Science.gov

Sample records for baby friendly hospital

  1. Mother-baby friendly hospital.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1996-01-01

    In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center. PMID:12347466

  2. Baby-friendly hospital: how to sustain?

    PubMed

    Kasemsarn, P; Ngarmpiyasakul, C; Phongpanich, S; Pulkasisri, N

    1995-07-01

    The campaign for exclusive breast-feeding in a baby-friendly hospital at Prapokklao Hospital, Chanthaburi was increased. The contributory factors was likely due to enforcement of early bonding and attachment, by rooming-in of infants in the materity ward. After cessation of comprehensive intervention exclusive breast-feeding dropped significantly but increased in predominant breast-feeding. This might be due to family influence with the suggestion to give water in addition to breast milk. Data shows that rooming-in is essential in the promotion of breast-feeding. A decreased of abandoned children indicates early bonding. To sustain a baby-friendly hospital, 10 steps to successful breast-feeding must be followed strictly. Intervention activities must be done continuously with cooperation of health providers at all levels. It is felt that breast-feeding should not be considered a maternal instinct but a new behavior that needs to be changed to a point that mothers adopt breast-feeding practices for 4 months after delivery. PMID:7658181

  3. Engaging Chicago hospitals in the baby-friendly hospital initiative.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Samantha L; Wych, Sadie; Willows, Catherine A; Harrington, Joseph; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Becker, Adam B

    2013-11-01

    Breastfeeding is now widely recognized as a vital obesity prevention strategy and hospitals play a primary role in promoting, supporting and helping mothers to initiate and maintain breastfeeding. The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) provides an evidence-based model that hospitals can use to plan and implement breastfeeding quality improvement (QI) projects. Funding under Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW), administered by the CDC, brought together key Chicago partners to provide individualized support and technical assistance with breastfeeding QI projects to the 19 maternity hospitals in Chicago. A community organizing approach was taken to mobilize hospital interest in breastfeeding QI projects, leading to successes, e.g. 12/19 (63 %) Chicago hospitals registered with Baby-Friendly USA, Inc. (BFUSA) to pursue official Baby-Friendly designation. Key factors that fostered this success included: involving all levels of hospital staff, financial incentives, and ongoing tailored technical assistance. To assist other communities in similar work, this article discusses the approach the project took to mobilize hospitals to improve breastfeeding support practices based on the BFHI, as well as successes and lessons learned. PMID:23054449

  4. Neonatal weight loss at a US Baby-Friendly Hospital.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Xena; Chaudhuri, Jana H; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Merewood, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Few if any studies have examined weight loss among term newborns by weighing infants daily for the first week of life. Perhaps because so few data exist, there is no standard in the United States for normal newborn weight loss. Our objective was to investigate normal newborn weight loss among infants born in a US Baby-Friendly hospital, by weighing infants daily for the first week of life. Using a prospective cohort design, infants born at an urban Boston, MA, hospital were enrolled within 72 hours of delivery and weighed daily for the first week of life. In hospital, infant weight was obtained from the medical record; post discharge, a research assistant visited the home daily and weighed the baby. All feeds in week 1 of life were recorded. Birth-related factors potentially affecting weight loss were abstracted from the medical record. Complete data were collected on 121 infants. Mean weight loss was 4.9% (range=0.0% to 9.9%); 19.8% (24 of 121) of infants lost >7% of their birth weight; no infant lost >10%. Maximum percent weight loss was significantly associated with feeding type: exclusively and mainly breastfed infants lost 5.5%, mainly formula-fed infants lost 2.7% and exclusively formula-fed infants lost 1.2% (P<0.001). Type of delivery and fluids received during labor were not associated with weight loss. Clinical practices at a Baby-Friendly hospital, which support and optimize breastfeeding, appear to be associated with only moderate weight loss in exclusively and mainly breastfed infants. PMID:22717201

  5. Implementing and revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Randa; Casanovas, Carmen

    2009-06-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in the 1990s by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF as a global effort with hospitals, health services, and parents to ensure babies are breastfed for the best start in life. It is one of the Operational Targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding endorsed in 2002 by the Fifty-Fifth World Health Assembly and the UNICEF Executive Board. After about 18 years, great progress has been made, and most countries have breastfeeding authorities or BFHI coordinating groups. The BFHI has led to increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding, which are reflected in improved health and survival. Based on this progress, the Initiative was streamlined according to the experience of the countries and materials were revised. The new package consolidated all WHO and UNICEF materials into one package, reflected new research and experience, revisited the criteria used for the BFHI in light of HIV/ AIDS, reinforced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, provided modules for mother-friendly care, and gave more guidance for monitoring and reassessment. WHO and partners will continue to give support to BFHI implementation as one essential effort contributing to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:20496615

  6. A transition strategy for becoming a baby-friendly hospital: exploring the costs, benefits, and challenges.

    PubMed

    DelliFraine, Jami; Langabeer, James; Delgado, Rigoberto; Williams, Janet F; Gong, Alice

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to provide an economic assessment as well as a calculated projection of the costs that typical U.S. tertiary-care hospitals would incur through policy reconfiguration and implementation to achieve the UNICEF/World Health Organization Baby-Friendly® Hospital designation and to examine the associated challenges and benefits of becoming a Baby-Friendly Hospital. We analyzed hospital resource utilization, focusing on formula use and staffing profiles at one U.S. urban tertiary-care teaching hospital, as well as conducted an online survey and telephone interviews with a selection of Baby-Friendly Hospitals to obtain their perspective on costs, challenges, and benefits. Findings indicate that added costs for a new Baby-Friendly Hospital will approximate $148 per birth, but these costs sharply decrease over time as breastfeeding rates increase in a Baby-Friendly environment. PMID:23249129

  7. Hospital efforts to improve breastfeeding outcomes: becoming baby-friendly in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Mannel, Rebecca; Bacon, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    A key component of the Preparing for a Lifetime initiative to reduce infant mortality and improve infant outcomes in Oklahoma focuses on improving breastfeeding outcomes. The evidence is well-established on the short and long-term positive health impact of breastfeeding and lactation on both infant and mother. A new collaborative effort was launched in 2012 to support Oklahoma hospitals to achieve designation as a Baby-Friendly hospital, the Becoming Baby-Friendly in Oklahoma project. Baby-Friendly hospitals comply with the evidence-based Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and do not market formula products directly to patients. This article describes the progress of this statewide project. PMID:25790595

  8. Implementing the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative: the role of finger feeding.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H; Glenn, Karen

    2003-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of finger feeding in encouraging a breastfeeding-type suck in preterm infants. Through identification of a baby who was developing a suck technique or was discovered to have a faulty technique, we hypothesised that preterm breastfeeding rates could be increased by correcting the suck technique of the infant, whilst being cared for in the Special Care Nursery (SCN). The study was conducted on discharge from the SCN at two time periods, before and after the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) in one hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Prior to BFHI, 44% of preterm infants were breastfed on discharge from the SCN compared to 71% post BFHI implementation. We have shown, using a pre- and post-breastfeeding health promotion initiative within a maternity hospital, that preterm breastfeeding rates can be increased on discharge from the SCN. PMID:14768306

  9. The Mother-Infant unit at Tallinn Children's Hospital, Estonia: a truly baby-friendly unit.

    PubMed

    Levin, A

    1994-03-01

    A mother-infant neonatal unit was established in 1979 at Tallinn Children's Hospital in Estonia to provide medical and nursing care to newborn and premature babies and their mothers. Its leading principles are 24-hour care by the mother, minimal use of technology, and little contact between the baby and medical and nursing staff. The unit was based on a conceptual model of the "psychological and biological umbilicus," which proposes that this connection binds the mother and infant together during the early weeks of life. Separation of mother and baby disrupts this important tie and may have adverse consequences for both. This paper presents data comparing weight gain during the first 30 days of life for a group of 159 preterm and full-term infants who were admitted to the unit between 1988 and 1989. Eighty-seven infants were cared for by their mothers, and 72 by nurses because their mothers were unwilling or unable to stay with the infants in the hospital. The holistic, humanistic approach used in the unit represents a truly baby-friendly hospital. PMID:8155223

  10. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative: evaluation of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Soraia da Silva; Laignier, Mariana Rabello; Primo, Cândida Caniçali; Leite, Franciéle Marabotti C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To asses the performance of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding in an university hospital. METHODS: Descriptive and quantitative research, in which 103 people were interviewed in the outpatient prenatal clinic, in the maternity-ward and in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital in Vitória, Southeast Brazil. The "Institutional Self-Evaluation Questionnaire" of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative was applied. Using this tool, the outcome was measured by the concordance index (CI) proposed by the World Health Organization and by the United Nations Children's Fund. RESULTS: Although the hospital does not have a policy that addresses promotion, protection and support for breastfeeding, 93.3% of the mothers had contact with their babies immediately after birth (step 4), 83.3% of the professionals guided mothers how to breastfeed (step 5), 86.6% of the neonates did not receive any food or drink other than breast milk (step 6), 100% of babies were housed together with their mothers (step 7), 83.3% of the women were encouraged for breastfeeding on demand (step 8) and 100% of the infants did not use bottles or pacifiers (step 9). CONCLUSIONS: 60% of the steps were completed by the hospital. The greatest difficulty was to inform pregnant women about the importance and the management of breastfeeding (step 3). Therefore, visits to pregnant women are recommended, in order to prepare them for breastfeeding and to explain about the infants' healthy feeding habits. PMID:24473954

  11. [Baby-Friendly Hospital: prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and intervening factors].

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Sonia Fontes; Mattar, Maria José Guardia; Abrão, Ana Cristina Freitas de Vilhena

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the pattern of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of infants born in a Baby-Friendly Hospital and the factors that contribute to early weaning. This was a prospective cohort study with 261 mothers and children. The data were analyzed via the construction of a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and the log-rank test was used for the univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional-hazards regression model. During the 6 months, the percentage of mothers who practiced EBF for 30, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days was 75%, 52%, 33%, 19% and 5.7%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the variables that conferred a risk for early weaning were the hospital and the occurrence of a follow-up visit due to mammary complication, improper positioning and the association of both of these factors. The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative favored EBF. PMID:24626353

  12. Meeting the challenge: implementing the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in a culturally diverse country.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Grace; Abdulali, Jane; Kumar, Rajakumari Ravi

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the successful implementation of the WHO/Unicef Baby Friendly Hospital initiative (BFHI) in a large, culturally diverse hospital in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Breastfeeding rates in the UAE are high (>90 per cent), although mixed feeding is considered the norm. Traditional religious practices for birth are common which may inhibit exclusive breastfeeding. An action research methodology was chosen as the most appropriate method in which to implement BFHI and a five stage cyclic approach was used. Staff knowledge around breastfeeding and BFHI varied enormously because of the diversity of ethnicity amongst staff. It was initially difficult to engage staff, particularly staff in the delivery suite and theatres, as breastfeeding was not seen as a high priority. There was a great resistance to closing the nurseries as both women and staff felt it was a benefit for the women to have some rest away from their babies, and the concepts of bonding and early feeding cues were unknown. By the time of the assessment for BFHI there was a theory-practice transformation. The implementation of BFHI and the successful achievement of the award can be attributed to ownership. PMID:21739730

  13. Compliance with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative and impact on breastfeeding rates

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Baum, Christopher F; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine compliance with the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) as well as evaluate the BFHI and its components on breastfeeding initiation and duration overall and according to maternal education level. Design Quasi-experimental study using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2004 to 2008. Setting Birth facilities in Maine. Participants 915 mothers who gave birth in four hospitals that were BFHI-accredited or became accredited and 1099 mothers from six matched non-BFHI facilities. Mothers reported on seven (of 10) BFHI practices (breastfeeding practice score 0–7) and receipt of a gift pack with formula (yes/no). Main outcome measures Self-report of breastfeeding initiation, any breast feeding for ≥4 weeks, exclusive breast feeding for ≥4 weeks. Results 34.6% of mothers from BFHI-accredited facilities reported experiencing all seven BFHI breastfeeding practices, while 28.4% reported being given a gift pack with formula. Among mothers with lower education, the BFHI increased breastfeeding initiation by 8.6 percentage points (adjusted coefficient, 0.086 [95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16]) and, independently, each additional breastfeeding practice was associated with an average increase in breastfeeding initiation of 16.2 percentage points (adjusted coefficient, 0.162 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.18]). Among all mothers and mothers with higher education, there was no effect of the BFHI on breastfeeding rates. Conclusions Compliance with BFHI practices among BFHI-accredited facilities is not optimal and needs to be monitored, as greater compliance may have an even larger impact on breastfeeding rates and potentially reduce socio-economic disparities in breast feeding. PMID:24277661

  14. Impact of a Baby-Friendly hospital on breastfeeding indicators in Shaqlawa district in Erbil governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Shaker, N Z; Hasan, S S; Ismail, Z A

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on WHO-defined breastfeeding indicators in Shaqlawa district in Kurdistan region of Iraq. A household survey was carried out on a purposive non-probability sample of 200 mothers with a child aged < 30 months. Mothers were interviewed using a structured form to determine demographic data and feeding practices of the most recent child. The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding was 38.1%, exclusive breastfeeding was 15.4% and continued breastfeeding was 61.0% and 39.5% at 1 and 2 years of age respectively. A significant relationship was found between delivery at the Baby- Friendly accredited hospital and early initiation of breastfeeding but not with exclusive or continued breastfeeding. While continued breastfeeding at 1 year and 2 year was good, early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding indicators were not at an acceptable level, which indicates an ineffective role for the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. PMID:26996361

  15. Evaluating the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative on breast-feeding rates: a multi-state analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Baum, Christopher F; Gillman, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) on breast-feeding initiation and duration overall and according to maternal education. Design Quasi-experimental study using data from five states (Alaska, Maine, Nebraska, Ohio, Washington) that participated in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 1999 to 2009. Using differences-in-differences models that included year and hospital fixed effects, we compared rates of breast-feeding initiation and duration (any and exclusive breast-feeding for ≥4 weeks) before and after BFHI accreditation between mothers who gave birth in hospitals that were accredited or became accredited and mothers from matched non-BFHI facilities. We stratified analyses into lower and higher education groups. Setting Thirteen BFHI hospitals and nineteen matched non-BFHI facilities across five states in the USA. Subjects Mothers (n 11723) who gave birth in BFHI hospitals and mothers (n 13604) from nineteen matched non-BFHI facilities. Results Although we did not find overall differences in breast-feeding initiation between birth facilities that received BFHI accreditation compared with non-Baby-Friendly facilities (adjusted coefficient = 0.024; 95 % CI −0.00, 0.51), breast-feeding initiation increased by 3.8 percentage points among mothers with lower education who delivered in Baby-Friendly facilities (P = 0.05), but not among mothers with higher education (adjusted coefficient = 0.002; 95 % CI −0.04, 0.05). BFHI accreditation also increased exclusive breast-feeding for ≥4 weeks by 4.5 percentage points (P=0.02) among mothers with lower education who delivered in BFHI facilities. Conclusions By increasing breast-feeding initiation and duration among mothers with lower education, the BFHI may reduce socio-economic disparities in breast-feeding. PMID:24625787

  16. The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative 20 years on: facts, progress, and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Randa Jarudi

    2012-08-01

    The BFHI provides a framework for addressing the major factors that have contributed to the erosion of breastfeeding, that is, maternity care practices that interfere with breastfeeding. Until practices improve, attempts to promote breastfeeding outside the health service will be impeded. Although inappropriate maternity care cannot be held solely responsible for low exclusive breastfeeding rates and short breastfeeding duration, appropriate care may be a prerequisite for raising them. In many industrialized countries, BFHI activities were slow to start. Over the past 10 years and as the evidence was becoming increasingly solid and the commitment of health workers and decision makers has become stronger, considerable efforts are being made in most industrialized countries to implement the BFHI. However, coordinators of the BFHI in industrialized countries face obstacles to successful implementation that appear unique to these countries. Problems reported include opposition from the health care establishment, lack of support from national authorities, and lack of awareness or acceptance of the need for the initiative among government departments, the health care system, and parents. It is worth highlighting these facts to enable the BFHI coordinators in these countries to make well-designed and targeted plans with achievable objectives. Strengthening and scaling up the BFHI is an undisputed way to reduce infant mortality and improve quality of care for mothers and children. The BFHI has had great impact on breastfeeding practices. Reflecting new infant feeding research findings and recommendations, the tools and courses used to change hospital practices in line with Baby-Friendly criteria are available and ready to be used and implemented. Governments should ensure that all personnel who are involved in health, nutrition, child survival, or maternal health are fully informed and energized to take advantage of an environment that is conducive to revitalizing the BFHI; incorporate the basic competencies for protection, promotion, and support of optimal infant and young child feeding, including the BFHI, into all health-worker curricula, whether facility- or community-based health workers; and recognize that the BFHI has a major role to play in child survival and more so in the context of HIV/AIDS. The World Health Organization and UNICEF strongly recommend using this new set of materials to ensure solid and full implementation of the BFHI global criteria and sustain progress already made. It is one way of improving child health and survival, and it is moving ahead to put the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding in place, thus moving steadily to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:22723528

  17. Does breastfeeding education affect nursing staff beliefs, exclusive breastfeeding rates, and Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative compliance? The experience of a small, rural Canadian hospital.

    PubMed

    Martens, P J

    2000-11-01

    The effectiveness of a breastfeeding education intervention consisting of a 1 1/2-hour mandated session for all nursing staff, with an optional self-paced tutorial, was evaluated in a small rural Canadian hospital. The intervention was designed to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates, create positive beliefs and attitudes among staff members, and increase compliance with the World Health Organization/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). Staff surveys and chart audits were conducted at both the intervention and control site hospitals prior to the intervention and 7 months after the intervention. Over a 7-month period, the intervention hospital experienced an increase in BFHI compliance (24.4 vs. 31.9, P < .01), breastfeeding beliefs (55.0 vs. 58.8, P < .05), and exclusive breastfeeding rates (31% vs. 54% of breastfed babies, P < .05) but no change in breastfeeding attitudes (44.0 vs. 44.9, P = .80). The control site experienced no change in BFHI compliance, beliefs, or attitudes but a significant decrease in exclusive breastfeeding rates (43% vs. 0%, P < .05). PMID:11155609

  18. Pregnant & Lactating Mothers' Attitudes and Practice of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding at King Fahd Hospital of University (KFHU)--Khobar, Saudi Arabia: Appraisal of Baby Friendly Hospital Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Laila Younis Abu; Al Madani, Maha Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: World Health organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have been recommended the application of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) in order to promote & support breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to assess pregnant and lactating mothers' attitudes…

  19. Bringing Baby-Friendly to the Indian Health Service: A Systemwide Approach to Implementation.

    PubMed

    Karol, Susan; Tah, Tina; Kenon, Clifton; Meyer, Jenna; Yazzie, Jeannette; Stephens, Celissa; Merewood, Anne

    2016-05-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) increases exclusive breastfeeding. Breastfeeding protects against obesity and diabetes, conditions to which American Indians and Alaska Natives are particularly prone. As part of the First Lady'sLet's Move! in Indian Countryinitiative, the US Department of Health and Human Services' Indian Health Service (IHS) began implementing the BFHI in 2011. The IHS administers 13 US birthing hospitals. There are 5 tribally administered hospitals in the lower 48 states that receive IHS funding, and the IHS encouraged them to seek Baby-Friendly designation also. In the 13 federally administered hospitals, the IHS implemented a Baby-Friendly infant feeding policy, extensive clinician training, and Baby-Friendly compatible medical records. All hospitals also became compliant with the World Health Organization's International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes. Strategies and solutions were shared systemwide via webinars and conference calls. Quality improvement methods, technical assistance, and site visits assisted with the implementation process. Between 2011 and December 2014, 100% (13 of 13) of IHS federally administered hospitals gained Baby-Friendly designation. The first Baby-Friendly hospitals in Arizona, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and South Dakota were all IHS sites; 6% of all US Baby-Friendly hospitals are currently IHS hospitals. One tribal site has also been Baby-Friendly designated and 3 of the 5 remaining tribally administered hospitals in the lower 48 states are pursuing Baby-Friendly status. Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative implementation systemwide is possible in a US government agency serving a high-risk, underprivileged population. Other systems looking to implement the BFHI can learn from the IHS model. PMID:26561492

  20. Implementing baby-friendly practices: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen; Peters, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding is widely viewed as the optimal feeding method for infants among professional nursing and medical organizations. Its health benefits have been comprehensively studied and documented for both infants and mothers. Hospitals and birthing centers can strongly influence the outcomes for mothers who choose to breastfeed by establishing effective breastfeeding behaviors immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. The Baby-Friendly USA initiative outlines 10 steps to successful breastfeeding. Although these steps have been successfully supported in practice, they can be difficult to implement due to a variety of factors, including resistance to change. Specific steps generate more barriers to overcome than others--namely exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation or pacifiers, rooming-in for 23 out of 24 hours, and skin-to-skin contact with a parent immediately after birth and during the hospital stay. Our hospital spent 5 years implementing Baby-Friendly practices to prepare for a successful site visit. In the process, barriers to key Baby-Friendly steps were overcome through creative approaches and strategic education for staff, physicians, and parents. The purpose of this article is to outline specific actions taken that assisted our hospital in its successful journey. Those actions and strategies will hopefully be of value to others in their journey toward designation. PMID:22596036

  1. The Baby-Friendly Initiative: Protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Catherine M; Unger, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Breastfeeding confers extensive and well-established benefits and is recognized as an extremely effective preventative health measure for both mothers and babies. Except in very few specific medical situations, breastfeeding should be universally encouraged for all mothers and infants. To improve worldwide breastfeeding initiation and duration rates, the WHO and UNICEF launched the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI) in 1991. The goal was to protect, promote and support breastfeeding by adherence to the WHO’s “Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding”. Since then, more than 20,000 hospitals in 156 countries have achieved Baby-Friendly status, with a resultant increase in both breastfeeding initiation and duration. Still, only 500 hospitals are currently designated Baby-Friendly in industrialized countries, including 37 health centres or health authorities in Canada. Health care practitioners have a unique and influential role in promoting and supporting breastfeeding. Provincial and territorial government leadership is essential to ensuring implementation of the BFI in all health care facilities delivering services to families with young children. PMID:23730170

  2. Factors influencing the intention of perinatal nurses to adopt the baby-friendly hospital initiative in southeastern quebec, Canada: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Guylaine; Lacombe, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play a major role in promoting the baby-friendly hospital initiative (BFHI), yet the adoption of this initiative by nurses remains a challenge in many countries, despite evidences of its positive impacts on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing perinatal nurses to adopt the BFHI in their practice. Methods. A sample of 159 perinatal nurses from six hospital-based maternity centers completed a survey based on the theory of planned behavior. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between key independent variables and nurses' intention to adopt the BFHI in their practice. A discriminant analysis of nurses' beliefs helped identify the targets of actions to foster the adoption the BFHI among nurses. Results. The participants are mainly influenced by factors pertaining to their perceived capacity to overcome the strict criteria of the BFHI, the mothers' approval of a nursing practice based on the BFHI, and the antenatal preparation of the mothers. Conclusions. This study provides theory-based evidence for the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting the adoption of the BFHI in nurses' practice. PMID:25101173

  3. Factors Influencing the Intention of Perinatal Nurses to Adopt the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative in Southeastern Quebec, Canada: Implications for Practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nurses play a major role in promoting the baby-friendly hospital initiative (BFHI), yet the adoption of this initiative by nurses remains a challenge in many countries, despite evidences of its positive impacts on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the factors influencing perinatal nurses to adopt the BFHI in their practice. Methods. A sample of 159 perinatal nurses from six hospital-based maternity centers completed a survey based on the theory of planned behavior. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between key independent variables and nurses' intention to adopt the BFHI in their practice. A discriminant analysis of nurses' beliefs helped identify the targets of actions to foster the adoption the BFHI among nurses. Results. The participants are mainly influenced by factors pertaining to their perceived capacity to overcome the strict criteria of the BFHI, the mothers' approval of a nursing practice based on the BFHI, and the antenatal preparation of the mothers. Conclusions. This study provides theory-based evidence for the development of effective interventions aimed at promoting the adoption of the BFHI in nurses' practice. PMID:25101173

  4. Singing Along the Way to Becoming Baby-Friendly

    PubMed Central

    Ellett, Gladys Vallespir; Delos Reyes, Ieda

    2012-01-01

    In this column, two assistant nurse managers describe an innovative and fun strategy they developed and implemented at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York to assist the nursing staff in preparing for their Baby-Friendly auditors’ visit. PMID:23277733

