocations, and LMO2 translocations. In addition, we investigated the usefulness of LMO2 expression as a marker of GCB subtype in DLBCL. Immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were successfully performed on 101 cases of de novo DLBCL that had been incorporated into a tissue microarray. There was a statistically significant association between IGH-BCL2 fusion and LMO2 protein expression (P = .02) but not between BCL6 translocations and LMO2 expression. LMO2 translocations were not identified. Although uncommon, all cases that had both IGH-BCL2 fusion and BCL6 translocations expressed LMO2. The findings suggest LMO2 as a potential marker for the GCB phenotype. PMID:20660332

  20. Induction of plasmacytoid differentiation by phorbol ester in B-cell lymphoma cell lines bearing 8;14 translocations.

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, D; Magrath, I T; Triche, T J; Schroff, R W; Jensen, J P; Korsmeyer, S J

    1984-01-01

    At nanomolar concentrations, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced differentiation in a human Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line, JD 38, derived from an undifferentiated lymphoma and containing an 8;14 translocation. The changes induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate were consistent with differentiation towards plasma cells and included (i) a marked increase (30-fold) in IgM secretion; (ii) a decrease in the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio associated with the development of a single prominent nucleolus instead of multiple nucleoli; (iii) the development of parallel arrays of rough endoplasmic reticulum, eccentric nuclei, and marginated heterochromatin; (iv) a reduction in the expression of surface markers, including common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen, IgM, and C3 receptors. Essentially all cells showed plasmacytoid differentiation, although the degree varied. Rare cells (less than 1%) appeared to be terminally differentiated into plasma cells. The increase in secreted IgM was preceded by a small increase in mu-chain RNA, with an increase in the ratio of secreted to membrane form. A small increase in c-myc RNA was also detected with differentiation. This might reflect coordinate regulation of the transcription of immunoglobulin and the translocated c-myc gene. Thus, the maturational arrest of this lymphoma cell line can be overcome with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, indicating that translocation of the c-myc gene does not permanently block the capacity for differentiation. Further, this gene continues to be expressed to at least the same level during cell maturation. Similar ultrastructural changes were induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in four of seven additional lines studied. Images PMID:6203124

  1. DNA repair genes are selectively mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    de Miranda, Noel FCC; Peng, Roujun; Georgiou, Konstantinos; Wu, Chenglin; Srqvist, Elin Falk; Berglund, Mattias; Chen, Longyun; Gao, Zhibo; Lagerstedt, Kristina; Lisboa, Susana; Roos, Fredrik; van Wezel, Tom; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Rosenquist, Richard; Sundstrm, Christer; Enblad, Gunilla; Nilsson, Mats; Zeng, Yixin; Kipling, David

    2013-01-01

    DNA repair mechanisms are fundamental for B cell development, which relies on the somatic diversification of the immunoglobulin genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination. Their failure is postulated to promote genomic instability and malignant transformation in B cells. By performing targeted sequencing of 73 key DNA repair genes in 29 B cell lymphoma samples, somatic and germline mutations were identified in various DNA repair pathways, mainly in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Mutations in mismatch repair genes (EXO1, MSH2, and MSH6) were associated with microsatellite instability, increased number of somatic insertions/deletions, and altered mutation signatures in tumors. Somatic mutations in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes (DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS, PRKDC/DNA-PKcs, XRCC5/KU80, and XRCC6/KU70) were identified in four DLBCL tumors and cytogenetic analyses revealed that translocations involving the immunoglobulin-heavy chain locus occurred exclusively in NHEJ-mutated samples. The novel mutation targets, CHEK2 and PARP1, were further screened in expanded DLBCL cohorts, and somatic as well as novel and rare germline mutations were identified in 8 and 5% of analyzed tumors, respectively. By correlating defects in a subset of DNA damage response and repair genes with genomic instability events in tumors, we propose that these genes play a role in DLBCL lymphomagenesis. PMID:23960188

  2. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with TEL/ETV6 translocation.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, Deborah W; Nandula, Subhadra V; Colovai, Adriana I; Alexander, Suzy; Murty, Vundavalli V; Alobeid, Bachir; Bhagat, Govind

    2009-04-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities of chromosome 12p involving the TEL/ETV6 gene are observed in a variety of hematopoietic neoplasms including acute leukemias, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative disorders. Karyotypic aberrations, including rearrangements, deletions, and amplifications of chromosome 12p, have been documented in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, rearrangements targeting TEL have rarely been reported. Here we describe a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that had a complex karyotype including t(9;12)(q22;p13), which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization to represent rearrangement of TEL. Additional cytogenetic abnormalities included t(3;14)(q27;q32) involving the variant, alternative breakpoint region of the BCL6 gene and del(6)(q13q23), resulting in the loss of 1 allele of BLIMP1. This case reiterates the importance of correlating morphologic and phenotypic findings with the results of cytogenetic analysis to avoid errors in diagnosing hematologic neoplasms and highlights the rare association of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with aberrations of TEL. PMID:18992913

  3. Insight into lymphoid development by gene expression profiling of avian B cells.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Kimmo; Kohonen, Pekka; Nieminen, Pia; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Lassila, Olli

    2003-09-01

    The avian immune system provides an excellent model to track B-cell development from prebursal stem cells throughout B-cell differentiation and maturation. Bursal B cells are uniquely positioned at the crossroads of B-cell development, having properties of both stem cells and of mature B cells, as demonstrated by their ability to reconstruct the bursal B-cell compartment and to express and diversify the B-cell receptor at their cell surface. To understand avian B-cell development better, we determined the gene expression profile of different B-cell stages using a bursal expressed sequence tag array. The expression profile of bursal B cells reveals the presence of factors associated with B-cell signaling and defines novel B-cell-specific genes. Genes associated with proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair and recombination are abundantly expressed. The expression profile of the DT40 cell line is most similar to bursal B cells rather than to other stages of B-cell development, confirming the suitability of DT40 for studies of B-cell physiology. Interestingly, prebursal stem cells express genes involved in B-cell receptor signaling, although they express only low levels of immunoglobulin genes. This suggests that B-cell receptor-mediated selection is present before bursal colonization. The gene expression signatures of germinal centers and cells of the Harderian gland indicate that evolutionarily conserved genetic programs regulate B-cell activation and terminal differentiation. PMID:12937956

  4. Isolation and characterization of a novel B cell activation gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.X.; Wilson, G.L.; Fox, C.H.; Kehrl, J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    Using subtractive cDNA cloning, the authors have isolated a series of cDNA clones that are differentially expressed between B and T lymphocytes. Whereas some of the isolated cDNA are from known B cell-specific genes, many of them represent previously uncharacterized genes. One of these unknown genes was denoted as BL34. Northern blot analysis performed with the BL34 cDNA revealed a 1.6-kb mRNA transcript that was present at low levels in RNA extracted from resting B lymphocytes, but whose expression was markedly increased in RNA prepared from mitogen-activated B cells. Similarly, RNA prepared from several B cell lines treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) contained high levels of BL34 mRNA. In contrast, RNA from purified T cells treated with phytohemagglutinin and PMA had undetectable amounts of BL34 mRNA. In addition, high levels of BL34 mRNA were detected in RNA purified from PBMC of a patient with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. Southern blot analysis of human DNA from various tissues and cells lines demonstrated that BL34 is a single-copy gene without evidence of rearrangement. Two full length BL34 cDNA were sequenced, and an open reading frame of 588 bp was identified that was predicted to encode for a 196 amino acid protein. Searches of several protein data bases failed to find any homologous proteins. To directly analyze the expression of BL34 mRNA in lymphoid tissues in situ, hybridization studies with human tonsil tissue sections were performed. BL34 mRNA was detected in a portion of the cells in the germinal center region and adjacent to the mantle region. Further characterization of the BL34 gene and its protein should lead to insights to its role in B cell function and the consequences of its over-expression in acute lymphocytic leukemia. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Murine plasmacytomas, carrier of the t(12;15) chromosomal translocation, develop from immature/mature B cells not from differentiated plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S; Hayakawa, J; Hashimoto, N; Wiener, F

    1999-04-01

    Dysregulation of the c-myc gene by chromosomal translocation in >95% of murine plasmacytomas (MPCs) is an obligatory requirement for the transformation of B lymphocytes into MPCs. However, it is still unknown whether sIg+ B cells or differentiated plasma cells are the legitimate precursor cells from which MPCs develop. To address this question, C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice were reconstituted with splenic surface Ig-positive (sIg+) B lineage cells originating from BALB/cRb6.15 (B/cRb6.15) or human IL-6 transgene-congenic BALB/cRb8.12 mice (B/cRb8.12 IL-6-Tg). Six of 80 SCID mice reconstituted with B/cRb6.15 sIg+ B cells developed MPCs after pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) treatment followed by Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV) infection (incidence 7.5%) and four of 40 after pristane treatment alone (incidence 10%). Similarly, in 20 SCID mice reconstituted with B/cRb8.12 IL-6-Tg splenic sIg+ B cells the MPC incidence was 10%. Karyotype analysis revealed that all the translocations were of typical t(12;15) type and all tumors carried the Rb6.15 or Rb8.12 marker chromosome, indicating their donor cell origin. In contrast, none of the 48 SCID mice reconstituted with plasma cells obtained from the lymph nodes of B/cRb8.12 IL-6-Tg mice developed MPCs when treated either with pristane plus A-MuLV (20 mice) or with pristane alone (28 mice), although the transferred plasma cells were still functional in the recipient SCID mice 6 months after transfer. The findings indicate that the malignant transformation triggered by Ig/myc juxtaposition occurs more in immature (sIgM+) and/or mature (sIgM+/sIgD+, sIgG+ and sIgA+) B cells than in differentiated G0 or cycling plasma cells. We inferred that immature and/or mature B cells and not differentiated plasma cells are most likely the principal source of precursor cells from which the typical t(12;15) MPCs develop. PMID:10223178

  6. Overexpression of the human BCL-2 gene product results in growth enhancement of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Y

    1989-01-01

    The biological activity of the human BCL-2 gene product was analyzed in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human lymphoblastoid B-cell line transfected with BCL-2 sequences driven by the simian virus 40 promoter and enhancer. Overproduction of the BCL-2 protein conferred a selective growth advantage to the EBV-infected B cells as selective growth advantage to the EBV-infected B cells as compared with control transfectants in low-serum medium and also after seeding at limiting dilution but did not render the cells tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. This growth enhancement was also seen in cells transfected with the BCL-2 gene with its own promoter juxtaposed to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, which represents the translocated form of the BCL-2 gene observed in follicular lymphomas with the t(14;18) translocation. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells overproducing the BCL-2 protein is neither due to the enhanced growth factor production nor due to an enhanced sensitivity of the BCL-2 transfectants to interleukins 1 or 6, although both lymphokines are known to stimulate proliferation of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells by overproduction of the BCL-2 protein suggests the direct involvement of the BCL-2 gene product in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma. Images PMID:2538824

  7. Overexpression of the human BCL-2 gene product results in growth enhancement of Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Yoshihide )

    1989-03-01

    The biological activity of the human BCL-2 gene product was analyzed in an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human lymphoblastoid B-cell line transfected with BCL-2 sequences driven by the simian virus 40 promoter and enhancer. Overproduction of the BCL-2 protein conferred a selective growth advantage to the EBV-infected B cells as compared with control transfectants in low-serum medium and also after seeding at limiting dilution but did not render the cells tumorigenic in athymic nude mice. This growth enhancement was also seen in cells transfected with the BCL-2 gene with its own promoter juxtaposed to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer, which represents the translocated form of the BCL-2 gene observed in follicular lymphomas with the t(14;18) translocation. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells overproducing the BCL-2 protein is neither due to the enhanced growth factor production nor due to an enhanced sensitivity of the BCL-2 transfectants to interleukins 1 or 6, although both lymphokines are known to stimulate proliferation of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B-cell lines. The growth advantage of EBV-infected B cells by overproduction of the BCL-2 protein suggests the direct involvement of the BCL-2 gene product in the pathogenesis of follicular lymphoma.

  8. The Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene 3’ Enhancers Induce Bcl2 Deregulation and Lymphomagenesis in Murine B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hong; Noonan, Emily J.; Wang, Jinghong; Duan, Hong; Ma, Lawrence; Michie, Sara; Boxer, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    Human follicular B-cell lymphoma is associated with the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation that juxtaposes the Bcl2 proto-oncogene with the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus, resulting in the deregulated expression of Bcl2. Our previous studies have shown that the Igh 3’ enhancers deregulate Bcl2 expression in vitro. However, the effects of the Igh 3’ enhancer elements on Bcl2 expression in vivo are not known. To investigate the role of the Igh 3’ enhancers in Bcl2 deregulation, we used gene targeting to generate knock-in mice in which four DNase I hypersensitive regions from the murine Igh 3’ region were integrated 3’ of the Bcl2 locus. Increased levels of Bcl2 mRNA and protein were observed in the B cells of Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice. B cells from Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice demonstrated an extended survival in vitro compared with B cells from wild-type mice. The Bcl2 promoter shift from P1 (the 5’ promoter) to P2 (the 3’ promoter) was observed in B cells from Igh-3’E-bcl2 mice, similar to human t(14;18) lymphomas. The IgH-3’E-bcl2 mice developed monoclonal B-cell follicular lymphomas, which were slowly progressive. These studies demonstrate that the Igh 3’ enhancers play an important role in the deregulation of Bcl2 and B-cell lymphomagenesis in vivo. PMID:21606958

  9. Lentiviral-mediated gene therapy restores B cell tolerance in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Pala, Francesca; Morbach, Henner; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Cassani, Barbara; Glauzy, Salome; Romberg, Neil; Candotti, Fabio; Aiuti, Alessandro; Bosticardo, Marita; Villa, Anna; Meffre, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and high susceptibility to developing tumors and autoimmunity. Recent evidence suggests that B cells may be key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity in WAS. Here, we assessed whether WAS protein deficiency (WASp deficiency) affects the establishment of B cell tolerance by testing the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells from 4 WAS patients before and after gene therapy (GT). We found that pre-GT WASp-deficient B cells were hyperreactive to B cell receptor stimulation (BCR stimulation). This hyperreactivity correlated with decreased frequency of autoreactive new emigrant/transitional B cells exiting the BM, indicating that the BCR signaling threshold plays a major role in the regulation of central B cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from WAS patients were enriched in self-reactive clones, revealing that peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint dysfunction is associated with impaired suppressive function of WAS regulatory T cells. The introduction of functional WASp by GT corrected the alterations of both central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We conclude that WASp plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of B cell tolerance in humans and that restoration of WASp by GT is able to restore B cell tolerance in WAS patients. PMID:26368308

  10. Lentiviral-mediated gene therapy restores B cell tolerance in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Pala, Francesca; Morbach, Henner; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Cassani, Barbara; Glauzy, Salome; Romberg, Neil; Candotti, Fabio; Aiuti, Alessandro; Bosticardo, Marita; Villa, Anna; Meffre, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, and high susceptibility to developing tumors and autoimmunity. Recent evidence suggests that B cells may be key players in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity in WAS. Here, we assessed whether WAS protein deficiency (WASp deficiency) affects the establishment of B cell tolerance by testing the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells from 4 WAS patients before and after gene therapy (GT). We found that pre-GT WASp-deficient B cells were hyperreactive to B cell receptor stimulation (BCR stimulation). This hyperreactivity correlated with decreased frequency of autoreactive new emigrant/transitional B cells exiting the BM, indicating that the BCR signaling threshold plays a major role in the regulation of central B cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from WAS patients were enriched in self-reactive clones, revealing that peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoint dysfunction is associated with impaired suppressive function of WAS regulatory T cells. The introduction of functional WASp by GT corrected the alterations of both central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We conclude that WASp plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of B cell tolerance in humans and that restoration of WASp by GT is able to restore B cell tolerance in WAS patients. PMID:26368308

  11. Defective B cell tolerance in adenosine deaminase deficiency is corrected by gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha V; Morbach, Henner; Brigida, Immacolata; Ng, Yen-Shing; Aiuti, Alessandro; Meffre, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene defects are among the most common causes of SCID. Restoration of purine metabolism and immune functions can be achieved by enzyme replacement therapy, or more effectively by bone marrow transplant or HSC gene therapy (HSC-GT). However, autoimmune complications and autoantibody production, including anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), frequently occur in ADA-SCID patients after treatment. To assess whether ADA deficiency affects the establishment of B cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells of ADA-SCID patients before and after HSC-GT. We found that before HSC-GT, new emigrant/transitional and mature naive B cells from ADA-SCID patients contained more autoreactive and ANA-expressing clones, indicative of defective central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We further observed impaired B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR functions in B cells after ADA inhibition, which may underlie the defects in B cell tolerance. Strikingly, after HSC-GT, ADA-SCID patients displayed quasi-normal early B cell tolerance checkpoints, as evidenced by restored removal of developing autoreactive and ANA-expressing B cells. Hence, ADA plays an essential role in controlling autoreactive B cell counterselection by regulating BCR and TLR functions. PMID:22622038

  12. Defective B cell tolerance in adenosine deaminase deficiency is corrected by gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Aisha V.; Morbach, Henner; Brigida, Immacolata; Ng, Yen-Shing; Aiuti, Alessandro; Meffre, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene defects are among the most common causes of SCID. Restoration of purine metabolism and immune functions can be achieved by enzyme replacement therapy, or more effectively by bone marrow transplant or HSC gene therapy (HSC-GT). However, autoimmune complications and autoantibody production, including anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs), frequently occur in ADA-SCID patients after treatment. To assess whether ADA deficiency affects the establishment of B cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells of ADA-SCID patients before and after HSC-GT. We found that before HSC-GT, new emigrant/transitional and mature naive B cells from ADA-SCID patients contained more autoreactive and ANA-expressing clones, indicative of defective central and peripheral B cell tolerance checkpoints. We further observed impaired B cell receptor (BCR) and TLR functions in B cells after ADA inhibition, which may underlie the defects in B cell tolerance. Strikingly, after HSC-GT, ADA-SCID patients displayed quasi-normal early B cell tolerance checkpoints, as evidenced by restored removal of developing autoreactive and ANA-expressing B cells. Hence, ADA plays an essential role in controlling autoreactive B cell counterselection by regulating BCR and TLR functions. PMID:22622038

  13. LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bertolo, Cristina; Roa, Sergio; Sagardoy, Ainara; Mena-Varas, Maria; Robles, Eloy F.; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Orta, Alberto; Lossos, Izidore S.; Amar, Salomon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Briones, Javier; Melnick, Ari; Malumbres, Raquel; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal center-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of LITAF in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce LPS-mediated TNFα secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal center reaction, and suggest that constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:23795761

  14. LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Bertolo, Cristina; Roa, Sergio; Sagardoy, Ainara; Mena-Varas, Maria; Robles, Eloy F; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I; Sagaert, Xavier; Tousseyn, Thomas; Orta, Alberto; Lossos, Izidore S; Amar, Salomon; Natkunam, Yasodha; Briones, Javier; Melnick, Ari; Malumbres, Raquel; Martinez-Climent, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) factor (LITAF) in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal centre reaction, and suggest that the constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis. PMID:23795761

  15. A Novel Non-Immunoglobulin (non-Ig)/BCL6 Translocation in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Involving Chromosome 10q11.21 Loci and Review on Clinical Consequences of BCL6 Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Jarosova, Marie; Kriegova, Eva; Schneiderova, Petra; Fillerova, Regina; Prochazka, Vit; Mikesova, Michaela; Flodr, Patrik; Indrak, Karel; Papajik, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    BCL6 rearrangements (3q27) are the most common chromosomal abnormalities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), with numerous immunoglobulin (Ig) and non-Ig genes as partners. In DLBCL, the translocations occur predominantly in the "major breakpoint region" encompassing the first noncoding exon and a part of the first intron of BCL6; few cases with "alternative breakpoint cluster" located 245-285 kb 5' BCL6 were also described. The regulatory sequences of known Ig and non-Ig partners replace the 5' untranslated region of the BCL6 in the same transcriptional orientation. Contrary to Ig/BCL6 fusions typical by high BCL6 gene expression, in non-Ig/BCL6 translocations were observed unexpectedly low BCL6 mRNA levels. From the clinical point of view, the survival rate of DLBCL patients with non-Ig partners is inferior to those with Ig/BCL6 translocations, suggesting that non-Ig/BCL6 fusion is a poor prognostic indicator. Hereby we provide comprehensive information about known non-Ig translocation partners and clinical consequences of BCL6 rearrangements in DLBCL. Moreover, we describe a novel reciprocal translocation t(3;10) in refractory patient with DLBCL with the breaking points at 5' untranslated region of BCL6 and 5' untranslated region of the RASGEF1A gene on chromosome 10q11.21 loci; this rearrangement was associated with low BCL6 and RASGEF1A gene expressions. Our patient harbouring dual chromosomal rearrangement involving BCL2 and BCL6 genes relapsed three-times and died soon; thus, further supporting the notion that non-Ig/BCL6 fusion is a poor prognostic indicator of DLBCL. There is evidence of prognostic value of BCL6 rearrangements also in rituximab era. PMID:26319027

  16. Burkitt's lymphoma is a malignancy of mature B cells expressing somatically mutated V region genes.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, U.; Klein, G.; Ehlin-Henriksson, B.; Rajewsky, K.; Küppers, R.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The developmental stage from which stems the malignant B cell population in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is unclear. An approach to answering this question is provided by the sequence analysis of rear-ranged immunoglobulin (Ig) variable region (V) genes from BL for evidence of somatic mutations, together with a phenotypic characterization. As somatic hypermutation of Ig V region genes occurs in germinal center B cells, somatically mutated Ig genes are found in germinal center B cells and their descendents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rearranged V kappa region genes from 10 kappa-expressing sporadic and endemic BL-derived cell lines (9 IgM and 1 IgG positive) and three kappa-expressing endemic BL biopsy specimens were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In addition, VH region gene sequences from these cell lines were determined. RESULTS: All BL cell lines and the three biopsy specimens carried somatically mutated V region genes. The average mutation frequency of rearranged V kappa genes from eight BL cell lines established from sporadic BL was 1.8%. A higher frequency (6%) was found in five endemic cases (three biopsy specimens and two BL cell lines). CONCLUSIONS: The detection of somatic mutations in the rearranged V region genes suggests that both sporadic and endemic BL represent a B-cell malignancy originating from germinal center B cells or their descendants. Interestingly, the mutation frequency detected in sporadic BL is in a range similar to that characteristic for IgM-expressing B cells in the human peripheral blood and for mu chain-expressing germinal center B cells, whereas the mutation frequency found in endemic BL is significantly higher. PMID:8529116

  17. B cell-specific lentiviral gene therapy leads to sustained B-cell functional recovery in a murine model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Hannah M; Ryu, Byoung Y; Stirling, Brigid V; Sather, Blythe D; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny; Rawlings, David J

    2010-03-18

    The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (Emu) and Igbeta (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage-specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec(-/-) mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of EmuB29-Btk-LV-transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage-targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406

  18. Decreased expression of B cell related genes in leukocytes of women with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disorder caused by genetic, environmental and age-related factors, and it is more prevalent in men. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) that might be involved in PD pathogenesis. Transcriptomes of 30 female PD-patients and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were profiled using GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Samples were from unrelated Ashkenazi individuals, non-carriers of LRRK2 G2019S or GBA founder mutations. Results Differential expression was detected in 115 genes (206 exons), with over-representation of immune response annotations. Thirty genes were related to B cell functions, including the uniquely B cell-expressed IGHM and IGHD, the B cell surface molecules CD19, CD22 and CD79A, and the B cell gene regulator, PAX5. Quantitative-RT-PCR confirmation of these 6 genes in 79 individuals demonstrated decreased expression, mainly in women patients, independent of PD-pharmacotherapy status. Conclusions Our results suggest that the down regulation of genes related to B cell activity reflect the involvement of these cells in PD in Ashkenazi individuals and represents a molecular aspect of gender-specificity in PD. PMID:21943286

  19. Regulatory elements in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene 3'-enhancers induce c-myc deregulation and lymphomagenesis in murine B cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghong; Boxer, Linda M

    2005-04-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is invariably associated with chromosomal translocations that juxtapose the c-myc proto-oncogene with regulatory elements of the immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) or light chain loci resulting in the deregulation of c-myc expression. However, the enhancer elements mediating c-myc deregulation in vivo remain largely unidentified. To investigate the role of the IgH 3'-enhancers in c-myc deregulation, we used gene targeting to generate knock-in mice in which four DNase I hypersensitive regions from the murine IgH 3'-region were integrated into the 5'-region of the c-myc locus. The IgH 3'-enhancers induced the up-regulation of c-myc expression specifically in B cells of IgH-3'-E-myc mice. After approximately 10 months, the mice developed a Burkitt-like B cell lymphoma with the phenotype of B220+, IgM+, and IgD(low). Analysis of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements indicated that the lymphoma cells were of clonal origin. The presence of a rapidly expanding population of B cells in the spleen and bone marrow of young knock-in mice at 2-4 months of age was observed. Premalignant splenic B cells of knock-in mice showed higher spontaneous and induced apoptosis; however, malignant B cells were more resistant to apoptosis. The p53-ARF-Mdm2 pathway was disabled in half of the lymphomas examined, in most cases through Mdm2 overexpression. Although c-myc expression was increased in premalignant B cells, the promoter shift from P2 to P1 was observed only in malignant B cells. Our studies demonstrate that the IgH 3'-enhancers play an important role in c-myc deregulation and B cell lymphomagenesis in vivo. PMID:15687498

  20. Characterization of the expression and gene promoter of CD22 in murine B cells.

    PubMed

    Andersson, K B; Draves, K E; Magaletti, D M; Fujioka, S; Holmes, K L; Law, C L; Clark, E A

    1996-12-01

    CD22 is a B cell-restricted surface molecule which may play an important role in interactions between B cells and other cells and in regulating signals through the B cell receptor (BCR) complex. Here we have examined whether the mouse is a suitable in vivo model for studying CD22 functions. In primary and secondary lymphoid organs of adult mice CD22 is on all mature B cells, including resting IgM+IgD+ B cells, IgG+ HSA(lo) memory B cells, syndecan+ plasma cells and CD5+ B cells, but it is not on immature IgM+IgD- B cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that murine CD22 is associated with the IgM receptor in some, but not all, CD22+ B leukemic and lymphoma cell lines; as with human CD22, murine CD22 is rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine after ligation of the BCR. In the CD22- murine pro-B cell line, FEMCL, CD22 expression was inducible by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. A genomic fragment of the cd22b allele containing 1.3 kb 5' of exon 1 was sequenced in order to identify potential DNA regulatory elements in the CD22 promoter region. Consensus sequences for transcription factor binding sites including PU.1, AP-1, AP-2, C/EBP and SP-1 were present, but no classical TATA elements or initiator motifs were evident at relevant positions. The 1.3-kb promoter fragment 5' of exon 1 was sufficient for directing basal promoter activity in B and T cells. There was no significant sequence similarity between the murine and human cd22 gene promoters, although both contain repetitive elements and Sp-1 and AP1 binding sites. Thus, murine CD22 shares a number of features with human CD22 and the mouse provides a suitable model system for elucidating the function of CD22 in vivo. PMID:8977319

  1. Tackling centrosome biology through gene targeting in chicken B cells.

    PubMed

    Chavali, Pavithra L; Gergely, Fanni

    2015-01-01

    The centrosome proteome comprises hundreds of proteins whose function at the organelle and in the cellular context is unknown. Loss-of-function studies present a powerful tool to probe the roles of these individual constituents and hence improve our insight into key questions of centrosome biology such as how centrosomes are built, how they duplicate, and which cellular processes they partake in. In cultured cells ribonucleic acid (RNA) interference remains the most widely used method to achieve protein depletion, but due to the remarkable stability of many centrosome components depletion is often incomplete. In such instances genome editing provides a viable alternative. The exceptionally high homologous recombination rate of chicken DT40 cells makes this lymphocytic cell line ideal for genetic manipulation. Here we describe methods for the design and generation of knockouts and in situ tagging of genes in these cells. Furthermore, we report an optimized technique that allows isolation of centrosomes from DT40 cells for use in in vitro functional assays and proteomic analysis. Gene editing by CRISPR-Cas9 technology is fast replacing RNA interference as a method of choice for loss-of-function studies, but the combination of the fast cell cycle, the robustness in culture and ease of gene targeting, will continue to make DT40 cells a useful model system for studies of vertebrate protein function. PMID:26175435

  2. Inactivation of the PRDM1/BLIMP1 gene in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pasqualucci, Laura; Compagno, Mara; Houldsworth, Jane; Monti, Stefano; Grunn, Adina; Nandula, Subhadra V; Aster, Jon C; Murty, Vundavally V; Shipp, Margaret A; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2006-02-20

    PR domain containing 1 with zinc finger domain (PRDM1)/B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1) is a transcriptional repressor expressed in a subset of germinal center (GC) B cells and in all plasma cells, and required for terminal B cell differentiation. The BLIMP1 locus lies on chromosome 6q21-q22.1, a region frequently deleted in B cell lymphomas, suggesting that it may harbor a tumor suppressor gene. We report here that the BLIMP1 gene is inactivated by structural alterations in 24% (8 out of 34) activated B cell-like diffuse large cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), but not in GC B cell-like (n = 0/37) or unclassified (n = 0/21) DLBCL. BLIMP1 alterations included gene truncations, nonsense mutations, frameshift deletions, and splice site mutations that generate aberrant transcripts encoding truncated BLIMP1 proteins. In all cases studied, both BLIMP1 alleles were inactivated by deletions or mutations. Furthermore, most non-GC type DLBCL cases (n = 20/26, 77%) lack BLIMP1 protein expression, despite the presence of BLIMP1 mRNA. These results indicate that a sizable fraction of ABC-DLBCL carry an inactive BLIMP1 gene, and suggest that the same gene is inactivated by epigenetic mechanisms in an additional large number of cases. These findings point to a role for BLIMP1 as a tumor suppressor gene, whose inactivation may contribute to lymphomagenesis by blocking post-GC differentiation of B cells toward plasma cells. PMID:16492805

  3. Polycomb genes, miRNA, and their deregulation in B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang Greg; Konze, Kyle D.

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone proteins represent a fundamental means to define distinctive epigenetic states and regulate gene expression during development and differentiation. Aberrations in various chromatin-modulation pathways are commonly used by tumors to initiate and maintain oncogenesis, including lymphomagenesis. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated that polycomb group (PcG) proteins, a subset of histone-modifying enzymes known to be crucial for B-cell maturation and differentiation, play a central role in malignant transformation of B cells. PcG hyperactivity in B-cell lymphomas is caused by overexpression or recurrent mutations of PcG genes and deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) or transcription factors such as c-MYC, which regulate PcG expression. Interplays of PcG and miRNA deregulations often establish a vicious signal-amplification loop in lymphoma associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Importantly, aberrant enzymatic activities associated with polycomb deregulation, notably those caused by EZH2 gain-of-function mutations, have provided a rationale for developing small-molecule inhibitors as novel therapies. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of PcG-mediated gene silencing, interplays of PcG with other epigenetic regulators such as miRNAs during B-cell differentiation and lymphomagenesis, and recent advancements in targeted strategies against PcG as promising therapeutics for B-cell malignancies. PMID:25568352

  4. Organizational structure and the periphery of the gene regulatory network in B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The physical periphery of a biological cell is mainly described by signaling pathways which are triggered by transmembrane proteins and receptors that are sentinels to control the whole gene regulatory network of a cell. However, our current knowledge about the gene regulatory mechanisms that are governed by extracellular signals is severely limited. Results The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, we infer a gene regulatory network from a large-scale B-cell lymphoma expression data set using the C3NET algorithm. Second, we provide a functional and structural analysis of the largest connected component of this network, revealing that this network component corresponds to the peripheral region of a cell. Third, we analyze the hierarchical organization of network components of the whole inferred B-cell gene regulatory network by introducing a new approach which exploits the variability within the data as well as the inferential characteristics of C3NET. As a result, we find a functional bisection of the network corresponding to different cellular components. Conclusions Overall, our study allows to highlight the peripheral gene regulatory network of B-cells and shows that it is centered around hub transmembrane proteins located at the physical periphery of the cell. In addition, we identify a variety of novel pathological transmembrane proteins such as ion channel complexes and signaling receptors in B-cell lymphoma. PMID:22583750

  5. Molecular requirements for the mu-induced light chain gene rearrangement in pre-B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, A; Kopf, M; Williams, G S; Bühler, B; Köhler, G

    1991-01-01

    During B cell differentiation rearrangement of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes is partially regulated by the Ig proteins. Rearrangement of heavy (H) chain genes is inhibited, whilst that of light (L) chain genes is induced by the membrane form of the mu H chain. In order to analyse additional structural requirements of mu induced L chain gene rearrangement we transfected wild-type mu and mutant mu constructs lacking functional exons encoding the first or second constant domains into Abelson murine leukemia virus (AMuLV) transformed pre-B cells. All mu chains are expressed on the surface of the pre-B cell and all associate with omega and iota, two proteins forming a surrogate light chain, necessary for mu membrane expression. Nevertheless, only wild-type mu and not the mutant mu proteins promote L gene rearrangement. A heterodimer of proteins with Mr of 33 kd and 36 kd was found associated with wild-type but not with the mutant mu proteins. Continuous presence of mu is required for L chain gene recombination since loss of mu stopped and readdition of mu started L gene rearrangement. We propose that the protein complex composed of mu and the 33 kd/36 kd protein heterodimer is responsible for the activation of the L chain gene locus and its rearrangement. Images PMID:1712291

  6. Aberrantly Expressed OTX Homeobox Genes Deregulate B-Cell Differentiation in Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2015-01-01

    In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) we recently reported that deregulated homeobox gene MSX1 mediates repression of the B-cell specific transcription factor ZHX2. In this study we investigated regulation of MSX1 in this B-cell malignancy. Accordingly, we analyzed expression and function of OTX homeobox genes which activate MSX1 transcription during embryonal development in the neural plate border region. Our data demonstrate that OTX1 and OTX2 are aberrantly expressed in both HL patients and cell lines. Moreover, both OTX loci are targeted by genomic gains in overexpressing cell lines. Comparative expression profiling and subsequent pathway modulations in HL cell lines indicated that aberrantly enhanced FGF2-signalling activates the expression of OTX2. Downstream analyses of OTX2 demonstrated transcriptional activation of genes encoding transcription factors MSX1, FOXC1 and ZHX1. Interestingly, examination of the physiological expression profile of ZHX1 in normal hematopoietic cells revealed elevated levels in T-cells and reduced expression in B-cells, indicating a discriminatory role in lymphopoiesis. Furthermore, two OTX-negative HL cell lines overexpressed ZHX1 in correlation with genomic amplification of its locus at chromosomal band 8q24, supporting the oncogenic potential of this gene in HL. Taken together, our data demonstrate that deregulated homeobox genes MSX1 and OTX2 respectively impact transcriptional inhibition of (B-cell specific) ZHX2 and activation of (T-cell specific) ZHX1. Thus, we show how reactivation of a specific embryonal gene regulatory network promotes disturbed B-cell differentiation in HL. PMID:26406991

  7. Epigenetic Heterogeneity of B-Cell Lymphoma: DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Chromatin States

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, Lydia; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Binder, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Mature B-cell lymphoma is a clinically and biologically highly diverse disease. Its diagnosis and prognosis is a challenge due to its molecular heterogeneity and diverse regimes of biological dysfunctions, which are partly driven by epigenetic mechanisms. We here present an integrative analysis of DNA methylation and gene expression data of several lymphoma subtypes. Our study confirms previous results about the role of stemness genes during development and maturation of B-cells and their dysfunction in lymphoma locking in more proliferative or immune-reactive states referring to B-cell functionalities in the dark and light zone of the germinal center and also in plasma cells. These dysfunctions are governed by widespread epigenetic effects altering the promoter methylation of the involved genes, their activity status as moderated by histone modifications and also by chromatin remodeling. We identified four groups of genes showing characteristic expression and methylation signatures among Burkitt’s lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and multiple myeloma. These signatures are associated with epigenetic effects such as remodeling from transcriptionally inactive into active chromatin states, differential promoter methylation and the enrichment of targets of transcription factors such as EZH2 and SUZ12. PMID:26371046

  8. Harnessing Gene Conversion in Chicken B Cells to Create a Human Antibody Sequence Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J.; Izquierdo, Shelley Mettler; Harriman, William D.; Etches, Robert J.; Leighton, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic chickens expressing human sequence antibodies would be a powerful tool to access human targets and epitopes that have been intractable in mammalian hosts because of tolerance to conserved proteins. To foster the development of the chicken platform, it is beneficial to validate transgene constructs using a rapid, cell culture-based method prior to generating fully transgenic birds. We describe a method for the expression of human immunoglobulin variable regions in the chicken DT40 B cell line and the further diversification of these genes by gene conversion. Chicken VL and VH loci were knocked out in DT40 cells and replaced with human VK and VH genes. To achieve gene conversion of human genes in chicken B cells, synthetic human pseudogene arrays were inserted upstream of the functional human VK and VH regions. Proper expression of chimeric IgM comprised of human variable regions and chicken constant regions is shown. Most importantly, sequencing of DT40 genetic variants confirmed that the human pseudogene arrays contributed to the generation of diversity through gene conversion at both the Igl and Igh loci. These data show that engineered pseudogene arrays produce a diverse pool of human antibody sequences in chicken B cells, and suggest that these constructs will express a functional repertoire of chimeric antibodies in transgenic chickens. PMID:24278246

  9. Fucoidan prevents C{epsilon} germline transcription and NF{kappa}B p52 translocation for IgE production in B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oomizu, Souichi; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro . E-mail: mhide@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-24

    Fucoidan, a dietary fiber contained in seaweed, reduces the increase of antigen-specific IgE in mice exposed to ovalbumin. In this study, we investigated the effect of fucoidan on IgE production and intracellular events in B cells in vitro. Fucoidan inhibited the production of IgE and C{epsilon} germline transcription in murine B cells induced by IL-4 (100 ng/ml) and anti-CD40 antibodies (10 {mu}g/ml), whereas it stimulated cell proliferation. A significant effect of fucoidan on IgE production was observed when B cells were stimulated with a higher dose (5 {mu}g/ml) of anti-CD40 antibodies, but not when stimulated with lower doses (1.25, 2.5 {mu}g/ml), regardless of the IL-4 concentrations. Moreover, nuclear translocation of NF{kappa}B p52, but neither that of NF{kappa}B p65, nor the phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT6 was reduced by fucoidan. These results suggest that fucoidan inhibited IgE production by preventing the NF{kappa}B p52-mediated pathways activated by CD40.

  10. Immunoglobulin gene sequence analysis to further assess B-cell origin of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, D D; Kraj, P; Goldman, J; Jefferies, L; Carchidi, C; Anderson, K; Silberstein, L E

    1995-01-01

    To further characterize the B-cell origin of multiple myeloma, our laboratory performed immunoglobulin gene sequence analyses of four cases of myeloma (three immunoglobulin A and one immunoglobulin G). Three tumors expressed VH3 genes and one expressed a VH1 gene, while the light chains included two V lambda and one V kappa III; one light chain was not isolated. The closest homology to published germ line genes ranged from 91 to 97%. In two cases, the expressed VH genes were compared with the putative germ line precursor VH genes isolated from autologous granulocyte DNA and appeared to have mutated randomly from the germ line gene. By sequencing multiple clonal isolates from each tumor sample, we found no evidence for ongoing mutation in three cases; in one case, however, clonotypic heterogeneity was evident. The analysis of DH- and JH-region genes revealed (i) limited or absent N nucleotide insertions (two of four cases), (ii) the presence of a DH-JH junction resulting from sequence overlap between the DH and JH genes (one of four cases), (iii) the absence of somatic mutations (two of four cases), and (iv) restricted JH gene usage of a JH6 polymorphism (three of four cases). These analyses of DH and JH genes suggest that multiple myeloma, similar to what has been proposed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, may derive from B cells which have rearranged during fetal development rather than during adult life. PMID:7719912

  11. Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene utilization by B cell hybridomas derived from rheumatoid synovial tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C M; Longhurst, C; Haynes, G; Plater-Zyberk, C; Malcolm, A; Maini, R N

    1992-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects synovial joints. Activated B lymphocytes and plasma cells are present in the synovial tissue and are thought to contribute to the immunopathology of the rheumatoid joint. To investigate rheumatoid synovial B lymphocytes, we have generated B cell hybridomas from synovial tissue of an RA patient. Here we describe the immunoglobulin VH gene repertoire of eight IgM- and 10 IgG-secreting synovial-derived hybridomas. The VH4 gene family is highly represented (38.5%) in this panel of hybridomas compared with the frequency of VH4 gene expression in circulating B lymphocytes reported previously (19-22%) and with the VH4 gene frequency we observed in a panel of hybridomas derived in the same manner from the spleen and tonsil of normal individuals (19%). The increased frequency of VH4 gene expression was not due to the expansion of a single B cell clone in vivo as none of these hybridomas was clonally related. Two synovial-derived hybridomas secreted autoantibodies; one (VH3+) secreted an IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and the other (VH4+) secreted IgM with polyreactive binding to cytoskeletal proteins and cardiolipin. The antibodies secreted by the remaining synovial-derived hybridomas were not reactive with the autoantigens tested. The VH gene usage in a proportion (5/17) of synovial-derived hybridomas that expressed CD5 antigen provided preliminary evidence that CD5+ B cells in RA synovium have a similar increase of VH4 gene expression reported for CD5+ B cells from normal individuals and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. PMID:1379132

  12. Inactivation of the PRDM1/BLIMP1 gene in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualucci, Laura; Compagno, Mara; Houldsworth, Jane; Monti, Stefano; Grunn, Adina; Nandula, Subhadra V.; Aster, Jon C.; Murty, Vundavally V.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    PR domain containing 1 with zinc finger domain (PRDM1)/B lymphocyte–induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1) is a transcriptional repressor expressed in a subset of germinal center (GC) B cells and in all plasma cells, and required for terminal B cell differentiation. The BLIMP1 locus lies on chromosome 6q21-q22.1, a region frequently deleted in B cell lymphomas, suggesting that it may harbor a tumor suppressor gene. We report here that the BLIMP1 gene is inactivated by structural alterations in 24% (8 out of 34) activated B cell–like diffuse large cell lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL), but not in GC B cell–like (n = 0/37) or unclassified (n = 0/21) DLBCL. BLIMP1 alterations included gene truncations, nonsense mutations, frameshift deletions, and splice site mutations that generate aberrant transcripts encoding truncated BLIMP1 proteins. In all cases studied, both BLIMP1 alleles were inactivated by deletions or mutations. Furthermore, most non–GC type DLBCL cases (n = 20/26, 77%) lack BLIMP1 protein expression, despite the presence of BLIMP1 mRNA. These results indicate that a sizable fraction of ABC-DLBCL carry an inactive BLIMP1 gene, and suggest that the same gene is inactivated by epigenetic mechanisms in an additional large number of cases. These findings point to a role for BLIMP1 as a tumor suppressor gene, whose inactivation may contribute to lymphomagenesis by blocking post–GC differentiation of B cells toward plasma cells. PMID:16492805

  13. Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma following acute myeloid leukemia: a common clonal origin indicated by chromosomal translocation t(3;4)(p25;q21).

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Masakazu; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kawadoko, Shin-Ichiro; Uchiyama, Hikaru; Yasui, Takaharu; Kamihira, Takashi; Aoki, Ken-Ichi; Sasaguri, Takakazu; Nakano, Ryuji; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Muta, Tsuyoshi; Ohshima, Koichi

    2015-10-01

    Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma following acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is extremely rare. We here describe a unique case involving a patient who developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) during complete remission (CR) of AML. A 75-year-old Japanese man was initially diagnosed with AML with maturation (FAB M2), bearing chromosomal translocation t(3,4)(p25;q21). After intensive chemotherapy, bone marrow aspiration revealed normal karyotype, and he achieved CR. Six years and 4 months later, he was still in CR from AML, but developed DLBCL presenting in the terminal ileum. Cytogenetic analysis of the DLBCL cells showed the same translocation as the previous AML. The rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes of the two malignancies were examined using polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the rearrangement patterns were found to differ from each other. Our data thus suggest that, in the present case, the AML and DLBCL arose from a common progenitor cell, as indicated by the clonal abnormality t(3,4)(p25;q21), and that different immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements occurred during each course of clonal evolution. PMID:25953309

  14. Immunoglobulin gene translocations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A report of 35 patients and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    DE BRAEKELEER, MARC; TOUS, CORINE; GUÉGANIC, NADIA; LE BRIS, MARIE-JOSÉE; BASINKO, AUDREY; MOREL, FRÉDÉRIC; DOUET-GUILBERT, NATHALIE

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) represents the most common hematological malignancy in Western countries, with a highly heterogeneous clinical course and prognosis. Translocations involving the immunoglobulin (IG) genes are regularly identified. From 2000 to 2014, we identified an IG gene translocation in 18 of the 396 patients investigated at diagnosis (4.6%) and in 17 of the 275 analyzed during follow-up (6.2%). A total of 4 patients in whom the IG translocation was identified at follow-up did not carry the translocation at diagnosis. The IG heavy locus (IGH) was involved in 27 translocations (77.1%), the IG κ locus (IGK) in 1 (2.9%) and the IG λ locus (IGL) in 7 (20.0%). The chromosome band partners of the IG translocations were 18q21 in 16 cases (45.7%), 11q13 and 19q13 in 4 cases each (11.4% each), 8q24 in 3 cases (8.6%), 7q21 in 2 cases (5.7%), whereas 6 other bands were involved once (2.9% each). At present, 35 partner chromosomal bands have been described, but the partner gene has solely been identified in 10 translocations. CLL associated with IG gene translocations is characterized by atypical cell morphology, including plasmacytoid characteristics, and the propensity of being enriched in prolymphocytes. The IG heavy chain variable region (IGHV) mutational status varies between translocations, those with unmutated IGHV presumably involving cells at an earlier stage of B-cell lineage. All the partner genes thus far identified are involved in the control of cell proliferation and/or apoptosis. The translocated partner gene becomes transcriptionally deregulated as a consequence of its transposition into the IG locus. With the exception of t(14;18)(q32;q21) and its variants, prognosis appears to be poor for the other translocations. Therefore, searching for translocations involving not only IGH, but also IGL and IGK, by banding and molecular cytogenetics is required. Furthermore, it is important to identify the partner gene to ensure the patients receive the optimal treatment. PMID:27123263

  15. Human immunoglobulin (Ig)M+IgD+ peripheral blood B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry somatically mutated variable region genes: CD27 as a general marker for somatically mutated (memory) B cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, U; Rajewsky, K; Küppers, R

    1998-11-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig)M+IgD+ B cells are generally assumed to represent antigen-inexperienced, naive B cells expressing variable (V) region genes without somatic mutations. We report here that human IgM+IgD+ peripheral blood (PB) B cells expressing the CD27 cell surface antigen carry mutated V genes, in contrast to CD27-negative IgM+IgD+ B cells. IgM+IgD+CD27(+) B cells resemble class-switched and IgM-only memory cells in terms of cell phenotype, and comprise approximately 15% of PB B lymphocytes in healthy adults. Moreover, a very small population (<1% of PB B cells) of highly mutated IgD-only B cells was detected, which likely represent the PB counterpart of IgD-only tonsillar germinal center and plasma cells. Overall, the B cell pool in the PB of adults consists of approximately 40% mutated memory B cells and 60% unmutated, naive IgD+CD27(-) B cells (including CD5(+) B cells). In the somatically mutated B cells, VH region genes carry a two- to threefold higher load of somatic mutation than rearranged Vkappa genes. This might be due to an intrinsically lower mutation rate in kappa light chain genes compared with heavy chain genes and/or result from kappa light chain gene rearrangements in GC B cells. A common feature of the somatically mutated B cell subsets is the expression of the CD27 cell surface antigen which therefore may represent a general marker for memory B cells in humans. PMID:9802980

  16. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mature B cells promotes generation of nongerminal center-derived B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Gostissa, Monica; Bianco, Julia M.; Malkin, Daniel J.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Rodig, Scott J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Bassing, Craig H.; Alt, Frederick W.

    2013-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor exerts a central role in protecting cells from oncogenic transformation. Accordingly, the p53 gene is mutated in a large number of human cancers. In mice, germ-line inactivation of p53 confers strong predisposition to development of different types of malignancies, but the early onset of thymic lymphomas in the majority of the animals prevents detailed studies of tumorigenesis in other tissues. Here, we use the Cre/Lox approach to inactivate p53 in mature B cells in mice (referred to as CP B cells) and find that such p53 inactivation results in the routine development of IgM-positive CP peripheral B-cell lymphomas. The CP lymphomas generally appear to arise, even in mice subjected to immunization protocols to activate germinal center reaction, from naive B cells that had not undergone immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain gene class switching or somatic hypermutation. In contrast to thymic lymphomas that arise in p53-deficient mice, which generally lack clonal translocations, nearly all analyzed CP B-cell tumors carried clonal translocations. However, in contrast to spontaneous translocations in other mouse B-cell tumor models, CP B-cell tumor translocations were not recurrent and did not involve Ig loci. Therefore, CP tumors might provide models for human lymphomas lacking Ig translocations, such as splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. Our studies indicate that deletion of p53 is sufficient to trigger transformation of mature B cells and support the notion that p53 deficiency may allow accumulation of oncogenic translocations in B cells. PMID:23382223

  17. Expression of essential B cell genes and immunoglobulin isotypes suggests active development and gene recombination during equine gestation.

    PubMed

    Tallmadge, Rebecca L; McLaughlin, Kristin; Secor, Erica; Ruano, Diana; Matychak, Mary Beth; Flaminio, M Julia B F

    2009-09-01

    Many features of the equine immune system develop during fetal life, yet the naïve or immature immune state of the neonate renders the foal uniquely susceptible to particular pathogens. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical experiments investigated the progressive expression of developmental B cell markers and immunoglobulins in lymphoid tissues from equine fetus, pre-suckle neonate, foal, and adult horses. Serum IgM, IgG isotype, and IgA concentrations were also quantified in pre-suckle foals and adult horses. The expression of essential B cell genes suggests active development and gene recombination during equine gestation, including immunoglobulin isotype switching. The corresponding production of IgM and IgG proteins is detectable in a limited scale at birth. Although the equine neonate humoral response seems competent, B cell activation factors derived from antigen presenting cells and T cells may control critical developmental regulation and immunoglobulin production during the initial months of life. PMID:19442687

  18. B-cell lymphoma gene regulatory networks: biological consistency among inference methods

    PubMed Central

    de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Despite the development of numerous gene regulatory network (GRN) inference methods in the last years, their application, usage and the biological significance of the resulting GRN remains unclear for our general understanding of large-scale gene expression data in routine practice. In our study, we conduct a structural and a functional analysis of B-cell lymphoma GRNs that were inferred using 3 mutual information-based GRN inference methods: C3Net, BC3Net and Aracne. From a comparative analysis on the global level, we find that the inferred B-cell lymphoma GRNs show major differences. However, on the edge-level and the functional-levelthat are more important for our biological understandingthe B-cell lymphoma GRNs were highly similar among each other. Also, the ranks of the degree centrality values and major hub genes in the inferred networks are highly conserved as well. Interestingly, the major hub genes of all GRNs are associated with the G-protein-coupled receptor pathway, cell-cell signaling and cell cycle. This implies that hub genes of the GRNs can be highly consistently inferred with C3Net, BC3Net, and Aracne, representing prominent targets for signaling pathways. Finally, we describe the functional and structural relationship between C3Net, BC3Net and Aracne gene regulatory networks. Our study shows that these GRNs that are inferred from large-scale gene expression data are promising for the identification of novel candidate interactions and pathways that play a key role in the underlying mechanisms driving cancer hallmarks. Overall, our comparative analysis reveals that these GRNs inferred with considerably different inference methods contain large amounts of consistent, method independent, biological information. PMID:24379827

  19. Triple-hit B-cell Lymphoma With MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 Translocations/Rearrangements: Clinicopathologic Features of 11 Cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Shimin; Lu, Xinyan; Young, Ken H; Medeiros, L Jeffrey

    2015-08-01

    Lymphomas with translocations/rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6, so-called triple-hit B-cell lymphoma, are rare, and few studies on these tumors are available in the literature. We report 11 cases of triple-hit B-cell lymphoma and characterize their clinicopathologic findings. All patients were men, with a median age of 64 years (range, 45 to 80 y), and 4 patients had antecedent or concurrent follicular lymphoma. Using the 2008 World Health Organization classification, these cases were classified as: 5 B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt lymphoma; 4 DLBCL; 1 DLBCL with concurrent follicular lymphoma; and 1 low-grade follicular lymphoma. All cases were positive for CD10, BCL2, and FOXP1. Ten of 11 cases were positive for CD20. MYC expression was high in 10/11 (91%), BCL6 was positive in 8/11 (73%), and MUM1/IRF4 was positive in 6/11 (55%) cases. T-cell antigens, TdT, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA were negative in all cases. Ten of 11 cases showed a high proliferation index-70% to 100%, and the follicular lymphoma had a 30% proliferation rate. Using most algorithms, all cases belonged to germinal center B-cell-like group. All patients received standard or more aggressive immunochemotherapy regimens. Three patients had no response to chemotherapy; 4 patients showed a partial response; 2 patients had complete remission after chemotherapy; and 2 patients had just begun chemotherapy. Three patients underwent a stem cell transplant. The median follow-up time was 5.3 months. Five patients died, and 6 patients were alive at last follow-up. Two patients who underwent stem cell transplant after complete response to chemotherapy were in remission with 16 to 19 months of clinical follow-up. In summary, triple-hit lymphomas are clinically aggressive tumors associated with a poor prognosis. Patients often respond poorly to chemotherapy, but a subset may completely respond to chemotherapy followed by stem cell transplant. PMID:25828391

  20. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Rabbitts, T.H. ); Lampert, F. ); Kaneko, Y. ); Slater, R.; Kroes, W.G. ); Van Der Schoot, C.E. ); Ludwig, W.D. ); Karpas, A. ); Pocock, C.; Cotter, F. )

    1993-09-15

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). The authors report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell, B- or T-cell lineage, or nonlymphocytic acute leukemias. The mRNA translocation junction from 22t(4;11) patients, including six adult leukemias, and nine t(11;19) tumors reveals a remarkable conservation of breakpoints within MLL, AF4, or ENL genes, irrespective of tumor phenotype. Typically, the breakpoints are upstream of the zinc-finger region of MLL, and deletion of this region can accompany translocation, supporting the der(11) chromosome as the important component in leukemogenesis. Partial sequence of a fusion between MLL and the AFX1 gene from chromosome X shows the latter to be rich in Ser/Pro codons, like the ENL mRNA. These data suggest that the heterogeneous 11q23 abnormalities might cause attachment of Ser/Pro-rich segments to the NH[sub 2] terminus of MLL, lacking the zinc-finger region, and that translocation occurs in early hematopoietic cells, before commitment to distinct lineages. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Global gene expression changes of in vitro stimulated human transformed germinal centre B cells as surrogate for oncogenic pathway activation in individual aggressive B cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of lymphomas derived from germinal centre B cells which display a heterogeneous pattern of oncogenic pathway activation. We postulate that specific immune response associated signalling, affecting gene transcription networks, may be associated with the activation of different oncogenic pathways in aggressive Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Methodology The B cell receptor (BCR), CD40, B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-receptors and Interleukin (IL) 21 receptor and Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) were stimulated in human transformed germinal centre B cells by treatment with anti IgM F(ab)2-fragments, CD40L, BAFF, IL21 and LPS respectively. The changes in gene expression following the activation of Jak/STAT, NF-кB, MAPK, Ca2+ and PI3K signalling triggered by these stimuli was assessed using microarray analysis. The expression of top 100 genes which had a change in gene expression following stimulation was investigated in gene expression profiles of patients with Aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Results αIgM stimulation led to the largest number of changes in gene expression, affecting overall 6596 genes. While CD40L stimulation changed the expression of 1194 genes and IL21 stimulation affected 902 genes, only 283 and 129 genes were modulated by lipopolysaccharide or BAFF receptor stimulation, respectively. Interestingly, genes associated with a Burkitt-like phenotype, such as MYC, BCL6 or LEF1, were affected by αIgM. Unique and shared gene expression was delineated. NHL-patients were sorted according to their similarity in the expression of TOP100 affected genes to stimulated transformed germinal centre B cells The αIgM gene module discriminated individual DLBCL in a similar manner to CD40L or IL21 gene modules. DLBCLs with low module activation often carry chromosomal MYC aberrations. DLBCLs with high module activation show strong expression of genes involved in cell-cell communication, immune responses or negative feedback loops. Using chemical inhibitors for selected kinases we show that mitogen activated protein kinase- and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-signalling are dominantly involved in regulating genes included in the αIgM gene module. Conclusion We provide an in vitro model system to investigate pathway activation in lymphomas. We defined the extent to which different immune response associated pathways are responsible for differences in gene expression which distinguish individual DLBCL cases. Our results support the view that tonic or constitutively active MAPK/ERK pathways are an important part of oncogenic signalling in NHL. The experimental model can now be applied to study the therapeutic potential of deregulated oncogenic pathways and to develop individual treatment strategies for lymphoma patients. PMID:23253402

  2. Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and cell surface antigen expression in acute lymphocytic leukemias of T cell and B cell precursor origins.

    PubMed

    Korsmeyer, S J; Arnold, A; Bakhshi, A; Ravetch, J V; Siebenlist, U; Hieter, P A; Sharrow, S O; LeBien, T W; Kersey, J H; Poplack, D G; Leder, P; Waldmann, T A

    1983-02-01

    We have explored the relationship among immunoglobulin gene rearrangement, cytoplasmic immunoglobulin production, and cell surface antigen expression within 37 cases of acute lymphocytic leukemia. All 12 cases of the T cell type had germ-line kappa and lambda genes and 11 of 12 had germ-line heavy chain genes. In contrast, all 25 cases of the "non-T, non-B" classification, which lacked both definitive T cell markers and surface immunoglobulin, had rearranged immunoglobulin genes, indicating that they represent precursor cells already committed to the B cell lineage at the gene level. 14 had rearranged heavy chain genes, yet retained germ-line light chain genes, whereas 11 cases had both heavy and light chain gene reorganizations. All patterns of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement predicted by a model that proceeds from heavy chain gene recombination to light chain genes were observed. Despite the uniform presence of rearranged immunoglobulin genes, only five cases produced cytoplasmic mu-chain, one exceptional case produced gamma-chain, and another produced only lambda-chain. The cases of B cell precursor type that do not produce immunoglobulin may represent cells that frequently possess ineffectively rearranged immunoglobulin genes. Included in this group may be a set of cells trapped within the B cell precursor series because their ineffective rearrangements have eliminated certain gene subsegments necessary for the assemblage of an effective heavy chain gene. All seven cases of the non-T, non-B subgroup that bore HLA-DR but lacked CALLA (the common acute lymphocytic leukemia-associated antigen) represented the earliest recognizable stage of B cell precursors with rearranged heavy chain genes but germ-line light chain genes. Correlations here suggest that cells entering B cell development express HLA-DR and rearrange heavy chain genes before the expression of a B cell-associated antigen recognized by the antibody BA-1, the antigen CALLA, and any subsequent light chain gene rearrangements. PMID:6401769

  3. Using gene therapy to manipulate the immune system in the fight against B cell leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Bouhassira, Diana CG; Thompson, Joshua J; Davila, Marco L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over 20 years ago, chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) were created to endow T-cells with new antigen-specificity and create a therapy that could eradicate cancer and provide life-long protection against recurrence. Steady progress has led to significant improvements with CAR design and CAR T-cell production, allowing evaluation of CAR T-cells in patients. The initial trials have targeted CD19, which is expressed on normal and malignant B-cells. Areas covered We review data from trials for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In addition, we discuss the on-target toxicities, B-cell aplasia and cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which is uniquely associated with T-cell immunotherapies. Expert Opinion We compare the results when targeting the same antigen in CLL or B-ALL and speculate on reasons for outcome differences and future directions to enhance outcomes. Furthermore, the dramatic results targeting B-ALL require further analysis in Phase II trials, and we discuss important components of these future trials. We also suggest a management scheme for CRS. The next several years will be critical and may lead to the first clinical indication of a gene-engineered cell therapy for cancer. PMID:25666545

  4. Conserved cryptic recombination signals in Vκ gene segments are cleaved in small pre-B cells

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Anne E; Kuraoka, Masayuki; Davila, Marco; Kelsoe, Garnett; Cowell, Lindsay G

    2009-01-01

    Background The cleavage of recombination signals (RS) at the boundaries of immunoglobulin V, D, and J gene segments initiates the somatic generation of the antigen receptor genes expressed by B lymphocytes. RS contain a conserved heptamer and nonamer motif separated by non-conserved spacers of 12 or 23 nucleotides. Under physiologic conditions, V(D)J recombination follows the "12/23 rule" to assemble functional antigen-receptor genes, i.e., cleavage and recombination occur only between RS with dissimilar spacer types. Functional, cryptic RS (cRS) have been identified in VH gene segments; these VH cRS were hypothesized to facilitate self-tolerance by mediating VH → VHDJH replacements. At the Igκ locus, however, secondary, de novo rearrangements can delete autoreactive VκJκ joins. Thus, under the hypothesis that V-embedded cRS are conserved to facilitate self-tolerance by mediating V-replacement rearrangements, there would be little selection for Vκ cRS. Recent studies have demonstrated that VH cRS cleavage is only modestly more efficient than V(D)J recombination in violation of the 12/23 rule and first occurs in pro-B cells unable to interact with exogenous antigens. These results are inconsistent with a model of cRS cleavage during autoreactivity-induced VH gene replacement. Results To test the hypothesis that cRS are absent from Vκ gene segments, a corollary of the hypothesis that the need for tolerizing VH replacements is responsible for the selection pressure to maintain VH cRS, we searched for cRS in mouse Vκ gene segments using a statistical model of RS. Scans of 135 mouse Vκ gene segments revealed highly conserved cRS that were shown to be cleaved in the 103/BCL2 cell line and mouse bone marrow B cells. Analogous to results for VH cRS, we find that Vκ cRS are conserved at multiple locations in Vκ gene segments and are cleaved in pre-B cells. Conclusion Our results, together with those for VH cRS, support a model of cRS cleavage in which cleavage is independent of BCR-specificity. Our results are inconsistent with the hypothesis that cRS are conserved solely to support receptor editing. The extent to which these sequences are conserved, and their pattern of conservation, suggest that they may serve an as yet unidentified purpose. PMID:19555491

  5. B-cell reconstitution after lentiviral vector–mediated gene therapy in patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castiello, Maria Carmina; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Pala, Francesca; Ferrua, Francesca; Uva, Paolo; Brigida, Immacolata; Sereni, Lucia; van der Burg, Mirjam; Ottaviano, Giorgio; Albert, Michael H.; Grazia Roncarolo, Maria; Naldini, Luigi; Aiuti, Alessandro; Villa, Anna; Bosticardo, Marita

    2015-01-01

    Background Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a severe X-linked immunodeficiency characterized by microthrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and susceptibility to autoimmunity and lymphomas. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice; however, administration of WAS gene–corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells has been demonstrated as a feasible alternative therapeutic approach. Objective Because B-cell homeostasis is perturbed in patients with WAS and restoration of immune competence is one of the main therapeutic goals, we have evaluated reconstitution of the B-cell compartment in 4 patients who received autologous hematopoietic stem cells transduced with lentiviral vector after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen combined with anti-CD20 administration. Methods We evaluated B-cell counts, B-cell subset distribution, B cell–activating factor and immunoglobulin levels, and autoantibody production before and after gene therapy (GT). WAS gene transfer in B cells was assessed by measuring vector copy numbers and expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein. Results After lentiviral vector-mediated GT, the number of transduced B cells progressively increased in the peripheral blood of all patients. Lentiviral vector-transduced progenitor cells were able to repopulate the B-cell compartment with a normal distribution of B-cell subsets both in bone marrow and the periphery, showing a WAS protein expression profile similar to that of healthy donors. In addition, after GT, we observed a normalized frequency of autoimmune-associated CD19+CD21−CD35− and CD21low B cells and a reduction in B cell–activating factor levels. Immunoglobulin serum levels and autoantibody production improved in all treated patients. Conclusions We provide evidence that lentiviral vector-mediated GT induces transgene expression in the B-cell compartment, resulting in ameliorated B-cell development and functionality and contributing to immunologic improvement in patients with WAS. PMID:25792466

  6. t(8; 14) chromosome translocation of the Burkitt lymphoma cell line Daudi occurred during immunoglobulin gene rearrangement and involved the heavy chain diversity region

    SciTech Connect

    Haluska, F.G.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-10-01

    Recent molecular analyses of Burkitt lymphomas carrying the t(8;14) chromosome translocation have indicated that a dichotomy exists regarding the molecular mechanisms by which the translocations occur. Most sporadic Burkitt tumors carry translocations that apparently arise due to mistakes in the immunoglobulin isotype-switching process. In contrast, there is evidence that the translocations of most endemic Burkitt lymphomas occur as a consequence of aberrant V-D-J recombination of variable, diversity, and joining gene segments, catalyzed by the recombinase enzymes. This phenomenon was first noted in follicular lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemias of the B-cell lineage and has been described in T-cell malignancies as well. In each of these cases, analysis of the nucleotide sequence at chromosome breakpoints demonstrated the involvement of immunoglobulin heavy chain J/sub H/ or T-cell-receptor ..cap alpha..-chain J..cap alpha.. gene segments in the translocation. The authors now have cloned and sequenced both the 8q- and 14q+ translocation breakpoints deriving from the t(8;14) translocation of the endemic Burkitt lymphoma line Daudi. The data show that the translocation resulted from a reciprocal exchange between the D/sub H/ region on chromosome 14 and sequences far 5' of the MYC protooncogene on chromosome 8. Features of the nucleotide sequences surrounding the breakpoint further implicate the V-D-J joining machinery in the genesis of chromosome translocation in endemic Burkitt lymphomas and, more generally, in other lymphoid malignancies as well.