  5. Becoming Baby-Friendly: overcoming the issue of accepting free formula.

    PubMed

    Merewood, A; Philipp, B L

    2000-11-01

    Although, in the current financial climate, paying for formula is a difficult step for US hospitals, demystifying the process helps. Actual formula costs may be lower than perceived costs because agreements with formula companies may list unnecessary or unused products and services. Fair market value is difficult to define, but by contacting other hospitals with Baby-Friendly status, those costs can be determined. While we do not recommend that other institutions forge ahead on the track to Baby-Friendly designation without considering the formula issue, we would encourage them to apply for the certificate of intent and begin work, even if it is not immediately clear how the hospital will pay for formula. Each of the Ten Steps takes the hospital along an important course, is never wasted effort, and increases the number of breastfeeding mothers (thereby reducing formula costs). Demonstrating a willingness to invest time and energy for the benefit of patients and the institution as a whole is valuable when requesting support for formula payment. Hospital administrators, who may make the final decision regarding formula payment, will be more willing to listen to breastfeeding advocates if they have already accomplished significant goals within the institution and have collected supporting data. The authors conclude that although for BMC not accepting free formula was the most difficult barrier to overcome on the path to Baby-Friendly designation, it was not insurmountable, and we hope other institutions will be helped by learning how we dealt with this problem. PMID:11155598

  6. Barriers, facilitators, and recommendations related to implementing the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Semenic, Sonia; Childerhose, Janet E; Lauzière, Julie; Groleau, Danielle

    2012-08-01

    Despite growing evidence for the positive impact of the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI) on breastfeeding outcomes, few studies have investigated the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of Baby-Friendly practices that can be used to improve uptake of the BFI at the local or country levels. This integrative review aimed to identify and synthesize information on the barriers, facilitators, and recommendations related to the BFI from the international, peer-reviewed literature. Thirteen databases were searched using the keywords Baby Friendly, Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, BFI, BFHI, Ten Steps, implementation, adoption, barriers, facilitators, and their combinations. A total of 45 English-language articles from 16 different countries met the inclusion criteria for the review. Data analysis was guided by Cooper's five stages of integrative research review. Using a multiple intervention program framework, findings were categorized into sociopolitical, organizational-level, and individual-level barriers and facilitators to implementing the BFI, as well as intra-, inter-, and extraorganizational recommendations for strengthening BFI implementation. A wide variety of obstacles and potential solutions to BFI implementation were identified. Findings suggest some priority issues to address when pursuing Baby-Friendly designation, including the endorsements of both local administrators and governmental policy makers, effective leadership of the practice change process, health care worker training, the marketing influence of formula companies, and integrating hospital and community health services. Framing the BFI as a complex, multilevel, evidence-based change process and using context-focused research implementation models to guide BFI implementation efforts may help identify effective strategies for promoting wider adoption of the BFI in health services. PMID:22628290

  7. Being baby friendly: evidence-based breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W

    2015-03-01

    Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment. PMID:25293712

  8. Motivational messages: lead a Baby Friendly Initiative community project.

    PubMed

    Henry, Sue; Butler, Donna

    2012-01-01

    2011 saw Baby Friendly Initiative (BFI) success in the towns of Blackburn with Darwen. The towns serve around 2,500 new babies a year, have significant social deprivation and mixed ethnicity. Commitment was made by the Trust and Local Authority, to progress to meeting full BFI standards by commissioning the Acute Trusts Infant Feeding Coordinator (midwife) to lead on the project and the change needed. Numerous challenges were met along the way, such as capacity to lead and deliver (leading to the recruitment of Donna), swine flu, GP training, organisational changes and loss of ante- and postnatal interventions. This was the first Community Trust in England to achieve full accreditation without follow up visits. This article hopes to inspire other Trusts to get started, keep going and don't let go until you get there--because it's worth it. PMID:22324135

  9. The Baby-Friendly Initiative in Spain: A Challenging Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Aguilar, Maria Teresa; Lasarte-Velillas, Juan Jos; Martn-Calama, Jess; Flores-Antn, Beatriz; Borja-Herrero, Cintia; Garca-Franco, Mara; Navas-Lucena, Victoria; Palls-Alonso, Carmen

    2014-04-29

    The Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI-Spain) was founded in 1995 by members of key professional associations (pediatricians, midwives, obstetricians, and nurses) and some mother-to-mother support groups. The United Nations International Children's Fund was instrumental in supporting the establishment of BFI-Spain as a not-for-profit organization. In 2007, the need for change was identified. A detailed analysis of BFI-Spain identified its main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. A new strategic plan was devised that included the adoption of a staged accreditation system, a new website, expanding the initiative into the community, consolidating working teams to distribute tasks and responsibilities, and trying to involve the national health authorities. This article describes the analysis that was undertaken, the strategies implemented, and some of the outcomes observed 4 years later. The aim of the article is to support BFI teams in other countries who might be facing similar challenges. PMID:24782488

  10. More Hospitals Offer Donor Breast Milk to Help Preemie Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... html More Hospitals Offer Donor Breast Milk to Help Preemie Babies Practice may boost breast-feeding, reduce ... There is "very strong" evidence that breast milk helps ward off enterocolitis, said Dr. Lydia Furman, a ...

  11. Factors Associated With Exclusive Breastfeeding 2 to 4 Weeks Following Discharge From a Large, Urban, Academic Medical Center Striving for Baby-Friendly Designation

    PubMed Central

    DiFrisco, Eileen; Goodman, Karen E.; Budin, Wendy C.; Lilienthal, Marge W.; Kleinman, Aviva; Holmes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence documents the superiority of breastfeeding for mothers and breastmilk for babies. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the U.S. Healthy People 2010 initiative promote breastfeeding, current breastfeeding rates often fall short of recommendations. This study determined factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding 2 to 4 weeks following discharge from a large, urban, academic medical center striving for Baby-Friendly designation. Results indicated that mothers who breastfed within the first hour of birth (61%) were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding 2 to 4 weeks after discharge. Incorporating care practices that include a number of the “Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding,” as recommended by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, may increase the duration of exclusive breastfeeding after discharge. PMID:22211057

  12. [Treating mother and baby in conjoint hospitalization in a psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Maizel, S; Fainstein, V; Katzenelson, S K

    1998-09-01

    Since 1990 we have been admitting mothers with postpartum psychiatric morbidity together with their babies to our open psychiatric ward. The aim of conjoint hospitalization is to maintain and develop the bond between mother and baby while treating the mother's psychiatric disorder. The presence of the infant in the hospital allows both a thorough evaluation of the mothers' maternal ability and to use the infant as a facilitator of the mothers' recovery by engaging maternal functions. It prevents the infants from being placed in a foster home for the duration of the mothers' hospitalization. Readily available in Britain and Australia, such conjoint hospitalization is controversial and rarely available elsewhere. In the past 5 years we hospitalized 10 women with 11 babies (1 woman was hospitalized twice, after different births). All women had received psychiatric treatment prior to childbirth, but this was the first psychiatric hospitalization for 2 of them. Diagnoses (DSM-IIIR) were chronic paranoid schizophrenia (4), affective disorder (4), schizo-affective schizophrenia (1) and borderline personality disorder (1). 8 were suffering from active psychotic symptoms on admission. They were treated pharmacologically, received individual and group psychotherapy, and participated in all ward activities. Families were engaged in marital, family and/or individual therapy according to need. All participated in cognitive-behavior treatment tailored to individual need to build and enrich the mother-infant bond. All improved significantly and were able to function independently on discharge, but in 1 case adoption was recommended. PMID:9885632

  13. A Dozen Strategies Along the Ten Steps Baby-Friendly Initiative Journey.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Ann; Dumas, Louise; Davies, Barbara; Emard, Marie-Josée; Lortie, Kim

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quality of care and maternal-newborn outcomes, Hôpital Montfort implemented the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario Best Practice Guideline on Breastfeeding, which supports the Baby-Friendly Initiative (BFI). This journey was challenging yet rewarding. Overall, we report success with increased mother-infant skin-to-skin contact at birth and breastfeeding immediately postpartum. However, challenges with formula supplementation rates continue. This paper discusses 12 strategies that emerged from lessons learned and provides links to our policies and patient education materials. The information may be helpful to others, as implementation of parts of the BFI are inserted in criteria for the Canadian accreditation. PMID:27009713

  14. Workshop to implement the baby-friendly office initiative. Effect on community physicians' offices.

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, F.; Levitt, C.; Kaczorowski, J.; Wakefield, J.; Dawson, H.; Sheehan, D.; Sellors, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a self-appraisal questionnaire and a workshop for office staff in promoting the baby-friendly office (BFO). DESIGN: A two-times-three factorial design with a delayed workshop for one of two groups: an early intervention group who attended a workshop for office staff in October 1997 (n = 23) and a late-intervention group who attended in April 1998 (n = 23). Self-appraisals were completed before the workshops by all participants in October 1997, by 37 offices in April 1998, and by 34 offices in October 1998. SETTING: Offices of family physicians and primary care pediatricians in Hamilton-Wentworth, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Staff of 46 offices; 74% (34/46) completed all three assessments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Degree of change in implementing each of the "10 Steps to Baby-Friendly Office" and overall average BFO score received by each office. RESULTS: Of the 34 offices completing all assessments, none followed all 10 steps. Initial mean score was 4.4 steps (standard deviation 1.4, n = 46). The workshop intervention improved overall mean scores from 4.3 to 5.6 (P < .001, n = 37). Although office staff completed the BFO self-appraisal tool, it alone had no effect on scores. Areas of improvement were noted in providing information to patients and displaying posters to promote breastfeeding. Key steps, such as not advertising breast milk substitutes and not distributing free formula, did not change. CONCLUSION: The workshop effected a modest but positive change in breastfeeding promotion. The change was maintained at 6 and 12 months after the intervention. PMID:10845135

  15. An Elder-Friendly Hospital: translating a dream into reality.

    PubMed

    Parke, Belinda; Brand, Penny

    2004-03-01

    The complex health profile of an older adult entering a hospital presents staff and administrators with a new challenge. This paper documents the Vancouver Island Health Authority's (VIHA) move towards an Elder-Friendly Hospital (EFH). A new approach to hospital care is described, one that takes account not only of an acute healthcare crisis, but also the developmental phenomena associated with aging, with the likelihood of chronic illnesses compounding both diagnosis and treatment. Customized strategies and suggestions for implementation that may be useful to other healthcare agencies are explained. PMID:15503917

  16. A Controlled Study on Baby-Friendly Communities in Italy: Methods and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Macaluso, Anna; Bettinelli, Maria Enrica; Chapin, Elise M.; Córdova do Espírito Santo, Lílian; Mascheroni, Rita; Murante, Anna Maria; Montico, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aim This study reports the research methods and baseline data of a project aimed at assessing the effect of an intervention based on the 7 Steps of the Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) on the rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months in Italy. Subjects and Methods In this controlled, nonrandomized study, nine Local Health Authorities were assigned to an early and nine to a late intervention group. Data on breastfeeding in infants followed up from birth to 12 months were gathered at baseline and in two subsequent rounds, after the 7 Steps were implemented in the early and late intervention groups, respectively. Step-down logistic regression analysis, corrected for the cluster effect, was used to compare breastfeeding rates between groups. Results At baseline, there were no significant differences in breastfeeding rates at birth (n=1,781) and at 3 (n=1,854), 6 (n=1,601), and 12 (n=1,510; loss to follow-up, 15.2%) months between groups. At birth, 96% of mothers initiated breastfeeding, 72% exclusively (recall from birth). At 3 months, 77% of infants were breastfed, 54% exclusively with 24-hour and 46% with 7-day recall. At 6 months, the rate of any breastfeeding was 62%, with 10% and 7% exclusive breastfeeding with 24-hour and 7-day recall, respectively. At 12 months, 31% of the children continued to breastfeed. Conclusions The project is ongoing and will allow estimation of the effect of the BFCI. PMID:23398142

  17. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Arun K; Bhatta, Dharma N

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1). The mean (standard deviation) age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18) years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9), and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5) of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6) of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74), vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36), and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39) were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables. Conclusion Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The proportion of low-birth-weight babies was high in hospital delivery, and ethnicities, Hindu religion, education, nonformal employment, food habit, rest during pregnancy, and type of delivery were found to influence the birth weight. Hence, it is important to strengthen health education services at the basic level of a community to solve this problem. PMID:26089703

  18. Effectiveness of the Baby Friendly Community Initiative in Italy: a non-randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Adriano; Bettinelli, Maria Enrica; Chapin, Elise; Macaluso, Anna; Córdova do Espírito Santo, Lílian; Murante, Anna Maria; Montico, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of the Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) on exclusive breast feeding at 6 months. Design Controlled, non-randomised trial. Setting 18 Local Health Authorities in 9 regions of Italy. Participants 5094 mother/infant dyads in 3 cohorts were followed up to 12 months after birth in 3 rounds of data collection: at baseline, after implementation of the intervention in the early intervention group and after implementation in the late intervention group. 689 (14%) dyads did not complete the study. Intervention Implementation of the 7 steps of the BFCI. Main outcome measures The rate of exclusive breast feeding at 6 months was the primary outcome; breast feeding at discharge, 3 and 12 months was also measured. Results The crude rates of exclusive breast feeding at discharge, 3 and 6 months, and of any breast feeding at 6 and 12 months increased at each round of data collection after baseline in the early and late intervention groups. At the end of the project, 10% of infants were exclusively breast fed at 6 months and 38% were continuing to breast feed at 12 months. However, the comparison by adjusted rates and logistic regression failed to show statistically significant differences between groups and rounds of data collection in the intention-to-treat analysis, as well as when compliance with the intervention and training coverage was taken into account. Conclusions The study failed to demonstrate an effect of the BFCI on the rates of breast feeding. This may be due, among other factors, to the time needed to observe an effect on breast feeding following this complex intervention. PMID:27154476

  19. The DC breastfeeding-friendly hospital initiative: an evaluation of hospitals' support for breastfeeding in the capital of the United States.

    PubMed

    Long, Sahira A; Young, Michal A; Tender, Jennifer A F; Dewitty, Vernell P; Logan, Kathleen; Kadeshe, Mudiwah; Ryan, Carol; Haynes, Suzanne G

    2013-11-01

    Maternity facilities that follow the 10 steps of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative have improved breastfeeding outcomes. Prior to the DC Breastfeeding-Friendly Hospital Initiative, no maternity facilities in Washington, DC, were recognized as Baby-Friendly. Each facility's journey toward improved breastfeeding support is unique. The purpose of this project was to help facilities identify areas to focus on in pursuit of this goal. All 8 birthing facilities in Washington, DC, participated in the baseline assessment in September 2008. The 10 steps were used as a framework for developing the assessment tools. Data were collected from each facility regarding (1) accessibility of breastfeeding information and resources on its website, (2) content of written breastfeeding policies, and (3) practices that support breastfeeding. The DC Breastfeeding Coalition shared the outcomes of the assessment with each facility and offered an educational session addressing each facility's specific needs. The coalition also conducted postintervention evaluations between July and August 2009 to assess changes in each facility's score. Most facilities were receptive to the intervention, resulting in modest improvements in all areas reviewed. This project provides a model for state and local breastfeeding coalitions to evaluate and recognize incremental improvements in breastfeeding-related maternity care practices. PMID:23470787

  20. [The family-friendly hospital: (how) does it work?].

    PubMed

    Heller, A R; Heller, S C

    2009-06-01

    The demographic development in Germany is heading towards a significant shortage in specialists within the next 10-15 years with an increased demand for health services at the same time. The three-stage model of family life planning (work, family phase, return) will also be gradually replaced by a model of simultaneous compatibility of family and work. This change in values, although initiated by the parents themselves, may turn out to be a crucial countermeasure in national economy against the demography-related loss of qualified personnel. For these three trends the economic need arises to minimize family-related absence of our well-trained, motivated and reliable doctors from the clinical departments through implementation of family-friendly human resources policies and supporting measures by the employers. In a representative survey 26% of respondents with children had in the past already changed their workplace to ensure a better match of work and family duties. In this regard the compatibility of family and professional responsibilities had a higher impact on the selection of the employer than a high income. Accordingly, a work-life competence oriented business plan will represent the crucial factor within the competition between universities, hospitals and professional disciplines to attract high potential bearers although a sustained change of the traditional hospital culture is mandatory. Anaesthesia-related fields of development regarding family-friendly corporate governance are working hours and organization of work, part-time jobs even for managers and fathers, and staff development. In the hospital daily routine, in particular, creative solutions meeting the local demands are deemed necessary that do not involve the use of high financial resources. Family-friendly personnel policy not only arises from altruistic enthusiasm but also pays off economically. This article discusses the necessity, opportunities and threads of family-oriented hospital management and fields of action for anaesthesia departments. PMID:19484192

  1. The Loneliest Babies: Foster Care in the Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicker, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an ignored problem--the plight of infants and toddlers in foster care who find themselves hospitalized. A majority of the children in foster care will be hospitalized for medical treatment while in foster care because they are more likely to have serious medical problems or developmental disabilities than their age peers.…

  2. The impact of the Baby Friendly Health Initiative in the Australian health care system: a critical narrative review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Atchan, Marjorie; Davis, Deborah; Foureur, Maralyn

    2013-07-01

    Studies have identified that the practices of maternity facilities and health professionals are crucial to women's experience of support and breastfeeding 'success'. The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched globally in 1991 to protect, promote and support breastfeeding. While a direct causal effect has not been established and critics suggest the rhetoric conflicts with women's lived experiences as new mothers, a positive association between the Initiative and breastfeeding prevalence is apparent. Internationally, impact studies have demonstrated that where the Initiative is well integrated, there is an increase in rates of breastfeeding initiation and, to a lesser extent, duration. In consideration of the known health risks associated with the use of artificial baby milks this would suggest that BFHI implementation and accreditation should be a desirable strategy for committed health facilities. However, a variation in both BFHI uptake and breastfeeding prevalence between nations has been reported. This narrative review critically discusses a variety of issues relevant to the uptake and support of breastfeeding and the BFHI, utilising Australia as a case study. Whilst it enjoys 'in principle' policy support, Australia also suffers from a lack of uniformity in uptake and perception of the benefits of BFHI at all levels of the health system. Australian and international studies have identified similar enablers and barriers to implementation. PMID:23957177

  3. Breastfeeding-Friendly Erie County: Establishing a Baby Café Network.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Deborah J; Dennison, Barbara A; Restina, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Community-based lactation support groups help improve breastfeeding duration by offering practical peer and professional help and counseling through the sharing of information and experiences in a relaxed setting. The objective of this project, funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was to establish at least 5 Baby Cafés in organizations that reach low-income women living in a high-need, racially/ethnically diverse, urban county with 1 of the lowest rates of breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration in New York. The New York State Department of Health partnered with the P(2) Collaborative of Western New York and United Way of Buffalo & Erie County's Healthy Start Healthy Future for All Coalition to facilitate the recruitment of 11 community-based agencies in Erie County, New York, to provide and/or enhance breastfeeding support. Six organizations were funded to establish licensed Baby Cafés, which provided skilled, free-of-charge, drop-in lactation support and counseling to mothers at easily accessible locations. The organizations provided staff training and staffing at the Baby Cafés, established coordinated hours of operation between all locations, and jointly marketed their services. Collectively, the 6 Baby Cafés provided 11 drop-in sessions per week. During the 7-month start-up time, mothers/babies made 276 visits and they averaged 75 visits per month, representing at least 150 clients. After the funding ended, 5 organizations continued to support and staff the Baby Cafés whereas 1 organization added another Baby Café. Future evaluation is needed to determine their effect on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. PMID:26319111

  4. A case-control study of singleton low birthweight babies at the Port Moresby General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Klufio, C A; Amoa, A B; Augerea, L; Wurr, F

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study of 432 consecutive singleton low birthweight babies and 432 unmatched controls was carried out at the Port Moresby General Hospital from January to December 1988. Of the 432 low birthweight babies 65% were preterm, 27% were light for gestational age, 6% were both preterm and light for gestational age and 2.5% could not be classified. The results of the analysis showed low birthweight to be significantly associated with the past delivery of a low birthweight infant, very young and elderly mothers, lack of antenatal care, poor family planning, hypertensive disease in pregnancy and intrauterine death. This study reveals that maternal education and improved antenatal care and family planning would ultimately reduce the incidence of low birthweight babies and perinatal mortality in Papua New Guinea. PMID:10750410

  5. Migrant-friendly hospitals: a paediatric perspective - improving hospital care for migrant children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Union (EU) Migrant-Friendly Hospital (MFH) Initiative, introduced in 2002, promotes the adoption of care approaches adapted to meet the service needs of migrants. However, for paediatric hospitals, no specific recommendations have been offered for MFH care for children. Using the Swiss MFH project as a case study, this paper aims to identify hospital-based care needs of paediatric migrants (PMs) and good service approaches. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with principal project leaders of five paediatric hospitals participating in the Swiss MFH project. A review of the international literature on non-clinical hospital service needs and service responses of paediatric MFHs was conducted. Results Paediatric care can be complex, usually involving both the patient and the patient’s family. Key challenges include differing levels of acculturation between parents and children; language barriers; cultural differences between patient and provider; and time constraints. Current service and infrastructural responses include interpretation services for PMs and parents, translated information material, and special adaptations to ensure privacy, e.g., during breastfeeding. Clear standards for paediatric migrant-friendly hospitals (P-MFH) are lacking. Conclusions International research on hospital care for migrant children is scarce. The needs of paediatric migrants and their families may differ from guidance for adults. Paediatric migrant needs should be systematically identified and used to inform paediatric hospital care approaches. Hospital processes from admission to discharge should be revised to ensure implementation of migrant-sensitive approaches suitable for children. Staff should receive adequate support, such as training, easily available interpreters and sufficient consultation time, to be able to provide migrant-friendly paediatric services. The involvement of migrant groups may be helpful. Improving the quality of care for PMs at both policy and service levels is an investment in the future that will benefit native and migrant families. PMID:24093461

  6. Age-Related Incidence Curve of Hospitalized Shaken Baby Syndrome Cases: Convergent Evidence for Crying as a Trigger to Shaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Ronald G.; Trent, Roger B.; Cross, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there is an age-specific incidence of hospitalized cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) that has similar properties to the previously reported ''normal crying curve,'' as a form of indirect evidence that crying is an important stimulus for SBS. Design and setting: The study analyzed cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome by…

  7. Hospital Care for Newborn Babies: Quality Assessment, A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Hossein; Abdollahi Sabet, Somayae; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Context: Neonatal mortality rate is declining globally. The aim of the present study is to identify relevant indicators for assessing newborn care in hospitals by a systematic review. Evidence Acquisition: A search on electronic data base and manual searches of personal files for studies on quality indicators of newborn care were carried out. Searching 9 bibliographic databases, we found 85 articles of which 22 exactly related ones were selected and studied. Hand search yielded 1 record were also searched and 2 records were included. Results: A list of 87 structure, process and outcome indicators was formulated from the articles. Also 26 excess measures were identified in gray literature. After removing duplicates, and categorizing in 3 domains, 18 measures were input, 41 process and 34 outcome measures. Conclusions: These 93 indicators provide a framework for assessing how well the hospitals are providing neonatal care. These measures should be discussed in each context expert panels to address nationally applicable indices of neonatal care and may be adapted for local health settings. PMID:26495100

  8. Epidemiological study of klebsiella infection in the special care baby unit of a London hospital

    PubMed Central

    Riser, EVE; Noone, Paul; Howard, Frances M

    1980-01-01

    Of the babies admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit of the Royal Free Hospital over 20 months, 102% were infected or colonised by klebsiella. The fluorescent antibody technique was used to identify epidemics caused by three strains: capsular type 8 K. aerogenes, type 68 K. oxytoca, or type 13 K. aerogenes, each of which was predominant at a different time, exhibited a difference in virulence, and showed a predilection for different sites of infection. Intestinal colonisation was frequently followed by the presence of sepsis in other sites by the same capsular type. Antibiotic administration led to a higher incidence of klebsiella infection, while the widespread use of compounds containing hexachlorophane could have contributed to skin colonisation and infection by klebsiella. An environmental survey indicated that 1% Hycolin failed to disinfect the incubators, that the babies were the reservoirs of the organisms, and that transmission was due to inadequate hand-washing of nurses and mothers. The mothers were found to have been uninformed of hygienic techniques. They were observed in various practices which could have contributed to the spread of the organism, including contaminating communal areas and handling babies other than their own. It has been recommended that the mothers of premature infants be instructed in the hygienic measures required in dealing with this susceptible population and that the nursing and medical staff be more strict in their own observance of these procedures. PMID:7400339

  9. Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important influences on a child's development is the quality of his or her early care and education experiences. It is estimated that more than 1 million children in the U.S. are cared for while their parents are at work by nonlicensed caregivers who are family, friends, or neighbors - and these caregivers can be difficult to reach…

  10. Ten steps or climbing a mountain: A study of Australian health professionals' perceptions of implementing the baby friendly health initiative to protect, promote and support breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Baby Friendly Hospital (Health) Initiative (BFHI) is a global initiative aimed at protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding and is based on the ten steps to successful breastfeeding. Worldwide, over 20,000 health facilities have attained BFHI accreditation but only 77 Australian hospitals (approximately 23%) have received accreditation. Few studies have investigated the factors that facilitate or hinder implementation of BFHI but it is acknowledged this is a major undertaking requiring strategic planning and change management throughout an institution. This paper examines the perceptions of BFHI held by midwives and nurses working in one Area Health Service in NSW, Australia. Methods The study used an interpretive, qualitative approach. A total of 132 health professionals, working across four maternity units, two neonatal intensive care units and related community services, participated in 10 focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Three main themes were identified: 'Belief and Commitment'; 'Interpreting BFHI' and 'Climbing a Mountain'. Participants considered the BFHI implementation a high priority; an essential set of practices that would have positive benefits for babies and mothers both locally and globally as well as for health professionals. It was considered achievable but would take commitment and hard work to overcome the numerous challenges including a number of organisational constraints. There were, however, differing interpretations of what was required to attain BFHI accreditation with the potential that misinterpretation could hinder implementation. A model described by Greenhalgh and colleagues on adoption of innovation is drawn on to interpret the findings. Conclusion Despite strong support for BFHI, the principles of this global strategy are interpreted differently by health professionals and further education and accurate information is required. It may be that the current processes used to disseminate and implement BFHI need to be reviewed. The findings suggest that there is a contradiction between the broad philosophical stance and best practice approach of this global strategy and the tendency for health professionals to focus on the ten steps as a set of tasks or a checklist to be accomplished. The perceived procedural approach to implementation may be contributing to lower rates of breastfeeding continuation. PMID:21878131

  11. Crying babies, tired mothers - challenges of the postnatal hospital stay: an interpretive phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to an old Swiss proverb, "a new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing to her family". Today mothers rarely enjoy restful days after birth, but enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and self-care. They often face a combination of infant crying and personal tiredness. Yet, routine postnatal care often lacks effective strategies to alleviate these challenges which can adversely affect family health. We explored how new mothers experience and handle postnatal infant crying and their own tiredness in the context of changing hospital care practices in Switzerland. Methods Purposeful sampling was used to enroll 15 mothers of diverse parity and educational backgrounds, all of who had given birth to a full term healthy neonate. Using interpretive phenomenology, we analyzed interview and participant observation data collected during the postnatal hospital stay and at 6 and 12 weeks post birth. This paper reports on the postnatal hospital experience. Results Women's personal beliefs about beneficial childcare practices shaped how they cared for their newborn's and their own needs during the early postnatal period in the hospital. These beliefs ranged from an infant-centered approach focused on the infant's development of a basic sense of trust to an approach that balanced the infants' demands with the mother's personal needs. Getting adequate rest was particularly difficult for mothers striving to provide infant-centered care for an unsettled neonate. These mothers suffered from sleep deprivation and severe tiredness unless they were able to leave the baby with health professionals for several hours during the night. Conclusion New mothers often need permission to attend to their own needs, as well as practical support with childcare to recover from birth especially when neonates are fussy. To strengthen family health from the earliest stage, postnatal care should establish conditions which enable new mothers to balance the care of their infant with their own needs. PMID:20462462

  12. Maternal and foetal risk factor and complication with immediate outcome during hospital stay of very low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Mannan, M A; Jahan, N; Dey, S K; Uddin, M F; Ahmed, S

    2012-10-01

    This prospective study was done to find out the maternal and foetal risk factors and complications during hospital stay. It was conducted in Special Care Neonatal Unit (SCANU), Department of Child Health, Bangabandhu Memorial Hospital (BBMH), University of Science and Technology Chittagong (USTC) from1st October 2001 to 30th March 2002 and cases were 35 very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Common complications of VLBW babies of this series were frequent apnea (40%), Septicemia (25.71%), Hypothermia (17.14%), NEC (14.28%), Convulsion (11.43%), Hyper-bilirubinaemia (8.57%), Anemia (5.71%), IVH (5.71%), RDS (2.86%), HDN (2.86%), CCF (2.86%), ARF (2.86%), either alone or in combination with other clinical conditions. Newborns 62.86% male, 37.14% female & their mortality rate were 40.91% & 38.46% respectively; Preterm 88.57% & their mortality (41.93%) were higher than term babies (25.00%); AGA 62.86%, SGA 37.14% & mortality rate of AGA babies (45.46%) were higher than of SGA (30.77%) babies. The mortality rate of VLBW infants of teen age (≤ 18 years) mothers (57.14%) & high (≥ 30 years) aged mothers (50.00%) were higher than average (19-26 yrs) maternal age mothers (33.33%). Mortality rate was higher among the babies of primi (41.67%) than multiparous (36.36%), poor socioeconomic group (53.33%) than middle class (30.00%) & mothers on irregular ANC (47.83%) than regular ANC (25.00%). It has been also noted the mortality rate of home delivered babies (50.00%) higher than institutional delivered (34.78%) babies; higher in LUCS babies (46.15%) than normal vaginal delivered babies (31.58%); higher in the babies who had antenatal maternal problem (48.15%) than no maternal problems babies (12.50%); higher in the babies who had fetal distress (50.00%) and twin (46.67%) than no foetal risk factors (28.57%) during intrauterine life; higher in the babies who had problems at admission (46.67%) than no problems (35.00%); and mortality higher in twin (46.67%) than singleton babies (35.00%). Maximum VLBW babies who died during hospital stay had multiple problems and mortality was varied from ?60-100%. The babies who had frequent apnea have been carried relative better outcome (mortality rate 35.72%). In this study out of total 35 studied baby 21(60.00%) survived and 14(40.00%) died. Frequent apnea, sepsis, hypothermia, NEC, convulsion, jaundice, anemia, IVH, and RDS are common complications in VLBW babies. Male sex, prematurity, primiparity, average (middle) socio-economic status, irregular ANC, preterm labor, toxemia of pregnancy, prolonged rupture of membrane, malnutrition, multiple gestations and foetal distress are risk factor for VLBW delivery. Clinical outcome depends on maturity, birth weight, centile for weight, maternal age, parity, maternal nutrition & socio-economic status, ANC, place & mode of delivery, maternal problems during antenatal & perinatal period, number of gestation, fetal condition, presentation at admission, postnatal problems, time of start of management & referral and level of care. PMID:23134911

  13. The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: History, evidence, interventions, and FIGO's mother-baby friendly birthing facilities initiative.

    PubMed

    Miller, Suellen; Lalonde, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that disrespectful/abusive/coercive service delivery by skilled providers in facilities, which results in actual or perceived poor quality of care, is directly and indirectly associated with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. The present article reviews the evidence for disrespectful/abusive care during childbirth in facilities (DACF), describes examples of DACF, discusses organizations active in a rights-based respectful maternity care movement, and enumerates some strategies and interventions that have been identified to decrease DACF. It concludes with a discussion of one strategy, which has been recently implemented by FIGO with global partners-the International Pediatrics Association, International Confederation of Midwives, the White Ribbon Alliance, and WHO. This strategy, the Mother and Baby Friendly Birth Facility (MBFBF) Initiative, is a criterion-based audit process based on human rights' doctrines, and modeled on WHO/UNICEF's Baby Friendly Facility Initiative. PMID:26433506

  14. Older people’s perspectives on an elderly-friendly hospital environment: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Sushmita; Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Aryal, Umesh Raj

    2015-01-01

    Background Many older people are vulnerable with multiple health problems and need of extensive care and support for quality of life. The main objective of this study was to explore the older people’s perspectives on an “elderly-friendly” hospital. Methods Hospital was stratified by four domains including government, semi-government, community, and private. We interviewed 33 hospitalized older patients and four hospital managers between June and December 2014 in Kathmandu, Nepal, using purposive sampling technique. We executed a qualitative content analysis step with extensive review of the interviews. Final name of the theme was given after the agreement between the research team and experts to improve trustworthiness. Elderly-friendly services, expectation from government and hospital, and health policy related to senior citizen were developed as main themes. Results Most of the participants were satisfied with the behavior of health personnel. However, none of the health personnel were trained with geriatric health care. Elderly-friendly hospital guidelines and policy were not developed by any hospitals. Older people health card, advocacy for older people’s health and benefit, and hospital environment were the common expectations of older patients. Government policy and budget constraint were the main obstacles to promote elderly-friendly health care services. Conclusion Elderly-related health policies, physical environments of hospital, elderly-friendly health manpower, advocacy, and other facilities and benefits should be improved and developed. There are urgent needs to develop elderly-friendly hospital policies and guidelines that focus on older people’s health benefits and friendly services. PMID:26028980

  15. Development of a baby friendly non-contact method for measuring vital signs: First results of clinical measurements in an open incubator at a neonatal intensive care unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H.; van den Born, Marlies; van der Veen, Albert; Sikkens-van de Kraats, Janine; van den Dungen, Frank A.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2014-02-01

    For infants and neonates in an incubator vital signs, such as heart rate, breathing, skin temperature and blood oxygen saturation are measured by sensors and electrodes sticking to the skin. This can damage the vulnerable skin of neonates and cause infections. In addition, the wires interfere with the care and hinder the parents in holding and touching the baby. These problems initiated the search for baby friendly 'non-contact' measurement of vital signs. Using a sensitive color video camera and specially developed software, the heart rate was derived from subtle repetitive color changes. Potentially also respiration and oxygen saturation could be obtained. A thermal camera was used to monitor the temperature distribution of the whole body and detect small temperature variations around the nose revealing the respiration rate. After testing in the laboratory, seven babies were monitored (with parental consent) in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) simultaneously with the regular monitoring equipment. From the color video recordings accurate heart rates could be derived and the thermal images provided accurate respiration rates. To correct for the movements of the baby, tracking software could be applied. At present, the image processing was performed off-line. Using narrow band light sources also non-contact blood oxygen saturation could be measured. Non-contact monitoring of vital signs has proven to be feasible and can be developed into a real time system. Besides the application on the NICU non-contact vital function monitoring has large potential for other patient groups.

  16. Moving Towards the Age-friendly Hospital: A Paradigm Shift for the Hospital-based Care of the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Allen R.; Larente, Nadine; Morais, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Care of the older adult in the acute care hospital is becoming more challenging. Patients 65 years and older account for 35% of hospital discharges and 45% of hospital days. Up to one-third of the hospitalized frail elderly loses independent functioning in one or more activities of daily living as a result of the ‘hostile environment’ that is present in the acute hospitals. A critical deficit of health care workers with expertise and experience in the care of the elderly also jeopardizes successful care delivery in the acute hospital setting. Methods We propose a paradigm shift in the culture and practice of event-driven acute hospital-based care of the elderly which we call the Age-friendly Hospital concept. Guiding principles include: a favourable physical environment; zero tolerance for ageism throughout the organization; an integrated process to develop comprehensive services using the geriatric approach; assistance with appropriateness decision-making and fostering links between the hospital and the community. Our current proposed strategy is to focus on delirium management as a hospital-wide condition that both requires and highlights the Geriatric Medicine specialist as an expert of content, for program development and of evaluation. Conclusion The Age-friendly Hospital concept we propose may lead the way to enable hospitals in the fast-moving health care system to deliver high-quality care without jeopardizing risk-benefit, function, and quality of life balances for the frail elderly. Recruitment and retention of skilled health care professionals would benefit from this positive ‘branding’ of an institution. Convincing hospital management and managing change are significant challenges, especially with competing priorities in a fiscal environment with limited funding. The implementation of a hospital-wide delirium management program is an example of an intervention that embodies many of the principles in the Age-friendly Hospital concept. It is important to change the way hospital care is delivered to older adults in time to meet our needs when we need hospital services ourselves. PMID:23251321

  17. The Dementia Friendly Hospital Initiative Education Program for Acute Care Nurses and Staff

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Janice L.; Lach, Helen W.; McGillick, Janis; Murphy-White, Maggie; Carroll, Maria B.; Armstrong, Johanna L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias have 3.2 million hospital stays annually, which is significantly more than older individuals without dementia. Hospitalized patients with dementia are at greater risk of delirium, falls, overwhelming functional decline that may extend the hospital stay, and prolonged and/ or complicated rehabilitation. These risks support the need for staff education on the special care needs of this vulnerable population. In this article we describe a full-day educational program, the Dementia Friendly Hospital Initiative, designed to teach staff how to provide the specialized care required by patients with dementia. Participants (N=355) from five different hospitals, including 221 nurses, completed a pre-test/ post-test evaluation for the program. Changes in participants’ attitudes/ practices, confidence, and knowledge were evaluated. Scores indicated significant improvement on the post-test. The evaluation provides further evidence for recommending dissemination of the DFHI program. PMID:25299008

  18. [Observing and supporting the mother-baby bond in maternity hospitals].

    PubMed

    Pifre Pasquer, Roselyne

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of the mother-baby bond can prove difficult. It is essential to support parents as they get to know their child. Based on the observation of interactions between mothers and their babies, a practical tool has been created by a child health nurse to encourage professionals to be more attentive to the difficulties of bonding, as well as the strong points and resources which mothers can develop. The care management of vulnerable families is thereby optimised. PMID:26145297

  19. Cosleeping and Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Q&A Recipes ... their bed with their children (sometimes called the "family bed"). This is what has raised ... mother to get her sleep cycle in sync with her baby's helps babies fall ...

  20. Towards Age-Friendly Hospitals in Developing Countries: A Case Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ahmad; Seyedin, Hesam; Fadaye-Vatan, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Developing countries such as Iran are experiencing a growth in the elderly population. This is a challenge for healthcare providers and their families. This study investigated the extent in which hospitals at Tehran meet the criteria of age-friendly hospitals. Methods: In this descriptive study, using convenience sampling, 26 hospitals were selected in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The instrument was a checklist included 50 items in the three dimensions of information and training of service providers, management systems in health care centers, physical environment and accessibility of hospitals. Results: Most hospitals were in a good condition regarding physical environment and access to public transportation, but in a poor condition for special healthcare programs for the elderly, teaching principles of geriatrics and gerontology, interaction of medical staff, physicians and nurses with senior patients and systems of priority for them. Conclusion: Due to the growing elderly population, it is necessary for health policymakers, especially in developing countries, to consider seriously the issue of elderly healthcare and their need for special outpatient and inpatient services. PMID:26000245

  1. A system-wide analysis using a senior-friendly hospital framework identifies current practices and opportunities for improvement in the care of hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ken S; Ryan, David P; Liu, Barbara A

    2014-11-01

    Older adults are vulnerable to hospital-associated complications such as falls, pressure ulcers, functional decline, and delirium, which can contribute to prolonged hospital stay, readmission, and nursing home placement. These vulnerabilities are exacerbated when the hospital's practices, services, and physical environment are not sufficiently mindful of the complex, multidimensional needs of frail individuals. Several frameworks have emerged to help hospitals examine how organization-wide processes can be customized to avoid these complications. This article describes the application of one such framework-the Senior-Friendly Hospital (SFH) framework adopted in Ontario, Canada-which comprises five interrelated domains: organizational support, processes of care, emotional and behavioral environment, ethics in clinical care and research, and physical environment. This framework provided the blueprint for a self-assessment of all 155 adult hospitals across the province of Ontario. The system-wide analysis identified practice gaps and promising practices within each domain of the SFH framework. Taken together, these results informed 12 recommendations to support hospitals at all stages of development in becoming friendly to older adults. Priorities for system-wide action were identified, encouraging hospitals to implement or further develop their processes to better address hospital-acquired delirium and functional decline. These recommendations led to collaborative action across the province, including the development of an online toolkit and the identification of accountability indicators to support hospitals in quality improvement focusing on senior-friendly care. PMID:25355067

  2. Hospitals' response to the buckle-up baby legislation in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, D; Stoughton, W V

    1986-01-01

    Drivers in Ontario are legally responsible to ensure that infants and toddlers are restrained in a child safety seat or by a lap belt. In 1982 the minister of health sent a memorandum to all medical officers of health and the administrators and medical directors of all public hospitals in Ontario, urging them to encourage and assist parents in protecting their newborn children with safety seats. In 1983 the Toronto General Hospital established the Cooperative Hospital Infant Restraint Program (CHIRP) to study the feasibility of a "loaner" program for hospitals in metropolitan Toronto. The authors describe CHIRP and its objectives. They also report the results of a questionnaire they sent in 1984 to all Ontario hospitals that had a newborn or pediatric service to assess their response to the minister's memorandum. PMID:3768820

  3. The Influence of Method, Timing of Onset and Duration of Enteral Feeding on the Duration of Hospitalization of Newborn Infants in a Nigerian Special Care Baby Unit

    PubMed Central

    Ogunlesi, TA; Ogunfowora, OB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Feeding practices among high-risk newborn babies have not been extensively studied in the resource-constrained parts of the world. Aim: To describe the pattern of milk use among infants in a resource-poor special care baby unit (SCBU) and relate these to the outcome of hospitalization. Subjects and Methods: Setting – SCBU of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu. Design – Prospective study of consecutively admitted inborn babies within the first 24 h of life. The data analyzed included the weight and estimated gestational age (EGA) of the babies, the age at the onset of and duration of feeds (breast milk and artificial milk [AM]). Results: Out of the 118 infants studied, (78.8%) 93/118 received breast milk and 16.1% (19/118) received AM. The mean age at the commencement of enteral feeding was 3.9 days. The age at the onset of suckling was negatively correlated with the EGA and body weight. The age at the onset and duration of enteral feeding were directly related to the duration of admission. Conclusion: More than three-quarter of the infants hospitalized in the unit received breast milk, but commencement was mostly delayed beyond the 3rd day of life. The duration of admission may be related to the timing of onset and duration of milk use. PMID:27057377

  4. Special report. Hospitals that are becoming 'hotel friendly' to guests ... and the role played by security officers.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Faced with increasing competition, hospitals in New York City are developing programs to become more user friendly and, like hotels, to treat patients more as "guests" than as "customers." These programs, which have particular applications for security personnel, are also seeking to improve communications and relationships among the hospital's medical staff and other employees. In this report, we'll describe some of these efforts in which hospitals are turning to hoteliers, consultants, and others for advice in the area of customer service, and the role seen for hospital security. PMID:10154274

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of the “Helping Babies Breathe” Program in a Missionary Hospital in Rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Vossius, Corinna; Lotto, Editha; Lyanga, Sara; Mduma, Estomih; Msemo, Georgina; Perlman, Jeffrey; Ersdal, Hege L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Helping Babies Breathe” (HBB) program is an evidence-based curriculum in basic neonatal care and resuscitation, utilizing simulation-based training to educate large numbers of birth attendants in low-resource countries. We analyzed its cost-effectiveness at a faith-based Haydom Lutheran Hospital (HLH) in rural Tanzania. Methods Data about early neonatal mortality and fresh stillbirth rates were drawn from a linked observational study during one year before and one year after full implementation of the HBB program. Cost data were provided by the Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), the research department at HLH, and the manufacturer of the training material Lærdal Global Health. Findings Costs per life saved were USD 233, while they were USD 4.21 per life year gained. Costs for maintaining the program were USD 80 per life saved and USD 1.44 per life year gained. Costs per disease adjusted life year (DALY) averted ranged from International Dollars (ID; a virtual valuta corrected for purchasing power world-wide) 12 to 23, according to how DALYs were calculated. Conclusion The HBB program is a low-cost intervention. Implementation in a very rural faith-based hospital like HLH has been highly cost-effective. To facilitate further global implementation of HBB a cost-effectiveness analysis including government owned institutions, urban hospitals and district facilities is desirable for a more diverse analysis to explore cost-driving factors and predictors of enhanced cost-effectiveness. PMID:25006802

  6. Bringing Your Baby Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... to breastfeeding to burping — ask your nurse, lactation consultant, or your baby's doctor. continue The Car Trip ... classes, health care provider's office, hospital, or insurance company about rental or loan programs for car seats — ...

  7. A 12-year ophthalmologic experience with the shaken baby syndrome at a regional children's hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Kivlin, J D

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the ophthalmologic experience with the shaken baby syndrome (SBS) at one medical center, including clinical findings, autopsy findings, and the visual outcome of survivors. METHODS: One hundred sixteen patients admitted from 1987 to 1998 for subdural hematomas of the brain secondary to abuse were included. RESULTS: Retinal hemorrhages were detected in 84% of the children, but this important finding had been missed often by nonophthalmologists. Poor visual response, poor pupillary response, and retinal hemorrhage correlated strongly with demise of the child. One child who died had pigmented retinal scars from previous abuse, a condition not previously observed histopathologically. The clinical and autopsy findings varied somewhat, probably because of the differing conditions for examination. No correlation could be made between computerized tomography scans done during life and the subdural hemorrhage of the optic nerve found on autopsy. Half of the surviving patients were known to have good vision. One fourth of the patients had poor vision, largely due to cerebral visual impairment from bilateral injury posterior to the optic chiasm. Severe neurologic impairment correlated highly with loss of vision. CONCLUSION: This series provides information on the frequency of eye findings in SBS patients. No fundus finding is pathognomonic for SBS. When retinal hemorrhages are found in young children, the likelihood that abuse occurred is very high. The difficulty that nonophthalmologists have in detecting retinal hemorrhage may be an important limiting factor in finding these children so they may be protected from further abuse. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:10703141

  8. Postnatal demoralisation among women admitted to a hospital mother-baby unit: validation of a psychometric measure.

    PubMed

    Bobevski, I; Rowe, H; Clarke, D M; McKenzie, D P; Fisher, J

    2015-12-01

    Demoralisation is a psychological state characterised by experiences of distress and sadness, helplessness, subjective incompetence and hopelessness, in the context of a stressful situation. Experiences of demoralisation may be particularly relevant to women who have recently given birth, who can feel incompetent, isolated and helpless. The psychometric properties of the Demoralisation Scale among women in the postnatal period participating in a clinical program were examined. Women admitted with their infants to a hospital mother-baby unit in Australia for five nights were recruited consecutively (N = 209) and assessed at admission and discharge. The Demoralisation Scale was perceived as relevant and exhibited high reliability, acceptable construct validity and good sensitivity to change. The mean demoralisation score was high (M = 30.9, SD = 15.5) and associated with negative experiences of motherhood and functional impairment, independent of depression and anxiety symptoms. Mean demoralisation decreased significantly after program completion (M = 18.4, SD = 12.4). More participants showed a significant improvement in demoralisation (57.5 %) than in depression (34.8 %) and anxiety (9.8 %) symptoms. Demoralisation can provide a useful framework for understanding and measuring the experiences of women participating in postnatal clinical programs and in directing treatment towards helping women to acquire the necessary caregiving skills and increasing parental efficacy. The Demoralisation Scale is a useful clinical tool for assessing intervention effects. PMID:25520260

  9. Babies Need Tummy Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ Printer-Friendly Email Page Skip sharing on social media links Babies Need Tummy Time! Page Content Tummy Time is not only an ...