  7. Immunoglobulin gene expression and DNA methylation in murine pre-B cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Akira, S; Sugiyama, H; Sakaguchi, N; Kishimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    DNA modification accompanying immunoglobulin gene expression was examined in various Abelson murine leukemia virus (A-MuLV)-transformed cell lines, which were able to differentiate from the mu- to mu+ stage or to undergo an isotype switch during in vitro culture. The C mu genes were relatively demethylated in the A-MuLV-transformed cell lines examined irrespective of whether or not the C mu genes were expressed. Normal IgM-bearing B cells, as well as a T cell line, also showed a similar DNA methylation pattern and the C mu genes were relatively demethylated. In one of the mu+ clones, however, the expressed C mu gene was heavily methylated. The DNA methylation pattern did not change and remained hypermethylated before and after gamma 2b expression in the two cell lines which underwent class switch to gamma 2b during in vitro culture, suggesting that expression of the gamma 2b gene was not accompanied by demethylation of the C gamma 2b gene. Taken together, these results indicate that DNA demethylation within and around the CH gene may not be necessary for its expression. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6425058

  8. Compositions and methods for detecting gene rearrangements and translocations

    DOEpatents

    Rowley, Janet D.; Diaz, Manuel O.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed is a series of nucleic acid probes for use in diagnosing and monitoring certain types of leukemia using, e.g., Southern and Northern blot analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These probes detect rearrangements, such as translocations involving chromosome band 11q23 with other chromosomes bands, including 4q21, 6q27, 9p22, 19p13.3, in both dividing leukemic cells and interphase nuclei. The breakpoints in all such translocations are clustered within an 8.3 kb BamHI genomic region of the MLL gene. A novel 0.7 kb BamH1 cDNA fragment derived from this gene detects rearrangements on Southern blot analysis with a single BamHI restriction digest in all patients with the common 11q23 translocations and in patients with other 11q23 anomalies. Northern blot analyses are presented demonstrating that the MLL gene has multiple transcripts and that transcript size differentiates leukemic cells from normal cells. Also disclosed are MLL fusion proteins, MLL protein domains and anti-MLL antibodies.

  9. Role of the translocation partner in protection against AID-dependent chromosomal translocations.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Mila; Robbiani, Davide F; Dorsett, Yair; Eisenreich, Thomas; Xu, Yang; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Nussenzweig, Andre; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome translocations between Ig (Ig) and non-Ig genes are frequently associated with B-cell lymphomas in humans and mice. The best characterized of these is c-myc/IgH translocation, which is associated with Burkitt's lymphoma. These translocations are caused by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which produces double-strand DNA breaks in both genes. c-myc/IgH translocations are rare events, in part because ATM, p53, and p19 actively suppress them. To further define the mechanism of protection against the accumulation of cells that bear c-myc/IgH translocation, we assayed B cells from mice that carry mutations in cell-cycle and apoptosis regulator proteins that act downstream of p53. We find that PUMA, Bim, and PKCdelta are required for protection against c-myc/IgH translocation, whereas Bcl-XL and BAFF enhance c-myc/IgH translocation. Whether these effects are general or specific to c-myc/IgH translocation and whether AID produces dsDNA breaks in genes other than c-myc and Ig is not known. To examine these questions, we developed an assay for translocation between IgH and Igbeta, both of which are somatically mutated by AID. Igbeta/IgH, like c-myc/IgH translocations, are AID-dependent, and AID is responsible for lesions on IgH and the non-IgH translocation partners. However, ATM, p53, and p19 do not protect against Igbeta/IgH translocations. Instead, B cells are protected against Igbeta/IgH translocations by a BAFF- and PKCdelta-dependent pathway. We conclude that AID-induced double-strand breaks in non-Ig genes other than c-myc lead to their translocation, and that at least two nonoverlapping pathways protect against translocations in primary B cells. PMID:19966290

  10. Sequence analysis of rearranged IgVH genes from microdissected human Peyer's patch marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Walters, D K; Isaacson, P G; Spencer, J

    1996-01-01

    The Peyer's patches of the terminal ileum are a source of IgA plasma cells in the intestinal lamina propria of experimental animals. They are also thought to harbour IgA memory cells. However, the microanatomical location of Peyer's patch memory cells, and whether they are also present in man is not known. Human Peyer's patches have a pronounced marginal zone (MGZ) of sIgD-negative B cells. In this study we analysed the sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified, rearranged IgVH genes from microdissected MGZ B cells, to determine whether this is a site of B-cell memory in Peyer's patches. We observed that the majority of Peyer's patch MGZ B cells contain heavily mutated IgVH genes and are therefore clearly memory B cells. Sequences of rearranged mutated genes in the MGZ have a pattern of replacement and silent mutations expected of selected products of the affinity maturation process. Related clones, with identical CDR3 but different patterns of mutation, are seen. This suggests that either these memory cells are formed as the germinal centre selection process proceeds, or a memory cell has re-entered the germinal centre for further rounds of mutation. Interestingly, in one patient, the MGZ in the Peyer's patches also contains a proportion of B cells with unmutated IgVH 4.21 genes. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8881766

  11. The histone lysine methyltransferase KMT2D sustains a gene expression program that represses B cell lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Molina, Ana; Boss, Isaac W.; Canela, Andres; Pan, Heng; Jiang, Yanwen; Zhao, Chunying; Jiang, Man; Hu, Deqing; Agirre, Xabier; Niesvizky, Itamar; Lee, Ji-Eun; Chen, Hua-Tang; Ennishi, Daisuke; Scott, David W.; Mottok, Anja; Hother, Christoffer; Liu, Shichong; Cao, Xing-Jun; Tam, Wayne; Shaknovich, Rita; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Ge, Kai; Shilatifard, Ali; Elemento, Olivier; Nussenzweig, Andre; Melnick, Ari M.; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2015-01-01

    The lysine-specific histone methyltransferase KMT2D has emerged as one of the most frequently mutated genes in follicular lymphoma (FL) and diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the biological consequences of KMT2D mutations on lymphoma development are not known. Here we show that KMT2D functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor and that its genetic ablation in B cells promotes lymphoma development in mice. KMT2D deficiency also delays germinal center (GC) involution, impedes B cell differentiation and class switch recombination (CSR). Integrative genomic analyses indicate that KMT2D affects H3K4 methylation and expression of a specific set of genes including those in the CD40, JAK-STAT, Toll-like receptor, and B cell receptor pathways. Notably, other KMT2D target genes include frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes such as TNFAIP3, SOCS3, and TNFRSF14. Therefore, KMT2D mutations may promote malignant outgrowth by perturbing the expression of tumor suppressor genes that control B cell activating pathways. PMID:26366710

  12. Differential gene expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B cells induced by apoptosis-related gene BNIPL-2

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Qin, Wen-Xin; He, Xiang-Huo; Shu, Hui-Qun; Yao, Gen-Fu; Wan, Da-Fang; Gu, Jian-Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19 ku interacting protein 2-like (BNIPL-2) is a novel protein recently identified in our laboratory. BNIPL-2 is homologous to human BNIP-2, a potentially proapoptotic protein, and can interact with Bcl-2 and Cdc42GAP and promote apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells. Here we report the gene-expression profile regulated by BNIPL-2 in human hepatocarcinoma Hep3B cells and the analysis of its potential roles in cell apoptosis. METHODS: BNIPL-2 was overexpressed in Hep3B cells using tetracycline inducible or Tet-on system. Screened by Western blot, the cells with low background and high induction fold of BNIPL-2 were obtained. We performed Atlas human cDNA expression array hybridization on these cells and analyzed the data with Quantarray software to identify BNIPL-2-regulated genes and their expression profile. RT-PCR was used to confirm the altered expression level of part of genes identified by the Atlas array hybridization. RESULTS: Fifteen of 588 genes spotted on the Atlas membrane showed altered expression levels in BNIPL-2-transfected Hep3B-Tet-on cells, in which 8 genes involved in cell apoptosis or growth inhibition were up-regulated and 7 genes involved in cellular proliferation were down-regulated following overexpression of BNIPL-2. CONCLUSION: cDNA array is a powerful tool to explore gene expression profiles under inducible conditions. The data obtained using the cDNA expression microarray technology indicates that BNIPL-2 may play its roles in apoptosis through regulating the expression of genes associated with cell apoptosis, growth inhibition and cell proliferation. PMID:15112343

  13. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate controls proapoptotic Bim gene expression and survival in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Maréchal, Yoann; Pesesse, Xavier; Jia, Yonghui; Pouillon, Valérie; Pérez-Morga, David; Daniel, Julien; Izui, Shozo; Cullen, Peter J.; Leo, Oberdan; Luo, Hongbo R.; Erneux, Christophe; Schurmans, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    The contribution of the B isoform of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] 3-kinase (or Itpkb) and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4], its reaction product, to B cell function and development remains unknown. Here, we show that mice deficient in Itpkb have defects in B cell survival leading to specific and intrinsic developmental alterations in the B cell lineage and antigen unresponsiveness in vivo. The decreased B cell survival is associated with a decreased phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and increased Bim gene expression. B cell survival, development, and antigen responsiveness are normalized in parallel to reduced expression of Bim in Itpkb−/− Bim+/− mice. Analysis of the signaling pathway downstream of Itpkb revealed that Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 regulates subcellular distribution of Rasa3, a Ras GTPase-activating protein acting as an Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 receptor. Together, our results indicate that Itpkb and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 mediate a survival signal in B cells via a Rasa3–Erk signaling pathway controlling proapoptotic Bim gene expression. PMID:17709751

  14. DNA repair gene polymorphisms in B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bahceci, Aykut; Paydas, Semra; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Ergin, Melek; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Ucar, Gulsum

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by DNA injury, and genetic and environmental factors are important in the etiology of the cancers. It is well known that there are association variabilities in DNA repairment and sensitivity against the cancer. The aim of this study is to look for some important gene polymorphisms associated with DNA repair in cases with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). Ninety-four cases with NHL and 96 healthy controls were included in this study. ERCC2 (Lys751Gln), XPC (Gln939Lys), ERCC5 (Asp1104His), and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) gene polymorphisms were studied by using Tm Shift Real-Time PCR Technology. ERCC5 Asp1104His polymorphism showed a protective effect against the B-NHL in individuals carrying this mutant allele (p = 0.009), and differences were more prominent in males (p = 0.001). When the patient and control groups were divided according to their smoking habit, the mutant allele of the XPC gene showed a protective effect in the nonsmoker group (p = 0.040). The mutant allele G of ERCC5 (CG) polymorphism was found to be protective against lymphoma (p = 0.010). There were no differences among cases with B-NHL and controls for ERCC2 codon 751, XPC codon 939, and XRCC3 codon 241 gene polymorphisms. DNA repair gene polymorphisms can affect the risk of lymphoma, and it will be useful to detect the DNA repair gene polymorphisms in cases with lymphoma in studies covering a higher number of cases. PMID:25400036

  15. Fusion genes and chromosome translocations in the common epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Paul A W

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for 25 years that fusion genes play a central role in leukaemias and sarcomas but they have been neglected in the common carcinomas, largely because of technical limitations of cytogenetics. In the last few years it has emerged that gene fusions, caused by chromosome translocations, inversions, deletions, etc., are important in the common epithelial cancers, such as prostate and lung carcinoma. Most prostate cancers, for example, have an androgen-regulated fusion of one of the ETS transcription factor gene family. Early results of genome-wide searches for gene fusions in breast and other epithelial cancers suggest that most individual tumours will have several fused genes. Fusion genes are exceptionally powerful mutations. In their simplest form they can turn on expression by promoter insertion but they can also, for example, force dimerization of a protein or change its subcellular location. They are correspondingly important clinically, in classification and management and as targets for therapy. This review surveys what we know of fusion genes in the carcinomas, summarizes the technical advances that now make it possible to search systematically for such genes, and concludes by putting fusion genes into the current picture of mutation in cancers. PMID:19921709

  16. Regulation of B cell development by variable gene complexity in mice reconstituted with human immunoglobulin yeast artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Green, L L; Jakobovits, A

    1998-08-01

    The relationship between variable (V) gene complexity and the efficiency of B cell development was studied in strains of mice deficient in mouse antibody production and engineered with yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) containing different sized fragments of the human heavy (H) chain and kappa light (L) chain loci. Each of the two H and the two kappa chain fragments encompasses, in germline configuration, the same core variable and constant regions but contains different numbers of unique VH (5 versus 66) or Vkappa genes (3 versus 32). Although each of these YACs was able to substitute for its respective inactivated murine counterpart to induce B cell development and to support production of human immunoglobulins (Igs), major differences in the efficiency of B cell development were detected. Whereas the YACs with great V gene complexity restored efficient development throughout all the different recombination and expression stages, the YACs with limited V gene repertoire exhibited inefficient differentiation with significant blocks at critical stages of B cell development in the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Our analysis identified four key checkpoints regulated by VH and Vkappa gene complexity: (a) production of functional mu chains at the transition from the pre B-I to the pre B-II stage; (b) productive VkappaJkappa recombination at the small pre B-II stage; (c) formation of surface Ig molecules through pairing of mu chains with L chains; and (d) maturation of B cells. These findings demonstrate that V gene complexity is essential not only for production of a diverse repertoire of antigen-specific antibodies but also for efficient development of the B cell lineage. PMID:9687526

  17. Identification of Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma at Nonmediastinal Sites by Gene Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ji; Wright, George; Rosenwald, Andreas; Steidl, Christian; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Mottok, Anja; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Greiner, Timothy C; Fu, Kai; Smith, Lynette; Rimsza, Lisa M; Jaffe, Elaine S; Campo, Elias; Martinez, Antonio; Delabie, Jan; Braziel, Rita M; Cook, James R; Ott, German; Vose, Julie M; Staudt, Louis M; Chan, Wing C

    2015-10-01

    Mediastinal involvement is considered essential for the diagnosis of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). However, we have observed cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with features of PMBL but without detectable mediastinal involvement. The goal was to assess our previously established gene expression profiling (GEP) signature for PMBL in classifying these cases. In a large series of DLBCL cases, we identified 24 cases with a GEP signature of PMBL, including 9 cases with a submission diagnosis of DLBCL consistent with PMBL (G-PMBL-P) and 15 cases with a submission diagnosis of DLBCL. The pathology reviewers agreed with the diagnosis in the 9 G-PMBL-P cases. Among the other 15 DLBCL cases, 11 were considered to be PMBL or DLBCL consistent with PMBL, 3 were considered to be DLBCL, and 1 case was a gray-zone lymphoma with features intermediate between DLBCL and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. All 9 G-PMBL-P and 9 of the 15 DLBCL cases (G-PMBL-M) had demonstrated mediastinal involvement at presentation. Interestingly, 6 of the 15 DLBCL cases (G-PMBL-NM) had no clinical or radiologic evidence of mediastinal involvement. The 3 subgroups of PMBL had otherwise similar clinical characteristics, and there were no significant differences in overall survival. Genetic alterations of CIITA and PDL1/2 were detected in 26% and 40% of cases, respectively, including 1 G-PMBL-NM case with gain of PDL1/2. In conclusion, PMBL can present as a nonmediastinal tumor without evidence of mediastinal involvement, and GEP offers a more precise diagnosis of PMBL. PMID:26135560

  18. Histone acetyltransferase PCAF is involved in transactivation of Bcl-6 and Pax5 genes in immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Nakayama, Masami; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Mimuro, Hitomi; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Nishitoh, Hideki; Nakayama, Tatsuo

    2015-11-20

    Histone acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) belonging to GCN5 family regulates various epigenetic events for transcriptional regulation through alterations in the chromatin structure. During normal development of B cells, gene expressions of numerous transcription factors are strictly regulated by epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation and deacetylation to complete their development pathways. Here, by analyzing PCAF-deficient DT40 mutants, ?PCAF, we report that PCAF takes part in transcriptional activation of B cell lymphoma-6 (Bcl-6) and Paired box gene 5 (Pax5), which are essential transcription factors for normal development of B cells. PCAF-deficiency caused drastic decrease in mRNA levels of Bcl-6 and Pax5, and remarkable increase in that of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1). In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that PCAF-deficiency caused remarkable decrease in acetylation levels of both H3K9 and H3K14 residues within chromatin surrounding the 5'-flanking regions of Bcl-6 and Pax5 genes invivo, suggesting that their gene expressions may be regulated by PCAF. These results revealed that PCAF is involved in transactivation of Bcl-6 and Pax5 genes, resulting in down-regulation of Blimp-1 gene expression, and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of B cell development. PMID:26456646

  19. GCN5 is essential for IRF-4 gene expression followed by transcriptional activation of Blimp-1 in immature B cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hidehiko; Nakayama, Masami; Kuribayashi, Futoshi; Imajoh-Ohmi, Shinobu; Nishitoh, Hideki; Takami, Yasunari; Nakayama, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    During B-cell differentiation, the gene expression of B-cell differentiation-related transcription factors must be strictly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone acetylation and deacetylation, to complete the differentiation pathway. GCN5, one of the most important histone acetyltransferases, is involved in epigenetic events for transcriptional regulation through alterations in the chromatin structure. In this study, by analyzing the homozygous DT40 mutants GCN5(-/-), generated with gene targeting techniques, we found that GCN5 was necessary for transcriptional activation of IRF-4, an essential transcription factor for plasma cell differentiation. GCN5 deficiency caused drastic decreases in both the mRNA and the protein levels of Blimp-1 and IRF-4. The ectopic expression of Blimp-1 and IRF-4 suggests that IRF-4, but not Blimp-1, is the target gene of GCN5 in immature B cells. Moreover, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that GCN5 bound to the IRF-4 gene around its 5'-flanking region and acetylated H3K9 residues within chromatin surrounding the region in vivo, suggesting that gene expression of IRF-4 is certainly regulated by GCN5. These results reveal that GCN5 is essential for IRF-4 gene expression, followed by transcriptional activation of Blimp-1, and plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of B-cell differentiation. PMID:24072880

  20. High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and expression as monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Levesque, Marc C.; Nagel, Ashleigh; Dixon, Ashlyn; Zhang, Ruijun; Walter, Emmanuel; Parks, Robert; Whitesides, John; Marshall, Dawn J.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Yang, Yi; Chen, Xi; Gao, Feng; Munshaw, Supriya; Kepler, Thomas B.; Denny, Thomas; Moody, M. Anthony; Haynes, Barton F.

    2009-01-01

    Defining human B cell repertoires to viral pathogens is critical for design of vaccines that induce broadly protective antibodies to infections such as HIV-1 and influenza. Single B cell sorting and cloning of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL) is a powerful technology for defining anti-viral B cell repertoires. However, the Ig-cloning step is time-consuming and prevents high-throughput analysis of the B cell repertoire. Novel linear Ig heavy- and light-chain gene expression cassettes were designed to express Ig VH and VL genes isolated from sorted single B cells as IgG1 antibody without a cloning step. The cassettes contain all essential elements for transcriptional and translational regulation, including CMV promoter, Ig leader sequences, constant region of IgG1 heavy- or Ig light-chain, poly(A) tail and substitutable VH or VL genes. The utility of these Ig gene expression cassettes was established using synthetic VH or VL genes from an anti-HIV-1 gp41 mAb 2F5 as a model system, and validated further using VH and VL genes isolated from cloned EBV-transformed antibody-producing cell lines. Finally, this strategy was successfully used for rapid production of recombinant influenza mAbs from sorted single human plasmablasts after influenza vaccination. These Ig gene expression cassettes constitute a highly efficient strategy for rapid expression of Ig genes for high-throughput screening and analysis without cloning. PMID:19428587

  1. CD40-CD40L independent Ig gene hypermutation suggests a second B cell diversification pathway in humans.

    PubMed

    Weller, S; Faili, A; Garcia, C; Braun, M C; Le Deist F, F; de Saint Basile G, G; Hermine, O; Fischer, A; Reynaud, C A; Weill, J C

    2001-01-30

    Somatically mutated IgM(+)-only and IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes comprise approximately 25% of the human peripheral B cell pool. These cells phenotypically resemble class-switched B cells and have therefore been classified as postgerminal center memory B cells. X-linked hyper IgM patients have a genetic defect characterized by a mutation of the CD40L gene. These patients, who do not express a functional CD40 ligand, cannot switch Ig isotypes and do not form germinal centers and memory B cells. We report here that an IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cell subset with somatically mutated Ig receptors is generated in these patients, implying that these cells expand and diversify their Ig receptors in the absence of classical cognate T-B collaboration. The presence of this sole subset in the absence of IgM(+)-only and switched CD27(+) memory B cells suggests that it belongs to a separate diversification pathway. PMID:11158612

  2. CD40-CD40L independent Ig gene hypermutation suggests a second B cell diversification pathway in humans

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra; Faili, Ahmad; Garcia, Corinne; Braun, Moritz C.; Le Deist, Françoise; de Saint Basile, Geneviève; Hermine, Olivier; Fischer, Alain; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Weill, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Somatically mutated IgM+-only and IgM+IgD+CD27+ B lymphocytes comprise ≈25% of the human peripheral B cell pool. These cells phenotypically resemble class-switched B cells and have therefore been classified as postgerminal center memory B cells. X-linked hyper IgM patients have a genetic defect characterized by a mutation of the CD40L gene. These patients, who do not express a functional CD40 ligand, cannot switch Ig isotypes and do not form germinal centers and memory B cells. We report here that an IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cell subset with somatically mutated Ig receptors is generated in these patients, implying that these cells expand and diversify their Ig receptors in the absence of classical cognate T–B collaboration. The presence of this sole subset in the absence of IgM+-only and switched CD27+ memory B cells suggests that it belongs to a separate diversification pathway. PMID:11158612

  3. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of a transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goubin, Gerard; Goldman, Debra S.; Luce, Judith; Neiman, Paul E.; Cooper, Geoffrey M.

    1983-03-01

    A transforming gene detected by transfection of chicken B-cell lymphoma DNA has been isolated by molecular cloning. It is homologous to a conserved family of sequences present in normal chicken and human DNAs but is not related to transforming genes of acutely transforming retroviruses. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned transforming gene suggests that it encodes a protein that is partially homologous to the amino terminus of transferrin and related proteins although only about one tenth the size of transferrin.

  4. Novel Cryptic Rearrangements in Adult B-Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Involving the MLL Gene.

    PubMed

    Othman, Moneeb A K; Grygalewicz, Beata; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Rincic, Martina; Rittscher, Katharina; Melo, Joana B; Carreira, Isabel M; Meyer, Britta; Marzena, Watek; Liehr, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    MLL (mixed-lineage-leukemia) gene rearrangements are typical for acute leukemia and are associated with an aggressive course of disease, with a worse outcome than comparable case, and thus require intensified treatment. Here we describe a 69-year-old female with adult B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with hyperleukocytosis and immunophenotype CD10- and CD19+ with cryptic MLL rearrangements. G-banding at the time of diagnosis showed a normal karyotype: 46,XX. Molecular cytogenetics using multitude multicolor banding (mMCB) revealed a complex rearrangement of the two copies of chromosome 11. However, a locus-specific probe additionally identified that the MLL gene at 11q23.3 was disrupted, and that the 5' region was inserted into the chromosomal sub-band 4q21; thus the aberration involved three chromosomes and five break events. Unfortunately, the patient died six months after the initial diagnosis from serious infections and severe complications. Overall, the present findings confirm that, by far not all MLL aberrations are seen by routine chromosome banding techniques and that fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) should be regarded as standard tool to access MLL rearrangements in patients with BCP-ALL. PMID:25699572

  5. Differential expression patterns of recombination‐activating genes in individual mature B cells in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Faber, C; Morbach, H; Singh, S K; Girschick, H J

    2006-01-01

    Background Re‐expression of the recombination‐activating genes (RAG) in peripheral B cells may be relevant in the development of autoreactive antibodies in autoimmune diseases. The presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) as a hallmark of oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (o‐JIA, early‐onset type) indicates a breakdown in immunological tolerance. Aim To examine the expression of RAG genes in peripheral blood mature B lymphocytes in patients with o‐JIA. Methods 777 memory B cells from peripheral blood, CD19+ CD27+ CD5+ or CD19+ CD27+ CD5−, isolated from three ANA+ children with o‐JIA and three healthy age‐matched children, were examined for the expression of RAG1 and RAG2 mRNA. mRNA transcripts of activation‐induced cytidine deaminase and immunoglobulin G were searched to further determine their developmental stage. Results mRNA was present for any of the two RAG genes in the B cells of children with JIA and controls. However, the predominance of RAG1 or RAG2 was different. A significantly decreased frequency of RAG2‐expressing memory B cells in both CD5+ and CD5− populations was noted in children with JIA (p<0.001), whereas the number of RAG1‐expressing B cells was slightly increased. The coordinate expression of both the RAG genes was a rare event, similar in the CD5+ populations (1% in controls, 2% in children with JIA), but different among the CD5− compartments (5% v 0%; p<0.01). Conclusion These results argue for a reduced coordinate RAG expression in the peripheral CD5− memory B cells of patients with o‐JIA. Thus, it was hypothesised that impaired receptor revision contributes to autoimmune pathogenesis in JIA. PMID:16504994

  6. Gene Expression Profiling of the Response to Interferon Beta in Epstein-Barr-Transformed and Primary B Cells of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Khsheibun, Rana; Paperna, Tamar; Volkowich, Anat; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Avidan, Nili; Miller, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of interferon-beta (IFN-β), one of the key immunotherapies used in multiple sclerosis (MS), on peripheral blood leukocytes and T cells have been extensively studied. B cells are a less abundant leukocyte type, and accordingly less is known about the B cell-specific response to IFN-β. To identify gene expression changes and pathways induced by IFN-β in B cells, we studied the in vitro response of human Epstein Barr-transformed B cells (lymphoblast cell lines-LCLs), and validated our results in primary B cells. LCLs were derived from an MS patient repository. Whole genome expression analysis identified 115 genes that were more than two-fold differentially up-regulated following IFN-β exposure, with over 50 previously unrecognized as IFN-β response genes. Pathways analysis demonstrated that IFN-β affected LCLs in a similar manner to other cell types by activating known IFN-β canonical pathways. Additionally, IFN-β increased the expression of innate immune response genes, while down-regulating many B cell receptor pathway genes and genes involved in adaptive immune responses. Novel response genes identified herein, NEXN, DDX60L, IGFBP4, and HAPLN3, B cell receptor pathway genes, CD79B and SYK, and lymphocyte activation genes, LAG3 and IL27RA, were validated as IFN-β response genes in primary B cells. In this study new IFN-β response genes were identified in B cells, with possible implications to B cell-specific functions. The study's results emphasize the applicability of LCLs for studies of human B cell drug response. The usage of LCLs from patient-based repositories may facilitate future studies of drug response in MS and other immune-mediated disorders with a B cell component. PMID:25025430

  7. Gene expression profiling of the response to interferon beta in Epstein-Barr-transformed and primary B cells of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Khsheibun, Rana; Paperna, Tamar; Volkowich, Anat; Lejbkowicz, Izabella; Avidan, Nili; Miller, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of interferon-beta (IFN-β), one of the key immunotherapies used in multiple sclerosis (MS), on peripheral blood leukocytes and T cells have been extensively studied. B cells are a less abundant leukocyte type, and accordingly less is known about the B cell-specific response to IFN-β. To identify gene expression changes and pathways induced by IFN-β in B cells, we studied the in vitro response of human Epstein Barr-transformed B cells (lymphoblast cell lines-LCLs), and validated our results in primary B cells. LCLs were derived from an MS patient repository. Whole genome expression analysis identified 115 genes that were more than two-fold differentially up-regulated following IFN-β exposure, with over 50 previously unrecognized as IFN-β response genes. Pathways analysis demonstrated that IFN-β affected LCLs in a similar manner to other cell types by activating known IFN-β canonical pathways. Additionally, IFN-β increased the expression of innate immune response genes, while down-regulating many B cell receptor pathway genes and genes involved in adaptive immune responses. Novel response genes identified herein, NEXN, DDX60L, IGFBP4, and HAPLN3, B cell receptor pathway genes, CD79B and SYK, and lymphocyte activation genes, LAG3 and IL27RA, were validated as IFN-β response genes in primary B cells. In this study new IFN-β response genes were identified in B cells, with possible implications to B cell-specific functions. The study's results emphasize the applicability of LCLs for studies of human B cell drug response. The usage of LCLs from patient-based repositories may facilitate future studies of drug response in MS and other immune-mediated disorders with a B cell component. PMID:25025430

  8. Inherited Inflammatory Response Genes Are Associated with B-Cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Risk and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaspar René; Steffensen, Rudi; Bendtsen, Mette Dahl; Rodrigo-Domingo, Maria; Baech, John; Haunstrup, Thure Mors; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Boedker, Julie Stoeveve; Johansen, Preben; Dybkaeær, Karen; Boeøgsted, Martin; Johnsen, Hans Erik

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant B-cell clones are affected by both acquired genetic alterations and by inherited genetic variations changing the inflammatory tumour microenvironment. Methods We investigated 50 inflammatory response gene polymorphisms in 355 B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) samples encompassing 216 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 139 follicular lymphoma (FL) and 307 controls. The effect of single genes and haplotypes were investigated and gene-expression analysis was applied for selected genes. Since interaction between risk genes can have a large impact on phenotype, two-way gene-gene interaction analysis was included. Results We found inherited SNPs in genes critical for inflammatory pathways; TLR9, IL4, TAP2, IL2RA, FCGR2A, TNFA, IL10RB, GALNT12, IL12A and IL1B were significantly associated with disease risk and SELE, IL1RN, TNFA, TAP2, MBL2, IL5, CX3CR1, CHI3L1 and IL12A were, associated with overall survival (OS) in specific diagnostic entities of B-NHL. We discovered noteworthy interactions between DLBCL risk alleles on IL10 and IL4RA and FL risk alleles on IL4RA and IL4. In relation to OS, a highly significant interaction was observed in DLBCL for IL4RA (rs1805010) * IL10 (rs1800890) (HR = 0.11 (0.02–0.50)). Finally, we explored the expression of risk genes from the gene-gene interaction analysis in normal B-cell subtypes showing a different expression of IL4RA, IL10, IL10RB genes supporting a pathogenetic effect of these interactions in the germinal center. Conclusions The present findings support the importance of inflammatory genes in B-cell lymphomas. We found association between polymorphic sites in inflammatory response genes and risk as well as outcome in B-NHL and suggest an effect of gene-gene interactions during the stepwise oncogenesis. PMID:26448050

  9. Generation of B cell-deficient pigs by highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengjiao; Wang, Ying; Yuan, Yilin; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Zijian; Jin, Yong; Liu, Xiaorui; Xiong, Qiang; Chen, Qin; Zhang, Manling; Li, Xiaokang; Zhao, Lihua; Li, Ze; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Yanfei; Hu, Feifei; Huang, Juan; Li, Rongfeng; Dai, Yifan

    2015-08-20

    Generating B cell-deficient mutant is the first step to produce human antibody repertoires in large animal models. In this study, we applied the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system to target the JH region of the pig IgM heavy chain gene which is crucial for B cell development and differentiation. Transfection of IgM-targeting Cas9 plasmid in primary porcine fetal fibroblasts (PFFs) enabled inducing gene knock out (KO) in up to 53.3% of colonies analyzed, a quarter of which harbored biallelic modification, which was much higher than that of the traditional homologous recombination (HR). With the aid of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology, three piglets with the biallelic IgM heavy chain gene mutation were produced. The piglets showed no antibody-producing B cells which indicated that the biallelic mutation of the IgM heavy chain gene effectively knocked out the function of the IgM and resulted in a B cell-deficient phenotype. Our study suggests that the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT technology is an efficient genome-editing approach in pigs. PMID:26336800

  10. Immunoglobulin kappa variable region gene selection during early human B cell development in health and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena; Fraser, Louise D; Tahir, Romeeza; Kipling, David; Wu, Yu-Chang; Lutalo, Pamela M K; Cason, John; Choong, LeeMeng; D'Cruz, David P; Cope, Andrew P; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K; Spencer, Jo

    2015-06-01

    The unique specificity of the B cell receptor is generated by an ordered sequence of gene rearrangement events. Once IGH genes have rearranged, rearrangement at the IGK locus is initiated followed by the IGL locus if functional IGK rearrangement is not achieved. Receptor specificity can subsequently be altered by secondary light chain editing based on the features of the heavy and light chain combination. The final profile of expressed genes is not random and biases in this profile are associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, how and when biases are created is not known. To increase our understanding of the processes of selection and editing of IGK rearrangements, we compared four groups of rearrangements of IGK acquired by next generation sequencing. First, expressed rearrangements of IGK from cDNA of IGK expressing B cells. Second, productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of the same kappa expressing B cells. Third, non-productive rearrangements of IGK from DNA of IGK and IGL expressing B cells, and fourth productively rearranged IGK from DNA of IGL expressing B cells. The latter group would have been rejected during B cell development in favour of rearrangement at the IGL locus and are therefore selected against. We saw evidence that rearranged IGK segments can be selected at a checkpoint where the decision to rearrange the IGL locus is made. In addition, our data suggest that mechanisms regulating the expression or not of IGK rearrangements may also contribute to repertoire development and also that this latter component of the selection process is defective in SLE. PMID:25700344

  11. Consequences of the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation in follicular lymphoma: deregulated expression of a chimeric and mutated BCL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Hua, C; Zorn, S; Jensen, J P; Coupland, R W; Ko, H S; Wright, J J; Bakhshi, A

    1988-02-01

    The t(14;18) chromosomal translocation of human follicular lymphoma recombines the candidate transforming gene bcl-2, located at 18q21, with the immunoglobulin (Ig) H-chain joining region (JH) at 14q32. To elucidate the consequences of this translocation, we cloned bcl-2 cDNAs from a pre-B cell line (Nall-1) and a t(14;18) lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-6) and compared these sequences with their genomic counterparts. These studies revealed the complexity of bcl-2 gene expression in which six potential polyadenylation signals in exon 3 and two different 5' exons (exons 1 and 2) and promoters are alternatively used to generate different sized bcl-2 mRNAs. A single open reading frame (ORF), at the junction of exons 2 and 3, predicts a 239 amino acid, 26 kD protein. Most chromosome 18 breakpoints cluster within a 150 bp region of exon 3. In SU-DHL-6 the t(14;18) translocation juxtaposes a truncated bcl-2 gene with J6 in a tail-to-head configuration, resulting in the deregulated expression of chimeric bcl-2/Ig transcripts. Importantly, the SU-DHL-6 bcl-2 cDNA also contained several point mutations in the ORF, two of which altered the primary amino acid sequence. The deregulated expression of an altered bcl-2 gene may play a critical role in the disordered growth and differentiation of follicular B cell lymphoma. PMID:3285301

  12. ALVAC-mediated gene transfer is efficient in lymphoid malignancies of T-and early B-cell origin, but not in tumors arising from mature B-cells.

    PubMed

    Gitelson, E; Ghose, A; Buckstein, R; Imrie, K; Lim, M S; Reis, M; Spaner, D; Tartaglia, J; Berinstein, N L

    2001-09-01

    Natural attenuation of ALVAC virus in mammals makes it an attractive vector for cancer vaccine therapy of immunocompromised hosts, such as patients with lymphoid malignancies. However, the transduction efficiency of ALVAC constructs in lymphoid tumors has not yet been characterized. We studied a wide spectrum of human T- and B-cell leukemia and lymphomas and found significant heterogeneity of the ALVAC-mediated gene product expression in these tumors. While ALVAC-B7.1, ALVAC-B7.2, or ALVAC-luciferase vectors effectively expressed recombinant genes in malignancies arising from T- or early B-cell precursors, negative or low expression of ALVAC recombinant genes occurred in tumors arising from mature B-cells. We showed that ALVAC-encoded B7.1 or B7.2 was continuously expressed on the infected, and subsequently irradiated, leukemia cells, and only cells with ALVAC-mediated expression of costimulatory molecules (but not unmodified leukemia cells or those infected with the ALVAC-parental vector) induced significant proliferation and IFN-gamma production by alloreactive T-cells. These data provide the rationale for clinical studies using the ALVAC vector system for gene transfer into lymphoid tumors of T- and early B-cell origin to render them more immunogenic, while alternative strategies should be considered for immunotherapy of mature B-cell malignancies. PMID:11676394

  13. Transgenic mice bearing the human c-myc gene activated by an immunoglobulin enhancer: A pre-B-cell lymphoma model

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, E.V.; Pattengale, P.K.; Weir, L.; Leder, P. )

    1988-08-01

    Transgenic mice carrying a fusion gene in which the mouse immunoglobulin enhancer has been inserted into an otherwise normal human c-myc gene develop a narrow spectrum of pre-B-cell lymphomas. Tumor occurrence is correlated with expression of the transgene in organs in which large numbers of pre-B cells predominate. These tumors, which arise stochastically, are virtually all lymphoblastic lymphomas of the pre-B-cell type. Evidently the isolated enhancer targets oncogene expression and tumorigenesis to the early B-cell population in preference to more mature B-cell populations. The transgene also confers enhanced in vitro growth properties on nontransformed pre-B cells as observed in bone marrow cultures derived from transgenic animals. These cultured cells represent a population in which the activating function of c-myc can be uncoupled from secondary oncogenic events occurring in vivo.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat affects chromatin organization and gene transcription in normal B cells and in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Markozashvili, Diana; Pichugin, Andrei; Barat, Ana; Camara-Clayette, Valerie; Vasilyeva, Natalia V; Lelièvre, Hélène; Kraus-Berthier, Laurence; Depil, Stéphane; Ribrag, Vincent; Vassetzky, Yegor

    2016-04-15

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare lymphoma caused by the t(11:14) juxtaposing the cyclin D1 (CCND1) locus on chromosome 11 and the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus on chromosome 14. Several new treatments are proposed for MCL, including histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). We have studied gene expression and chromatin organization in the translocated 11q13 locus in MCL cells as compared to lymphoblastoid cell lines as well as the effect of HDACi abexinostat on chromatin organization and gene expression in the 11q13 locus. We have identified a cluster of genes overexpressed in the translocation region on chromosome 11 in MCL cells. Abexinostat provokes a genome-wide disaggregation of heterochromatin. The genes upregulated after the t(11;14) translocation react to the HDACi treatment by increasing their expression, but their gene promoters do not show significant alterations in H3K9Ac and H3K9me2 levels in abexinostat-treated cells. PMID:26774800

  15. Ten-Eleven Translocation Genes are Downregulated in Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Roca, F J; Loomans, H A; Wittman, A T; Creighton, C J; Hawkins, S M

    2016-01-01

    Our previous whole genome expression analysis of endometriomas suggested dysregulation of the ten-eleven translocation genes (TET1, TET2, and TET3), involved in converting 5- methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). The objective of this study was to validate the expression of TET genes in ectopic and eutopic endometrium and in primary cultures of human endometrial stromal fibroblasts (HESF) during in vitro decidualization and to quantify 5-hmC levels in patients with endometriosis. Blood, eutopic endometrium, and endometriotic tissues were collected at time of gynecologic surgery. HESF cultures were created from eutopic endometrium of women without (HESF-CONTROL) and with endometriosis (HESF-ENDO) and underwent in vitro decidualization. Genomic DNA from blood and tissues underwent quantification of the absolute amount of 5-hmC using ELISA. The expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 was decreased in endometriosis compared to non-endometriosis control eutopic endometrium. Surprisingly, the global amount of 5-hmC was higher in ectopic endometrium than control eutopic endometrium, while genomic DNA from blood of women with endometriosis contained statistically significantly less 5-hmC than women without endometriosis. Expression of TET1, TET2, and TET3 was decreased in non-decidualized HESFENDO. Upon in vitro decidualization, control HESF showed decreased expression of TET3, while decidualized HESF-ENDO showed no statistically significant change in expression of TET1, TET2, or TET3. These results indicate that the TET genes are downregulated in ectopic endometrium and in HESF-ENDO, and suggest for the first time that TET genes play a role in endometriosis. High global amounts of 5-hmC in endometriotic tissues suggest unique epigenetic regulation in these tissues. PMID:26917261

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of the Blimp-1 Gene (Prdm1) in B Cells Involves Bach2 and Histone Deacetylase 3.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiromu; Muto, Akihiko; Shima, Hiroki; Katoh, Yasutake; Sax, Nicolas; Tajima, Shinya; Brydun, Andrey; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Naoko; Masai, Hisao; Hoshikawa, Yutaka; Noda, Tetsuo; Nio, Masaki; Ochiai, Kyoko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-18

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) encoded by Prdm1 is a master regulator of plasma cell differentiation. The transcription factor Bach2 represses Blimp-1 expression in B cells to stall terminal differentiation, by which it supports reactions such as class switch recombination of the antibody genes. We found that histones H3 and H4 around the Prdm1 intron 5 Maf recognition element were acetylated at higher levels in X63/0 plasma cells expressing Blimp-1 than in BAL17 mature B cells lacking its expression. Conversely, methylation of H3-K9 was lower in X63/0 cells than BAL17 cells. Purification of the Bach2 complex in BAL17 cells revealed its interaction with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), nuclear co-repressors NCoR1 and NCoR2, transducin β-like 1X-linked (Tbl1x), and RAP1-interacting factor homolog (Rif1). Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of HDAC3 and Rif1 to the Prdm1 locus. Reduction of HDAC3 or NCoR1 expression by RNA interference in B cells resulted in an increased Prdm1 mRNA expression. Bach2 is suggested to cooperate with HDAC3-containing co-repressor complexes in B cells to regulate the stage-specific expression of Prdm1 by writing epigenetic modifications at the Prdm1 locus. PMID:26786103

  17. Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, J; Berberian, L; King, L; Sanz, I; Govan, H L

    1992-01-01

    The large VH3 family of human immunoglobulin genes is commonly used throughout B cell ontogeny. However, B cells of the fetus and certain autoantibody-producing clones are restricted to a recurrent subset of VH3 genes, and VH3 B cells are deficient in certain immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we have sequenced a set of rearranged VH3 genes generated by genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from normal adults and those with common variable immunodeficiency (CVI). In both groups, all cones were readily identifiable with the fetal VH3 subset, and were further distinguished by limited DH motifs and exclusive use of JH4. In CVI, the residual population of VH3 B cells were notable for predominant use of 56p1-like VH genes. All clones displayed sequence divergence (including somatic mutation) with evidence of strong selection against complementarity-determining region (CDR) coding change. A survey of other V gene families indicates that human V gene diversity may be restricted in general by germline mechanisms. These findings suggest that the expressed antibody repertoire in the human adult may be much smaller than anticipated, and selected by processes in part distinct from the paradigm of maximal antigen-binding diversity. PMID:1569182

  18. Machine learning-based classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients by eight gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuangtao; Dong, Xiaoli; Shen, Wenzhi; Ye, Zhen; Xiang, Rong

    2016-05-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) had divided the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into molecular subgroups: germinal center B-cell like (GCB), activated B-cell like (ABC), and unclassified (UC) subtype. However, this classification with prognostic significance was not applied into clinical practice since there were more than 1000 genes to detect and interpreting was difficult. To classify cancer samples validly, eight significant genes (MYBL1, LMO2, BCL6, MME, IRF4, NFKBIZ, PDE4B, and SLA) were selected in 414 patients treated with CHOP/R-CHOP chemotherapy from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data sets. Cutoffs for each gene were obtained using receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) new model based on the support vector machine (SVM) estimated the probability of membership into one of two subgroups: GCB and Non-GCB (ABC and UC). Furtherly, multivariate analysis validated the model in another two cohorts including 855 cases in all. As a result, patients in the training and validated cohorts were stratified into two subgroups with 94.0%, 91.0%, and 94.4% concordance with GEP, respectively. Patients with Non-GCB subtype had significantly poorer outcomes than that with GCB subtype, which agreed with the prognostic power of GEP classification. Moreover, the similar prognosis received in the low (0-2) and high (3-5) IPI scores group demonstrated that the new model was independent of IPI as well as GEP method. In conclusion, our new model could stratify DLBCL patients with CHOP/R-CHOP regimen matching GEP subtypes effectively. PMID:26869285

  19. Mutations of multiple genes cause deregulation of NF-kB in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Compagno, Mara; Lim, Wei Keat; Grunn, Adina; Nandula, Subhadra V.; Brahmachary, Manisha; Shen, Qiong; Bertoni, Francesco; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Scandurra, Marta; Califano, Andrea; Bhagat, Govind; Chadburn, Amy; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Pasqualucci, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common form of lymphoma in adulthood, comprises multiple biologically and clinically distinct subtypes including germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) DLBCL1. Gene expression profile studies have shown that its most aggressive subtype, ABC-DLBCL, is associated with constitutive activation of the NF-kB transcription complex2. However, except for a small fraction of cases3, it remains unclear whether NF-kB activation in these tumors represents an intrinsic program of the tumor cell of origin or a pathogenetic event. Here we show that >50% of ABC-DLBCL and a smaller fraction of GCB-DLBCL carry somatic mutations in multiple genes, including negative (TNFAIP3/A20) and positive (CARD11, TRAF2, TRAF5, MAP3K7/TAK1 and TNFRSF11A/RANK) regulators of NF-kB. Of these, the A20 gene, which encodes for a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme involved in termination of NF-kB responses, is most commonly affected, with ~30% of patients displaying biallelic inactivation by mutations and/or deletions. When reintroduced in cell lines carrying biallelic inactivation of the gene, A20 induced apoptosis and cell growth arrest, indicating a tumor suppressor role. Less frequently, missense mutations of TRAF2 and CARD11 produce molecules with significantly enhanced ability to activate NF-kB. Thus, our results demonstrate that NF-kB activation in DLBCL is caused by genetic lesions affecting multiple genes, whose loss or activation may promote lymphomagenesis by leading to abnormally prolonged NF-kB responses. PMID:19412164

  20. Mutations of multiple genes cause deregulation of NF-kappaB in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Compagno, Mara; Lim, Wei Keat; Grunn, Adina; Nandula, Subhadra V; Brahmachary, Manisha; Shen, Qiong; Bertoni, Francesco; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Scandurra, Marta; Califano, Andrea; Bhagat, Govind; Chadburn, Amy; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo; Pasqualucci, Laura

    2009-06-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common form of lymphoma in adulthood, comprises multiple biologically and clinically distinct subtypes including germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL. Gene expression profile studies have shown that its most aggressive subtype, ABC-DLBCL, is associated with constitutive activation of the NF-kappaB transcription complex. However, except for a small fraction of cases, it remains unclear whether NF-kappaB activation in these tumours represents an intrinsic program of the tumour cell of origin or a pathogenetic event. Here we show that >50% of ABC-DLBCL and a smaller fraction of GCB-DLBCL carry somatic mutations in multiple genes, including negative (TNFAIP3, also called A20) and positive (CARD11, TRAF2, TRAF5, MAP3K7 (TAK1) and TNFRSF11A (RANK)) regulators of NF-kappaB. Of these, the A20 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme involved in termination of NF-kappaB responses, is most commonly affected, with approximately 30% of patients displaying biallelic inactivation by mutations and/or deletions. When reintroduced in cell lines carrying biallelic inactivation of the gene, A20 induced apoptosis and cell growth arrest, indicating a tumour suppressor role. Less frequently, missense mutations of TRAF2 and CARD11 produce molecules with significantly enhanced ability to activate NF-kappaB. Thus, our results demonstrate that NF-kappaB activation in DLBCL is caused by genetic lesions affecting multiple genes, the loss or activation of which may promote lymphomagenesis by leading to abnormally prolonged NF-kappaB responses. PMID:19412164

  1. Wnt signaling induces transcription, spatial proximity, and translocation of fusion gene partners in human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Giorgia D; Vargas, Macarena F; Medina, Matías A; León, Pablo; Necuñir, David; Elorza, Alvaro A; Gutiérrez, Soraya E; Moon, Randall T; Loyola, Alejandra; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a wide variety of cancers, particularly hematologic malignancies. A recurrent chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia is the reciprocal translocation t(8;21) that fuses RUNX1 and ETO genes. We report here that Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases the expression of ETO and RUNX1 genes in human hematopoietic progenitors. We found that β-catenin is rapidly recruited into RNA polymerase II transcription factories (RNAPII-Ser5) and that ETO and RUNX1 genes are brought into close spatial proximity upon Wnt3a induction. Notably, long-term treatment of cells with Wnt3a induces the generation a frequent RUNX1-ETO translocation event. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces transcription and translocation of RUNX1 and ETO fusion gene partners, opening a novel window to understand the onset/development of leukemia. PMID:26333776

  2. Gene Mutation Profiles in Primary Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Central Nervous System: Next Generation Sequencing Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Todorovic Balint, Milena; Jelicic, Jelena; Mihaljevic, Biljana; Kostic, Jelena; Stanic, Bojana; Balint, Bela; Pejanovic, Nadja; Lucic, Bojana; Tosic, Natasa; Marjanovic, Irena; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Perisic, Ognjen; Rakocevic, Goran; Popovic, Milos; Raicevic, Sava; Bila, Jelena; Antic, Darko; Andjelic, Bosko; Pavlovic, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a potential primary central nervous system lymphoma-specific genomic signature that differs from the systemic form of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been suggested, but is still controversial. We investigated 19 patients with primary DLBCL of central nervous system (DLBCL CNS) using the TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel (TSACP) for 48 cancer-related genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analyses have revealed that over 80% of potentially protein-changing mutations were located in eight genes (CTNNB1, PIK3CA, PTEN, ATM, KRAS, PTPN11, TP53 and JAK3), pointing to the potential role of these genes in lymphomagenesis. TP53 was the only gene harboring mutations in all 19 patients. In addition, the presence of mutated TP53 and ATM genes correlated with a higher total number of mutations in other analyzed genes. Furthermore, the presence of mutated ATM correlated with poorer event-free survival (EFS) (p = 0.036). The presence of the mutated SMO gene correlated with earlier disease relapse (p = 0.023), inferior event-free survival (p = 0.011) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.017), while mutations in the PTEN gene were associated with inferior OS (p = 0.048). Our findings suggest that the TP53 and ATM genes could be involved in the molecular pathophysiology of primary DLBCL CNS, whereas mutations in the PTEN and SMO genes could affect survival regardless of the initial treatment approach. PMID:27164089

  3. Gene Mutation Profiles in Primary Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Central Nervous System: Next Generation Sequencing Analyses.

    PubMed

    Todorovic Balint, Milena; Jelicic, Jelena; Mihaljevic, Biljana; Kostic, Jelena; Stanic, Bojana; Balint, Bela; Pejanovic, Nadja; Lucic, Bojana; Tosic, Natasa; Marjanovic, Irena; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Perisic, Ognjen; Rakocevic, Goran; Popovic, Milos; Raicevic, Sava; Bila, Jelena; Antic, Darko; Andjelic, Bosko; Pavlovic, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a potential primary central nervous system lymphoma-specific genomic signature that differs from the systemic form of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been suggested, but is still controversial. We investigated 19 patients with primary DLBCL of central nervous system (DLBCL CNS) using the TruSeq Amplicon Cancer Panel (TSACP) for 48 cancer-related genes. Next generation sequencing (NGS) analyses have revealed that over 80% of potentially protein-changing mutations were located in eight genes (CTNNB1, PIK3CA, PTEN, ATM, KRAS, PTPN11, TP53 and JAK3), pointing to the potential role of these genes in lymphomagenesis. TP53 was the only gene harboring mutations in all 19 patients. In addition, the presence of mutated TP53 and ATM genes correlated with a higher total number of mutations in other analyzed genes. Furthermore, the presence of mutated ATM correlated with poorer event-free survival (EFS) (p = 0.036). The presence of the mutated SMO gene correlated with earlier disease relapse (p = 0.023), inferior event-free survival (p = 0.011) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.017), while mutations in the PTEN gene were associated with inferior OS (p = 0.048). Our findings suggest that the TP53 and ATM genes could be involved in the molecular pathophysiology of primary DLBCL CNS, whereas mutations in the PTEN and SMO genes could affect survival regardless of the initial treatment approach. PMID:27164089

  4. Molecular cloning and expression of a human B-cell growth factor gene in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Mehta, S.; Morgan, J.; Maizel, A.

    1987-03-20

    A human B-cell growth factor (BCGF) (12 kilodaltons) supports the clonal proliferation of B lymphocytes. A clone was isolated that contained the proper structural sequence to encode biologically active, 12-kilodalton BCGF in Escherichia coli and to hybridize to a specific messenger RNA, identified by in vitro translation in Xenopus laevis oocytes. A relatively hydrophobic region of 18 amino acids was found at the amino terminal of the 124 - amino acid - long polypeptide. The carboxyl terminal is composed of at least 32 amino acids that are derived from nucleotide sequences bearing significant homology to the Alu repeat family.

  5. Blimp-1/PRDM1 regulates the transcription of human CS1 (SLAMF7) gene in NK and B cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong R; Mathew, Stephen O; Mathew, Porunelloor A

    2016-01-01

    CS1 (CRACC/CD319/SLAMF7) is a member of SLAM (Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule) family receptors and is expressed on NK cells, a subset of CD8(+) T lymphocytes, activated monocytes, mature dendritic cells and activated B cells. In NK cells, CS1 signaling induces cytolytic function of NK cells against targets whereas in B cells CS1 induces proliferation and autocrine cytokine production. CS1 is upregulated in multiple myeloma cells and contributes to clonogenic growth and tumorigenicity. However, the mechanism of CS1 upregulation is unknown. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of human CS1 gene in NK and B cells. The promoter region of CS1 contains a Blimp-1/PRDM1 binding site and relative luciferase activities of successive deletion mutants of CS1 promoter were different between Blimp-1/PRDM1-positive and Blimp-1/PRDM1-negative cells. Proximal region of CS1 promoter contains a CAAT box and atypical TATA-box that might result in common transcription initiation at -29 nucleotides upstream of the ATG translation start codon. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed Blimp-1/PRDM1 binds to the CS1 promoter region. Mutating the Blimp-1/PRDM1 site at -750 to -746 decreased the transcriptional activity of CS1 promoter implicating a trans-activating function of Blimp-1/PRDM1 in human CS1 gene regulation. The finding that Blimp-1/PRDM1 enhances transcription of CS1 gene in multiple myeloma cells may help in developing novel strategies for therapeutic intervention in multiple myeloma. PMID:26310579

  6. Prognostic impact of concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements and expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Visco, Carlo; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Zhang, Li; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W.L.; van Krieken, J. Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J.M.; Parsons, Ben M.; Møller, Michael B.; Piris, Miguel A.; Winter, Jane N.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Hu, Shimin; Young, Ken H.

    2016-01-01

    Double-hit B-cell lymphoma is a common designation for a group of tumors characterized by concurrent translocations of MYC and BCL2, BCL6, or other genes. The prognosis of concurrent MYC and BCL6 translocations is not well known. In this study, we assessed rearrangements and expression of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 in 898 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab). Neither BCL6 translocation alone (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) nor in combination with MYC translocation (observed in 2.0% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) predicted poorer survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with MYC/BCL6 co-expression did have significantly poorer survival, however, MYC/BCL6 co-expression had no effect on prognosis in the absence of MYC/BCL2 co-expression, and had no additive impact in MYC+/BCL2+ cases. The isolated MYC+/BCL6+/BCL2− subset, more frequent in germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, had significantly better survival compared with the isolated MYC+/BCL2+/BCL6− subset (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). In summary, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with either MYC/BCL6 rearrangements or MYC/BCL6 co-expression did not always have poorer prognosis; MYC expression levels should be evaluated simultaneously; and double-hit B-cell lymphoma needs to be refined based on the specific genetic abnormalities present in these tumors. PMID:26573234

  7. Prognostic impact of concurrent MYC and BCL6 rearrangements and expression in de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qing; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexandar; Deng, Lijuan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Visco, Carlo; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Zhang, Li; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Parsons, Ben M; Møller, Michael B; Piris, Miguel A; Winter, Jane N; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Hu, Shimin; Young, Ken H

    2016-01-19

    Double-hit B-cell lymphoma is a common designation for a group of tumors characterized by concurrent translocations of MYC and BCL2, BCL6, or other genes. The prognosis of concurrent MYC and BCL6 translocations is not well known. In this study, we assessed rearrangements and expression of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 in 898 patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with standard chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab). Neither BCL6 translocation alone (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) nor in combination with MYC translocation (observed in 2.0% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma) predicted poorer survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with MYC/BCL6 co-expression did have significantly poorer survival, however, MYC/BCL6 co-expression had no effect on prognosis in the absence of MYC/BCL2 co-expression, and had no additive impact in MYC+/BCL2+ cases. The isolated MYC+/BCL6+/BCL2- subset, more frequent in germinal center B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, had significantly better survival compared with the isolated MYC+/BCL2+/BCL6- subset (more frequent in activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). In summary, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with either MYC/BCL6 rearrangements or MYC/BCL6 co-expression did not always have poorer prognosis; MYC expression levels should be evaluated simultaneously; and double-hit B-cell lymphoma needs to be refined based on the specific genetic abnormalities present in these tumors. PMID:26573234

  8. TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Recently, the landscape of single base mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was described. Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. Based on this cohort and a further 157 DLBCL cases analyzed by FISH, the incidence in de novo germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL is 5% (6 of 115).

  9. PU.1 opposes IL-7-dependent proliferation of developing B cells with involvement of the direct target gene bruton tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Christie, Darah A; Xu, Li S; Turkistany, Shereen A; Solomon, Lauren A; Li, Stephen K H; Yim, Edmund; Welch, Ian; Bell, Gillian I; Hess, David A; DeKoter, Rodney P

    2015-01-15

    Deletion of genes encoding the E26 transformation-specific transcription factors PU.1 and Spi-B in B cells (CD19-CreΔPB mice) leads to impaired B cell development, followed by B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia at 100% incidence and with a median survival of 21 wk. However, little is known about the target genes that explain leukemogenesis in these mice. In this study we found that immature B cells were altered in frequency in the bone marrow of preleukemic CD19-CreΔPB mice. Enriched pro-B cells from CD19-CreΔPB mice induced disease upon transplantation, suggesting that these were leukemia-initiating cells. Bone marrow cells from preleukemic CD19-CreΔPB mice had increased responsiveness to IL-7 and could proliferate indefinitely in response to this cytokine. Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), a negative regulator of IL-7 signaling, was reduced in preleukemic and leukemic CD19-CreΔPB cells compared with controls. Induction of PU.1 expression in cultured CD19-CreΔPB pro-B cell lines induced Btk expression, followed by reduced STAT5 phosphorylation and early apoptosis. PU.1 and Spi-B regulated Btk directly as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Ectopic expression of BTK was sufficient to induce apoptosis in cultured pro-B cells. In summary, these results suggest that PU.1 and Spi-B activate Btk to oppose IL-7 responsiveness in developing B cells. PMID:25505273

  10. Effects of glucose refeeding and glibenclamide treatment on glucokinase and GLUT2 gene expression in pancreatic B-cells and liver from rats.

    PubMed Central

    Tiedge, M; Lenzen, S

    1995-01-01

    The mutual role of glucose and insulin in the regulation of glucokinase and GLUT2 glucose transporter gene expression in pancreatic B-cells and liver has been studied in vivo in the rat. Glucokinase mRNA was quantified by competitive reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis, and GLUT2 mRNA by Northern-blot analysis in total RNA fractions. As in the liver, glucokinase mRNA decreased by 64% in pancreatic B-cells after starvation for 2 days and was induced 3-fold by short-term treatment (1 h) of the rats with oral glucose (4 g/kg body wt.). In contrast the sulphonylurea compound glibenclamide (0.1 mg/kg body wt.) did not significantly stimulate glucokinase gene expression in pancreatic B-cells. But glibenclamide caused a 4-fold increase of glucokinase mRNA in liver which was abolished by concomitant administration of diazoxide, a drug which antagonizes glibenclamide stimulated insulin secretion. GLUT2 gene expression was decreased by 50% in pancreatic B-cells and liver after starvation of the rats for 2 days. Neither short-term treatment (1 h) with glucose nor glibenclamide resulted in a significant increase of GLUT2 gene expression in pancreatic B-cells and liver. The results suggest that it is glucose which stimulates glucokinase gene expression in pancreatic B-cells whereas the transcriptional regulation of the glucokinase gene in liver is directed by insulin. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7755556

  11. Distinct isoform of FABP7 revealed by screening for retroelement-activated genes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Frances E.; Rebollo, Rita; Miceli-Royer, Katharine; Gagnier, Liane; Kuah, Sabrina; Babaian, Artem; Sistiaga-Poveda, Maialen; Lai, C. Benjamin; Nemirovsky, Oksana; Serrano, Isabel; Steidl, Christian; Karimi, Mohammad M.; Mager, Dixie L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnants of ancient transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in mammalian genomes. These sequences harbor multiple regulatory motifs and hence are capable of influencing expression of host genes. In response to environmental changes, TEs are known to be released from epigenetic repression and to become transcriptionally active. Such activation could also lead to lineage-inappropriate activation of oncogenes, as one study described in Hodgkin lymphoma. However, little further evidence for this mechanism in other cancers has been reported. Here, we reanalyzed whole transcriptome data from a large cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) compared with normal B-cell centroblasts to detect genes ectopically expressed through activation of TE promoters. We have identified 98 such TE-gene chimeric transcripts that were exclusively expressed in primary DLBCL cases and confirmed several in DLBCL-derived cell lines. We further characterized a TE-gene chimeric transcript involving a fatty acid-binding protein gene (LTR2-FABP7), normally expressed in brain, that was ectopically expressed in a subset of DLBCL patients through the use of an endogenous retroviral LTR promoter of the LTR2 family. The LTR2-FABP7 chimeric transcript encodes a novel chimeric isoform of the protein with characteristics distinct from native FABP7. In vitro studies reveal a dependency for DLBCL cell line proliferation and growth on LTR2-FABP7 chimeric protein expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate the significance of TEs as regulators of aberrant gene expression in cancer and suggest that LTR2-FABP7 may contribute to the pathogenesis of DLBCL in a subgroup of patients. PMID:25114248

  12. B cell–specific lentiviral gene therapy leads to sustained B-cell functional recovery in a murine model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Hannah M.; Ryu, Byoung Y.; Stirling, Brigid V.; Sather, Blythe D.; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny

    2010-01-01

    The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (Eμ) and Igβ (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage–specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec−/− mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of EμB29-Btk-LV–transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage–targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406

  13. TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Scott, David W; Mungall, Karen L; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Rogic, Sanja; Morin, Ryan D; Slack, Graham W; Tan, King L; Chan, Fong Chun; Lim, Raymond S; Connors, Joseph M; Marra, Marco A; Mungall, Andrew J; Steidl, Christian; Gascoyne, Randy D

    2012-05-24

    Recently, the landscape of single base mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was described. Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. Based on this cohort and a further 157 DLBCL cases analyzed by FISH, the incidence in de novo germinal center B cell-like (GCB) DLBCL is 5% (6 of 115). The fusion appears exclusive to GCB and was not seen in 138 non-GCB cases examined (P = .008, Fisher exact test) but was present at low incidence in follicular lymphoma (1 of 81). In all 7 cases identified, the 3' end of the fusion consists of exons 4 and onwards of TP63. The recurrence, subtype enrichment, and the remarkably conserved nature of the TP63 portion of the fusion suggest an important functional role in the lymphomas that harbor this event. PMID:22496164

  14. Aberrant expression of the CHFR prophase checkpoint gene in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Aiqin; Ye, Junli; Zhang, Kunpeng; Yu, Hongsheng; Gao, Yanhua; Wang, Hongfang; Sun, Lirong; Xing, Xiaoming; Yang, Kun; Zhao, Min

    2015-05-01

    Checkpoint with FHA and Ring Finger (CHFR) is a checkpoint protein that reportedly initiates a cell cycle delay in response to microtubule stress during prophase in mitosis, which has become an interesting target for understanding cancer pathogenesis. Recently, aberrant methylation of the CHFR gene associated with gene silencing has been reported in several cancers. In the present study, we examined the expression of CHFR in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that the expression level of CHFR mRNA and protein was reduced in B-NHL tissue samples and B cell lines. Furthermore, CHFR methylation was detected in 39 of 122 B-NHL patients, which was not found in noncancerous reactive hyperplasia of lymph node (RH) tissues. CHFR methylation correlated with the reduced expression of CHFR, high International Prognostic Index (IPI) scores and later pathologic Ann Arbor stages of B-NHL. Treatment with demethylation reagent, 5-Aza-dC, could eliminate the hypermethylation of CHFR, enhance CHFR expression and cell apoptosis and inhibit the cell proliferation of Raji cells, which could be induced by high expression of CHFR in Raji cells. Our results indicated that aberrant methylation of CHFR may be associated with the pathogenesis, progression for B-NHL, which might be a novel molecular marker as prognosis and treatment for B-NHL. PMID:25798877

  15. Targeted Chromosomal Translocations and Essential Gene Knockout Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Mu; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2015-12-01

    Many genes play essential roles in development and fertility; their disruption leads to growth arrest or sterility. Genetic balancers have been widely used to study essential genes in many organisms. However, it is technically challenging and laborious to generate and maintain the loss-of-function mutations of essential genes. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been successfully applied for gene editing and chromosome engineering. Here, we have developed a method to induce chromosomal translocations and produce genetic balancers using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and have applied this approach to edit essential genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. The co-injection of dual small guide RNA targeting genes on different chromosomes resulted in reciprocal translocation between nonhomologous chromosomes. These animals with chromosomal translocations were subsequently crossed with animals that contain normal sets of chromosomes. The F1 progeny were subjected to a second round of Cas9-mediated gene editing. Through this method, we successfully produced nematode strains with specified chromosomal translocations and generated a number of loss-of-function alleles of two essential genes (csr-1 and mes-6). Therefore, our method provides an easy and efficient approach to generate and maintain loss-of-function alleles of essential genes with detailed genetic background information. PMID:26482793

  16. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangements: Current perspective on treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with MYC gene rearrangements; case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, A V; Roosma, T J A; Houtenbos, I; Vasmel, W L E; van de Hem, K; de Boer, J P; van Maanen, T; Lindauer-van der Werf, G; Beeker, A; Timmers, G J; Schaar, C G; Soesan, M; Poddighe, P J; de Jong, D; Chamuleau, M E D

    2016-03-01

    In the past decade, patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) therapy. Standard treatment is now changing as a result of deeper understanding of underlying biologic differences of such lymphomas. One of the most powerful predictors of an adverse outcome on R-CHOP therapy is the presence of a MYC gene rearrangement (MYC+ lymphoma). Determination of MYC gene rearrangement by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridisation) has recently become a standard diagnostic procedure. In this paper, an overview of current literature on MYC function and MYC+ lymphoma patient outcome is presented. Furthermore, we present 26 patients from our tertiary referral centre who were diagnosed with MYC+ lymphoma between 2009 and 2014. In our patient series, we confirm the dismal prognosis of MYC+ lymphoma patients. Intensification of classical chemotherapy does not lead to better overall survival, justifying new treatment modalities. First line therapy should be more specifically targeted against MYC and the genes and proteins that are deregulated by MYC. To this end, the first clinical trial in which MYC+ patients will be offered targeted treatment has recently been launched. PMID:26820684

  17. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium avium and mapping of B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N; Matsuo, K; Yamaguchi, R; Yamazaki, A; Tasaka, H; Yamada, T

    1993-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of alpha antigen secreted from Mycobacterium avium (A-alpha) was determined. The gene encodes 330 amino acids, including 40 amino acids for the signal peptide, followed by 290 amino acids for the mature protein with a molecular mass of 30,811 Da. This is the first sequence of A-alpha. Comparisons between A-alpha and alpha antigens of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium kansasii showed highly homologous regions which suggested a conserved functional domain and two less-homologous regions. Serological analysis of recombinant A-alpha, expressed by a series of deletion constructs, indicated the possibility that A-alpha carries at least six B-cell epitopes. The three antigenic determinants were common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium. The results also suggested the possibility that there are three species-specific epitopes. Images PMID:7681039

  18. Application of HSVtk suicide gene to X-SCID gene therapy: Ganciclovir treatment offsets gene corrected X-SCID B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Toru; Kumaki, Satoru . E-mail: kumakis@idac.tohoku.ac.jp; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Onodera, Masafumi; Sato, Miki; Du, Wei; Sasahara, Yoji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Sugamura, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2006-03-10

    Recently, a serious adverse effect of uncontrolled clonal T cell proliferation due to insertional mutagenesis of retroviral vector was reported in X-SCID gene therapy clinical trial. To offset the side effect, we have incorporated a suicide gene into therapeutic retroviral vector for selective elimination of transduced cells. In this study, B-cell lines from two X-SCID patients were transduced with bicistronic retroviral vector carrying human {gamma}c chain cDNA and Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. After confirmation of functional reconstitution of the {gamma}c chain, the cells were treated with ganciclovir (GCV). The {gamma}c chain positive cells were eliminated under low concentration without cytotoxicity on untransduced cells and have not reappeared at least for 5 months. Furthermore, the {gamma}c chain transduced cells were still sensitive to GCV after five months. These results demonstrated the efficacy of the suicide gene therapy although further in vivo studies are required to assess feasibility of this approach in clinical trial.