  10. [Impact of the Friend of Child and Mother hospital program in a hospital in the Mexican Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Villass Keever, M A; Romero Toledo, R M; Campos Len, G

    1998-11-01

    Breast feeding frequency in our country is between 13 and 80% and it is diminishing. One of the purposes of the Program called Hospital Friend of the Child and the Mother is to favor breast feeding but this has not been evaluated as yet. Frequency of breast feeding among the mothers who received the program, and the ones without it, in the influence area of HGZ 1-A; and the ones factors that could influenced for breast feeding. An analytic transversal study, was carried out, in mothers with a child between 6 and 12 months of age who assisted to the Outpatient consultation at HGZ 1-A and MME 10, 15 and 43, during the study period. The were invited to participate to have an interview, to know the mother's age, civil status, socioeconomical level, schooling and amount of sons. The place where her last delivery took place, was asked for. It was asked if breast feeding took place during the adequate time; the causes for not do it, and other points about breast feeding. The questionnaire in a first phase was prepared in order to be easily understood at the time of its application, and it was carried out by only one person. At the time of interview it was not known if the mother had used breast feeding or not. The amount in the sample was 261 mothers. The statistical analysis was of a descriptive type, for comparison of averages; it was used for comparison of square chi and calculations of reason of momios with IC at 95%. Two hundred and sixty two mothers were interviewed. The interview was done in 211/262, (80.5%) in the UMF and the rest at HGZ. Average age 26 years, 78.6% were married; average schooling, 8 years (74; good socioeconomical level, 70%, home labor. Amount of children was 1 to 6, 48% had only one child; average age of the last child at the time of interview, 11 moths. The resolution of the last pregnancy occurred in 73% of the cases in a IMSS hospital; 15.3% in a private hospital, and the rest in another institution. The program was given, more frequently at the IMSS, than in the rest 232/262; (88%) were breast fed. Average of time of breast feeding, 9 moths. There were no difference of sociodemographic variables in the group with breast feeding, and the one without breast feeding. The common causes (75%) for no breast feeding, were of maternal origin (infections, lack of milk production, work, etc.); the rest mentioned rejection to breast feeding. There was a better knowledge of breast feeding among the mothers who used it. The factors statistically associated to breast feeding were: conjoint lodging; to offer breast during the first hour of life; and have received information about this Program. The Program in the influence area of HGZ 1-A favors breast feeding. The factors for this were: improvement of mother-Child relation and the better knowledge of the advantages of breast feeding. PMID:9823706

  11. A cluster of salivirus A1 (Picornaviridae) infections in newborn babies with acute gastroenteritis in a neonatal hospital unit in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Boros, Ákos; Raáb, Margit; Károly, Éva; Karai, Adrienn; Kátai, Andrea; Bolba, Nóra; Pankovics, Péter; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Salivirus (family Picornaviridae) may be associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, but there have been no reports of salivirus outbreaks. Salivirus A1 infection with faecal virus concentrations of 2.1-2.6 × 10(9)/g were identified retrospectively in newborn babies, between the ages of 1.5 and 5 days, with apparent clinical symptoms of diarrhea (100 %), fever (40 %), vomiting (40 %), and loss of appetite (40 %) in a neonatal hospital unit in Hungary in July 2013. The complete genome sequence of the salivirus (including the 5'-terminal end) was determined. Salivirus mono-infection may be associated with gastroenteritis in babies who are a few days old. Salivirus testing should be done in public health laboratories in gastroenteritis outbreaks with unknown etiology. PMID:27001303

  12. Supporting Fathers in a NICU: Effects of the HUG Your Baby Program on Fathers' Understanding of Preterm Infant Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kadivar, Maliheh; Mozafarinia, Seyedeh Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Fathers of preterm babies in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are under stress. Lack of knowledge about a preterm infant's behavior challenges new fathers who may be required to make decisions about the hospitalized infant, to update concerned family and friends, and to provide support to the mother while she recovers from giving birth. The NICU nurses have the opportunity to support and guide these new fathers, although no previous research has confirmed how to do so effectively. This study confirmed that using The HUG Your Baby DVD and family-friendly educational program with fathers of preterm babies in a NICU increased fathers' knowledge of infant behavior and, as previous research suggests, is likely to boost fathers' confidence and to promote the parent-child relationship and strengthen the family unit. PMID:24421604

  13. Babies and diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea and babies ... be difficult to tell when your baby has diarrhea. Most babies have a stool pattern that is ... following to help decide whether your baby has diarrhea: A sudden increase in how often your baby ...

  14. In re Baby K.

    PubMed

    1994-02-10

    The Fourth Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals affirmed the district court ruling that the Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA) requires a hospital to provide respiratory support to Baby K, an infant born with anencephaly, when she is presented at the hospital for such treatment. Fairfax Hospital in Falls Church, Virginia, had originally sought a declaratory judgment releasing it from any duties beyond providing warmth, hydration, and nutrition to the infant. The hospital argued that to continue treatment would be "medically and ethically inappropriate" given Baby K's prognosis. The court held that EMTALA requires hospitals and associated physicians to provide stabilizing treatment to anyone who comes in need of such care to a Medicare-participating hospital. The statute was enacted in response to hospitals' refusal of emergency medical treatment to individuals who could not afford it. The court noted that until Congress recognizes specific exceptions legislatively, hospitals will be required to provide similar care in analogous situations. PMID:11648610

  15. Validation of the existing modified screening criteria for detection of all cases of Retinopathy of Prematurity in preterm babies – 11 year study from a governorate referral hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mary K.; Sawardekar, Kiran P.; Ayoub, Hani Gameel; Busaidi, Ibrahim Al

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study appropriateness of our modified screening criteria for detection of all cases of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) among preterm babies. Method Retrospective observational cohort study among preterm neonates who underwent ROP screening as per set protocol for 11 years at Nizwa Hospital, Al Dhakilya Governorate, Oman. We screened all babies with gestational age ⩽32 weeks or BW ⩽ 1500 g. Preterm babies >32 weeks of GA or BW > 1500 g with unstable clinical course believed to be at high risk by the attending neonatologist also were screened. Results During the study period 528 babies were screened for ROP of which 76 babies were excluded due to death, associated congenital ocular malformation and loss for follow-up either due to transfer to other institution or defaulting. Thus 452 babies were included in the final analysis. Incidence of ROP was 46.4% of which 27.9% had mild ROP, 11.3% had severe ROP which regressed and 7.3% had severe ROP who were treated. The incidence of ROP among infants with GA < 26 wks, 26–28 wks, 29–30 wks, 31–32 wks and above 32 weeks was 100.0%, 80.0%, 59.3%, 34.4% and 19.4% respectively. 56 babies of this cohort belonged to Extended (modified) criteria group. Among these 12 babies had ROP out of which 9 had mild ROP and 3 had severe ROP. Among cases with severe ROP, two cases regressed spontaneously and one case needed treatment. Multivariate analysis using stepwise regression model showed statistically significant association of GA and BW to development of ROP. We would have missed few babies with ROP if we had followed other criteria. Conclusion Our modified screening criteria seem to be appropriate as no infant with severe ROP was missed during the study period. Incidence of severe ROP among babies in the extended criteria group (5.4%) is low but significant compared to lower gestational age. We plan to formulate a scoring system following all risk factor analysis to enable us to optimize the number of infants screened. Detection of all babies with ROP is important as they need long-term follow-up for the timely detection and management of associated ocular comorbidities. PMID:26949350

  16. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  17. Breast is best for babies.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alexander K. C.; Sauve, Reginald S.

    2005-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the optimal method of infant feeding. Breast milk provides almost all the necessary nutrients, growth factors and immunological components a healthy term infant needs, Other advantages of breastfeeding include reduction of incidences and severity of infections; prevention of allergies; possible enhancement of cognitive development; and prevention of obesity, hypertension and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Health gains for breastfeeding mothers include lactation amenorrhea, early involution of the uterus, enhanced bonding between the mother and the infant, and reduction in incidence of ovarian and breast cancer. From the economic perspective, breastfeeding is less expensive than formula feeding. In most cases, maternal ingestion of medications and maternal infections are not contraindications to breastfeeding. Breastfeeding, however, is contraindicated in infants with galactosemia. The management of common breastfeeding issues, such as breast engorgement, sore nipples, mastitis and insufficient milk, is discussed. Breastfeeding should be initiated as soon after delivery as possible. To promote, protect and support breastfeeding, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) developed the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) 10 Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in promoting and protecting breastfeeding. PMID:16080672

  18. Baby Steps to Better Care: One Hospital's Story of Success in Health Care Improvement for Newborns and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Susan; Pedulla, Mary Jo; Philipp, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary support for families of newborns is critical for their health and safety. This article describes three programs at one urban hospital which were implemented to (a) improve breastfeeding support, (b) enhance practitioners' observation and communication skills, and (c) provide a comprehensive social response to the urgent

  19. Baby Steps to Better Care: One Hospital's Story of Success in Health Care Improvement for Newborns and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minear, Susan; Pedulla, Mary Jo; Philipp, Barbara L.

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary support for families of newborns is critical for their health and safety. This article describes three programs at one urban hospital which were implemented to (a) improve breastfeeding support, (b) enhance practitioners' observation and communication skills, and (c) provide a comprehensive social response to the urgent…

  20. Gender Issues in Parenting Cleft Lip and Palate Babies in Southern Nigeria: A Study of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umweni, A. A.; Okeigbemen, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    There is a scarcity of studies on gender issues in parenting cleft lip and palate (CLAP) babies. The birth of a CLAP child presents an immediate visible handicap that is distressing to parents. The aims and objectives of this study are to determine the influence of gender on the attitude of parents on the birth of CLAP babies, to articulate the…

  1. Silent Birth: Mourning a Stillborn Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringham, Jean G.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Based on clinical interviews with 20 women, describes the experience of giving birth to and mourning a stillborn baby. Issues include pregnancy, delivery, seeing and touching the baby, autopsy, burial, "making memories," and mourning. Discusses the social worker's role in clinical practice and in influencing hospital procedures. (Author)

  2. Postnatal Support Strategies for Improving Rates of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Case of Caesarean Baby.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, E; Chowdhury, R B; Begum, S; Shapla, N R; Shahida, S M

    2015-10-01

    Despite awarness of the many advantages of breast feeding exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rate is still lower than recommended practice and the rate is less in case of caesarean baby. In an effort towards achieving better breast feeding practices, UNICEF and WHO launched the baby friendly hospital initiative in 1991 to ensure that all maternity facilities support mothers in making the best choice about feeding. The implementation of effective programs improves rates of short and long term exclusive breast feeding even in case of caesarean baby. The objective of present study was to investigate whether postnatal support improves the rate of exclusive breast feeding in case of caesarean baby compared with usual hospital care. This was a longitudinal study over one and half year period, from April 2009 to October 2011 done in Combined Military Hospital in Mymensingh. A total of 565 pregnant women were included this study. Primary outcome was early establishment of breast feeding after caesarean section. Secondary outcome was exclusive breast feeding at discharge from hospital, two weeks and six weeks after caesarean section delivery. Early establishment of breast feeding within one hour after caesarean section was higher in postnatal support group than usual care group (70.29% vs. 57.14%). Rates of exclusive breastfeeding in the postnatal support strategies group were significantly higher when compared with those who received usual hospital care at discharge (89.13% vs. 75.94%, p=0.004), at 2 weeks (85.51% vs. 53.38%, p<0.001) and at 6 weeks (74.64% vs. 38.35%, p<0.001). Postnatal lactation support, as single intervention based in hospital significantly improves rates of exclusive breast feeding. PMID:26620014

  3. Babies and heat rashes

    MedlinePlus

    Heat rashes and babies; Prickly heat rash; Red miliaria ... To avoid heat rash , keep your baby cool and dry during warm weather. Some helpful suggestions: During the hot season, dress your baby in lightweight, soft, cotton clothing. Cotton ...

  4. JSW's baby cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Toda, Y.; Kaneda, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Suzukawa, I.; Yamada, T.

    1983-04-01

    Designed by The Japan Steel Works, Ltd., specially for installation in a hospital's medical department and nuclear research laboratory, '' JSW BABY CYCLOTRON '' has been developed to produce short-lived radioisotopes such as 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F. JSW's Baby Cyclotron has some design features. 1) Fixed energy and four sector azimuthally varying field. 2) Compact figure desired for hospital's nuclear medical department 3) A bitter type magnet yoke shielding activity 4) Simple control and operation 5) Easy maintenance without skilled personnel. Type BC105 (P:10MeV, d:5MeV), BC107 (P:10MeV, d:7MeV), BC168 (P:16MeV, d:8MeV) and BC1710 (P:17MeV, d:10MeV) are available according to required amount of radioisotopes. In our radioisotope production test, yield and purity of 11C, 13N, 15O and 18F are usable to clinical diagnosis.

  5. Spitting Up in Babies

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Spitting Up in Babies Why do babies spit up? Babies spit up when they've eaten too much or when they've swallowed too much air while feeding. Spitting up usually happens when babies burp. It can also ...

  6. DEMENTIA-FRIENDLY HOSPITALS: CARE NOT CRISIS AN EDCUATIONAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE THE CARE OF THE HOSPITALIZED PATIENT WITH DEMENTIA

    PubMed Central

    Galvin, James E.; Kuntemeier, Barbara; Al-Hammadi, Noor; Germino, Jessica; Murphy-White, Maggie; McGillick, Janis

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 3.2 million hospital stays annually involve a person with dementia, leading to higher costs, longer lengths of stay and poorer outcomes. Older adults with dementia are vulnerable when hospitals are unable to meet their special needs. Methods We developed, implemented and evaluated a training program for 540 individuals at 4 community hospitals. Pre-test, post-test and a 120-day delayed post-test were collected to assess knowledge, confidence and practice parameters. Results The mean age of the sample was 46y; 83% were Caucasian, 90% were female and 60% were nurses. Upon completion, there were significant gains (ps <.001) in knowledge and confidence in recognizing, assessing and managing dementia. Attendees reported gains in communication skills and strategies to improve the hospital environment, patient safety and behavioral management. At 120 days, 3 of 4 hospitals demonstrated maintenance of confidence. In the hospital that demonstrated lower knowledge and confidence scores, the sample was older and had more nurses and more years in practice. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of training hospital staff about dementia and its impact on patient outcomes. At baseline, there was low knowledge and confidence in the ability to care for dementia patients. Training had an immediate impact on knowledge, confidence and attitudes with lasting impact in 3 of 4 hospitals. We identified targets for intervention and the need for ongoing training and administrative reinforcement in order to sustain behavioral change. Community resources, such as local chapters of the Alzheimers Association, may be key community partners in improving care outcomes for hospitalized persons with dementia. PMID:20625267

  7. What to Take to the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby. Health insurance information A nightgown or big shirt to wear during labor, although a hospital ... the baby. Health insurance information A nightgown or big shirt to wear during labor, although a hospital ...

  8. Baby walkers . . . time to take a stand?

    PubMed Central

    Gleadhill, D N; Robson, W J; Cudmore, R E; Turnock, R R

    1987-01-01

    Experience in our hospital and figures from the Home Accident Surveillance System indicate that the number of accidents involving baby walkers is increasing. Safety specifications issued by the British Standards Institution are rarely, if ever, met in full by manufacturers. Home accident prevention measures have been shown to be of limited benefit. We advocate more stringent implementation of safety features in the design of baby walkers. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3606183

  9. Compassionate Friends

    MedlinePlus

    ... International Support Related Organizations About Us The Compassionate Friends Our Mission Organization Leadership 2014 Strategic Plan Board ... Lighting Walk to Remember Chapter Walks to Remember Friends Asking Friends Virtual Walk Webinars Calendar National Calendar ...

  10. Shaken Baby Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... baby syndrome. NIH Patient Recruitment for Shaken Baby Syndrome Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 The Arc of the United States 1825 K Street, NW ...

  11. Shaken baby syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Shaken baby syndrome can occur from as little as 5 seconds of shaking. Shaken baby injuries usually occur in children younger than 2 years old, but may be seen in children up to the age of 5. When ...

  12. Immunizations for Preterm Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Immunizations For Preterm Babies Page Content Some parents of ... full-term and preterm babies. The hepatitis B vaccine deserves special mention. In most circumstances, the AAP ...

  13. Choosing Safe Baby Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... confusing, especially with all the new gadgets and features available (not to mention the many product recalls). ... Gates Choosing Safe Baby Products: Infant Seats & Child Safety Seats (Car Seats) Choosing Safe Baby Products: Playpens Choosing Safe ...

  14. Your Growing Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... below predict. By the end of their first month, most babies: Make jerky, quivering arm movements Bring ... 1 Month . By the end of their third month, most babies: Raise head and chest when lying ...

  15. The Health Literacy Environment of Hospitals and Health Centers. Partners for Action: Making Your Healthcare Facility Literacy-Friendly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, Rima E.; Anderson, Jennie E.

    2006-01-01

    The "health literacy environment" of a healthcare facility represents the expectations, preferences, and skills of those providing health information and services. Some of these demands are in the form of physical aspects of the hospital or health center, such as signs and postings. At the same time, access to and navigation of health services…

  16. The Physics of Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemella, Philip

    2013-03-01

    Since the 2011 birth of my daughter I have been a 100% as a stay-at-home dad and 50% researcher. My ``Routine Adventures'' in the baby universe are the subject of this fun talk that presents the unique challenges of baby physics. Topics include ``Schroedinger's Baby'' and ``The Entropy of Rice.''

  17. Babies and Briefcases: Creating a Family-Friendly Workplace for Fathers. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Hearings on family-friendly workplaces for fathers were held in an effort to help create a corporate culture that allows fathers to take advantage of and support different workplace policies. Fathers' impact on children's development, and the reasons why it is important for fathers to be part of the parenting process, are examined. Representative…

  18. Reducing the risk of baby falls in maternity units.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Helen

    During a 12-month period there were 17 baby falls on the maternity wards at Nottingham University Hospitals Trust; two of the babies who fell were injured. By collecting information about the baby falls and how they happened, we were able to compile a guideline for both preventing and managing baby falls. This formed part of the trust's patient safety programme. We then piloted and implemented risk-prevention strategies for baby falls. These involved a risk assessment to identify women needing closer observation and the installation of bedside cots. These strategies brought about a marked reduction of baby falls and are now being established across all the maternity units across the trust. PMID:26477232

  19. Hepatology in the 21st century. Gene transfer, hepatocyte transplantation, DNA chips, cyberspace and ... a friendly hospital.

    PubMed

    Jansen, P L

    1999-12-01

    What to expect for hepatology in the 21st century? If science is allowed to proceed at its current rate, expectations can hardly be underestimated. Bound by the present day's limitations we are only able to see a glimpse of what could be available 100 years from now. For the next few decades, the global eradication of viral hepatitis will be on the agenda. For the treatment of inherited and acquired metabolic, toxic and immune liver disease, targeted drugs, genes and antisense oligonucleotides will be added to our therapeutic repertoire. The completion of the human genome project in 2003 will have far-reaching consequences: the widespread use of prenatal diagnosis, using DNA chip technology, may be expected to cause a dramatic decrease in the incidence of inherited diseases. Liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and inborn errors of metabolism may be treated by gene transfer or gene repair therapy. Although eventually these developments may decrease the need for organ transplantation, this by no means is the case yet and no solution is available for an increased demand and a decreased supply of organs. In the long run, diseases caused by multi-drug-resistant infectious agents and diseases associated with the abuse of alcohol and drugs are expected to become major problems. The future of university-based research is uncertain. The staggering costs of research and limited career possibilities may force universities to the limited task of higher education, with as a result biotech companies, shareholders and corporate finance ruling the scientific waves in the next century. The 21st century patient will know the way in cyberspace and will go shopping for the best doctor, for the best treatment and for the best, or friendliest, hospital. PMID:10628176

  20. Child Health USA 2013: Postpartum Visit and Well-Baby Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2007. ↑ Back to top Graphs This image is described in the Data section. ... Friendly Downloads Postpartum Visit and Well-Baby Care Graphs (39k zipped folder of 2 GIFs) Postpartum Visit ...

  1. Trimming Your Baby's Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... task with a partner: one person holding the baby to keep the little one from squirming and the other trimming the ... nails down without the risk of giving your little one any nicks. If you ... with fussy, fidgeting babies), don't worry. Using a sterile gauze pad, ...

  2. The Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Darby L.; Verdeyen, Tasha B.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a project about babies undertaken by a class of children ranging in age from 2.9 years to 3.9 years old in a small Illinois town. Throughout this project, the children studied equipment and supplies needed to care for babies. They made dolls for the classroom, constructed a cradle, made observational drawings, created topic…

  3. After vaginal delivery - in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... remain in the hospital for 24 hours after delivery. Take advantage of this time to bond with ... Right after delivery, your baby will likely be placed on your chest while a nurse closely evaluates your baby's transition. Transition ...

  4. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... life, your baby needs only breast milk or formula for proper nutrition. Your baby will digest breast ...

  5. Treating the "wise baby".

    PubMed

    Vida, Judith E

    2005-03-01

    In a previous examination of Ferenczi's concept of the "Wise Baby" (1996), I had noted both its applications and its limitations in the analytic treatment of an unusually intelligent adult. Ferenczi's concepts of "the origin of intellect in trauma" and of "the wise baby" have often left the indistinct impression of being interrelated phenomena. In this paper, I regard as arguable the notion that very high intelligence is pathological when it is "precocious." This return visit to the territory of the "wise baby" extends Ferenczi's ideas about the "origin" and use of the intellect to include a consideration of what may constitute effective "treatment" for those who suffer from giftedness. PMID:15754110

  6. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spaide, R F; Swengel, R M; Scharre, D W; Mein, C E

    1990-04-01

    Violent shaking causes severe injury in infants, but the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome is often difficult to make because of the lack of obvious external signs. Consultations by other specialists may not be helpful, since the findings of most organ systems, taken in isolation, are usually nonspecific. Shaken baby syndrome should be considered in infants presenting with seizures, failure to thrive, vomiting associated with lethargy or drowsiness, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypertension or hypotension, respiratory irregularities, coma or death. Shaken babies are usually less than one year old, and most are under six months of age. Head injury (notably subdural hemorrhage) and retinal hemorrhages are the hallmarks of the syndrome. PMID:2181831

  7. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  8. Baby Acne (Neonatal Acne)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby's skin is worsening despite using daily cleansing with a gentle soap, it is best to ... unnecessary, and the lesions may resolve with gentle cleansing of the skin. The first-line treatment most ...

  9. Isospinning baby Skyrmion solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike

    2013-12-01

    We perform full two-dimensional (2D) numerical relaxations of isospinning soliton solutions in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken by the 2D analogue of the pion mass term in the Skyrme model. In our calculations we explicitly allow the isospinning solitons to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configurations. We find that stable isospinning baby Skyrme solutions can be constructed numerically for all angular frequencies ω≤min⁡(μ,1), where μ is the mass parameter of the model. Stable, rotationally symmetric baby Skyrmion solutions for higher angular velocities are simply an artefact of the hedgehog approximation. Isospinning multisoliton solutions of topological charge B turn out to be unstable to break up into their B charge-1 constituents at some critical breakup frequency value. Furthermore, we find that for μ sufficiently large the rotational symmetry of charge-2 baby Skyrmions becomes broken at a critical angular frequency ω.

  10. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  11. Finger Foods for Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Finger Foods for Babies KidsHealth > For Parents > Finger Foods for ... will accept a new food. previous continue Finger Foods to Avoid Finger feeding is fun and rewarding ...

  12. Infants & Toddlers: "Baby Moves"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2007-01-01

    By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…

  13. Compact baby Skyrmions

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, C.; Klimas, P.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2009-11-15

    For the baby Skyrme model with a specific potential, compacton solutions, i.e., configurations with a compact support and parabolic approach to the vacuum, are derived. Specifically, in the nontopological sector, we find spinning Q-balls and Q-shells, as well as peakons. Moreover, we obtain compact baby skyrmions with nontrivial topological charge. All these solutions may form stable multisoliton configurations provided they are sufficiently separated.

  14. Successful liver transplantation in babies under 1 year.

    PubMed Central

    Beath, S V; Brook, G D; Kelly, D A; Cash, A J; McMaster, P; Mayer, A D; Buckels, J A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To review the outcome of liver transplantation in babies aged less than 1 year. DESIGN--Prospective evaluation of survival, clinical complications, and nutritional and developmental status before and one year after liver transplantation. SETTING--The Children's Hospital and Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham. SUBJECTS--All 25 babies who received liver transplantation from January 1989 to December 1992 were included. Median age was 9 months and median weight was 7.0 kg. Seven babies were assessed but were not given transplants because they died while on the waiting list (two) or had severe extrahepatic disease (five). RESULTS--24 babies had severe decompensated liver disease and 20 were severely malnourished despite nutritional support. Six babies received a whole liver graft and 19 received a reduction hepatectomy. Postoperative complications included primary nonfunction of the transplanted liver (one baby), hepatic artery thrombosis (two), biliary obstruction (seven), acute and chronic rejection (six), and sepsis (18). Three babies required a second transplant; all survived. Three babies, two of whom presented with fulminant hepatic failure, died. The overall actuarial survival rate (4 months to 4 years) is 88%. Review at 12 months showed a dramatic improvement in growth (p < 0.001) and normal psychosocial development with good quality of life. CONCLUSION--The improvement in survival rates and quality of life in this group of very sick babies is related not only to the development of reduction hepatectomy but also to advances in medical and nursing expertise. Early referral for liver transplantation is justified even if babies are critically ill. PMID:8401122

  15. Assessing the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Care: The State of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores the extent to which infants and toddlers are regularly in the care of nonparental relatives, friends, and neighbors and notes the limited research on the quality of care provided by family, friends, and neighbors. (Note: This article is an excerpt from "Who's Watching the Babies?: Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and

  16. The History and Examination of the Shaken Baby Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaton, Scott Larue

    2013-01-01

    The History and Examination of the Shaken Baby Project looks at the use of a Child Abuse prevention program at a Southwestern Community Hospital. The origination of the program is researched that uncovers the inception of the curriculum used in the medical facility. The Administrative and Hospital Staff are surveyed to determine their viewpoint to…

  17. [Periodontal infection in pregnant women and low birth weight babies].