  19. A seven-gene expression panel distinguishing clonal expansions of pre-leukemic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells from normal B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Brian A; Yancopoulos, Sophia; Tipping, Mike; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xue Ping; Bennett, Fiona; Li, Wentian; Lesser, Martin; Paul, Santanu; Boyle, Erin; Moreno, Carolina; Catera, Rosa; Messmer, Bradley T; Cutrona, Giovanna; Ferrarini, Manlio; Kolitz, Jonathan E; Allen, Steven L; Rai, Kanti R; Rawstron, Andrew C; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression patterns occurring in pre-CLL and CLL B cell populations with an error rate of 2 %. Using Bayesian learning, the expression levels of only two genes, FMOD and PIK3C2B, correctly distinguished 100 % of CLL and MBL cases from normal polyclonal and mono/oligoclonal B lymphocytes. Thus, this study sets forth effective computational approaches that distinguish MBL/CLL from normal B lymphocytes. The findings also support the concept that MBL is a CLL precursor. PMID:26318878

  20. A Mouse Variable Gene Fragment Binds to DNA Independently of the BCR Context: A Possible Role for Immature B-Cell Repertoire Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Maranhão, Andrea Queiroz; Costa, Maria Beatriz Walter; Guedes, Leonardo; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro Manoel; Raiol, Tainá; Brigido, Marcelo Macedo

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation occurs in several steps and requires constant stimulus for its continuing development. From the emergence of the pre-B-cell receptor, signal transduction stimulates and supports B-cell development. Current viewpoints indicate that both positive selection pressure for autoantigens and tonic signaling constitutively stimulate B-cell maturation. In this work, we tested for the presence of a putative DNA binding site in a variable gene segment in a germline configuration, independently of VDJ recombination. After a survey of the public antibody databases, we chose a single mouse heavy variable gene segment that is highly represented in anti-nucleic acid antibodies and tested it for ssDNA binding. A phage display approach was used to search for intrinsic binding to oligo deoxythymidine. The results revealed that binding to an antigen can be influenced by the use of a specific DNA binding V gene segment. Our data support the idea that some variable genes have intrinsic reactivity towards specific types of endogenous autoantigens, and this property may contribute to the establishment of the immature B-cell repertoire. PMID:24023756

  1. Rearrangements and deletions of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the double-producing B cell lymphoma I.29.

    PubMed Central

    Stavnezer, J; Marcu, K B; Sirlin, S; Alhadeff, B; Hammerling, U

    1982-01-01

    The B cell lymphoma I.29 consists of a mixture of cells expressing membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (IgM) (lambda) and IgA (lambda) of identical idiotypes. Whereas most of the cells express either IgM or IgA alone, 1 to 5% of the cells in this tumor express IgM and IgA simultaneously within the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane (R. Sitia et al., J. Immunol. 127:1388-1394, 1981; R. Sitia, unpublished data). When IgM+ cells are purified from the lymphoma and passaged in mice or cultured, a portion of the cells convert to IgA+. These properties suggest that some cells of the I.29 lymphoma may undergo immunoglobulin heavy chain switching, although it is also possible that the mixed population was derived by a prior switching event in a clone of cells. We performed Southern blotting experiments on genomic DNAs isolated from populations of I.29 cells containing variable proportions of IgM+ and IgA+ cells and on a number of cell lines derived from the lymphoma. The results were consistent with the deletion model for heavy chain switching, as the IgM+ cells contained rearranged mu genes and alpha genes in the germ line configuration on both the expressed and nonexpressed heavy chain chromosomes, whereas the IgA+ cells had deleted both mu genes and contained one rearranged and one germ line alpha gene. In addition, segments of DNA located within the intervening sequence 5' to the mu gene, near the site of switch recombination, were deleted from both the expressed and the nonexpressed chromosomes. Although mu genes were deleted from both chromosomes in the IgA+ cells, the sites of DNA recombination differed on the two chromosomes. On the expressed chromosome, Smu sequences were recombined with S alpha sequences, whereas on the nonexpressed chromosome, Smu sequences were recombined with S gamma 3 sequences. Images PMID:6290869

  2. Rearrangements and deletions of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the double-producing B cell lymphoma I. 29

    SciTech Connect

    Stavnezer, J.; Marcu, K.B.; Sirlin, S.; Alhadeff, B.; Hammerling, U.

    1982-08-01

    The B cell lymphoma I.29 consists of a mixture of cells expressing membrane-bound immunoglobulin M (IgM) (lambda) and IgA (lambda) of identical idiotypes. Whereas most of the cells express either IgM of IgA alone, 1 to 50% of the cells in this tumor express IgM and IgA simultaneously within the cytoplasm and on the cell membrane. When IgM/sup +/ cells are purified from the lymphoma and passaged in mice or cultured, a portion of the cells convert to IgA/sup +/. These properties suggest that some cells of the I.29 lymphoma may undergo immunoglobulin heavy chain switching, although it is also possible that the mixed population was derived by a prior switching event in a clone of cells. The authors performed Southern blotting experiments on genomic DNAs isolated from populations of I.29 cells containing variable proportions of IgM/sup +/ and IgA/sup +/ cells and on a number of cell lines derived from the lymphoma. The results were consistent with the deletion model for heavy chain switching, as the IgM/sup +/ cells contained rearranged ..mu.. genes and ..cap alpha..genes in the germ line configuration on both the expressed and nonexpressed heavy chain chromosomes, whereas the IgA/sup +/ cells had deleted both ..mu.. genes and contained one rearranged and one germ line ..cap alpha..gene. In addition, segments of DNA located within the intervening sequence 5' to the ..mu..gene, near the site of switch recombination, were deleted from both the expressed and the nonexpressed chromosomes. Although ..mu.. genes were deleted from both chromosomes in the IgA/sup +/ cells, the sites of DNA recombination differed on the two chromosomes. On the expressed chromosome, S..mu.. sequences were recombined with S..cap alpha.. sequences, whereas on the nonexpressed chromosome, S..mu.. sequences were recombined with S..gamma..3 sequences.

  3. The V gene repertoires of classical and atypical memory B cells in malaria-susceptible West African children1

    PubMed Central

    Zinöcker, Severin; Schindler, Christine E.; Skinner, Jeff; Rogosch, Tobias; Waisberg, Michael; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Meffre, Eric; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ongoïba, Aïssata; Traoré, Boubacar; Pierce, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria is naturally acquired in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas of Africa. Abs play a key role in mediating this immunity, however, the acquisition of the components of Ab immunity, long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells (MBCs), is remarkably inefficient, requiring years of malaria exposure. Although long-lived classical MBCs (CD19+/CD20+/CD21+/CD27+/CD10-) are gradually acquired in response to natural infection, exposure to P. falciparum also results in a large expansion of what we have termed atypical MBCs (CD19+/CD20+/CD21-/CD27-/CD10-). At present, the function of atypical MBCs in malaria is not known nor are the factors that drive their differentiation. To gain insight into the relationship between classical and atypical IgG+MBCs we compared the Ab heavy and light chain variable (V) gene repertoires of children living in a malaria endemic region in Mali. We found that these repertoires were remarkably similar by a variety of criteria including V gene usage, rate of somatic hypermutation and CDR-H3 length and composition. The similarity in these repertoires suggests that classical MBCs and atypical MBCs differentiate in response to similar Ag-dependent selective pressures in malaria exposed children and that atypical MBCs do not express a unique V gene repertoire. PMID:25556245

  4. A single VH gene is utilized predominantly in anti-BrMRBC hybridomas derived from purified Ly-1 B cells. Definition of the VH11 family.

    PubMed

    Hardy, R R; Carmack, C E; Shinton, S A; Riblet, R J; Hayakawa, K

    1989-05-15

    By establishing hybridomas from two distinct surface IgM+ splenic B cell populations, Ly-1 B cells and "conventional" (Ly-1-) B cells, we found that the Ly-1 B population includes a 30 to 70 times higher frequency (1 to 2%) of cells with specificity for bromelain treated autologous red blood cells (anti-BrMRBC) when compared with conventional B cells (0.03%). We cloned and sequenced the V genes encoding anti-BrMRBC antibody from two hybridomas made with Ly-1 B cells sorted from the spleen of SM/J mice. The VH sequence (for both) is identical with the previously reported sequence associated with this specificity and belongs to a new VH gene family. This gene family, defined here as VH11, has only two members and is the predominant VH rearranged in a collection of Ly-1 B derived anti-BrMRBC hybridomas, always in association with a single VL gene (a member of the V kappa 9 family). Furthermore, analysis of hybridomas made with Ly-1 B cells sorted from the peritoneum reveals a yet higher increased frequency of VH11-encoded anti-BrMRBC specificity (30%). This variation in frequency of anti-BrMRBC in the Ly-1 population depending on location, together with the repeated association of VH11 with a particular V kappa gene suggest that antigen driven selection is (at least in part) responsible for the biased V gene expression seen in this population. Furthermore, a mechanism that might contribute to biased expression, preferential rearrangement due to close proximity to J (as seen in pre-B lines), is excluded by localization of VH11 5' to several of the more J-proximal families (Q52, 7183). PMID:2497178

  5. Gene fusion with an ETS DNA-binding domain caused by chromosome translocation in human tumours.

    PubMed

    Delattre, O; Zucman, J; Plougastel, B; Desmaze, C; Melot, T; Peter, M; Kovar, H; Joubert, I; de Jong, P; Rouleau, G

    1992-09-10

    Ewing's sarcoma and related subtypes of primitive neuroectodermal tumours share a recurrent and specific t(11;22) (q24;q12) chromosome translocation, the breakpoints of which have recently been cloned. Phylogenetically conserved restriction fragments in the vicinity of EWSR1 and EWSR2, the genomic regions where the breakpoints of chromosome 22 and chromosome 11 are, respectively, have allowed identification of transcribed sequences from these regions and has indicated that a hybrid transcript might be generated by the translocation. Here we use these fragments to screen human complementary DNA libraries to show that the translocation alters the open reading frame of an expressed gene on chromosome 22 gene by substituting a sequence encoding a putative RNA-binding domain for that of the DNA-binding domain of the human homologue of murine Fli-1. PMID:1522903

  6. Activation of the c-myc gene by translocation: a model for translational control.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Hayday, A C; Wiman, K; Hayward, W S; Tonegawa, S

    1983-01-01

    We have shown that the human cellular oncogene c-myc is composed of three exons and is transcribed from two initiation sites separated by 175-base-pair DNA in HeLa cells. For both resulting mRNA species, exon 1 composes the 5' untranslated region and the initiator methionine is located 16 base pairs down-stream from the 5' splice acceptor of exon 2. In a non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Manca, harboring a t(8; 14) translocation, c-myc gene is broken within intron 1, and its exons 2 and 3 are translocated to a site between the heavy chain joining region cluster and C mu-coding DNA segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. The translocated c-myc gene is transcribed from points within intron 1 but is apparently still translated from the same methionine codon as the mRNA from the unrearranged c-myc gene. The nucleotide sequence of the c-myc gene shows that a region of exon 1 is highly complementary to a region of exon 2. Thus the mRNA from the untranslocated c-myc gene, as opposed to that of the translocated c-myc gene, could form a stable stem-loop structure (delta Go = -90 kcal/mol; 1 cal = 4.184 J) where the initiator AUG would be located within the loop. In view of the bind-and-scan model for the initiation of eukaryotic translation, we propose that such a secondary structure will severely hinder the translation. We further propose that the c-myc gene is often activated by translocation through the escape from such a translational suppression. Images PMID:6324175

  7. Genomic Hallmarks of Genes Involved in Chromosomal Translocations in Hematological Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shugay, Mikhail; Ortiz de Mendíbil, Iñigo; Vizmanos, José L.; Novo, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocal chromosomal translocations (RCTs) leading to the formation of fusion genes are important drivers of hematological cancers. Although the general requirements for breakage and fusion are fairly well understood, quantitative support for a general mechanism of RCT formation is still lacking. The aim of this paper is to analyze available high-throughput datasets with computational and robust statistical methods, in order to identify genomic hallmarks of translocation partner genes (TPGs). Our results show that fusion genes are generally overexpressed due to increased promoter activity of 5′ TPGs and to more stable 3′-UTR regions of 3′ TPGs. Furthermore, expression profiling of 5′ TPGs and of interaction partners of 3′ TPGs indicates that these features can help to explain tissue specificity of hematological translocations. Analysis of protein domains retained in fusion proteins shows that the co-occurrence of specific domain combinations is non-random and that distinct functional classes of fusion proteins tend to be associated with different components of the gene fusion network. This indicates that the configuration of fusion proteins plays an important role in determining which 5′ and 3′ TPGs will combine in specific fusion genes. It is generally accepted that chromosomal proximity in the nucleus can explain the specific pairing of 5′ and 3′ TPGS and the recurrence of hematological translocations. Using recently available data for chromosomal contact probabilities (Hi-C) we show that TPGs are preferentially located in early replicated regions and occupy distinct clusters in the nucleus. However, our data suggest that, in general, nuclear position of TPGs in hematological cancers explains neither TPG pairing nor clinical frequency. Taken together, our results support a model in which genomic features related to regulation of expression and replication timing determine the set of candidate genes more likely to be translocated in hematological tissues, with functional constraints being responsible for specific gene combinations. PMID:23236267

  8. Administration of adenovirus encoding anti-CD20 antibody gene induces B-cell deletion and alleviates lupus in the BWF1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Mian; Liu, Yuan; Zeng, Ping

    2011-06-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that pathological B cells play an essential role in the triggering and development of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A rational strategy for treating SLE might be to delete B cells thereby suppressing autoimmunity. Commercial monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody is widely used for treatment of B cell-related autoimmune disorders. However its long term use is limited by several factors including short half-life, high cost, and possible side effects of antibody protein therapy. Therefore, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus encoding the murine anti-CD20 antibody gene, and used it to immunize lupus-prone (BWF1) mice. Our data demonstrated that administration of adenovirus encoding the murine anti-CD20 antibody gene generated murine anti-CD20 antibody, which resulted in elimination of B cells in BWF1 mice. In addition, the anti-CD20 reduced serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels, impeded the development of proteinuria and improved the survival of BWF1 mice. These findings suggested that the adenovirus encoding murine anti-CD20 antibody gene might provide an alternative strategy for B cell-mediated diseases. PMID:21272677

  9. Activated proliferation of B-cell lymphomas/leukemias with the SHP1 gene silencing by aberrant CpG methylation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Maho; Oka, Takashi; Ouchida, Mamoru; Nakatani, Yoko; Nishiuchi, Ritsuo; Yoshino, Tadashi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Akagi, Tadaatsu; Seino, Yoshiki

    2003-12-01

    Previously we showed reduced protein and mRNA expression of the SHP1 gene in lymphoma/leukemia cell lines and patient specimens by Northern blot, RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. In this study, aberrant methylation in the SHP1 gene promoter was detected in many B-cell leukemia/lymphoma cell lines as well as in patient specimens, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (methylation frequency 93%), MALT lymphoma (82%), mantle cell lymphoma (75%), plasmacytoma (100%) and follicular lymphoma (96%) by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing, and restriction enzyme-mediated PCR analyses. The methylation frequency was significantly higher in high-grade MALT lymphoma cases (100%) than in low-grade MALT lymphoma cases (70%), which correlated well with the frequency of no expression of SHP1 protein in high-grade (80%) and low-grade MALT lymphoma (54%). It suggests that the SHP1 gene silencing with aberrant CpG methylation relates to the lymphoma progression. SHP1 protein expression was recovered in B-cell lines after the treatment of the demethylating reagent: 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Transfection of the intact SHP1 gene to the hematopoietic cultured cells, which show no expression of the SHP1 gene, induced growth inhibition, indicating that gene silencing of the SHP1 gene by aberrant methylation plays an important role to get the growth advantage of the malignant lymphoma/leukemia cells. The extraordinarily high frequency (75 to 100%) of CpG methylation of the SHP1 gene in B-cell lymphoma/leukemia patient specimens indicates that the SHP1 gene silencing is one of the critical events to the onset of malignant lymphomas/leukemias as well as important implications for the diagnostic or prognostic markers and the target of gene therapy. These data support the possibility that the SHP1 gene is one of the tumor suppressor genes. PMID:14691303

  10. TBL1XR1/TP63: a novel recurrent gene fusion in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David W.; Mungall, Karen L.; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Rogic, Sanja; Morin, Ryan D.; Slack, Graham W.; Tan, King L.; Chan, Fong Chun; Lim, Raymond S.; Connors, Joseph M.; Marra, Marco A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Steidl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the landscape of single base mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) was described. Here we report the discovery of a gene fusion between TBL1XR1 and TP63, the only recurrent somatic novel gene fusion identified in our analysis of transcriptome data from 96 DLBCL cases. Based on this cohort and a further 157 DLBCL cases analyzed by FISH, the incidence in de novo germinal center B cell–like (GCB) DLBCL is 5% (6 of 115). The fusion appears exclusive to GCB and was not seen in 138 non-GCB cases examined (P = .008, Fisher exact test) but was present at low incidence in follicular lymphoma (1 of 81). In all 7 cases identified, the 3′ end of the fusion consists of exons 4 and onwards of TP63. The recurrence, subtype enrichment, and the remarkably conserved nature of the TP63 portion of the fusion suggest an important functional role in the lymphomas that harbor this event. PMID:22496164

  11. [Expression and significance of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG-3) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Lu-Qin; Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhu, Wei; Guo, Yu-Lin

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression of p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG-3) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and the relationship between PIG-3 and the pathogenesis of lymphoma. The expression of PIG-3 in 20 patients with DLBCL and 20 healthy adults (as a control group) was detected by Western blot and RT-PCR. The results showed that the expression of PIG-3 protein in patients with DLBCL was significantly lower than that in controls, but the expression of PIG-3 was higher after chemotherapy for 6 months than that before chemotherapy. RT-PCR detection demonstrated that the size of PIG-3 amplified product is 1285 bp, which is coincident with theoretic value. It is concluded that the down-regulation of PIG-3 expression may be closely related to pathogenesis of DLBCL, so the PIG-3 gene can considered as a important marker for judging therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of patients with DLBCL. PMID:23628040

  12. High-frequency deletional rearrangement of immunoglobulin kappa gene segments introduced into a pre-B-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Engler, P; Storb, U

    1987-01-01

    We describe an immunoglobulin gene recombination indicator in which a specific rearrangement via deletion results in the acquisition of a dominant phenotype. The indicator consists of the Escherichia coli xanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (gpt) gene, whose translation is prevented by the presence of an upstream initiation codon out of frame with respect to the gpt coding sequence. Flanking this barrier initiation codon are the heptamer-spacer-nonamer recognition sequences from a kappa chain variable region (V kappa) and from a kappa chain joining region (J kappa). A proper V-J joint results in the deletion of the translational barrier and allows expression of the selectable marker. When tested by transfection into fibroblasts, no rearrangements were detected and the presence of the barrier initiation codon was sufficient to completely abolish gpt expression in these cells. Similarly, no rearrangements were detected after transfer of the test gene into myeloma cells. However, when the construct was introduced into the pre-B-cell line 38B9, greater than 80% of the transfected cells showed evidence of a specific rearrangement. These rearrangements were associated with the translation of gpt, although no selection for its expression was needed. DNA sequence analysis of six different V-J joints revealed that the rearrangement proceeded with a high degree of accuracy. These results indicate that only very minimal DNA sequences (21 base pairs 5' of the V heptamer and 4 base pairs 3' of its nonamer; less than 45 base pairs 5' of the J nonamer and 3' of its heptamer) are required for efficient rearrangement and provide formal proof that kappa gene segments can rearrange by a deletional mechanism. Images PMID:3110776

  13. Translocation of Y-Linked Genes to the Dot Chromosome in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Larracuente, Amanda M.; Noor, Mohamed A. F.; Clark, Andrew G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most striking cases of sex chromosome reorganization in Drosophila occurred in the lineage ancestral to Drosophila pseudoobscura, where there was a translocation of Y-linked genes to an autosome. These genes went from being present only in males, never recombining, and having an effective population size of 0.5N to a state of autosomal linkage, where they are passed through both sexes, may recombine, and their effective population size has quadrupled. These genes appear to be functional, and they underwent a drastic reduction in intron size after the translocation. A Y-autosome translocation may pose problems in meiosis if the rDNA locus responsible for X–Y pairing had also moved to an autosome. In this study, we demonstrate that the Y-autosome translocation moved Y-linked genes onto the dot chromosome, a small, mainly heterochromatic autosome with some sex chromosome–like properties. The rDNA repeats occur exclusively on the X chromosome in D. pseudoobscura, but we found that the new Y chromosome of this species harbors four clusters bearing only the intergenic spacer region (IGS) of the rDNA repeats. This arrangement appears analogous to the situation in Drosophila simulans, where X-rDNA to Y-IGS pairing could be responsible for X–Y chromosome pairing. We postulate that the nascent D. pseudoobscura Y chromosome acquired and amplified copies of the IGS, suggesting a potential mechanism for X–Y pairing in D. pseudoobscura. PMID:20147437

  14. Changes in Histone Acetylation Are Associated with Differences in Accessibility of VH Gene Segments to V-DJ Recombination during B-Cell Ontogeny and Development

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristen; Angelin-Duclos, Cristina; Park, Sinae; Calame, Kathryn L.

    2003-01-01

    Although V(D)J recombination is thought to be regulated by changes in the accessibility of chromatin to the recombinase machinery, the mechanisms responsible for establishing open chromatin are poorly understood. We performed a detailed study of the acetylation status of histones associated with 11 VH gene segments, their flanking regions, and various intergenic elements during B-cell development and ontogeny, when V(D)J recombination is highly regulated. Histone H4 shows higher and more-regulated acetylation than does histone H3 in the VH locus. In adult pro-B cells, VH gene segments are acetylated prior to V(D)J rearrangement, with higher acetylation associated with JH-distal VH gene segments. While large regions of the VH locus have similar patterns of histone acetylation, acetylation is narrowly confined to the gene segments, their flanking promoters, and recombinase signal sequence elements. Thus, histone acetylation in the VH locus is both locally and globally regulated. Increased histone acetylation accompanies preferential recombination of JH-proximal VH gene segments in early B-cell ontogeny, and decreased histone acetylation accompanies inhibition of V-DJ recombination in a transgenic model of immunoglobulin heavy-chain allelic exclusion. Thus, changes in histone acetylation appear to be important for both promotion and inhibition of V-DJ rearrangement during B-cell ontogeny and development. PMID:12640127

  15. HDAC7 Is a Repressor of Myeloid Genes Whose Downregulation Is Required for Transdifferentiation of Pre-B Cells into Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Collazo, Olga; Rafati, Haleh; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Bussmann, Lars H.; di Tullio, Alessandro; De Andres, Luisa; Graf, Thomas; López-Bigas, Núria; Mahmoudi, Tokameh; Parra, Maribel

    2013-01-01

    B lymphopoiesis is the result of several cell-commitment, lineage-choice, and differentiation processes. Every differentiation step is characterized by the activation of a new, lineage-specific, genetic program and the extinction of the previous one. To date, the central role of specific transcription factors in positively regulating these distinct differentiation processes to acquire a B cell–specific genetic program is well established. However, the existence of specific transcriptional repressors responsible for the silencing of lineage inappropriate genes remains elusive. Here we addressed the molecular mechanism behind repression of non-lymphoid genes in B cells. We report that the histone deacetylase HDAC7 was highly expressed in pre-B cells but dramatically down-regulated during cellular lineage conversion to macrophages. Microarray analysis demonstrated that HDAC7 re-expression interfered with the acquisition of the gene transcriptional program characteristic of macrophages during cell transdifferentiation; the presence of HDAC7 blocked the induction of key genes for macrophage function, such as immune, inflammatory, and defense response, cellular response to infections, positive regulation of cytokines production, and phagocytosis. Moreover, re-introduction of HDAC7 suppressed crucial functions of macrophages, such as the ability to phagocytose bacteria and to respond to endotoxin by expressing major pro-inflammatory cytokines. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating HDAC7 repression in pre-B cells, we undertook co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation experimental approaches. We found that HDAC7 specifically interacted with the transcription factor MEF2C in pre-B cells and was recruited to MEF2 binding sites located at the promoters of genes critical for macrophage function. Thus, in B cells HDAC7 is a transcriptional repressor of undesirable genes. Our findings uncover a novel role for HDAC7 in maintaining the identity of a particular cell type by silencing lineage-inappropriate genes. PMID:23696748

  16. Concurrent epigenetic silencing of wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor genes in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Wnt/β-catenin signalling is aberrantly activated in primary B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Epigenetic silencing of pathway inhibitor genes may be a mechanism for its activation. In this study, we investigated systematically and quantitatively the methylation status of 12 Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor genes – CDH1, DACT1, DKK1, DKK2, DKK3, DKK4, SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP3, SFRP4, SFRP5 and WIF1 – in the cell lines EHEB and MEC-1 as well as patient samples. Methods Quantification of DNA methylation was performed by means of bisulphite pyrosequencing and confirmed by bisulphite Sanger sequencing. Gene expression was analysed by qPCR using GAPDH as internal control. E-cadherin and β-catenin protein quantification was carried out by microsphere-based immunoassays. Methylation differences observed between the patient and control groups were tested using generalised least squares models. Results For 10 genes, a higher methylation level was observed in tumour material. Only DKK4 exhibited similarly high methylation levels in both tumour and normal specimens, while DACT1 was always essentially unmethylated. However, also for these inhibitors, treatment of cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine resulted in an induction of their expression, as shown by quantitative PCR, suggesting an indirect epigenetic control of activity. While the degree of demethylation and its transcriptional consequences differed between the genes, there was an overall high correlation of demethylation and increased activity. Protein expression studies revealed that no constitutive Wnt/β-catenin signalling occurred in the cell lines, which is in discrepancy with results from primary CLL. However, treatment with 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine caused accumulation of β-catenin. Simultaneously, E-cadherin expression was strongly induced, leading to the formation of a complex with β-catenin and thus demonstrating its epigenetically regulated inhibition effect. Conclusions The results suggest an epigenetic silencing mechanism of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor genes in CLL. Hypermethylation and silencing of functionally related genes may not be completely stochastic but result from the tumour epigenome reprogramming orchestrated by Polycomb-group repressive complexes. The data are of interest in the context of epigenetic-based therapy. PMID:22672427

  17. Gene profiling of canine B-cell lymphoma reveals germinal center and post-germinal center subtypes with different survival times, modeling human DLBCL

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Kristy L.; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A.; Chen, Hsiao-wei; Fedoriw, Yuri; Fan, Cheng; Nielsen, Dahlia M.; Small, George W.; Thomas, Rachael; Smith, Chris; Dave, Sandeep S.; Perou, Charles M.; Breen, Matthew; Borst, Luke B.; Suter, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype, and fewer than half of patients are cured with standard front-line therapy. To improve therapeutic options, better animal models that accurately mimic human DLBCL (hDLBCL) are needed. Canine DLBCL (cDLBCL), one of the most common cancers in veterinary oncology, is morphologically similar to hDLBCL and is treated using similar chemotherapeutic protocols. With genomic technologies, it is now possible to molecularly evaluate dogs as a potential large-animal model for hDLBCL. We evaluated canine B-cell lymphomas (cBCLs) using immunohistochemistry and gene expression profiling. Canine B-cell lymphoma expression profiles were similar in many ways to hDLBCLs. For instance, a subset had increased expression of NF-?B pathway genes, mirroring human activated B-cell (ABC)-type DLBCL. Furthermore, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) ongoing mutation status, which is correlated with ABC/germinal center B-cell (GCB) cell of origin in hDLBCL, separated cBCL into two groups with statistically different progression-free and overall survival times. In contrast with hDLBCL, cBCL rarely expressed BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, these studies identify molecular similarities to hDLBCL that introduce pet dogs as a representative model of hDLBCL for future studies, including therapeutic clinical trials. PMID:23783577

  18. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subgroups have distinct genetic profiles that influence tumor biology and improve gene-expression-based survival prediction

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Silvia; Zettl, Andreas; Wright, George; Salaverria, Itziar; Jehn, Philipp; Moreno, Victor; Burek, Christof; Ott, German; Puig, Xavier; Yang, Liming; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Chan, Wing C.; Greiner, Timothy C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Armitage, James O.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Grogan, Thomas M.; Braziel, Rita; Fisher, Richard I.; Smeland, Erlend B.; Kvaloy, Stein; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Simon, Richard; Powell, John; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Montserrat, Emili; Muller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Staudt, Louis M.; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Gene-expression profiling has identified 3 major subgroups of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL): germinal center B-cell-like (GCB), activated B-cell-like (ABC), and primary mediastinal DLBCL (PMBCL). Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), we investigated the genetic alterations of 224 cases of untreated DLBCL (87 GCB-DLBCL, 77 ABC-DLBCL, 19 PMBCL, and 41 unclassified DLBCL) previously characterized by gene-expression profiling. The DLBCL subgroups differed significantly in the frequency of particular chromosomal aberrations. ABC-DLBCL had frequent trisomy 3, gains of 3q and 18q21-q22, and losses of 6q21-q22, whereas GCB-DLBCL had frequent gains of 12q12, and PMBCL had gains of 9p21-pter and 2p14-p16. Parallel analysis of CGH alterations, locus-specific gene-expression profiles, and global gene-expression signatures revealed that DNA amplifications and gains had a substantial impact on the expression of genes in the involved chromosomal regions, and some genes were overexpressed in a DLBCL subgroup-specific fashion. Unexpectedly, specific chromosomal alterations were associated with significant changes in gene-expression signatures that reflect various aspects of lymphoma cell biology as well as the host response to the lymphoma. In addition, gains involving the chromosomal region 3p11-p12 provided prognostic information that was statistically independent of the previously defined gene-expression-based survival model, thereby improving its predictive power. PMID:16046532

  19. Epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas with TFE3 gene translocations are compossible with CAMTA1 gene rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Joo; Yang, Woo Ick; Chung, Woo-Suk; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2016-02-16

    Epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas (EHEs) are vascular tumors of intermediate malignancy that can undergo high-grade malignant transformations. EHEs have been characterized by tumor-specific WW domain-containing transcription regulator 1(WWTR1)-calmodulin-binding transcription activator 1 (CAMTA1) translocations, and recently, a novel Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1)-transcription factor E3 (TFE3) gene fusion was identified in EHEs. In this study, we examined the expression levels of TFE3 and CAMTA1 via immunohistochemical staining and identified chromosomal alterations using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays and RT-PCR tests. Although all of the EHEs were CAMTA1-positive in immunohistochemical staining, only five out of 18 EHEs (27.78%) positively expressed nuclear TFE3. The five TFE3-positive EHEs exhibited TFE3 gene break-apart in FISH assays. YAP1-TFE3 gene fusions were confirmed by RT-PCR. Interestingly, we observed CAMTA1 gene break-apart in all of the five TFE3-positive EHEs via FISH assays, and four out of the five TFE3-positive EHEs exhibited WWTR1-CAMTA1 gene fusions via RT-PCR. These results indicate that these two chromosomal alterations are not mutually exclusive but compossible in EHEs. Finally, primary tumor sites in TFE3-positive EHEs consistently contained single masses (P = 0.0359) with larger sizes (P = 0.0550) compared to TFE3-negative EHEs. Similar to previous reports, we observed well-formed vessels more frequently in TFE3-positive EHEs than in TFE3-negative EHEs (P = 0.0441). In addition, TFE3-positive EHEs tended to more frequently demonstrate high-grade nuclear atypia (P = 0.0654) and hypercellularity (P=0.0987) than TFE3-negative EHEs. Thus, we have now established two clinically distinct subgroups of EHEs: TFE3-positive and TFE3-negative EHEs. PMID:26840265

  20. Inducible gene deletion reveals different roles for B-Raf and Raf-1 in B-cell antigen receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, Tilman; Shaw, Peter E.; Reth, Michael; Misawa, Yukiko

    2002-01-01

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) leads to activation of the RafMEKERK pathway and Raf kinases play an important role in the modulation of ERK activity. B lymphocytes express two Raf isoforms, Raf-1 and B-Raf. Using an inducible deletion system in DT40 cells, the contribution of Raf-1 and B-Raf to BCR signalling was dissected. Loss of Raf-1 has no effect on BCR-mediated ERK activation, whereas B-Raf-deficient DT40 cells display a reduced basal ERK activity as well as a shortened BCR-mediated ERK activation. The Raf-1/B-Raf double deficient DT40 cells show an almost complete block both in ERK activation and in the induction of the immediate early gene products c-Fos and Egr-1. In contrast, BCR-mediated activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) relies predominantly on B-Raf. Furthermore, complementation of Raf-1/B-Raf double deficient cells with various Raf mutants demonstrates a requirement for Ras-GTP binding in BCR-mediated activation of both Raf isoforms and also reveals the important role of the S259 residue for the regulation of Raf-1. Our study shows that BCR-mediated ERK activation involves a cooperation of both B-Raf and Raf-1, which are activated specifically in a temporally distinct manner. PMID:12411479

  1. Expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 gene induced by CpG-DNA in human B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Su Ho; Kim, Young-Eun; Park, Jeong-A; Park, Jae-Bong; Kim, Yong-Sun; Lee, Younghee; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kwon, Hyung-Joo; Center for Medical Science Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Gangwon-do 200-702

    2009-11-20

    Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contribution of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.

  2. Repression of the Proapoptotic Cellular BIK/NBK Gene by Epstein-Barr Virus Antagonizes Transforming Growth Factor β1-Induced B-Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Eva M.; Hakimjavadi, Roya; Loughran, Sinéad T.; Phelan, Susan; Smith, Sinéad M.; D'Souza, Brendan N.; Tierney, Rosemary J.; Bell, Andrew I.; Cahill, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes a lifelong latent infection in humans. EBV infection of primary B cells causes cell activation and proliferation, a process driven by the viral latency III gene expression program, which includes EBV nuclear proteins (EBNAs), latent membrane proteins, and untranslated RNAs, including microRNAs. Some latently infected cells enter the long-lived memory B-cell compartment and express only EBNA1 transiently (Lat I) or no EBV protein at all (Lat 0). Targeting the molecular machinery that controls B-cell fate decisions, including the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, is crucial to the EBV cycle of infection. Here, we show that BIK (also known as NBK), which encodes a proapoptotic “sensitizer” protein, is repressed by the EBNA2-driven Lat III program but not the Lat I program. BIK repression occurred soon after infection of primary B cells by EBV but not by a recombinant EBV in which the EBNA2 gene had been knocked out. Ectopic BIK induced apoptosis in Lat III cells by a mechanism dependent on its BH3 domain and the activation of caspases. We show that EBNA2 represses BIK in EBV-negative B-cell lymphoma-derived cell lines and that this host-virus interaction can inhibit the proapoptotic effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), a key physiological mediator of B-cell homeostasis. Reduced levels of TGF-β1-associated regulatory SMAD proteins were bound to the BIK promoter in response to EBV Lat III or ectopic EBNA2. These data are evidence of an additional mechanism used by EBV to promote B-cell survival, namely, the transcriptional repression of the BH3-only sensitizer BIK. IMPORTANCE Over 90% of adult humans are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV establishes a lifelong silent infection, with its DNA residing in small numbers of blood B cells that are a reservoir from which low-level virus reactivation and shedding in saliva intermittently occur. Importantly, EBV DNA is found in some B-cell-derived tumors in which viral genes play a key role in tumor cell emergence and progression. Here, we report for the first time that EBV can shut off a B-cell gene called BIK. When activated by a molecular signal called transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), BIK plays an important role in killing unwanted B cells, including those infected by viruses. We describe the key EBV–B-cell molecular interactions that lead to BIK shutoff. These findings further our knowledge of how EBV prevents the death of its host cell during infection. They are also relevant to certain posttransplant lymphomas where unregulated cell growth is caused by EBV genes. PMID:24554662

  3. TNFAIP3 (A20) is a tumor suppressor gene in Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Roland; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Bohle, Verena; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Hartmann, Sylvia; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Klapper, Wolfram; Vater, Inga; Giefing, Maciej; Gesk, Stefan; Stanelle, Jens; Siebert, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and survival of Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells, the malignant cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), are dependent on constitutive activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). NF-κB activation through various stimuli is negatively regulated by the zinc finger protein A20. To determine whether A20 contributes to the pathogenesis of cHL, we sequenced TNFAIP3, encoding A20, in HL cell lines and laser-microdissected HRS cells from cHL biopsies. We detected somatic mutations in 16 out of 36 cHLs (44%), including missense mutations in 2 out of 16 Epstein-Barr virus–positive (EBV+) cHLs and a missense mutation, nonsense mutations, and frameshift-causing insertions or deletions in 14 out of 20 EBV− cHLs. In most mutated cases, both TNFAIP3 alleles were inactivated, including frequent chromosomal deletions of TNFAIP3. Reconstitution of wild-type TNFAIP3 in A20-deficient cHL cell lines revealed a significant decrease in transcripts of selected NF-κB target genes and caused cytotoxicity. Extending the mutation analysis to primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL), another lymphoma with constitutive NF-κB activity, revealed destructive mutations in 5 out of 14 PMBLs (36%). This report identifies TNFAIP3 (A20), a key regulator of NF-κB activity, as a novel tumor suppressor gene in cHL and PMBL. The significantly higher frequency of TNFAIP3 mutations in EBV− than EBV+ cHL suggests complementing functions of TNFAIP3 inactivation and EBV infection in cHL pathogenesis. PMID:19380639

  4. CD38 and interleukin 6 gene polymorphism in egyptians with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Roba M; Abdel-Aziz, Amal M; El-Maadawy, Eman A; Abdel-Bary, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of understanding the genetic variations involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), this pilot study was designed to investigate the impact of CD38 (184C/G; rs6449182) and IL-6 (-174 G/C; rs1800795) gene polymorphism on susceptibility of Egyptians to diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL); major types of NHL. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one that examines CD38 polymorphism in the NHL. Genotyping polymorphism is performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) for CD38 and Mutagenically separated PCR (MS-PCR) for IL-6 in 100 Egyptian NHL patients with DLBCL subtype and 119 normal controls. The serum level of IL-6 was measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD38 (184C/G) genotype is significantly increased in NHL patients (p < 0.01), while the GG genotype is significantly increased in controls (p < 0.05). Only two genotypes were found (GG and GC) in IL-6 (-174), no CC in our NHL patients and only one case in the controls. Insignificant change in IL-6 (-174 G/C) genotypes was recorded. Significantly increased serum IL-6 (p < 0.05) was positively correlated (r = 0.17; p < 0.05) with the disease. Taken together, our data stressed the importance of CD38 gene polymorphism in developing DLBCL. Our pilot study indicates that CD38 (184) CG genotype might play a role in DLBCL susceptibility in Egyptians. Additional prospective studies on larger population are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25564959

  5. Colorimetric in situ hybridization identifies MYC gene signal clusters correlating with increased copy number, mRNA, and protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Carlo; Kendrick, Samantha; Johnson, Nathalie; Gascoyne, Randy; Chan, Wing C; Weisenburger, Dennis; Braziel, Rita; Cook, James R; Tubbs, Raymond; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Jaffe, Elaine; Zhang, Wenjun; Brunhoeber, Patrick; Nitta, Hiro; Grogan, Tom; Rimsza, Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Abnormalities of the MYC oncogene on chromosome 8 are characteristic of Burkitt lymphoma and other aggressive B-cell lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We recently described a colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) method for detecting extra copies of the MYC gene in DLBCL and the frequent occurrence of excess copies of discrete MYC signals in the context of diploidy or polyploidy of chromosome 8, which correlated with increased mRNA signals. We further observed enlarged MYC signals, which were counted as a single gene copy but, by their dimension and unusual shape, likely consisted of "clusters" of MYC genes. In this study, we sought to further characterize these clusters of MYC signals by determining whether the presence of these correlated with other genetic features, mRNA levels, protein, and overall survival. We found that MYC clusters correlated with an abnormal MYC locus and with increased mRNA. MYC mRNA correlated with protein levels, and both increased mRNA and protein correlated with poorer overall survival. MYC clusters were seen in both the germinal center and activated B-cell subtypes of DLBCL. Clusters of MYC signals may be an underappreciated, but clinically important, feature of aggressive B-cell lymphomas with potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance. PMID:23355209

  6. X-linked intellectual disability related genes disrupted by balanced X-autosome translocations.

    PubMed

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Di Battista, Adriana; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Bragagnolo, Silvia; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Detailed molecular characterization of chromosomal rearrangements involving X-chromosome has been a key strategy in identifying X-linked intellectual disability-causing genes. We fine-mapped the breakpoints in four women with balanced X-autosome translocations and variable phenotypes, in order to investigate the corresponding genetic contribution to intellectual disability. We addressed the impact of the gene interruptions in transcription and discussed the consequences of their functional impairment in neurodevelopment. Three patients presented with cognitive impairment, reinforcing the association between the disrupted genes (TSPAN7-MRX58, KIAA2022-MRX98, and IL1RAPL1-MRX21/34) and intellectual disability. While gene expression analysis showed absence of TSPAN7 and KIAA2022 expression in the patients, the unexpected expression of IL1RAPL1 suggested a fusion transcript ZNF611-IL1RAPL1 under the control of the ZNF611 promoter, gene disrupted at the autosomal breakpoint. The X-chromosomal breakpoint definition in the fourth patient, a woman with normal intellectual abilities, revealed disruption of the ZDHHC15 gene (MRX91). The expression assays did not detect ZDHHC15 gene expression in the patient, thus questioning its involvement in intellectual disability. Revealing the disruption of an X-linked intellectual disability-related gene in patients with balanced X-autosome translocation is a useful tool for a better characterization of critical genes in neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26290131

  7. Epstein-Barr Virus Latency in B Cells Leads to Epigenetic Repression and CpG Methylation of the Tumour Suppressor Gene Bim

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, Kostas; Smith, Paul; Anderton, Emma; Middeldorp, Jaap M.; White, Robert E.; Allday, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    In human B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), latency-associated virus gene products inhibit expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-family member Bim and enhance cell survival. This involves the activities of the EBV nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and appears to be predominantly directed at regulating Bim mRNA synthesis, although post-transcriptional regulation of Bim has been reported. Here we show that protein and RNA stability make little or no contribution to the EBV-associated repression of Bim in latently infected B cells. However, treatment of cells with inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes indicated that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the down-regulation of Bim. This was initially confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of histone acetylation levels on the Bim promoter. Consistent with this, methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulphite sequencing of regions within the large CpG island located at the 5′ end of Bim revealed significant methylation of CpG dinucleotides in all EBV-positive, but not EBV-negative B cells examined. Genomic DNA samples exhibiting methylation of the Bim promoter included extracts from a series of explanted EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) biopsies. Subsequent analyses of the histone modification H3K27-Me3 (trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27) and CpG methylation at loci throughout the Bim promoter suggest that in EBV-positive B cells repression of Bim is initially associated with this repressive epigenetic histone mark gradually followed by DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides. We conclude that latent EBV initiates a chain of events that leads to epigenetic repression of the tumour suppressor gene Bim in infected B cells and their progeny. This reprogramming of B cells could have important implications for our understanding of EBV persistence and the pathogenesis of EBV-associated disease, in particular BL. PMID:19557159

  8. MOZ regulates B-cell progenitors and, consequently, Moz haploinsufficiency dramatically retards MYC-induced lymphoma development.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Bilal N; Lee, Stanley C W; El-Saafin, Farrah; Vanyai, Hannah K; Hu, Yifang; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Grabow, Stephanie; Strasser, Andreas; Nutt, Stephen L; Alexander, Warren S; Smyth, Gordon K; Voss, Anne K; Thomas, Tim

    2015-03-19

    The histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3, KAT6A) is the target of recurrent chromosomal translocations fusing the MOZ gene to CBP, p300, NCOA3, or TIF2 in particularly aggressive cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we report the role of wild-type MOZ in regulating B-cell progenitor proliferation and hematopoietic malignancy. In the Eμ-Myc model of aggressive pre-B/B-cell lymphoma, the loss of just one allele of Moz increased the median survival of mice by 3.9-fold. MOZ was required to maintain the proliferative capacity of B-cell progenitors, even in the presence of c-MYC overexpression, by directly maintaining the transcriptional activity of genes required for normal B-cell development. Hence, B-cell progenitor numbers were significantly reduced in Moz haploinsufficient animals. Interestingly, we find a significant overlap in genes regulated by MOZ, mixed lineage leukemia 1, and mixed lineage leukemia 1 cofactor menin. This includes Meis1, a TALE class homeobox transcription factor required for B-cell development, characteristically upregulated as a result of MLL1 translocations in leukemia. We demonstrate that MOZ localizes to the Meis1 locus in pre-B-cells and maintains Meis1 expression. Our results suggest that even partial inhibition of MOZ may reduce the proliferative capacity of MEIS1, and HOX-driven lymphoma and leukemia cells. PMID:25605372

  9. MOZ regulates B-cell progenitors and, consequently, Moz haploinsufficiency dramatically retards MYC-induced lymphoma development

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Bilal N.; Lee, Stanley C. W.; El-Saafin, Farrah; Vanyai, Hannah K.; Hu, Yifang; Pang, Swee Heng Milon; Grabow, Stephanie; Strasser, Andreas; Nutt, Stephen L.; Alexander, Warren S.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Voss, Anne K.

    2015-01-01

    The histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3, KAT6A) is the target of recurrent chromosomal translocations fusing the MOZ gene to CBP, p300, NCOA3, or TIF2 in particularly aggressive cases of acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we report the role of wild-type MOZ in regulating B-cell progenitor proliferation and hematopoietic malignancy. In the Eμ-Myc model of aggressive pre-B/B-cell lymphoma, the loss of just one allele of Moz increased the median survival of mice by 3.9-fold. MOZ was required to maintain the proliferative capacity of B-cell progenitors, even in the presence of c-MYC overexpression, by directly maintaining the transcriptional activity of genes required for normal B-cell development. Hence, B-cell progenitor numbers were significantly reduced in Moz haploinsufficient animals. Interestingly, we find a significant overlap in genes regulated by MOZ, mixed lineage leukemia 1, and mixed lineage leukemia 1 cofactor menin. This includes Meis1, a TALE class homeobox transcription factor required for B-cell development, characteristically upregulated as a result of MLL1 translocations in leukemia. We demonstrate that MOZ localizes to the Meis1 locus in pre–B-cells and maintains Meis1 expression. Our results suggest that even partial inhibition of MOZ may reduce the proliferative capacity of MEIS1, and HOX-driven lymphoma and leukemia cells. PMID:25605372

  10. BCL2 mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, J M; Johnson, N A; Morin, R D; Scott, D W; Tan, K; Ben-Nierah, S; Boyle, M; Slack, G W; Marra, M A; Connors, J M; Brooks-Wilson, A R; Gascoyne, R D

    2012-06-01

    BCL2 is deregulated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by the t(14;18) translocation, gene amplification and/or nuclear factor-κB signaling. RNA-seq data have recently shown that BCL2 is the most highly mutated gene in germinal center B-cell (GCB) DLBCL. We have sequenced BCL2 in 298 primary DLBCL biopsies, 131 additional non-Hodgkin lymphoma biopsies, 24 DLBCL cell lines and 51 germline DNAs. We found frequent BCL2 mutations in follicular lymphoma (FL) and GCB DLBCL, but low levels of BCL2 mutations in activated B-cell DLBCL, mantle cell lymphoma, small lymphocytic leukemia and peripheral T-cell lymphoma. We found no BCL2 mutations in GC centroblasts. Many mutations were non-synonymous; they were preferentially located in the flexible loop domain, with few in BCL2-homology domains. An elevated transition/transversions ratio supports that the mutations result from somatic hypermutation. BCL2 translocations correlate with, and are likely important in acquisition of, additional BCL2 mutations in GCB DLBCL and FL. DLBCL mutations were not independently associated with survival. Although previous studies of BCL2 mutations in FL have reported mutations to result in pseudo-negative BCL2 protein expression, we find this rare in de-novo DLBCL. PMID:22189900

  11. Fixed nuclei as alternative template of BIOMED-2 multiplex polymerase chain reaction for immunoglobulin gene clonality testing in B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Jianchao; Zheng, Ke; Liao, Dianying; Liao, Xiaomei; Liu, Weiping; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangements with BIOMED-2 multiplex PCR has become a standard detection of clonality in mature B cell malignancies. Conventionally, this method is relatively labor-intensive and time-consuming, as it requires DNA isolation from bone marrow aspirates (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) in patients with BM or PB involvement. On the other hand, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is routinely used as genetic screening in B cell malignancies, but the surplus fixed nuclei initially prepared for FISH usually turn useless afterwards. We sought to use these surplus nuclei after FISH as a template to perform PCR-based Ig gene clonality testing. Templates of 12 patients with mature B cell malignancies, which consisted of both DNA isolated with commercial DNA isolation kit from fresh BM or PB (DNA group) and the fixed nuclei initially prepared for FISH (nuclei group) from the same individuals, were subjected to PCR with BIOMED-2 primer sets for immunoglobulin heavy chain and kappa light chain under recommended conditions. Our result, for the first time, showed a high consistency between the two groups in detecting B cell clonality, which indicates that nuclei for FISH can function as a reliable template comparable to fresh tissue-isolated DNA in PCR based Ig clonality testing. This offers a simple, rapid and more economical alternative to standard Ig testing based on regular DNA.

  12. A novel heterozygous point mutation in the p63 gene in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia associated with B-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Miguel; Torrelo, Antonio; Monteagudo, Benigno; Suárez-Amor, Oscar; Ramírez-Santos, Aquilina; González-Vilas, Daniel; de las Heras, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    We report a 7-year-old boy with a past medical history of B-cell leukemia with dysmorphic features, including cleft palate, hypotrichosis with trichorrhexis nodosa, hypohidrosis, oligodontia, and ridging of nails. A heterozygous germline mutation, Ala111Thr, in the p63 gene was detected in the boy and in his mother, who had no clinical expression. This case emphasizes the spectrum of different phenotypical manifestations of mutations in the p63 gene and underlines the possible role of this gene as a tumor suppressor. PMID:21906144

  13. HACE1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene in B-cell lymphomagenesis and is down-regulated by both deletion and epigenetic alterations.

    PubMed

    Bouzelfen, Abdelilah; Alcantara, Marion; Kora, Hafid; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Bertrand, Philippe; Cornic, Marie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bohers, Elodie; Maingonnat, Catherine; Ruminy, Philippe; Adriouch, Sahil; Boyer, Olivier; Dubois, Sydney; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Hervé; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Jardin, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1, HACE1, located on chromosome 6q, encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and is downregulated in many human tumors. Here, we report HACE1 as a candidate tumor suppressor gene down-regulated by a combination of deletion and epigenetic mechanisms. HACE1 deletions were observed in 40% of B-cell lymphoma tumors. Hypermethylation of the HACE1 promoter CpG177 island was found in 60% (68/111) of cases and in all tested B-cell lymphoma lines. Using HDAC inhibitors, we observed predominantly inactive chromatin conformation (methylated H3 histones H3K9me2) in HACE1 gene promoter region. We demonstrated in Ramos and Raji cells that down-regulation of HACE1 expression was associated with a significant decrease in apoptosis and an accumulation of cells in the S and G2/M phases. Our experiments indicate that HACE1 can act as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in most B-cell lymphomas and can be downregulated by deacetylation of its promoter region chromatin, which makes HACE1 a potential target for HDAC inhibitors. PMID:27107267

  14. A Diverse Repertoire of Human Immunoglobulin Variable Genes in a Chicken B Cell Line is Generated by Both Gene Conversion and Somatic Hypermutation

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Philip A.; Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Glanville, Jacob; Harriman, William

    2015-01-01

    Chicken immune responses to human proteins are often more robust than rodent responses because of the phylogenetic relationship between the different species. For discovery of a diverse panel of unique therapeutic antibody candidates, chickens therefore represent an attractive host for human-derived targets. Recent advances in monoclonal antibody technology, specifically new methods for the molecular cloning of antibody genes directly from primary B cells, has ushered in a new era of generating monoclonal antibodies from non-traditional host animals that were previously inaccessible through hybridoma technology. However, such monoclonals still require post-discovery humanization in order to be developed as therapeutics. To obviate the need for humanization, a modified strain of chickens could be engineered to express a human-sequence immunoglobulin variable region repertoire. Here, human variable genes introduced into the chicken immunoglobulin loci through gene targeting were evaluated for their ability to be recognized and diversified by the native chicken recombination machinery that is present in the B-lineage cell line DT40. After expansion in culture the DT40 population accumulated genetic mutants that were detected via deep sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the human targeted constructs are performing as expected in the cell culture system, and provide a measure of confidence that they will be functional in transgenic animals. PMID:25852694

  15. Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of 2 genes reflecting tumor and microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Ash A; Gentles, Andrew J; Alencar, Alvaro J; Liu, Chih Long; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Houot, Roch; Goldstein, Matthew J; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana H; Gascoyne, Randy D; Briones, Javier; Tibshirani, Robert J; Myklebust, June H; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Lossos, Izidore S; Levy, Ronald

    2011-08-01

    Several gene-expression signatures predict survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the lack of practical methods for genome-scale analysis has limited translation to clinical practice. We built and validated a simple model using one gene expressed by tumor cells and another expressed by host immune cells, assessing added prognostic value to the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI). LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) was validated as an independent predictor of survival and the "germinal center B cell-like" subtype. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) from the DLBCL microenvironment was the best gene in bivariate combination with LMO2. Study of TNFRSF9 tissue expression in 95 patients with DLBCL showed expression limited to infiltrating T cells. A model integrating these 2 genes was independent of "cell-of-origin" classification, "stromal signatures," IPI, and added to the predictive power of the IPI. A composite score integrating these genes with IPI performed well in 3 independent cohorts of 545 DLBCL patients, as well as in a simple assay of routine formalin-fixed specimens from a new validation cohort of 147 patients with DLBCL. We conclude that the measurement of a single gene expressed by tumor cells (LMO2) and a single gene expressed by the immune microenvironment (TNFRSF9) powerfully predicts overall survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:21670469

  16. Molecular Classification of MYC-Driven B-Cell Lymphomas by Targeted Gene Expression Profiling of Fixed Biopsy Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Christopher D.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Chapuy, Bjoern; Kovach, Alexandra E.; Kluk, Michael J.; Sun, Heather H.; Crossland, Rachel E.; Bacon, Chris M.; Rand, Vikki; Cin, Paola Dal; Le, Long P.; Neuberg, Donna; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Monti, Stefano; Rodig, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are aggressive tumors of mature B cells that are distinguished by a combination of histomorphological, phenotypic, and genetic features. A subset of B-cell lymphomas, however, has one or more characteristics that overlap BL and DLBCL, and are categorized as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable, with features intermediate between BL and DLBCL (BCL-U). Molecular analyses support the concept that there is a biological continuum between BL and DLBCL that includes variable activity of MYC, an oncoprotein once thought to be only associated with BL, but now recognized as a major predictor of survival among patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We tested whether a targeted expression profiling panel could be used to categorize tumors as BL and DLBCL, resolve the molecular heterogeneity of BCL-U, and capture MYC activity using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. A diagnostic molecular classifier accurately predicted pathological diagnoses of BL and DLBCL, and provided more objective subclassification for a subset of BCL-U and genetic double-hit lymphomas as molecular BL or DLBCL. A molecular classifier of MYC activity correlated with MYC IHC and stratified patients with primary DLBCL treated with R-CHOP into high- and low-risk groups. These results establish a framework for classifying and stratifying MYC-driven, aggressive, B-cell lymphomas on the basis of quantitative molecular profiling that is applicable to fixed biopsy specimens. PMID:25468432

  17. Molecular classification of MYC-driven B-cell lymphomas by targeted gene expression profiling of fixed biopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Carey, Christopher D; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Chapuy, Bjoern; Kovach, Alexandra E; Kluk, Michael J; Sun, Heather H; Crossland, Rachel E; Bacon, Chris M; Rand, Vikki; Dal Cin, Paola; Le, Long P; Neuberg, Donna; Sohani, Aliyah R; Shipp, Margaret A; Monti, Stefano; Rodig, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are aggressive tumors of mature B cells that are distinguished by a combination of histomorphological, phenotypic, and genetic features. A subset of B-cell lymphomas, however, has one or more characteristics that overlap BL and DLBCL, and are categorized as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable, with features intermediate between BL and DLBCL (BCL-U). Molecular analyses support the concept that there is a biological continuum between BL and DLBCL that includes variable activity of MYC, an oncoprotein once thought to be only associated with BL, but now recognized as a major predictor of survival among patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We tested whether a targeted expression profiling panel could be used to categorize tumors as BL and DLBCL, resolve the molecular heterogeneity of BCL-U, and capture MYC activity using RNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. A diagnostic molecular classifier accurately predicted pathological diagnoses of BL and DLBCL, and provided more objective subclassification for a subset of BCL-U and genetic double-hit lymphomas as molecular BL or DLBCL. A molecular classifier of MYC activity correlated with MYC IHC and stratified patients with primary DLBCL treated with R-CHOP into high- and low-risk groups. These results establish a framework for classifying and stratifying MYC-driven, aggressive, B-cell lymphomas on the basis of quantitative molecular profiling that is applicable to fixed biopsy specimens. PMID:25468432

  18. Rgs13 constrains early B cell responses and limits germinal center sizes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Il-Young; Hwang, Kyung-Sun; Park, Chung; Harrison, Kathleen A; Kehrl, John H

    2013-01-01

    Germinal centers (GCs) are microanatomic structures that develop in secondary lymphoid organs in response to antigenic stimulation. Within GCs B cells clonally expand and their immunoglobulin genes undergo class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. Transcriptional profiling has identified a number of genes that are prominently expressed in GC B cells. Among them is Rgs13, which encodes an RGS protein with a dual function. Its canonical function is to accelerate the intrinsic GTPase activity of heterotrimeric G-protein α subunits at the plasma membrane, thereby limiting heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. A unique, non-canonical function of RGS13 occurs following translocation to the nucleus, where it represses CREB transcriptional activity. The functional role of RGS13 in GC B cells is unknown. To create a surrogate marker for Rgs13 expression and a loss of function mutation, we inserted a GFP coding region into the Rgs13 genomic locus. Following immunization GFP expression rapidly increased in activated B cells, persisted in GC B cells, but declined in newly generated memory B and plasma cells. Intravital microscopy of the inguinal lymph node (LN) of immunized mice revealed the rapid appearance of GFP(+) cells at LN interfollicular regions and along the T/B cell borders, and eventually within GCs. Analysis of WT, knock-in, and mixed chimeric mice indicated that RGS13 constrains extra-follicular plasma cell generation, GC size, and GC B cell numbers. Analysis of select cell cycle and GC specific genes disclosed an aberrant gene expression profile in the Rgs13 deficient GC B cells. These results indicate that RGS13, likely acting at cell membranes and in nuclei, helps coordinate key decision points during the expansion and differentiation of naive B cells. PMID:23533672

  19. Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 gene mutations: A potential new molecular marker in malignant gliomas (Review).

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Qi, Songtao

    2012-01-01

    Alterations of the Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) gene in myeloid malignancies and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations in gliomas and myeloid malignancies have recently been identified using molecular, comparative genomic hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism array techniques. The mutations of the TET2 gene have been shown to be mutually exclusive with IDH1/2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and evidence has been found to provide a biochemical basis for the mutual exclusivity of IDH1/2 and TET2 gene mutations. Based on mounting evidence, we aimed to investigate whether TET2 mutations may be identified as novel mutations in malignant gliomas without IDH1/2 mutations, and indicate their possible significance in gliomas. PMID:22740846

  20. ZPLD1 gene is disrupted in a patient with balanced translocation that exhibits cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, F; Esposito, T; Penco, S; Maglione, V; Liquori, C L; Patrosso, M C; Zuffardi, O; Ciccodicola, A; Marchuk, D A; Squitieri, F

    2008-08-13

    The past few years have seen rapid advances in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) with the identification of the CCM1, CCM2, and CCM3 genes. Recently, we have recruited a patient with an X/3 balanced translocation that exhibits CCM. By fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis, sequence analysis tools and database mining procedures, we refined the critical region to an interval of 200-kb and identified the interrupted ZPLD1 gene. We detected that the mRNA expression level of ZPLD1 gene is consistently decreased 2.5-fold versus control (P=0.0006) with allelic loss of gene expression suggesting that this protein may be part of the complex signaling pathway implicated in CCM formation. PMID:18632209

  1. Determining cell-of-origin subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    PubMed

    Scott, David W; Wright, George W; Williams, P Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian; Walsh, William; Jaffe, Elaine S; Rosenwald, Andreas; Campo, Elias; Chan, Wing C; Connors, Joseph M; Smeland, Erlend B; Mottok, Anja; Braziel, Rita M; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Tubbs, Raymond R; Cook, James R; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Greiner, Timothy C; Glinsmann-Gibson, Betty J; Fu, Kai; Staudt, Louis M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Rimsza, Lisa M

    2014-02-20

    The assignment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into cell-of-origin (COO) groups is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of novel therapies that have selective biological activity in germinal center B cell-like or activated B cell-like groups. The Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project's Lymph2Cx assay is a parsimonious digital gene expression (NanoString)-based test for COO assignment in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). The 20-gene assay was trained using 51 FFPET biopsies; the locked assay was then validated using an independent cohort of 68 FFPET biopsies. Comparisons were made with COO assignment using the original COO model on matched frozen tissue. In the validation cohort, the assay was accurate, with only 1 case with definitive COO being incorrectly assigned, and robust, with >95% concordance of COO assignment between 2 independent laboratories. These qualities, along with the rapid turnaround time, make Lymph2Cx attractive for implementation in clinical trials and, ultimately, patient management. PMID:24398326

  2. Noncoding RNA transcription targets AID to divergently transcribed loci in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Pefanis, Evangelos; Wang, Jiguang; Rothschild, Gerson; Lim, Junghyun; Chao, Jaime; Rabadan, Raul; Economides, Aris N.; Basu, Uttiya

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of the mammalian genome has the potential to expressnoncoding RNA (ncRNA). The 11-subunit RNA exosome complex is the main source of cellular 3′–5′ exoribonucleolytic activity and potentially regulates the mammalian noncoding transcriptome1. Here we generated a mouse model in which the essential subunit Exosc3 of the RNA exosome complex can be conditionally deleted. Exosc3-deficient B cells lack the ability to undergo normal levels of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation, two mutagenic DNA processes used to generate antibody diversity via the B-cell mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)2,3. The transcriptome of Exosc3-deficient B cells has revealed the presence of many novel RNA exosome substrate ncRNAs. RNA exosome substrate RNAs include xTSS-RNAs, transcription start site (TSS)-associated antisense transcripts that can exceed 500 base pairs in length and are transcribed divergently from cognate coding gene transcripts. xTSS-RNAs are most strongly expressed at genes that accumulate AID-mediated somatic mutations and/or are frequent translocation partners of DNA double-strand breaks generated at Igh in B cells4,5. Strikingly, translocations near TSSs or within gene bodies occur over regions of RNA exosome substrate ncRNA expression. These RNA exosome-regulated, antisense-transcribed regions of the B-cell genome recruit AID and accumulate single-strand DNA structures containing RNA–DNA hybrids. We propose that RNA exosome regulation of ncRNA recruits AID to single-strand DNA-forming sites of antisense and divergent transcription in the B-cell genome, thereby creating a link between ncRNA transcription and overall maintenance of B-cell genomic integrity. PMID:25119026

  3. Familial cryptic translocation resulting in Angelman syndrome: Implications for imprinting or location of the Angelman gene?