    PubMed

    Sembene, M; Moreau, J C; Mbaye, M M; Diallo, A; Diallo, P D; Ngom, M; Benoist, H M

    2000-03-01

    Among several factors in preterm low birth weight, we can find pre-conceptional causes and others depending on pregnant women's behaviour. In 1996 a scientific team composed by periodontists, gynaecologists and epidemiologists found that 18% of preterm low birth weight in 250,000 babies are due to periodontal infection. In our survey we used 113 pregnant women in gynaecological clinic in university hospital. By using Community Periodontal Index Treatment Needs (CPITN) in pregnant woman and by weighting babies as soon as accouchement done. In spite of percentage of preterm low birth weight, we registered 33.9% babies of normal birth weight with mother's CPITN under 1. PMID:11372142

  18. The baby killers are still at large.

    PubMed

    Power, J

    1994-08-12

    This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago. PMID:12319575

  19. When Babies Scream: Why Babies Scream and What to Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    When a baby screams, that is a signal that all is not well for the body of the baby, for her emotional well-being, and/or for the baby's relationship with the teacher. During the first year of life, infants learn that adults are in control of providing reassuring care. Adults will "make things better" when a baby's tummy feels horribly empty, when…

  20. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.

    1996-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  1. Media and breastfeeding: Friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jane D; Peuchaud, Sheila Rose

    2008-01-01

    The mass media have the potential to be powerful friends or foes in promoting breastfeeding. The media could help by putting the issue of breastfeeding on policy agendas and by framing breastfeeding as healthy and normative for baby and mother. Currently, however, it looks as if the media are more often contributing to perceptions that breastfeeding is difficult for mothers and potentially dangerous for babies. This paper presents a brief overview of research on the media and breastfeeding, some insights into the market forces and human psychological factors that may play into media representations of breastfeeding, and strategies to help breastfeeding advocates work more effectively with the media. PMID:18680582

  2. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Food Allergies Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before ... A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a baby before birth may seem ...

  3. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change. PMID:17477218

  4. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  5. Protecting Your Baby from RSV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Protecting Your Baby from RSV Page Content Article Body RSV is ... if they encounter it. How to Reduce Your Baby's Chances of Developing a More Serious RSV Infection: ...

  6. Healthy Smile for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Floss once a day before bedtime. m Eat healthy foods, like whole-grain products, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, ... or brush your baby’s teeth, give your baby healthy foods, and take your baby to the dentist by ...

  7. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…

  8. Boosting Your Baby's Brain Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach

  9. MotherToBaby

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy and breastfeeding. ¡Hablamos Español! MotherToBaby Launches New Zika Virus Educational Tools Read the Press Release Lead, Water ... the issue … [Read More] Pregnancy Health Experts Unveil Zika Virus Educational Tools Ahead of World Birth Defects Day ...

  10. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miehl, Nickolaus J

    2005-01-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a violent act of abuse that can cause myriad neurologic, cognitive, and other functional deficits. In the most serious cases, death can result. Health care practitioners, child care providers, and parents must be educated on the signs of SBS. Cases should be thoroughly reviewed and prevention strategies developed to prevent future incidents. PMID:17073042

  11. Beating the baby blues.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lorinda

    2012-02-01

    Family Action has been providing practical, emotional and financial support to vulnerable and disadvantaged families since 1869. Family Action's new Perinatal Project works with pregnant women and new mothers, with children up to the age of one, who may be at risk of depression. The Project operates in four locations across England in partnership with other agencies, including midwives, to improve parental mental health and mother and baby attachment. Through the guidance of a project co-ordinator and trained befrienders, many of whom understand the loneliness and worries that sometimes come with a new baby, vulnerable women will be given assistance to cope with the changes in their lives. The Project is being evaluated by a team led by Professor Jane Barlow of the University of Warwick ahead of a perinatal conference next summer. PMID:22720444

  12. Aloof baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We show that a suitable choice for the potential term in the two-dimensional baby Skyrme model yields solitons that have a short-range repulsion and a long-range attraction. The solitons are therefore aloof, in the sense that static multi-soliton bound states have constituents that preserve their individual identities and are sufficiently far apart that tail interactions yield small binding energies. The static multi-soliton solutions are found to have a cluster structure that is reproduced by a simple binary species particle model. In the standard three-dimensional Skyrme model of nuclei, solitons are too tightly bound and are often too symmetric, due to symmetry enhancement as solitons coalesce to form bound states. The aloof baby Skyrmion results endorse a way to resolve these issues and provides motivation for a detailed study of the related three-dimensional version of the Skyrme model.

  13. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  14. "Baby rattle" pelvis dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cormier-Daire, V; Savarirayan, R; Lachman, R S; Neidich, J A; Grace, K; Rimoin, D L; Wilcox, W R

    2001-04-15

    We report an apparently previously undescribed lethal skeletal dysplasia, clinically resembling achondrogenesis, but with distinct radiologic and chondro-osseous morphologic features. These comprise bifid distal ends of the long bones of the limbs, absent vertebral body ossification, a unique "baby rattle" pelvic configuration with tall and broad ilia, absent endochondral ossification, regions of mesenchymal cells within the resting cartilage, and abnormal mesenchymal ossification. PMID:11337746

  15. Working in collaboration to achieve UNICEF baby friendly accreditation.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Anne; Bond, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Effective training and education of health professionals is required to ensure that women receive the best education, support and advice to breastfeed (National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 2006). In England it has been recommended that purchasing authorities should incorporate UNICEF standards into their commissioning plans (NICE 2006), thereby embedding the evidence into mainstream health and social services. Whilst many university programmes are underpinned with UNICEF standards, relatively few universities have achieved full accreditation in the UK (UNICEF 2009). PMID:25109073

  16. Implementing the Friends and Family Test.

    PubMed

    Mcintyre, Lyn; Davies, Karen; Fox, Carolyn; Taft, June

    This article discusses the background to the Friends and Family Test, highlighting the commitment to improve the patient experience. It also demonstrates how patient feedback was used to improve services in Aintree University Hospital Foundation Trust. PMID:26016093

  17. Friends and Relatives

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Stillbirth Common Causes Facts Sheet Frequently Asked Questions Research Another Baby? Reducing the Risk of Stillbirth Surviving ... here? About SIDS/SUID Facts Sheet Frequently Asked Questions Triple Risk Model Research Another Baby? Preventive Strategies Helping Children For Grandparents ...

  18. Health Issues of Premature Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool ...

  19. Colostrum: Your Baby's First Meal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool ...

  20. Neurobehavioral assessment of appropriate for gestational and small for gestational age babies.

    PubMed

    Padidela, Raja Narender Rao; Bhat, Vishnu

    2003-11-01

    he present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehaviour of term appropriate for gestational aland small for gestational age babies during the first two weeks of life in a tertiary care hospital. Forty eight appropriate and thirty small for gestation age babies were evaluated using Brazelton Neurobehavioural Assessment Scale on 3rd, 7th and 14th day of life. The behaviour of AGA babies is characterized by optimal performance in habituation, range of state, regulation of state and autonomic stability. The behavior is at low to mid-range in orientation and in motor clusters. All the behavior clusters showed improvement over first 14 days except for regulation of state which showed a lower performance on day 7 and 14. The behavior performance of SGA babies on day 3, compared to AGA babies, was lower in all the clusters except orientation where they performed much better. The percentage improvement of scores in SGA babies is higher than in AGA babies and by day 14 SGA babies are scoring higher than AGA babies in orientation, autonomic stability and regulation of state. The difference in the neurobehavior pattern of babies in relation to their intrauterine growth suggests need for appropriate care. PMID:14660837

  1. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Altimier, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Non-accidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury. Clinical features that suggest head trauma (also known as shaken baby syndrome or shaken impact syndrome) include the triad consisting of retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Abusive head injuries are among the most common causes of serious and lethal injuries in children. These injuries may result from impact or shaking or a combination of these mechanisms. These mechanisms cause the child's head to undergo acceleration/ deceleration movements, which may create inertial movement of the brain within the cranial compartment. PMID:18287904

  2. Mapping the Baby Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanjek, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.

  3. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Heidi A; Woodson, Arnetta; Christian, Cindy W; Helfaer, Mark A; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Huh, Jimmy W

    2006-09-01

    Unfortunately, head trauma caused by shaken baby syndrome is a common occurrence in infants and young children. The proper treatment and safety of these children can be enhanced by the nurse's ability to recognize features characteristic of this syndrome. If abuse is suspected, appropriate physicians, child-protective, and law-enforcement agencies should be notified immediately. Further research must be done to improve the understanding of the mechanisms associated with this disorder in the ultimate hope of improving the lives and outcome of infants and children. PMID:16962449

  4. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  5. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arun Babu, T; Venkatesh, C; Mahadevan, S

    2009-09-01

    A 35-day-old male infant with presumed shaken baby syndrome is reported. This first born child to mother educated upto middle school and father tailor by occupation was brought from a remote village 180 kms away from JIPMER. Poor feeding, focal clonic seizures were the initial symptoms. The fundus examination revealed fresh preretinal and vitreous hemorrhages. CT Brain showed right sided subdural hemorrhage with subarachnoid extension and midline shift. He had a normal platelet count and coagulation profile. The sensorium deteriorated and infant expired despite adequate ventilatory support. PMID:19904512

  6. Your Baby's Hearing and Communicative Development Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Your Baby's Hearing and Communicative Development Checklist On this page: Talk ... as eye blinking or mouth movements. Your babys hearing and communicative development checklist Birth to 3 Months ...

  7. Having a Baby (Especially for Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients About ACOG Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Home For Patients Search FAQs Having a Baby ( ... 2015 PDF Format Having a Baby (Especially for Teens) Especially For Teens What is prenatal care? What ...

  8. Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... and veteran — may have. Where should my baby sleep? There are many options for where your baby ...

  9. Fetal Echocardiography/Your Unborn Baby's Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Echocardiography / Your Unborn Baby's Heart Updated:Oct 26,2015 ... fetal echocardiogram? A fetal echocardiogram is a detailed ultrasound performed of the baby's heart before the baby ...

  10. Friend to Friend: Helping Your Friends through Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, J. David; Keefauver, Larry

    This book describes the friend-to-friend process, a non-professional approach for helping a friend through a problem. The first chapter presents a transcript of a high school senior working through a problem. The use of three questions which address three levels of the human personality (thoughts, feelings, and actions) is described. Guidelines

  11. Working with Family, Friend, and Neighbor Caregivers: Lessons from Four Diverse Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Douglas R.

    2011-01-01

    This article is excerpted from "Who's Watching the Babies? Improving the Quality of Family, Friend, and Neighbor Care" by Douglas R. Powell ("ZERO TO THREE," 2008). The article explores questions about program development and implementation strategies for supporting Family, Friend, and Neighbor (FFN) caregivers: How do programs and their host…

  12. Baby Moves: Relation to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    Teachers who are specialists in motoric skill-building need to think about ways in which they can help the whole child develop. This paper discusses: (1) fine and gross motor development in infancy; (2) baby cuddling for optimal motoric development; (3) cross-cultural studies and infant body holding; (4) floor freedom for babies; (5) body language…

  13. Breastfeeding status and marketing practices of baby food manufactured in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Mathur, G P; Pandey, P K; Mathur, S; Mishra, V K; Singh, K; Bhatt, O P; Loomba, R K; Luthra, C; Taneja, S; Kapoor, R

    1993-11-01

    In January 1993 in Kanpur, India, a survey of 7 private nursing homes revealed that infant formula was given to most newborns (52.4%). The most common brands included Lactogen-I, Milk Care, Raptakos, Dexolac Special Care, and Lactodex. Staff at 5 nursing homes gave prelacteal feeds (water, glucose water, and infant formula) to newborns when they were separated from their mothers. Staff at only 2 nursing homes gave the newborn to the mother immediately after delivery. The longest period between delivery and giving the newborn to the mother was 24 hours. All but one of the nursing homes did not know about the government policy and the recent bill that bars free or low-cost infant formula supplies to hospitals. The administration of the nursing homes did not inform the procurement department, in writing, of the government policy. 4 nursing homes bought low-cost supplies of infant formula from the companies. The companies sold the infant formula to the nursing homes at a price 48.3% to 86.7% lower than the market price. Medical stores inside or outside the nursing homes sold the infant formula to parents at the other 3 homes. The nursing homes used, on average, 2-50 kg/month. Nestle (Lactogen-I) and Dalmia Industries (Milk Care) had a monopoly in infant formula in 4 and 3 nursing homes, respectively. Infant formula was in stock in 5 nursing homes. None of the nursing homes gave mothers free or low-cost infant formula at discharge. Lower than market price and increased number of calls to the hospitals and physicians by company personnel were marketing techniques used by the manufacturers to maintain market share. These results show that, despite government policy and the bill, hospitals continue to use infant formula. The government should use the mass media to increase awareness about its policy on infant foods and the concept of the Baby Friendly Hospital. PMID:8039859

  14. Isorotating baby Skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halavanau, A.; Shnir, Ya.

    2013-10-01

    We discuss how internal rotation with fixed angular frequency can affect the solitons in the baby Skyrme model in which the global O(3) symmetry is broken to the SO(2). Two particular choices of the potential term are considered, the “old” potential and the “new” double vacuum potential, We do not impose any assumptions about the symmetry on the fields. Our results confirm existence of two types of instabilities determined by the relation between the mass parameter of the potential μ and the angular frequency ω. It is shown that multi-Skyrmions in the model with old potential at some critical value of the angular frequency become unstable with respect to decay into single Skyrmion constituents.

  15. When babies turn yellow

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mark Chung Wai; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. Most afflicted babies have physiological jaundice and their prognosis is good. However, others have pathological jaundice, which must be detected early. High levels of serum bilirubin can also result in bilirubin encephalopathy. This article describes consultation tasks in the primary care setting with the aim of providing a guide for the safe management of neonatal jaundice. They include clinical assessment of the baby’s well-being; looking out for features that suggest pathological jaundice; assessment for the presence of high-risk features; utilising appropriate laboratory tests for monitoring; assessing the degree of jaundice to decide if the child can be safely followed up in primary care; and providing advice on primary prevention measures and allaying parental concerns. The importance of stool colour examination and its role in early detection of cholestatic jaundice is emphasised. PMID:26668403

  16. Diarrhea and rotavirus infection associated with differing regimens for postnatal care of newborn babies.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R F; Cameron, D J; Veenstra, A A; Barnes, G L

    1979-01-01

    Surveillance of 2,041 babies born during 4 winter months in one obstetric hospital in Melbourne, Australia, showed that 215 developed acute diarrhea during the first 2 weeks of life. Babies requiring special care from birth had a high incidence of sporadic diarrhea (36%). The incidence of diarrhea among healthy full-term babies was low if they were "rooming-in" with their mothers (2 to 3%) but high if they were housed in communal nurseries (29%). The most important factor influencing incidence of diarrhea was proximity to other newborn babies and frequency of handling by related adults. Breast feeding did not always protect babies from diarrhea. Excretion of rotaviruses was temporally retlated to diarrhea in 61 to 76% of healthy full-term babies and in 44% of babies requiring special care. Other eneteric pathogens, including enerotoxigenic Escherichia coli, were occasionally isolated. Calculation of the ratios of symptomatic to asymptomatic infection suggests that babies requiring special care are much more likely to develop symptomatic illness after rotavious infection than are full-term babies. Images PMID:222807

  17. Risks of Baby Walkers and Options for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Alnoor; McIntyre, Lynn; Khazen, Roch

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have reported fatal head injuries associated with baby walkers. Skull fractures and hospital admissions are significantly higher for infants who have received head injuries while using a walker. Thirty to 50% of infants regularly placed in walkers experience an accident or injury related to the device. Most injuries are minor cuts, abrasions and contusions. While there are many hazards, no benefits have been documented. The walkers do not help children learn to walk. Options for preventing injury including banning baby walkers, product design regulations, and public education about the risks. An outright ban would be difficult, because walkers are not considered inherently dangerous; they become so when parental supervision is lacking. Although design specifications will decrease some walker-related injuries, they will not prevent severe or fatal head injuries associated with falls down stairs. Public awareness of hazards from baby walkers and discouragement of their use are recommended preventive measures at this time. PMID:21274133

  18. Step 8: Encourages All Mothers, Families to Touch, Hold, Breastfeed, Care for Their Babies

    PubMed Central

    Storton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Step 8 of the Ten Steps to Mother-Friendly Care encourages all mothers and families, including those with sick or premature newborns or infants with congenital problems, to touch, hold, breastfeed, and care for their babies to the extent compatible with their conditions. The rationales for compliance with the step and systematic review are presented. PMID:18523668

  19. You don't leave your baby--mother's experiences after a stillbirth.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, H; Malm, M C; Rdestad, I

    When a baby has died during pregnancy, the first encounter between mother and child occurs when the baby is already dead. Despair, emptiness, and grief characterize the encounter, which is also a gradual farewell to the child and the planned future for the family. This study describes mothers' experiences of the farewell of their stillborn baby at discharge from hospital. Twenty-three mothers from different parts of Sweden, who suffered stillbirth, were interviewed. Semi-structured questions were used and the replies were analyzed using content analysis. The mothers describe the separation from the child when leaving hospital as unnatural and that the separation ruins the motherhood they felt during pregnancy. Five categories were identified: unnatural to leave the baby; going home empty-handed; access to the child; security and insecurity in the separation; to let go. The overarching theme that we recognized from these responses we have formulated as: You don't leave your baby. Leaving the baby at the hospital goes against the biological instinct to care for and protect the offspring. Routines for a dignified goodbye including designating a deputy guardian into whose arms the mother can place the baby can help to facilitate the separation. The possibility of leaving the baby in the arms of someone known to the parents should be an option for parents who choose to take farewell of the child at the hospital. The place and time for the farewell should be decided on by the parents, taking the baby home for a personal farewell could be an alternative. PMID:24968620

  20. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It should be supported if it is initiated with good intentions; if the maximum possible effort is made at said facility to protect the interests, rights, and safety of the child; and if no clear evidence of harm exists. PMID:23433312

  1. Community baby shower as a transcultural nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Duffy, S A; Bonino, K; Gallup, L; Pontseele, R

    1994-01-01

    A community assessment was conducted by nursing students to determine the educational needs of Native American women whose infants were at risk for infant mortality. As a result, a culturally based community baby shower was provided for the women and their infants which incorporated health education. Games, prizes, and lunch were provided for the mothers upon completion of educational newborn care, immunizations, and infant safety learning activities. The intervention project based upon maintaining a Native American cultural theme was used with cake, favors, prizes, invitations, and advertisements. In addition, a recognized Native American spiritual leader was invited to begin the shower with a traditional blessing. Multiple community resources such as businesses, stores (including drug), churches, hospitals, a local nursing home, and several private individuals also contributed time, money, and baby care items for the shower. From the advertising, many women expressed interest in attending the baby shower than could be accommodated. Press releases provided exposure for the school of nursing, contributors, participants, and many members of the Native American community. A pre- and post-test survey indicated that by the end of the baby shower, all 10 key native American women participants were able to demonstrate the use of the information taught by the nursing students. The baby shower enhanced the Native American mothers' self confidence and provided them with culturally sensitive care. The welcoming atmosphere created by the students for the Native Americans was also important to the success of the project. PMID:7946136

  2. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research A Healthy Mouth For Your Baby Healthy teeth are important—even ... fact sheet can help you keep your baby’s mouth healthy and give him a healthy start! 1. ...

  3. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar

    2015-06-01

    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents. PMID:25616019

  4. Rourke Baby Record 2014

    PubMed Central

    Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources to be used by both health care professionals and parents for preventive health care during early childhood. The 2014 RBR is endorsed by the Canadian Paediatric Society, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, and the Dietitians of Canada. National and Ontario versions of the RBR are available in English and French. PMID:26564653

  5. Where should babies sleep?

    PubMed

    Mace, Sue

    2006-06-01

    An average of six babies die unexpectedly each week. Sudden infant death syndrome is the predominant cause but many deaths are recorded as unascertained. Medical experts continue to research the causes of these infant deaths, and advice to parents is constantly being evaluated and revised in an attempt to reduce the numbers even further. Bed shadng or co-sleeping is a topic that triggers debate and conflict of advice between health professionals, which may leave parents confused. Bed sharing is known to be dangerous when the mother smokes but there are other factors which are also dangerous and need to be considered before an informed decision is made. This article reviews some of the most relevant research in order to give health professionals the knowledge needed to aid parents in making their decision. Three main areas were studied because of their relevance to bed-sharing and sudden infant death syndrome. These were sleep position, smoking and alcohol consumption and breastfeeding. Recent concerns highlighting sofa sleeping are also considered. PMID:16780286

  6. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  7. Prevention of shaken baby syndrome: Never shake a baby.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michelle Gk; Bennett, Susan; King, W James

    2004-05-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) represents injuries to the head, skeleton and eyes of a young child and is the leading cause of fatal or life-threatening child abuse. SBS is preventable. The dangers and consequences of shaking a baby are not well appreciated by the general public. Simple educational programs and community nursing support programs have been shown to be helpful. Inadequate physician training and knowledge in child maltreatment have also been identified as problems. This article outlines the evidence for interventions in the prevention of SBS and recommendations for health care providers and educators. PMID:19657516

  8. Baby Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol

    2012-01-01

    What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.

  9. Designer babies--why not?

    PubMed

    Evans, M

    2001-02-01

    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments. PMID:15586985

  10. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Magnetothermodynamics of BPS baby skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The magnetothermodynamics of skyrmion type matter described by the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model at zero temperature is investigated. We prove that the BPS property of the model is preserved also for boundary conditions corresponding to an asymptotically constant magnetic field. The BPS bound and the corresponding BPS equations saturating the bound are found. Further, we show that one may introduce pressure in the gauged model by a redefinition of the superpotential. Interestingly, this is related to non-extremal type solutions in the so-called fake supersymmetry method. Finally, we compute the equation of state of magnetized BSP baby skyrmions inserted into an external constant magnetic field H and under external pressure P , i.e., V = V ( P, H), where V is the "volume" (area) occupied by the skyrmions. We show that the BPS baby skyrmions form a ferromagnetic medium.

  12. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... rhinitis (hay fever), getting hands dirty in the garden has consequences. Sneezing, itchy eyes, congestion and other ...

  13. Friend or Foe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ages & Stages Listen Text Size Email Print Share Friend or Foe? Page Content Article Body Help your ... him with the skills he needs to choose friends wisely. I came to the realization this past ...

  14. NIH Loses a Friend

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. NIH Loses a Friend Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Donald ... changingthefaceofmedicine/ . Sincerely, Donald West King, M.D., Chairman Friends of the National Library of Medicine Let Us ...

  15. Shaken baby syndrome: an odyssey.

    PubMed

    Uscinski, Ronald H

    2006-02-01

    Shaken baby syndrome is evaluated in the context of its historical evolution and its veracity in referring to causal injury mechanisms. A rational assessment of the injury causation and consequent pathological states associated with the syndrome is presented. It is now evident that shaken baby syndrome evolved as a result of a faulty application of scientific reasoning and a lack of appreciation of mechanisms of injury. A brief explanation of the commonly understood usage and interface of scientific methodology and reasoning as applied to clinical medicine is given. PMID:16498213

  16. Surviving the Sudden Death of a Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Stillbirth Common Causes Facts Sheet Frequently Asked Questions Research Another Baby? Reducing the Risk of Stillbirth Surviving ... here? About SIDS/SUID Facts Sheet Frequently Asked Questions Triple Risk Model Research Another Baby? Preventive Strategies Helping Children For Grandparents ...

  17. What Really Works to Help Baby Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159009.html What Really Works to Help Baby Sleep Two long-recommended methods seem effective and bring ... News) -- Common techniques for helping babies -- and parents -- sleep at night seem to carry no long-term ...

  18. "Babies Grow a Long Time": A Preschool Project about Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Andromahi

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section 319.56-43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section 319.56-43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section 319.56-43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  4. You Are Your Baby's First Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn M.

    This easy-to-read manual for parents describes what a baby learns in the first year of life and suggests specific things parents or caregivers can do to encourage a baby to use his body, senses, and mind to communicate. Each chapter is concerned with 1 month of the infant's life and includes sections on (1) Baby's Viewpoint (discussion of the…

  5. Shaken Baby Syndrome. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Susan

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about shaken baby syndrome, brain damage resulting from forceful shaking of an infant or young child. Questions and answers address the following topics: what shaken baby syndrome is and other names for the condition; the diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome; the incidence…

  6. Understanding How Babies Build Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2006-01-01

    Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…

  7. Changing School Demographics: The New Baby Boom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Sara

    This paper addresses the demographic and socioeconomic effects on schools of the "new baby boom," consisting of school-age children of the original "baby boomers." The effects of this second-generation demographic trend include a higher proportion of minority students (since the decline in marriage and birth rates among baby boomers reaching

  8. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  9. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an

  10. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…

  11. How Active Is Your Baby?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the earliest weeks of life, walk around the house while holding and interacting with your baby and say aloud the names of the objects that the 2 of you encounter. Before long, she’ll want to reach out, touch them, ...

  12. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  13. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive toys, this…

  14. Drug Affected Babies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR. Dept. of Research, Evaluation, and Testing.

    This 42-item annotated bibliography, represents a comprehensive effort to gather information on the educational problems of infant children of substance-abusing parents. Extensive searches were conducted in databases in the fields of education, medicine, social sciences, and the humanities. In particular, studies on the problems of "crack babies"…

  15. Babies, Toddlers and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive toys, this

  16. The Baby Boomers' Intergenerational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…

  17. Care of the Migrant Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard

    Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,

  18. Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Jakusovaite, Irayda

    2007-01-01

    Background The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of these values with quality of life using M. Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values scale. M.Rokeach distinguished terminal values (such as world peace, wisdom, and happiness), which are preferred end-states of existence, and instrumental values (such as responsibility and cooperation), which are preferred modes of conduct. Methods We performed a representative anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of nurses working in regional hospitals of Lithuania. The nurses who participated in the study were distributed into four work cohorts: the Veterans, the Baby Boomers, the Generation Xers, and the Generation Nexters. The majority of the nurses belonged to the Baby Boomers and the Generation Xers cohorts. Since in Lithuania, like in the whole Europe, the representatives of the Baby Boomers generation are predominating among working people, we selected this cohort (N = 387) for the analysis. The survey data was processed using the SPSS statistical software package Results The main values in life were family security, tranquility, and a sense of accomplishment. However, such values as true friendship, equality, and pleasurable and leisured life were seen as rather insignificant. The most important instrumental values were honesty, skillfulness, and responsibility. Our study showed a statistically significant (albeit weak) correlation between the QOL and terminal values such as the sense of accomplishment, tranquility, equality, and pleasure, as well as the instrumental value – obedience. We detected a statistically significant relationship between good QOL and satisfaction with oneself, relationships with the surrounding people, and friends' support. Conclusion The findings of our study showed that, although Lithuania was under a totalitarian regime for 50 years, both the terminal and the instrumental values of the Baby Boomers generation are very similar to those of the same generation in other countries. PMID:17996067

  19. Recommendations for involving the family in developmental care of the NICU baby

    PubMed Central

    Craig, J W; Glick, C; Phillips, R; Hall, S L; Smith, J; Browne, J

    2015-01-01

    Family involvement is a key to realize the potential for long-lasting positive effects on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of all babies, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Family-centered developmental care (FCDC) recognizes the family as vital members of the NICU health-care team. As such, families are integrated into decision-making processes and are collaborators in their baby's care. Through standardized use of FCDC principles in the NICU, a foundation is constructed to enhance the family's lifelong relationship with their child and optimize development of the baby. Recommendations are made for supporting parental roles as caregivers of their babies in the NICU, supporting NICU staff participation in FCDC and creating NICU policies that support this type of care. These recommendations are designed to meet the basic human needs of all babies, the special needs of hospitalized babies and the needs of families who are coping with the crisis of having a baby in the NICU. PMID:26597804

  20. Parents first moments with their very preterm babies: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Leah; Sawyer, Alexandra; Rabe, Heike; Abbott, Jane; Gyte, Gillian; Duley, Lelia; Ayers, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess parents first experiences of their very preterm babies and the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Participants 32 mothers and 7 fathers of very preterm babies (<32?weeks gestation). Setting Three neonatal units in tertiary care hospitals in South East England. Results Five themes were identified. The first describes parents blurred recall of the birth. The second shows the anticipation of seeing and touching their baby for the first time was characterised by contrasting emotions, with some parents feeling scared and others excited about the event. The third theme describes parents first sight and touch of their babies and their rollercoaster of emotions during this time. It also highlights the importance of touch to trigger and strengthen the parentbaby bond. However, some parents were worried that touching or holding the baby might transmit infection or interfere with care. The fourth theme captures parents impressions of NICU and how overwhelming this was particularly for parents who had not toured NICU beforehand or whose first sight of their baby was on NICU. The final theme captures unique experiences of fathers, in particular that many felt excluded and confused about their role. Conclusions This study informs family-centred care by providing insight into the experiences of parents of very preterm infants at a time when they are most in need of support. Clinical implications include the importance of offering parents preparatory tours of the NICU and including fathers. PMID:23550091

  1. Caesarean section and neonatal outcomes in private hospitals in Brazil: comparative study of two different perinatal models of care.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Sandall, Jane; Hartz, Zulmira; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Correa; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-08-01

    This study aims at comparing caesarean section rates and neonatal outcomes of two perinatal models of care provided in private hospitals in Brazil. Birth in Brazil data, a national hospital-based cohort conducted in the years 2011/2012 was used. We analysed 1,664 postpartum women and their offspring attended at 13 hospitals located in the South-east region of Brazil, divided into a "typical"--standard care model and "atypical"--Baby-Friendly hospital with collaborative practices between nurse-midwives and obstetricians on duty to attend deliveries in an alternative labour ward. The Robson's classification system was used to compare caesarean sections, which was lower in the atypical hospital (47.8% vs. 90.8%, p<0.001). Full term birth, early skin-to-skin contact, breastfeeding in the first hour, rooming-in care, and discharge in exclusive breastfeeding were more frequent in the atypical hospital. Neonatal adverse outcome did not differ significantly between hospitals. The atypical hospital's intervention should be further evaluated since it might reduce caesarean section prevalence and increase good practices in neonatal care. PMID:25167181

  2. Clinical study of prolonged jaundice in breast- and bottle-fed babies.

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, C R; MacFaul, R

    1978-01-01

    A study of 893 births was undertaken to determine the incidence of prolonged neonatal jaundice. 55% of these babies were breast feeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. Jaundice lasting for 3 weeks or more was found in 12 breast-fed term babies (2-4% of all breast-fed babies), and in no bottle-fed infant. 3 of the jaundiced babies gained weight poorly in the first 3 weeks of life, but after that age failure to thrive was not associated with the prolonged jaundice. The hyperbilirubinaemia, which persisted in 11 infants from between 21 to 80 days (mean 39 days), was due to elevations in both conjugated and unconjugated fractions. PMID:686778

  3. The baby boom, the baby bust, and the housing market.

    PubMed

    Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N

    1989-05-01

    This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement. PMID:12283640

  4. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"].

    PubMed

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C

    2005-10-01

    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD. PMID:16139550

  5. When your baby is stillborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: Pay attention to your health. Eat and sleep well so your body stays strong. Find ways to express your feelings. Joining a support group, talking to family and friends, and keeping a journal ...

  6. Wormholes, baby universes, and causality

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M. )

    1990-02-15

    In this paper wormholes defined on a Minkowski signature manifold are considered, both at the classical and quantum levels. It is argued that causality in quantum gravity may best be imposed by restricting the functional integral to include only causal Lorentzian spacetimes. Subject to this assumption, one can put very tight constraints on the quantum behavior of wormholes, their cousins the baby universes, and topology-changing processes in general. Even though topology-changing processes are tightly constrained, this still allows very interesting geometrical (rather than topological) effects. In particular, the laboratory construction of baby universes is {ital not} prohibited provided that the umbilical cord'' is never cut. Methods for relaxing these causality constraints are also discussed.

  7. Trauma and the wise baby.

    PubMed

    Kilborne, Benjamin

    2011-09-01

    This paper expands upon Ferenczi's concept of the wise baby and explores the dynamics of ignorance and compensatory ideals of wisdom as reactions to trauma and as manifestations of "double conscience," shame dynamics and Oedipal shame. Focusing on feelings of ignorance, of knowing and not knowing and their relation to trauma, the author elaborates on the dynamics of fantasies of wisdom, adumbrating implications for psychoanalytic technique. PMID:21818096

  8. Baby universes in string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-03-15

    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 2} but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e{sup -N}) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  9. Limitations of child injury data from the CPSC's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System: the case of baby walker related data.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, H. B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The US Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) is a primary source for children's consumer product injury surveillance data in the US. Differing interpretations of the emergency department based NEISS baby walker data by various parties prompted this detailed examination, reclassification, and analysis of the NEISS data to explain these discrepancies. METHODS: Case selection was performed by searching the NEISS 1982-91 database for the baby walker product code and various text strings for children less than 24 months old. False negative and false positive cases were identified and reclassified. Adjusted population rates were computed and the types and locations of hospitals contributing to the sample were examined. RESULTS: One per cent false positive and 4% false negative misclassification rates were observed. In 1991, two children's hospitals reported 14% of the baby walker related injuries, though these hospitals made up just 2% of the sample frame. Through random allocation, one state currently contains four acute care hospitals and the only two children's hospitals reporting to the NEISS system. These six hospitals contributed 18% of the walker cases whereas the state represents only 3% of the US infant population. CONCLUSIONS: Misclassification in NEISS baby walker reports is minimal, with false negatives outweighing false positives. For trend analysis of product related injuries at the frequency of occurrence observed for baby walkers, NEISS suffers from low sensitivity due to sampling error. For children's injuries, NEISS' estimates have been affected by children's hospitals coming in and out of the sample and currently reflects a random geographic imbalance because one state contributes both of the reporting children's hospitals. To overcome these problems improved multiple product coding, a unique baby walker code, and stratification of children's hospitals in an enlarged NEISS sample is recommended. PMID:9346058

  10. Quit4baby: Results From a Pilot Test of a Mobile Smoking Cessation Program for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Text messaging (short message service, SMS) programs have been shown to be effective in helping adult smokers quit smoking. This study describes the results of a pilot test of Quit4baby, a smoking cessation text messaging program for pregnant smokers that was adapted from Text2quit. Objective The study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby for women currently enrolled in Text4baby, a perinatal health text messaging program. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in Text4baby and who were current smokers or had quit within the last 4 weeks (n=20) were enrolled in Quit4baby. Those under the age of 18, not pregnant, not current smokers, those using nicotine replacement therapy, and those not interested in participating were ineligible. Participants were surveyed at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks postenrollment. Results Most participants responded to the program favorably. Highly rated aspects included the content of the program, skills taught within the program, and encouragement and social support provided by the program. Participants reported that the program was helpful in quitting, that the program gave good ideas on quitting, and that they would recommend the program to a friend. Suggestions for improvement included increasing the message dose and making the quitpal more interactive. Conclusions This pilot test provides support for the feasibility and acceptability of Quit4baby. Future studies are needed to assess whether Quit4baby is effective for smoking cessation during pregnancy. PMID:25650765

  11. Hospital Web site 'tops' in Louisiana. Hospital PR, marketing group cites East Jefferson General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rees, Tom

    2002-01-01

    East Jefferson General Hospital in Metairie, La., launched a new Web site in October 2001. Its user-friendly home page offers links to hospital services, medical staff, and employer information. Its jobline is a powerful tool for recruitment. The site was awarded the 2002 Pelican Award for Best Consumer Web site by the Louisiana Society for Hospital Public Relations & Marketing. PMID:12238238

  12. Baby foods: formulations and interactions (a review).

    PubMed

    Nasirpour, Ali; Scher, Joël; Desobry, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Infant foods have a special place among food products mainly because of nutritional aspects and preparations methods. A great increase of baby foods incomes is predicted in near future. Formulation, handling, and storage of baby foods are important to keep nutritional quality and physicochemical properties of these foods. During storage some reactions and interactions occur which change physicochemical and nutritional properties of baby foods. Lactose crystallization, Maillard reaction, oxidation, and interactions between micronutrients and other components are the most important aspect of preparation and storage of baby foods. These reactions and interactions influence physical properties such as flowability of powder, solubility, and other functional properties. Controlling of storage conditions such as temperature and moisture content and oxygen quantity in headspace of product is required to keep product quality. In this paper the composition and interactions of baby foods between major components and their effect on nutritional quality of baby foods are explained. PMID:17092831

  13. Friends' Discovery Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  14. Friend Finder (Game)

    MedlinePlus

    ... página en español Video and Media Friend Finder (Game) Email Embed Grab this Game : Helping Friends and Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimer’s is adjusting to your “new normal” and helping family and friends do the same. Knowing what to ...

  15. Providing free samples of baby items to newly delivered parents. An unintentional endorsement?

    PubMed

    Hayden, G F; Nowacek, G A; Koch, W; Kattwinkel, J

    1987-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that providing free sample packs of baby items to newly delivered parents may adversely influence parental health behavior. To determine the extent of this practice in Virginia, the head nurses of all 68 newborn nurseries and a random sample of 200 pediatricians were surveyed. Formula samples were being distributed at all hospitals. Formula packs were given to breast-feeding mothers at 65 (95%) hospitals although only 66 percent of the surveyed pediatricians approved of this practice. Samples of baby items other than formula (e.g., baby powder) were being distributed at 66 (97%) hospitals. Some physicians (18%) objected to the distribution of these nonformula samples, and others were not familiar with the content of these packs. In most instances, the hospital medical staff had not voted to approve the distribution of these packs. Parents were being informed only rarely about the source and intent of the packs. The provision of sample packs to newly delivered parents affects approximately 3,000,000 babies each year in the United States. The short- and long-term effects of providing these packs have been inadequately explored. Physicians should make an active decision whether to distribute sample packs. Those physicians choosing to dispense these samples may wish to review and edit the content of the packs and to enclose in the pack a brief note explaining that the provision of the products does not constitute a medical endorsement. PMID:3816007

  16. Investigation of restricted baby Skyrme models

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Wereszczynski, A.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.

    2010-04-15

    A restriction of the baby Skyrme model consisting of the quartic and potential terms only is investigated in detail for a wide range of potentials. Further, its properties are compared with those of the corresponding full baby Skyrme models. We find that topological (charge) as well as geometrical (nucleus/shell shape) features of baby Skyrmions are captured already by the soliton solutions of the restricted model. Further, we find a coincidence between the compact or noncompact nature of solitons in the restricted model, on the one hand, and the existence or nonexistence of multi-Skyrmions in the full baby Skyrme model, on the other hand.

  17. The Baby Doe regulations: governmental intervention in neonatal rescue medicine.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1984-06-01

    This first of three articles on federal regulation involving the treatment of handicapped newborns focuses on the two versions of Department of Health and Human Services rules issued in March and July 1983 and known as the "Baby Doe" regulations. Annas reviews events leading up to the first set of rules; the resulting suit by the American Academy of Pediatrics and others; the differences between the original and reissued regulations; and the recommendation that hospitals establish Infant Care Review Committees. He concludes that the regulations have not adequately dealt with the controversial issue of government intervention in difficult treatment decisions. PMID:6232863

  18. Planning for the baby boomers' healthcare needs: a case study.

    PubMed

    Albert, Terri C; Johnson, Edward; Gasperino, Daniel; Tokatli, Pinar

    2003-01-01

    Will the impact of baby boomers, as they age, be a bonanza or a bust for the healthcare system? A range of perspectives prevail, from increasing in-patient admissions capacity to accommodate the sheer numbers, to the creation of a variety of healthcare services and delivery channels that address their unique requirements. This case study presents a top 100, regional hospital's approach to this dilemma. The strategic marketing process using segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) was employed to guide the administration's planning and decision making. PMID:15683020

  19. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

    1. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight babies

      PubMed Central

      Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Eslami, Zia; Rashidi-Meibodi, Fahimeh; Haerian, Alireza; Dallalnejad, Pantea; Shekari, Marjan; Moein Taghavi, Amir; Akbari, Solmaz

      2013-01-01

      Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW) (birth weight below 2500g- case group) and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group). The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs) were used for periodontal assessment Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test). Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042), and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW. PMID:24639799

    2. Methadone as a chemical weapon: two fatal cases involving babies.

      PubMed

      Kintz, Pascal; Villain, Marion; Dumestre-Toulet, Véronique; Capolaghi, Bernard; Cirimele, Vincent

      2005-12-01

      Methadone is largely used for the substitution management of opiate-dependent individuals but can also be easily found on the black market. The first cases involving repetitive sedation linked to the use of methadone and subsequent death of 2 babies are reported. At the autopsy, no particular morphologic changes were noted except for pulmonary and visceral congestion. There was no evidence of violence, and the pathologist in both cases found no needle marks. Toxicological analyses, as achieved by GC/MS, demonstrated both recent and repetitive methadone exposure. In case 1, a 14-month-old girl was found dead at home. Blood concentrations were 1071 and 148 ng/mL for methadone and EDDP, respectively. Hair (6 cm) tested positive at 1.91 and 0.82 ng/mg for methadone and EDDP, respectively. In case 2, a 5-month-old girl was taken to hospital in a pediatric unit for coma. Antemortem blood analysis demonstrated methadone exposure (142 ng/mL), and the baby was declared dead 12 days after admission. Hair analysis (5 cm) by segmentation was positive for methadone in the range 1.0 (root) to 21.3 ng/mg (end). The death of the babies was attributed to accidental asphyxia ina situation where methadone was considered as a chemical weapon. The mothers, who were the perpetrators in both cases, did not deny the use of methadone as a sedative drug. PMID:16404812

    3. Stop experimenting on my baby!

      PubMed

      Holzman, I R

      1999-09-01

      Having a small sick baby in a neonatal intensive care unit can be an extremely difficult experience for any family. A minority family brings to this setting the additional burden of a concern that racism may affect the care their child receives. While the technology may be overwhelming, the unique rules and an apparent disparity in the enforcement of these rules can suggest discrimination. In some cases, these parental perceptions lead to a charge of experimentation. An increased understanding by health care providers of the cultural differences and life experiences that families bring to stressful situations can improve communication. PMID:10477482

    4. Baby powder use in infant skin care. Parental knowledge and determinants of powder usage.

      PubMed

      Hayden, G F; Sproul, G T

      1984-03-01

      One hundred parents of infants aged 2 weeks to 6 months were surveyed at the time of routine well-child visits to assess parental knowledge about baby powder and to determine whether hospital policy of providing a free powder sample to newly delivered mothers was unwittingly promoting powder usage. Most parents (69%) reported regular baby powder use as part of routine infant skin care. Powder-users were significantly more likely than nonusers to attribute to baby powder the ability to kill bacteria and yeast and to prevent diaper rash (p less than 0.01). Even among nonusers, fewer than half were aware that aspiration/ingestion of baby powder was a potential health hazard. Almost all parents reported receiving a free sample of baby powder while in the hospital as part of a complimentary gift pack provided by the manufacturers. Most powder-users were currently using a brand they had received as a sample, and eight parents cited the receipt of a sample as the major determinant for selecting a particular brand of powder. The short- and long-term effects of distributing sample packs to newly delivered parents deserve further study. PMID:6697622

    5. Who will lead your hospital?

      PubMed

      Putre, Laura

      2013-05-01

      As baby boom executives retire at an ever-increasing pace, leading-edge hospitals are using a variety of tactics to find Gen Xers and Gen Yers with leadership potential and help them acquire the skills they'll need. PMID:23814951

    6. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... mouth healthy and give him a healthy start! Ann talks with Maria Ann and her friend Maria were watching Maria’s children play. “What are you doing?” asked Ann. “I’m cleaning my baby’s teeth,” said Maria. “ ...

    7. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

      2011-01-01

      The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

    8. "Benign" shaken baby syndrome. Case report.

      PubMed

      Martínez-Lage, J F; Ros de San Pedro, J; Puche, A; Pérez-Espejo, M A

      2006-08-01

      The authors report an infant with clinical and neuroimaging findings of shaken baby syndrome. The pitfalls encountered in the assessment on the cause of the bilateral frontal and interhemispheric subdural hematomas in this child are also briefly discussed. We have called this condition "benign" shaken baby syndrome and emphasize that not always acute subdural hematomas are of non-accidental nature. PMID:16960646

    9. Baby Blues’ Highbush Blueberry

      Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

      Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

    10. Pre-Term Babies. Caring About Kids.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sargent, Marilyn

      One of a series designed to help parents care for their children and themselves by promoting good mental health, this pamphlet provides information about preterm babies. In nine brief sections, readers find various information, including a description of the preterm infant, a discussion of causes of preterm birth and low-weight babies, and a…

    11. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa

      2011-01-01

      The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each

    12. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Honig, Alice Sterling

      2004-01-01

      Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…

    13. The "baby lung" became an adult.

      PubMed

      Gattinoni, Luciano; Marini, John J; Pesenti, Antonio; Quintel, Michael; Mancebo, Jordi; Brochard, Laurent

      2016-05-01

      The baby lung was originally defined as the fraction of lung parenchyma that, in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), still maintains normal inflation. Its size obviously depends on ARDS severity and relates to the compliance of the respiratory system. CO2 clearance and blood oxygenation primarily occur within the baby lung. While the specific compliance suggests the intrinsic mechanical characteristics to be nearly normal, evidence from positron emission tomography suggests that at least a part of the well-aerated baby lung is inflamed. The baby lung is more a functional concept than an anatomical one; in fact, in the prone position, the baby lung "shifts" from the ventral lung regions toward the dorsal lung regions while usually increasing its size. This change is associated with better gas exchange, more homogeneously distributed trans-pulmonary forces, and a survival advantage. Positive end expiratory pressure also increases the baby lung size, both allowing better inflation of already open units and adding new pulmonary units. Viewed as surrogates of stress and strain, tidal volume and plateau pressures are better tailored to baby lung size than to ideal body weight. Although less information is available for the baby lung during spontaneous breathing efforts, the general principles regulating the safety of ventilation are also applicable under these conditions. PMID:26781952

    14. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Baird, Stephen L.

      2007-01-01

      "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive

    15. Rich Responses Help Babies Learn and Thrive

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca

      2009-01-01

      This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."

    16. Libraries Are for Babies, Too! [Videotape.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

      This video, produced and shot in Maine libraries, provides a tour of five different approaches to library services for babies. Highlights include: "Finger Fun for Babies" at the Portland Public Library; "Small Is Beautiful" at the Wells Library; unique outreach activities sponsored by the Casco Library and Warren Library in Westbrook; and a…

    17. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family

      MedlinePlus

      ... a Booger? Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A Text Size What's in ... first look at the newest member of your family. Expect your brother or sister to be small, ...

    18. Your Baby's Development: The Third Trimester

      MedlinePlus

      ... eyelashes and eyebrows and may have a full head of hair. Or, he or she may be born bald. ... off. You may see some of the leftover hair after your baby is born. Most of this usually is gone within the first few weeks of life. Most babies move to a head-down position in the uterus toward the end ...

    19. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. Most newborn screening test ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

    20. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... About Food Allergies Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby Print A A A Text Size What's ... recommendations. If you've recently moved to a new area, you may not have personal or social ...

    1. Infants and Toddlers: Soothing and Comforting Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Honig, Alice Sterling

      2004-01-01

      Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to

    2. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Baird, Stephen L.

      2007-01-01

      "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

    3. What to Do if Your Baby's Screening Reveals a Possible Hearing Problem

      MedlinePlus

      ... for Parents Name of baby: ________________________________ Birthday: ______/______/______ By 1 month old: Make sure that your babys hearing has ... your baby is 1 month old. By 3 months old: If your baby didnt pass the ...