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, L.W.; Wiley, J.E.; Smith, A.J.W.; Kushnick, T.

    1996-04-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is associated with a loss of maternal genetic information, which typically occurs as a result of a deletion at 15q11-q13 or paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15. We report a patient with AS as a result of an unbalanced cryptic translocation whose breakpoint, at 15q11.2, falls within this region. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome, but without a detectable cytogenetic deletion, by using high-resolution G-banding. FISH detected a deletion of D15S11 (IR4-3R), with an intact GABRB3 locus. Subsequent studies of the proband`s mother and sister detected a cryptic reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 and 15 with the breakpoint being between SNRPN and D15S10. The proband was found to have inherited an unbalanced form, being monosomic from 15pter through SNRPN and trisomic for 14pter to 14q11.2. DNA methylation studies showed that the proband had a paternal-only DNA methylation pattern at SNRPN, D15S63 (PW71), and ZNF127. The mother and unaffected sister, both having the balanced translocation, demonstrated normal DNA methylation patterns at all three loci. These data suggest that the gene for AS most likely lies proximal to D15S10, in contrast to the previously published position, although a less likely possibility is that the maternally inherited imprinting center acts in trans in the unaffected balanced translocation carrier sister. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Mutations, kataegis, and translocations in B lymphocytes: towards a mechanistic understanding of AID promiscuous activity

    PubMed Central

    Casellas, Rafael; Basu, Uttiya; Yewdell, William T.; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Robbiani, Davide F.; Di Noia, Javier M.

    2016-01-01

    As B cells engage in the immune response they express the deaminase AID to initiate the hypermutation and recombination of immunoglobulin genes, which are crucial processes for the efficient recognition and disposal of pathogens, However, AID must be tightly controlled in B cells to minimize off-targeting mutations, which can drive chromosomal translocations and the development of B cell malignancies, such as lymphomas. Recent genomic and biochemical analyses have begun to unravel the crucial question of how AID-mediated deamination is targeted outside immunoglobulin genes. Here, we discuss the transcriptional and topological features that are emerging as key drivers of AID promiscuous activity. PMID:26898111

  5. Ig gene rearrangement and expression in the progeny of B-cell progenitors in the course of clonal expansion in bone marrow cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, N; Radbruch, A; Rajewsky, K

    1987-01-01

    In cultures of murine bone marrow cells colonies of 10(3)-10(4) cells were identified which consisted to a large part of pre-B and B cells. Cell mixing experiments with genetically marked cells indicated that each colony is derived from a single progenitor cell not yet committed to the expression of either IgH locus. A concanavalin-A-mediated electrofusion method allowed us to rescue and amplify individual cells from a given colony by hybridization with X63.Ag8.653 cells. The molecular analysis of 12 such hybridomas revealed that all IgH loci were rearranged into DJH or productive or nonproductive VHDJH complexes. Most kappa and all lambda light chain loci were in germline configuration. Kappa chain expression was only seen in heavy (mu) chain expressing hybridomas. Hybridomas from a given colony were heterogeneous in terms of DJH and VHDJH rearrangements and in no cell was more than one productive VHDJH complex detected. None of the productive VHDJH complexes contained a VH gene of group 1 (J558), the largest VH gene family with about half of the VH genes. This is in marked contrast to VH gene usage in splenic B cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. PMID:2824191

  6. Tet2 facilitates the de-repression of myeloid target genes during C/EBPa induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells

    PubMed Central

    Kallin, Eric M.; Rodríguez-Ubreva, Javier; Christensen, J esper; Cimmino, Luisa; Aifantis, Iannis; Helin, Kristian; Ballestar, Esteban; Graf, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The methylcytosine hydroxylase Tet2 has been implicated in hematopoietic differentiation and the formation of myeloid malignancies when mutated. An ideal system to study the role of Tet2 in myelopoeisis is C/EBPa induced transdifferentiation of pre-B cells into macrophages. Here we found that C/EBPa binds to upstream regions of Tet2 and that the gene becomes activated. Tet2 knockdowns impaired the upregulation of macrophage markers as well as phagocytic capacity, suggesting that the enzyme is required for both early and late stage myeloid differentiation. A slightly weaker effect was seen in primary cells with a Tet2 ablation. Expression arrays of transdifferentiating cells with Tet2 knockdowns permitted the identification of a small subset of myeloid genes whose upregulation was blunted. Activation of these target genes was accompanied by rapid increases of promoter hydroxy-methylation. Our observations indicate that Tet2 helps C/EBPa rapidly de-repress myeloid genes during the conversion of pre-B cells into macrophages. PMID:22981865

  7. Deregulation of the carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) gene in a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a t(12;14)(q23;q32).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Helmut H; Dyomin, Vadim G; Palanisamy, Nallasivam; Itoyama, Takahiro; Nanjangud, Gouri; Pirc-Danoewinata, Hendrati; Haas, Oskar A; Chaganti, R S K

    2004-09-01

    The t(12;14)(q23;q32) breakpoints in a case of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) were mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern blot analysis and cloned using an IGH switch-gamma probe. The translocation affected a productively rearranged IGH allele and the carbohydrate (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (CHST11) locus at 12q23, with a reciprocal break in intron 2 of the CHST11 gene. CHST11 belongs to the HNK1 family of Golgi-associated sulfotransferases, a group of glycosaminoglycan-modifying enzymes, and is expressed mainly in the hematopoietic lineage. Northern Blot analysis of tumor RNA using CHST11-specific probes showed expression of two CHST11 forms of abnormal size. 5'- and 3'-Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) revealed IGH/CHST11 as well as CHST11/IGH fusion RNAs expressed from the der(14) and der(12) chromosomes. Both fusion species contained open reading frames making possible the translation of two truncated forms of CHST11 protein. The biological consequence of t(12;14)(q23;q32) in this case presumably is a disturbance of the cellular distribution of CHST11 leading to deregulation of a chondroitin-sulfate-dependent pathway specific to the hematopoietic lineage. PMID:15273723

  8. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Jun; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Tomizawa, Hitoshi

    1995-04-10

    Bone marrow stromal cells regulate B-cell growth and development through their surface molecules and cytokines. In this study, we generated a mAb, RS38, that recognized a novel human membrane protein, BST-2, expressed on bone marrow stromal cell lines and synovial cell lines. We cloned a cDNA encoding BST-2 from a rheumatoid arthritis-derived synovial cell line. BST-2 is a 30- to 36-kDa type II transmembrane protein, consisting of 180 amino acids. The BST-2 gene (HGMW-approved symbol BST2) is located on chromosome 19p13.2. BST-2 is expressed not only on certain bone marrow stromal cell lines but also on various normal tissues, although its expression pattern is different from that of another bone marrow stromal cell surface molecule, BST-1. BST-2 surface expression on fibroblast cell lines facilitated the stromal cell-dependent growth of a murine bone marrow-derived pre-B-cell line, DW34. The results suggest that BST-2 may be involved in pre-B-cell growth. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Human mb-1 gene: Complete cDNA sequence and its expression in B cells bearing membrane Ig of various isotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Li-Ming; Chang, Tse Wen )

    1992-01-15

    The transmembrane protein, IgM-[alpha], a product of mb-1 gene, has been shown to be specifically associated with membrane-bound IgM on the plasma membrane of B lymphocytes. Recent studies have suggested that IgM-[alpha] may play a role in transducing signals from the Ag receptors during the activation of B cells. A large amount of information has been obtained in the mouse system regarding IgM-[alpha] and other components of the newly conceived B cell Ag receptor complex. Here, the authors report the cloning and the nucleotide sequencing of cDNA clones of human mb-1, covering the entire length of the mRNA. At the amino acid sequence level, human and murine mb-1 share a high homology in their transmembrane and intracytoplasmic segments, suggesting an important biologic function for these regions of mb-1. A major difference, mainly in the 3[prime] untranslated part, exits between the authors' cDNA sequence and the published partial human mb-1 cDNA sequence. It has also been observed that human mb-1 is expressed not only by B cell lines expressing membrane-bound Ig of [mu] and [sigma] isotypes but also those expressing membrane-bound Ig of [alpha] and [gamma] isotypes. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  10. The Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) gene in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic diseases.

    PubMed

    Solary, E; Bernard, O A; Tefferi, A; Fuks, F; Vainchenker, W

    2014-03-01

    Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) inactivation through loss-of-function mutation, deletion and IDH1/2 (Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2) gene mutation is a common event in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. TET2 gene mutations similar to those observed in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies also accumulate with age in otherwise healthy subjects with clonal hematopoiesis. TET2 is one of the three proteins of the TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) family, which are evolutionarily conserved dioxygenases that catalyze the conversion of 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC) and promote DNA demethylation. TET dioxygenases require 2-oxoglutarate, oxygen and Fe(II) for their activity, which is enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid. TET2 is the most expressed TET gene in the hematopoietic tissue, especially in hematopoietic stem cells. In addition to their hydroxylase activity, TET proteins recruit the O-linked β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) enzyme to chromatin, which promotes post-transcriptional modifications of histones and facilitates gene expression. The TET2 level is regulated by interaction with IDAX, originating from TET2 gene fission during evolution, and by the microRNA miR-22. TET2 has pleiotropic roles during hematopoiesis, including stem-cell self-renewal, lineage commitment and terminal differentiation of monocytes. Analysis of Tet2 knockout mice, which are viable and fertile, demonstrated that Tet2 functions as a tumor suppressor whose haploinsufficiency initiates myeloid and lymphoid transformations. This review summarizes the recently identified TET2 physiological and pathological functions and discusses how this knowledge influences our therapeutic approaches in hematological malignancies and possibly other tumor types. PMID:24220273

  11. Immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene-gene rearrangement in pleural cavity-based T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Potti, Anil; Malik, Azhar Ali; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Koch, Michael; Leitch, John

    2002-01-01

    Body cavity-based lymphomas are fluid-based lymphomas that are not associated with a tumor mass or adenopathy which could explain the origin of the lymphomatous effusion. A distinct lymphoma that grows in the body cavity as a lymphomatous effusion in the absence of a tumor mass has been identified as a primary effusion lymphoma. This almost exclusively occurs in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who invariably have a history of Kaposi sarcoma. We report a rare case of a recurrent pleural effusion in an immunocompetent patient. There was no evidence of lymphadenopathy or an associated mass on computerized tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Serology for HIV, HHS-8, EBV and HTLV-1 were negative. Cytologic examination of the pleural fluid showed an elevated white cell count with 97% lymphocytes, mostly with T-cell markers. Bone marrow aspirate and biopsy were negative and bronchoscopy was unrevealing. Pleural biopsy was significant for >70% T-lymphocytes and some large atypical cells. Which had CD19, CD20 and weak bcl-2 positivity. Kappa and lambda light chains did not show distinct clonality. A preliminary diagnosis of T-cell rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL) of the pleural cavity was made. The diagnosis was confirmed with DNA studies done on the pleural biopsy specimen using PCR and southern blot. Dual rearrangement of Ig heavy chain region and TCR-beta genes were identified. The patient responded to combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine and prednisone. Our case is the first known case of pleural cavity-based TCRBCL and illustrates the role of gene rearrangement studies in such patients. PMID:11908729

  12. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  13. EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-jκ and EBF1

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang; Chen, Horng-Shen; Kossenkov, Andrew V.; DeWispeleare, Karen; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lieberman, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transforms resting B-lymphocytes into proliferating lymphoblasts to establish latent infections that can give rise to malignancies. We show here that EBV-encoded transcriptional regulator EBNA2 drives the cooperative and combinatorial genome-wide binding of two master regulators of B-cell fate, namely EBF1 and RBP-jκ. Previous studies suggest that these B-cell factors are statically bound to target gene promoters. In contrast, we found that EBNA2 induces the formation of new binding for both RBP-jκ and EBF1, many of which are in close physical proximity in the cellular and viral genome. These newly induced binding sites co-occupied by EBNA2-EBF1-RBP-jκ correlate strongly with transcriptional activation of linked genes that are important for B-lymphoblast function. Conditional expression or repression of EBNA2 leads to a rapid alteration in RBP-jκ and EBF1 binding. Biochemical and shRNA depletion studies provide evidence for cooperative assembly at co-occupied sites. These findings reveal that EBNA2 facilitate combinatorial interactions to induce new patterns of transcription factor occupancy and gene programming necessary to drive B-lymphoblast growth and survival. PMID:26752713

  14. EBNA2 Drives Formation of New Chromosome Binding Sites and Target Genes for B-Cell Master Regulatory Transcription Factors RBP-jκ and EBF1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang; Chen, Horng-Shen; Kossenkov, Andrew V; DeWispeleare, Karen; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Lieberman, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) transforms resting B-lymphocytes into proliferating lymphoblasts to establish latent infections that can give rise to malignancies. We show here that EBV-encoded transcriptional regulator EBNA2 drives the cooperative and combinatorial genome-wide binding of two master regulators of B-cell fate, namely EBF1 and RBP-jκ. Previous studies suggest that these B-cell factors are statically bound to target gene promoters. In contrast, we found that EBNA2 induces the formation of new binding for both RBP-jκ and EBF1, many of which are in close physical proximity in the cellular and viral genome. These newly induced binding sites co-occupied by EBNA2-EBF1-RBP-jκ correlate strongly with transcriptional activation of linked genes that are important for B-lymphoblast function. Conditional expression or repression of EBNA2 leads to a rapid alteration in RBP-jκ and EBF1 binding. Biochemical and shRNA depletion studies provide evidence for cooperative assembly at co-occupied sites. These findings reveal that EBNA2 facilitate combinatorial interactions to induce new patterns of transcription factor occupancy and gene programming necessary to drive B-lymphoblast growth and survival. PMID:26752713

  15. Frequency of copy number abnormalities in common genes associated with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cytogenetic subtypes in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Thayana Conceição; Terra-Granado, Eugenia; Quezado Magalhães, Isis M; Neves, Gustavo Ribeiro; Gadelha, Andrea; Guedes Filho, Gilson Espinola; Souza, Marcelo Santos; Melaragno, Renato; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2015-10-01

    Copy number alterations (CNAs) in genes committed to B-cell precursors have been associated with poor survival in subgroups of patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). We investigated submicroscopic alterations in a series of 274 Brazilian children with BCP-ALL by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and evaluated their correlation with clinical and laboratory features. The relevance of overlapping CNA abnormalities was also explored. Deletions/amplifications in at least one gene were identified in 83% of the total series. In children older than 2 years, there was a predominance of CNAs involving deletions in IKZF1, CDKN2A, and CDKN2B, whereas the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) had deletions that were found more frequently in infants (P <0.05). Based on the cytogenetic subgroups, favorable cytogenetic subgroups showed more deletions than other subgroups that occurred simultaneously, specifically ETV6 deletions (P <0.05). TCF3-PBX1 was frequently deleted in RB1, and an absence of deletions was observed in IKZF1 and genes localized to the PAR1 region. The results corroborate with previous genome-wide studies and aggregate new markers for risk stratification of BCP-ALL in Brazil. PMID:26277549

  16. A t(6;12)(q23;p13) results in the fusion of ETV6 to a novel gene, STL, in a B-cell ALL cell line.

    PubMed

    Suto, Y; Sato, Y; Smith, S D; Rowley, J D; Bohlander, S K

    1997-04-01

    ETV6 (TEL) is rearranged in various types of hematologic malignancies. The B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell line SUP-B2 has a t(6;12)(q23;p13) involving ETV6 at 12p13 and a submicroscopic deletion of the other ETV6 allele. The reciprocal translocation results in the fusion of ETV6 to a previously unknown gene at 6q23, which we named STL (six-twelve leukemia gene). Both reciprocal fusion transcripts can be detected: On the der(6) chromosome, the ETV6/STL mRNA shows an apparently out of frame fusion of ETV6 at nucleotide 187 to STL, which would result in the addition of 14 amino acids to the first 54 amino acids of ETV6. On the der(12) chromosome three different variants of the STL/ETV6 fusion mRNA could be detected; variable size segments were inserted at the breakpoint between STL and ETV6 exon 3. One of these variants could give rise to a protein in which the first 54 amino acids of ETV6 are replaced by 12 amino acids from one of the STL short open reading frames. Sequence analysis of a 1.4 kb STL cDNA clone from a skeletal muscle library revealed no long open reading frames. This cell line will be very useful in studying the different mechanisms by which alterations of ETV6 contribute to leukemogenesis and in testing the hypothesis that ETV6 might act as a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:9087565

  17. Genomic polymorphism in the population of Candida glabrata: gene copy-number variation and chromosomal translocations.

    PubMed

    Muller, Héloïse; Thierry, Agnès; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Gouyette, Catherine; Hennequin, Christophe; Sismeiro, Odile; Talla, Emmanuel; Dujon, Bernard; Fairhead, Cécile

    2009-03-01

    The genomic sequence of the type strain of the opportunist human pathogen Candida glabrata (CBS138, ATCC 2001) is available since 2004. This allows the analysis of genomic structure of other strains by comparative genomic hybridization. We present here the molecular analysis of a collection of 183 C. glabrata strains isolated from patients hospitalized in France and around the world. We show that the mechanisms of microevolution within this asexual species include rare reciprocal chromosomal translocations and recombination within tandem arrays of repeated genes, and that these account for the frequent size heterogeneity between chromosomes across strains. Gene tandems often encode cell wall proteins suggesting a possible role in adaptation to the environment. PMID:19084610

  18. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a small alien-segment translocation line carrying the softness genes of Haynaldia villosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Wang, Xiue; Chen, Peidu

    2012-09-01

    The wheat-alien small segment translocation (SAST) lines carrying the beneficial genes from wild species are useful genetic stocks for wheat improvement. In this study, to introduce the grain hardness-related genes of Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur. into common wheat (Triticum aesitivum L.), the mature female gametes of whole-arm wheat--H. villosa translocation line T5VS·5DL was irradiated by 60CO-γ ray to develop SAST lines involving 5VS. Among the BC2F2 population, six homozygous SAST lines with different fragment sizes of 5VS were identified by GISH, and the exact fragment sizes were further defined using four 5VS-specific markers and four Ha gene-based markers. The results showed that five lines (NAU5VS-1 to NAU5VS-5) carried the softness gene Dina/Dinb of H. villosa, and that NAU5VS-5 had the smallest alien translocation segment, identified to be a 5VS-6AS·6AL terminal translocation. The translocation chromosome 5VS-6AS·6AL was proved to be stably inherited to the successive generations. In the BC3F2 generation, the individuals having the homozygous 5VS-6AS·6AL translocation chromosomes all showed soft grain texture, with an approximately 50% reduction in the SKCS hardness index compared with that of their backcrossing parent. Both the 5VS-6AS·6AL translocation line and the molecular markers developed in this study will be valuable in wheat breeding for soft grain quality improvement. PMID:22900990

  19. Sequence and analysis of the human ABL gene, the BCR gene, and regions involved in the Philadelphia chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, D.; Clifton, S.W.; Crabtree, J.

    1995-05-01

    The complete human BCR gene (152j-141 nt) on chromosome 22 and greater than 80% of the human ABL gene (179-512 nt) on chromosome 9 have been sequenced from mapped cosmid and plasmid clones via a shotgun strategy. Because these two chromosomes are translocated with breakpoints within the BCR and ABL genes in Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemias, knowledge of these sequences also might provide insight into the validity of various theories of chromosomal rearrangements. Comparison of these genes with their cDNA sequences reveal the positions of 23 BCR exons and putative alternative BCR first and second exons, as well as the common ABL exons 2-11, respectively. Additionally, these regions include the alternative ABL first exons 1b and 1a, a new gene 5` to the first ABL exon, and an open reading frame with homology to an EST within the BCR fourth intron. Further analysis reveals an Alu homology of 38.83 and 39.35% for the BCR and ABL genes, respectively, with other repeat elements present to a lesser extent. Four new Philadelphia chromosome translocation breakpoints from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients also were sequenced, and the positions of these and several other previously sequenced breakpoints now have been mapped precisely, although no consistent breakpoint features immediately were apparent. Comparative analysis of genomic sequences encompassing the murine homologues to the human ABL exons 1b and 1a, as well as regions encompassing the ABL exons 2 and 3, reveals that although there is a high degree of homology in their corresponding exons and promoter regions, these two vertebrate species show a striking lack of homology outside these regions. 122 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. High Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene from Flow-Sorted B Cell Sub-Populations Define the Dynamics of Follicular Lymphoma Clonal Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Carlotti, Emanuela; Wrench, David; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Marzec, Jacek; Sangaralingam, Ajanthah; Hazanov, Lena; Michaeli, Miri; Hallam, Simon; Chaplin, Tracy; Iqbal, Sameena; Calaminici, Maria; Young, Bryan; Mehr, Ramit; Campbell, Peter; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of evolution of Follicular Lymphoma (FL) clones during disease progression is important for monitoring and targeting this tumor effectively. Genetic profiling of serial FL biopsies and examples of FL transmission following bone marrow transplant suggest that this disease may evolve by divergent evolution from a common ancestor cell. However where this ancestor cell resides and how it evolves is still unclear. The analysis of the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin gene (Ig) is traditionally used for tracking the physiological clonal evolution of B cells within the germinal center and allows to discriminate those cells that have just entered the germinal center and display features of ancestor cells from those B cells that keep re-circulating across different lymphoid organs. Here we investigated the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin gene (IgH-VH) in 4 flow-sorted B cells subpopulations belonging to different stages of differentiation, from sequential lymph node biopsies of cases displaying diverse patterns of evolution, using the GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. We observed an unexpectedly high level of clonality, with hundreds of distinct tumor subclones in the different subpopulations from the same sample, the majority detected at a frequency <10−2. By using a lineage trees analysis we observed in all our FL and t-FL cases that the oligoclonal FL population was trapped in a narrow intermediate stage of maturation that maintains the capacity to undergo SHM, but was unable to further differentiate. The presence of such a complex architecture highlights challenges currently encountered in finding a cure for this disease. PMID:26325507

  1. High Throughput Sequencing Analysis of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene from Flow-Sorted B Cell Sub-Populations Define the Dynamics of Follicular Lymphoma Clonal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, Emanuela; Wrench, David; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Marzec, Jacek; Sangaralingam, Ajanthah; Hazanov, Lena; Michaeli, Miri; Hallam, Simon; Chaplin, Tracy; Iqbal, Sameena; Calaminici, Maria; Young, Bryan; Mehr, Ramit; Campbell, Peter; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of evolution of Follicular Lymphoma (FL) clones during disease progression is important for monitoring and targeting this tumor effectively. Genetic profiling of serial FL biopsies and examples of FL transmission following bone marrow transplant suggest that this disease may evolve by divergent evolution from a common ancestor cell. However where this ancestor cell resides and how it evolves is still unclear. The analysis of the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin gene (Ig) is traditionally used for tracking the physiological clonal evolution of B cells within the germinal center and allows to discriminate those cells that have just entered the germinal center and display features of ancestor cells from those B cells that keep re-circulating across different lymphoid organs. Here we investigated the pattern of somatic hypermutation of the heavy chain of the immunoglobulin gene (IgH-VH) in 4 flow-sorted B cells subpopulations belonging to different stages of differentiation, from sequential lymph node biopsies of cases displaying diverse patterns of evolution, using the GS-FLX Titanium sequencing platform. We observed an unexpectedly high level of clonality, with hundreds of distinct tumor subclones in the different subpopulations from the same sample, the majority detected at a frequency <10-2. By using a lineage trees analysis we observed in all our FL and t-FL cases that the oligoclonal FL population was trapped in a narrow intermediate stage of maturation that maintains the capacity to undergo SHM, but was unable to further differentiate. The presence of such a complex architecture highlights challenges currently encountered in finding a cure for this disease. PMID:26325507

  2. B cell activator PAX5 promotes lymphomagenesis through stimulation of B cell receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cozma, Diana; Yu, Duonan; Hodawadekar, Suchita; Azvolinsky, Anna; Grande, Shannon; Tobias, John W.; Metzgar, Michele H.; Paterson, Jennifer; Erikson, Jan; Marafioti, Teresa; Monroe, John G.; Atchison, Michael L.; Thomas-Tikhonenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    The presumed involvement of paired box gene 5 (PAX5) in B-lymphomagenesis is based largely on the discovery of Pax5-specific translocations and somatic hypermutations in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Yet mechanistically, the contribution of Pax5 to neoplastic growth remains undeciphered. Here we used 2 Myc-induced mouse B lymphoma cell lines, Myc5-M5 and Myc5-M12, which spontaneously silence Pax5. Reconstitution of these cells with Pax5–tamoxifen receptor fusion protein (Pax5ER TAM) increased neoplastic growth in a hormone-dependent manner. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative Pax5 in murine lymphomas and Pax5 knockdown in human lymphomas negatively affected cell expansion. Expression profiling revealed that Pax5 was required to maintain mRNA levels of several crucial components of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling, including CD79a, a protein with the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). In contrast, expression of 2 known ITAM antagonists, CD22 and PIR-B, was suppressed. The key role of BCR/ITAM signaling in Pax5-dependent lymphomagenesis was corroborated in Syk, an ITAM-associated tyrosine kinase. Moreover, we observed consistent expression of phosphorylated BLNK, an activated BCR adaptor protein, in human B cell lymphomas. Thus, stimulation of neoplastic growth by Pax5 occurs through BCR and is sensitive to genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway. PMID:17717600

  3. Influence of Burkitt's lymphoma and primary B cells on latent gene expression by the nonimmortalizing P3J-HR-1 strain of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, C; Howe, J G; Speck, S H; Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genes expressed in B lymphocytes immortalized in vitro or in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells infected in vivo have been characterized previously; however, the viral products which are essential for immortalization or for establishment of EBV latency are still not known. To approach this question, we compared the kinetics of expression of EBV nuclear antigens and the two EBV-encoded small RNAs, EBER1 and EBER2, after infection of primary B cells or EBV genome-negative BL cells with either an immortalizing EBV strain (B95-8) or the nonimmortalizing deletion mutant (HR-1). Following infection of primary cells with B95-8 virus, EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA)-2 was expressed first, followed by EBNA-1, -3, and -4 (also called leader protein [LP]) and the two small RNAs. Infection of EBV genome-negative BL cells with the same strain of virus resulted in a similar pattern of gene expression, except that the EBNAs appeared together and more rapidly. EBERs were not apparent in one BL cell line converted by B95-8. The only products detected after infection of primary B lymphocytes with the HR-1 deletion mutant were the EBNA-4 (LP) family and trace amounts of EBER1. Although HR-1 could express neither EBNA-1, EBNA-3, nor EBER2 in primary cells, all these products were expressed rapidly after HR-1 infection of EBV genome-negative BL cell lines. The results indicate that the mutation in HR-1 virus affects immortalization not only through failure to express EBNA-2, a gene which is deleted, but also indirectly by curtailing expression of several other EBV genes whose coding regions are intact in the HR-1 virus and normally expressed during latency. The pattern of latent EBV gene expression after HR-1 infection is dependent on the host cell, perhaps through products specific for the cell cycle or the state of B-cell differentiation. Images PMID:2538644

  4. Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of 2 genes reflecting tumor and microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Gentles, Andrew J.; Alencar, Alvaro J.; Liu, Chih Long; Kohrt, Holbrook E.; Houot, Roch; Goldstein, Matthew J.; Zhao, Shuchun; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana H.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Briones, Javier; Tibshirani, Robert J.; Myklebust, June H.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Lossos, Izidore S.

    2011-01-01

    Several gene-expression signatures predict survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the lack of practical methods for genome-scale analysis has limited translation to clinical practice. We built and validated a simple model using one gene expressed by tumor cells and another expressed by host immune cells, assessing added prognostic value to the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI). LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) was validated as an independent predictor of survival and the “germinal center B cell–like” subtype. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) from the DLBCL microenvironment was the best gene in bivariate combination with LMO2. Study of TNFRSF9 tissue expression in 95 patients with DLBCL showed expression limited to infiltrating T cells. A model integrating these 2 genes was independent of “cell-of-origin” classification, “stromal signatures,” IPI, and added to the predictive power of the IPI. A composite score integrating these genes with IPI performed well in 3 independent cohorts of 545 DLBCL patients, as well as in a simple assay of routine formalin-fixed specimens from a new validation cohort of 147 patients with DLBCL. We conclude that the measurement of a single gene expressed by tumor cells (LMO2) and a single gene expressed by the immune microenvironment (TNFRSF9) powerfully predicts overall survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:21670469

  5. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120 specificity of HIV-1 envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared with those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women.

    PubMed

    Sacha, C R; Vandergrift, N; Jeffries, T L; McGuire, E; Fouda, G G; Liebl, B; Marshall, D J; Gurley, T C; Stiegel, L; Whitesides, J F; Friedman, J; Badiabo, A; Foulger, A; Yates, N L; Tomaras, G D; Kepler, T B; Liao, H X; Haynes, B F; Moody, M A; Permar, S R

    2015-03-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B-cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B-cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1(∼)69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% vs. 20%, P=0.006, Fisher's exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120 specific than those isolated from blood (44% vs. 16%, P=0.005, Fisher's exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B-cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B-cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B-cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  6. Restricted isotype, distinct variable gene usage, and high rate of gp120-specificity of HIV-1 Envelope-specific B cells in colostrum compared to those in blood of HIV-1-infected, lactating African women

    PubMed Central

    Sacha, C.R.; Vandergrift, N.; Jeffries, T.L.; McGuire, E.; Fouda, G.G.; Liebl, B.; Marshall, D.J.; Gurley, T.C.; Stiegel, L.; Whitesides, J.F.; Friedman, J.; Badiabo, A.; Foulger, A.; Yates, N.L.; Tomaras, G.D.; Kepler, T.B.; Liao, H.X.; Haynes, B.F.; Moody, M.A.; Permar, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    A successful HIV-1 vaccine must elicit immune responses that impede mucosal virus transmission, though functional roles of protective HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-specific mucosal antibodies remain unclear. Colostrum is a rich source of readily accessible mucosal B cells that may help define the mucosal antibody response contributing to prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission. To examine the HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum B cell repertoire, single B cells were isolated from 17 chronically HIV-infected, lactating women, producing 51 blood and 39 colostrum HIV-1 Env-specific B cell antibodies. All HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum-derived antibodies were IgG1 isotype and had mean heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) lengths and mutation frequencies similar to those isolated from blood. However, variable heavy chain (VH) gene subfamily 1~69 usage was higher among colostrum than blood HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies (49% versus 20%, p = 0.006, Fisher’s exact test). Additionally, more HIV-1 Env-specific colostrum antibodies were gp120-specific than those isolated from blood (44% versus 16%, p = 0.005, Fisher’s exact test). One cross-compartment HIV-1 Env-specific clonal B cell lineage was identified. These unique characteristics of colostrum B cell antibodies suggest selective homing of HIV-1-specific IgG1-secreting memory B cells to the mammary gland and have implications for targeting mucosal B cell populations by vaccination. PMID:25100291

  7. Gene expression predicts overall survival in paraffin-embedded tissues of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Michael L.; Unger, Joseph M.; Miller, Thomas P.; Grogan, Thomas M.; Persky, Daniel O.; Martel, Ralph R.; Sabalos, Constantine M.; Seligmann, Bruce; Braziel, Rita M.; Campo, Elias; Rosenwald, Andreas; Connors, Joseph M.; Sehn, Laurie H.; Johnson, Nathalie; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) on frozen tissues has identified genes predicting outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Confirmation of results in current patients is limited by availability of frozen samples and addition of monoclonal antibodies to treatment regimens. We used a quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to analyze formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks for 36 previously identified genes (N = 209, 93 chemotherapy; 116 rituximab + chemotherapy). By qNPA, 208 cases were successfully analyzed (99.5%). In addition, 15 of 36 and 11 of 36 genes, representing each functional group previously identified by GEP, were associated with survival (P < .05) in the 2 treatment groups, respectively. In addition, 30 of 36 hazard ratios of death trended in the same direction versus the original studies. Multivariate and variable cut-off point analysis identified low levels of HLA-DRB (< 20%) and high levels of MYC (> 80%) as independent indicators of survival, together distinguishing cases with the worst prognosis. Our results solve a clinical research problem by demonstrating that prognostic genes can be meaningfully quantified using qNPA technology on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues; previous GEP findings in DLBCL are relevant with current treatments; and 2 genes, representing immune escape and proliferation, are the common features of the most aggressive DLBCL. PMID:18544678

  8. Dual targeting and retrograde translocation: regulators of plant nuclear gene expression can be sequestered by plastids.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kirsten; Oetke, Svenja; Krupinska, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the developmental or metabolic state of plastids can trigger profound changes in the transcript profiles of nuclear genes. Many nuclear transcription factors were shown to be controlled by signals generated in the organelles. In addition to the many different compounds for which an involvement in retrograde signaling is discussed, accumulating evidence suggests a role for proteins in plastid-to-nucleus communication. These proteins might be sequestered in the plastids before they act as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. Indeed, several proteins exhibiting a dual localization in the plastids and the nucleus are promising candidates for such a direct signal transduction involving regulatory protein storage in the plastids. Among such proteins, the nuclear transcription factor WHIRLY1 stands out as being the only protein for which an export from plastids and translocation to the nucleus has been experimentally demonstrated. Other proteins, however, strongly support the notion that this pathway might be more common than currently believed. PMID:23109840

  9. Proposal of a Twin Aarginine Translocator System-Mediated Constraint against Loss of ATP Synthase Genes from Nonphotosynthetic Plastid Genomes.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Tanifuji, Goro; Ishikawa, Sohta A; Ishii, Ken-Ichiro; Matsuno, Yusei; Onodera, Naoko T; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Miyashita, Hideaki; Mayama, Shigeki; Inagaki, Yuji

    2015-10-01

    Organisms with nonphotosynthetic plastids often retain genomes; their gene contents provide clues as to the functions of these organelles. Yet the functional roles of some retained genes-such as those coding for ATP synthase-remain mysterious. In this study, we report the complete plastid genome and transcriptome data of a nonphotosynthetic diatom and propose that its ATP synthase genes may function in ATP hydrolysis to maintain a proton gradient between thylakoids and stroma, required by the twin arginine translocator (Tat) system for translocation of particular proteins into thylakoids. Given the correlated retention of ATP synthase genes and genes for the Tat system in distantly related nonphotosynthetic plastids, we suggest that this Tat-related role for ATP synthase was a key constraint during parallel loss of photosynthesis in multiple independent lineages of algae/plants. PMID:26048548

  10. Generation of antibody- and B cell-deficient pigs by targeted disruption of the J-region gene segment of the heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Mendicino, M; Ramsoondar, J; Phelps, C; Vaught, T; Ball, S; LeRoith, T; Monahan, J; Chen, S; Dandro, A; Boone, J; Jobst, P; Vance, A; Wertz, N; Bergman, Z; Sun, X-Z; Polejaeva, I; Butler, J; Dai, Y; Ayares, D; Wells, K

    2011-06-01

    A poly(A)-trap gene targeting strategy was used to disrupt the single functional heavy chain (HC) joining region (J(H)) of swine in primary fibroblasts. Genetically modified piglets were then generated via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and bred to yield litters comprising J(H) wild-type littermate (+/+), J(H) heterozygous knockout () and J(H) homozygous knockout (-/-) piglets in the expected Mendelian ratio of 1:2:1. There are only two other targeted loci previously published in swine, and this is the first successful poly(A)-trap strategy ever published in a livestock species. In either blood or secondary lymphoid tissues, flow cytometry, RT-PCR and ELISA detected no circulating IgM(+) B cells, and no transcription or secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. Histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies failed to detect lymph node (LN) follicles or CD79?(+) B cells, respectively in J(H) -/- pigs. T cell receptor (TCR)(?) transcription and T cells were detected in J(H) -/- pigs. When reared conventionally, J(H) -/- pigs succumbed to bacterial infections after weaning. These antibody (Ab)- and B cell-deficient pigs have significant value as models for both veterinary and human research to discriminate cellular and humoral protective immunity to infectious agents. Thus, these pigs may aid in vaccine development for infectious agents such as the pandemic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and H1N1 swine flu. These pigs are also a first significant step towards generating a pig that expresses fully human, antigen-specific polyclonal Ab to target numerous incurable infectious diseases with high unmet clinical need. PMID:20872248

  11. The BCL6 transcriptional program features repression of multiple oncogenes in primary B cells and is deregulated in DLBCL.

    PubMed

    Ci, Weimin; Polo, Jose M; Cerchietti, Leandro; Shaknovich, Rita; Wang, Ling; Yang, Shao Ning; Ye, Kenny; Farinha, Pedro; Horsman, Douglas E; Gascoyne, Randy D; Elemento, Olivier; Melnick, Ari

    2009-05-28

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is required for development of germinal center (GC) B cells and when expressed constitutively causes diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). We examined genome-wide BCL6 promoter binding in GC B cells versus DLBCLs to better understand its function in these settings. BCL6 bound to both distinct and common sets of functionally related gene in normal GC cells versus DLBCL cells. Certain BCL6 target genes were preferentially repressed in GC B cells, but not DLBCL cells. Several such genes have prominent oncogenic functions, such as BCL2, MYC, BMI1, EIF4E, JUNB, and CCND1. BCL6 and BCL2 expression was negatively correlated in primary DLBCLs except in the presence of BCL2 translocations. The specific BCL6 inhibitor retro-inverso BCL6 peptidomimetic inhibitor-induced expression of BCL2 and other oncogenes, consistent with direct repression effects by BCL6. These data are consistent with a model whereby BCL6 can directly silence oncogenes in GC B cells and counterbalance its own tumorigenic potential. Finally, a BCL6 consensus sequence and binding sites for other physiologically relevant transcription factors were highly enriched among target genes and distributed in a pathway-dependent manner, suggesting that BCL6 forms specific regulatory circuits with other B-cell transcriptional factors. PMID:19307668

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes for antibodies generated by orbital tissue-infiltrating B-cells in Graves` ophthalmopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Jaume, J.C.; Portolano, S.; Prummel, M.F.; McLachlan, S.M.; Rapoport, B.

    1994-02-01

    Graves` ophthalmopathy is a distressing autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Analysis of the genes for antibodies secreted by orbital tissue-infiltrating plasma cells might provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disease. The authors, therefore, constructed an immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and an immunoglobulin k light (L) chain cDNA library from the orbital tissue of a patient with active Graves` ophthalmopathy. Analysis of 15 H (IgG1) and 15 L (k) chains revealed a restricted spectrum of variable region genes. Fourteen of 15 variable k genes were about 94% homologous to the closest known germline gene, KL012. Thirteen of 15 H chain genes were 91% and 90% homologous to the closest germline genes, DP10 and hv1263, respectively. Remarkably, these germline genes also code for other autoantibodies to striated muscle (KL012) and thyroid peridase (KL012 and hv1263). These studies raise the possibility that particular germline genes may be associated with autoimmunity in humans. Further, the present study opens the way to identifying ocular autoantigens that may be the target of an humoral immune response. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The analysis of VH and VL genes repertoires of Fab library built from peripheral B cells of human rabies virus vaccinated donors.

    PubMed

    Houimel, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    A human combinatorial Fab antibody library was generated from immune repertoire based on peripheral B cells of ten rabies virus vaccinated donors. The analysis of random Fab fragments from the unselected library presented some bias of V gene usage towards IGHV-genes and IGLV-gen families. The screening of the Fab library on rabies virus allowed specific human Fab antibody fragments characterized for their gene encoding sequences, binding and specificities to RV. Genetic analysis of selected Fabs indicated that the IGHV and IGLV differ from the germ-line sequence. At the level of nucleotide sequences, the IGHV and IGLV domains were found to share 74-92% and 90-96% homology with sequences encoded by the corresponding human germ-line genes respectively. IGHV domains are characterized most frequently by IGHV3 genes, and large proportions of the anti-RV heavy chain IGHV domains are obtained following a VDJ recombination process that uses IGHD3, IGHD2, IGHD1 and IGHD6 genes. IGHJ3 and IGHJ4 genes are predominantly used in RV-Fab. The IGLV domains are dominated by IGKV1, IGLV1 and IGLV3 genes. Numerous somatic hypermutations in the RV-specific IGHV are detected, but only limited amino acid replacement in most of the RV-specific IGLV particularly in those encoded by J proximal IGLV or IGKV genes are found. Furthermore, IGHV3-IGKV1, IGHV3-IGVL1, and IGHV3-IGLV3 germ-line family pairings are preferentially enriched after the screening on rabies virus. PMID:24862931

  14. Effect of wheat NAM genes on remobilization of Fe and Zn and translocation of minerals to grain during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are interested in understanding mineral translocation to seeds to improve their nutritional value. We compared a transgenic wheat (NAM RNAi knock-down) that exhibits low grain Fe and Zn concentrations with its isogenic control to quantify the effects of NAM genes on mineral remobilization from v...

  15. The impact of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa gene polymorphisms on responses to RCHOP chemotherapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    ROŽMAN, SAMO; NOVAKOVIĆ, SRDJAN; GRABNAR, IZTOK; CERKOVNIK, PETRA; NOVAKOVIĆ, BARBARA JEZERŠEK

    2016-01-01

    Rituximab is a monoclonal antibody routinely used in the treatment of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of B lymphocytes by bridging them with Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on effector cells. Several polymorphisms in the FcγR genes have been identified to influence rituximab binding to FcγR, thus altering its antitumor effect in indolent lymphomas. In the present study, the impact of FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa polymorphisms on the survival and response to immunochemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone was evaluated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. A total of 29 Slovenian DLBCL patients were studied. Genotyping was conducted for FcγRIIa-27, FcγRIIa-131, FcγRIIIa-48 and FcγRIIIa-158 polymorphisms. The median follow-up time was 29.7 months (range, 9.7–45.4 months). No significant impact of the genotypes was observed on the treatment response, progression-free or overall survival of DLBCL patients. There was a non-significant trend of an improved response to chemotherapy without additional irradiation in patients homozygous for Val at FCγIIIa-158 compared to Phe carriers. The findings of the present study indicate that FcγR polymorphisms have no influence on the survival of DLBCL patients. PMID:27123112

  16. Generation of Recombination Activating Gene-1-Deficient Neonatal Piglets: A Model of T and B Cell Deficient Severe Combined Immune Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuya; Sendai, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Seki-Soma, Marie; Hirose, Kensuke; Watanabe, Motoo; Fukawa, Kazuo; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Although severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a very important research model for mice and SCID mice are widely used, there are only few reports describing the SCID pig models. Therefore, additional research in this area is needed. In this study, we describe the generation of Recombination activating gene-1 (Rag-1)-deficient neonatal piglets in Duroc breed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with gene targeting and analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and histology. We constructed porcine Rag-1 gene targeting vectors for the Exon 2 region and obtained heterozygous/homozygous Rag-1 knockout cell colonies using SCNT. We generated two Rag-1-deficient neonatal piglets and compared them with wild-type neonatal piglets. FACS analysis showed that Rag-1 disruption causes a lack of Immunoglobulin M-positive B cells and CD3-positive T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistent with FACS analysis, histological analysis revealed structural defects and an absence of mature lymphocytes in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLNs), and thymus in Rag-1-deficient piglets. These results confirm that Rag-1 is necessary for the generation of lymphocytes in pigs, and Rag-1-deficient piglets exhibit a T and B cell deficient SCID (T-B-SCID) phenotype similar to that of rodents and humans. The T-B-SCID pigs with Rag-1 deficiency generated in this study could be a suitably versatile model for laboratory, translational, and biomedical research, including the development of a humanized model and assessment of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25437445

  17. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  18. Clonal Progression during the T Cell-Dependent B Cell Antibody Response Depends on the Immunoglobulin DH Gene Segment Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Trad, Ahmad; Tanasa, Radu Iulian; Lange, Hans; Zemlin, Michael; Schroeder, Harry W.; Lemke, Hilmar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the third complementarity determining region of the IgH chain is constrained by natural selection of immunoglobulin diversity (DH) sequence. To test the functional significance of this constraint in the context of thymus-dependent (TD) immune responses, we immunized BALB/c mice with WT or altered DH sequence with 2-phenyloxazolone-coupled chicken serum albumin (phOx-CSA). We chose this antigen because studies of the humoral immune response to the hapten phOx were instrumental in the development of the current theoretical framework on which our understanding of the forces driving TD responses is based. To allow direct comparison, we used the classic approach of generating monoclonal Ab (mAb) from various stages of the immune response to phOx to assess the effect of changing the sequence of the DH on clonal expansion, class switching, and affinity maturation, which are hallmarks of TD responses. Compared to WT, TD-induced humoral IgM as well as IgG antibody production in the D-altered ΔD-DμFS and ΔD-iD strains were significantly reduced. An increased prevalence of IgM-producing hybridomas from late primary, secondary, and tertiary memory responses suggested either impaired class switch recombination (CSR) or impaired clonal expansion of class switched B cells with phOx reactivity. Neither of the D-altered strains demonstrated the restriction in the VH/VL repertoire, the elimination of VH1 family-encoded antibodies, the focusing of the distribution of CDR-H3 lengths, or the selection for the normally dominant Ox1 clonotype, which all are hallmarks of the anti-phOx response in WT mice. These changes in clonal selection and expansion, as well as CSR indicate that the genetic constitution of the DH locus, which has been selected by evolution, can strongly influence the functional outcome of a TD humoral response. PMID:25157256

  19. A Williams syndrome patient with a familial t(6;7) translocation and deletion of the elastin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pober, B.R.; Gibson, L.H.; Yang-Feng, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    Discovery of a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation [46,XX,t(6;7)(q11.2;q11.23)] on routine amniocentesis prompted clinical and cytogenetic study of additional family members. The same t(6;7) translocation was found in the clincally normal father and in a sibling with Williams syndrome (WS). WS had been diagnosed previously according to clinical criteria including distinctive facial features, supravalvar aortic stenosis requiring surgical repair, dental abnormalties and developmental delay. A clinically normal female was delivered and the translocation was confirmed with a cord blood specimen. Hemizygosity for the gene, elastin, (which has been mapped to the chromosome 7 translocation breakpoint, 7q11.23, in this family) appears to be a cause of WS. We therefore investigated whether the t(6;7) in the phenotypically normal father represented more than a simple reciprocal translocation. FISH using a chromosome 7 specific library revealed no differences between the cytogenetically identical, yet phenotypically distinct, father and son. Hybridization with a cosmid MR127D4 containing elastin sequence showed that the WS patient was missing one allele from the derivative chromosome 7 whereas both his mother and father had two copies of the elastin gene. This family indicates that the de novo loss of one copy of the elastin gene produces the recognizable phenotype of Williams syndrome. Molecular characterization (with additional probes) of the extent of this de novo deletion near the translocation breakpoint is in progress. This information will be valuable for defining the WS-critical region and will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis for WS.

  20. Epigenetic Control of B Cell Development and B-Cell-Related Immune Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-06-01

    B lymphocytes are generally recognized as the essential component of humoral immunity and also a regulator of innate immunity. The development of B cells is precisely regulated by a variety of factors via different mechanisms, including cytokine/cytokine receptors, signal transduction molecules, and transcription factors. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, play critical roles in establishing B cell lineage-specific gene expression profiles to define and sustain B cell identity and function. Epigenetic modifications are also sensitive to external stimuli and might bridge genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis or control of B-cell-related immune disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, lymphoma, and leukemia. Better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms for regulating B cell development and involving B cell abnormal differentiation and function will shed light on the design of new therapeutic approaches to B-cell-related diseases, and potential candidates of epigenetic modulators may be identified to target epigenetic pathways to prevent or treat B cell disorders. We summarize the relevance of epigenetic marks and landscapes in the stages of B cell development, discuss the interaction of the transcriptional networks and epigenetic changes, and review the involvement of epigenetic risk in the pathogenesis of B-cell-related diseases. Understanding how specific epigenetic alterations contribute to the development of B-cell-related autoimmunity and malignancies is instrumental to control B cell disorders. PMID:26066671

  1. EBNA3C Directs Recruitment of RBPJ (CBF1) to Chromatin during the Process of Gene Repression in EBV Infected B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalchschmidt, Jens S.; Gillman, Adam C. T.; Paschos, Kostas; Bazot, Quentin; Kempkes, Bettina; Allday, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) can act as a potent repressor of gene expression, but little is known about the sequence of events occurring during the repression process. To explore further the role of EBNA3C in gene repression–particularly in relation to histone modifications and cell factors involved–the three host genes previously reported as most robustly repressed by EBNA3C were investigated. COBLL1, a gene of unknown function, is regulated by EBNA3C alone and the two co-regulated disintegrin/metalloproteases, ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 have been described previously as targets of both EBNA3A and EBNA3C. For the first time, EBNA3C was here shown to be the main regulator of all three genes early after infection of primary B cells. Using various EBV-recombinants, repression over orders of magnitude was seen only when EBNA3C was expressed. Unexpectedly, full repression was not achieved until 30 days after infection. This was accurately reproduced in established LCLs carrying EBV-recombinants conditional for EBNA3C function, demonstrating the utility of the conditional system to replicate events early after infection. Using this system, detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the initial repression was associated with loss of activation-associated histone modifications (H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and was independent of recruitment of polycomb proteins and deposition of the repressive H3K27me3 modification, which were only observed later in repression. Most remarkable, and in contrast to current models of RBPJ in repression, was the observation that this DNA-binding factor accumulated at the EBNA3C-binding sites only when EBNA3C was functional. Transient reporter assays indicated that repression of these genes was dependent on the interaction between EBNA3C and RBPJ. This was confirmed with a novel EBV-recombinant encoding a mutant of EBNA3C unable to bind RBPJ, by showing this virus was incapable of repressing COBLL1 or ADAM28/ADAMDEC1 in newly infected primary B cells. PMID:26751214

  2. EBNA3C Directs Recruitment of RBPJ (CBF1) to Chromatin during the Process of Gene Repression in EBV Infected B Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalchschmidt, Jens S; Gillman, Adam C T; Paschos, Kostas; Bazot, Quentin; Kempkes, Bettina; Allday, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) can act as a potent repressor of gene expression, but little is known about the sequence of events occurring during the repression process. To explore further the role of EBNA3C in gene repression-particularly in relation to histone modifications and cell factors involved-the three host genes previously reported as most robustly repressed by EBNA3C were investigated. COBLL1, a gene of unknown function, is regulated by EBNA3C alone and the two co-regulated disintegrin/metalloproteases, ADAM28 and ADAMDEC1 have been described previously as targets of both EBNA3A and EBNA3C. For the first time, EBNA3C was here shown to be the main regulator of all three genes early after infection of primary B cells. Using various EBV-recombinants, repression over orders of magnitude was seen only when EBNA3C was expressed. Unexpectedly, full repression was not achieved until 30 days after infection. This was accurately reproduced in established LCLs carrying EBV-recombinants conditional for EBNA3C function, demonstrating the utility of the conditional system to replicate events early after infection. Using this system, detailed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the initial repression was associated with loss of activation-associated histone modifications (H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K4me3) and was independent of recruitment of polycomb proteins and deposition of the repressive H3K27me3 modification, which were only observed later in repression. Most remarkable, and in contrast to current models of RBPJ in repression, was the observation that this DNA-binding factor accumulated at the EBNA3C-binding sites only when EBNA3C was functional. Transient reporter assays indicated that repression of these genes was dependent on the interaction between EBNA3C and RBPJ. This was confirmed with a novel EBV-recombinant encoding a mutant of EBNA3C unable to bind RBPJ, by showing this virus was incapable of repressing COBLL1 or ADAM28/ADAMDEC1 in newly infected primary B cells. PMID:26751214

  3. Paraffin-based 6-gene model predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Malumbres, Raquel; Chen, Jun; Tibshirani, Rob; Johnson, Nathalie A; Sehn, Laurie H; Natkunam, Yaso; Briones, Javier; Advani, Ranjana; Connors, Joseph M; Byrne, Gerald E; Levy, Ronald; Gascoyne, Randy D; Lossos, Izidore S

    2008-06-15

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical outcomes. Outcome prediction at the time of diagnosis is of paramount importance. Previously, we constructed a 6-gene model for outcome prediction of DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapies. However, the standard therapy has evolved into rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). Herein, we evaluated the predictive power of a paraffin-based 6-gene model in R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients. RNA was successfully extracted from 132 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Expression of the 6 genes comprising the model was measured and the mortality predictor score was calculated for each patient. The mortality predictor score divided patients into low-risk (below median) and high-risk (above median) subgroups with significantly different overall survival (OS; P = .002) and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .038). The model also predicted OS and PFS when the mortality predictor score was considered as a continuous variable (P = .002 and .010, respectively) and was independent of the IPI for prediction of OS (P = .008). These findings demonstrate that the prognostic value of the 6-gene model remains significant in the era of R-CHOP treatment and that the model can be applied to routine FFPE tissue from initial diagnostic biopsies. PMID:18445689

  4. Paraffin-based 6-gene model predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres, Raquel; Chen, Jun; Tibshirani, Rob; Johnson, Nathalie A.; Sehn, Laurie H.; Natkunam, Yaso; Briones, Javier; Advani, Ranjana; Connors, Joseph M.; Byrne, Gerald E.; Levy, Ronald; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical outcomes. Outcome prediction at the time of diagnosis is of paramount importance. Previously, we constructed a 6-gene model for outcome prediction of DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapies. However, the standard therapy has evolved into rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). Herein, we evaluated the predictive power of a paraffin-based 6-gene model in R-CHOP–treated DLBCL patients. RNA was successfully extracted from 132 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Expression of the 6 genes comprising the model was measured and the mortality predictor score was calculated for each patient. The mortality predictor score divided patients into low-risk (below median) and high-risk (above median) subgroups with significantly different overall survival (OS; P = .002) and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .038). The model also predicted OS and PFS when the mortality predictor score was considered as a continuous variable (P = .002 and .010, respectively) and was independent of the IPI for prediction of OS (P = .008). These findings demonstrate that the prognostic value of the 6-gene model remains significant in the era of R-CHOP treatment and that the model can be applied to routine FFPE tissue from initial diagnostic biopsies. PMID:18445689

  5. FCGR2C Polymorphisms Associated with HIV-1 Vaccine Protection Are Linked to Altered Gene Expression of Fc-γ Receptors in Human B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xinxia; Li, Shuying S.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Geraghty, Daniel E.; Katze, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The phase III Thai RV144 vaccine trial showed an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) to prevent HIV-1 infection of 31.2%, which has motivated the search for immune correlates of vaccine protection. In a recent report, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FCGR2C were identified to associate with the level of VE in the RV144 trial. To investigate the functional significance of these SNPs, we utilized a large scale B cell RNA sequencing database of 462 individuals from the 1000 Genomes Project to examine associations between FCGR2C SNPs and gene expression. We found that the FCGR2C SNPs that associated with vaccine efficacy in RV144 also strongly associated with the expression of FCGR2A/C and one of them also associated with the expression of Fc receptor-like A (FCRLA), another Fc-γ receptor (FcγR) gene that was not examined in the previous report. These results suggest that the expression of FcγR genes is influenced by these SNPs either directly or in linkage with other causal variants. More importantly, these results motivate further investigations into the potential for a causal association of expression and alternative splicing of FCGR2C and other FcγR genes with the HIV-1 vaccine protection in the RV144 trial and other similar studies. PMID:27015273

  6. Identifying Gene Disruptions in Novel Balanced de novo Constitutional Translocations in Childhood Cancer Patients by Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Deborah I.; Haines, Katherine; Cheung, Hannah; Davis, Caleb F.; Lau, Ching C.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Brown, Chester W.; Thompson, Patrick A.; Gibbs, Richard; Wheeler, David A.; Plon, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We applied whole genome sequencing to children diagnosed with neoplasms and found to carry apparently balanced constitutional translocations, to discover novel genic disruptions. Methods We applied SV calling programs CREST, Break Dancer, SV-STAT and CGAP-CNV, and developed an annotative filtering strategy to achieve nucleotide resolution at the translocations. Results We identified the breakpoints for t(6;12) (p21.1;q24.31) disrupting HNF1A in a patient diagnosed with hepatic adenomas and Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). Translocation as the disruptive event of HNF1A, a gene known to be involved in MODY3, has not been previously reported. In a subject with Hodgkin’s lymphoma and subsequent low-grade glioma, we identified t(5;18) (q35.1;q21.2), disrupting both SLIT3 and DCC, genes previously implicated in both glioma and lymphoma. Conclusions These examples suggest that implementing clinical whole genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up of patients with novel but apparently balanced translocations may reveal unanticipated disruption of disease-associated genes and aid in prediction of the clinical phenotype. PMID:25569436

  7. B cell Receptor Signaling in Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ryan M.; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Phelan, James D.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of B cell receptor (BCR) survival signaling in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is underscored by the recent clinical success of agents that target the BCR pathway. DLBCL is composed of multiple distinct molecular subtypes with divergent clinical outcomes. The activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype is the most aggressive form of DLBCL and is often resistant to standard chemotherapies. ABC DLBCL expresses numerous genes found in antigen-activated B cells, and genetic and pharmacologic studies have demonstrated that ABC DLBCL tumors are addicted to NF-κB activity. The origins of this NF-κB activity remained obscure until RNA interference screens established that the majority of ABC DLBCL cell lines rely on expression of BCR components and downstream signaling effectors for NF-κB activation. Pharmacological inhibition with ibrutinib of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), a kinase that is required for BCR signaling to engage NF-κB, is selectively toxic for ABC DLBCL tumors; a finding that has now been translated to the clinic. These novel targets not only offer a promising new therapy options for ABC DLBCL, but also demonstrate the value of a deep molecular understanding of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25805587

  8. Nuclear Translocation Uncovers the Amyloid Peptide Aβ42 as a Regulator of Gene Transcription*♦

    PubMed Central

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L.; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes. PMID:24878959

  9. GenomicScape: an easy-to-use web tool for gene expression data analysis. Application to investigate the molecular events in the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells.

    PubMed

    Kassambara, Alboukadel; Rème, Thierry; Jourdan, Michel; Fest, Thierry; Hose, Dirk; Tarte, Karin; Klein, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    DNA microarrays have considerably helped to improve the understanding of biological processes and diseases. Large amounts of publicly available microarray data are accumulating, but are poorly exploited due to a lack of easy-to-use bioinformatics resources. The aim of this study is to build a free and convenient data-mining web site (www.genomicscape.com). GenomicScape allows mining dataset from various microarray platforms, identifying genes differentially expressed between populations, clustering populations, visualizing expression profiles of large sets of genes, and exporting results and figures. We show how easily GenomicScape makes it possible to construct a molecular atlas of the B cell differentiation using publicly available transcriptome data of naïve B cells, centroblasts, centrocytes, memory B cells, preplasmablasts, plasmablasts, early plasma cells and bone marrow plasma cells. Genes overexpressed in each population and the pathways encoded by these genes are provided as well as how the populations cluster together. All the analyses, tables and figures can be easily done and exported using GenomicScape and this B cell to plasma cell atlas is freely available online. Beyond this B cell to plasma cell atlas, the molecular characteristics of any biological process can be easily and freely investigated by uploading the corresponding transcriptome files into GenomicScape. PMID:25633866

  10. Chronic TCDD exposure results in the dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes and in the impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Tian, Jijing; Krylova, Irina; Xu, Tuan; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Guo, Tai L; Zhao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure in humans is associated with marked immune suppressions and increased incidence of lymphoblastic diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of impairments in humoral immune responses, we used a murine model. Following a 20-week administration of low doses of TCDD, we observed severely reduced antibody titers, dramatically decreased number of splenic Th1 and Th2 cells and an increase in CD19(+) B cells. Transcriptional profiling of CD19(+) B cells showed that markers of pre-B cells were significantly elevated, indicating delayed B cell maturation. These changes in B cells were accompanied by decreases of T helper cell numbers and reduced IgM and IgG titers. A transcriptome analysis of splenic B cells followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) revealed a set of differentially expressed genes known to play roles in tumorigenesis, cell-proliferation and cell-migration. The most up-regulated transcript gene was Eph receptor A2 (EphA2), a known oncogene, and the most down-regulated transcript was ZBTB16 that codes for a negative transcriptional regulator important in epigenetic chromatin remodeling. IPA identified cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM) and cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) as top upstream regulators. Consistently, a MAPPER promoter database analysis showed that all top dysregulated genes had CREM and/or CREB1 binding sites in their promoter regions. In summary, our data showed that chronic TCDD exposure in mice caused suppressed humoral immunity accompanied with profound dysregulation of gene expression in splenic B-lymphocytes, likely through cAMP-dependent pathways. This dysregulation resulted in impairments in T-cell and B-cell differentiation and activation of the tumorigenic transcription program. PMID:26899660

  11. Curcumin regulates gene expression of insulin like growth factor, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 and antioxidant enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of curcumin on the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (G-ST), B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in diabetic rats were studied. Methods Twenty four rats were assigned to three groups (8 rats for each). Rats of first group were non diabetic and rats of the second group were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). Both groups received vehicle, corn oil only (5 ml/kg body weight) and served as negative and positive controls, respectively. Rats of the third group were rendered diabetic and received oral curcumin dissolved in corn oil at a dose of 15 mg/5 ml/kg body weight for 6 weeks. Results Diabetic rats showed significant increase of blood glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of all antioxidant enzymes with significant reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) compare to the control non diabetic group. Gene expression of Bcl2, SOD, CAT, GPX and GST was increased significantly in diabetic untreated rats compare to the control non diabetic group. The administration of curcumin to diabetic rats normalized significantly their blood sugar level and TBARS values and increased the activities of all antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration. In addition, curcumin treated rats showed significant increase in gene expression of IGF-1, Bcl2, SOD and GST compare to non diabetic and diabetic untreated rats. Conclusion Curcumin was antidiabetic therapy, induced hypoglycemia by up-regulation of IGF-1 gene and ameliorate the diabetes induced oxidative stress via increasing the availability of GSH, increasing the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Bcl2. Further studies are required to investigate the actual mechanism of action of curcumin regarding the up regulation of gene expression of examined parameters. PMID:24364912

  12. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} impairs NF-{kappa}B activation in human naive B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Geldmeyer-Hilt, Kerstin; Heine, Guido; Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin ; Hartmann, Bjoern; Baumgrass, Ria; Radbruch, Andreas; Worm, Margitta

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} In naive B cells, VDR activation by calcitriol results in reduced NF-{kappa}B p105 and p50 protein expression. {yields} Ligating the VDR with calcitriol causes reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B p65. {yields} Reduced nuclear amount of p65 after calcitriol incubation results in reduced binding of p65 on the p105 promoter. {yields} Thus, vitamin D receptor signaling may reduce or prevent activation of B cells and unwanted immune responses, e.g. in IgE dependent diseases such as allergic asthma. -- Abstract: 1{alpha},25-dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (calcitriol), the bioactive metabolite of vitamin D, modulates the activation and inhibits IgE production of anti-CD40 and IL-4 stimulated human peripheral B cells. Engagement of CD40 results in NF-{kappa}B p50 activation, which is essential for the class switch to IgE. Herein, we investigated by which mechanism calcitriol modulates NF-{kappa}B mediated activation of human naive B cells. Naive B cells were predominantly targeted by calcitriol in comparison with memory B cells as shown by pronounced induction of the VDR target gene cyp24a1. Vitamin D receptor activation resulted in a strongly reduced p105/p50 protein and mRNA expression in human naive B cells. This effect is mediated by impaired nuclear translocation of p65 and consequently reduced binding of p65 to its binding site in the p105 promoter. Our data indicate that the vitamin D receptor reduces NF-{kappa}B activation by interference with NF-{kappa}B p65 and p105. Thus, the vitamin D receptor inhibits costimulatory signal transduction in naive B cells, namely by reducing CD40 signaling.

  13. Mechanism of fragility at BCL2 gene minor breakpoint cluster region during t(14;18) chromosomal translocation.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2012-03-16

    The t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma is one of the most common chromosomal translocations. Breaks in chromosome 18 are localized at the 3'-UTR of BCL2 gene or downstream and are mainly clustered in either the major breakpoint region or the minor breakpoint cluster region (mcr). The recombination activating gene (RAG) complex induces breaks at IgH locus of chromosome 14, whereas the mechanism of fragility at BCL2 mcr remains unclear. Here, for the first time, we show that RAGs can nick mcr; however, the mechanism is unique. Three independent nicks of equal efficiency are generated, when both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) are present, unlike a single nick during V(D)J recombination. Further, we demonstrate that RAG binding and nicking at the mcr are independent of nonamer, whereas a CCACCTCT motif plays a critical role in its fragility, as shown by sequential mutagenesis. More importantly, we recapitulate the BCL2 mcr translocation and find that mcr can undergo synapsis with a standard recombination signal sequence within the cells, in a RAG-dependent manner. Further, mutation to the CCACCTCT motif abolishes recombination within the cells, indicating its vital role. Hence, our data suggest a novel, physiologically relevant, nonamer-independent mechanism of RAG nicking at mcr, which may be important for generation of chromosomal translocations in humans. PMID:22275374

  14. The gene encoding the mouse contactin-1 axonal glycoprotein is regulated by the collier/Olf1/EBF family early B-Cell factor 2 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bizzoca, Antonella; Picocci, Sabrina; Corsi, Patrizia; Arbia, Stefania; Croci, Laura; Consalez, G Giacomo; Gennarini, Gianfranco

    2015-12-01

    The Contactin-1 axonal glycoprotein (formerly F3/Contactin) plays a relevant role in cerebellar ontogenesis, as shown in Contactin-1 KO-mice and in transgenic mice misexpressing the corresponding cDNA from a heterologous promoter. Likewise, null mutant mice for the Collier/Olf1/Early B-cell family transcription factor EBF2, in which Purkinje neuron development is primarily affected, exhibit abnormalities in cerebellar corticogenesis. Here, to evaluate the contribution to the Ebf2 null phenotype of changes in the profile of Contactin-1, we study its expression in Ebf2 null mice. In addition, we explore the activation profile of the Cntn1 gene promoter upon transferring the Ebf2 mutation to transgenic mice expressing an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter under control of Cntn1 gene regulatory sequences. In Ebf2 null mice, Contactin-1 protein expression and Cntn1 gene promoter activity are both downregulated during embryonic and early postnatal cerebellar development, both in the rostral and caudal folia, while in the latter an upregulation is observed at postnatal day 8. In vitro, vectors driving EBF1,2,3 transcription factors from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter transactivate a Cntn1-Choline acetyltransferse (CAT) promoter-reporter construct in cotransfection assays and, accordingly, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that the Cntn1 gene 5' flanking region is bound by the EBF2 transcription factor, consistent with the evidence that this region bears the cognate deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) consensus sequences. These data indicate that Contactin-1 expression is dependent upon EBF factors, suggesting that the Cntn1 gene belongs to the expanding regulatory cascade driven by these transcriptional regulators so that changes in its activation may contribute to the phenotype of Ebf2 null mutant mice. PMID:25820347

  15. Plasmodium Infection Promotes Genomic Instability and AID Dependent B Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Robbiani, Davide F.; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Feldhahn, Niklas; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Callen, Elsa; Wang, Qiao; Jankovic, Mila; Silva, Israel T.; Rommel, Philipp C.; Bosque, David; Eisenreich, Tom; Nussenzweig, André; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Chronic infection with Plasmodium falciparum was epidemiologically associated with endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma, a mature B cell cancer characterized by chromosome translocation between the c-myc oncogene and Igh, over 50 years ago. Whether infection promotes B cell lymphoma, and if so by what mechanism remains unknown. To investigate the relationship between parasitic disease and lymphomagenesis we used Plasmodium chabaudi (Pc) to produce chronic malaria infection in mice. Pc induces prolonged expansion of germinal centers (GCs), unique compartments where B cells undergo rapid clonal expansion and express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a DNA mutator. GC B cells elicited during Pc infection suffer widespread DNA damage leading to chromosome translocations. Although infection does not change the overall rate, it modifies lymphomagenesis to favor mature B cell lymphomas that are AID dependent and show chromosome translocations. Thus, malaria infection favors mature B cell cancers by eliciting protracted AID expression in GC B cells. PMID:26276629

  16. Differential translation of the genes encoding the proton-translocating ATPase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Klionsky, D J; Skalnik, D G; Simoni, R D

    1986-06-25

    Translation of the gene for the b subunit of the Escherichia coli proton-translocating ATPase has been examined. Oligonucleotide-directed site-specific mutagenesis was used to mutate certain nucleotides in the intergenic region between uncE (c) and uncF (b). One of the changes was predicted to lower the stability of a proposed stem structure which blocked the ribosome binding site of the uncF mRNA segment. The result of the mutation is a nearly 3-fold increase in the rate of synthesis of the b polypeptide. Another mutation was introduced which changed the initiation codon for uncF from GUG to AUG. This change resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in the synthesis rate of the b polypeptide. These results suggest that secondary structure in the mRNA and the use of a less efficient initiation codon play a role in restricting translation initiation of the uncF mRNA segment. These mechanisms may, in part, explain how the polypeptides of the ATPase complex are synthesized in approximately the same relative amounts as they appear in the assembled complex. PMID:2873137

  17. CD19 is a major B cell receptorindependent activator of MYC-driven B-lymphomagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Elaine Y.; Psathas, James N.; Yu, Duonan; Li, Yimei; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Thomas-Tikhonenko, Andrei

    2012-01-01

    PAX5, a B cellspecific transcription factor, is overexpressed through chromosomal translocations in a subset of B cell lymphomas. Previously, we had shown that activation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) proteins and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling by PAX5 contributes to B-lymphomagenesis. However, the effect of PAX5 on other oncogenic transcription factor-controlled pathways is unknown. Using a MYC-induced murine lymphoma model as well as MYC-transformed human B cell lines, we found that PAX5 controls c-MYC protein stability and steady-state levels. This promoter-independent, posttranslational mechanism of c-MYC regulation was independent of ITAM/BCR activity. Instead it was controlled by another PAX5 target, CD19, through the PI3K-AKT-GSK3? axis. Consequently, MYC levels in B cells from CD19-deficient mice were sharply reduced. Conversely, reexpression of CD19 in murine lymphomas with spontaneous silencing of PAX5 boosted MYC levels, expression of its key target genes, cell proliferation in vitro, and overall tumor growth in vivo. In human B-lymphomas, CD19 mRNA levels were found to correlate with those of MYC-activated genes. They also negatively correlated with the overall survival of patients with lymphoma in the same way that MYC levels do. Thus, CD19 is a major BCR-independent regulator of MYC-driven neoplastic growth in B cell neoplasms. PMID:22546857

  18. Determining cell-of-origin subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using gene expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David W.; Wright, George W.; Williams, P. Mickey; Lih, Chih-Jian; Walsh, William; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Campo, Elias; Chan, Wing C.; Connors, Joseph M.; Smeland, Erlend B.; Mottok, Anja; Braziel, Rita M.; Ott, German; Delabie, Jan; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, James R.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Greiner, Timothy C.; Glinsmann-Gibson, Betty J.; Fu, Kai; Staudt, Louis M.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    The assignment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma into cell-of-origin (COO) groups is becoming increasingly important with the emergence of novel therapies that have selective biological activity in germinal center B cell–like or activated B cell–like groups. The Lymphoma/Leukemia Molecular Profiling Project's Lymph2Cx assay is a parsimonious digital gene expression (NanoString)–based test for COO assignment in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPET). The 20-gene assay was trained using 51 FFPET biopsies; the locked assay was then validated using an independent cohort of 68 FFPET biopsies. Comparisons were made with COO assignment using the original COO model on matched frozen tissue. In the validation cohort, the assay was accurate, with only 1 case with definitive COO being incorrectly assigned, and robust, with >95% concordance of COO assignment between 2 independent laboratories. These qualities, along with the rapid turnaround time, make Lymph2Cx attractive for implementation in clinical trials and, ultimately, patient management. PMID:24398326

  19. Effects of B-Cell Lymphoma 2 Gene Transfer to Myoblast Cells on Skeletal Muscle Tissue Formation Using Magnetic Force-Based Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masanori; Ito, Akira; Akiyama, Hirokazu; Kawabe, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle should possess a high cell-dense structure with unidirectional cell alignment. However, limited nutrient and/or oxygen supply within the artificial tissue constructs might restrict cell viability and muscular functions. In this study, we genetically modified myoblast cells with the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) gene and evaluated their function in artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs. Magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of skeletal muscle bundles by applying a magnetic force. Bcl-2-overexpressing muscle bundles formed highly cell-dense and viable tissue constructs, while muscle bundles without Bcl-2 overexpression exhibited substantial necrosis/apoptosis at the central region of the bundle. Bcl-2-overexpressing muscle bundles contracted in response to electrical pulses and generated a significantly higher physical force. These findings indicate that the incorporation of anti-apoptotic gene-transduced myoblast cells into tissue constructs significantly enhances skeletal muscle formation and function. PMID:23088454

  20. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Tzankov, Alexander; Green, Tina; Wu, Lin; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Liu, Wei-min; Visco, Carlo; Li, Yong; Miranda, Roberto N.; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W. L.; Zhao, Xiaoying; van Krieken, J. Han; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J. M.; Zhou, Fan; Slack, Graham W.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Tu, Meifeng; Variakojis, Daina; Chen, Weina; Go, Ronald S.; Piris, Miguel A.; Møller, Michael B.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)–like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)–like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. PMID:23449635

  1. QuantiGene Plex Represents a Promising Diagnostic Tool for Cell-of-Origin Subtyping of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hall, John S; Usher, Suzanne; Byers, Richard J; Higgins, Rebekah C; Memon, Danish; Radford, John A; Linton, Kim M

    2015-07-01

    Emerging therapies targeting the molecularly distinct GCB and non-GCB/ABC subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have created the need to develop an accurate subtyping assay for routine use. We investigated the potential of QuantiGene Plex (QGP)-branched DNA signal amplification assay-for DLBCL subtyping. We performed in silico analysis of public DLBCL datasets to develop and validate a naïve Bayes classifier, and migrated the resulting 21-gene classifier to QGP and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Forty DLBCL formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors of known subtype (20 per subtype by gene expression profiling of paired fresh-frozen tissues) were reclassified, and results for QGP (on 38/40 for 21/21 targets) and qPCR (on 40/40 samples for 19/21 targets) compared for recapitulation of microarray data and classification accuracy. The 21-gene bayesian classifier achieved mean area under the curve values >0.9 on independent validation. QGP showed a higher correlation with microarray data (mean R(2) = 0.66 ± 0.05 versus 0.34 ± 0.07; P < 0.0001) and classification accuracy (92.1% versus 78.9%). The proportion of validated targets was also higher for QGP (85.7% versus 47.4%). The QGP protocol was rapid and simple to perform, at a cost similar to qPCR. These promising preliminary results strongly support ongoing work to develop a QGP companion diagnostic assay for DLBCL subtyping. PMID:25982535

  2. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Betasatellite DNA as a Tool to Deliver and Express the Human B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) Gene in Plants.

    PubMed

    Kharazmi, Sara; Ataie Kachoie, Elham; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar

    2016-05-01

    The betasatellite DNA associated with Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMB) contains a single complementary-sense ORF, βC1, which is a pathogenicity determinant. CLCuMB was able to replicate in plants in the presence of diverse helper geminiviruses, including Tomato leaf curl virus-Australia (TLCV-Au), Iranian isolate of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-[Ab]), and Beet curly top virus (BCTV-Svr), and can be used as a plant gene delivery vector. To test the hypothesis that CLCuMB has the potential to act as an animal gene delivery vector, a specific insertion construct was produced by the introduction of a human B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cDNA into a mutant DNA of CLCuMB in which the βC1 was deleted (β∆C1). The recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 construct was successfully replicated in tomato and tobacco plants in the presence of TLCV-Au, BCTV-Svr and TYLCV-[Ab]. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses of plants containing the replicative forms of recombinant βΔC1-Bcl-2 DNA showed that Bcl-2 gene was expressed in an acceptable level in these plants, indicating that β∆C1 can be used as a tool to deliver and express animal genes in plants. This CLCuMB-based system, having its own promoter activity, offers the possibility of production of animal recombinant proteins in plants. PMID:27041273

  3. Disruption of the APC gene by t(5;7) translocation in a Turcot family.

    PubMed

    Sahnane, Nora; Bernasconi, Barbara; Carnevali, Ileana; Furlan, Daniela; Viel, Alessandra; Sessa, Fausto; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia

    2016-03-01

    Turcot syndrome (TS) refers to the combination of colorectal polyps and primary tumours of the central nervous system. TS is a heterogeneous genetic condition due to APC and/or mismatch repair germline mutations. When APC is involved the vast majority of mutations are truncating, but in approximately 20%-30% of patients with familial polyposis no germline mutation can be found. A 30-year-old Caucasian woman with a positive pedigree for TS was referred to our Genetic Counselling Service. She was negative for APC and MUTYH but showed a reciprocal balanced translocation t(5;7)(q22;p15) at chromosome analysis. FISH analysis using specific BAC probes demonstrated that 5q22 breakpoint disrupted the APC gene. Transcript analysis by MLPA and digital PCR revealed that the cytogenetic rearrangement involving the 3' end of the APC gene caused a defective expression of a truncated transcript. This result allowed cytogenetic analysis to be offered to all the other family members and segregation analysis clearly demonstrated that all the carriers were affected, whereas non-carriers did not have the polyposis. A cytogenetic approach permitted the identification of the mutation-causing disease in this family, and the segregation analysis together with the transcript study supported the pathogenetic role of this mutation. Karyotype analysis was used as a predictive test in all members of this family. This family suggests that clinically positive TS and FAP cases, which test negative with standard molecular analysis, could be easily and cost-effectively resolved by a classical and molecular cytogenetic approach. PMID:26797314

  4. Evidence for Replicative Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks Leading to Oncogenic Translocation and Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Petersen, Simone; Chen, Hua Tang; Johnson, Roger; Jasin, Maria; Kanaar, Roland; Ried, Thomas; Nussenzweig, Andr

    2002-01-01

    Nonreciprocal translocations and gene amplifications are commonly found in human tumors. Although little is known about the mechanisms leading to such aberrations, tissue culture models predict that they can arise from DNA breakage, followed by cycles of chromatid fusion, asymmetric mitotic breakage, and replication. Mice deficient in both a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) DNA repair protein and the p53 tumor suppressor develop lymphomas at an early age harboring amplification of an IgH/c-myc fusion. Here we report that these chromosomal rearrangements are initiated by a recombination activating gene (RAG)-induced DNA cleavage. Subsequent DNA repair events juxtaposing IgH and c-myc are mediated by a break-induced replication pathway. Cycles of breakage-fusion-bridge result in amplification of IgH/c-myc while chromosome stabilization occurs through telomere capture. Thus, mice deficient in NHEJ provide excellent models to study the etiology of unbalanced translocations and amplification events during tumorigenesis. PMID:12186839

  5. CD30 expression defines a novel subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis and distinct gene expression signature: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexander; Liu, Wei-min; Miranda, Roberto N; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkær, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; Han van Krieken, J; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Zhao, Xiaoying; Winter, Jane N; Zhang, Mingzhi; Li, Ling; Møller, Michael B; Piris, Miguel A; Li, Yong; Go, Ronald S; Wu, Lin; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2013-04-01

    CD30, originally identified as a cell-surface marker of Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is also expressed by several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the prognostic and biological importance of CD30 expression in DLBCL is unknown. Here we report that CD30 expression is a favorable prognostic factor in a cohort of 903 de novo DLBCL patients. CD30 was expressed in ∼14% of DLBCL patients. Patients with CD30(+) DLBCL had superior 5-year overall survival (CD30(+), 79% vs CD30(-), 59%; P = .001) and progression-free survival (P = .003). The favorable outcome of CD30 expression was maintained in both the germinal center B-cell and activated B-cell subtypes. Gene expression profiling revealed the upregulation of genes encoding negative regulators of nuclear factor κB activation and lymphocyte survival, and downregulation of genes encoding B-cell receptor signaling and proliferation, as well as prominent cytokine and stromal signatures in CD30(+) DLBCL patients, suggesting a distinct molecular basis for its favorable outcome. Given the superior prognostic value, unique gene expression signature, and significant value of CD30 as a therapeutic target for brentuximab vedotin in ongoing successful clinical trials, it seems appropriate to consider CD30(+) DLBCL as a distinct subgroup of DLBCL. PMID:23343832

  6. Dysregulated CXCR4 expression promotes lymphoma cell survival and independently predicts disease progression in germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiayu; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Deng, Lijuan; Shen, Qi; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Martinez-Lopez, Azahara; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexandar; Yin, Lihui; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Zhao, Xiaoying; Møller, Michael B; Farnen, John P; Winter, Jane N; Piris, Miguel A; Pham, Lan; Young, Ken H

    2015-03-20

    Abnormal expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an essential role in tumor cell dissemination and disease progression. However, the significance of CXCR4 overexpression in de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. In 743 patients with de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who received standard Rituximab-CHOP immunochemotherapy, we assessed the expression of CXCR4 and dissected its prognostic significance in various DLBCL subsets. Our results showed that CXCR4+ patients was associated with male, bulky tumor, high Ki-67 index, activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype, and Myc, Bcl-2 or p53 overexpression. Moreover, CXCR4+ was an independent factor predicting poorer progression-free survival in germinal-center B-cell-like (GCB)-DLBCL, but not in ABC-DLBCL; and in patients with an IPI of ≤2, but not in those with an IPI>2. The lack of prognostic significance of CXCR4 in ABC-DLBCL was likely due to the activation of p53 tumor suppressor attenuating CXCR4 signaling. Furthermore, concurrent CXCR4+ and BCL2 translocation showed dismal outcomes resembling but independent of MYC/BCL2 double-hit DLBCL. Gene expression profiling suggested that alterations in the tumor microenvironment and immune responses, increased tumor proliferation and survival, and the dissemination of CXCR4+ tumor cells to distant organs or tissues were underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the CXCR4+ associated poor prognosis. PMID:25704881

  7. Next generation sequencing and the management of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: from whole exome analysis to targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of lymphoma, accounting for 30-40% of newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Historically, DLBCL has been thought to involve recurrent translocations of the IGH gene and the deregulation of rearranged oncogenes. Recent advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) have provided a vast and comprehensive catalogue of cancer genes involved in DLBCL pathogenesis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) of more than two hundred DLBCLs has completely redefined the genetic landscape of the disease by identifying recurrent single nucleotide variants and providing new therapeutic opportunities for the germinal center B-cell like (GCB), activated B-cell like (ABC), or primary mediastinal B-cell (PMBL) molecular subtypes. Some of these somatic mutations target genes that play a crucial role in B-cell function (BCR signaling, NF-κB pathway, NOTCH signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, and the PI3K pathway), immunity, cell cycle/apoptosis, or chromatin modification. In this review, we present an overview of the mutations recently discovered by NGS in DLBCL and discuss their biological relevance and possible impacts on clinical management. PMID:25091488

  8. Structural profiles of TP53 gene mutations predict clinical outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an international collaborative study

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Karen; Møller, Michael B.; Colleoni, Gisele W. B.; Sánchez-Beato, Margarita; Kerbauy, Fábio R.; Haioun, Corinne; Eickhoff, Jens C.; Young, Allen H.; Gaulard, Philippe; Piris, Miguel A.; Oberley, Terry D.; Rehrauer, William M.; Kahl, Brad S.; Malter, James S.; Campo, Elias; Delabie, Jan; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Rimsza, Lisa; Huang, James; Braziel, Rita M.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Staudt, Louis M.; Vose, Julie M.; Chan, Wing C.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Greiner, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to correlate the presence of TP53 gene mutations with the clinical outcome of a cohort of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) assembled from 12 medical centers. TP53 mutations were identified in 102 of 477 patients, and the overall survival (OS) of patients with TP53 mutations was significantly worse than those with wild-type TP53 (P < .001). However, subsets of TP53 mutations were found to have different effects on OS. Mutations in the TP53 DNA-binding domains were the strongest predictors of poor OS (P < .001). Mutations in the Loop-Sheet-Helix and Loop-L3 were associated with significantly decreased OS (P = .002), but OS was not significantly affected by mutations in Loop-L2. A subset of missense mutations (His158, His175, Ser245, Gln248, His273, Arg280, and Arg282) in the DNA-binding domains had the worst prognosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the International Prognostic Index and mutations in the DNA-binding domains were independent predictors of OS. TP53 mutations also stratified patients with germinal center B cell–like DLBCL, but not nongerminal center B cell–like DLBCL, into molecularly distinct subsets with different survivals. This study shows the prognostic importance of mutations in the TP53 DNA-binding domains in patients with DLBCL. PMID:18559976

  9. A novel IGH@ gene rearrangement associated with CDKN2A/B deletion in young adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    OTHMAN, MONEEB A.K.; GRYGALEWICZ, BEATA; PIENKOWSKA-GRELA, BARBARA; RYGIER, JOLANTA; EJDUK, ANNA; RINCIC, MARTINA; MELO, JOANA B.; CARREIRA, ISABEL M.; MEYER, BRITTA; LIEHR, THOMAS

    2016-01-01

    Acquired copy number changes are common in acute leukemia. They are reported as recurrent amplifications or deletions (del), and may be indicative of involvement of oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in acquired disease, as well as serving as potential biomarkers for prognosis or as targets for molecular therapy. The present study reported a gain of copy number of 14q13 to 14q32, leading to immunoglobulin heavy chain locus splitting in a young adult female. To the best of our knowledge, this rearrangement has not been previously reported in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Low resolution banding cytogenetics performed at the time of diagnosis revealed a normal karyotype. However, retrospective application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) banding and locus-specific FISH probes, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and high resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization, revealed previously hidden aberrations. Overall, a karyotype of 46, XX, del(9) (p21.3 p21.3),derivative(14) (pter-> q32.33:: q32.33-> q13 ::q32.33-> qter) was determined. The patient was treated according to the Polish Adult Leukemia Group protocol and achieved complete remission. The results of the present study indicate that a favorable prognosis is associated with these aberrations when the aforementioned treatment is administered. PMID:26998132

  10. The tumor microenvironment shapes hallmarks of mature B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shain, K H; Dalton, W S; Tao, J

    2015-09-01

    B-cell tumorigenesis results from a host of known and unknown genetic anomalies, including non-random translocations of genes that normally function as determinants of cell proliferation or cell survival to regions juxtaposed to active immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer elements, chromosomal aneuploidy, somatic mutations that further affect oncogenic signaling and loss of heterozygosity of tumor-suppressor genes. However, it is critical to recognize that even in the setting of a genetic disease, the B-cell/plasma cell tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes significantly to malignant transformation and pathogenesis. Over a decade ago, we proposed the concept of cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance to delineate a form of TME-mediated drug resistance that protects hematopoietic tumor cells from the initial effect of diverse therapies. In the interim, it has been increasingly appreciated that TME also contributes to tumor initiation and progression through sustained growth/proliferation, self-renewal capacity, immune evasion, migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death in a host of B-cell malignancies, including mantle cell lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Within this review, we propose that TME and the tumor co-evolve as a consequence of bidirectional signaling networks. As such, TME represents an important target and should be considered integral to tumor progression and drug response. PMID:25639873

  11. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Expression in Human B Cell Precursors Is Essential for Central B Cell Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cantaert, Tineke; Schickel, Jean-Nicolas; Bannock, Jason M; Ng, Yen-Shing; Massad, Christopher; Oe, Tyler; Wu, Renee; Lavoie, Aubert; Walter, Jolan E; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Al-Herz, Waleed; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Ochs, Hans D; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Durandy, Anne; Meffre, Eric

    2015-11-17

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme-mediating class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin genes, is essential for the removal of developing autoreactive B cells. How AID mediates central B cell tolerance remains unknown. We report that AID enzymes were produced in a discrete population of immature B cells that expressed recombination-activating gene 2 (RAG2), suggesting that they undergo secondary recombination to edit autoreactive antibodies. However, most AID+ immature B cells lacked anti-apoptotic MCL-1 and were deleted by apoptosis. AID inhibition using lentiviral-encoded short hairpin (sh)RNA in B cells developing in humanized mice resulted in a failure to remove autoreactive clones. Hence, B cell intrinsic AID expression mediates central B cell tolerance potentially through its RAG-coupled genotoxic activity in self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:26546282

  12. Renal translocation carcinomas: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and gene expression profiling analysis of 31 cases with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Camparo, Philippe; Vasiliu, Viorel; Molinie, Vincent; Couturier, Jerome; Dykema, Karl J; Petillo, David; Furge, Kyle A; Comperat, Eva M; Lae, Marick; Bouvier, Raymonde; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Denoux, Yves; Ferlicot, Sophie; Forest, Eric; Fromont, Gaelle; Hintzy, Marie C; Laghouati, Myriam; Sibony, Mathilde; Tucker, Marie L; Weber, Nina; Teh, Bin T; Vieillefond, Annick

    2008-05-01

    We report clinicopathologic features of a large series of renal translocation carcinomas from a multicentric study. Diagnosis was performed by cytogenetic examination of fresh material and/or by immunochemistry with antibodies directed against the C-terminal part of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and native transcription factor EB (TFEB) proteins. Clinical data, follow-up, and histologic features were assessed. Antibodies against CK7, CD10, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, AE1-AE3, E-cadherin, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, melan A, and HMB45 were tested on tissue microarrays. Whole-genome microarray expression profiling was performed on 4 tumors. Twenty-nine cases were diagnosed as TFE3 and 2 as TFEB renal translocation carcinomas, including 13 males and 18 females, mean age 24.6 years. Two patients had a previous history of chemotherapy and 1 had a history of renal failure. Mean size of the tumor was 6.9 cm. Thirteen cases were > or = pT3 stage. Twelve cases were N+ or M+. Mean follow-up was 29.5 months. Three patients presented metastases and 5 have died. Mixed papillary and nested patterns with clear and/or eosinophilic cells represented the most consistent histologic appearance, with common foci of calcifications regardless of the type of translocation. Using a 30 mn incubation at room temperature, TFE3 immunostainings were positive in only 82% of our TFE3 translocation carcinomas. Both TFE3 and TFEB renal translocation carcinomas expressed CD10 and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in all cases. An expression of E-cadherin was observed in two-third of cases. Cytokeratins were expressed in less than one-third of cases. Melanocytic markers were expressed at least weakly in all cases except two. Unsupervised clustering on the basis of the gene expression profiling indicated a distinct subgroup of tumors. TRIM 63 glutathione S-transferase A1 and alanyl aminopeptidase are the main differentially expressed genes for this group of tumors. Our results suggest that these differentially expressed genes may serve as novel diagnostic or prognostic markers. PMID:18344867

  13. An ets-related gene, ERG, is rearranged in human myeloid leukemia with t(16;21) chromosomal translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, K; Ichikawa, H; Tojo, A; Kaneko, Y; Maseki, N; Hayashi, Y; Ohira, M; Asano, S; Ohki, M

    1993-01-01

    The t(16;21)(p11;q22) translocation is a nonrandom chromosomal abnormality found in several types of myeloid leukemia, which show variable cytomorphological features. We constructed rodent-human somatic cell hybrids containing the der(16) chromosome from leukemic cells of a patient with t(16;21). Using these hybrids, we mapped the translocation breakpoint on the Not I restriction map of chromosome 21 which we had previously constructed. The result showed the proximity of the breakpoint to the ERG gene, a member of the ets oncogene superfamily. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses of genomic DNA from the hybrids and from peripheral blood cells and bone marrow cells of patients with t(16;21) showed that the breakpoints were clustered within a single intron in the coding region of the ERG gene. This finding and the results obtained by Northern blot analysis suggested the formation of a chimeric product(s) by fusion of the ERG gene and an unknown counterpart gene on chromosome 16. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8234289

  14. Clinical features, tumor biology, and prognosis associated with MYC rearrangement and Myc overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab-CHOP.

    PubMed

    Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Tu, Meifeng; Manyam, Ganiraju C; Tzankov, Alexander; Xia, Yi; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ruifang; Visco, Carlo; Dybkaer, Karen; Yin, Lihui; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; van Krieken, J Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Møller, Michael B; Parsons, Ben M; Zhao, Xiaoying; Winter, Jane N; Piris, Miguel A; McDonnell, Timothy J; Miranda, Roberto N; Li, Yong; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2015-12-01

    MYC dysregulation, including MYC gene rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, is of increasing clinical importance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the roles of MYC and the relative importance of rearrangement vs overexpression remain to be refined. Gaining knowledge about the tumor biology associated with MYC dysregulation is important to understand the roles of MYC and MYC-associated biology in lymphomagenesis. In this study, we determined MYC rearrangement status (n=344) and Myc expression (n=535) in a well-characterized DLBCL cohort, individually assessed the clinical and pathobiological features of patients with MYC rearrangement and Myc protein overexpression, and analyzed the prognosis and gene expression profiling signatures associated with these MYC abnormalities in germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like DLBCL. Our results showed that the prognostic importance of MYC rearrangement vs Myc overexpression is significantly different in germinal center B-cell-like vs activated B-cell-like DLBCL. In germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL, MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients with Myc overexpression significantly contributed to the clinical, biological, and prognostic characteristics of the overall Myc-overexpressing germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL group. In contrast, in activated B-cell-like DLBCL, the occurrence, clinical and biological features, and prognosis of Myc overexpression were independent of MYC rearrangement. High Myc levels and Myc-independent mechanisms, either tumor cell intrinsic or related to tumor microenvironment, conferred significantly worse survival to MYC-rearranged germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL patients, even among Myc(high)Bcl-2(high) DLBCL patients. This study provides new insight into the tumor biology and prognostic effects associated with MYC dysregulation and suggest that detection of both MYC translocations and evaluation of Myc and Bcl-2 expression is necessary to predict the prognosis of DLBCL patients. PMID:26541272

  15. A role for AID in chromosome translocations between c-myc and the IgH variable region.

    PubMed

    Dorsett, Yair; Robbiani, Davide F; Jankovic, Mila; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Eisenreich, Thomas R; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2007-09-01

    Chromosome translocations between oncogenes and the region spanning the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain (IgH) variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) gene segments (Ig V-J(H) region) are found in several mature B cell lymphomas in humans and mice. The breakpoints are frequently adjacent to the recombination signal sequences targeted by recombination activating genes 1 and 2 during antigen receptor assembly in pre-B cells, suggesting that these translocations might be the result of aberrant V(D)J recombination. However, in mature B cells undergoing activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation (SHM), duplications or deletions that would necessitate a double-strand break make up 6% of all the Ig V-J(H) region-associated somatic mutations. Furthermore, DNA breaks can be detected at this locus in B cells undergoing SHM. To determine whether SHM might induce c-myc to Ig V-J(H) translocations, we searched for such events in both interleukin (IL) 6 transgenic (IL-6 tg) and AID(-/-) IL-6 tg mice. Here, we report that AID is required for c-myc to Ig V-J(H) translocations induced by IL-6. PMID:17724134

  16. Closing in on the Rieger syndrome gene on 4q25: mapping translocation breakpoints within a 50-kb region.

    PubMed Central

    Datson, N. A.; Semina, E.; van Staalduinen, A. A.; Dauwerse, H. G.; Meershoek, E. J.; Heus, J. J.; Frants, R. R.; den Dunnen, J. T.; Murray, J. C.; van Ommen, G. J.

    1996-01-01

    Rieger syndrome (RGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of morphogenesis affecting mainly the formation of the anterior eye chamber and of the teeth. RGS has been localized to human chromosome 4q25 by linkage to epidermal growth factor (EGF). We have constructed a detailed physical map and a YAC contig of the genomic region encompassing the EGF locus. Using FISH, several YACs could be shown to cross the breakpoint in two independent RGS patients with balanced 4q translocations. Alu- and LINE-fragmentation of a 2.4-Mb YAC generated a panel of shorter YACs ranging in size from 2.4 Mb to 75 kb. Several fragmentation YACs were subcloned in cosmids, which were mapped to specific subregions of the original YAC by hybridization to the fragmentation panel to further refine the localization of the translocation breakpoints, allowing mapping of the breakpoints to within the most-telomeric 200 kb of the original 2.4-Mb YAC. FiberFISH of cosmids located in this 200-kb region mapped the two translocation breakpoints within a 50-kb region approximately 100-150 kb centromeric to D4S193, significantly narrowing down the candidate region for RGS. The mapping data and resources reported here should facilitate the identification of a gene implicated in Rieger syndrome. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8940275

  17. Reciprocal translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 26, describes reciprocal translocations of chromosomes: their occurrence, breakpoints, and multiple rearrangements. In addition, phenotypes of balanced and unbalanced translocation carriers and fetal death are discussed. Examples of translocation families are given. Meiosis and genetic risk in translocation carriers is presented. Finally, sperm chromosomes in meiotic segregation analysis is mentioned. 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. IRF4 Is a Critical Gene in Retinoic Acid-Mediated Plasma Cell Formation and Is Deregulated in Common Variable Immunodeficiency-Derived B Cells.

    PubMed

    Indrevær, Randi L; Moskaug, Jan Ø; Paur, Ingvild; Bøhn, Siv K; Jørgensen, Silje F; Blomhoff, Rune; Aukrust, Pål; Fevang, Børre; Blomhoff, Heidi K

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, we aimed at identifying the mechanisms whereby the vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) promotes the formation of plasma cells upon stimulation of B cells via the innate immunity receptors TLR9 and RP105. Most often, differentiation of B cells involves the sequential events of class switch recombination and somatic hypermutations characteristic of germinal center reactions, followed by plasma cell formation. By studying the regulatory networks known to drive these reactions, we revealed that RA enhances the expression of the plasma cell-generating transcription factors IFN regulatory factor (IRF)4 and Blimp1, and paradoxically also activation-induced deaminase (AID) involved in somatic hypermutations/class switch recombination, in primary human B cells. IRF4 was identified as a particularly important protein involved in the RA-mediated production of IgG in TLR9/RP105-stimulated B cells. Based on kinetic studies, we present a model suggesting that the initial induction of IRF4 by RA favors AID expression. According to this model, the higher level of IRF4 that eventually arises results in sustained elevated levels of Blimp1. Regarded as a master regulator of plasma cell development, Blimp1 will in turn suppress AID expression and drive the formation of IgG-secreting plasma cells. Notably, we demonstrated IRF4 to be deregulated in B cells from common variable immunodeficiency patients, contributing to the observed aberrant expression of AID in these patients. Taken together, the present study both provides new insight into the mechanisms whereby RA induces differentiation of B cells and identifies IRF4 as a key to understand the defective functions of B cells in common variable immunodeficiency patients. PMID:26276871

  19. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3(+) (LAG3(+)) forkhead box protein 3(-) (FOXP3(-)) regulatory T cells induced by B cells alleviates joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Hsu, Wan-Tseng; Chen, Yi-Lien; Chien, Chien-Hui; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease in which dysregulated immune cells primarily target synovial joints. Despite recent advances in the treatment of RA, including the introduction of biologic therapies and employment of combination disease-modifying antirheumatic drug strategies, remission rates remain suboptimal. Previous studies have demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) was effective in treating a murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The objective of this study was to develop optimal potential iTreg-based therapy for CIA by adoptively transferring LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells. B-cell-induced Treg-of-B cells expressed LAG3 but not Foxp3 (designated LAG3(+) Treg-of-B), and secreted IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. Furthermore, LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells suppressed the proliferation of CD4(+)CD25(-) responder T cells through both LAG3 and IL-10 production. In the murine CIA model, adoptive transfer of LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells alleviated the joint severity as well as local and systemic inflammation. Treatment with LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cells also promoted IL-10 production in lymphocytes isolated from the spleen and draining lymph nodes. Moreover, mice receiving LAG3(+) Treg-of-B cell treatment showed significantly less pronounced osteolysis in the hind footpads, which correlated with the downregulation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression. In conclusion, we identified a novel subset of Tregs for CIA treatment. This insight may facilitate exploring novel regulatory T-cell-based therapies for human autoimmune diseases. PMID:26908164

  20. A complex three-way translocation with deletion of the TP53 gene in a blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia patient.

    PubMed

    Kokate, Prajakta; Dalvi, Rupa; Mandava, Swarna

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome created by the reciprocal translocation t(9;22) (q34;q11), resulting in the chimeric BCR-ABL oncogene. Variant Ph' chromosome translocations involving additional chromosomes are seen in 5-10% of CML cases. In the present study, a novel case of Ph' chromosome-positive CML is reported, with a three-way translocation involving chromosomal regions, 9q34, 22q11.2 and 17p11.2, with additional secondary changes. The three-way translocation has resulted in a deletion of the TP53 gene located on the chromosome 17p13.1 locus. Deletion of the TP53 gene may be a major contributing factor in the development of resistance to imatinib and blast crisis. PMID:26881646

  1. Expression of ribosomal RNA genes in lines of barley with a standard karyotype and with a translocated nucleolar organizer

    SciTech Connect

    Karag'ozov, L.K.; Ananiev, E.D.; Mateeva, Z.E.; Khadzhiolov, A.A.

    1986-10-01

    The authors have investigated the rRNA synthesis and the sensitivity of rRNA genes to the action of DNAase I in developing embryos of two forms of barley. The Frigga variety has a standard karyotype and the T/sub 506/ line is characterized by translocation of the nucleolar organizer, which leads to a reduction in the number of nucleoli observed in the telophase. The results of the investigation of rRNA synthesis in vivo and of the activity of RNA polymerase I in isolated nuclei revealed the absence of differences between the two barley forms. They have established that the genes of ribosomal RNAs possess greater sensitivity to digestion by DNAase the authors compared to that of the total nuclear DNA. They conclude that the translocation of one of the nucleolar organizers causes a delay in the appearance of its activity during the telophase, this not changing the expression of the rRNA genes in the subsequent stages of cell development.

  2. The t(8;9)(p22;p24) translocation in atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia yields a new PCM1-JAK2 fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Marina; Quelen, Cathy; De Mas, Véronique; Duchayne, Eliane; Roquefeuil, Blandine; Delsol, Georges; Laurent, Guy; Dastugue, Nicole; Brousset, Pierre

    2005-11-01

    Several tyrosine kinase genes are involved in chromosomal translocations in chronic myeloproliferative disorders, but there are still uncharacterized translocations in some cases. We report two such cases corresponding to atypical chronic myeloid leukaemia with a t(8;9)(p22;p24) translocation. By fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on the corresponding metaphases with a bacterial artificial chromosome probe encompassing the janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene at 9p24, we observed a split for both patients, suggesting that this gene was rearranged. The locus at 8p22 contains different candidate genes including the pericentriolar material 1 gene (PCM1), already implicated in reciprocal translocations. The rearrangement of the PCM1 gene was demonstrated by FISH, for both patients. By RT-PCR, we confirmed the fusion of 3' part of JAK2 with the 5' part of PCM1. Sequence analysis of the chimeric PCM1-JAK2 mRNA suggests that the putative protein displays the coiled-coil domains of PCM1 and the tyrosine kinase domain of JAK2. This new translocation identifies JAK2 as a possible therapeutic target for compounds with anti-tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:16091753

  3. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Links the B Cell Receptor to Nuclear Factor κb Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Urmila D.; Zhang, Keming; Teutsch, Mark; Sen, Ranjan; Wortis, Henry H.

    2000-01-01

    The recognition of antigen by membrane immunoglobulin M (mIgM) results in a complex series of signaling events in the cytoplasm leading to gene activation. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, is essential for the full repertoire of IgM signals to be transduced. We examined the ability of BTK to regulate the nuclear factor (NF)-κB/Rel family of transcription factors, as the activation of these factors is required for a B cell response to mIgM. We found greatly diminished IgM- but not CD40-mediated NF-κB/Rel nuclear translocation and DNA binding in B cells from X-linked immunodeficient (xid) mice that harbor an R28C mutation in btk, a mutation that produces a functionally inactive kinase. The defect was due, in part, to a failure to fully degrade the inhibitory protein of NF-κB, IκBα. Using a BTK-deficient variant of DT40 chicken B cells, we found that expression of wild-type or gain-of-function mutant BTK, but not the R28C mutant, reconstituted NF-κB activity. Thus, BTK is essential for activation of NF-κB via the B cell receptor. PMID:10811866

  4. Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase in B Cell Immunity and Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme that is predominantly expressed in germinal center B cells and plays a pivotal role in immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation for antibody (Ab) maturation. These two genetic processes endow Abs with protective functions against a multitude of antigens (pathogens) during humoral immune responses. In B cells, AID expression is regulated at the level of either transcriptional activation on AID gene loci or post-transcriptional suppression of AID mRNA. Furthermore, AID stabilization and targeting are determined by post-translational modifications and interactions with other cellular/nuclear factors. On the other hand, aberrant expression of AID causes B cell leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt's lymphoma caused by c-myc/IgH translocation. AID is also ectopically expressed in T cells and non-immune cells, and triggers point mutations in relevant DNA loci, resulting in tumorigenesis. Here, I review the recent literatures on the function of AID, regulation of AID expression, stability and targeting in B cells, and AID-related tumor formation. PMID:23396757

  5. Genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress related genes are associated with outcomes following treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Heather L.; Yao, Song; Goldman, Bryan H.; Lee, Kristy; Spier, Catherine M.; LeBlanc, Michael L.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Cerhan, James R.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Link, Brian K.; Maurer, Matthew J.; Slager, Susan L.; Persky, Daniel O.; Miller, Thomas P.; Fisher, Richard I.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Briehl, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Variable survival outcomes are seen following treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This study examined whether outcomes for aggressive B-cell NHL are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes, which can alter drug metabolism and immune responses. Genotypes for 53 SNPs in 29 genes were determined for 337 patients given anthracycline-based therapies. Their associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression; associations with hematologic toxicity were estimated by logistic regression. To validate the findings, the top 3 SNPs were tested in an independent cohort of 572 DLBCL patients. The top SNPs associated with PFS in the discovery cohort were the rare homozygotes for MPO rs2243828 (hazard ratio [HR]=1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14–3.06, P = 0.013), AKR1C3 rs10508293 (HR=2.09, 95% CI=1.28–3.41, P=0.0032) and NCF4 rs1883112 (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.43–1.02, P=0.06). The association of the NCF4 SNP with PFS was replicated in the validation dataset (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.44–1.01, P=0.05) and the meta-analysis was significant (HR=0.66, 95% CI=0.49–0.89, P<0.01). The association of the MPO SNP was attenuated in the validation dataset, while the meta-analysis remained significant (HR=1.64, 95% CI=1.12–2.41). These two SNPs showed similar trends with OS in the meta-analysis (for NCF4, HR=0.72, 95% CI 0.51–1.02, P=0.07 and for MPO, HR=2.06, 95% CI 1.36–3.12, P<0.01). In addition, patients with the rare homozygote of the NCF4 SNP had an increased risk of hematologic toxicity. We concluded that genetic variations in NCF4 may contribute to treatment outcomes for patients with aggressive NHL. PMID:24633940

  6. Balanced translocation in a patient with craniosynostosis disrupts the SOX6 gene and an evolutionarily conserved non-transcribed region.

    PubMed

    Tagariello, A; Heller, R; Greven, A; Kalscheuer, V M; Molter, T; Rauch, A; Kress, W; Winterpacht, A

    2006-06-01

    Craniosynostosis is a congenital developmental disorder involving premature fusion of cranial sutures, which results in an abnormal shape of the skull. Significant progress in understanding the molecular basis of this phenotype has been made for a small number of syndromic craniosynostosis forms. Nevertheless, in the majority of the approximately 100 craniosynostosis syndromes and in non-syndromic craniosynostosis the underlying gene defects and pathomechanisms are unknown. Here we report on a male infant presenting at birth with brachycephaly, proptosis, midfacial hypoplasia, and low set ears. Three dimensional cranial computer tomography showed fusion of the lambdoid sutures and distal part of the sagittal suture with a gaping anterior fontanelle. Mutations in the genes for FGFR2 and FGFR3 were excluded. Standard chromosome analysis revealed a de novo balanced translocation t(9;11)(q33;p15). The breakpoint on chromosome 11p15 disrupts the SOX6 gene, known to be involved in skeletal growth and differentiation processes. SOX6 mutation screening of another 104 craniosynostosis patients revealed one missense mutation leading to the exchange of a highly conserved amino acid (p.D68N) in a single patient and his reportedly healthy mother. The breakpoint on chromosome 9 is located in a region without any known or predicted genes but, interestingly, disrupts patches of evolutionarily highly conserved non-genic sequences and may thus led to dysregulation of flanking genes on chromosome 9 or 11 involved in skull vault development. The present case is one of the very rare reports of an apparently balanced translocation in a patient with syndromic craniosynostosis, and reveals novel candidate genes for craniosynostoses and cranial suture formation. PMID:16258006

  7. Clues to pathogenesis of Waldenstrm macroglobulinemia and immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance provided by analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement and clustering of B-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Varettoni, Marzia; Zibellini, Silvia; Capello, Daniela; Arcaini, Luca; Rossi, Davide; Pascutto, Cristiana; Rattotti, Sara; Mangiacavalli, Silvia; Pochintesta, Lara; Gotti, Manuel; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-11-01

    We characterized immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements and searched for clusters of stereotyped B-cell receptors in 123 patients with Waldenstrm macroglobulinemia (WM; n = 59) or immunoglobulin M monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgM-MGUS) (n = 64). A productive monoclonal IGHV-D-J rearrangement was obtained in 99/123 patients (80%). Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes were mutated in 94/99 patients (95%) with a median somatic hypermutation rate of 6.7% (2.1-14.5). Compared with the normal B-cell repertoire, patients with WM/IgM-MGUS showed an over-representation of the IGHV3 subgroup (83% vs. 55%, p < 0.0001) and an under-representation of IGHV1 (7% vs. 14%, p = 0.04) and IGHV4 (7% vs. 23%, p = 0.0001) subgroups. At the gene level, in WM/IgM-MGUS there was an over-representation of IGHV3-23 (24% vs. 12%, p = 0.0003), IGHV3-64 (3% vs. < 1%, p = 0.003), IGHV3-7 (12% vs. 4%, p = 0.0001) and IGHV3-74 (9% vs. 2%, p < 0.0001), while IGHV4-39 was never used (0 vs. 5%, p = 0.03). Intra-WM/IgM-MGUS search for HCDR3 similarity showed no association fulfilling criteria for stereotyped receptors. WM/IgM-MGUS sequences were unrelated to known chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) or mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) subsets. In conclusion, the IGHV gene usage in WM and IgM-MGUS is remarkably biased as compared to the normal B-cell repertoire. WM and IgM-MGUS-specific HCDR3 clusters do not occur with a frequency detectable with currently available databases, not supporting a B-cell receptor-driven pathogenesis in WM and IgM-MGUS. PMID:23442064

  8. Transcriptional expression analysis of genes involved in regulation of calcium translocation and storage in finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gartn.).

    PubMed

    Mirza, Neelofar; Taj, Gohar; Arora, Sandeep; Kumar, Anil

    2014-10-25

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) variably accumulates calcium in different tissues, due to differential expression of genes involved in uptake, translocation and accumulation of calcium. Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter (CAX1), two pore channel (TPC1), CaM-stimulated type IIB Ca(2+) ATPase and two CaM dependent protein kinase (CaMK1 and 2) homologs were studied in finger millet. Two genotypes GP-45 and GP-1 (high and low calcium accumulating, respectively) were used to understand the role of these genes in differential calcium accumulation. For most of the genes higher expression was found in the high calcium accumulating genotype. CAX1 was strongly expressed in the late stages of spike development and could be responsible for accumulating high concentrations of calcium in seeds. TPC1 and Ca(2+) ATPase homologs recorded strong expression in the root, stem and developing spike and signify their role in calcium uptake and translocation, respectively. Calmodulin showed strong expression and a similar expression pattern to the type IIB ATPase in the developing spike only and indicating developing spike or even seed specific isoform of CaM affecting the activity of downstream target of calcium transportation. Interestingly, CaMK1 and CaMK2 had expression patterns similar to ATPase and TPC1 in various tissues raising a possibility of their respective regulation via CaM kinase. Expression pattern of 14-3-3 gene was observed to be similar to CAX1 gene in leaf and developing spike inferring a surprising possibility of CAX1 regulation through 14-3-3 protein. Our results provide a molecular insight for explaining the mechanism of calcium accumulation in finger millet. PMID:25101868

  9. Comprehensive gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical studies support application of immunophenotypic algorithm for molecular subtype classification in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a report from the International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study.

    PubMed

    Visco, C; Li, Y; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Miranda, R N; Green, T M; Li, Y; Tzankov, A; Wen, W; Liu, W-m; Kahl, B S; d'Amore, E S G; Montes-Moreno, S; Dybkær, K; Chiu, A; Tam, W; Orazi, A; Zu, Y; Bhagat, G; Winter, J N; Wang, H-Y; O'Neill, S; Dunphy, C H; Hsi, E D; Zhao, X F; Go, R S; Choi, W W L; Zhou, F; Czader, M; Tong, J; Zhao, X; van Krieken, J H; Huang, Q; Ai, W; Etzell, J; Ponzoni, M; Ferreri, A J M; Piris, M A; Møller, M B; Bueso-Ramos, C E; Medeiros, L J; Wu, L; Young, K H

    2012-09-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) has stratified diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) into molecular subgroups that correspond to different stages of lymphocyte development-namely germinal center B-cell like and activated B-cell like. This classification has prognostic significance, but GEP is expensive and not readily applicable into daily practice, which has lead to immunohistochemical algorithms proposed as a surrogate for GEP analysis. We assembled tissue microarrays from 475 de novo DLBCL patients who were treated with rituximab-CHOP chemotherapy. All cases were successfully profiled by GEP on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Sections were stained with antibodies reactive with CD10, GCET1, FOXP1, MUM1 and BCL6 and cases were classified following a rationale of sequential steps of differentiation of B cells. Cutoffs for each marker were obtained using receiver-operating characteristic curves, obviating the need for any arbitrary method. An algorithm based on the expression of CD10, FOXP1 and BCL6 was developed that had a simpler structure than other recently proposed algorithms and 92.6% concordance with GEP. In multivariate analysis, both the International Prognostic Index and our proposed algorithm were significant independent predictors of progression-free and overall survival. In conclusion, this algorithm effectively predicts prognosis of DLBCL patients matching GEP subgroups in the era of rituximab therapy. PMID:22437443

  10. B Cell Super-Enhancers and Regulatory Clusters Recruit AID Tumorigenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jason; Wang, Qiao; Dose, Marei; Pruett, Nathanael; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Resch, Wolfgang; Liang, Genqing; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathé, Ewy; Benner, Christopher; Dubois, Wendy; Nelson, Steevenson; Vian, Laura; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Jankovic, Mila; Hakim, Ofir; Gazumyan, Anna; Pavri, Rushad; Awasthi, Parirokh; Song, Bin; Liu, Geng; Chen, Longyun; Zhu, Shida; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Staudt, Louis; Murre, Cornelis; Ruan, Yijun; Robbiani, Davide F.; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Casellas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The antibody gene mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promiscuously damages oncogenes, leading to chromosomal translocations and tumorigenesis. Why nonimmunoglobulin loci are susceptible to AID activity is unknown. Here, we study AID-mediated lesions in the context of nuclear architecture and the B cell regulome. We show that AID targets are not randomly distributed across the genome but are predominantly grouped within super-enhancers and regulatory clusters. Unexpectedly, in these domains, AID deaminates active promoters and eRNA+ enhancers interconnected in some instances over megabases of linear chromatin. Using genome editing, we demonstrate that 3D-linked targets cooperate to recruit AID-mediated breaks. Furthermore, a comparison of hypermutation in mouse B cells, AID-induced kataegis in human lymphomas, and translocations in MEFs reveals that AID damages different genes in different cell types. Yet, in all cases, the targets are predominantly associated with topological complex, highly transcribed super-enhancers, demonstrating that these compartments are key mediators of AID recruitment. PMID:25483777

  11. B cell super-enhancers and regulatory clusters recruit AID tumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jason; Wang, Qiao; Dose, Marei; Pruett, Nathanael; Kieffer-Kwon, Kyong-Rim; Resch, Wolfgang; Liang, Genqing; Tang, Zhonghui; Mathé, Ewy; Benner, Christopher; Dubois, Wendy; Nelson, Steevenson; Vian, Laura; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Jankovic, Mila; Hakim, Ofir; Gazumyan, Anna; Pavri, Rushad; Awasthi, Parirokh; Song, Bin; Liu, Geng; Chen, Longyun; Zhu, Shida; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Staudt, Louis; Murre, Cornelis; Ruan, Yijun; Robbiani, Davide F; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Casellas, Rafael

    2014-12-18

    The antibody gene mutator activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) promiscuously damages oncogenes, leading to chromosomal translocations and tumorigenesis. Why nonimmunoglobulin loci are susceptible to AID activity is unknown. Here, we study AID-mediated lesions in the context of nuclear architecture and the B cell regulome. We show that AID targets are not randomly distributed across the genome but are predominantly grouped within super-enhancers and regulatory clusters. Unexpectedly, in these domains, AID deaminates active promoters and eRNA(+) enhancers interconnected in some instances over megabases of linear chromatin. Using genome editing, we demonstrate that 3D-linked targets cooperate to recruit AID-mediated breaks. Furthermore, a comparison of hypermutation in mouse B cells, AID-induced kataegis in human lymphomas, and translocations in MEFs reveals that AID damages different genes in different cell types. Yet, in all cases, the targets are predominantly associated with topological complex, highly transcribed super-enhancers, demonstrating that these compartments are key mediators of AID recruitment. PMID:25483777

  12. Xp pseudoautosomal gene haploinsufficiency and linear growth deficiency in three girls with chromosome Xp22;Yq11 translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, M; Cantú, E S; Pai, G S; Willi, S M; Papenhausen, P R; Weiss, L

    1996-01-01

    Colony stimulating factor-2 receptor alpha (CSF2RA) and interleukin-3 receptor alpha (IL3RA), two genes from the chromosome Xp and Yp pseudoautosomal region (PAR), have been suggested as candidate genes for short stature in Turner syndrome. We report three girls with X;Y translocation (46,X,der(X)t(X;Y)(p22;q11) initially detected by amniocentesis. The terminal portion of the X chromosome distal to the translocation breakpoint at Xp22 was deleted on the derivative X chromosome in all three patients. Each had normal stature at birth, with greater than expected deceleration of growth velocity by the second year. Using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), we have shown deletion of the CSF2RA and IL3RA loci on the derivative X chromosomes of all three patients. The role of CSF2RA and IL3RA haploinsufficiency in linear growth and final adult stature is discussed. Additional studies, particularly of molecular deletions within the PAR, are needed to improve our understanding of the role of these and other PAR loci in the genetic control of adult stature. Images PMID:8950669

  13. A Constitutional Translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2) in a Neuroblastoma Patient Disrupts the Human NBPF1 and ACCN1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Staes, Katrien; Vandesompele, Jo; Laureys, Geneviève; De Smet, Els; Berx, Geert; Speleman, Frank; van Roy, Frans

    2008-01-01

    The human 1p36 region is deleted in many different types of tumors, and so it probably harbors one or more tumor suppressor genes. In a Belgian neuroblastoma patient, a constitutional balanced translocation t(1;17)(p36.2;q11.2) may have led to the development of the tumor by disrupting or activating a gene. Here, we report the cloning of both translocation breakpoints and the identification of a novel gene that is disrupted by this translocation. This gene, named NBPF1 for Neuroblastoma BreakPoint Family member 1, belongs to a recently described gene family encoding highly similar proteins, the functions of which are unknown. The translocation truncates NBPF1 and gives rise to two chimeric transcripts of NBPF1 sequences fused to sequences derived from chromosome 17. On chromosome 17, the translocation disrupts one of the isoforms of ACCN1, a potential glioma tumor suppressor gene. Expression of the NBPF family in neuroblastoma cell lines is highly variable, but it is decreased in cell lines that have a deletion of chromosome 1p. More importantly, expression profiling of the NBPF1 gene showed that its expression is significantly lower in cell lines with heterozygous NBPF1 loss than in cell lines with a normal 1p chromosome. Meta-analysis of the expression of NBPF and ACCN1 in neuroblastoma tumors indicates a role for the NBPF genes and for ACCN1 in tumor aggressiveness. Additionally, DLD1 cells with inducible NBPF1 expression showed a marked decrease of clonal growth in a soft agar assay. The disruption of both NBPF1 and ACCN1 genes in this neuroblastoma patient indicates that these genes might suppress development of neuroblastoma and possibly other tumor types. PMID:18493581

  14. Cloning of the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gene: Identification of cDNAs associated with CpG islands mapped near translocation breakpoint in two female patients

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D.; Kere, J.

    1994-09-01

    The gene for the X chromosomal developmental disorder anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) has been mapped to Xq12-q13 by linkage analysis and is expressed in a few females with chromosomal translocations involving band Xq12-q13. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig (2.0 Mb) spanning two translocation breakpoints has been assembled by sequence-tagged site (STS)-based chromosomal walking. The two translocation breakpoints (X:autosome translocations from the affected female patients) have been mapped less than 60 kb apart within a YAC contig. Unique probes and intragenic STSs (mapped between the two translocations) have been developed and a somatic cell hybrid carrying the translocated X chromosome from the AK patient has been analyzed by isolating unique probes that span the breakpoint. Several STSs made from intragenic sequences have been found to be conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, but we have detected no mRNAs in a number of tissues tested. However, a probe and STS developed from the DNA spanning the AK breakpoint is conserved in mouse, hamster and monkey, and we have detected expressed sequences in skin cells and cDNA libraries. In addition, unique sequences have been obtained from two CpG islands in the region that maps proximal to the breakpoints. cDNAs containing these sequences are being studied as candidates for the gene affected in the etiology of EDA.

  15. The Flavones Apigenin and Luteolin Induce FOXO1 Translocation but Inhibit Gluconeogenic and Lipogenic Gene Expression in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Osterhoff, Martin A.; Borchert, Andrea; Guzman-Perez, Valentina; Sarem, Zeinab; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Bähr, Volker; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.

    2014-01-01

    The flavones apigenin (4′,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) and luteolin (3′,4′,5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone) are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1), an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, and S6-phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin indicating a direct inhibition of the PKB/AKT-signaling pathway distal to the IGF-1 receptor. N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these flavones do not act via oxidative stress. The roles of FOXO1, FOXO3a, AKT, sirtuin1 (SIRT1), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2)-like2 (NRF2), investigated by siRNA knockdown, showed differential patterns of signal pathways involved and a role of NRF2 in the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. We conclude that these flavones show an antidiabetic potential due to reduction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacity despite inhibition of the PKB/AKT pathway which justifies detailed investigation in vivo. PMID:25136826

  16. The flavones apigenin and luteolin induce FOXO1 translocation but inhibit gluconeogenic and lipogenic gene expression in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bumke-Vogt, Christiane; Osterhoff, Martin A; Borchert, Andrea; Guzman-Perez, Valentina; Sarem, Zeinab; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Bähr, Volker; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2014-01-01

    The flavones apigenin (4',5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) and luteolin (3',4',5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone) are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1), an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, and S6-phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin indicating a direct inhibition of the PKB/AKT-signaling pathway distal to the IGF-1 receptor. N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these flavones do not act via oxidative stress. The roles of FOXO1, FOXO3a, AKT, sirtuin1 (SIRT1), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived2)-like2 (NRF2), investigated by siRNA knockdown, showed differential patterns of signal pathways involved and a role of NRF2 in the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzyme expression. We conclude that these flavones show an antidiabetic potential due to reduction of gluconeogenic and lipogenic capacity despite inhibition of the PKB/AKT pathway which justifies detailed investigation in vivo. PMID:25136826

  17. Interleukin-6 is responsible for aberrant B-cell receptor-mediated regulation of RAG expression in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hillion, Sophie; Garaud, Soizic; Devauchelle, Valérie; Bordron, Anne; Berthou, Christian; Youinou, Pierre; Jamin, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Defective regulation of secondary immunoglobulin V(D)J gene rearrangement promotes the production of autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It remains unclear, however, whether the regulation of the recombination-activating genes RAG1 and RAG2 is effective in SLE. RAG1 and RAG2 messenger RNA expression was analysed before and after in vitro activation of sorted CD19+ CD5– B cells with anti-immunoglobulin M antibodies, in 20 SLE patients and 17 healthy controls. The expression of CDK2 and p27Kip1 regulators of the RAG2 protein, were examined. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and its influence on RAG regulation were also evaluated in vitro. SLE patients had increased frequency of RAG-positive B cells. B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement induced a shift in the frequency of κ- and λ-positive cells, associated with a persistence of RAG messenger RNA and the maintenance of RAG2 protein within the nucleus. While expression of the RAG2-negative regulator CDK2 was normal, the positive regulator p27Kip1 was up-regulated and enhanced by BCR engagement. This effect was the result of the aberrant production of IL-6 by SLE B cells. Furthermore, IL-6 receptor blockade led to a reduction in p27Kip1 expression, and allowed the translocation of RAG2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Our study indicates that aberrant production of IL-6 contributes to the inability of SLE B cells to terminate RAG protein production. Therefore, we hypothesize that because of constitutive IL-6 signalling in association with BCR engagement, SLE B cells would become prone to secondary immunoglobulin gene rearrangements and autoantibody production. PMID:17608810

  18. Genetic pathway to recurrent chromosome translocations in murine lymphoma involves V(D)J recombinase

    PubMed Central

    Vanasse, Gary J.; Halbrook, James; Thomas, Sushma; Burgess, Abigail; Hoekstra, Merl F.; Disteche, Christine M.; Willerford, Dennis M.

    1999-01-01

    Chromosome translocations involving antigen receptor loci are a genetic hallmark of non-Hodgkins lymphomas in humans. Most commonly, these translocations result in juxtaposition of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) locus with one of several cellular proto-oncogenes, leading to deregulated oncogene expression. The V(D)J recombinase, which mediates physiologic rearrangements of antigen receptor genes, may play a mechanistic role in some lymphoma translocations, although evidence is indirect. A high incidence of B-lineage lymphomas has been observed in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and p53-null mutations. We show that these tumors are characteristic of the proB-cell stage of development and that they harbor recurrent translocations involving chromosomes 12 and 15. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) shows retention of IgH sequences on the derivative chromosome 12, implying that breakpoints involve the IgH locus. ProB-cell lymphomas were suppressed in SCID p53/ mice by a Rag-2null mutation, demonstrating that DNA breaks generated during V(D)J recombination are required for oncogenic transformation, and suggesting that t(12;15) arise during attempted IgH rearrangement in pro-B cells. These studies indicate that the oncogenic potential inherent in antigen receptor diversification is controlled in vivo by efficient rejoining of DNA ends generated during V(D)J recombination and an intact cellular response to DNA damage. J. Clin. Invest. 103:16691675 (1999). PMID:10377173

  19. The UDP-galactose translocator gene is mapped to band Xp11. 23-p11. 22 containing the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Locus

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, Takahiko; Hoshino, Masato; Aoki, Kazuhisa; Ayusawa, Dai; Kawakita, Masao ); Yamauchi, Masatake; Takahashi, Ei-ichi )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have cloned a segment of the human gene encoding UDP-galactose translocator by genetic complementation of its defective mutant in mouse FM3A cells. Chromosome mapping using fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the cloned gene hybridized to the Xp11.23-11.23 region of the X chromosome. This region is shared by the locus of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by defective sugar chains on cell surface components. Genetic and phenotypic similarities suggest a possible link between UDP-galactose translocator and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS).