    4. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams respectively. There was a substantial agreement range from k=.883, (p<.01) to k=.943, (p<.01) between adjusted and unadjusted percentile classification for the subgroups of male and female babies and first born and later born ones. Birth weight charts were adjusted for maternal height using regression methods. The birth weight charts for the first born and later born babies were regrouped into 4 categories, including male and female sexes of the babies. Reference ranges were acquired both for term and preterm babies. With economic reforms, one expects improvement in birthweights. The mean (sd) birthweights of the year 1996 was 2846 (562) as compared to year 2010 (15 years later) which was 2907 (571). There was only a difference of 61 grams in the mean birthweights over one and a half decade. Conclusion New standards are presented from a large number of deliveries over 15 years, customised to the maternal height, from a south Indian tertiary hospital. Reference ranges are made available separately for first born or later born babies, for male and female sexes and for term and preterm babies. PMID:23409828

    5. Maternal satisfaction with organized perinatal care in Serbian public hospitals

      PubMed Central

      2014-01-01

      Background Understanding the experiences and expectations of women across the continuum of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care is important to assess the quality of maternal care and to determine problematic areas which could be improved. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with maternal satisfaction with hospital-based perinatal care in Serbia. Methods Our survey was conducted from January 2009 to January 2010 using a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of 50% of women who expected childbirths during the study period from all 76 public institutions with obstetric departments in Serbia. The following three composite outcome variables were constructed: satisfaction with technical and professional aspects of care; communication and interpersonal aspects of care; and environmental factors. Results We analyzed 34,431 completed questionnaires (84.2% of the study sample). The highest and lowest average satisfaction scores (4.43 and 3.25, respectively) referred to the overall participation of midwives during delivery and the quality of food served in the hospital, respectively. Younger mothers and multiparas were less concerned with the environmental conditions (OR = 0.55, p = 0.006; OR = 1.82, p = 0.004). Final model indicated that mothers informed of patients’ rights, pregnancy and delivery through the Maternal Counseling Service were more likely to be satisfied with all three outcome variables. The highest value of the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was between the overall satisfaction score and satisfaction with communication and interpersonal aspects of care. Conclusions Our study illuminated the importance of interpersonal aspects of care and education for maternal satisfaction. Improvement of the environmental conditions in hospitals, the WHO program, Baby-friendly Hospital, and above all providing all pregnant women with antenatal education, are recommendations which would more strongly affect the perceptions of quality and satisfaction with perinatal care in Serbian public hospitals by women. PMID:24410839

    6. The Aging Baby Boom: Implications for Employment and Training Programs.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Poulos, Stacy; Nightingale, Demetra Smith

      By the end of 2005, the oldest baby boomers will begin turning 60. Although baby boomers have generally done better than any previous generation in terms of income and education, not all baby boomers have been successful. As baby boomers age, the total economically disadvantaged population will increase. Consequently, over the next decade, the…

    7. Babies, Television and Videos: How Did We Get Here?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wartella, Ellen; Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.

      2010-01-01

      Baby media have exploded in the past decade, and children younger than 2 are showing increased use of these baby media. This paper examines the historical evidence of babies' use of television since the 1950s as well as the various factors that have given rise to the current increase in screen media for babies. We also consider the ubiquitous role…

    8. New hospitals may resemble malls.

      PubMed

      Borzo, G

      1992-11-01

      Hospital designers and planners are adopting several features of the ubiquitous retail shopping mall to create a new model for a user-friendly, market-driven health care facility. Also, they are building and renovating hospitals in stages, which allows maximum flexibility in adapting to increasingly rapid changes in reimbursement patterns, clinical priorities and patient demand. PMID:10121980

    9. Anatomy of the shaken baby syndrome.

      PubMed

      Lancon, J A; Haines, D E; Parent, A D

      1998-02-01

      Shaken baby syndrome refers to the constellation of nonaccidental injuries occurring in infants and young children as a consequence of violent shaking. The typical victim of shaken baby syndrome is a male infant younger than six months of age who is alone with the perpetrator at the time of injury. Occurrence of the syndrome is unrelated to race, gender, socioeconomic status, or education. The characteristic injuries observed in shaken baby syndrome include subdural hemorrhages, retinal hemorrhages, and fractures of the ribs or long bones. Although each of these injuries may result from violent shaking of the victim, the most severe brain injuries result from the addition of a forceful impact of the infant's or child's head against a firm surface. The unique anatomic features of the infant's head and skeletal system, which account for the type and pattern of injuries observed in shaken baby syndrome, are emphasized in this article. PMID:9556020

    10. Teething Makes Babies Cranky, but Not Sick

      MedlinePlus

      ... Pediatrics , found that teething most often just causes babies to be a little crankier, drool more and rub their irritated gums. And while some infants have a slight rise in their temperature, teething ...

    11. Your Baby's Development: The Second Trimester

      MedlinePlus

      ... can't see anything until the third trimester. Fingerprints and footprints are well established by the middle ... appear on the hands first, then the feet. Fingerprints improve the baby's grip. Fine hair and a ...

    12. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

      MedlinePlus

      ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap There are two vaccines ...

    13. Preparing Your Family for a New Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... it to your child when you start buying nursery furniture or baby clothes or if he starts ... fathers to spend time alone with older children. School-Aged Children Children older than 5 years are ...

    14. Work with Monkeys May Benefit HIV Babies

      MedlinePlus

      ... fullstory_157907.html Work With Monkeys May Benefit HIV Babies Early treatment cleared the virus in infants, ... monkeys within 24 hours of exposure to an HIV-like virus eliminated the virus, a new study ...

    15. A report from America: Baby M.

      PubMed

      Rachels, James

      1987-10-01

      Rachels reviews the social and legal facts of the celebrated "Baby M" case, in which surrogate Mary Beth Whitehead attempted to keep the daughter she had borne under contract to William Stern. The first phase of the legal battle between the parents ended in March 1988, when New Jersey Superior Court Judge Harvey R. Sorkow upheld the validity of the surrogacy contract, terminated Whitehead's parental rights, and awarded custody of the child to Stern. Rachels comments on public reaction to "Baby M," on Sorkow's decision, and on the impact the case may have on legislative attempts to regulate surrogacy. He also uses the example of "Baby M," as well as that of California heart transplant patient "Baby Jesse," to discuss how the media sensationalize controversial issues. PMID:11651908

    16. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

    17. Why lions roar like babies cry

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Titze, Ingo

      2012-11-01

      When an angry lion roars, the sounds it emits can terrify anyone within earshot. But, as Ingo Titze explains, the properties of a lion's roar have some surprising similarities with those of a crying baby.

    18. Surrogate Motherhood II: Reflections after "Baby M."

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schwartz, Lita Linzer

      1988-01-01

      Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)

    19. Your Baby's Development: The First Trimester

      MedlinePlus

      ... During this stage, the baby is called an embryo. What changes occur during the embryonic stage? During ... parts begin to develop. The cells of the embryo (called embryonic stem cells) multiply and change into ...

    20. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

      MedlinePlus

      ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... as heart defects, cleft lip and palate, or cerebral palsy, you may find yourself having to serve as ...

    1. Your baby in the birth canal

      MedlinePlus

      ... engage by 36 weeks into the pregnancy. However, engagement may happen later in the pregnancy, or even ... baby's head are called cardinal movements of labor. Engagement This is when the widest part of your ...

    2. Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue

      MedlinePlus

      Protect Yourself and Your Baby from Dengue Avoid mosquito bites during pregnancy to prevent dengue in your ... To prevent dengue virus infection during pregnancy » Use mosquito repellents with up to 50% DEET, picaridin, IR3535 ...

    3. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

      2010-01-01

      ... accordance with 7 CFR 319.56-48.” (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes...

    4. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

      2011-01-01

      ... accordance with 7 CFR 319.56-48.” (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes...

    5. Disposable baby wipes: efficacy and skin mildness.

      PubMed

      Odio, M; Streicher-Scott, J; Hansen, R C

      2001-04-01

      The results of a series of four clinical studies demonstrated that disposable baby wipes were milder to the skin than use of a cotton washcloth and water, recognized as a "gold standard" for skin mildness. Importantly, the baby wipes caused no significant change from the baseline value in any of the skin parameters examined. This observation verified that the test wipes are minimally disruptive to the epidermal barrier and thus suitable for use on intact or compromised, irritated skin. PMID:11917305

    6. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Domrin, Andrei; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Linares, Román; Maceda, Marco

      2013-11-01

      The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

    7. A Friend for Kenny

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Carlson, Beth

      2004-01-01

      When I first met Kenny, he was a bright, enthusiastic second grader with a charming smile, quick wit, and artistic bent. Over the course of the next two years, however, nearly everything changed. Homework wasn't turned in. Grades declined. Kenny became argumentative with adults and isolated from classmates he once considered friends. Even his…

    8. Making friends versus networking

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Williams, Heather

      2013-03-01

      Marc Kuchner's article on the importance to one's career of making friends, rather than merely "networking" (February pp44–45) said more about a rather strange form of networking – based on collecting signatures from strangers at a conference – than it did about how best to develop professional relationships.

    9. Mathematical Friends and Relations

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Tomalin, Jo

      2012-01-01

      The Institute of Mathematical pedagogy meets annually--the theme for 2010 was: "Mathematical Friends & Relations: Recognising Structural Relationships". Here one participant documents her reflections on the experience of working with a group of mathematics educators at the Institute. The challenges, the responses--both the predictable and the…

    10. Recommend to a Friend?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cunningham, Jennifer Lynham

      2012-01-01

      New York's Cornell University spends millions of dollars and thousands of staff and volunteer hours to produce more than 1,400 events around the world each year. That's one event every six hours. Is it worth it? Do the 40,000 alumni, parents, and friends who attend feel closer to Cornell after these events? Do they disengage because Cornell didn't…

    11. A Friend for Kenny

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Carlson, Beth

      2004-01-01

      When I first met Kenny, he was a bright, enthusiastic second grader with a charming smile, quick wit, and artistic bent. Over the course of the next two years, however, nearly everything changed. Homework wasn't turned in. Grades declined. Kenny became argumentative with adults and isolated from classmates he once considered friends. Even his

    12. Learning to Be Friends.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Exceptional Parent, 1987

      1987-01-01

      An interview with Dr. Sol Gordon, a widely recognized authority on sex education, offers suggestions to parents on helping their handicapped children develop peer relationships, including helping children make friends, discussing sexuality with their children, and leading a satisfactory personal and family life. (Author/CB)

    13. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chang, Yanrong

      2006-01-01

      This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

    14. In Canada: Friendly Fire

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Robertson, Heather-jane

      2004-01-01

      One of Canada's more frequently quoted political malapropisms is attributed to Robert Thompson, who sternly reminded his fellow parliamentarians in 1973 that "the Americans are our best friends, whether we like it or not." This cross-border friendship is partly expedient, partly geographic, partly genuine, sometimes one-sided, and almost always…

    15. Youth Friendly Needs Assessment

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Artz, Sibylle; Nicholson, Diana; Halsall, Elaine; Larke, Susan

      2003-01-01

      This paper describes the development of a needs assessment guide that is user-friendly, facilitates the development of the youth-counsellor relationship, and is sensitive to gender, sexual orientation and cultural diversity. Through a three-phase collaborative process with counsellors and youth, the major issues in needs assessment were uncovered…

    16. [Hospital discharge summary (author's transl)].

      PubMed

      Escorihuela, R; Quero, J; Arbelo Curbelo, A; Rubio, D; Prez Rodrguez, J; Escriv, R M; Lpez De Letona, A A

      1976-01-01

      A form to fill up, hospital discharge summary is presented. Main characteristics are: special framework, shortness and conciseness. It can be filled up since patient is admitted to hospital on the base of problem oriented medical record. Quantity and quality of information has been favourably evaluated either by our own medical staff or general pediatrician who watches out for baby after hospital discharge. In 84% of patients it was given at the same moment of discharge and before two weeks for the rest. It's time and work saving and from the point of view of education has been considered very useful for both author and reader. PMID:942135

    17. The ART of marketing babies.

      PubMed

      Qadeer, Imrana

      2010-01-01

      New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism. PMID:22106569

    18. Letter from the Friends Chairman

      MedlinePlus

      ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Letter from the Friends Chairman Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... FNLM Chairman Paul Rogers converse at a recent Friends function at the National Library of Medicine. Photo ...

    19. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

      2012-01-01

      We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"

    20. Fathers & Babies: How Babies Grow and What They Need from You, from Birth to 18 Months.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Marzollo, Jean

      This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…

    1. Bringing Up Baby with Baby Signs: Language Ideologies and Socialization in Hearing Families

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Pizer, Ginger; Walters, Keith; Meier, Richard P.

      2007-01-01

      This article presents an analysis of the functional roles of "baby signing" in three hearing families in the United States, as well as a discussion of the social and ideological implications of the practice. Baby signing fits neatly into the parenting ideologies prevalent in the professional class in the United States that value early…

    2. Baby Culture and the Curriculum of Consumption: A Critical Reading of the Film "Babies"

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel

      2012-01-01

      We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate "Babies,"…

    3. How Post-Traumatic Stress Affects Mothers' Perceptions of Their Babies: A Brief Video Feedback Intervention Makes a Difference

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Schechter, Daniel S.

      2004-01-01

      This article summarizes the scant existing research on the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mothers and their babies during the peripartum period and describes a pilot research project within the Infant-Family Service (IFS) at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital, an outpatient mental health service for inner-city families with…

    4. Robot-friendly connector

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Parma, George F.; Vandeberghe, Mark H.; Ruiz, Steve C.

      1993-03-01

      Robot friendly connectors, which, in one aspect, are truss joints with two parts, a receptacle and a joint, are presented. The joints have a head which is loosely inserted into the receptacle and is then tightened and aligned. In one aspect, the head is a rounded hammerhead which initially is enclosed in the receptacle with sloppy fit provided by the shape, size, and configuration of surfaces on the head and on the receptacle.

    5. Environmentally friendly polysilane photoresists

      SciTech Connect

      Beach, J.V.; Loy, D.A.; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Waymouth, R.M.

      1995-12-31

      Several novel polysilanes synthesized by the free-radical hydrosilation of oligomeric polyphenylsilane or poly(p-tert- butylphenylsilane) were examined for lithographic behavior. This recently developed route into substituted polysilanes has allowed for the rational design of a variety of polysilanes with a typical chemical properties such as alcohol and aqueous base solubility. Many of the polysilane resists made could be developed in aqueous sodium carbonate and bicarbonate solutions. These materials represent environmentally friendly polysilane resists in both their synthesis and processing.

    6. Successful treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy: a case report

      PubMed Central

      2009-01-01

      Introduction Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important cause of hospital acquired infection particularly among severely debilitated and immunosuppressed patients. Case presentation We report a case of S. maltophilia meningitis in a preterm baby boy after a neurosurgical procedure, successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Conclusion This organism should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin are a combination that is successful and safe for treating preterm infants. PMID:19830198

    7. Whose Choice? Advocating Birthing Practices According to Baby's Biological Needs.

      PubMed

      Bergman, Jill; Bergman, Nils

      2013-01-01

      Modern western society and media often present the mother's choices for her birth as paramount. Various gurus provide the mother with often conflicting advice. But the reality is that childbirth often becomes a medicalized event with many interventions and less than ideal outcomes. In many instances, the choices are made to suit health professionals and hospital routines rather than the mother. All the aforementioned are based on ideas and assumptions which predate evidence-based medicine and recent neuroscience. In reproductive biology, the newborn is an active participant and agent in birthing (Alberts, 1994). Based on this, the perspective which has been lacking is what is best for the baby; our choices should be primarily based on the basic biological needs of the infant. PMID:24381471

    8. Clinical practices in the hospital care of healthy newborn infant in Brazil.

      PubMed

      Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Silva, Antonio Augusto Moura da; Lansky, Snia; Souza Pinheiro, Rossiclei de; Carvalho Gonalves, Annelise de; Carmo Leal, Maria do

      2014-08-01

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the care of healthy full-term newborns and to identify variations in childbirth care and practices in the first hour of life. We used data from the Birth in Brazil survey. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) of hospital-delivered care for the mother and during childbirth were estimated for the following outcomes: upper airways and gastric aspiration, use of inhaled oxygen, use of incubator, skin-to-skin contact after birth, rooming-in and breastfeeding in the delivery room and within the first hour of life. We observed wide variations in the care of healthy full-term newborn in the delivery room. Practices considered inadequate, such as use of inhaled oxygen, (9.5%) aspiration of airways (71.1%) and gastric suctioning (39.7%), and the use of incubator (8.8%) were excessively used. Breastfeeding in the delivery room was low (16%), even when the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative had been implemented (24%). The results suggest poor knowledge and compliance by health practitioners to good clinical practice. Such noncompliance was probably not due to the differences in resources, since most births take place in hospitals where the necessary resources are available. PMID:25167172

    9. Baby‐Friendly: snappy slogan or standard of care?

      PubMed Central

      Philipp, B L; Radford, A

      2006-01-01

      Breastfeeding offers significant protection against illness for the infant and numerous health benefits for the mother, including a decreased risk of breast cancer. In 1991, UNICEF and WHO launched the Baby‐Friendly Hospital Initiative with the aim of increasing rates of breastfeeding. “Baby‐Friendly” is a designation a maternity site can receive by demonstrating to external assessors compliance with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. The Ten Steps are a series of best practice standards describing a pattern of care where commonly found practices harmful to breastfeeding are replaced with evidence based practices proven to increase breastfeeding outcome. Currently, approximately 19 250 hospitals worldwide have achieved Baby‐Friendly status, less than 500 of which are found in industrialised nations. The Baby‐Friendly initiative has increased breastfeeding rates, reduced complications, and improved mothers' health care experiences. PMID:16492953

    10. Evaluation of growth in very low birth weight preterm babies

      PubMed Central

      Yeşinel, Serdar; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Yeşinel, Seda; Yıldız, Hayrettin

      2014-01-01

      Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate physical growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm babies at a mean age of three years and to investigate the factors which affected growth. Material and Methods: The factors including maternal problems, prenatal problems, early neonatal problems, nutrition, familial socioeconomical status and presence of chronic disease which affected catch-up growth in terms of height and weight in VLBW infants followed up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital were examined. The target height formula was used in assessment of growht in height and the contribution of genetic properties was investigated. The points of the subjects on the growth curve were plotted according to the Percentile Curve of the Turkish Children prepared by Neyzi et al. The states of the subjects with and without intrauterine growth retardation (were compared. The study was intitiated after obtaining approval from the ethics committeee of our hospital (100/25.10.2005). Results: One hundred and seventeen preterm babies (57 females and 60 males) with a mean adjusted age of 35.8±2.39 80 of whom were appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 28 of whom were symmetrical (small gestational age) SGA and 9 of whom were asymmetrical SGA were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was found to be 31±2.16 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was found to be 1271±226 g. The mean current height was found to be 92.06±4.90 cm. The mean weight was found to be 12.98±1.94 kg. The mean target height was calculated to be 163.66±8.1 cm (157.20 cm for the girls and 170.20 cm for the boys). It was found that 15 preterm babies (12.8%) could not achieve the target height (girls: 6%, boys: 6.8%). The risk factors related with failure to achieve target height were found to include ventilator treatment, presence of chronic disease, advanced stage intracranial bleeding (ICB), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, absence of breastfeeding, failure to sit at the table with the family and malnutrition. The maternal age, early rupture of membranes (PROM), preeclampsia, smoking, early neonatal problems, gender, being AGA and SGA, gestational age, birth weight and socioeconomical level were statistically insignificant in terms of achieving target height (p>0.05). Conclusions: If very low birth weight preterm babies have no chronic disease and condition leading to neurodevelopmental retardation and if they are breastfed early and continuously (0–24 months), they can achieve catch-up growth similar to term babies. In examination of growth in terms of height, using target height may be more appropriate to shown the genetic potential. PMID:26078680

    11. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation.

      PubMed

      Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; Hisanaga, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

      2011-09-01

      This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consumed was 100 mg/application, and the average exposure concentration of airborne baby powder for the applicator and baby doll was 0.00527 mg/m(3) (range 0.00157~0.01579 mg/m(3)) and 0.02207 mg/m(3) (range 0.00780~ 0.04173 mg/m(3)), respectively. When compared with the Occupational Exposure Limit of 2 mg/m(3) set by the Korean Ministry of Labor and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 2 mg/m(3) set by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists), the exposure concentrations were much lower. Next, the exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was estimated and the exposure risk was assessed based on the lung asbestos contents in normal humans. As a result, the estimated lung asbestos content resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was found to be much lower than that of a normal Korean with no asbestos-related occupational history. PMID:24278563

    12. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation

      PubMed Central

      Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; Hisanaga, Naomi

      2011-01-01

      This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consumed was 100 mg/application, and the average exposure concentration of airborne baby powder for the applicator and baby doll was 0.00527 mg/m3 (range 0.00157~0.01579 mg/m3) and 0.02207 mg/m3 (range 0.00780~ 0.04173 mg/m3), respectively. When compared with the Occupational Exposure Limit of 2 mg/m3 set by the Korean Ministry of Labor and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 2 mg/m3 set by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists), the exposure concentrations were much lower. Next, the exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was estimated and the exposure risk was assessed based on the lung asbestos contents in normal humans. As a result, the estimated lung asbestos content resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was found to be much lower than that of a normal Korean with no asbestos-related occupational history. PMID:24278563

    13. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen

      2015-05-01

      We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

    14. VTR module: weaning foods for baby.

      PubMed

      1993-01-01

      Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions. PMID:12287620

    15. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

      PubMed

      Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

      2009-06-01

      Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles. PMID:19680968

    16. Bathing or washing babies after birth?

      PubMed

      Henningsson, A; Nyström, B; Tunnell, R

      One group of healthy full-term newborn babies was washed after birth and another was bathed to remove vernix caseosa and clean the skin. Few infections, none of them serious, occurred in either group. Bacterial colonisation of the umbilical cord on the third day of life was similar in both groups. The rectal temperature fell further and more infants cried during washing than during bathing. Thus bathing the baby after birth makes it calmer, quieter, and more comfortable than washing and causes less heat-loss. Clinical signs of infection and bacterial colonisation rates are no higher after bathing than after washing. PMID:6118769

    17. Hexagonal structure of baby Skyrmion lattices

      SciTech Connect

      Hen, Itay; Karliner, Marek

      2008-03-01

      We study the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby Skyrmions by applying a full-field numerical minimization algorithm to baby Skyrmions placed inside different parallelogramic unit cells and imposing periodic boundary conditions. We find that within this setup, the minimal energy is obtained for the hexagonal lattice, and that in the resulting configuration the Skyrmion splits into quarter Skyrmions. In particular, we find that the energy in the hexagonal case is lower than the one obtained on the well-studied rectangular lattice, in which splitting into half Skyrmions is observed.

    18. Baby Skyrmions stabilized by vector mesons

      SciTech Connect

      Foster, David; Sutcliffe, Paul

      2009-06-15

      Recent results suggest that multi-Skyrmions stabilized by {omega} mesons have very similar properties to those stabilized by the Skyrme term. In this paper we present the results of a detailed numerical investigation of a (2+1)-dimensional analogue of this situation. Namely, we compute solitons in an O(3) {sigma} model coupled to a massive vector meson and compare the results to baby Skyrmions, which are solitons in an O(3) {sigma} model including a Skyrme term. We find that multisolitons in the vector meson model are surprisingly similar to those in the baby Skyrme model, and we explain this correspondence using a simple derivative expansion.

    19. One baby in six a foreigner.

      PubMed

      1975-04-01

      Foreign workers are a growing phenomenom in the Federal Republic of Germany. Every 6th baby born in the country is of foreign extract, and considering the adverse circumstances of many foreigners in the country, the timing of the baby's birth is probably unplanned. PRO Familia is a family planning organization concerned with the plight of foreigners in the country. Although the organization's activities in this field have been limited to foreign language pulbications (concerning contraceptive methods) and radio broadcasting, it is making concerted efforts to include foreigners in their family planning services. PMID:12178327

    20. Taking babies' temperatures: science versus social taboos in battle over Baby Check.

      PubMed

      Handysides, S

      1993-09-11

      Baby Check, a scoring system for assessing the severity of illness in babies under 6 months old, has not met with the success its developers expected. The inclusion of rectal temperature in the assessment was strongly opposed by the Royal College of Midwives, which refused to alter its view despite evidence of the safety and accuracy of rectal thermometry. British parents appear not to like rectal thermometers either. Most other medical bodies have supported Baby Check and the reason for midwives' opposition may have more to do with professional pique at not being consulted than clinical wisdom. PMID:8401058

    1. Prenatal Development: How Your Baby Grows During Pregnancy

      MedlinePlus

      ... across the placenta to reach the baby, and waste products from the baby are transferred to the ... Tissue that provides nourishment to and takes away waste from the fetus. Sperm: A cell produced in ...

    2. Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost

      MedlinePlus

      ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158486.html Music Might Give Babies' Language Skills a Boost Small ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Can listening to music boost your baby's brainpower? Maybe, at least in ...