  20. DISSECTING TELEOST B CELL DIFFERENTIATION USING TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Zwollo, Patty

    2011-01-01

    B cell developmental pathways in teleost fishes are poorly understood. In the absence of serological reagents, an alternative approach to dissecting teleost B cell development is to use transcription factors that are differentially expressed during B cell development. This review discusses the structure and function of six transcription factors that play essential roles during teleost B cell development: Ikaros, E2A, EBF, Pax5, Blimp1, and XbpI. Research on alternative splicing of both the Ikaros and Pax5 genes in rainbow trout is presented, including their functional significance. An application is discussed that should aid in elucidating teleost B cell development and activation, by using transcription factors as developmental markers in flow cytometric analysis. Possible future studies in teleost B cell development are suggested in the context of gene regulation. Lastly, broader impacts and practical applications are discussed. PMID:21251922

  1. Targeted Deletion of the Gene Encoding the La Autoantigen (Sjögren's Syndrome Antigen B) in B Cells or the Frontal Brain Causes Extensive Tissue Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaidamakov, Sergei; Maximova, Olga A.; Chon, Hyongi; Blewett, Nathan H.; Wang, Hongsheng; Crawford, Amanda K.; Day, Amanda; Tulchin, Natalie; Crouch, Robert J.; Morse, Herbert C.; Blitzer, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    La antigen (Sjögren's syndrome antigen B) is a phosphoprotein associated with nascent precursor tRNAs and other RNAs, and it is targeted by autoantibodies in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neonatal lupus. Increased levels of La are associated with leukemias and other cancers, and various viruses usurp La to promote their replication. Yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) genetically depleted of La grow and proliferate, whereas deletion from mice causes early embryonic lethality, raising the question of whether La is required by mammalian cells generally or only to surpass a developmental stage. We developed a conditional La allele and used it in mice that express Cre recombinase in either B cell progenitors or the forebrain. B cell Mb1Cre La-deleted mice produce no B cells. Consistent with αCamKII Cre, which induces deletion in hippocampal CA1 cells in the third postnatal week and later throughout the neocortex, brains develop normally in La-deleted mice until ∼5 weeks and then lose a large amount of forebrain cells and mass, with evidence of altered pre-tRNA processing. The data indicate that La is required not only in proliferating cells but also in nondividing postmitotic cells. Thus, La is essential in different cell types and required for normal development of various tissue types. PMID:24190965

  2. The life and death of a B cell.

    PubMed

    Defrance, Thierry; Casamayor-Pallejà, Montserrat; Krammer, Peter H

    2002-01-01

    Regulation of apoptosis in the B cell lineage has implications for homeostasis, quality control of the antibody response, and tolerance. In this chapter we examine the different checkpoints that control life and death decisions of B cells during the antigen-independent and antigen-dependent phases of their development. We discuss the cell death mechanism involved in elimination of unwanted B cells at different stages of their development as well as the signals that trigger or repress the apoptotic process. At the steady state, before or after development of an immune response, B cell apoptosis ensures that the antigen receptor (BCR) on newly produced B cells is functional and does not recognize self-antigens with high avidity. It also ensures that the size of the peripheral B cell compartment remains constant in spite of the continuous input of B cells from the bone marrow. All these processes are controlled by the mitochondrial death pathway and are thus perturbed by overexpression of the antiapoptotic members of the bcl-2 gene family. By contrast, the death receptor pathway plays a prominent role during the antigen-dependent phase of B cell development. Three sets of membrane molecules stand as crucial regulators of B cell survival. First, the BCR which plays a central but ambiguous role. On the one hand, it triggers death of B cells that recognize self-antigens or have been exposed to repeated antigenic stimulations. On the other hand, it promotes survival of the peripheral mature B cell pool and protects activated B cells from CD95-induced killing. Second, the death receptor Fas/CD95 which is instrumental in censoring B cells activated in a bystander fashion at the initiation of the response to T-dependent antigens. It also drives elimination of low-affinity and self-reactive B cell clones that arise through the process of somatic mutations during the germinal center reaction. As such, it contributes to the affinity maturation of the antibody response. Finally, three membrane receptors (TACI, BCMA, and BAFF-R) which bind a newly discovered member of the tumor necrosis factor family named BAFF. BAFF acts specifically on peripheral B cells but its cellular targets seem to be restricted to two splenic B cell populations: (i) transitional immature B cells and (ii) marginal zone B cells, known to be responsible for the response to thymus-independent type 2 antigens. This suggests its possible implication in positive selection of peripheral B cells and in the antibacterial B cell responses. PMID:12374279

  3. A phylogeny of the temperate seabasses (Moronidae) characterized by a translocation of the mt-nd6 gene.

    PubMed

    Williams, E P; Peer, A C; Miller, T J; Secor, D H; Place, A R

    2012-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of the striped bass Morone saxatilis was sequenced together with the mitochondrial (mt) control regions of the white bass Morone chrysops, white perch Morone americana, yellow bass Morone mississippiensis, spotted seabass Dicentrarchus punctatus, European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax and the Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus. The resultant 17 580 base pair circular genome of M. saxatilis contains 38 genes (13 proteins, 23 transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs) and a control region bordered by the proline and phenylalanine mitochondrial tRNAs. Gene arrangement was similar to other vertebrates, except that the mt-nd6 gene was found within the control region rather than the canonical position between the mt-nd5 and mt-cyb genes. This translocation was found in all the Morone and Dicentrarchus species studied without functional copies or pseudogenes in the ancestral position. In L. japonicus, the mt-nd6 gene was found in the canonical position without evidence of an mt-nd6 gene in the control region. A Bayesian analysis of these and published mt-nd6 sequences from 45 other Perciformes grouped the Morone and Dicentrarchus species monophyletically with a probability of 1·00 with respect to L. japonicus and all other perciforms, and placed the Dicentrarchus species in the basal position. These data reinforce current placement of L. japonicus outside the Moronidae and provide a clear evolutionary character to define this family. The phylogeny of the Moronidae presented here also supports the hypothesis of an anadromous common ancestor to this family that gave rise to the North American estuarine and freshwater species. A series of tandem repeats previously reported in M. saxatilis was found in the control region of all Morone species between the mt-nd6 and mt-rnr1 genes, but not in either Dicentrarchus species, which reinforces the continued use of these two separate genera. PMID:22220893

  4. B cell-intrinsic CD84 and Ly108 maintain germinal center B cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eric B.; Soni, Chetna; Chan, Alice Y.; Domeier, Phillip P.; Shwetank; Abraham, Thomas; Limaye, Nisha; Khan, Tahsin N.; Elias, Melinda J.; Chodisetti, Sathi Babu; Wakeland, Edward K.; Rahman, Ziaur S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecules (SLAMs) play an integral role in immune regulation. Polymorphisms in the SLAM family receptors are implicated in human and mouse model of lupus disease. The lupus-associated, somatically mutated and class-switched pathogenic autoantibodies are generated in spontaneously developed germinal centers (Spt-GCs) in secondary lymphoid organs. The role and mechanism of B cell-intrinsic expression of polymorphic SLAM receptors that affect B cell tolerance at the GC checkpoint is not clear. Here, we generated several bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mice that overexpress B6 alleles of different SLAM family genes in autoimmune-prone B6.Sle1b mice. B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6-derived Ly108 and CD84 exhibit a significant reduction in the Spt-GC response and autoantibody production compared to B6.Sle1b mice. These data suggest a prominent role of Sle1b-derived Ly108 and CD84 in altering the GC checkpoint. We further confirm that expression of lupus-associated CD84 and Ly108 specifically on GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice is sufficient to break B cell tolerance leading to an increase in autoantibody production. In addition, we observe that B6.Sle1b B cells have reduced BCR signaling, and a lower frequency of B cell-T cell conjugates, which are reversed in B6.Sle1b mice overexpressing B6 alleles of CD84 and Ly108. Finally, we find a significant decrease in apoptotic GC B cells in B6.Sle1b mice compared to B6 controls. Our study establishes the central role of GC B cell-specific CD84 and Ly108 expression in maintaining B cell tolerance in GCs and in preventing autoimmunity. PMID:25801429

  5. Lymphomagenic CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling drives malignant B-cell proliferation via cooperative NF-κB and JNK activation

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Nathalie; Alankus, Begüm; Weilemann, Andre; Tzankov, Alexandar; Brunner, Kristina; Ruff, Tanja; Kremer, Marcus; Keller, Ulrich B.; Lenz, Georg; Ruland, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The aggressive activated B cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is characterized by aberrant B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and constitutive nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation, which is required for tumor cell survival. BCR-induced NF-κB activation requires caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11), and CARD11 gain-of-function mutations are recurrently detected in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To investigate the consequences of dysregulated CARD11 signaling in vivo, we generated mice that conditionally express the human DLBCL-derived CARD11(L225LI) mutant. Surprisingly, CARD11(L225LI) was sufficient to trigger aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferation, leading to early postnatal lethality. CARD11(L225LI) constitutively associated with B-cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) to simultaneously activate the NF-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades. Genetic deficiencies of either BCL10 or MALT1 completely rescued the phenotype, and pharmacological inhibition of JNK was, similar to NF-κB blockage, toxic to autonomously proliferating CARD11(L225LI)-expressing B cells. Moreover, constitutive JNK activity was observed in primary human activated B cell-like (ABC)-DLBCL specimens, and human ABC-DLBCL cells were also sensitive to JNK inhibitors. Thus, our results demonstrate that enforced activation of CARD11/BCL10/MALT1 signaling is sufficient to drive transformed B-cell expansion in vivo and identify the JNK pathway as a therapeutic target for ABC-DLBCL. PMID:26668357

  6. Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Novero, Aileen; Ravella, Pavan M; Chen, Yamei; Dous, George; Liu, Delong

    2014-01-01

    Research over the role of Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

  7. Ibrutinib for B cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Research over the role of Bruton’s agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (BTK) in B-lymphocyte development, differentiation, signaling and survival has led to better understanding of the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. Down-regulation of BTK activity is an attractive novel strategy for treating patients with B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib (PCI-32765), a potent inhibitor of BTK induces impressive responses in B-cell malignancies through irreversible bond with cysteine-481 in the active site of BTK (TH/SH1 domain) and inhibits BTK phosphorylation on Tyr223. This review discussed in details the role of BTK in B-cell signaling, molecular interactions between B cell lymphoma/leukemia cells and their microenvironment. Clinical trials of the novel BTK inhibitor, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), in B cell malignancies were summarized. PMID:24472371

  8. B Cells, Antibodies, and More

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, William; Lakkis, Fadi G.

    2016-01-01

    B cells play a central role in the immunopathogenesis of glomerulonephritides and transplant rejection. B cells secrete antibodies that contribute to tissue injury via multiple mechanisms. In addition, B cells contribute to disease pathogenesis in autoimmunity and alloimmunity by presenting antigens as well as providing costimulation and cytokines to T cells. B cells also play an immunomodulatory role in regulating the immune response by secreting cytokines that inhibit disease onset and/or progression. B cell–targeted approaches for treating immune diseases of the kidney and other organs have gained significant momentum. However, much remains to be understood about B-cell biology in order to determine the timing, duration, and context of optimal therapeutic response to B cell–targeted approaches. In this review, we discuss the multifaceted roles of B cells as enhancers and regulators of immunity with relevance to kidney disease and transplantation. PMID:26700440

  9. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of B cell clonality in Sjögren's syndrome patients: a diagnostic tool of clonal expansion

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, L M; Castillo, D; Aguilera, S O

    2010-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by clonal B cell attack of the exocrine glands and dysregulated expression of B cell-activating factor (BAFF). Based upon the current data of increased rates of lymphoid malignancy, as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is associated with SS, we propose the detection of clonal rearrangements of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene in those patients as a predictor of malignant clonal expansion. To test our proposal, we examined the IgH clonal rearrangements in SS patients (60) and healthy control subjects (42) having chronic non-specific sialadenitis, to determine the presence of clonal B cells in minor labial salivary glands (MSG) of SS patients. Clonal B cell expansion was assessed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays: (i) semi-nested PCR, against sequences encoding framework regions FR3, FR2 and FR1c of the variable chain IgH gene in B cells present in the MSG infiltrate; and (ii) the PCR–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, against the major and minor breakpoint regions of the Bcl-2 oncogene coupled with a variable segment of the IgH to assess the Bcl-2/JH translocation. When FR3, FR2 and FR1c primers were employed, we detected B cell monoclonality in 87% of the SS patients and 19% of the control subjects. The association between inflammation severity of the MSG pattern and the presence of B cell clonality was found to be statistically significant (P < 0·01). We concluded that the presence of B cell clonality in MSG can be used as a index of an altered microenvironment favouring the development of lymphoma in SS patients. PMID:20408860

  10. Molecular mapping of greenbug resistance genes Gb2 and Gb6 in T1AL.1RS wheat-rye translocations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is an important aphid pest of wheat worldwide. Two greenbug resistance genes Gb2 and Gb6 derived from the same donor rye line ‘Insave’, are presented in wheat germplasm lines ‘Amigo’ and ‘GRS1201’ respectively as 1AL.1RS wheat-rye translocations. The alle...

  11. The Majority of Human Memory B Cells Recognizing RhD and Tetanus Resides in IgM+ B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Della Valle, Luciana; Dohmen, Serge E.; Verhagen, Onno J. H. M.; Berkowska, Magdalena A.; Vidarsson, Gestur

    2014-01-01

    B cell memory to T cell–dependent (TD) Ags are considered to largely reside in class-switched CD27+ cells. However, we previously observed that anti-RhD (D) Igs cloned from two donors, hyperimmunized with D+ erythrocytes, were predominantly of the IgM isotype. We therefore analyzed in this study the phenotype and frequency of D- and tetanus toxoid–specific B cells by culturing B cells in limiting dilution upon irradiated CD40L-expressing EL4.B5 cells and testing the culture supernatant. Most Ag-specific B cells for both TD Ags were found to reside in the IgM-expressing B cells, including CD27− B cells, in both hyperimmunized donors and nonhyperimmunized volunteers. Only shortly after immunization a sharp increase in Ag-specific CD27+IgG+ B cells was observed. Next, B cells were enriched with D+ erythrocyte ghosts and sorted as single cells. Sequencing of IGHV, IGLV, IGKV, and BCL6 genes from these D-specific B cell clones demonstrated that both CD27−IgM+ and CD27+IgM+ B cells harbored somatic mutations, documenting their Ag-selected nature. Furthermore, sequencing revealed a clonal relationship between the CD27−IgM+, CD27+IgM+, and CD27+IgG+ B cell subsets. These data strongly support the recently described multiple layers of memory B cells to TD Ags in mice, where IgM+ B cells represent a memory reservoir which can re-enter the germinal center and ensure replenishment of class-switched memory CD27+ B cells from Ag-experienced precursors. PMID:24965774

  12. Chromosomal translocations deregulating c-myc are associated with normal immune responses.

    PubMed

    Roschke, V; Kopantzev, E; Dertzbaugh, M; Rudikoff, S

    1997-06-26

    Plasmacytomas induced in BALB/c mice by pristane consistently evidence chromosomal translocations involving the c-myc gene and one of the Ig loci. This observation has lead to the suggestion that c-myc deregulation is a critical event in the generation of such tumors. However, it is not clear whether c-myc translocation is related to pristane treatment or occurs in normal lymphocyte populations nor whether such translocations occur normally, and at similar frequencies, in strains genetically resistant to plasmacytoma development, such as DBA/2. In order to address these questions, a Long Distance PCR assay with single copy sensitivity was employed to assess the frequency of c-myc/IgA translocations in normal and immunized mice of both plasmacytoma resistant and susceptible lineages in the absence of pristane treatment. Our data demonstrate that spontaneous translocations occur in normal DBA/2 and BALB/c mice with no significant differences in frequency. A 3-5-fold increase in translocation frequency was observed in mice immunized with cholera toxin, a strong stimulator of IgA responses. We conclude that c-myc deregulation by chromosomal translocation is associated with normal physiological processes of B-cell differentiation and, as such, can not be the determining factor leading to malignancy. PMID:9223664

  13. Transcription factor B-cell-specific activator protein (BSAP) is differentially expressed in B cells and in subsets of B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Krenacs, L; Himmelmann, A W; Quintanilla-Martinez, L; Fest, T; Riva, A; Wellmann, A; Bagdi, E; Kehrl, J H; Jaffe, E S; Raffeld, M

    1998-08-15

    The paired box containing gene PAX-5 encodes the transcription factor BSAP (B-cell-specific activator protein), which plays a key role in B-lymphocyte development. Despite its known involvement in a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), a detailed examination of BSAP expression in NHL has not been previously reported. In this study, we analyzed normal and malignant lymphoid tissues and cell lines, including 102 cases of B-cell NHL, 23 cases of T- and null-cell NHL, and 18 cases of Hodgkin's disease. Normal lymphoid tissues showed strong nuclear BSAP expression in mantle zone B cells, less intense reactivity in follicular center B cells, and no expression in cells of the T-cell-rich zones. Monocytoid B cells showed weak expression, whereas plasma cells and extrafollicular large transformed B cells were negative. Of the 102 B-cell NHLs, 83 (81%) demonstrated BSAP expression. All of the 13 (100%) B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLLs), 21 of (100%) mantle cells (MCLs), and 20 of 21 (95%) follicular lymphomas (FLs) were positive. Moderate staining intensities were found in most B-CLL and FL cases, whereas most MCLs showed strong reactions, paralleling the strong reactivity of nonmalignant mantle cells. Eight of 12 (67%) marginal zone lymphoma cases showed negative or low BSAP levels, and 17 of 24 (71%) large B-cell lymphomas displayed moderate to strong expression. None of the 23 T- and null-cell lymphomas reacted with the BSAP antisera, whereas in Hodgkin's disease, 2 of 4 (50%) nodular lymphocytic predominance and 5 of 14 (36%) classical cases showed weak nuclear or nucleolar BSAP reactions in a fraction of the tumor cells. Western blot analysis showed a 52-kD BSAP band in B-cell lines, but not in non-B-cell or plasma cell lines. We conclude that BSAP expression is largely restricted to lymphomas of B-cell lineage and that BSAP expression varies in B-cell subsets and subtypes of B-cell NHL. The high levels of BSAP, especially those found in large-cell lymphomas and in some follicular lymphomas, may be a consequence of deregulated gene expression and suggest a possible involvement of PAX-5 in certain B-cell malignancies. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use. PMID:9694719

  14. The location and translocation of ndh genes of chloroplast origin in the Orchidaceae family

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J. W.; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Daniell, Henry; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Liao, Chen-Fu; Deyholos, Michael K.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A.; Chou, Ming-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yi; Shih, Ming-Che

    2015-01-01

    The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies. Four orchid cp genome sequences were found to contain a complete set of ndh genes. In other genomes, ndh deletions did not correlate to known taxonomic or evolutionary relationships and deletions occurred independently after the orchid family split into different subfamilies. In orchids lacking cp encoded ndh genes, non cp localized ndh sequences were identified. In Erycina pusilla, at least 10 truncated ndh gene fragments were found transferred to the mitochondrial (mt) genome. The phenomenon of orchid ndh transfer to the mt genome existed in ndh-deleted orchids and also in ndh containing species. PMID:25761566

  15. The location and translocation of ndh genes of chloroplast origin in the Orchidaceae family.

    PubMed

    Lin, Choun-Sea; Chen, Jeremy J W; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Daniell, Henry; Chang, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Chen-Tran; Liao, De-Chih; Wu, Fu-Huei; Lin, Sheng-Yi; Liao, Chen-Fu; Deyholos, Michael K; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Albert, Victor A; Chou, Ming-Lun; Chen, Chun-Yi; Shih, Ming-Che

    2015-01-01

    The NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex is encoded by 11 ndh genes in plant chloroplast (cp) genomes. However, ndh genes are truncated or deleted in some autotrophic Epidendroideae orchid cp genomes. To determine the evolutionary timing of the gene deletions and the genomic locations of the various ndh genes in orchids, the cp genomes of Vanilla planifolia, Paphiopedilum armeniacum, Paphiopedilum niveum, Cypripedium formosanum, Habenaria longidenticulata, Goodyera fumata and Masdevallia picturata were sequenced; these genomes represent Vanilloideae, Cypripedioideae, Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae subfamilies. Four orchid cp genome sequences were found to contain a complete set of ndh genes. In other genomes, ndh deletions did not correlate to known taxonomic or evolutionary relationships and deletions occurred independently after the orchid family split into different subfamilies. In orchids lacking cp encoded ndh genes, non cp localized ndh sequences were identified. In Erycina pusilla, at least 10 truncated ndh gene fragments were found transferred to the mitochondrial (mt) genome. The phenomenon of orchid ndh transfer to the mt genome existed in ndh-deleted orchids and also in ndh containing species. PMID:25761566

  16. TALEN-Induced Translocations in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Piganeau, Marion; Renouf, Benjamin; Ghezraoui, Hind; Brunet, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Induction of chromosomal translocations in human cells is of a great interest to study tumorigenesis and genome instability. Here, we explain in detail a method to induce translocations using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We describe how to detect translocation formation by PCR, calculate translocation frequency by 96-well PCR screen, and analyze breakpoint junctions. When inducing cancer translocations, it is also possible to detect the fusion gene by FISH analysis or western blot. PMID:26443217

  17. Human blood IgM "memory" B cells are circulating splenic marginal zone B cells harboring a prediversified immunoglobulin repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra; Braun, Moritz C.; Tan, Bruce K.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Cordier, Corinne; Conley, Mary Ellen; Plebani, Alessandro; Kumararatne, Dinakhanta S.; Bonnet, Damien; Tournilhac, Olivier; Tchernia, Gil; Steiniger, Birte; Staudt, Louis M.; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Reynaud, Claude-Agnès; Weill, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    The human peripheral B cell compartment displays a large population of IgM+IgD+CD27+ “memory” B cell carrying a mutated Ig receptor. We show here, by phenotypic analysis, CDR3 spectratyping during a T-independent response and gene expression profiling of the different blood and splenic B cell subsets, that blood IgM+IgD+CD27+ cells correspond to circulating splenic marginal zone B cells. Furthermore, analysis of this peripheral subset in normal children below 2 years shows that these B cells develop and mutate their Ig receptor during ontogeny, prior to their differentiation into T-independent antigen-responsive cells. It is therefore proposed that these IgM+IgD+CD27+ B cells provide the splenic marginal zone with a diversified and protective pre-immune repertoire in charge of the responses against encapsulated bacteria. PMID:15191950

  18. Nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin heavy chain joining segments between translocated VH and mu constant regions genes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Gough, N M

    1980-06-01

    To investigate the mechanism of recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable and constant region genes, we have determined the nucleotide sequence of a large portion of the recombination region between an active C mu gene and its associated VH gene, isolated from an IgM-secreting mouse plasmacytoma, HPC76. By comparison with the sequence of the mu mRNA, we determined the exact boundaries of the intervening sequence between the VH76 and C mu genes. The rearranged VH76 gene encodes up to amino acid 116 without interruption, the 3' 39 nucleotides (the JH76 region) being derived from an embryonic JH segment (JH315) whose sequence was recently determined [Early, P., Huang, H., Davis, M., Calame, K. & Hood, L. (1980) Cell 195, 981-992]. The active JH76 does not use the first two codons of the embryonic JH315 from which it is derived. This indicates that V-J recombination is important in generating diversity within the third hypervariable region of heavy chains. We have identified another JH segment (JHA4), located 336 nucleotides 3' to the rearranged JH76 segment. This JH segment is expressed in the heavy chains of anti-levan myeloma proteins, which have truncated third hypervariable regions. We propose that the nucleotide sequence 5' to JHA4 is important for generating V region genes with shortened third hypervariable regions. PMID:6251474

  19. Role of B Cells in Vaccine-Induced Immunity against Coccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Magee, D. Mitchell; Friedberg, Rhonda L.; Woitaske, Melanie D.; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Cox, Rebecca A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated secondary immunity against coccidioidomycosis by using gene expression microarrays. Surprisingly, a high percentage of B-cell-related genes were associated with protective immunity. A functional confirmation of the importance of B cells against coccidioidomycosis was achieved by demonstrating that vaccination was not fully protective in B-cell-deficient MuMT mice. PMID:16177382

  20. Comparative analyses of B cell populations in trout kidney and mouse bone marrow; establishing B cell signatures

    PubMed Central

    Zwollo, Patty; Mott, Katrina; Barr, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the frequency and distribution of developing B cell populations in the kidney of the rainbow trout, using four molecular B cell markers that are highly conserved between species, including two transcription factors, Pax5 and EBF1, recombination activating gene RAG1, and the immunoglobulin heavy chain mu. Three distinct B cell stages were defined: early developing B cells (CLP, pro-B, and early pre-B cells), late developing B cell (late pre-B, immature B, and mature B cells), and IgM-secreting cells. Developmental stage-specific, combinatorial expression of Pax5, EBF1, RAG1 and immunoglobulin mu was determined in trout anterior kidney cells by flow cytometry. Trout staining patterns were compared to a well-defined primary immune tissue, mouse bone marrow, and using mouse surface markers B220 and CD43. A remarkable level of similarity was uncovered between the primary immune tissues of both species. Subsequent analysis of the entire trout kidney, divided into five contiguous segments K1-K5, revealed a complex pattern of early developing, late developing, and IgM-secreting B cells. Patterns in anterior kidney segment K1 were most similar to those of mouse bone marrow, while the most posterior part of the kidney, K5, had many IgM-secreting cells, but lacked early developing B cells. A potential second B lymphopoiesis site was uncovered in segment K4 of the kidney. The B cell patterns, or B cell signatures described here provide information on the relative abundance of distinct developing B cell populations in the trout kidney, and can be used in future studies on B cell development in other vertebrate species. PMID:20705088

  1. Acidity-responsive gene delivery for "superfast" nuclear translocation and transfection with high efficiency.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Yi; Zeng, Xuan; Qin, Si-Yong; Wan, Shuang-Shuang; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2016-03-01

    In principle, not only efficient but rapid transfection is required since it can maximize the bioavailability of vector-carried gene prior to the cellular excretion. However, the "rapid" goal has been paid few attentions so far in the research field of vector-aided transfection. As a pioneering attempt, the present study designed a lysosome-targeting acidity-responsive nanoassembly as gene vectors, which proved the amazing potency to mediate the "Superfast" transnuclear gene transport and gene transfection with high efficiency in vitro and in vivo. The nanoassembly was constructed on the pH-reversible covalent boronic acid-diol coupling between 1,3-diol-rich oligoethylenimine (OEI-EHDO) and phenylboronic acid modified cholesterol (Chol-PBA). The rapid and efficient nuclei-tropic delivery and transfection was demonstrated to highly rely on the lysosome-acidity induced assembly destruction followed by the easy liberation of gene payloads inside cells. The nanoassembly-mediated transfection at 8 h can afford the outcome even comparable to that achieved at 48 h by the golden standard of PEI25k, and the transfection efficiency can still remain at a high level during 48 h. In contrast, time-dependent efficiency enhancement was identified for the transfections using PEI25k and OEI-EHDO as delivery vectors. Moreover, owing to the hydroxyl-rich surface, this delivery nanosystem presented strong tolerance to the serum-induced transfection inhibition that frequently occurred for the polycationic gene vectors such as PEI25k. The in vitro and in vivo results manifested the low toxicity of this bio-decomposable nanoassembly. PMID:26773666

  2. Gene expression patterns associated with recurrent chromosomal translocations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fine, Bernard M; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Ho, Minh; Viehmann, Susanne; Harbott, Jochen; Boxer, Linda M

    2004-02-01

    We obtained a global view of gene expression in both cell lines and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) samples that harbor one of several selected chromosomal abnormalities. When the cell lines were studied alone, we found that these chromosomal abnormalities were associated with the predominant variation in transcriptional programs across the set of cell lines studied. When cell lines and clinical samples were studied together, we found that each chromosomal abnormality (TEL/AML1, BCR/ABL, or MLL abnormalities) was associated with a characteristic gene expression signature that was shared by both cell lines and clinical samples. However, BCR/ABL was associated with a much more heterogeneous pattern of expression than were TEL/AML1 and MLL abnormalities. This observation has important implications for the study of BCR/ABL ALL. In addition, we systematically identified genes whose expression was associated with TEL/AML1, BCR/ABL, or MLL abnormalities in both clinical samples and cell lines. Although some of these genes have previously been described, many have not previously been reported to be associated with one of these chromosomal abnormalities. Notably, we found that the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is consistently highly expressed in TEL/AML1 ALL compared with BCR/ABL or MLL. PMID:14525776

  3. B Cell Subsets in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Heather M.; Bender, Timothy P.; McNamara, Coleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of heart attacks and strokes, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Immune cells, including lymphocytes modulate atherosclerotic lesion development through interconnected mechanisms. Elegant studies over the past decades have begun to unravel a role for B cells in atherosclerosis. Recent findings provide evidence that B cell effects on atherosclerosis may be subset-dependent. B-1a B cells have been reported to protect from atherosclerosis by secretion of natural IgM antibodies. Conventional B-2 B cells can promote atherosclerosis through less clearly defined mechanism that may involve CD4 T cells. Yet, there may be other populations of B cells within these subsets with different phenotypes altering their impact on atherosclerosis. Additionally, the role of B cell subsets in atherosclerosis may depend on their environmental niche and/or the stage of atherogenesis. This review will highlight key findings in the evolving field of B cells and atherosclerosis and touch on the potential and importance of translating these findings to human disease. PMID:23248624

  4. Functional Characterization of the Human Translocator Protein (18 kDa) Gene Promoter in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Batarseh, Amani; Barlow, Keith D.; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    The translocator protein (18 kDa; TSPO) is a mitochondrial drug- and cholesterol-binding protein that has been implicated in several processes, including steroidogenesis, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Expression of the human TSPO gene is elevated in several cancers. To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate TSPO expression in human breast cancer cells, the TSPO promoter was identified, cloned, and functionally characterized in poor-in-TSPO hormone-dependent, non-aggressive MCF-7 cells and rich-in-TSPO hormone-independent, aggressive, and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. RNA ligase-mediated 5?-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis indicated transcription initiated at multiple sites downstream of a GC-rich promoter that lacks functional TATA and CCAAT boxes. Deletion analysis indicated that the region from ?121 to +66, which contains five putative regulatory sites known as GC boxes, was sufficient to induce reporter activity up to 24-fold in MCF-7 and nearly 120-fold in MDA-MB-231 cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 bind to these GC boxes in vitro and to the endogenous TSPO promoter. Silencing of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 gene expression reduced TSPO levels. In addition, TSPO expression was epigenetically regulated at one or more of the identified GC boxes. Disruption of the sequence downstream of the main start site of TSPO differentially regulated TSPO promoter activity in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, indicating that essential elements contribute to its differential expression in these cells. Taken together, these experiments constitute the first in-depth functional analysis of the human TSPO gene promoter and its transcriptional regulation. PMID:21958735

  5. Burkitt lymphoma cell line carrying a variant translocation creates new DNA at the breakpoint and violates the hierarchy of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.

    PubMed Central

    Denny, C T; Hollis, G F; Magrath, I T; Kirsch, I R

    1985-01-01

    The Burkitt lymphoma cell line KK124, which contains a reciprocal t(8;22) translocation, was shown to have rearranged in a region 3' to the c-myc proto-oncogene on chromosome 8 and 5' to the lambda constant region on chromosome 22. The breakpoint was cloned and sequenced, revealing that c-myc and a portion of its 3' region abutted a complete lambda variable gene that had undergone V-J recombination. Since this cell line expresses kappa light chain, this lambda rearrangement violates the previously proposed hierarchy of immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. A novel duplication of normal chromosome 8 sequences was also found at the breakpoint. The first exon of c-myc and its flanking sequence from the translocated allele was sequenced and compared with a normal counterpart. Extensive mutation was found within the first exon in contrast to its 3' and 5' flanking regions. S1 nuclease analysis revealed that it was the translocated c-myc being expressed and that there was a promoter shift from P2 to P1. The detailed structural analysis of this cell line provides clues concerning mechanisms of chromosomal translocation and c-myc deregulation in Burkitt lymphomas. Images PMID:3018508

  6. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of expanded B-cell clones from multiclonal versus monoclonal B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Ana; Rodríguez-Caballero, Arancha; Criado, Ignacio; Langerak, Anton W.; Nieto, Wendy G.; Lécrevisse, Quentin; González, Marcos; Cortesão, Emília; Paiva, Artur; Almeida, Julia; Orfao, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Chronic antigen-stimulation has been recurrently involved in the earlier stages of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The expansion of two or more B-cell clones has frequently been reported in individuals with these conditions; potentially, such coexisting clones have a greater probability of interaction with common immunological determinants. Here, we analyzed the B-cell receptor repertoire and molecular profile, as well as the phenotypic, cytogenetic and hematologic features, of 228 chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like and non-chronic lymphocytic leukemia-like clones comparing multiclonal (n=85 clones from 41 cases) versus monoclonal (n=143 clones) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders. The B-cell receptor of B-cell clones from multiclonal cases showed a slightly higher degree of HCDR3 homology than B-cell clones from mono clonal cases, in association with unique hematologic (e.g. lower B-lymphocyte counts) and cytogenetic (e.g. lower frequency of cytogenetically altered clones) features usually related to earlier stages of the disease. Moreover, a subgroup of coexisting B-cell clones from individual multiclonal cases which were found to be phylogenetically related showed unique molecular and cytogenetic features: they more frequently shared IGHV3 gene usage, shorter HCDR3 sequences with a greater proportion of IGHV mutations and del(13q14.3), than other unrelated B-cell clones. These results would support the antigen-driven nature of such multiclonal B-cell expansions, with potential involvement of multiple antigens/epitopes. PMID:24488564

  7. Analysis of the ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2) gene in familial myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Cécile; Leroy, Gwendoline; Delhommeau, François; Panelatti, Gérard; Dupont, Sabrina; James, Chloé; Plo, Isabelle; Bordessoule, Dominique; Chomienne, Christine; Delannoy, André; Devidas, Alain; Gardembas-Pain, Martine; Isnard, Françoise; Plumelle, Yves; Bernard, Olivier; Vainchenker, William; Najman, Albert; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine

    2009-08-20

    The JAK2(V617F) mutation does not elucidate the phenotypic variability observed in myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) families. A putative tumor suppressor gene, TET2, was recently implicated in MPN and myelodysplastic syndromes through the identification of acquired mutations affecting hematopoietic stem cells. The present study analyzed the TET2 gene in 61 MPN cases from 42 families. Fifteen distinct mutations were identified in 12 (20%) JAK2(V617F)-positive or -negative patients. In a patient with 2 TET2 mutations, the analysis of 5 blood samples at different phases of her disease showed the sequential occurrence of JAK2(V617F) and TET2 mutations concomitantly to the disease evolution. Analysis of familial segregation confirmed that TET2 mutations were not inherited but somatically acquired. TET2 mutations were mainly observed (10 of 12) in patients with primary myelofibrosis or patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia who secondarily evolved toward myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:19564637

  8. Regulatory B Cells and Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Arévalo, Héctor; Sanchez-Parra, Claudia C; Castaño, Diana; Yassin, Lina; Vásquez, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory B cells have gained prominence in their role as modulators of the immune response against tumors, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, among others. The concept of regulatory B cells has been strongly associated with interleukin (IL)-10 production; however, there is growing evidence that supports the existence of other regulatory mechanisms, such as the production of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), induced cell death of effector T cells, and the induction of CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. The regulatory function of B cells has been associated with the presence and activation of molecules such as CD40, CD19, CD1d, and BCR. Alterations in signaling by any of these pathways leads to a marked defect in regulatory B cells and to increased clinical symptoms and proinflammatory signs, both in murine models and in autoimmune diseases in humans. B cells mainly exert their regulatory effect through the inhibition of proliferation and production of proinflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 by CD4(+) T cells. A better understanding of how regulatory B cells function will offer new perspectives with regard to the treatment of various human diseases. PMID:25793964

  9. LMO2 at 25 years: a paradigm of chromosomal translocation proteins.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jennifer; Rabbitts, Terence H

    2015-06-01

    LMO2 was first discovered through proximity to frequently occurring chromosomal translocations in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Subsequent studies on its role in tumours and in normal settings have highlighted LMO2 as an archetypical chromosomal translocation oncogene, activated by association with antigen receptor gene loci and a paradigm for translocation gene activation in T-ALL. The normal function of LMO2 in haematopoietic cell fate and angiogenesis suggests it is a master gene regulator exerting a dysfunctional control on differentiation following chromosomal translocations. Its importance in T cell neoplasia has been further emphasized by the recurrent findings of interstitial deletions of chromosome 11 near LMO2 and of LMO2 as a target of retroviral insertion gene activation during gene therapy trials for X chromosome-linked severe combined immuno-deficiency syndrome, both types of event leading to similar T cell leukaemia. The discovery of LMO2 in some B cell neoplasias and in some epithelial cancers suggests a more ubiquitous function as an oncogenic protein, and that the current development of novel inhibitors will be of great value in future cancer treatment. Further, the role of LMO2 in angiogenesis and in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) bodes well for targeting LMO2 in angiogenic disorders and in generating autologous induced HSCs for application in various clinical indications. PMID:26108219

  10. LMO2 at 25 years: a paradigm of chromosomal translocation proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jennifer; Rabbitts, Terence H.

    2015-01-01

    LMO2 was first discovered through proximity to frequently occurring chromosomal translocations in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Subsequent studies on its role in tumours and in normal settings have highlighted LMO2 as an archetypical chromosomal translocation oncogene, activated by association with antigen receptor gene loci and a paradigm for translocation gene activation in T-ALL. The normal function of LMO2 in haematopoietic cell fate and angiogenesis suggests it is a master gene regulator exerting a dysfunctional control on differentiation following chromosomal translocations. Its importance in T cell neoplasia has been further emphasized by the recurrent findings of interstitial deletions of chromosome 11 near LMO2 and of LMO2 as a target of retroviral insertion gene activation during gene therapy trials for X chromosome-linked severe combined immuno-deficiency syndrome, both types of event leading to similar T cell leukaemia. The discovery of LMO2 in some B cell neoplasias and in some epithelial cancers suggests a more ubiquitous function as an oncogenic protein, and that the current development of novel inhibitors will be of great value in future cancer treatment. Further, the role of LMO2 in angiogenesis and in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) bodes well for targeting LMO2 in angiogenic disorders and in generating autologous induced HSCs for application in various clinical indications. PMID:26108219

  11. Analysis of the Ten-Eleven Translocation 2 (TET2) gene mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Sook; Jeon, Dong-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Ryoo, Nam-Hee; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the putative tumor suppressor gene, Ten-Eleven Ttranslocation 2(TET2), have been identified recently in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). The present study analyzed the TET2 gene in 99 MPNs patients. The overall TET2 mutational frequency was 12.1% (22.2% in polycythemia vera (PV), 9.7% in essential thrombocythemia (ET), 18.2% in primary myelofibrosis (PMF,) and 0% in unclassified MPNs), and 11 mutations (p.Lys95Asnfs*18, p.Gln967Asnfs*40, p.Lys1022Glufs*4, p.Asp1314Metfs*49, p.Gln1534Alafs*43, p.Tyr1618Leufs*4, p.Leu1609Glufs*45, p.Gly1735*, Q599R, c.3409+1G>T, c.4044+2insT) were identified. All the patients with TET2 mutation were accompanied by the JAK2 V617F mutation. The existence of the TET2 mutation was not related to the patient's age, hematologic indices, JAK2 V617F allele burden, frequencies of organomegaly, marrow fibrosis, or thrombotic/hemorrhagic complications in entire MPN patients. However, tendencies toward higher JAK2 V617F allele burdens (88.0±4.3% vs. 19.1±28.7%, P=0.034) and higher Hct (47.4±5.4% vs. 25.5±6.2%, P=0.037) were detected in PMF patients harboring TET2 mutations. Moreover, a significantly higher frequency of organomegaly was identified in ET patients harboring the TET2 mutation (50% vs. 19.6%, P=0.018). The TET2 mutation most likely contributes to clinical phenotypes and shows a high accompanying rate with JAK2 V617F; larger scale studies involving more MPN patients are needed. PMID:24795056

  12. The Ah receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is located on q21 of human chromosome 1 and on mouse chromosome 3 near Cf-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Brooks, B.A.; Heinzmann, C. ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have mapped the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene to a conserved linkage group located on mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. EcoRi-digested DNA from a panel of 17 human x mouse somatic cell hybrids was probed with a cDNA fragment of the human ARNT gene. Six of the 17 independent mouse x human hybrids were positive for human bands. Human chromosome 1 showed complete cosegregation with the gene, whereas discordant segregation was observed for all other human chromosomes. The human gene was localized to 1q21 by using DNA from mouse x human hybrid clones that retain translocations involving human chromosome 1, by segregation analysis in nine informative CEPH families, and by in situ hybridization. The mouse homologue was mapped to mouse chromosome 3 using a panel of 16 hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids. Six of 16 mouse x hamster hybrids were positive for mouse bands, showing complete concordance with mouse chromosome 3. The mouse Arnt gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 3, using linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross. The results indicate that the mouse gene resides about 40 cM from the centromere and about 10 cM proximal to Cf-3, the gene for tissue factor. 41 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Attenuation of Recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vaccine Vectors by Gene Translocations and G Gene Truncation Reduces Neurovirulence and Enhances Immunogenicity in Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, David; Wright, Kevin J.; Calderon, Priscilla C.; Guo, Min; Nasar, Farooq; Johnson, J. Erik; Coleman, John W.; Lee, Margaret; Kotash, Cheryl; Yurgelonis, Irene; Natuk, Robert J.; Hendry, R. Michael; Udem, Stephen A.; Clarke, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) has shown great potential as a new viral vector for vaccination. However, the prototypic rVSV vector described previously was found to be insufficiently attenuated for clinical evaluation when assessed for neurovirulence in nonhuman primates. Here, we describe the attenuation, neurovirulence, and immunogenicity of rVSV vectors expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag. These rVSV vectors were attenuated by combinations of the following manipulations: N gene translocations (N4), G gene truncations (CT1 or CT9), noncytopathic M gene mutations (Mncp), and positioning of the gag gene into the first position of the viral genome (gag1). The resulting N4CT1-gag1, N4CT9-gag1, and MncpCT1-gag1 vectors demonstrated dramatically reduced neurovirulence in mice following direct intracranial inoculation. Surprisingly, in spite of a very high level of attenuation, the N4CT1-gag1 and N4CT9-gag1 vectors generated robust Gag-specific immune responses following intramuscular immunization that were equivalent to or greater than immune responses generated by the more virulent prototypic vectors. MncpCT1-gag1 also induced Gag-specific immune responses following intramuscular immunization that were equivalent to immune responses generated by the prototypic rVSV vector. Placement of the gag gene in the first position of the VSV genome was associated with increased in vitro expression of Gag protein, in vivo expression of Gag mRNA, and enhanced immunogenicity of the vector. These findings demonstrate that through directed manipulation of the rVSV genome, vectors that have reduced neurovirulence and enhanced immunogenicity can be made. PMID:17942549

  14. B-cell-activating factor inhibits CD20-mediated and B-cell receptor-mediated apoptosis in human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Yohei; Miyagawa, Yoshitaka; Onda, Keiko; Nakajima, Hideki; Sato, Ban; Horiuchi, Yasuomi; Okita, Hajime; Katagiri, Yohko U; Saito, Masahiro; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Kiyokawa, Nobutaka

    2008-01-01

    B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a survival and maturation factor for B cells belonging to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily. Among three identified functional receptors, the BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) is thought to be responsible for the effect of BAFF on B cells though details of how remain unclear. We determined that a hairy-cell leukaemia line, MLMA, expressed a relatively high level of BAFF-R and was susceptible to apoptosis mediated by either CD20 or B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Using MLMA cells as an in vitro model of mature B cells, we found that treatment with BAFF could inhibit apoptosis mediated by both CD20 and BCR. We also observed, using immunoblot analysis and microarray analysis, that BAFF treatment induced activation of nuclear factor-κB2 following elevation of the expression level of Bcl-2, which may be involved in the molecular mechanism of BAFF-mediated inhibition of apoptosis. Interestingly, BAFF treatment was also found to induce the expression of a series of genes, such as that for CD40, related to cell survival, suggesting the involvement of a multiple mechanism in the BAFF-mediated anti-apoptotic effect. MLMA cells should provide a model for investigating the molecular basis of the effect of BAFF on B cells in vitro and will help to elucidate how B cells survive in the immune system in which BAFF-mediated signalling is involved. PMID:18540961

  15. Fusion of platelet-derived growth receptor {beta} to a novel ets-like gene, tel, in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with t(5;12) chromosomal translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Golub, T.; Barker, G.; Gilliland, D.G.

    1994-09-01

    Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by abnormal clonal myeloid proliferation, and by progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A recently recognized subgroup of CMML has a t(5;12) (q33;p13) balanced translocation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the translocation breakpoint near the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) locus on chromosome 5q. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed rearrangements near CSF1R, but involvement of CSF1R itself was excluded. Southern blotting showed a rearrangement within the closely linked PDGF receptor {beta} (PDGFR{beta}) gene. Ribonuclease protection assays localized the translocation breakpoint to nucleotide 1766 in PDGFR{beta} RNA. Anchored PCR was used to identify the chromosome 12 fusion partner, a novel ets-like protein, tel. Tel contains a highly conserved carboxy terminal ets-like DNA-binding domain, and an amino terminal domain with a predicted helix-loop-helix (HLH) secondary structure. The consequence of the t(5;12) translocation is fusion of the tel HLH domain to the PDGFR{beta} transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. The tel HLH domain may contribute a dimerization motif which serves to constitutively activate PDGFR{beta} tyrosine kinase activity. The tel-PDGFR{beta} fusion demonstrates the oncogenic potential of PDGFR{beta}, and may provide a paradigm for early events in the pathogenesis of AML.

  16. Immunohistochemical Detection of MYC-driven Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Kluk, Michael J.; Chapuy, Bjoern; Sinha, Papiya; Roy, Alyssa; Cin, Paola Dal; Neuberg, Donna S.; Monti, Stefano; Pinkus, Geraldine S.; Shipp, Margaret A.; Rodig, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease. A small subset of DLBCLs has translocations involving the MYC locus and an additional group has a molecular signature resembling Burkitt lymphoma (mBL). Presently, identification of such cases by morphology is unreliable and relies on cytogenetic or complex molecular methods such as gene transcriptional profiling. Herein, we describe an immunohistochemical (IHC) method for identifying DLBCLs with increased MYC protein expression. We tested 77 cases of DLBCL and identified 15 cases with high MYC protein expression (nuclear staining in >50% of tumor cells). All MYC translocation positive cases had increased MYC protein expression by this IHC assay. In addition, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of the DLBCL transcriptional profiles revealed that tumors with increased MYC protein expression (regardless of underlying MYC translocation status) had coordinate upregulation of MYC target genes, providing molecular confirmation of the IHC results. We then generated a molecular classifier derived from the MYC IHC results in our cases and employed it to successfully classify mBLs from two previously reported independent case series, providing additional confirmation that the MYC IHC results identify clinically important subsets of DLBCLs. Lastly, we found that DLBCLs with high MYC protein expression had inferior overall survival when treated with R-CHOP. In conclusion, the IHC method described herein can be used to readily identify the biologically and clinically distinct cases of MYC-driven DLBCL, which represent a clinically significant subset of DLBCL cases due to their inferior overall survival. PMID:22511926

  17. [B-cell neoplasms with plasmacellular and plasmablastic differentiation].

    PubMed

    Fend, F; Quintanilla-Martínez, L

    2013-05-01

    Plasma cell malignancies are tumors of terminally differentiated B-cells in which the neoplastic plasma cells are the dominant and proliferating tumor cell component. Plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is one of the most common hematological neoplasms and typically does not cause diagnostic problems. A morphologically and immunophenotypically detectable plasmacellular orplasmablastic differentiation is, however, commonly observed in a wide range of mature B-cell lymphomas. A confident separation of the distinct entities requires the integration of clinical and morphological findings as well as an adequate phenotyping of both the plasma cell and the B-cell component if present. Detection of lymphotropic viruses, specific translocations and novel molecular markers, such as the MYD88 L265P mutation occurring in the vast majority of lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas complement our diagnostic repertoire. In this review we describe the most commonly observed diagnostic problems in separating small B-cell lymphomas from PCM and high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) with plasmablastic differentiation from extramedullary spread of aggressive PCM and provide helpful criteria for routine diagnostics. PMID:23462793

  18. The mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation is closely linked to the B-cell-specific developmental genes VpreB and lambda 5.

    PubMed

    Miller, R D; Ozaki, J H; Riblet, R

    1993-06-01

    The mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) phenotype is due to a recessive, autosomal mutation which results in failed development of lymphocytes. An important step during normal lymphocyte development is the germline rearrangement of DNA segments to assemble functional immunoglobulin or T cell receptor genes. scid lymphocytes fail to rearrange these genes properly, resulting in the absence of mature B and T lymphocytes. This mutation was originally mapped to chromosome 16 by linkage to the immunoglobulin lambda light chain genes (Igl-1) and the coat color mutation mahoganoid. We have typed 288 progeny from backcrosses between MOLF/Ei or CAST/Ei and C.B-17-scid for the scid phenotype and nine other loci mapped to the centromeric region of MMU16. We have established a refined map of this region which places the scid gene between Prm-2 and Igl-1. In addition, no recombinations were found between scid and three other loci, VpreB, lambda 5, and D16Mit31, providing markers useful for isolating the scid gene by positional cloning. PMID:8100803

  19. YY1 Is Required for Germinal Center B Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Vuyyuru, Raja; Jha, Vibha; Hodewadekar, Suchita; Manser, Tim; Atchison, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    YY1 has been implicated as a master regulator of germinal center B cell development as YY1 binding sites are frequently present in promoters of germinal center-expressed genes. YY1 is known to be important for other stages of B cell development including the pro-B and pre-B cells stages. To determine if YY1 plays a critical role in germinal center development, we evaluated YY1 expression during B cell development, and used a YY1 conditional knock-out approach for deletion of YY1 in germinal center B cells (CRE driven by the immunoglobulin heavy chain γ1 switch region promoter; γ1-CRE). We found that YY1 is most highly expressed in germinal center B cells and is increased 3 fold in splenic B cells activated by treatment with anti-IgM and anti-CD40. In addition, deletion of the yy1 gene by action of γ1-CRE recombinase resulted in significant loss of GC cells in both un-immunized and immunized contexts with corresponding loss of serum IgG1. Our results show a crucial role for YY1 in the germinal center reaction. PMID:27167731

  20. The 3;21 translocation in myelodysplasia results in a fusion transcript between the AML1 gene and the gene for EAP, a highly conserved protein associated with the Epstein-Barr virus small RNA EBER 1.

    PubMed Central

    Nucifora, G; Begy, C R; Erickson, P; Drabkin, H A; Rowley, J D

    1993-01-01

    In the 8;21 translocation, the AML1 gene, located at chromosome band 21q22, is translocated to chromosome 8 (q22), where it is fused to the ETO gene and transcribed as a chimeric gene. AML1 is the human homolog of the recently cloned mouse gene pebp2 alpha B, homologous to the DNA binding alpha subunit of the polyoma enhancer factor pebp2. AML1 is also involved in a translocation with chromosome 3 that is seen in patients with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome and in chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. We have isolated a fusion cDNA clone from a t(3;21) library derived from a patient with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome; this clone contains sequences from AML1 and from EAP, which we have now localized to band 3q26. EAP has previously been characterized as a highly expressed small nuclear protein of 128 residues (EBER 1) associated with Epstein-Barr virus small RNA. The fusion clone contains the DNA binding 5' part of AML1 that is fused to ETO in the t(8;21) and, in addition, at least one other exon. The translocation replaces the last nine codons of AML1 with the last 96 codons of EAP. The fusion does not maintain the correct reading frame of EAP and may not lead to a functional chimeric protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8395054

  1. Transcriptional Control of Early T and B Cell Developmental Choices

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2014-01-01

    T and B cells share a common somatic gene rearrangement mechanism for assembling the genes that code for their antigen receptors and developmental pathways with many parallels. Shared usage of basic helix-loop-helix E proteins as transcriptional drivers underlies these common features. However, the transcription factor networks in which these E proteins are embedded are different both in membership and in architecture for T and B cell gene regulatory programs. These differences permit lineage commitment decisions to be made in different hierarchical orders. Furthermore, in a contrast to B-cell gene networks, the T-cell gene network architecture for effector differentiation is sufficiently modular so that E protein inputs can be removed. Complete “T-cell-like” effector differentiation can proceed without T-cell receptor rearrangement or selection when E proteins are neutralized, yielding natural killer and other innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24471430

  2. Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass. The degree of condensation of the chromatin fiber is modeled by changing length of the string: e.g. loosening of the structure is achieved by distributing the chromosome mass into a higher number of smaller beads and tighter configuration corresponds to a lower number of fragments (balls) with a bigger radius. Additionally, for each configuration, a degree of possible overlapping between domains is assumed. This procedure effectively intensifies loosening/tightening of the chromosome structure by changing the radial dimension of the domain while keeping a constant volume of the polymer chain. Such a positioning model is confronted with a minimalistic molecular dynamics model [5] on a similar structure, in which a chain of beads becomes connected by entropic spring energy and subjected to thermal fluctuations. Comparison of both Monte Carlo models allows to discuss variability of possible configurations as observed in static and dynamic models of chromosome territories along with the effect of compaction and relative arrangements of territorial polymer structures. Acknowledgements: Project is operated within the Foundation for Polish Science International Ph.D. Projects Programme co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund covering, under the agreement no. MPD/2009/6, the Jagiellonian University International Ph.D. Studies in Physics of Complex Systems. References: [1] F. Ballarini, M. Biaggi, and A. Ottolenghi, Radiation Protection Dosimetry 99, 175 (2002). [2] M. Nicodemi and A. Prisco, Biophysical Journal 96, 2168 (2009). [3] P. Cook and D. Marenduzzo, Journal of Cell Biology 186, 825 (2009). [4] M. Tark-Dame, R. van Driel, and D. Heermann, Journal of Cell Science 124, 839 (2011). [5] W. Swope, H. Andersen, P. Berens, and K. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 637 (1982).

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Pleuronectiformes: Cynoglossidae) with control region translocation and tRNA-Gln gene inversion.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Gong, Li; Kong, Xiao-Yu

    2014-11-27

    Abstract Cynoglossus abbreviatus (Cynoglossidae, Soleoidei) is characterized by a bilaterally asymmetrical with both eyes on the left side. In this study, the complete mitogenome of this tongue sole has been reported for the first time. The gene order in C. abbreviatus mitogenome possesses a novel rearrangement like other tonguefish. The tRNA-Gln gene moves from the light strand to the heavy strand, accompanied by tRNA-Ile gene shuffling, leaving a large non-coding region (88?bp) between these two tRNAs. Additionally, the control region translocates to the place between ND1 and tRNA-Gln genes. The total length is 16,417?bp, with 30.9%, 29.5%, 24.9% and 14.7% for A, T, C and G, respectively (60.4% for AT content). These molecular data will provide useful information about the mechanism of gene reorganization in Cynoglossidae mitogenome and further phylogenetic study on Pleuronectiformes. PMID:25427811

  4. Evolution of B Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2013-01-01

    Two types of adaptive immune strategies are known to have evolved in vertebrates: the VLR-based system, which is present in jawless organisms and is mediated by VLRA and VLRB lymphocytes, and the BCR/TCR-based system, which is present in jawed species and is provided by B and T cell receptors expressed on B and T cells, respectively. Here we summarize features of B cells and their predecessors in the different animal phyla, focusing the review on B cells from jawed vertebrates. We point out the critical role of nonclassical species and comparative immunology studies in the understanding of B cell immunity. Because nonclassical models include species relevant to veterinary medicine, basic science research performed in these animals contributes to the knowledge required for the development of more efficacious vaccines against emerging pathogens. PMID:25340015

  5. Essential role of EBF1 in the generation and function of distinct mature B cell types

    PubMed Central

    Vilagos, Bojan; Hoffmann, Mareike; Souabni, Abdallah; Sun, Qiong; Werner, Barbara; Medvedovic, Jasna; Bilic, Ivan; Minnich, Martina; Axelsson, Elin; Jaritz, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor EBF1 is essential for lineage specification in early B cell development. In this study, we demonstrate by conditional mutagenesis that EBF1 is required for B cell commitment, pro–B cell development, and subsequent transition to the pre–B cell stage. Later in B cell development, EBF1 was essential for the generation and maintenance of several mature B cell types. Marginal zone and B-1 B cells were lost, whereas follicular (FO) and germinal center (GC) B cells were reduced in the absence of EBF1. Activation of the B cell receptor resulted in impaired intracellular signaling, proliferation and survival of EBF1-deficient FO B cells. Immune responses were severely reduced upon Ebf1 inactivation, as GCs were formed but not maintained. ChIP- and RNA-sequencing of FO B cells identified EBF1-activated genes that encode receptors, signal transducers, and transcriptional regulators implicated in B cell signaling. Notably, ectopic expression of EBF1 efficiently induced the development of B-1 cells at the expense of conventional B cells. These gain- and loss-of-function analyses uncovered novel important functions of EBF1 in controlling B cell immunity. PMID:22473956

  6. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in a female with a de novo, balanced translocation involving 7q32: Probable disruption of an SLOS gene

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, M.; Zori, R.T.; Alley, T.; Whidden, E.; Gray, B.A.; Williams, C.A.

    1994-05-01

    A 3-month-old infant girl had manifestations of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) including typical positional anomalies of the limbs, apparent Hirschsprung disease, cataracts, ptosis, anteverted nares, cleft of the posterior palate, small tongue, broad maxillary alveolar ridges, and abnormally low serum cholesterol levels. Chromosomal analysis showed a de novo balanced translocation interpreted as 46,XX,t(7;20)(q32.1;q13.2). We hypothesize that the translocation breakpoint in this case interrupts one SLOS allele and that the other allele at the same locus has a more subtle mutation that was inherited from the other parent. This case, as well as cytogenetic observations in other SLOS cases, suggests that SLOS could be due to autosomal recessive mutation at a gene in 7q32. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. t(15;21) translocations leading to the concurrent downregulation of RUNX1 and its transcription factor partner genes SIN3A and TCF12 in myeloid disorders.

    PubMed

    L'Abbate, Alberto; Tolomeo, Doron; De Astis, Francesca; Lonoce, Angelo; Lo Cunsolo, Crocifissa; Mühlematter, Dominique; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Vandenberghe, Peter; Van Hoof, Achilles; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Mazza, Tommaso; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    Through a combined approach integrating RNA-Seq, SNP-array, FISH and PCR techniques, we identified two novel t(15;21) translocations leading to the inactivation of RUNX1 and its partners SIN3A and TCF12. One is a complex t(15;21)(q24;q22), with both breakpoints mapped at the nucleotide level, joining RUNX1 to SIN3A and UBL7-AS1 in a patient with myelodysplasia. The other is a recurrent t(15;21)(q21;q22), juxtaposing RUNX1 and TCF12, with an opposite transcriptional orientation, in three myeloid leukemia cases. Since our transcriptome analysis indicated a significant number of differentially expressed genes associated with both translocations, we speculate an important pathogenetic role for these alterations involving RUNX1. PMID:26671595

  8. Polymorphisms in B Cell Co-Stimulatory Genes Are Associated with IgG Antibody Responses against Blood-Stage Proteins of Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Cassiano, Gustavo C; Furini, Adriana A C; Capobianco, Marcela P; Storti-Melo, Luciane M; Cunha, Maristela G; Kano, Flora S; Carvalho, Luzia H; Soares, Irene S; Santos, Sidney E; Póvoa, Marinete M; Machado, Ricardo L D

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective immune response can help decrease mortality from malaria and its clinical symptoms. However, this mechanism is complex and has significant inter-individual variation, most likely owing to the genetic contribution of the human host. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in the costimulation of B-lymphocytes in the naturally acquired humoral immune response against proteins of the asexual stage of Plasmodium vivax. A total of 319 individuals living in an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped for four SNPs in the genes CD40, CD40L, BLYS and CD86. In addition, IgG antibodies against P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA-1), Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-119) were detected by ELISA. The SNP BLYS -871C>T was associated with the frequency of IgG responders to PvAMA-1 and PvMSP-119. The SNP CD40 -1C>T was associated with the IgG response against PvDBP, whereas IgG antibody titers against PvMSP-119 were influenced by the polymorphism CD86 +1057G>A. These data may help to elucidate the immunological aspects of vivax malaria and consequently assist in the design of malaria vaccines. PMID:26901523

  9. Polymorphisms in B Cell Co-Stimulatory Genes Are Associated with IgG Antibody Responses against Blood–Stage Proteins of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Cassiano, Gustavo C.; Furini, Adriana A. C.; Capobianco, Marcela P.; Storti-Melo, Luciane M.; Cunha, Maristela G.; Kano, Flora S.; Carvalho, Luzia H.; Soares, Irene S.; Santos, Sidney E.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Machado, Ricardo L. D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of an effective immune response can help decrease mortality from malaria and its clinical symptoms. However, this mechanism is complex and has significant inter-individual variation, most likely owing to the genetic contribution of the human host. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in genes involved in the costimulation of B-lymphocytes in the naturally acquired humoral immune response against proteins of the asexual stage of Plasmodium vivax. A total of 319 individuals living in an area of malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon were genotyped for four SNPs in the genes CD40, CD40L, BLYS and CD86. In addition, IgG antibodies against P. vivax apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA–1), Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) and merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP–119) were detected by ELISA. The SNP BLYS –871C>T was associated with the frequency of IgG responders to PvAMA–1 and PvMSP–119. The SNP CD40 –1C>T was associated with the IgG response against PvDBP, whereas IgG antibody titers against PvMSP–119 were influenced by the polymorphism CD86 +1057G>A. These data may help to elucidate the immunological aspects of vivax malaria and consequently assist in the design of malaria vaccines. PMID:26901523

  10. Long Noncoding RNA Expression during Human B-Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Petri, Andreas; Dybkær, Karen; Bøgsted, Martin; Thrue, Charlotte Albæk; Hagedorn, Peter H.; Schmitz, Alexander; Bødker, Julie Støve; Johnsen, Hans Erik; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of diverse cellular processes, but their roles in the developing immune system are poorly understood. In this study, we analysed lncRNA expression during human B-cell development by array-based expression profiling of eleven distinct flow-sorted B-cell subsets, comprising pre-B1, pre-B2, immature, naive, memory, and plasma cells from bone marrow biopsies (n = 7), and naive, centroblast, centrocyte, memory, and plasmablast cells from tonsil tissue samples (n = 6), respectively. A remapping strategy was used to assign the array probes to 37630 gene-level probe sets, reflecting recent updates in genomic and transcriptomic databases, which enabled expression profiling of 19579 long noncoding RNAs, comprising 3947 antisense RNAs, 5277 lincRNAs, 7625 pseudogenes, and 2730 additional lncRNAs. As a first step towards inferring the functions of the identified lncRNAs in developing B-cells, we analysed their co-expression with well-characterized protein-coding genes, a method known as “guilt by association”. By using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 272 lincRNAs, 471 antisense RNAs, 376 pseudogene RNAs, and 64 lncRNAs within seven sub-networks associated with distinct stages of B-cell development, such as early B-cell development, B-cell proliferation, affinity maturation of antibody, and terminal differentiation. These data provide an important resource for future studies on the functions of lncRNAs in development of the adaptive immune response, and the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies that originate from distinct B-cell subpopulations. PMID:26394393

  11. Retroviral Vectors Induce Epigenetic Chromatin Modifications and IL-10 Production in Transduced B Cells via Activation of Toll-like Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarani, Roxana R; Janssens, Wim; Carlier, Vincent; VanderElst, Luc; VandenDriessche, Thierry; Chuah, Marinee; Jacquemin, Marc; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    The immune response toward viral vectors used for gene therapy and genetic vaccination appears to be critically important in determining the therapeutic outcome. However, the mechanisms that control the immune response following gene transfer are poorly understood. Unexpectedly, we found that integrating retroviral vector particles induce stable interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in murine (BALB/c H-2d) transduced B cells. This requires a novel mechanism whereby the interaction of retroviral vector particle with its cognate cellular receptor activates intracellular signaling pathways resulting in stable epigenetic modifications. Murine B cells exposed to retroviral vector particles triggered the colocalization of the retroviral cellular receptor [mouse cationic amino acid transporter 1 (mCAT1)] and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) into lipid microrafts, which in turn activated TLR2 signaling pathways. TLR2 activation induced STAT3 phosphorylation and increased phosphorylated histone 3 (H3) at the STAT3-binding site of the IL-10 promoter. In addition, TLR2 activation during transduction activates nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α (NFKBIA), thereby preventing the translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) complex to the nucleus and the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings open new perspectives for controlling immune responses following gene therapy and genetic vaccination. PMID:21157434

  12. BTK Signaling in B Cell Differentiation and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Corneth, Odilia B J; Klein Wolterink, Roel G J; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2016-01-01

    Since the original identification of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) as the gene defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in 1993, our knowledge on the physiological function of BTK has expanded impressively. In this review, we focus on the role of BTK during B cell differentiation in vivo, both in the regulation of expansion and in the developmental progression of pre-B cells in the bone marrow and as a crucial signal transducer of signals downstream of the IgM or IgG B cell antigen receptor (BCR) in mature B cells governing proliferation, survival, and differentiation. In particular, we highlight BTK function in B cells in the context of host defense and autoimmunity. Small-molecule inhibitors of BTK have very recently shown impressive anti-tumor activity in clinical studies in patients with various B cell malignancies. Since promising effects of BTK inhibition were also seen in experimental animal models for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, BTK may be a good target for controlling autoreactive B cells in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. PMID:26341110

  13. The complex translocation (9;14;14) involving IGH and CEBPE genes suggests a new subgroup in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zerrouki, Rachid; Benhassine, Traki; Bensaada, Mustapha; Lauzon, Patricia; Trabzi, Anissa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with specific chromosomal rearrangements. The complex translocation t(9;14;14), a variant of the translocation (14;14)(q11;q32), is a rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality involving the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBPE) genes in B-lineage ALL (B-ALL) and may represent a new B-ALL subgroup. We report here the case of a 5-year-old girl with B-ALL, positive for CD19, CD38 and HLA-DR. A direct technique and G-banding were used for chromosomal analysis and fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH) with BAC probes was used to investigate a possible rearrangement of the IGH andCEBPE genes. The karyotype exhibit the chromosomal aberration 46,XX,del(9)(p21),t(14;14)(q11;q32). FISH with dual-color break-apartIGH-specific and CEPBE-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes showed a complex t(9;14;14) associated with a deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and paired box gene 5 (PAX5) at 9p21-13 and duplication of the fusion gene IGH-CEBPE. PMID:27007892

  14. Separation of the PROX1 gene from upstream conserved elements in a complex inversion/translocation patient with hypoplastic left heart.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harinder K; Parsons, Sian R; Spalluto, Cosma; Davies, Angela F; Knorz, Victoria J; Burlinson, Clare E G; Ng, Bee Ling; Carter, Nigel P; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Wilson, David I; Roberts, Roland G

    2009-11-01

    Hypoplastic left heart (HLH) occurs in at least 1 in 10 000 live births but may be more common in utero. Its causes are poorly understood but a number of affected cases are associated with chromosomal abnormalities. We set out to localize the breakpoints in a patient with sporadic HLH and a de novo translocation. Initial studies showed that the apparently simple 1q41;3q27.1 translocation was actually combined with a 4-Mb inversion, also de novo, of material within 1q41. We therefore localized all four breakpoints and found that no known transcription units were disrupted. However we present a case, based on functional considerations, synteny and position of highly conserved non-coding sequence elements, and the heterozygous Prox1(+/-) mouse phenotype (ventricular hypoplasia), for the involvement of dysregulation of the PROX1 gene in the aetiology of HLH in this case. Accordingly, we show that the spatial expression pattern of PROX1 in the developing human heart is consistent with a role in cardiac development. We suggest that dysregulation of PROX1 gene expression due to separation from its conserved upstream elements is likely to have caused the heart defects observed in this patient, and that PROX1 should be considered as a potential candidate gene for other cases of HLH. The relevance of another breakpoint separating the cardiac gene ESRRG from a conserved downstream element is also discussed. PMID:19471316

  15. The complex translocation (9;14;14) involving IGH and CEBPE genes suggests a new subgroup in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Rachid; Benhassine, Traki; Bensaada, Mustapha; Lauzon, Patricia; Trabzi, Anissa

    2016-03-01

    Many subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with specific chromosomal rearrangements. The complex translocation t(9;14;14), a variant of the translocation (14;14)(q11;q32), is a rare but recurrent chromosomal abnormality involving the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IGH) and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (CEBPE) genes in B-lineage ALL (B-ALL) and may represent a new B-ALL subgroup. We report here the case of a 5-year-old girl with B-ALL, positive for CD19, CD38 and HLA-DR. A direct technique and G-banding were used for chromosomal analysis and fluorescentin situ hybridization (FISH) with BAC probes was used to investigate a possible rearrangement of the IGH andCEBPE genes. The karyotype exhibit the chromosomal aberration 46,XX,del(9)(p21),t(14;14)(q11;q32). FISH with dual-color break-apartIGH-specific and CEPBE-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes showed a complex t(9;14;14) associated with a deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and paired box gene 5 (PAX5) at 9p21-13 and duplication of the fusion gene IGH-CEBPE. PMID:27007892

  16. BCL6 suppression of BCL2 via Miz1 and its disruption in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masumichi; Novak, Urban; Piovan, Erich; Basso, Katia; Sumazin, Pavel; Schneider, Christof; Crespo, Marta; Shen, Qiong; Bhagat, Govind; Califano, Andrea; Chadburn, Amy; Pasqualucci, Laura; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    The BCL6 proto-oncogene encodes a transcriptional repressor that is required for germinal center (GC) formation and whose deregulation by genomic lesions is implicated in the pathogenesis of GC-derived diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and, less frequently, follicular lymphoma (FL). The biological function of BCL6 is only partially understood because no more than a few genes have been functionally characterized as direct targets of BCL6 transrepression activity. Here we report that the anti-apoptotic proto-oncogene BCL2 is a direct target of BCL6 in GC B cells. BCL6 binds to the BCL2 promoter region by interacting with the transcriptional activator Miz1 and suppresses Miz1-induced activation of BCL2 expression. BCL6-mediated suppression of BCL2 is lost in FL and DLBCL, where the 2 proteins are pathologically coexpressed, because of BCL2 chromosomal translocations and other mechanisms, including Miz1 deregulation and somatic mutations in the BCL2 promoter region. These results identify an important function for BCL6 in facilitating apoptosis of GC B cells via suppression of BCL2, and suggest that blocking this pathway is critical for lymphomagenesis. PMID:19549844

  17. IgVH genes mutation and usage, ZAP-70 and CD38 expression provide new insights on B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL).

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, I; Davis, Z; Matutes, E; Osuji, N; Parry-Jones, N; Morilla, A; Brito-Babapulle, V; Oscier, D; Catovsky, D

    2006-07-01

    B-prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare disease with poor prognosis. To further characterize the biological features of this disease, we analyzed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH) mutations, ZAP-70 and CD38 in 19 cases with de novo B-PLL. Immunoglobulin heavy chain genes analysis showed an unmutated pattern (>98% homology to germ line) in 9/17 cases (53%), with 100% homology in eight. In the remaining, it ranged from 90 to 97.4%, with three cases slightly mutated (98-95%) and five heavily mutated (<95%). All B-PLL utilized members of VH3 (11/17) and VH4 (6/17) families, with V3-23, V4-59 and V4-34 gene accounting for more than half of them, regardless of mutational status. ZAP-70, assessed by flow cytometry, ranged from 1 to 91% cells, being > or =20% in 57% of cases. CD38 ranged from 1 to 99% (median 21%). There was no correlation between IgVH status and ZAP-70 or CD38 expression, but male gender and del(17p) were more common in the unmutated group. Neither IgVH mutations, CD38 expression nor del(17p) influenced patients' outcome. Unexpectedly, ZAP-70+ B-PLL patients survived longer (40 months) than ZAP-70- B-PLL (8 months). B-PLL appears biologically heterogeneous regarding IgVH mutations, ZAP-70 and CD38 expression, showing a pattern distinct from that of other lymphoproliferative disorders. PMID:16642047

  18. DNA Repair and Chromosomal Translocations.

    PubMed

    Bohlander, Stefan K; Kakadia, Purvi M

    2015-01-01

    The balance between DNA damage, especially double strand breaks, and DNA damage repair is a critical determinant of chromosomal translocation frequency. The non-homologous end-joining repair (NHEJ) pathways seem to play the major role in the generation of chromosomal translocations. The "landscape" of chromosomal translocation identified in malignancies is largely due to selection processes which operate on the growth advantages conveyed to the cells by the functional consequences of chromosomal translocations (i.e., oncogenic fusion proteins and overexpression of oncogenes, both compromising tumor suppressor gene functions). Newer studies have shown that there is an abundance of local rearrangements in many tumors, like small deletions and inversions. A better understanding of the interplay between DNA repair mechanisms and the generation of tumorigenic translocations will, among many other things, depend on an improved understanding of DNA repair mechanisms and their interplay with chromatin and the 3D organization of the interphase nucleus. PMID:26376870

  19. BCL6 is regulated by p53 through a response element frequently disrupted in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Margalit, Ofer; Amram, Hila; Amariglio, Ninette; Simon, Amos J; Shaklai, Sigal; Granot, Galit; Minsky, Neri; Shimoni, Avichai; Harmelin, Alon; Givol, David; Shohat, Mordechai; Oren, Moshe; Rechavi, Gideon

    2006-02-15

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor mediates survival, proliferation, and differentiation blockade of B cells during the germinal-center reaction and is frequently misregulated in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (BNHL). The p53 tumor-suppressor gene is central to tumorigenesis. Microarray analysis identified BCL6 as a primary target of p53. The BCL6 intron 1 contains a region in which 3 types of genetic alterations are frequent in BNHL: chromosomal translocations, point mutations, and internal deletions. We therefore defined it as TMDR (translocations, mutations, and deletions region). The BCL6 gene contains a p53 response element (p53RE) residing within the TMDR. This p53RE contains a motif known to be preferentially targeted by somatic hypermutation. This p53RE is evolutionarily conserved only in primates. The p53 protein binds to this RE in vitro and in vivo. Reporter assays revealed that the BCL6 p53RE can confer p53-dependent transcriptional activation. BCL6 mRNA and protein levels increased after chemotherapy/radiotherapy in human but not in murine tissues. The increase in BCL6 mRNA levels was attenuated by the p53 inhibitor PFT-alpha. Thus, we define the BCL6 gene as a new p53 target, regulated through a RE frequently disrupted in BNHL. PMID:16249378

  20. Complete sequence of the genes encoding the VH and VL regions of low- and high-affinity monoclonal IgM and lgA1 rheumatoid factors produced by CD5+ B cells from a rheumatoid arthritis patient

    PubMed Central

    Harindranath, Nagaradona; Goldfarb, Inna S.; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Burastero, Samuele E.; Wilder, Ronald L.; Notkins, Abner L.; Casali, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    We have characterized the VH and VL genes of three low-affinity polyreactive and two high-affinlty monoreactive IgM and lgA1 rheumatoid factor (RF) mAb generated using circulating CD5+ B cells from a single rheumatoid arthritis patient. We found that four and one RF mAb utilized genes of the VHIV and VHIII families, respectively. The VHIV gene usage by these RF mAb differs from the preferential VHIII, VHI, and, to a lesser extent, VHII gene usage by the IgM with RF activity found In patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, and other monoclonal gammopathies. In addition, in contrast to the preponderant χL chain usage by the RF In these patients, a λL chain was utilized by all RF mAb from our rheumatoid arthritis patient. Two RF mAbs utilized VλI, two VλIV, and one VλIII L chains. The VH genes of the two low-affinity polyreactive IgM RF mAb were in germline configuration. When compared with the deduced amino acid sequence of the putatively corresponding genomic segment, the VH gene of the high-affinity monoreactive IgM RF mAb displayed five amino acid differences, all of which are in the complementarity determining regions (CDR), possibly the result of a process of somatic point mutation and clonal selection driven by Ag. The unavailability of the corresponding genomic VH segment sequences made it impossible to infer whether the VH genes utilized by the two lgA1 RF were in a germline or somatically mutated configuration. Sequencing of the genes encoding the H chain CDR3 (D segments) revealed that all three low-affinity polyreactive RF mAb displayed a much longer D segment (36–45 bases) than their high-affinity monoreactive counterparts (15–24 bases), raising the possibility that a long D segment may be one of the factors involved in antibody polyreactivity. PMID:1718404

  1. Downregulation of FOXP1 is required during germinal center B-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Sagardoy, Ainara; Martinez-Ferrandis, Jose I.; Roa, Sergio; Bunting, Karen L.; Aznar, María Angela; Elemento, Olivier; Shaknovich, Rita; Fontán, Lorena; Fresquet, Vicente; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; Robles, Eloy F.; De Smedt, Linde; Sagaert, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    B-cell maturation and germinal center (GC) formation are dependent on the interplay between BCL6 and other transcriptional regulators. FOXP1 is a transcription factor that regulates early B-cell development, but whether it plays a role in mature B cells is unknown. Analysis of human tonsillar B-cell subpopulations revealed that FOXP1 shows the opposite expression pattern to BCL6, suggesting that FOXP1 regulates the transition from resting follicular B cell to activated GC B cell. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and gene expression assays on B cells indicated that FOXP1 acts as a transcriptional activator and repressor of genes involved in the GC reaction, half of which are also BCL6 targets. To study FOXP1 function in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing human FOXP1 in lymphoid cells. These mice exhibited irregular formation of splenic GCs, showing a modest increase in naïve and marginal-zone B cells and a significant decrease in GC B cells. Furthermore, aberrant expression of FOXP1 impaired transcription of noncoding γ1 germline transcripts and inhibited efficient class switching to the immunoglobulin G1 isotype. These studies show that FOXP1 is physiologically downregulated in GC B cells and that aberrant expression of FOXP1 impairs mechanisms triggered by B-cell activation, potentially contributing to B-cell lymphomagenesis. PMID:23580662

  2. Chemokine-mediated B cell trafficking during early rabbit GALT development

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Shi-Kang; Volgina, Veronica V.; Sethupathi, Periannan; Knight, Katherine L.; Lanning, Dennis K.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial and host cell interactions stimulate rabbit B cells to diversify the primary antibody repertoire in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). B cells at the base of appendix follicles begin proliferating and diversifying their V-(D)-J genes around 1 week of age, ∼5 days after B cells first begin entering appendix follicles, To gain insight into the microbial and host cell interactions that stimulate B cells to diversify the primary antibody repertoire, we analyzed B cell trafficking within follicles during the first week of life. We visualized B cells, as well as chemokines that mediate B cell homing in lymphoid tissues, by in situ hybridization, and examined B cell chemokine receptor expression by flow cytometry. We found that B cells were activated, and began downregulating their BCRs, well before a detectable B cell proliferative region appeared at the follicle base. The proliferative region was similar to germinal center dark zones, in that it exhibited elevated CXCL12 mRNA expression, and B cells that upregulated CXCR4 mRNA in response to signals acquired from select intestinal commensals localized in this region. Our results suggest that, after entering appendix follicles, B cells home sequentially to the FAE, the FDC network, the B cell:T cell boundary and, ultimately, the base of the follicle, where they enter a proliferative program and diversify the primary antibody repertoire. PMID:25385821

  3. Impact of Gastrointestinal Bacillus anthracis Infection on Hepatic B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colliou, Natacha; Sahay, Bikash; Zadeh, Mojgan; Owen, Jennifer L.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of Bacillus anthracis results in rapid gastrointestinal (GI) infection, known as GI anthrax. We previously showed that during GI anthrax, there is swift deterioration of intestinal barrier function leading to translocation of gut-associated bacteria into systemic circulation. Additionally, we described dysfunction in colonic B cells. In concordance with our previous studies, here, we report early migration of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis along with other gut-resident bacteria into the infected murine liver. Additionally, despite a global decrease in the B cell population, we observed an increase in both B-1a and marginal zone (MZ)-like B cells. Both of these cell types are capable of producing immunoglobulins against common pathogens and commensals, which act as a general antibody barrier before an antigen-specific antibody response. Accumulation of these cells in the liver was associated with an increase in chemokine expression. These data suggest that the presence of Sterne and other commensals in the liver trigger migration of MZ-like B cells from the spleen to the liver to neutralize systemic spread. Further research is required to evaluate the possible cause of their failure to clear the infection within the liver, including the potential role of dysfunctional mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. PMID:26402706

  4. The human fetal lymphocyte lineage: identification by CD27 and LIN28B expression in B cell progenitors

    PubMed Central

    McWilliams, Laurie; Su, Kuei-Ying; Liang, Xiaoe; Liao, Dongmei; Floyd, Serina; Amos, Joshua; Moody, M. Anthony; Kelsoe, Garnett; Kuraoka, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    CD27, a member of the TNFR superfamily, is used to identify human memory B cells. Nonetheless, CD27+ B cells are present in patients with HIGM1 syndrome who are unable to generate GCs or memory B cells. CD27+IgD+ fetal B cells are present in umbilical cord blood, and CD27 may also be a marker of the human B1-like B cells. To define the origin of naïve CD27+IgD+ human B cells, we studied B cell development in both fetal and adult tissues. In human FL, most CD19+ cells coexpressed CD10, a marker of human developing B cells. Some CD19+CD10+ B cells expressed CD27, and these fetal CD27+ cells were present in the pro-B, pre-B, and immature/transitional B cell compartments. Lower frequencies of phenotypically identical cells were also identified in adult BM. CD27+ pro-B, pre-B, and immature/transitional B cells expressed recombination activating gene-1, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and Vpre-B mRNA comparably to their CD27− counterparts. CD27+ and CD27− developing B cells showed similar Ig heavy chain gene usage with low levels of mutations, suggesting that CD27+ developing B cells are distinct from mutated memory B cells. Despite these similarities, CD27+ developing B cells differed from CD27− developing B cells by their increased expression of LIN28B, a transcription factor associated with the fetal lymphoid lineages of mice. Furthermore, CD27+ pro-B cells efficiently generated IgM+IgD+ immature/transitional B cells in vitro. Our observations suggest that CD27 expression during B cell development identifies a physiologic state or lineage for human B cell development distinct from the memory B cell compartment. PMID:23901121

  5. The B-cell development in tonsillar lymphoid follicles.

    PubMed

    Brandtzaeg, P

    1996-01-01

    The palatine tonsils, and particularly the nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), may be functionally comparable to nasal-associated lymphoid tissue in rodents. Primary follicles occur in human tonsils at 16 weeks' gestation, and formation of germinal centres (GC) takes place shortly after birth. The GC arise in T-cell-dependent B-cell responses and are associated with: i) clonal expansion; ii) somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin variable (Ig V)-region genes; iii) positive selection of B cells based on affinity for antigen; iv) differentiation to memory B cells and plasma cells; and v) induction of the J-chain gene. The follicular dendritic cells (FDC) of GC retain native antigen which stimulates growth of B-cell blasts and hypermutation of their Ig V genes. The resulting centrocytes die by apoptosis unless they are selected by antigen. Cognate interaction between CD4+ helper T cells and B cells is important to promote downstream switching of the heavy chain constant (CH) genes. In human tonsillar GC this process normally gives rise mainly to IgG (55%-72%) and IgA (13%-18%) immunocytes, both isotypes normally being partially associated with J-chain expression (36% and 29%, respectively). Because J chain is a key peptide in secretory IgA, tonsillar GC may contribute precursor cells to mucosal effector sites. Thus, mucosal immunity can be induced in the airways by nasal immunization, and the level of nasopharyngeal and salivary secretory IgA is decreased after adenotonsillectomy. PMID:9082810

  6. Isoniazid prevents Nrf2 translocation by inhibiting ERK1 phosphorylation and induces oxidative stress and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ajeet Kumar; Yadav, Arti; Dewangan, Jayant; Singh, Sarvendra Vikram; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid is used either alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. It is also used for the prevention of tuberculosis. Chronic treatment of Isoniazid may cause severe liver damage leading to acute liver failure. The mechanism through which Isoniazid causes liver damage is investigated. Isoniazid treatment generates reactive oxygen species and induces apoptosis in Hep3B cells. It induces antioxidative and apoptotic genes leading to increase in mRNA expression and protein levels in Hep3B cells. Whole genome expression analysis of Hep3B cells treated with Isoniazid has resulted in differential expression of various genes playing prime role in regulation of apoptotic, antioxidative, DNA damage, cell signaling, cell proliferation and differentiation pathways. Isoniazid increased cytosolic Nrf2 protein level while decreased nuclear Nrf2 protein level. It also decreased ERK1 phosphorylation and treatment of Hep3B cells with ERK inhibitor followed by Isoniazid resulting in increased apoptosis in these cells. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis results have also shown differential expression of various protein species including heat shock proteins, proteins playing important role in oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Results suggest that Isoniazid induces apoptosis through oxidative stress and also prevents Nrf2 translocation into the nucleus by reducing ERK1 phosphorylation thus preventing cytoprotective effect. PMID:26202867

  7. Oncogenic activation of the Lck protein accompanies translocation of the LCK gene in the human HSB2 T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Wright, D D; Sefton, B M; Kamps, M P

    1994-04-01

    The tyrosine protein kinase p56lck transduces signals important for antigen-induced T-cell activation. In transgenic mice, p56lck is oncogenic when overexpressed or expressed as a mutant, catalytically activated enzyme. In humans, the LCK gene is located at the breakpoint of the t(1;7)(p34;q34) chromosomal translocation. This translocation positions the beta T-cell receptor constant region enhancer upstream of the LCK gene without interrupting the LCK coding sequences, and a translocation of this sort occurs in both the HSB2 and the SUP-T-12 T-cell lines. We have found that, although the level of the p56lck protein in HSB2 cells is elevated approximately 2-fold in comparison with that in normal T-cell lines, total cellular tyrosine protein phosphorylation is elevated approximately 10-fold. Increased levels of phosphotyrosine in HSB2 cells resulted from mutations in the LCK gene that activated its function as a phosphotransferase and converted it into a dominant transforming oncogene. The oncogenic p56lck in HSB2 cells contained one amino acid substitution within the CD4/CD8-binding domain, two substitutions in the kinase domain, and an insertion of Gln-Lys-Pro (QKP) between the SH2 and kinase domains. In NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, three of these mutations cooperated to produce the fully oncogenic form of this p56lck variant. These results suggest that mutation of LCK may contribute to some human T-cell leukemias. PMID:8139546

  8. A homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation suggests LINC00237 as a candidate gene for MOMO (macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly, and ocular abnormalities) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vu, Phi Yen; Toutain, Jérôme; Cappellen, David; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Daoud, Hussein; El Moneim, Azza Abd; Barat, Pascal; Montaubin, Orianne; Bonnet, Françoise; Dai, Zong Qi; Philippe, Christophe; Tran, Cong Toai; Rooryck, Caroline; Arveiler, Benoît; Saura, Robert; Briault, Sylvain; Lacombe, Didier; Taine, Laurence

    2012-11-01

    Macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly, and ocular abnormalities syndrome (MOMO syndrome) has been reported in only four patients to date. In these sporadic cases, no chromosomal or molecular abnormality has been identified thus far. Here, we report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a child of healthy consanguineous parents suffering from MOMO syndrome. Conventional karyotyping revealed an inherited homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation (16;20)(q21;p11.2). Uniparental disomy testing showed bi-parental inheritance for both derivative chromosomes 16 and 20. The patient's oligonucleotide array-comparative genomic hybridization profile revealed no abnormality. From the homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation (16;20)(q21;p11.2), a positional cloning strategy, designed to narrow 16q21 and 20p11.2 breakpoints, revealed the disruption of a novel gene located at 20p11.23. This gene is now named LINC00237, according to the HUGO (Human Genome Organization) nomenclature. The gene apparently leads to the production of a non-coding RNA. We established that LINC00237 was expressed in lymphocytes of control individuals while normal transcripts were absent in lymphocytes of our MOMO patient. LINC00237 was not ubiquitously expressed in control tissues, but it was notably highly expressed in the brain. Our results suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of MOMO syndrome. LINC00237 could play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome and could provide new insights into hyperphagia-related obesity and intellectual disability. PMID:23034868

  9. Follicular B-cell pseudolymphoma.

    PubMed

    Peretz, E; Grunwald, M H; Cagnano, E; Halevy, S

    2000-02-01

    A 60-year-old woman presented with a 3-week history of a pruritic papulo-nodular eruption on the face and trunk after a bee sting. Histological examination showed a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate with follicular centres and tingible body macrophages. Immunohistochemically, positive staining for both kappa and lambda light chains was noted. The eruption settled with oral antihistamine and topical corticosteroid. These findings support the diagnosis of follicular B-cell pseudolymphoma. PMID:10715902

  10. Structure of the human receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma gene (PTPRG) and relation to the familial RCC t(3;8) chromosome translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Kastury, K.; Ohta, M.; Druck, T.; Huebner, K.

    1996-03-01

    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase {gamma} gene, PTP{gamma} (locus name PTPRG), was previously mapped to chromosome region 3p14.2, within a 2- to 4-Mb region centromeric to the 3p14.2 breakpoint of the t(3;8) familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated constitutional chromosome translocation. Because of its chromosomal position, its enzymatic properties as a receptor phosphatase, which might oppose a growth activating kinase activity, its homozygous deletion in murine L cells, and its transcriptional activity in numerous normal tissues, including kidney, the PTP{gamma} gene was an attractive tumor suppressor gene candidate for renal cell carcinoma. To determine whether the PTP{gamma} gene was a target of loss of heterozygosity or mutation in RCCs and to determine its map position relative to the t(3;8) break at 3p14.2, we have isolated YAC and {lambda} genomic clones for the PTP{gamma} gene and other 3p14.2 markers and determined the relative positions of the t(3;8) break, a 3p14.2 de novo break possibly in a fragile site, and the 5{prime} end of the PTP{gamma} gene. Additionally, the genomic structure, position of the proximal promotor, and intron-exon border sequences of the 30-exon {approximately} 780-kb PTP{gamma} gene have been determined, which will facilitate analysis of the PTP{gamma} gene in tumors. 49 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Genomic Comparison of Translocating and Non-Translocating Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Nathan L.; Katouli, Mohammad; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Translocation of E. coli across the gut epithelium can result in fatal sepsis in post-surgical patients. In vitro and in vivo experiments have identified the existence of a novel pathotype of translocating E. coli (TEC) that employs an unknown mechanism for translocating across epithelial cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes and the blood stream in both humans and animal models. In this study the genomes of four TEC strains isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of a fatal case of hospitalised patient (HMLN-1), blood of pigs after experimental shock (PC-1) and after non-lethal haemorrhage in rats (KIC-1 and KIC-2) were sequenced in order to identify the genes associated with their adhesion and/or translocation. To facilitate the comparison, the genomes of a non-adhering, non-translocating E. coli (46–4) and adhering but non-translocating E. coli (73–89) were also sequenced and compared. Whole genome comparison revealed that three (HMLN-1, PC-1 and KIC-2) of the four TEC strains carried a genomic island that encodes a Type 6 Secretion System that may contribute to adhesion of the bacteria to gut epithelial cells. The human TEC strain HMLN-1 also carried the invasion ibeA gene, which was absent in the animal TEC strains and is likely to be associated with host-specific translocation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four TEC strains were distributed amongst three distinct E. coli phylogroups, which was supported by the presence of phylogroup specific fimbriae gene clusters. The genomic comparison has identified potential genes that can be targeted with knock-out experiments to further characterise the mechanisms of E. coli translocation. PMID:26317913

  12. Accumulation of Self-Reactive Nave and Memory B Cell Reveals Sequential Defects in B Cell Tolerance Checkpoints in Sjgrens Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corsiero, Elisa; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Pitzalis, Costantino; Bombardieri, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Sjgrens syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease characterised by breach of self-tolerance towards nuclear antigens resulting in high affinity circulating autoantibodies. Although peripheral B cell disturbances have been described in SS, with predominance of nave and reduction of memory B cells, the stage at which errors in B cell tolerance checkpoints accumulate in SS is unknown. Here we determined the frequency of self- and poly-reactive B cells in the circulating nave and memory compartment of SS patients. Single CD27?IgD+ nave, CD27+IgD+ memory unswitched and CD27+IgD? memory switched B cells were sorted by FACS from the peripheral blood of 7 SS patients. To detect the frequency of polyreactive and autoreactive clones, paired Ig VH and VL genes were amplified, cloned and expressed as recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rmAbs) displaying identical specificity of the original B cells. IgVH and VL gene usage and immunoreactivity of SS rmAbs were compared with those obtained from healthy donors (HD). From a total of 353 VH and 293 VL individual sequences, we obtained 114 rmAbs from circulating nave (n?=?66) and memory (n?=?48) B cells of SS patients. Analysis of the Ig V gene repertoire did not show significant differences in SS vs. HD B cells. In SS patients, circulating nave B cells (with germline VH and VL genes) displayed a significant accumulation of clones autoreactive against Hep-2 cells compared to HD (43.1% vs. 25%). Moreover, we demonstrated a progressive increase in the frequency of circulating anti-nuclear nave (9.3%), memory unswitched (22.2%) and memory switched (27.3%) B cells in SS patients. Overall, these data provide novel evidence supporting the existence of both early and late defects in B cell tolerance checkpoints in patients with SS resulting in the accumulation of autoreactive nave and memory B cells. PMID:25535746

  13. Establishment of a human cell line (SKI-DLCL-1) with a t(1;14)(q21;q32) translocation from the ascites of a patient with diffuse large cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Goy, A; Gilles, F; Remache, Y; Filippa, D; Portlock, C S; Jhanwar, S C; Zelenetz, A D

    2001-01-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities at chromosome 1q21 are among the most common second genetic events observed in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas and have prognostic significance. Recently, BCL9 has been cloned from a pre-B-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, which carried a t(1:14)(q21;q32). However, among a panel of 39 B-cell malignancies with 1q21 translocation, only two cases showed rearrangement for the BCL9 gene. We report the establishment of a new lymphoma cell line from a patient with relapsed diffuse large cell lymphoma. This cell line SKI-DLCL-1 showed cell surface antigens identical to the original tumor and demonstrated the profile of a mature B-cell phenotype: CD19 and CD20 positive, CD5 and C10 negative. It carried a t(1;14)(q21;q32) translocation identical to the original tumor. Although the clinical presentation was an isolated effusion lymphoma, studies for HIV-1, HHV8 and EBV were all negative. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that BCL9 was not rearranged in the SKI-DLCL-1 cell line. In addition, the BCL9 gene was not over-expressed in SKI-DLCL-1 cell line. The identification of a new locus at 1q21 will help clarify the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies with a translocation involving this locus. PMID:11426565

  14. Lymphomas with concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations: the critical factors associated with survival

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Nathalie A.; Savage, Kerry J.; Ludkovski, Olga; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Woods, Ryan; Steidl, Christian; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Siebert, Reiner; Kuruvilla, John; Klasa, Richard; Connors, Joseph M.; Gascoyne, Randy D.

    2009-01-01

    BCL2 and MYC are oncogenes commonly deregulated in lymphomas. Concurrent BCL2 and MYC translocations (BCL2+/MYC+) were identified in 54 samples by karyotype and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization with the aim of correlating clinical and cytogenetic characteristics to overall survival. BCL2+/MYC+ lymphomas were diagnosed as B-cell lymphoma unclassifiable (BCLU; n = 36) with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); DLBCL (n = 17), or follicular lymphoma (n = 1). Despite the presence of a t(14;18), 5 cases were BCL2 protein–negative. Nonimmunoglobulin gene/MYC (non-IG/MYC) translocations occurred in 24 of 54 cases (44%) and were highly associated with DLBCL morphology (P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 6 patients remained in remission and 32 died within 6 months of the MYC+ rearrangement, irrespective of whether MYC+ occurred at diagnosis (31 of 54) or transformation (23 of 54; P = .53). A non-IG/MYC translocation partner, absent BCL2 protein expression and treatment with rituximab-based chemotherapy, were associated with a more favorable outcome, but a low International Prognostic Index score and DLBCL morphology were independent predictors of overall survival. A comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of BCL2 and MYC status on all aggressive lymphomas may identify a group of high-risk patients who may benefit from chemotherapeutic regimens that include rituximab and/or BCL2-targeted therapy. PMID:19597184

  15. Variegated silencing through epigenetic modifications of a large Xq region in a case of balanced X;2 translocation with Incontinentia Pigmenti-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Genesio, Rita; Melis, Daniela; Gatto, Sole; Izzo, Antonella; Ronga, Valentina; Cappuccio, Gerarda; Lanzo, Ambra; Andria, Generoso; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Matarazzo, Maria R; Conti, Anna; Nitsch, Lucio

    2011-10-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying aberrant phenotypes in balanced X;autosome translocations are scarcely understood. We report the case of a de novo reciprocal balanced translocation X;2(q23;q33) presenting phenotypic alterations highly suggestive of Incontinentia Pigmenti (IP) syndrome, a genodermatosis with abnormal skin pigmentation and neurological failure, segregating as X-linked dominant disorder. Through molecular studies, we demonstrated that the altered phenotype could not be ascribed to chromosome microdeletions or to XIST-mediated inactivation of Xq24-qter. Interestingly, we found that the Xq24-qter region, which translocated downstream of the heterochromatic band 2q34, undergoes epigenetic silencing mediated by DNA methylation and histone alterations. Among the downregulated genes, we found the inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase gamma (IKBKG/NEMO), the causative gene of IP. We hypothesize that a mosaic functional nullisomy of the translocated genes, through a Position Effect Variegation-like heterochromatization, might be responsible for the proband's phenotypic anomalies. Partial silencing of IKBKG may be responsible for the skin anomalies observed, thereby mimicking the IP pathological condition. In addition to its clinical relevance, this paper addresses fundamental issues related to the chromatin status and nuclear localization of a human euchromatic region translocated proximally to heterochromatin. In conclusion, the study provides new insight into long-range gene silencing mechanisms and their direct impact in human disease. PMID:21931280

  16. MSH6- or PMS2-deficiency causes re-replication in DT40 B cells, but it has little effect on immunoglobulin gene conversion or on repair of AID-generated uracils

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Vanina A.; Patenaude, Anne-Marie; Kaden, Svenja; Horb, Lori; Firka, Daniel; Jiricny, Josef; Di Noia, Javier M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian antibody repertoire is shaped by somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) loci of B lymphocytes. SHM and CSR are triggered by non-canonical, error-prone processing of G/U mismatches generated by activation-induced deaminase (AID). In birds, AID does not trigger SHM, but it triggers Ig gene conversion (GC), a ‘homeologous’ recombination process involving the Ig variable region and proximal pseudogenes. Because recombination fidelity is controlled by the mismatch repair (MMR) system, we investigated whether MMR affects GC in the chicken B cell line DT40. We show here that Msh6−/− and Pms2−/− DT40 cells display cell cycle defects, including genomic re-replication. However, although IgVλ GC tracts in MMR-deficient cells were slightly longer than in normal cells, Ig GC frequency, donor choice or the number of mutations per sequence remained unaltered. The finding that the avian MMR system, unlike that of mammals, does not seem to contribute towards the processing of G/U mismatches in vitro could explain why MMR is unable to initiate Ig GC in this species, despite initiating SHM and CSR in mammalian cells. Moreover, as MMR does not counteract or govern Ig GC, we report a rare example of ‘homeologous’ recombination insensitive to MMR. PMID:23314153

  17. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. {yields} Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. {yields} Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. {yields} O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. {yields} O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  18. B Lymphocyte Lineage Specification, Commitment and Epigenetic Control of Transcription by Early B Cell Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, James; Ramírez, Julita; Lukin, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) is a transcription factor that is critical for both B lymphopoiesis and B cell function. EBF1 is a requisite component of the B lymphocyte transcriptional network and is essential for B lineage specification. Recent studies revealed roles for EBF1 in B cell commitment. EBF1 binds its target genes via a DNA-binding domain including a unique ‘zinc knuckle’, which mediates a novel mode of DNA recognition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of EBF1 in pro-B cells defined hundreds of new, as well as previously identified, target genes. Notably, expression of the pre-B cell receptor (pre-BCR), BCR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways is controlled by EBF1. In this review, we highlight these current developments and explore how EBF1 functions as a tissue-specific regulator of chromatin structure at B cell-specific genes. PMID:21735360

  19. Characterization of a presecretory phase in B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    King, L B; Corley, R B

    1989-01-01

    We have identified and characterized an inducible in vitro subclone of the CH12 B-cell lymphoma, CH12-LBK, which appears to represent a transitional phase in the B-cell differentiation pathway. This phase, which we call the "presecretory" phase, falls between replicating B cells that are not secreting antibodies and B cells that secrete antibody at a high rate. Presecretory cells are characterized by abundant steady-state levels of immunoglobulin and joining (J) chain transcripts and of protein but low levels of mouse mammary tumor virus envelope transcripts and low rates of immunoglobulin secretion. Additional stimulation is required for presecretory cells to differentiate into cells that secrete antibodies at a high rate. The existence of cells with this phenotype suggests that high-level expression of immunoglobulin and J-chain protein does not necessarily commit a B cell to polymerize and secrete multimeric immunoglobulin. Rather, other gene products, expressed after immunoglobulin and J-chain transcripts have been upregulated late in B-cell differentiation, appear responsible for inducing high rates of antibody secretion. Images PMID:2495536

  20. Nuclear translocation and carboxyl-terminal domain phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II delineate the two phases of zygotic gene activation in mammalian embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Bellier, S; Chastant, S; Adenot, P; Vincent, M; Renard, J P; Bensaude, O

    1997-01-01

    In mammalian embryos, zygotic gene transcription initiates after a limited number of cell divisions through a two-step process termed the zygotic gene activation (ZGA). Here we report that RNA polymerase II undergoes major changes in mouse and rabbit preimplantation embryos during the ZGA. In transcriptionally inactive unfertilized oocytes, the RNA polymerase II largest subunit is predominantly hyperphosphorylated on its carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). The CTD is markedly dephosphorylated several hours after fertilization, before the onset of a period characterized by a weak transcriptional activity. The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II then lacks immunological and drug-sensitivity characteristics related to its phosphorylation by the TFIIH-associated kinase and gradually translocates into the nuclei independently of DNA replication and mitosis. A phosphorylation pattern of the largest subunit, close to that observed in somatic cells, is established in both mouse and rabbit embryos at the stage when transcription becomes a requirement for further development (respectively at the 2- and 8/16-cell stage). As these events occurred in the presence of actinomycin D, the nuclear translocation of RNA polymerase II and the phosphorylation of the CTD might be major determinants of ZGA. PMID:9321404

  1. Robertsonian translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 27, describes the occurrence of Robertsonian translocations (RTs), which refer to the recombination of whole chromosome arms, in both monocentric and dicentric chromosomes. The nonrandom participation of acrocentric chromosomes in RTs is documented by various methods, including unbiased ascertainment and ascertainment through trisomy, infertility, unspecified mental retardation, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Causes of nonrandom participation of chromosomes in RTs is presented, as are the following topics: segregation in carriers of RTs and segregation in sperm cells of RT carriers, interchromosomal effects and conclusions. 48 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Pseudolymphoma evolving into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Pulitzer, Melissa; Epstein, Wendy; Rosenman, Karla; Latkowski, Jo-Ann

    2008-01-01

    A 46-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of asymptomatic papules on the right arm, without an antecedent event. Initial clinical and histopathologic features were consistent with a pseudolymphoma without gene rearrangements, and the patient was treated with intralesional glucocorticoids. Four months later, the patient developed additional papules and plaques on the right arm, and, at this time, clinical and histopathologic features were most consistent with a T-cell-rich, large B-cell lymphoma, with monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain gene rearrangement. Systemic evaluation showed no evidence of extracutaneous involvement. The transformation of a pseudolymphoma into a large B-cell lymphoma is a rare event. This patient's subtype, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-other, carries an intermediate prognosis when compared to the more aggressive leg subtype and more indolent folliculocentric subtype. Potential therapeutic options include local radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and rituximab. PMID:18627758

  3. Effects of aging, CMV infection, and EBV infection on human B cell repertoires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Yi; Xu, Lan T.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Roskin, Krishna M.; Pham, Tho D.; Laserson, Jonathan; Marshall, Eleanor L.; Seo, Katie; Lee, Ji-Yeun; Furman, David; Koller, Daphne; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Boyd, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Elderly humans show decreased humoral immunity to pathogens and vaccines, yet the effects of aging on B cells are not fully known. Chronic viral infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is implicated as a driver of clonal T cell proliferations in some aging humans, but whether CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection contributes to alterations in the B cell repertoire with age is unclear. We have used high-throughput DNA sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangements to study the B cell receptor repertoires over two successive years in 27 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 89 years. Some features of the B cell repertoire remain stable with age, but elderly subjects show increased numbers of B cells with long CDR3 regions, a trend toward accumulation of more highly mutated IgM and IgG immunoglobulin genes, and persistent clonal B cell populations in the blood. Seropositivity for CMV or EBV infection alters B cell repertoires, regardless of the individual's age: EBV infection correlates with the presence of persistent clonal B cell expansions, while CMV infection correlates with the proportion of highly mutated antibody genes. These findings isolate effects of aging from those of chronic viral infection on B cell repertoires, and provide a baseline for understanding human B cell responses to vaccination or infectious stimuli. PMID:24337376

  4. Multiple Translocation of the AVR-Pita Effector Gene among Chromosomes of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Chuma, Izumi; Isobe, Chihiro; Hotta, Yuma; Ibaragi, Kana; Futamata, Natsuru; Kusaba, Motoaki; Yoshida, Kentaro; Terauchi, Ryohei; Fujita, Yoshikatsu; Nakayashiki, Hitoshi; Valent, Barbara; Tosa, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of rice blast disease, a devastating problem worldwide. This fungus has caused breakdown of resistance conferred by newly developed commercial cultivars. To address how the rice blast fungus adapts itself to new resistance genes so quickly, we examined chromosomal locations of AVR-Pita, a subtelomeric gene family corresponding to the Pita resistance gene, in various isolates of M. oryzae (including wheat and millet pathogens) and its related species. We found that AVR-Pita (AVR-Pita1 and AVR-Pita2) is highly variable in its genome location, occurring in chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and supernumerary chromosomes, particularly in rice-infecting isolates. When expressed in M. oryzae, most of the AVR-Pita homologs could elicit Pita-mediated resistance, even those from non-rice isolates. AVR-Pita was flanked by a retrotransposon, which presumably contributed to its multiple translocation across the genome. On the other hand, family member AVR-Pita3, which lacks avirulence activity, was stably located on chromosome 7 in a vast majority of isolates. These results suggest that the diversification in genome location of AVR-Pita in the rice isolates is a consequence of recognition by Pita in rice. We propose a model that the multiple translocation of AVR-Pita may be associated with its frequent loss and recovery mediated by its transfer among individuals in asexual populations. This model implies that the high mobility of AVR-Pita is a key mechanism accounting for the rapid adaptation toward Pita. Dynamic adaptation of some fungal plant pathogens may be achieved by deletion and recovery of avirulence genes using a population as a unit of adaptation. PMID:21829350

  5. Mechanisms That Can Promote Peripheral B Cell Lymphoma in ATM-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tepsuporn, Suprawee; Hu, Jiazhi; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W

    2014-01-01

    The Ataxia Telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase senses DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and facilitates their repair. In humans, ATM deficiency predisposes to B- and T-cell lymphomas, but in mice leads only to thymic lymphomas. We tested the hypothesis that increased DSB frequency at a cellular oncogene could promote B-cell lymphoma by generating ATM-deficient mice with a V(D)J recombination target (“DJβ” cassette) within c-myc intron one (“DA” mice). We also generated ATM-deficient mice carrying an Eμ-Bcl-2 transgene (“AB” mice) to test whether enhanced cellular survival could promote B-cell lymphomas. About 30% of DA or AB mice and nearly 100% of mice harboring the combined genotypes (“DAB” mice) developed mature B-cell lymphomas. In all genotypes, B-cell tumors harbored oncogenic c-myc amplification generated by breakage-fusion-bridge (“BFB”) from dicentric chromosomes formed through fusion of IgH V(D)J recombination-associated DSBs on chromosome 12 to sequences downstream of c-myc on chromosome 15. AB tumors demonstrate that B lineage cells harboring spontaneous DSBs leading to IgH/c-myc dicentrics are blocked from progressing to B cell lymphomas by cellular apoptotic responses. DA and DAB tumor translocations were strictly linked to the cassette, but occurred downstream, frequently in a 6-kb region adjacent to c-myc that harbors multiple cryptic V(D)J recombination targets, suggesting that bona fide V(D)J target sequences may activate linked cryptic targets. Our findings indicate that ATM deficiency allows IgH V(D)J recombination DSBs in developing B cells to generate dicentric translocations that via BFB cycles lead to c-myc-activating oncogenic translocations and amplifications in mature B cells. PMID:24913718

  6. Light-Activated Nuclear Translocation of Adeno-Associated Virus Nanoparticles Using Phytochrome B for Enhanced, Tunable, and Spatially Programmable Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Eric J; Gerhardt, Karl; Judd, Justin; Tabor, Jeffrey J; Suh, Junghae

    2016-01-26

    Gene delivery vectors that are activated by external stimuli may allow improved control over the location and the degree of gene expression in target populations of cells. Light is an attractive stimulus because it does not cross-react with cellular signaling networks, has negligible toxicity, is noninvasive, and can be applied in space and time with unparalleled precision. We used the previously engineered red (R)/far-red (FR) light-switchable protein phytochrome B (PhyB) and its R light dependent interaction partner phytochrome interacting factor 6 (PIF6) from Arabidopsis thaliana to engineer an adeno-associated virus (AAV) platform whose gene delivery efficiency is controlled by light. Upon exposure to R light, AAV engineered to display PIF6 motifs on the capsid bind to PhyB tagged with a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), resulting in significantly increased translocation of viruses into the host cell nucleus and overall gene delivery efficiency. By modulating the ratio of R to FR light, the gene delivery efficiency can be tuned to as little as 35% or over 600% of the unengineered AAV. We also demonstrate spatial control of gene delivery using projected patterns of codelivered R and FR light. Overall, our successful use of light-switchable proteins in virus capsid engineering extends these important optogenetic tools into the adjacent realm of nucleic acid delivery and enables enhanced, tunable, and spatially controllable regulation of viral gene delivery. Our current light-triggered viral gene delivery prototype may be broadly useful for genetic manipulation of cells ex vivo or in vivo in transgenic model organisms, with the ultimate prospect of achieving dose- and site-specific gene expression profiles for either therapeutic (e.g., regenerative medicine) or fundamental discovery research efforts. PMID:26618393

  7. Activating somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: lessons from next generation sequencing and key elements in the precision medicine era.

    PubMed

    Bohers, Elodie; Mareschal, Sylvain; Bertrand, Philippe; Viailly, Pierre Julien; Dubois, Sydney; Maingonnat, Catherine; Ruminy, Philippe; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2015-05-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common form of lymphoma, accounting for 30-40% of newly diagnosed non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Historically, DLBCL has been thought to involve recurrent translocations of the immunoglobulin heavy (IGH) locus and the deregulation of rearranged oncogenes. Whole exome sequencing (WES) of more than 200 DLBCLs has completely redefined the genetic landscape of the disease by identifying recurrent single nucleotide variants and providing new therapeutic opportunities in DLBCL molecular subtypes. Some of these somatic mutations target genes that play a crucial role in B-cell function (B cell receptor [BCR] signaling, nuclear factor κB [NF-κB] pathway, Toll-like receptor [TLR] signaling and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3K] pathway), immunity, cell cycle/apoptosis or chromatin modification. In this review, following an overview of the somatic mutations reported in DLBCL, we focus on activating and clustered mutations targeting genes including MYD88, CD79A/B, EZH2 and CARD11 and discuss their clinical and therapeutic relevance in the precision medicine era. PMID:25130477

  8. Novel functions of B cells in Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Jeffrey L.; Tsuji, Shoichiro; Cascalho, Marilia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review This manuscript will review current knowledge and recent findings regarding antibody-independent functions of B cells in transplantation. Recent findings Until recently the functions of B cells in transplantation have been attributed almost entirely to the antibodies they produce. However, the results of recent trials of B cell depleting agents for treatment of antibody mediated rejection as well as auto-immune disease raised awareness that B cells mediate functions independent of antibody synthesis. Summary These “non-classical” functions place B cells at the center of immune regulation with the power to enhance or inhibit immunity. PMID:21150607

  9. Contributions of B cells to lupus pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Allison; Zheng, Ying-Yi; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies. This review summarizes first the results obtained in the mouse that have revealed how B cell tolerance is breached in SLE. We then review the B cell subsets, in addition to the autoAb producing cells, which contribute to SLE pathogenesis, focusing on marginal zone B cells, B-1 cells and regulatory B cells. Finally, we review the interactions between B cells and other immune cells that have been implicated in SLE, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. PMID:24332482

  10. Gene expression profiling of acute myeloid leukemia with translocation t(8;16)(p11;p13) and MYST3-CREBBP rearrangement reveals a distinctive signature with a specific pattern of HOX gene expression.

    PubMed

    Camós, Mireia; Esteve, Jordi; Jares, Pedro; Colomer, Dolors; Rozman, María; Villamor, Neus; Costa, Dolors; Carrió, Ana; Nomdedéu, Josep; Montserrat, Emili; Campo, Elías

    2006-07-15

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with translocation t(8;16)(p11;p13) is an infrequent leukemia subtype with characteristic clinicobiological features. This translocation leads to fusion of MYST3 (MOZ) and CREBBP (CBP) genes, probably resulting in a disturbed transcriptional program of a myelomonocytic precursor. Nonetheless, its gene expression profile is unknown. We have analyzed the gene expression profile of 23 AML patients, including three with molecularly confirmed MYST3-CREBBP fusion gene, using oligonucleotide U133A arrays (Affymetrix). MYST3-CREBBP cases clustered together and clearly differentiated from samples with PML-RARalpha, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, and CBFbeta-MYH11 rearrangements. The relative expression of 46 genes, selected according to their differential expression in the high-density array study, was analyzed by low-density arrays in an additional series of 40 patients, which included 7 MYST3-CREBBP AML cases. Thus, genes such as prolactin (PRL) and proto-oncogene RET were confirmed to be specifically overexpressed in MYST3-CREBBP samples whereas genes such as CCND2, STAT5A, and STAT5B were differentially underexpressed in this AML category. Interestingly, MYST3-CREBBP AML exhibited a characteristic pattern of HOX expression, with up-regulation of HOXA9, HOXA10, and cofactor MEIS1 and marked down-regulation of other homeobox genes. This profile, with overexpression of FLT3, HOXA9, MEIS1, AKR7A2, CHD3, and APBA2, partially resembles that of AML with MLL rearrangement. In summary, this study shows the distinctive gene expression profile of MYST3-CREBBP AML, with overexpression of RET and PRL and a specific pattern of HOX gene expression. PMID:16849538

  11. Circadian clock gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like polymorphisms are associated with seasonal affective disorder: An Indian family study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Bhagya; Janakarajan, Veeramahali Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: Polymorphisms in aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL) gene, the key component of circadian clock manifests circadian rhythm abnormalities. As seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is associated with disrupted circadian rhythms, the main objective of this study was to screen an Indian family with SAD for ARNTL gene polymorphisms. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 members of close-knit family with SAD, 30 age- and sex-matched controls of the same caste with no prior history of psychiatric illness and 30 age- and sex-matched controls belonging to 17 different castes with no prior history of psychiatric illness were genotyped for five different single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ARNTL gene by TaqMan allele-specific genotyping assay. Statistical Analysis: Statistical significance was assessed by more powerful quasi-likelihood score test-XM. Results: Most of the family members carried the risk alleles and we observed a highly significant SNP rs2279287 (A/G) in ARNTL gene with an allelic frequency of 0.75. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in ARNTL gene disrupt circadian rhythms causing SAD and genetic predisposition becomes more deleterious in the presence of adverse environment. PMID:26985106

  12. B-cell development and functions and therapeutic options in adenosine deaminase–deficient patients

    PubMed Central

    Brigida, Immacolata; Sauer, Aisha V.; Ferrua, Francesca; Giannelli, Stefania; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Pistoia, Valentina; Castiello, Maria Carmina; Barendregt, Barbara H.; Cicalese, Maria Pia; Casiraghi, Miriam; Brombin, Chiara; Puck, Jennifer; Müller, Klaus; Notarangelo, Lucia Dora; Montin, Davide; van Montfrans, Joris M.; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Traggiai, Elisabetta; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe cellular and humoral immune defects and dysregulation because of metabolic toxicity. Alterations in B-cell development and function have been poorly studied. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy (GT) are therapeutic options for patients lacking a suitable bone marrow (BM) transplant donor. Objective We sought to study alterations in B-cell development in ADA-deficient patients and investigate the ability of ERT and HSC-GT to restore normal B-cell differentiation and function. Methods Flow cytometry was used to characterize B-cell development in BM and the periphery. The percentage of gene-corrected B cells was measured by using quantitative PCR. B cells were assessed for their capacity to proliferate and release IgM after stimulation. Results Despite the severe peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, patients with ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency showed a partial block in central BM development. Treatment with ERT or HSC-GT reverted most BM alterations, but ERT led to immature B-cell expansion. In the periphery transitional B cells accumulated under ERT, and the defect in maturation persisted long-term. HSC-GT led to a progressive improvement in B-cell numbers and development, along with increased levels of gene correction. The strongest selective advantage for ADA-transduced cells occurred at the transition from immature to naive cells. B-cell proliferative responses and differentiation to immunoglobulin secreting IgM after B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor triggering were severely impaired after ERT and improved significantly after HSC-GT. Conclusions ADA-deficient patients show specific defects in B-cell development and functions that are differently corrected after ERT and HSC-GT. PMID:24506932

  13. Memory B cells in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, B; Grimsholm, O; Thorarinsdottir, K; Ren, W; Jirholt, P; Gjertsson, I; Mårtensson, I-L

    2013-08-01

    One of the principles behind vaccination, as shown by Edward Jenner in 1796, and host protection is immunological memory, and one of the cells central to this is the antigen-experienced memory B cell that responds rapidly upon re-exposure to the initiating antigen. Classically, memory B cells have been defined as progenies of germinal centre (GC) B cells expressing isotype-switched and substantially mutated B cell receptors (BCRs), that is, membrane-bound antibodies. However, it has become apparent over the last decade that this is not the only pathway to B cell memory. Here, we will discuss memory B cells in mice, as defined by (1) cell surface markers; (2) multiple layers; (3) formation in a T cell-dependent and either GC-dependent or GC-independent manner; (4) formation in a T cell-independent fashion. Lastly, we will touch upon memory B cells in; (5) mouse models of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23679222

  14. Antigen-specific memory B cell development.

    PubMed

    McHeyzer-Williams, Louise J; McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G

    2005-01-01

    Helper T (Th) cell-regulated B cell immunity progresses in an ordered cascade of cellular development that culminates in the production of antigen-specific memory B cells. The recognition of peptide MHC class II complexes on activated antigen-presenting cells is critical for effective Th cell selection, clonal expansion, and effector Th cell function development (Phase I). Cognate effector Th cell-B cell interactions then promote the development of either short-lived plasma cells (PCs) or germinal centers (GCs) (Phase II). These GCs expand, diversify, and select high-affinity variants of antigen-specific B cells for entry into the long-lived memory B cell compartment (Phase III). Upon antigen rechallenge, memory B cells rapidly expand and differentiate into PCs under the cognate control of memory Th cells (Phase IV). We review the cellular and molecular regulators of this dynamic process with emphasis on the multiple memory B cell fates that develop in vivo. PMID:15771579

  15. The BiP Cochaperone ERdj4 Is Required for B Cell Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jill M.; Weaver, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    ERdj4 is a BiP cochaperone regulated by the unfolded protein response to facilitate degradation of unfolded and/or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. As the unfolded protein response plays a critical role in B cell maturation and antibody production, ERdj4 gene trap mice were generated to determine if this chaperone was required for B cell homeostasis. Homozygosity for the trapped allele resulted in hypomorphic expression of ERdj4 in bone marrow cells and abnormal development of hematopoietic lineages in the bone marrow. The number of myeloid cells was increased, while the number of erythroid and B lymphoid cells was reduced in ERdj4 gene trap mice compared to controls. An intrinsic B cell defect was identified that decreased survival of B cell precursors including large and small pre-B, and immature B cells. Consistent with impaired B lymphopoiesis, the number of mature follicular B cells was reduced in both the bone marrow and spleen of ERdj4 gene trap mice. Paradoxically, unchallenged ERdj4 gene trap mice showed non-specific hypergammaglobulinemia and gene trap B cells exhibited increased proliferation, survival and isotype switching in response to LPS stimulation. Although ERdj4 gene trap mice responded normally to T cell-independent antigen, they failed to mount a specific antibody response to T cell-dependent antigen in vivo. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that the chaperone activity of ERdj4 is required for survival of B cell progenitors and normal antibody production. PMID:25222125

  16. Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characteristics with Prognostic Significance in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  17. Immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics with prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Carmen; García, Diego; Vicente, Yolanda; Kilany, Linah; Abraira, Victor; Navarro, Belen; Provencio, Mariano; Martín, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. We analyzed 100 cases of DLBCL to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers derived from the gene expression profiling-defined cell origin signature, including MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and FOXP1 protein expression. We also investigated genetic alterations in BCL2, BCL6, MYC and FOXP1 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and assessed their prognostic significance. BCL6 rearrangements were detected in 29% of cases, and BCL6 gene alteration (rearrangement and/or amplification) was associated with the non-germinal center B subtype (non-GCB). BCL2 translocation was associated with the GCB phenotype, and BCL2 protein expression was associated with the translocation and/or amplification of 18q21. MYC rearrangements were detected in 15% of cases, and MYC protein expression was observed in 29% of cases. FOXP1 expression, mainly of the non-GCB subtype, was demonstrated in 37% of cases. Co-expression of the MYC and BCL2 proteins, with non-GCB subtype predominance, was observed in 21% of cases. We detected an association between high FOXP1 expression and a high proliferation rate as well as a significant positive correlation between MYC overexpression and FOXP1 overexpression. MYC, BCL2 and FOXP1 expression were significant predictors of overall survival. The co-expression of MYC and BCL2 confers a poorer clinical outcome than MYC or BCL2 expression alone, whereas cases negative for both markers had the best outcomes. Our study confirms that DLBCL, characterized by the co-expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins, has a poor prognosis and establishes a significant positive correlation with MYC and FOXP1 over-expression in this entity. PMID:24887414

  18. Expression pattern of the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in the B cell and antibody repertoire suggests a role of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM antibodies in early ontogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Van Es, J.H.; Tol, M.J.D. van; Gmelig Meyling, F.H.J.; Logtenberg, T. ); Raaphorst, F.M. )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a mAb (JE-6) that recognizes an Id encoded by the most J[sub H]-proximal human V[sub H] gene segment (V[sub H]6) in or near germ-line configuration. This mAb was used to determine the frequency of Id JE6[sup +] B cells in large collections of monoclonal EBV-transformed and short term B cell lines derived from fetal, neonatal, and adult lymphoid tissues. Moreover, they investigated the presence of Id JE-6[sup +] lg in sera from neonates and adults and determined the (auto)antigen binding properties of V[sub H]6-encoded IgM mAb. They detected a fivefold overrepresentation of V[sub H]6-expression IgM producing B cells in fetal tissues, cord blood, and adult bone marrow relative to adult blood. In cord blood, but not in adult blood sera, germ-line V[sub H]6-encoded IgM molecules were readily detectable. IgM secreted by V[sub H]6-expressing B cell clones displayed highly conserved and virtually identical autoantigen binding properties, independent of the length and composition of the IgH chain CDR3 region and L chain isotype. Collectively, these results suggest that the V[sub H]6 gene and the antibodies it encodes play an important role in early human ontogeny. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Establishment and characterization of human B cell precursor-leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Y; Drexler, H G

    1998-07-01

    A large number of continuous human leukemia cell lines have been established over the last three decades. Clearly, leukemia cell lines have become important research tools. Here, we have summarized the immunological, molecular and standard cytogenetic features of a panel of well characterized B cell precursor (BCP)-leukemia cell lines which were derived from patients with acute lymphoblastic/undifferentiated leukemia (ALL/AUL) or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis. Following the recently proposed immunological EGIL classification, we assigned our panel of 27 BCP-cell lines to one of the following categories: B-I pro-B cell line; B-II common-B cell line; and B-III pre-B cell line. All cell lines express general B-lineage associated surface markers (HLA-DR, CD22, CD79a) being negative for surface immunoglobulin (Ig); the differences between the subgroups reside in expression of CD10 and cytoplasmic Ig. Several BCP-cell lines show the myelomonocytic cell-associated markers CD13 and/or CD33. These immunologically 'biphenotypic' BCP-cell lines are generally TdT+ CD10+ CD13+ CD19+ CD22+ CD34+ and carry the Philadelphia (Ph) translocation. The BCP-cell lines display surface receptors for interferon-gamma (CD119), interleukin-7 (CD127) and FLT-3 ligand (CD135). All BCP-cell lines examined have complex numerical and structural chromosomal alterations including translocations commonly seen in BCP-ALL such as t(4;11), t(9;22), t(11;19), t(12;21), and t(17;19) involving the fusion genes MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL, ENL-MLL, TEL/ETV6-AML1 and E2A-HLF, respectively. Besides the expected rearrangement of the Ig heavy chain receptor gene, several cell lines also have rearrangements of the T cell receptor genes beta, gamma or delta. While some BCP-cell lines express (aberrantly) myeloperoxidase at the mRNA level, most lines are negative in the immunological or cytochemical staining. Several large series documented the difficulty in establishing such BCP cell lines with success rates in the range of 10-20% (on average 15%). Still, since the establishment of the first bonafide BCP-cell line in 1974 (cell line REH), some 150 cell lines have been established of which, however, only a small percentage have been sufficiently well characterized and described. A higher success rate for immortalizing any given leukemia cell might depend on a closer emulation of the physiological in vivo microenvironment. The possibility to grow in vitro leukemia cells at will would represent ideal experimental systems permitting basic research and patient-specific investigations. In summary, the use of well-characterized BCP-cell lines provide unprecedented opportunities for studying a multitude of biological aspects related to normal and neoplastic B-lymphocytes. PMID:9680106

  20. Aneurysmal bone cyst variant translocations upregulate USP6 transcription by promoter swapping with the ZNF9, COL1A1, TRAP150, and OMD genes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andre M; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R; Dal Cin, Paola; Gebhardt, Mark C; Chen, Chang-Jie; Neff, James R; Demetri, George D; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bridge, Julia A; Fletcher, Jonathan A

    2005-05-12

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are locally aggressive bone tumors that often feature chromosome 17p13 rearrangements. One of the ABC 17p13 rearrangements--t(16;17)(q22;p13)--was recently shown to create a CDH11-USP6 fusion in which the USP6/TRE17 oncogene is overexpressed through juxtaposition with the CDH11 promoter. Herein, we characterize four different ABC translocations involving 17p13, and we show that each is associated with a novel USP6 fusion oncogene. Specifically, we demonstrate that t(1;17), t(3;17), t(9;17), and t(17;17) result in USP6 fusions with TRAP150 (thyroid receptor-associated protein 150), ZNF9 (ZiNc Finger 9), Osteomodulin, and COL1A1 (Collagen 1A1), respectively. The oncogenic mechanism in these fusion genes is akin to CDH11-USP6, with the USP6 coding sequences juxtaposed to the promoter regions in each of the four novel translocation partners. The novel fusion partners appear well suited to drive USP6 transcription in the bone/mesenchymal context: osteomodulin is expressed strongly in osteoblastic lineages, and the COL1A1 promoter has an oncogenic role in the mesenchymal cancer dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. In summary, these studies show that USP6 oncogenic activation results from heterogeneous genomic mechanisms involving USP6 transcriptional upregulation by juxtaposition with ectopic promoters. PMID:15735689

  1. Changes in Caspase-3, B Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma-2, Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Expression after Human Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transfusion in Pulmonary Hypertension Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwan Chang; Lee, Jae Chul; Lee, Hyeryon; Cho, Min-Sun; Choi, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Failure of vascular smooth muscle apoptosis and inflammatory response in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a current research focus. The goals of this study were to determine changes in select gene expressions in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat models after human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) transfusion. Materials and Methods The rats were separated into 3 groups i.e., control group (C group), M group (MCT 60 mg/kg), and U group (hUCB-MSCs transfusion) a week after MCT injection. Results TUNEL assay showed that the U group had significantly lowered positive apoptotic cells in the lung tissues, as compared with the M group. mRNA of caspase-3, B cell leukemia/lymphoma (Bcl)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the lung tissues were greatly reduced at week 4 in the U group. Immunohistochemical staining of the lung tissues also demonstrated a similar pattern, with the exception of IL-6. The protein expression of caspase-3, Bcl-2 VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α and brain natriuretic peptide in the heart tissues were significantly lower in the U group, as compared with the M group at week 2. Furthermore, the protein expression of VEGF, IL-6 and BNP in the heart tissues were significantly lower in the U group at week 4. Collagen content in the heart tissues was significantly lower in the U group, as compared with M group at weeks 2 and 4, respectively. Conclusion hUCB-MSCs could prevent inflammation, apoptosis and remodeling in MCT-induced PAH rat models. PMID:26798389

  2. Rearrangement of the MOZ gene in pediatric therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome with a novel chromosomal translocation t(2;8)(p23;p11).

    PubMed

    Imamura, Toshihiko; Kakazu, Naoki; Hibi, Shigeyoshi; Morimoto, Akira; Fukushima, Yoko; Ijuin, Ikuko; Hada, Satoshi; Kitabayashi, Issei; Abe, Tatsuo; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2003-04-01

    In this study, we examined a pediatric case of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (tMDS). The symptoms developed 17 months after treatment for acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML, M2 subtype according to the French-American-British [FAB] classification) involving a chromosome abnormality at t(8;21)(q22;q22). Upon diagnosis of tMDS, spectral karyotyping analysis detected a new chromosomal translocation at t(2;8)(p23;p11.2). In addition, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis suggested a rearrangement in the monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) gene, located in the 8p11 region of chromosome 8. However, no partner gene on 2p23 could be identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report of tMDS associated with a rearrangement of the MOZ gene. MOZ-linked fusion proteins such as MOZ-CBP (CREB binding protein), MOZ-TIF2 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2), and MOZ-p300 (adenoviral E1A-associated protein) are associated with AML chromosomal abnormalities at t(8;16)(p11;p13), inv(8)(p11q13), and t(8;22)(p11;q13), respectively, and are thought to account for leukemogenesis occurring through the aberrant regulation of histone acetylation. Through a similar mechanism, we believe that MOZ, fused to an unidentified partner gene at 2p23, may have caused an alteration in histone acetylation, resulting in the development of tMDS in this patient. PMID:12619166

  3. Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in B-Cell Lymphoma: Evidence of Chromoanagenesis? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Veronica; Chaubey, Alka; Mendiola, Christina; Ehman, William; Vadlamudi, Kumari; Dupont, Barbara; Velagaleti, Gopalrao

    2016-01-01

    Genomic instability is a well-known hallmark of cancer. Recent genome sequencing studies have led to the identification of novel phenomena called chromothripsis and chromoanasynthesis in which complex genomic rearrangements are thought to be derived from a single catastrophic event rather than by several incremental steps. A new term chromoanagenesis or chromosomal rebirth was coined recently to group these two one-step catastrophic events together. These phenomena suggest an evolutionary modality for cancer cells to circumvent individual mutational events with one simultaneous shattering of chromosomes resulting in the random reassembling of segmented genetic material to form complex derivative chromosomes. We report a case of possible chromoanagenesis in a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Chromosome analysis from the biopsy showed a complex karyotype with multiple numerical and structural rearrangements including a translocation of chromosomes 3 and 7 involving the BCL6 gene region, with the derivative chromosome further rearranging with chromosomes 14, 7, and 22 with involvement of the IGH gene region. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed these findings. Chromosomal microarray studies showed multiple complex copy number variations including a chromosome 12 abnormality, the complexity of which appears to suggest the phenomenon of chromoanagenesis. Our case further illustrates that lymphomagenesis can be complex and may arise from a catastrophic event resulting in multiple complex chromosome rearrangements. PMID:27108385

  4. Molecular characterization of primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, P.; Cesarman, E.; Chadburn, A.; Liu, Y. F.; Knowles, D. M.

    1996-01-01

    Primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLCL) postulated to arise from noncirculating thymic B lymphocytes. Because of its distinctive clinical and morphological features and putative unique cellular origin, PMBL is generally considered a distinct clinicopathological entity. Little is known, however, about the molecular characteristics of PMBL. Therefore, we analyzed 16 PMBLs for molecular alterations involving the bcl-1, bcl-2, bcl-6, c-myc, H-ras, K-ras, N-ras, and p53 genes and for Epstein-Barr virus infection, which are commonly involved in lymphoid neoplasia. Employing a combination of Southern blotting and/or polymerase chain reaction and single-strand conformation polymorphism assays, we detected genetic alterations in 7 of the 16 (44%) PMBLs. Whereas the bcl-6 gene is rearranged in up to 45% of DLCLs, rearrangement of the bcl-6 gene was detected in only 1 of these 16 (6%) PMBLS. Point mutations of the 5' noncoding region of the c-myc gene were demonstrated in 3 other cases (19%), although c-myc gene rearrangements were not seen by Southern blotting. Missense point mutations of the p53 gene were identified in 3 additional PMBLs (19%). Alterations of the bcl-1, bcl-2, or ras genes and evidence of Epstein-Barr virus infection were not observed. In conclusion, a variety of molecular lesions occur in PMBLs and may be involved in their pathogenesis. This molecular genetic pattern bears little resemblance to that known for other B cell malignancies, including DLCL. In particular, the infrequent occurrence of bcl-6 gene rearrangement in PMBLs distinguishes them from other DLCLs of B cell origin, suggesting that PMBLs do not represent a distinct subtype of DLCL. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8669486

  5. Dataset of transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation.

    PubMed

    Garruss, Alexander S; Fowler, Trent

    2015-09-01

    Signaling via B cell receptors (BCR) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) result in activation of B cells with distinct physiological outcomes, but transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that drive activation and distinguish these pathways remain unknown. At early time points after BCR and TLR ligand exposure, 0.5 and 2h, RNA-seq was performed allowing observations on rapid transcriptional changes. At 2h, ChIP-seq was performed to allow observations on important regulatory mechanisms potentially driving transcriptional change. The dataset includes RNA-seq, ChIP-seq of control (Input), RNA Pol II, H3K4me3, H3K27me3, and a separate RNA-seq for miRNA expression, which can be found at Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset GSE61608. Here, we provide details on the experimental and analysis methods used to obtain and analyze this dataset and to examine the transcriptional landscape of B cell early activation. PMID:26484262

  6. Inferring processes underlying B-cell repertoire diversity.

    PubMed

    Elhanati, Yuval; Sethna, Zachary; Marcou, Quentin; Callan, Curtis G; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2015-09-01

    We quantify the VDJ recombination and somatic hypermutation processes in human B cells using probabilistic inference methods on high-throughput DNA sequence repertoires of human B-cell receptor heavy chains. Our analysis captures the statistical properties of the naive repertoire, first after its initial generation via VDJ recombination and then after selection for functionality. We also infer statistical properties of the somatic hypermutation machinery (exclusive of subsequent effects of selection). Our main results are the following: the B-cell repertoire is substantially more diverse than T-cell repertoires, owing to longer junctional insertions; sequences that pass initial selection are distinguished by having a higher probability of being generated in a VDJ recombination event; somatic hypermutations have a non-uniform distribution along the V gene that is well explained by an independent site model for the sequence context around the hypermutation site. PMID:26194757

  7. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with a four-way variant translocation originating the RBM15-MKL1 fusion gene.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lurdes; Lisboa, Susana; Vieira, Joana; Cerveira, Nuno; Santos, Joana; Pinheiro, Manuela; Correia, Ceclia; Bizarro, Susana; Almeida, Marta; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2011-05-01

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) with t(1;22)(p13;q13) is a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) representing <1% of all cases and about 70% of pediatric AMKL in the first year of life. We present a case of a 7-month-old female in whom the bone marrow karyotype showed the derivative chromosome der(22)t(1;22)(p13;q13). The RBM15-MKL1 fusion transcript was detected by RT-PCR and confirmed by sequencing analyses. FISH analyses revealed the presence of the four-way translocation t(1;22;17;18)(p13;q13;q22;q12). PMID:21370421

  8. Regulation of germinal center B-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Garcia-Ibanez, Laura; Toellner, Kai-Michael

    2016-03-01

    Germinal centers (GC) are the main sites where antigen-activated B-cell clones expand and undergo immunoglobulin gene hypermutation and selection. Iterations of this process will lead to affinity maturation, replicating Darwinian evolution on the cellular level. GC B-cell selection can lead to four different outcomes: further expansion and evolution, apoptosis (non-selection), or output from the GC with differentiation into memory B cells or plasma cells. T-helper cells in GC have been shown to have a central role in regulating B-cell selection by sensing the density of major histocompatibility complex (MHC):peptide antigen complexes. Antigen is provided on follicular dendritic cells in the form of immune complex. Antibody on these immune complexes regulates antigen accessibility by shielding antigen from B-cell receptor access. Replacement of antibody on immune complexes by antibody generated from GC-derived plasma cell output will gradually reduce the availability of antigen. This antibody feedback can lead to a situation where a slow rise in selection stringency caused by a changing environment leads to directional evolution toward higher affinity antibody. PMID:26864101

  9. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate acting through protein kinase C? induces translocator protein (18-kDa) Tspo gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Batarseh, Amani; Giatzakis, Christoforos; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18-kDa cholesterol-binding protein that is expressed at high levels in steroid synthesizing and several cancer cells where it is involved in steroidogenesis and cell proliferation, respectively. The factors regulating Tspo expression are unknown. We analyzed Tspo transcriptional responses to the tumor promoter, phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in cells with varying TSPO levels. PMA induced Tspo promoter activity and Tspo mRNA levels in TSPO-poor non-steroidogenic cells (NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and COS-7 kidney), but not in TSPO-rich steroidogenic cells (MA-10 Leydig) with high basal Tspo transcriptional activity. The stimulatory effect of PMA was mediated by an 805-515-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that PMA induced binding of c-jun and GA-binding protein transcription factor (GABP-?) to their respective activator protein 1(AP1) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (Ets) sites in this region. Protein kinase C (PKC)-specific inhibitors blocked PMA induction of Tspo promoter activity with an inhibition profile suggestive of involvement of PKC?. PKC? expression correlated with TSPO content in the three cell lines. In NIH-3T3 cells, PKC? overexpression induced Tspo promoter activity, mRNA levels and enhanced PMA-induced up regulation of c-jun and TSPO. In MA-10 cells, a PKC?-specific translocation inhibitor peptide reduced basal Tspo promoter activity. PKC? siRNA pool reduced PKC? and TSPO levels in MA-10 cells indicating a role for PKC? in regulating TSPO expression. Taken together, these data suggest that elevated TSPO expression in steroidogenic cells maybe due to high constitutive expression of PKC? that renders them unresponsive to further induction while PMA activation of PKC? drives inducible TSPO expression in non-steroidogenic cells, likely through AP1 and Ets. PMID:18975922

  10. Receptor Editing Occurs Frequently during Normal B Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Retter, Marc W.; Nemazee, David

    1998-01-01

    Allelic exclusion is established in development through a feedback mechanism in which the assembled immunoglobulin (Ig) suppresses further V(D)J rearrangement. But Ig expression sometimes fails to prevent further rearrangement. In autoantibody transgenic mice, reactivity of immature B cells with autoantigen can induce receptor editing, in which allelic exclusion is transiently prevented or reversed through nested light chain gene rearrangement, often resulting in altered B cell receptor specificity. To determine the extent of receptor editing in a normal, non-Ig transgenic immune system, we took advantage of the fact that λ light chain genes usually rearrange after κ genes. This allowed us to analyze κ loci in IgMλ+ cells to determine how frequently in-frame κ genes fail to suppress λ gene rearrangements. To do this, we analyzed recombined VκJκ genes inactivated by subsequent recombining sequence (RS) rearrangement. RS rearrangements delete portions of the κ locus by a V(D)J recombinase-dependent mechanism, suggesting that they play a role in receptor editing. We show that RS recombination is frequently induced by, and inactivates, functionally rearranged κ loci, as nearly half (47%) of the RS-inactivated VκJκ joins were in-frame. These findings suggest that receptor editing occurs at a surprisingly high frequency in normal B cells. PMID:9763602

  11. Impairment of Mature B Cell Maintenance upon Combined Deletion of the Alternative NF-κB Transcription Factors RELB and NF-κB2 in B Cells.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Nilushi S; Silva, Kathryn; Anderson, Michael M; Bhagat, Govind; Klein, Ulf

    2016-03-15

    BAFF is critical for the survival and maturation of mature B cells. BAFF, via BAFFR, activates multiple signaling pathways in B cells, including the alternative NF-κB pathway. The transcription factors RELB and NF-κB2 (p100/p52) are the downstream mediators of the alternative pathway; however, the B cell-intrinsic functions of these NF-κB subunits have not been studied in vivo using conditional alleles, either individually or in combination. We in this study report that B cell-specific deletion of relb led to only a slight decrease in the fraction of mature splenic B cells, whereas deletion of nfkb2 caused a marked reduction. This phenotype was further exacerbated upon combined deletion of relb and nfkb2 and most dramatically affected the maintenance of marginal zone B cells. BAFF stimulation, in contrast to CD40 activation, was unable to rescue relb/nfkb2-deleted B cells in vitro. RNA-sequencing analysis of BAFF-stimulated nfkb2-deleted versus normal B cells suggests that the alternative NF-κB pathway, in addition to its critical role in BAFF-mediated cell survival, may control the expression of genes involved in the positioning of B cells within the lymphoid microenvironment and in the establishment of T cell-B cell interactions. Thus, by ablating the downstream transcription factors of the alternative NF-κB pathway specifically in B cells, we identify in this study a critical role for the combined activity of the RELB and NF-κB2 subunits in B cell homeostasis that cannot be compensated for by the canonical NF-κB pathway under physiological conditions. PMID:26851215

  12. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression.

    PubMed

    Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z; Morehouse, Christopher A; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A; Higgs, Brandon W; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)(+) memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)(+) precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  13. Germinal center reentries of BCL2-overexpressing B cells drive follicular lymphoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Sungalee, Stéphanie; Mamessier, Emilie; Morgado, Ester; Grégoire, Emilie; Brohawn, Philip Z.; Morehouse, Christopher A.; Jouve, Nathalie; Monvoisin, Céline; Menard, Cédric; Debroas, Guilhaume; Faroudi, Mustapha; Mechin, Violaine; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Drevet, Charlotte; Eberle, Franziska C.; Chasson, Lionel; Baudimont, Fannie; Mancini, Stéphane J.; Tellier, Julie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Kelly, Rachel; Vineis, Paolo; Ruminy, Philippe; Chetaille, Bruno; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Schiff, Claudine; Hardwigsen, Jean; Tice, David A.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Tarte, Karin; Nadel, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that memory B cells can reenter and reengage germinal center (GC) reactions, opening the possibility that multi-hit lymphomagenesis gradually occurs throughout life during successive immunological challenges. Here, we investigated this scenario in follicular lymphoma (FL), an indolent GC-derived malignancy. We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the FL hallmark t(14;18) translocation, which results in constitutive activation of antiapoptotic protein B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in a subset of B cells, and applied a combination of molecular and immunofluorescence approaches to track normal and t(14;18)+ memory B cells in human and BCL2-overexpressing B cells in murine lymphoid tissues. BCL2-overexpressing B cells required multiple GC transits before acquiring FL-associated developmental arrest and presenting as GC B cells with constitutive activation–induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mutator activity. Moreover, multiple reentries into the GC were necessary for the progression to advanced precursor stages of FL. Together, our results demonstrate that protracted subversion of immune dynamics contributes to early dissemination and progression of t(14;18)+ precursors and shapes the systemic presentation of FL patients. PMID:25384217

  14. CD5+ B cells are preferentially expanded in rabbit appendix: the role of CD5 in B cell development and selection.

    PubMed

    Pospisil, Richard; Alexander, Cornelius B; Obiakor, Harold; Sinha, Rajesh K; Mage, Rose G

    2006-01-01

    Although only a small proportion of mouse and human B cells are CD5(+), most adult rabbit B cells express CD5. However, CD5 was not detectable on the majority of B cells in neonatal appendix 1 and 3days after birth. Cell trafficking studies demonstrated that CD5(+) and CD5(-) CD62L(+) B cells from bone marrow migrated into appendix. There, CD5(+) B cells were preferentially expanded and predominated by approximately 2weeks of age. In mutant ali/ali rabbits, VHa2(+) B cells develop through gene conversion-like alteration of rearranged VH genes upstream of deleted VH1a2. Correlated appearance of individual CD5(+) germinal centers and VHa2(+) B-cells in mutant appendix suggests that CD5 binding positively selects cells with a2(+) framework regions that bind CD5. Following negative and positive selection, cells with diversified rearranged heavy- and light-chain sequences exit appendix, migrate to peripheral tissues and constitute the preimmune repertoire of CD5(+) B cells that encounter foreign antigens. PMID:16375969

  15. Multiple routes to B-cell memory.

    PubMed

    Good-Jacobson, Kim L; Tarlinton, David M

    2012-07-01

    B-cell memory describes the populations of cells that provide long-term humoral immunity: long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells that reside mainly in the bone marrow and memory B cells. Interestingly, the memory B-cell population is heterogenous, although the importance of this heterogeneity has been unclear. Recent studies have investigated the formation and function of memory in different settings. In particular, T-independent memory-like cells and T-dependent (TD) IgM memory B cells qualitatively differ from canonical TD class-switched memory B cells; however, these studies suggest that IgM memory cells preserve the memory population over long periods of time. These subsets are evocative of the evolution of the humoral immune response, with memory-like cells appearing before acquisition of germinal centers, suggesting that there are multiple pathways to producing B-cell memory. PMID:22451529

  16. Clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hong-Ying; Tao, Li; Zhao, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zeng, Gu-Cheng; Cai, Song-Wang; Li, Yun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hui-Guo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (SIT) on asthma is supposed to be improved. Published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. B cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This study aims to modulate antigen specific B cell property by the administration of Clostridium butyrate (CB) in combination with SIT. The results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific IgE were improved in the patients treated with SIT, which was further improved in those treated with both SIT and CB, but not in those treated with CB alone. Treatment with SIT and CB increased p300 and STAT3 activation, up regulated the IL-10 gene transcription and increased the frequency of peripheral antigen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration with SIT in combination with CB converts Der p 1 specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthma patients allergic to Der p 1. The data suggest a potential therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26857726

  17. Clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-Ying; Tao, Li; Zhao, Jian; Qin, Jie; Zeng, Gu-Cheng; Cai, Song-Wang; Li, Yun; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hui-Guo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (SIT) on asthma is supposed to be improved. Published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. B cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. This study aims to modulate antigen specific B cell property by the administration of Clostridium butyrate (CB) in combination with SIT. The results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific IgE were improved in the patients treated with SIT, which was further improved in those treated with both SIT and CB, but not in those treated with CB alone. Treatment with SIT and CB increased p300 and STAT3 activation, up regulated the IL-10 gene transcription and increased the frequency of peripheral antigen specific B cells. In conclusion, administration with SIT in combination with CB converts Der p 1 specific B cells to regulatory B cells in asthma patients allergic to Der p 1. The data suggest a potential therapeutic remedy in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:26857726

  18. Mincle and human B cell function

    PubMed Central

    Kawata, Kazuhito; Illarionov, Petr; Kenny, Thomas; Zhang, Weici; Tsuda, Masanobu; Ando, Yugo; Leung, Patrick; Ansari, Aftab A.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2012-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors are pattern recognition receptors that are critical for autoimmunity and the immune response. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by a variety of antigen presenting cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and B cells; a variety of stimuli including stress are known to induce the expression of Mincle. Mincle is an FcR?-associated activation receptor that senses damaged cells and upon ligation induces activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. Recently, while several studies have reported that Mincle plays an important role in macrophage responses to fungal infection its function on B cells remains to be defined. In efforts to elucidate the function of Mincle expressed by B cells, we studied the expression of Mincle on subsets of B cells and analyzed cytokines and synthesized immunoglobulin upon ligation of Mincle. The expression of Mincle on CD27?CD19+ nave B cells is significantly higher than CD27+CD19+ memory B cells. The stimulation of TLR9 ligand induced Mincle expression on B cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation of TLR9 and Mincle ligand reduced IgG and IgA production from B cells without a significant change in the inflammatory cytokines TNF?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Our data identifies Mincle as a potentially critical player in human B cell responses. PMID:22698596

  19. Mincle and human B cell function.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Kazuhito; Illarionov, Petr; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Kenny, Thomas P; Zhang, Weici; Tsuda, Masanobu; Ando, Yugo; Leung, Patrick S C; Ansari, Aftab A; Eric Gershwin, M

    2012-12-01

    C-type lectin receptors are pattern recognition receptors that are critical for autoimmunity and the immune response. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor expressed by a variety of antigen presenting cells including macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells and B cells; a variety of stimuli including stress are known to induce the expression of Mincle. Mincle is an FcR?-associated activation receptor that senses damaged cells and upon ligation induces activated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines. Recently, while several studies have reported that Mincle plays an important role in macrophage responses to fungal infection its function on B cells remains to be defined. In efforts to elucidate the function of Mincle expressed by B cells, we studied the expression of Mincle on subsets of B cells and analyzed cytokines and synthesized immunoglobulin upon ligation of Mincle. The expression of Mincle on CD27-CD19(+) nave B cells is significantly higher than CD27 + CD19(+) memory B cells. The stimulation of TLR9 ligand induced Mincle expression on B cells. Furthermore, co-stimulation of TLR9 and Mincle ligand reduced IgG and IgA production from B cells without a significant change in the inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Our data identifies Mincle as a potentially critical player in human B cell responses. PMID:22698596

  20. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-15

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  1. Atacicept: targeting B cells in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2010-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has traditionally been considered to be a T-cell-mediated disease. However, there is an increasing body of evidence for the involvement of B cells and autoantibodies in the pathology of this disease, providing a rationale for treatments directed against B cells. In this paper we summarize evidence for the key role of B cells in the immunopathology of MS and review data supporting the use of a novel B-cell targeted therapy, atacicept, in this condition. Atacicept is a human recombinant fusion protein that comprises the binding portion of a receptor for both BLyS (B-Lymphocyte Stimulator) and APRIL (A PRoliferation-Inducing Ligand), two cytokines that have been identified as important regulators of B-cell maturation, function and survival. Atacicept has shown selective effects on cells of the B-cell lineage, acting on mature B cells and blocking plasma cells and late stages of B-cell development while sparing B-cell progenitors and memory cells. The efficacy of atacicept in animal models of autoimmune disease and the biological activity of atacicept in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been demonstrated. Clinical studies were initiated to investigate the safety, tolerability and efficacy of atacicept in patients with MS. An unexpected increase in inflammatory activity in one of the trials, however, led to suspension of all atacicept trials in MS. PMID:21179612

  2. The expanding family of regulatory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Madhvi

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade it has become evident that in addition to producing antibody, B cells activate the immune system by producing cytokines and via antigen presentation. In addition, B cells also exhibit immunosuppressive functions via diverse regulatory mechanisms. This subset of B cells, known as regulatory B cells (Bregs), contributes to the maintenance of tolerance, primarily via the production of IL-10. Studies in experimental animal models, as well as in patients with autoimmune diseases, have identified multiple Breg subsets exhibiting diverse mechanisms of immune suppression. In this review, we describe the different Breg subsets identified in mice and humans, and their diverse mechanisms of suppression in different disease settings. PMID:26071023

  3. High MN1 expression increases the in vitro clonogenic activity of primary mouse B-cells.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masashi; Yener, Mehmet Deniz; Ekmekçi, Sema Sırma; Aydın, Müge; Grosveld, Gerard; Cardone, Monica; Terranova, Sabrina; Geltink, Ramon Klein; Özbek, Uğur; Özçelik, Emrah; Güleç, Çağrı; Anak, Sema; Karaman, Serap; Öztürk, Gülyüz; Akbıyık, Meral; Kandilci, Ayten

    2015-08-01

    The MN1 (Meningioma 1) gene is overexpressed in certain subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high levels of MN1 expression in mouse bone marrow cells results in myeloid leukemia. We showed that compared with control bone marrow (BM) MN1 expression was increased (2-fold or more) in 29 out of 73 (40%) pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patient BM. Additional analysis of MN1 expression in sub-groups within our cohort carrying different chromosome translocations showed that carriers of the good prognostic marker t(12;21)(TEL-AML1) (n=27) expressed significantly more MN1 than both healthy controls (n=9) (P=0.02) and the group carrying the t(9;22)(BCR-ABL) (n=9) (P=0.001). In addition, AML1 expression was also upregulated in 31 out of 45 (68%) B-ALL patient BM compared with control and there was a significant correlation between MN1 and AML1 expression (r=0.3552, P=0.0167). Retroviral MN1 overexpression increased the colony forming activity of mouse Pro-B/Pre-B cells in vitro. Our results suggest that deregulated MN1 expression contributes to the pathogenesis of pediatric B-ALL. Further investigation into the clinical and biological significance of elevated MN1 expression in TEL-AML1(positive) leukemia might provide insight into additional molecular mechanisms contributing to B-ALL and may lead to improved treatment options for patients. PMID:26111797

  4. Mechanisms of action of BCL6 during germinal center B cell development.

    PubMed

    Huang, ChuanXin; Melnick, Ari

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) controls a large transcriptional network that is required for the formation and maintenance of germinal centers (GC). GC B cells represent the normal counterpart of most human B-cell lymphomas, which are often characterized by deregulated BCL6 expression or BCL6-mediated pathways. BCL6 suppresses gene transcription largely through recruitment of its co-repressors through its distinct repression domain. Understanding the precise biological roles of each repression domain in normal and malignant B cells is helpful for development of targeted inhibition of BCL6 functions that is emerging as the basis for design of anti-lymphoma therapies. This review focuses on recent progress in the molecular mechanisms of action of BCL6 in B cells and discusses remaining unresolved questions related to how these mechanisms are linked to normal and malignant B cell development. PMID:26566802

  5. Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Breaks Tolerance and Drives Polyclonal Expansion of Autoreactive B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roughan, Jill E.; Reardon, Kathryn M.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Quendler, Heribert; Pockros, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been linked with B cell lymphoproliferative disorders and several autoimmune-related diseases. The mechanisms of how chronic viral infection affects B cell development and predisposes the patients to autoimmune manifestations are poorly understood. In this study, we established an experimental system to probe the B cell responses and characterize the antibodies from chronic-HCV-infected individuals. We identified an unusual polyclonal expansion of the IgM memory B cell subset in some patients. This B cell subset is known to be tightly regulated, and autoreactive cells are eliminated by tolerance mechanisms. Genetic analysis of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain variable gene (VH) sequences of the expanded cell population showed that the levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) correlate with the extent of cell expansion in the patients and that the VH genes exhibit signs of antigen-mediated selection. Functional analysis of the cloned B cell receptors demonstrated autoreactivity in some of the expanded IgM memory B cells in the patients which is not found in healthy donors. In summary, this study demonstrated that, in some patients, chronic HCV infection disrupts the tolerance mechanism that normally deletes autoreactive B cells, therefore increasing the risk of developing autoimmune antibodies. Long-term follow-up of this expanded B cell subset within the infected individuals will help determine whether these cells are predictors of more-serious clinical manifestations. PMID:22623650

  6. AID-associated DNA repair pathways regulate malignant transformation in a murine model of BCL6-driven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiwen; Booth, Carmen J; Liu, Zongzhi; Strout, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes occur in germinal center (GC) B cells and are initiated through deamination of cytidine to uracil by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Resulting uracil-guanine mismatches are processed by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG)-mediated base-excision repair and MSH2-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) to yield mutations and DNA strand lesions. Although off-target AID activity also contributes to oncogenic point mutations and chromosome translocations associated with GC and post-GC B-cell lymphomas, the role of downstream AID-associated DNA repair pathways in the pathogenesis of lymphoma is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous deficiency of UNG and MSH2 or MSH2 alone causes genomic instability and a shorter latency to the development of BCL6-driven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in a murine model. The additional development of several BCL6-independent malignancies in these mice underscores the critical role of MMR in maintaining general genomic stability. In contrast, absence of UNG alone is highly protective and prevents the development of BCL6-driven DLBCL. We further demonstrate that clonal and nonclonal mutations arise within non-Ig AID target genes in the combined absence of UNG and MSH2 and that DNA strand lesions arise in an UNG-dependent manner but are offset by MSH2. These findings lend insight into a complex interplay whereby potentially deleterious UNG activity and general genomic instability are opposed by the protective influence of MSH2, producing a net protective effect that promotes immune diversification while simultaneously attenuating malignant transformation of GC B cells. PMID:26385350

  7. DHA down-regulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes by attenuating CAR translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.-C.; Lii, C.-K.; Liu, K.-L.; Yang, J.-J.; Chen, H.-W.

    2007-12-15

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays an important role in regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes, including cytochrome P450 2B (CYP 2B). Phenobarbital (PB) induction of human CYP 2B6 and mouse CYP 2b10 has been shown to be mediated by CAR. Our previous study showed that PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes is down-regulated by both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); however, the mechanism for this down-regulation by DHA was previously unknown. The objective of the present study was to determine whether change in CAR translocation is involved in the down-regulation by n-6 and n-3 PUFAs of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression in rat primary hepatocytes. We used 100 {mu}M arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and DHA to test this hypothesis. PB triggered the translocation of CAR from the cytosol into the nucleus in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner in our hepatocyte system, and the CAR distribution in rat primary hepatocytes was significantly affected by DHA. DHA treatment decreased PB-inducible accumulation of CAR in the nuclear fraction and increased it in the cytosolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CYP 2B1 expression by DHA occurred in a dose-dependent manner, and a similar pattern was found for the nuclear accumulation of CAR. The results of immunoprecipitation showed a CAR/RXR heterodimer bound to nuclear receptor binding site 1 (NR-1) of the PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) of the CYP 2B1gene. The EMSA results showed that PB-induced CAR binding to NR-1 was attenuated by DHA. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuation of CAR translocation and decreased subsequent binding to NR-1 are involved in DHA's down-regulation of PB-induced CYP 2B1 expression.

  8. Intrafollicular Epstein-Barr virus-positive large B cell lymphoma. A variant of "germinotropic" lymphoproliferative disorder.

    PubMed

    Lorenzi, Luisa; Lonardi, Silvia; Essatari, Murad H M; Pellegrini, Vilma; Fisogni, Simona; Gazzola, Anna; Agostinelli, Claudio; Vermi, William; Rossi, Giuseppe; Massarelli, Giovannino; Pileri, Stefano A; Facchetti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorders were previously described as localized disorders associated with coinfection by human herpes virus 8 and Epstein-Barr virus and characterized by good clinical outcome. We report the clinical, morphological, phenotypical, and molecular features of three cases of a hitherto unreported variant of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive, human herpes virus 8 (HHV8)-negative large B cell lymphoma with exclusive intrafollicular localization. All cases occurred in elderly individuals (63, 77, and 65 years old; one male, two females) without obvious immunedeficiency, who presented with high stage disease. Lymph nodes showed an effaced nodular architecture with abnormal B follicles colonized by EBV+ large, pleomorphic atypical cells, including Reed-Sternberg-like cells, showing an activated B cell phenotype (CD10-FOXP1-Bcl6-IRF4+ or CD10-FOXP1+Bcl6+IRF4+) and intense expression of CD30. No monoclonal light-chain restriction was detected by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization, and IGH rearrangement was polyclonal; notably, EBV clonality was detectable in one case. Lymphoma cells in all cases showed diffuse expression of the c-Myc protein, while Bcl2 was dim or negative; moreover, the strong expression of phosphorylated-STAT3 in tumor cell nuclei suggested activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. FISH analysis was performed in two cases and showed no translocations of BCL2, BCL6, MYC, and PAX5 genes. Response to treatment was poor in 2/3 patients: one died after 18 months, one is alive with disease after 12 months. The intrafollicular EBV-positive large B cell lymphoma expands the spectrum of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompetent individuals. PMID:26762526

  9. MRI phenotypes with high neurodegeneration are associated with peripheral blood B-cell changes.

    PubMed

    Comabella, Manuel; Cantó, Ester; Nurtdinov, Ramil; Río, Jordi; Villar, Luisa M; Picón, Carmen; Castilló, Joaquín; Fissolo, Nicolás; Aymerich, Xavier; Auger, Cristina; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier

    2016-01-15

    Little is known about the mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of peripheral blood cells in this neurodegenerative component. We aimed to correlate brain radiological phenotypes defined by high and low neurodegeneration with gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from MS patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 64 patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were classified into radiological phenotypes characterized by low (N = 27) and high (N = 37) neurodegeneration according to the number of contrast-enhancing lesions, the relative volume of non-enhancing black holes on T1-weighted images, and the brain parenchymal fraction. Gene expression profiling was determined in PBMC using microarrays, and validation of selected genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). B-cell immunophenotyping was conducted by flow cytometry. Microarray analysis revealed the B-cell specific genes FCRL1, FCRL2, FCRL5 (Fc receptor-like 1, 2 and 5 respectively), and CD22 as the top differentially expressed genes between patients with high and low neurodegeneration. Levels for these genes were significantly down-regulated in PBMC from patients with MRI phenotypes characterized by high neurodegeneration and microarray findings were validated by PCR. In patients with high neurodegeneration, immunophenotyping showed a significant increase in the expression of the B-cell activation markers CD80 in naïve B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27-/IgD+), unswitched memory B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27+/IgD+), and switched memory B cells (CD45+/CD19+/CD27+/IgD-), and CD86 in naïve and switched memory B cells. These results suggest that RRMS patients with radiological phenotypes showing high neurodegeneration have changes in B cells characterized by down-regulation of B-cell-specific genes and increased activation status. PMID:26604134

  10. Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in early mouse B cells are mediated by B cell- and Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jin-Hwan; Akira, Shizuo; Calame, Kathryn; Beutler, Bruce; Selsing, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Summary Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for immunoglobulin (Ig) gene class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and somatic hyperconversion. In general high levels of AID expression are found in mature B cells responding to antigens. However, AID expression and SHM have also been detected in developing B cells from transgenic mice that have a limited Ig repertoire. Here we demonstrate that AID expression and active CSR/SHM occur in developing B cells from wild-type mice. Further, our results suggest that somatic variants arising from developing B cells in the bone marrow further diversify in the spleen of unimmunized mice. AID expression in developing B cells is T-cell independent but involves engagement of B cell and Toll-like receptors. Early AID expression can increase the pre-immune repertoire of developing B cells, may provide an innate population of IgG- and IgA-expressing cells, and could be involved in receptor-editing of self-reactive immature B cells. PMID:17658280

  11. Climate-Driven Reshuffling of Species and Genes: Potential Conservation Roles for Species Translocations and Recombinant Hybrid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Scriber, Jon Mark

    2013-01-01

    Comprising 50%–75% of the world’s fauna, insects are a prominent part of biodiversity in communities and ecosystems globally. Biodiversity across all levels of biological classifications is fundamentally based on genetic diversity. However, the integration of genomics and phylogenetics into conservation management may not be as rapid as climate change. The genetics of hybrid introgression as a source of novel variation for ecological divergence and evolutionary speciation (and resilience) may generate adaptive potential and diversity fast enough to respond to locally-altered environmental conditions. Major plant and herbivore hybrid zones with associated communities deserve conservation consideration. This review addresses functional genetics across multi-trophic-level interactions including “invasive species” in various ecosystems as they may become disrupted in different ways by rapid climate change. “Invasive genes” (into new species and populations) need to be recognized for their positive creative potential and addressed in conservation programs. “Genetic rescue” via hybrid translocations may provide needed adaptive flexibility for rapid adaptation to environmental change. While concerns persist for some conservationists, this review emphasizes the positive aspects of hybrids and hybridization. Specific implications of natural genetic introgression are addressed with a few examples from butterflies, including transgressive phenotypes and climate-driven homoploid recombinant hybrid speciation. Some specific examples illustrate these points using the swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae) with their long-term historical data base (phylogeographical diversity changes) and recent (3-decade) climate-driven temporal and genetic divergence in recombinant homoploid hybrids and relatively recent hybrid speciation of Papilio appalachiensis in North America. Climate-induced “reshuffling” (recombinations) of species composition, genotypes, and genomes may become increasingly ecologically and evolutionarily predictable, but future conservation management programs are more likely to remain constrained by human behavior than by lack of academic knowledge. PMID:26462579

  12. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22)(q24.13;q11.21) in a young girl with dysgerminoma

    PubMed Central

    Gimelli, Stefania; Beri, Silvana; Drabkin, Harry A; Gambini, Claudio; Gregorio, Andrea; Fiorio, Patrizia; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Gemmill, Robert M; Giorda, Roberto; Gimelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC) and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22) in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR) involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN), a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA. PMID:19642973

  13. Brg1 activates enhancer repertoires to establish B cell identity and modulate cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Bossen, Claudia; Murre, Caroline S; Chang, Aaron N; Mansson, Robert; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Murre, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Early B cell development is orchestrated by the combined activities of the transcriptional regulators E2A, EBF1, Foxo1 and Ikaros. However, how the genome-wide binding patterns of these regulators are modulated during B-lineage development remains to be determined. Here, we found that in lymphoid progenitors the chromatin remodeler Brg1 specified the B cell fate. In committed pro-B cells Brg1 regulated Igh locus contraction and controlled Myc expression to modulate the expression of genes that regulate ribosome biogenesis. In committed pro-B cells Brg1 suppressed a pre-B lineage-specific pattern of gene expression. Finally, we found that Brg1 acted mechanistically to establish B cell fate and modulate cell growth by facilitating access of lineage-specific transcription factors to poised enhancer repertoires. PMID:25985234

  14. B cell lymphoma and myeloma in murine Gaucher's disease.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, E V; Wang, S Z; Archer, J; Dekker, N; Aerts, J M F G; Karlsson, S; Cox, T M

    2013-09-01

    Multiple myeloma and B cell lymphoma are leading causes of death in Gaucher's disease but the nature of the stimulus driving the often noted clonal expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting B cells and cognate lymphoid malignancy is unknown. We investigated the long-term development of B cell malignancies in an authentic model of non-neuronopathic Gaucher's disease in mice: selective deficiency of β-glucocerebrosidase in haematopoietic cells [Gba(tm1Karl/tm1Karl)Tg(Mx1-cre)1Cgn/0, with excision of exons 9-11 of the murine GBA1 gene, is induced by poly[I:C]. Mice with Gaucher's disease showed visceral storage of β-glucosylceramide and greatly elevated plasma β-glucosylsphingosine [median 57.9 (range 19.8-159) nm; n = 39] compared with control mice from the same strain [median 0.56 (range 0.04-1.38) nm; n = 29] (p < 0.0001). Sporadic fatal B cell lymphomas developed in 11 of 21 GD mice (6-24 months) but only two of eight control animals developed tumours by age 24 months. Unexpectedly, most mice with overt lymphoma had absent or few Gaucher cells but local inflammatory macrophages were present. Eleven of 39 of Gaucher mice developed monoclonal gammopathy, but in the control group only one animal of 25 had clonal immunoglobulin abnormalities. Seven of 10 of the B cell lymphomas were found to secrete a monoclonal paraprotein and the lymphomas stained intensely for pan-B cell markers; reactive T lymphocytes were also present in tumour tissue. In the Gaucher mouse strain, it was notable that, as in patients with this disease, CD138(+) plasma cells frequently surrounded splenic macrophages engorged with glycosphingolipid. Our strain of mice, with inducible deficiency of β-glucocerebrosidase in haematopoietic cells and a high frequency of sporadic lethal B cell malignancies, faithfully recapitulates human Gaucher's disease: it serves as a tractable model to investigate the putative role of bioactive sphingolipids in the control of B cell proliferation and the pathogenesis of myelomatosis-the most prevalent human cancer associated with this disorder. PMID:23775597

  15. B Cell Linker Protein (BLNK) Is a Selective Target of Repression by PAX5-PML Protein in the Differentiation Block That Leads to the Development of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Naoto; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Kurahashi, Shingo; Morishita, Takanobu; Kojima, Yuki; Yasuda, Takahiko; Sugimoto, Keiki; Tsuzuki, Shinobu; Naoe, Tomoki; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2016-02-26

    PAX5 is a transcription factor that is required for the development and maintenance of B cells. Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) is a tumor suppressor and proapoptotic factor. The fusion gene PAX5-PML has been identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chromosomal translocation t(9;15)(p13;q24). We have reported previously that PAX5-PML dominant-negatively inhibited PAX5 transcriptional activity and impaired PML function by disrupting PML nuclear bodies (NBs). Here we demonstrated the leukemogenicity of PAX5-PML by introducing it into normal mouse pro-B cells. Arrest of differentiation was observed in PAX5-PML-introduced pro-B cells, resulting in the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia after a long latency in mice. Among the transactivation targets of PAX5, B cell linker protein (BLNK) was repressed selectively in leukemia cells, and enforced BLNK expression abrogated the differentiation block and survival induced by PAX5-PML, indicating the importance of BLNK repression for the formation of preleukemic state. We also showed that PML NBs were intact in leukemia cells and attributed this to the low expression of PAX5-PML, indicating that the disruption of PML NBs was not required for the PAX5-PML-induced onset of leukemia. These results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of leukemia by PAX5 mutations. PMID:26703467

  16. A new recurrent and specific cryptic translocation, t(5;14)(q35;q32), is associated with expression of the Hox11L2 gene in T acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O A; Busson-LeConiat, M; Ballerini, P; Mauchauffé, M; Della Valle, V; Monni, R; Nguyen Khac, F; Mercher, T; Penard-Lacronique, V; Pasturaud, P; Gressin, L; Heilig, R; Daniel, M T; Lessard, M; Berger, R

    2001-10-01

    FISH identified a cryptic t(5;14)(q35;q32) in T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), whereas it was not observed in B ALL samples. This translocation is present in five out of 23 (22%) children and adolescents with T ALL tested. RanBP17, a gene coding for a member of the importin beta protein family, and Hox11Like2, an orphan homeobox gene were mapped close to the chromosome 5 breakpoints and CTIP2, which is highly expressed during normal T cell differentiation, was localized in the vicinity of the chromosome 14 breakpoints. The Hox11L2 gene was found to be transcriptionally activated as a result of the translocation, probably under the influence of CTIP2 transcriptional regulation elements. These data establish the t(5;14)(q35;q32) as a major abnormality, and Hox11 family member activation as an important pathway in T ALL leukemogenesis. PMID:11587205

  17. Role of Calcium Signaling in B Cell Activation and Biology.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Increase in intracellular levels of calcium ions (Ca2+) is one of the key triggering signals for the development of B cell response to the antigen. The diverse Ca2+ signals finely controlled by multiple factors participate in the regulation of gene expression, B cell development, and effector functions. B cell receptor (BCR)-initiated Ca2+ mobilization is sourced from two pathways: one is the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and other is the prolonged influx of extracellular Ca2+ induced by depleting the stores via store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The identification of stromal interaction molecule 1(STIM1), the ER Ca2+ sensor, and Orai1, a key subunit of the CRAC channel pore, has now provided the tools to understand the mode of Ca2+ influx regulation and physiological relevance. Herein, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BCR-triggered Ca2+ signaling as well as its contribution to the B cell biological processes and diseases. PMID:26369772

  18. The B-cell identity factor Pax5 regulates distinct transcriptional programmes in early and late B lymphopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Revilla-i-Domingo, Roger; Bilic, Ivan; Vilagos, Bojan; Tagoh, Hiromi; Ebert, Anja; Tamir, Ido M; Smeenk, Leonie; Trupke, Johanna; Sommer, Andreas; Jaritz, Markus; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2012-01-01

    Pax5 controls the identity and development of B cells by repressing lineage-inappropriate genes and activating B-cell-specific genes. Here, we used genome-wide approaches to identify Pax5 target genes in pro-B and mature B cells. In these cell types, Pax5 bound to 40% of the cis-regulatory elements defined by mapping DNase I hypersensitive (DHS) sites, transcription start sites and histone modifications. Although Pax5 bound to 8000 target genes, it regulated only 4% of them in pro-B and mature B cells by inducing enhancers at activated genes and eliminating DHS sites at repressed genes. Pax5-regulated genes in pro-B cells account for 23% of all expression changes occurring between common lymphoid progenitors and committed pro-B cells, which identifies Pax5 as an important regulator of this developmental transition. Regulated Pax5 target genes minimally overlap in pro-B and mature B cells, which reflects massive expression changes between these cell types. Hence, Pax5 controls B-cell identity and function by regulating distinct target genes in early and late B lymphopoiesis. PMID:22669466

  19. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

    PubMed Central

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3Ks in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  20. Genetic manipulation of B cells for the isolation of rare therapeutic antibodies from the human repertoire.

    PubMed

    Kwakkenbos, Mark J; Bakker, Arjen Q; van Helden, Pauline M; Wagner, Koen; Yasuda, Etsuko; Spits, Hergen; Beaumont, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Antibody based therapies are increasingly applied to prevent and treat human disease. While the majority of antibodies currently on the market are chimeric or humanized antibodies from rodents, the focus has now shifted to the isolation and development of fully human antibodies. By retroviral transduction of B cell lymphoma-6 (BCL-6), which prevents terminal differentiation of B cells and, the anti-apoptotic gene B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) into primary human B cells we efficiently immortalize antibody-producing B cells allowing the isolation of therapeutic antibodies. Selection of antigen-specific B cell clones was greatly facilitated because the transduced B cells retain surface immunoglobulin expression and secrete immunoglobulin into the culture supernatant. Surface immunoglobulin expression can be utilized to stain and isolate antigen specific B cell clones with labeled antigen. Immunoglobulins secreted in culture supernatant can directly be tested in functional assays to identify unique B cell clones. Here we describe the key features of our Bcl-6/Bcl-xL culture platform (AIMSelect). PMID:23867338

  1. Transcriptional profiling of antigen-dependent murine B cell differentiation and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Deepta; Cheah, Ming T; Franco, Christopher B; Hosen, Naoki; Pin, Christopher L; Sha, William C; Weissman, Irving L

    2007-11-15

    Humoral immunity is characterized by the generation of Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells that can more rapidly generate specific Abs upon Ag exposure than their naive counterparts. To determine the intrinsic differences that distinguish naive and memory B cells and to identify pathways that allow germinal center B cells to differentiate into memory B cells, we compared the transcriptional profiles of highly purified populations of these three cell types along with plasma cells isolated from mice immunized with a T-dependent Ag. The transcriptional profile of memory B cells is similar to that of naive B cells, yet displays several important differences, including increased expression of activation-induced deaminase and several antiapoptotic genes, chemotactic receptors, and costimulatory molecules. Retroviral expression of either Klf2 or Ski, two transcriptional regulators specifically enriched in memory B cells relative to their germinal center precursors, imparted a competitive advantage to Ag receptor and CD40-engaged B cells in vitro. These data suggest that humoral recall responses are more rapid than primary responses due to the expression of a unique transcriptional program by memory B cells that allows them to both be maintained at high frequencies and to detect and rapidly respond to antigenic re-exposure. PMID:17982071

  2. Influence of gut microbiota on mouse B2 B cell ontogeny and function.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Jenny; Bosco, Nabil; Favre, Laurent; Raymond, Frederic; Oliveira, Manuel; Metairon, Sylviane; Mansourian, Robert; Blum, Stephanie; Kussmann, Martin; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2011-05-01

    A complex interplay between the microbiota and the host immune system is evidenced to shape the immune system throughout life, but little is known about the microbial effect on key players of the adaptive immune system, the B2 B cells. In the presented study, we have evaluated the effect of commensal bacteria on B cell ontogeny and function, with the focus on B2 B cells of spleen and Peyer's patches. We have compared germ-free mice to mice that are exposed to a normal complex bacterial community from the day of birth and combined classical immunological assessment with advanced genome-wide expression profiling. Despite a preservation of all B cell subsets and phenotype, our results show that microbiota strongly impact mucosal B cell physiology and lead to higher serum Ig concentrations. We show that this microbial influence comprises downregulation of transcription factors involved in early B cell activation steps and upregulation of genes and proteins involved in later stages of B cell response. In summary, we show an influence of the gut microbiota on function of mucosal B2 B cells, involving mechanisms downstream of B cell activation and proliferation. PMID:21367460

  3. Accumulation of peripheral autoreactive B cells in the absence of functional human regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kinnunen, Tuure; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Morbach, Henner; Choi, Jinyoung; Kim, Sangtaek; Craft, Joseph; Mayer, Lloyd; Cancrini, Caterina; Passerini, Laura; Bacchetta, Rosa; Ochs, Hans D.; Torgerson, Troy R.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene, which encodes a transcription factor critical for Treg function, result in a severe autoimmune disorder and the production of various autoantibodies in mice and in IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) patients. However, it is unknown whether Tregs normally suppress autoreactive B cells. To investigate a role for Tregs in maintaining human B-cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells isolated from IPEX patients. Characteristics and reactivity of antibodies expressed by new emigrant/transitional B cells from IPEX patients were similar to those from healthy donors, demonstrating that defective Treg function does not impact central B-cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from IPEX patients often expressed autoreactive antibodies, suggesting an important role for Tregs in maintaining peripheral B-cell tolerance. T cells displayed an activated phenotype in IPEX patients, including their Treg-like cells, and showed up-regulation of CD40L, PD-1, and inducibl T-cell costimulator (ICOS), which may favor the accumulation of autoreactive mature naive B cells in these patients. Hence, our data demonstrate an essential role for Tregs in the establishment and the maintenance of peripheral B-cell tolerance in humans. PMID:23223361

  4. Accumulation of peripheral autoreactive B cells in the absence of functional human regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Tuure; Chamberlain, Nicolas; Morbach, Henner; Choi, Jinyoung; Kim, Sangtaek; Craft, Joseph; Mayer, Lloyd; Cancrini, Caterina; Passerini, Laura; Bacchetta, Rosa; Ochs, Hans D; Torgerson, Troy R; Meffre, Eric

    2013-02-28

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in the forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) gene, which encodes a transcription factor critical for Treg function, result in a severe autoimmune disorder and the production of various autoantibodies in mice and in IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) patients. However, it is unknown whether Tregs normally suppress autoreactive B cells. To investigate a role for Tregs in maintaining human B-cell tolerance, we tested the reactivity of recombinant antibodies isolated from single B cells isolated from IPEX patients. Characteristics and reactivity of antibodies expressed by new emigrant/transitional B cells from IPEX patients were similar to those from healthy donors, demonstrating that defective Treg function does not impact central B-cell tolerance. In contrast, mature naive B cells from IPEX patients often expressed autoreactive antibodies, suggesting an important role for Tregs in maintaining peripheral B-cell tolerance. T cells displayed an activated phenotype in IPEX patients, including their Treg-like cells, and showed up-regulation of CD40L, PD-1, and inducibl T-cell costimulator (ICOS), which may favor the accumulation of autoreactive mature naive B cells in these patients. Hence, our data demonstrate an essential role for Tregs in the establishment and the maintenance of peripheral B-cell tolerance in humans. PMID:23223361

  5. miR-150 regulates obesity-associated insulin resistance by controlling B cell functions

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wei; Tseng, Alexander; Chang, Richard Cheng-An; Wang, Haiqing; Lin, Yu-lieh; Kanameni, Srikanth; Brehm, Tyler; Morin, Andrew; Jones, Benjamin; Splawn, Taylor; Criscitiello, Michael; Golding, Michael C.; Bazer, Fuller W.; Safe, Stephen; Zhou, Beiyan

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue resident B cells account for more than 20% of stromal cells within visceral adipose tissues; however, their functions in the adipose tissue niche are poorly elucidated. Here we report that miR-150 modulates adipose tissue function by controlling activation of B cells and their interactions with other immune cells. miR-150KO mice displayed exacerbated obesity-associated tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance, which is recapitulated by adoptive transfer of B cells, but not purified immunoglobulin, into obese Bnull mice. Using purified cell populations, we found that enhanced proinflammatory activation of adipose tissue T cells and macrophages was due to miR-150KO B cells action but not cell-autologous mechanisms. miR-150KO B cells displayed significantly enhanced antigen presentation upon stimulation, ultimately leading to elevated inflammation and insulin resistance, compared to wild type B cells. Knockdown of identified miR-150 target genes, Elk1, Etf1 or Myb attenuated B cell action by altering B cell receptor pathways and MHCII cell surface presentation. Our results demonstrate a critical role for miR-150 in regulating B cell functions in adipose tissue which ultimately regulate both metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the adipose tissue niche. PMID:26833392

  6. PI3K Signaling in Normal B Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).

    PubMed

    Okkenhaug, Klaus; Burger, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    B cells provide immunity to extracellular pathogens by secreting a diverse repertoire of antibodies with high affinity and specificity for exposed antigens. The B cell receptor (BCR) is a transmembrane antibody, which facilitates the clonal selection of B cells producing secreted antibodies of the same specificity. The diverse antibody repertoire is generated by V(D)J recombination of heavy and light chain genes, whereas affinity maturation is mediated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated mutagenesis. These processes, which are essential for the generation of adaptive humoral immunity, also render B cells susceptible to chromosomal rearrangements and point mutations that in some cases lead to cancer. In this chapter, we will review the central role of PI3K s in mediating signals from the B cell receptor that not only facilitate the development of functional B cell repertoire, but also support the growth and survival of neoplastic B cells, focusing on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. Perhaps because of the central role played by PI3K in BCR signaling, B cell leukemia and lymphomas are the first diseases for which a PI3K inhibitor has been approved for clinical use. PMID:26350103

  7. B Cells and Autoantibodies in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pröbstel, Anne-Katrin; Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Derfuss, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    While over the past decades T cells have been considered key players in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), it has only recently become evident that B cells have a major contributing role. Our understanding of the role of B cells has evolved substantially following the clinical success of B cell-targeting therapies and increasing experimental evidence for significant B cell involvement. Rather than mere antibody-producing cells, it is becoming clear that they are team players with the capacity to prime and regulate T cells, and function both as pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. However, despite tremendous efforts, the target antigen(s) of B cells in MS have yet to be identified. The first part of this review summarizes the clinical evidence and results from animal studies pointing to the relevance of B cells in the pathogenesis of MS. The second part gives an overview of the currently known potential autoantigen targets. The third part recapitulates and critically appraises the currently available B cell-directed therapies. PMID:26197319

  8. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Erin K.; Schrader, Carol E.; Stavnezer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq). We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID. PMID:26263206

  9. Requirement for Transcription Factor Ets1 in B Cell Tolerance to Self-Antigens.

    PubMed

    Russell, Lisa; John, Shinu; Cullen, Jaime; Luo, Wei; Shlomchik, Mark J; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann

    2015-10-15

    The differentiation and survival of autoreactive B cells is normally limited by a variety of self-tolerance mechanisms, including clonal deletion, anergy, and clonal ignorance. The transcription factor c-ets-1 (encoded by the Ets1 gene) has B cell-intrinsic roles in regulating formation of Ab-secreting cells by controlling the activity of Blimp1 and Pax5 and may be required for B cell tolerance to self-antigen. To test this, we crossed Ets1(-/-) mice to two different transgenic models of B cell self-reactivity, the anti-hen egg lysozyme BCR transgenic strain and the AM14 rheumatoid factor transgenic strain. BCR transgenic Ets1(-/-) mice were subsequently crossed to mice either carrying or lacking relevant autoantigens. We found that B cells lacking c-ets-1 are generally hyperresponsive in terms of Ab secretion and form large numbers of Ab-secreting cells even in the absence of cognate Ags. When in the presence of cognate Ag, different responses were noted depending on the physical characteristics of the Ag. We found that clonal deletion of highly autoreactive B cells in the bone marrow was intact in the absence of c-ets-1. However, peripheral B cells lacking c-ets-1 failed to become tolerant in response to stimuli that normally induce B cell anergy or B cell clonal ignorance. Interestingly, high-affinity soluble self-antigen did cause B cells to adopt many of the classical features of anergic B cells, although such cells still secreted Ab. Therefore, maintenance of appropriate c-ets-1 levels is essential to prevent loss of self-tolerance in the B cell compartment. PMID:26355157

  10. Insertional translocation leading to a 4q13 duplication including the EPHA5 gene in two siblings with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matoso, Eunice; Melo, Joana B; Ferreira, Susana I; Jardim, Ana; Castelo, Teresa M; Weise, Anja; Carreira, Isabel M

    2013-08-01

    An insertional translocation (IT) can result in pure segmental aneusomy for the inserted genomic segment allowing to define a more accurate clinical phenotype. Here, we report on two siblings sharing an unbalanced IT inherited from the mother with a history of learning difficulty. An 8-year-old girl with developmental delay, speech disability, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed by GTG banding analysis a subtle interstitial alteration in 21q21. Oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis showed a 4q13.1-q13.3 duplication spanning 8.6 Mb. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones confirmed the rearrangement, a der(21)ins(21;4)(q21;q13.1q13.3). The duplication described involves 50 RefSeq genes including the EPHA5 gene that encodes for the EphA5 receptor involved in embryonic development of the brain and also in synaptic remodeling and plasticity thought to underlie learning and memory. The same rearrangement was observed in a younger brother with behavioral problems and also exhibiting ADHD. ADHD is among the most heritable of neuropsychiatric disorders. There are few reports of patients with duplications involving the proximal region of 4q and a mild phenotype. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a duplication restricted to band 4q13. This abnormality could be easily missed in children who have nonspecific cognitive impairment. The presence of this behavioral disorder in the two siblings reinforces the hypothesis that the region involved could include genes involved in ADHD. PMID:23824631

  11. Clinicopathologic Characterization of Diffuse-Large-B-Cell Lymphoma with an Associated Serum Monoclonal IgM Component

    PubMed Central

    Scarpino, Stefania; Salerno, Gerardo; Tatarelli, Caterina; Talerico, Caterina; Lombardi, Mariangela; Monarca, Bruno; Amadori, Sergio; Ruco, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, diffuse-large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) associated with serum IgM monoclonal component (MC) has been shown to be a very poor prognostic subset although, detailed pathological and molecular data are still lacking. In the present study, the clinicopathological features and survival of IgM-secreting DLBCL were analyzed and compared to non-secreting cases in a series of 151 conventional DLBCL treated with R-CHOP. IgM MC was detected in 19 (12.5%) out of 151 patients at disease onset. In 17 of these cases secretion was likely due to the neoplastic clone, as suggested by the expression of heavy chain IgM protein in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. In IgM-secreting cases immunoblastic features (p<.0001), non-GCB-type (p = .002) stage III-IV(p = .003), ≥2 extra nodal sites (p<.0001), bone-marrow (p = .002), central-nervous-system (CNS) involvement at disease onset or relapse (p<.0001), IPI-score 3–5 (p = .009) and failure to achieve complete remission (p = .005), were significantly more frequent. FISH analyses for BCL2, BCL6 and MYC gene rearrangements detected only two cases harboring BCL2 gene translocation and in one case a concomitant BCL6 gene translocation was also observed. None of the IgM-secreting DLBCL was found to have L265P mutation of MYD88 gene. Thirty-six month event-free (11.8% vs 66.4% p<.0001), progression-free (23.5% vs 75.7%, p<.0001) and overall (47.1% vs 74.8%, p<.0001) survivals were significantly worse in the IgM-secreting group. In multivariate analysis IgM-secreting (p = .005, expB = 0.339, CI = 0.160-0.716) and IPI-score 3–5 (p = .010, expB = 0.274, CI = 0.102–0.737) were the only significant factors for progression-free-survival. Notably, four relapsed patients, who were treated with salvage immmunochemotherapy combined with bortezomib or lenalidomide, achieved lasting remission. Our data suggests that IgM-secreting cases are a distinct subset of DLBCL, originating from activated-B-cells with terminally differentiated features, prevalent extra nodal dissemination and at high risk of CNS involvement. PMID:24705344

  12. Selected Lactic Acid-Producing Bacterial Isolates with the Capacity to Reduce Salmonella Translocation and Virulence Gene Expression in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaojian; Brisbin, Jennifer; Yu, Hai; Wang, Qi; Yin, Fugui; Zhang, Yonggang; Sabour, Parviz; Sharif, Shayan; Gong, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Probiotics have been used to control Salmonella colonization/infection in chickens. Yet the mechanisms of probiotic effects are not fully understood. This study has characterized our previously-selected lactic acid-producing bacterial (LAB) isolates for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens, particularly the mechanism underlying the control. Methodology/Principal Findings In vitro studies were conducted to characterize 14 LAB isolates for their tolerance to low pH (2.0) and high bile salt (0.3–1.5%) and susceptibility to antibiotics. Three chicken infection trials were subsequently carried out to evaluate four of the isolates for reducing the burden of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the broiler cecum. Chicks were gavaged with LAB cultures (106–7 CFU/chick) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 1 day of age followed by Salmonella challenge (104 CFU/chick) next day. Samples of cecal digesta, spleen, and liver were examined for Salmonella counts on days 1, 3, or 4 post-challenge. Salmonella in the cecum from Trial 3 was also assessed for the expression of ten virulence genes located in its pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1). These genes play a role in Salmonella intestinal invasion. Tested LAB isolates (individuals or mixed cultures) were unable to lower Salmonella burden in the chicken cecum, but able to attenuate Salmonella infection in the spleen and liver. The LAB treatments also reduced almost all SPI-1 virulence gene expression (9 out of 10) in the chicken cecum, particularly at the low dose. In vitro treatment with the extracellular culture fluid from a LAB culture also down-regulated most SPI-1 virulence gene expression. Conclusions/Significance The possible correlation between attenuation of Salmonella infection in the chicken spleen and liver and reduction of Salmonella SPI-1 virulence gene expression in the chicken cecum by LAB isolates is a new observation. Suppression of Salmonella virulence gene expression in vivo can be one of the strategies for controlling Salmonella infection in chickens. PMID:24728092

  13. Deregulated BCL6 expression recapitulates the pathogenesis of human diffuse large B cell lymphomas in mice.

    PubMed

    Cattoretti, Giorgio; Pasqualucci, Laura; Ballon, Gianna; Tam, Wayne; Nandula, Subhadra V; Shen, Qiong; Mo, Tongwei; Murty, Vundavalli V; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2005-05-01

    Diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) derive from germinal center (GC) B cells and display chromosomal alterations deregulating the expression of BCL6, a transcriptional repressor required for GC formation. To investigate the role of BCL6 in DLBCL pathogenesis, we have engineered mice that express BCL6 constitutively in B cells by mimicking a chromosomal translocation found in human DLBCL. These mice display increased GC formation and perturbed post-GC differentiation characterized by a decreased number of post-isotype switch plasma cells. Subsequently, these mice develop a lymphoproliferative syndrome that culminates with the development of lymphomas displaying features typical of human DLBCL. These results define the oncogenic role of BCL6 in the pathogenesis of DLBCL and provide a faithful mouse model of this common disease. PMID:15894265

  14. Whole-genome fingerprint of the DNA methylome during human B cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Marta; Merkel, Angelika; Heath, Simon; Queirós, Ana C; Schuyler, Ronald P; Castellano, Giancarlo; Beekman, Renée; Raineri, Emanuele; Esteve, Anna; Clot, Guillem; Verdaguer-Dot, Néria; Duran-Ferrer, Martí; Russiñol, Nuria; Vilarrasa-Blasi, Roser; Ecker, Simone; Pancaldi, Vera; Rico, Daniel; Agueda, Lidia; Blanc, Julie; Richardson, David; Clarke, Laura; Datta, Avik; Pascual, Marien; Agirre, Xabier; Prosper, Felipe; Alignani, Diego; Paiva, Bruno; Caron, Gersende; Fest, Thierry; Muench, Marcus O; Fomin, Marina E; Lee, Seung-Tae; Wiemels, Joseph L; Valencia, Alfonso; Gut, Marta; Flicek, Paul; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Siebert, Reiner; Küppers, Ralf; Gut, Ivo G; Campo, Elías; Martín-Subero, José I

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed the DNA methylome of ten subpopulations spanning the entire B cell differentiation program by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing and high-density microarrays. We observed that non-CpG methylation disappeared upon B cell commitment, whereas CpG methylation changed extensively during B cell maturation, showing an accumulative pattern and affecting around 30% of all measured CpG sites. Early differentiation stages mainly displayed enhancer demethylation, which was associated with upregulation of key B cell transcription factors and affected multiple genes involved in B cell biology. Late differentiation stages, in contrast, showed extensive demethylation of heterochromatin and methylation gain at Polycomb-repressed areas, and genes with apparent functional impact in B cells were not affected. This signature, which has previously been linked to aging and cancer, was particularly widespread in mature cells with an extended lifespan. Comparing B cell neoplasms with their normal counterparts, we determined that they frequently acquire methylation changes in regions already undergoing dynamic methylation during normal B cell differentiation. PMID:26053498

  15. PDK1 regulates VDJ recombination, cell-cycle exit and survival during B-cell development.

    PubMed

    Venigalla, Ram K C; McGuire, Victoria A; Clarke, Rosemary; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Najafov, Ayaz; Toth, Rachel; McCarthy, Pierre C; Simeons, Frederick; Stojanovski, Laste; Arthur, J Simon C

    2013-04-01

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) controls the activation of a subset of AGC kinases. Using a conditional knockout of PDK1 in haematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that PDK1 is essential for B cell development. B-cell progenitors lacking PDK1 arrested at the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells, due to a cell autonomous defect. Loss of PDK1 decreased the expression of the IgH chain in pro-B cells due to impaired recombination of the IgH distal variable segments, a process coordinated by the transcription factor Pax5. The expression of Pax5 in pre-B cells was decreased in PDK1 knockouts, which correlated with reduced expression of the Pax5 target genes IRF4, IRF8 and Aiolos. As a result, Ccnd3 is upregulated in PDK1 knockout pre-B cells and they have an impaired ability to undergo cell-cycle arrest, a necessary event for Ig light chain rearrangement. Instead, these cells underwent apoptosis that correlated with diminished expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2A1. Reintroduction of both Pax5 and Bcl2A1 together into PDK1 knockout pro-B cells restored their ability to differentiate in vitro into mature B cells. PMID:23463102

  16. Evolution of a pentameral body plan was not linked to translocation of anterior Hox genes: the echinoderm HOX cluster revisited.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Maria; Martinez, Pedro; Morris, Valerie

    2016-03-01

    Echinodermata is a large phylum of marine invertebrates characterized by an adult, pentameral body plan. This morphology is clearly derived as all members of Deuterostomia (the superphylum to which they belong) have a bilateral body plan. The origin of the pentameral plan has been the subject of intense debate. It is clear that the ancestor of Echinodermata had a bilateral plan but how this ancestor transformed its body "architecture" in such a drastic manner is not clear. Data from the fossil record and ontogeny are sparse and, so far, not very informative. The sequencing of the sea urchin genome a decade ago opened the possibility that the pentameral body plan was a consequence of a broken Hox cluster and a series of papers dwelt on the putative relationship between Hox gene arrangements in the chromosomes and the origin of pentamery. This relationship, sound as it was, is challenged by the revelation that the sea star HOX cluster is, in fact, intact, thus falsifying the hypothesis of a direct relationship between HOX cluster arrangement and the origin of the pentameral body plan. Here, we explore the relationship between Hox gene arrangements and echinoderm body "architecture," the expression of Hox genes in development and alternative scenarios for the origin of pentamery, with putative roles for signaling centers in generating multiple axes. PMID:26763653

  17. Cernunnos influences human immunoglobulin class switch recombination and may be associated with B cell lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Du, Likun; Peng, Roujun; Björkman, Andrea; Filipe de Miranda, Noel; Rosner, Cornelia; Kotnis, Ashwin; Berglund, Mattias; Liu, Chonghai; Rosenquist, Richard; Enblad, Gunilla; Sundström, Christer; Hojjat-Farsangi, Mohammad; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Teixeira, Manuel R; Revy, Patrick; Durandy, Anne; Zeng, Yixin; Gennery, Andrew R; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang

    2012-02-13

    Cernunnos is involved in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) process during DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we studied immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch recombination (CSR), a physiological process which relies on proper repair of the DSBs, in B cells from Cernunnos-deficient patients. The pattern of in vivo generated CSR junctions is altered in these cells, with unusually long microhomologies and a lack of direct end-joining. The CSR junctions from Cernunnos-deficient patients largely resemble those from patients lacking DNA ligase IV, Artemis, or ATM, suggesting that these factors are involved in the same end-joining pathway during CSR. By screening 269 mature B cell lymphoma biopsies, we also identified a somatic missense Cernunnos mutation in a diffuse large B cell lymphoma sample. This mutation has a dominant-negative effect on joining of a subset of DNA ends in an in vitro NHEJ assay. Translocations involving both Ig heavy chain loci and clonal-like, dynamic IgA switching activities were observed in this tumor. Collectively, our results suggest a link between defects in the Cernunnos-dependent NHEJ pathway and aberrant CSR or switch translocations during the development of B cell malignancies. PMID:22312109

  18. Programming of marginal zone B-cell fate by basic Kruppel-like factor (BKLF/KLF3).

    PubMed

    Turchinovich, Gleb; Vu, Thi Thanh; Frommer, Friederike; Kranich, Jan; Schmid, Sonja; Alles, Melanie; Loubert, Jean-Baptiste; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Schneider, Pascal; Bachl, Jürgen; Pearson, Richard; Crossley, Merlin; Agenès, Fabien; Kirberg, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells are a lineage distinct from follicular and peritoneal B1 B cells. They are located next to the marginal sinus where blood is released. Here they pick up antigens and shuttle the load onto follicular dendritic cells inside the follicle. On activation, MZ B cells rapidly differentiate into plasmablasts secreting antibodies, thereby mediating humoral immune responses against blood-borne type 2 T-independent antigens. As Krüppel-like factors are implicated in cell differentiation/function in various tissues, we studied the function of basic Krüppel-like factor (BKLF/KLF3) in B cells. Whereas B-cell development in the bone marrow of KLF3-transgenic mice was unaffected, MZ B-cell numbers in spleen were increased considerably. As revealed in chimeric mice, this occurred cell autonomously, increasing both MZ and peritoneal B1 B-cell subsets. Comparing KLF3-transgenic and nontransgenic follicular B cells by RNA-microarray revealed that KLF3 regulates a subset of genes that was similarly up-regulated/down-regulated on normal MZ B-cell differentiation. Indeed, KLF3 expression overcame the lack of MZ B cells caused by different genetic alterations, such as CD19-deficiency or blockade of B-cell activating factor-receptor signaling, indicating that KLF3 may complement alternative nuclear factor-κB signaling. Thus, KLF3 is a driving force toward MZ B-cell maturation. PMID:21297003

  19. The oncoprotein LMO2 is expressed in normal germinal-center B cells and in human B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Natkunam, Yasodha; Zhao, Shuchun; Mason, David Y.; Chen, Jun; Taidi, Behnaz; Jones, Margaret; Hammer, Anne S.; Hamilton Dutoit, Stephen; Lossos, Izidore S.; Levy, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    We previously developed a multivariate model based on the RNA expression of 6 genes (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3, and BCL2) that predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Since LMO2 emerged as the strongest predictor of superior outcome, we generated a monoclonal anti-LMO2 antibody in order to study its tissue expression pattern. Immunohistologic analysis of over 1200 normal and neoplastic tissue and cell lines showed that LMO2 protein is expressed as a nuclear marker in normal germinal-center (GC) B cells and GC-derived B-cell lines and in a subset of GC-derived B-cell lymphomas. LMO2 was also expressed in erythroid and myeloid precursors and in megakaryocytes and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. It was rarely expressed in mature T, natural killer (NK), and plasma cell neoplasms and was absent from nonhematolymphoid tissues except for endothelial cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of immunohistologic data in DLBCL demonstrated that the expression profile of the LMO2 protein was similar to that of other GC-associated proteins (HGAL, BCL6, and CD10) but different from that of non-GC proteins (MUM1/IRF4 and BCL2). Our results warrant inclusion of LMO2 in multivariate analyses to construct a clinically applicable immunohistologic algorithm for predicting survival in patients with DLBCL. PMID:17038524

  20. The oncoprotein LMO2 is expressed in normal germinal-center B cells and in human B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Natkunam, Yasodha; Zhao, Shuchun; Mason, David Y; Chen, Jun; Taidi, Behnaz; Jones, Margaret; Hammer, Anne S; Hamilton Dutoit, Stephen; Lossos, Izidore S; Levy, Ronald

    2007-02-15

    We previously developed a multivariate model based on the RNA expression of 6 genes (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3, and BCL2) that predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Since LMO2 emerged as the strongest predictor of superio