    3. Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies

      MedlinePlus

      ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158813.html Gestational Diabetes May Lead to More Body Fat on Babies Finding held ... maternal diabetes has on the baby," said study lead author Karen Logan of Imperial College London. "This ...

    4. CDC Vital Signs: Hepatitis C: Testing Baby Boomers Saves Lives

      MedlinePlus

      ... 1.6 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Hepatitis C Testing baby boomers saves lives Recommend on ... baby boomers got infected before the dangers of hepatitis C were well known. Anyone can get hepatitis ...

    5. BabySQUID: A mobile, high-resolution multichannel magnetoencephalography system for neonatal brain assessment

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Okada, Yoshio; Pratt, Kevin; Atwood, Christopher; Mascarenas, Anthony; Reineman, Richard; Nurminen, Jussi; Paulson, Douglas

      2006-02-01

      We developed a prototype of a mobile, high-resolution, multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system, called babySQUID, for assessing brain functions in newborns and infants. Unlike electroencephalography, MEG signals are not distorted by the scalp or the fontanels and sutures in the skull. Thus, brain activity can be measured and localized with MEG as if the sensors were above an exposed brain. The babySQUID is housed in a moveable cart small enough to be transported from one room to another. To assess brain functions, one places the baby on the bed of the cart and the head on its headrest with MEG sensors just below. The sensor array consists of 76 first-order axial gradiometers, each with a pickup coil diameter of 6mm and a baseline of 30mm, in a high-density array with a spacing of 12-14mm center-to-center. The pickup coils are 6±1mm below the outer surface of the headrest. The short gap provides unprecedented sensitivity since the scalp and skull are thin (as little as 3-4mm altogether) in babies. In an electromagnetically unshielded room in a hospital, the field sensitivity at 1kHz was ˜17fT/√Hz. The noise was reduced from ˜400to200fT/√Hz at 1Hz using a reference cancellation technique and further to ˜40fT/√Hz using a gradient common mode rejection technique. Although the residual environmental magnetic noise interfered with the operation of the babySQUID, the instrument functioned sufficiently well to detect spontaneous brain signals from babies with a signal to noise ratio (SNR) of as much as 7.6:1. In a magnetically shielded room, the field sensitivity was 17fT/√Hz at 20Hz and 30fT/√Hz at 1Hz without implementation of reference or gradient cancellation. The sensitivity was sufficiently high to detect spontaneous brain activity from a 7month old baby with a SNR as much as 40:1 and evoked somatosensory responses with a 50Hz bandwidth after as little as four averages. We expect that both the noise and the sensor gap can be reduced further by approximately half with a gain in SNR of about four. Thus, we conclude from the performance of the prototype that it should be feasible to improve the babySQUID to detect cortical activity in infants in real time with high spatial resolution.

    6. Anonymous birth law saves babies-optimization, sustainability and public awareness.

      PubMed

      Grylli, Chryssa; Brockington, Ian; Fiala, Christian; Huscsava, Mercedes; Waldhoer, Thomas; Klier, Claudia M

      2016-04-01

      The aims of this study are to assess the impact of Austria's anonymous birth law from the time relevant statistical records are available and to evaluate the use of hatches versus anonymous hospital delivery. This study is a complete census of police-reported neonaticides (1975-2012) as well as anonymous births including baby hatches in Austria during 2002-2012. The time trends of neonaticide rates, anonymous births and baby hatches were analysed by means of Poisson and logistic regression model. Predicted and observed rates were derived and compared using a Bayesian Poisson regression model. Predicted numbers of neonaticides for the period of the active awareness campaign, 2002-2004, were more than three times larger than the observed number (p = 0.0067). Of the 365 women who benefitted from this legislation, only 11.5 % chose to put their babies in a baby hatch. Since the law was introduced, a significant decreasing tendency of numbers of anonymous births (p = 047) was observed, while there was significant increase of neonaticide rates (p = 0.0001). The implementation of the anonymous delivery law is associated with a decrease in the number of police-reported neonaticides. The subsequent significantly decreasing numbers of anonymous births with an accompanying increase of neonaticides represents additional evidence for the effectiveness of the measure. PMID:26267063

    7. Maternal protein depletion and small-for-gestational-age babies.

      PubMed Central

      Stein, H

      1975-01-01

      It has been established that there is a high incidence of small-for-gestational-age babies among underprivileged urban Africans. This community suffers from endemic malnutrition. Serum albumin studies on mothers of low birthweight babies showed a direct correlation with size of babies for gestational age. Thus maternal protein depletion, and probably therefore malnutrition, was associated with the high incidence of small-for-age-gestational babies. PMID:1169043

    8. Design of paediatric hospitals.

      PubMed

      Lambert, Veronica

      2016-05-01

      The impact of healthcare environments on children and young people's (CYP) health and psychosocial wellbeing has attracted much attention in recent years. This sits within the realm of the political drive for enhanced awareness of the need to take account of the rights and voice of the child. Perhaps as a direct result of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and recognition from evidence in adult population studies of the impact of healthcare environments on psychosocial healing, contemporary times have witnessed a discernible movement towards enhancing quality care by promoting child and adolescent-friendly hospital environments. The Council of Europe guidelines on child-friendly health care moved to place the rights and needs of children at the heart of health care. The Council acknowledges that the delivery of child-oriented services, which includes the notion of family-centred care, should be delivered in child and family friendly environments. However, knowledge about what constitutes a child-friendly healthcare environment from CYP's perspective is often lacking with hospital architectural blueprints predominantly designed around adult proxy-reported assumptions about the needs and desires of children. PMID:27214414

    9. Chimpanzees Trust Their Friends.

      PubMed

      Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther

      2016-01-25

      The identification and recruitment of trustworthy partners represents an important adaptive challenge for any species that relies heavily on cooperation [1, 2]. From an evolutionary perspective, trust is difficult to account for as it involves, by definition, a risk of non-reciprocation and defection by cheaters [3, 4]. One solution for this problem is to form close emotional bonds, i.e., friendships, which enable trust even in contexts where cheating would be profitable [5]. Little is known about the evolutionary origins of the human tendency to form close social bonds to overcome the trust problem. Studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), one of our closest living relatives, is one way of identifying these origins. While a growing body of research indicates that at least some of the properties of close human relationships find parallels in the social bonds of chimpanzees [6-10] and that chimpanzees extend favors preferentially toward selected individuals [11-14], it is unclear whether such interactions are based on trust. To fill this gap in knowledge, we observed the social interactions of a group of chimpanzees and established dyadic friendship relations. We then presented chimpanzees with a modified, non-verbal version of the human trust game and found that chimpanzees trust their friends significantly more frequently than their non-friends. These results suggest that trust within closely bonded dyads is not unique to humans but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social relationships of our closest primate relatives. PMID:26776735

    10. Opening Your School Library to Preschoolers--and Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Braxton, Barbara

      2004-01-01

      In this article, the author stresses the importance of welcoming preschoolers and babies into school libraries. She states that when read to from birth, a baby becomes used to the cadences and rhythms of spoken language, at the same time responding to the bright pictures and the presence of a loving adult. The baby associates books and stories…

    11. Infants & Toddlers: How Babies Use Gestures to Communicate

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Honig, Alice Sterling

      2004-01-01

      Evolution has provided babies with wonderful ways to get the loving attention and care that they need from adults. When a baby is distressed, his cry is the most primitive and powerful tool for bringing help. By the time a baby is 2 or 3 months old, his dazzling smile and crooked grin evokes tenderness, smiles, and nurturance from adults who are…

    12. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

      Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

    13. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.

      2012-01-01

      Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

    14. Infant & Toddlers: How to Calm an Exuberant Baby

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Honig, Alice Sterling

      2006-01-01

      It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means…

    15. Infant & Toddlers: How to Calm an Exuberant Baby

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Honig, Alice Sterling

      2006-01-01

      It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means

    16. Healthy Birth Practice #6: Keep Mother and Baby Together- It's Best for Mother, Baby, and Breastfeeding.

      PubMed

      Crenshaw, Jeannette T

      2014-01-01

      Mothers and babies have a physiologic need to be together at the moment of birth and during the hours and days that follow. Keeping mothers and babies together is a safe and healthy birth practice. Evidence supports immediate, uninterrupted skin-to-skin care after vaginal birth and during and after cesarean surgery for all stable mothers and babies, regardless of feeding preference. Unlimited opportunities for skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding promote optimal maternal and child outcomes. This article is an updated evidence-based review of the "Lamaze International Care Practices That Promote Normal Birth, Care Practice #6: No Separation of Mother and Baby, With Unlimited Opportunities for Breastfeeding," published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(3), 2007. PMID:25411542

    17. With Babies and Banners: Illustrated Historical Booklet.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Goldfarb, Lyn; Gray, Lorraine

      Background reading materials are provided in this booklet developed to be used in conjunction with the award winning color documentary film "With Babies and Banners." The film records the role that the women of Flint, Michigan, played in the great General Motors sit-down strike of 1937. The readings are suitable for college audiences and for

    18. Babies Bottom Out--A 'Maybe Boom'

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Science News, 1977

      1977-01-01

      Data for the period September 1976 through April 1977 indicate a rise in the United States birth rate; however, the rate is still below the replacement level. It is speculated that the increase is an "echo" effect to the post-World War II baby boom which peaked in 1957. (SL)

    19. Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers. Commentary

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Fishman, Seth

      2011-01-01

      In the article, "Completion Agenda for Baby Boomers", Moltz highlights how community colleges are currently implementing programs, such as the American Association of Community Colleges' Plus 50 Completion strategy, to encourage older learners to return to America's college campuses. The effects of the recent recession and the educational desires…

    20. Funny Babies: Humor and Power in Infancy

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Loizou, Eleni

      2004-01-01

      This article surveys existing research on the role of humor in early childhood. Babies and toddlers use humor to develop, apply, and expand their understanding of existing concepts; define themselves; and establish relationships with peers and caregivers. Humor helps young children view stressful situations in a nonthreatening way. As soon as…

    1. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bumgardner, Stan

      2009-01-01

      Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One…

    2. Interaction with Babies as Guidance in Development.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Rogoff, Barbara; And Others

      It is argued in this paper that, while newborn infants are ignorant of the the life-ways of the society into which they are born, by age 3 children have become socialized participants of their culture. It is the thesis of the discussion that the rapid development of babies into participants of society is accomplished through a finely tuned…

    3. Literate Beginnings: Programs for Babies and Toddlers.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Jeffery, Debby Ann

      While librarians have traditionally provided story times for 3- to 5-year olds and more recently for toddlers, it is important to introduce children to books and libraries at an even earlier age. Young children's intellectual development is faster than that of any other age group. This book is a guide to developing library programs for babies and…

    4. With Babies and Banners: Illustrated Historical Booklet.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Goldfarb, Lyn; Gray, Lorraine

      Background reading materials are provided in this booklet developed to be used in conjunction with the award winning color documentary film "With Babies and Banners." The film records the role that the women of Flint, Michigan, played in the great General Motors sit-down strike of 1937. The readings are suitable for college audiences and for…

    5. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

      2003-01-01

      This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the

    6. [New documentation on the Robert baby bottle].

      PubMed

      Julien, P

      1996-01-01

      The author makes known about a dozen unpublished documents (puzzle-cards, invoice, advertisements, post card, stamped tin signs printed in colors, catalogue, prospectuses) which shed light on the history of the manufacture Robert baby bottles (located successively in Dijon, Paris and in Martres-de-Veyre) and on the practice of bottle feeding. PMID:11624777

    7. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

      2003-01-01

      This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

    8. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

      2012-01-01

      Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and

    9. Back to School for Retired Baby Boomers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Bumgardner, Stan

      2009-01-01

      Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One

    10. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

      2012-01-01

      Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and…

    11. Learning from Babies: Vital Lessons for Schoolchildren

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Puriefoy-Brinkley, Jacquelynn; Bardige, Betty

      2004-01-01

      This article describes the positive outcomes from the Philadelphia-based Educating Children for Parenting (ECP) program, founded in 1978, which aims to take advantage of children's fascination with babies and their easily triggered emotional investment in learning how to care for them. The program brings a parent and infant into the classroom…

    12. Learning from Babies: Vital Lessons for Schoolchildren

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Puriefoy-Brinkley, Jacquelynn; Bardige, Betty

      2004-01-01

      This article describes the positive outcomes from the Philadelphia-based Educating Children for Parenting (ECP) program, founded in 1978, which aims to take advantage of children's fascination with babies and their easily triggered emotional investment in learning how to care for them. The program brings a parent and infant into the classroom

    13. Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Kessler, Jack

      1993-01-01

      Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)

    14. Born Too Soon: Care for the preterm baby

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing <2000 g. Case management of newborns with signs of infection, safe oxygen management and supportive care for those with respiratory complications, and care for those with significant jaundice are all critical, and are especially dependent on competent nursing care. Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women's groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability-free survival. The power of parent's voices has been important in high-income countries in bringing attention to preterm newborns, but is still missing from the most affected countries. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was published in PDF format in the WHO Report "Born Too Soon: the global action report on preterm birth" (ISBN 978 92 4 150343 30), which involved collaboration from more than 50 organizations. The article has been reformatted for journal publication and has undergone peer review according to Reproductive Health's standard process for supplements and may feature some variations in content when compared to the original report. This co-publication makes the article available to the community in a full-text format. PMID:24625233

    15. A Patient's Best Friend.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Haggard, Ann

      1985-01-01

      The author describes the development of a pet therapy program at a rehabilitation unit of a hospital. She discusses documentation of the success of pet therapy programs, picking out the right pets, responsibilities of caring for the pet, training the pet, patient response, and program policies. (CT)

    16. Caffeine: Friend or Foe?

      PubMed

      Doepker, Candace; Lieberman, Harris R; Smith, Andrew Paul; Peck, Jennifer D; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Welsh, Brian T

      2016-01-01

      The debate on the safety of and regulatory approaches for caffeine continues among various stakeholders and regulatory authorities. This decision-making process comes with significant challenges, particularly when considering the complexities of the available scientific data, making the formulation of clear science-based regulatory guidance more difficult. To allow for discussions of a number of key issues, the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) convened a panel of subject matter experts for a caffeine-focused session entitled "Caffeine: Friend or Foe?," which was held during the 2015 ILSI Annual Meeting. The panelists' expertise covered topics ranging from the natural occurrence of caffeine in plants and interindividual metabolism of caffeine in humans to specific behavioral, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects related to caffeine consumption. Each presentation highlighted the potential risks, benefits, and challenges that inform whether caffeine exposure warrants concern. This paper aims to summarize the key topics discussed during the session. PMID:26735800

    17. Supporting Members and Friends

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      2004-09-01

      Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

    18. Supporting Members and Friends

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      2005-10-01

      Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

    19. The Australian Baby Bonus Maternity Payment and Birth Characteristics in Western Australia

      PubMed Central

      Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Langridge, Amanda; Hammond, Geoffrey; Gunnell, Anthony S.; Haggar, Fatima A.; Stanley, Fiona J.

      2012-01-01

      Background The Australian baby bonus maternity payment introduced in 2004 has been reported to have successfully increased fertility rates in Australia. We aimed to investigate the influence of the baby bonus on maternal demographics and birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA). Methods and Findings This study included 200,659 birth admissions from WA during 2001–2008, identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. We estimated average quarterly birth rates after the baby bonus introduction and compared them with expected rates had the policy not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals) were estimated separately by maternal demographics and birth characteristics. WA birth rates increased by 12.8% following the baby bonus implementation with the greatest increase being in mothers aged 20–24 years (26.3%, 95%CI = 22.0,30.6), mothers having their third (1.6%, 95%CI = 0.9,2.4) or fourth child (2.2%, 95%CI = 2.1,2.4), mothers living in outer regional and remote areas (32.4%, 95%CI = 30.2,34.6), mothers giving birth as public patients (1.5%, 95%CI = 1.3,1.8), and mothers giving birth in public hospitals (3.5%, 95%CI = 2.6,4.5). Interestingly, births to private patients (−4.3%, 95%CI = −4.8,−3.7) and births in private hospitals (−6.3%, 95%CI = −6.8,−5.8) decreased following the policy implementation. Conclusions The introduction of the baby bonus maternity payment may have served as an incentive for women in their early twenties and mothers having their third or fourth child and may have contributed to the ongoing pressure and staff shortages in Australian public hospitals, particularly those in outer regional and remote areas. PMID:23145010

    20. Current pattern of Ponderal Indices of term small-for-gestational age in a population of Nigerian babies

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      Background Small-for-gestational age (SGA) newborns constitute a special group of neonates who may have suffered varying degrees of intrauterine insults and deprivation. Variations in birth weight, length and Ponderal Index (PI) depend on the type and degree of intrauterine insults the babies were exposed to. The objective of the study was to determine the current prevalence of term SGA births in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital and the current pattern of Ponderal Indices among term SGA in a population of Nigerian babies. Methods Subjects comprised of consecutive term singleton mother-baby pairs in the first 24 hours of life. It was a cross sectional study. The anthropometric parameters of each baby were recorded and the PI was also determined. Results Out of 1,052 live births during the study period (September to December, 2009), 825 were term, singleton babies. Five hundred and eight-one babies (70.4%) fall into the upper socio-economic classes 1 and II, 193 (23.4%) in the middle class and 51 (6.2%) were of the lower classes IV and V. None of the mothers indicated ingestion of alcohol or smoking of cigarette. Fifty-nine babies (7.2%) were small-for gestational age (SGA). Of the 59 SGA subjects, 26 (44.1%) were symmetrical SGA while 33 (55.9%) were asymmetrical SGA. There was no significant sex or socioeconomic predilection for either symmetrical or asymmetrical growth (p = 0.59, 0.73 respectively). Conclusion The findings showed that proportionality in SGA fetuses is a continuum, with the PI depending on the duration of intrauterine insult and the extent of its effects on weight and length before delivery. PMID:23875695

    1. Understanding Friendship between Critical Friends

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gibbs, Paul; Angelides, Panayiotis

      2008-01-01

      This conceptual article discusses the issue of friendship implied by the term "critical friends". Our argument relates to the generalized use of the term "friendship" and the assumptions that it may carry compared with the actuality of the roles played by critical friends. We attempt to build a more precise definition of friendship which we

    2. Understanding Friendship between Critical Friends

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gibbs, Paul; Angelides, Panayiotis

      2008-01-01

      This conceptual article discusses the issue of friendship implied by the term "critical friends". Our argument relates to the generalized use of the term "friendship" and the assumptions that it may carry compared with the actuality of the roles played by critical friends. We attempt to build a more precise definition of friendship which we…

    3. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness)

      PubMed Central

      2010-01-01

      Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS). Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group), multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months) that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine). The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00788996. PMID:21171981

    4. Long-term outcomes of the shaken baby syndrome prevention program: Turkey’s experience

      PubMed Central

      Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Şahin, Figen; Polat, Selda; İlhan, Mustafa; Çamurdan, Aysu; Dallar, Yıldız; Beyazova, Ufuk

      2014-01-01

      Aim: Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a condition which may cause to serious health problems in the baby. SBS may be prevented by increasing awareness with giving education to parents especially in the early postnatal period. In shaken baby prevention programs, education is recommended to be given before the 2–4th month during which the frequency of crying is increased. It is important that education given in the early period is permanent until the period during which the frequency of crying is increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the persistency of the benefit of the SBS prevention program until the 2–4th month during which crying is intensified. Material and Methods: This study is an interventional study. When the babies became 2–4 months old, a questionnaire which questioned the usefulness of education and the experiences with babies was applied to a group selected randomly among the mothers who received SBS prevention education during pregnancy or in the first 7 postnatal days (group A). The same questionnaire was applied to 143 mothers whose babies completed their first 2 months, who presented to the hospital for vaccination and who did not receive education about SBS as the control group (group B). The data were evaluated using the Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) 15.0 statistical analysis package program. Ethical approval was obtained from the local ethics committee (30.12.2009, 2785). Results: The rate of the mothers who stated “yes” to the sentence “babies occasionally cry” which was one of the main messages of the education was statistically significantly higher in group A compared to group B (p=0.001). The rate of the mothers who stated “I agree” to the sentence “battering is harmful for babies” was statistically significantly higher in group A compared to group B (p=0.001). Conclusions: Conclusively, it was found that SBS prevention program education was permanent until the 2–4th month. PMID:26078664

    5. Cyber Friendly Fire

      SciTech Connect

      Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

      2011-09-01

      Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public. The network is essentially divided into a production component that hosts the web and network services, and a user component that hosts thirty employee workstations and other end devices. The organization's network is separated from the Internet by a Cisco ASA network security device that both firewalls and detects intrusions. Business sensitive information is stored in various servers. This includes data comprising thousands of internal documents, such as finance and technical designs, email messages for the organization's employees including the CEO, CFO, and CIO, the organization's source code, and Personally Identifiable client data. Release of any of this information to unauthorized parties would have a significant, detrimental impact on the organization's reputation, which would harm earnings. The valuable information stored in these servers pose obvious points of interest for an adversary. We constructed several scenarios around this environment to support studies in cyber SA and cyber FF that may be run in the test range. We describe mitigation strategies to combat cyber FF including both training concepts and suggestions for decision aids and visualization approaches. Finally, we discuss possible future research directions.

    6. Predictors of breastfeeding in very low birthweight infants at the time of discharge from hospital.

      PubMed

      Boo, N Y; Goh, E S

      1999-08-01

      In a case-control study carried out in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital between 1st July 1995 and 31st January 1996 the objectives were (1) to determine the rate of breastfeeding in surviving very low birthweight (VLBW, < or = 1500 g) Malaysian infants following the introduction of the Baby Friendly Hospital Concept, and (2) to identify significant predictors associated with successful breastfeeding in these infants. During the study period, 201 (1.24 per cent) of live-born infants were VLBW infants, 192 (95.5 per cent) were Malaysians, and 141 (73.4 per cent) of them survived to go home. The breastfeeding rate among all surviving VLBW Malaysian infants at the time of discharge was 40.2 per cent (57/141). The mothers of 126 (89.4 per cent) VLBW Malaysian infants were interviewed before discharge. Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various confounders, the significant predictors associated with successful breastfeeding were: (a) Malay mothers (odds ratio: 6.0; 95 per cent CI: 1.9, 19.4), (b) mothers with educational levels of between 7 and 9 years (odds ratio: 3.6; 95 per cent CI: 1.0, 12.2), and (c) earlier age of commencement of enteral feeds in the VLBW infants (for each additional day delay in commencement of feeding, odds ratio of breastfeeding was 0.5; 95 per cent CI: 0.4, 0.8). PMID:10467829

    7. Compare Hospitals

      MedlinePlus

      ... Talking to Your Doctor Hospital Ratings and reports Survey Content Reports on Hospital Performance How Our Ratings are Used ... and Tools Talking to Your Doctor Hospital Ratings Survey Content Reports on Hospital Performance How Our Ratings are Used ...

    8. The physical manifestations of shaken baby syndrome.

      PubMed

      Mraz, Megan A

      2009-01-01

      Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a great concern for forensic nurses. Accurate diagnosis and treatment is essential. The purpose of this report is to review the history of SBS, as well as the physical symptoms of a patient suspected of suffering from this form of abuse. Implications of SBS for the forensic nurse will be presented; this will include the education of families and caregivers and methods of prevention. PMID:19222686

    9. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2000-01-01

      A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, displays its wings at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

    10. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2000-01-01

      A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, shows its fear and resentment of the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

    11. A baby owl is found at CCAFS

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2000-01-01

      A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.

    12. Community Colleges Offer Baby Boomers an Encore

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Emeagwali, N. Susan

      2007-01-01

      A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…

    13. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

      PubMed Central

      Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

      2016-01-01

      Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

    14. The dynamics of aloof baby Skyrmions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul

      2016-01-01

      The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.

    15. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

      PubMed

      Shaviv, Avi

      2005-12-01

      With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:16512215

    16. Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.

      PubMed

      Shaviv, Avi

      2005-09-01

      With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:20549448

    17. Cannabinoids: Friend or foe?

      PubMed

      Le Foll, B; Tyndale, R F

      2015-06-01

      This issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics focuses on cannabinoids. Our understanding of these interesting endogenous and synthetic compounds, and their role in the cannabinoid system, has evolved dramatically, in part because of the acquisition of new research tools. Cannabis has been used for centuries by humans for recreational and medicinal purposes, however, there is substantial evidence that cannabis use can expose people to varying complications (e.g., risk of addiction, cognitive impairment), thus, it is important to determine the benefit/risk of cannabis with precision and to implement policy measures based on evidence to maximize the benefits and minimize the harm. Novel cannabinoid drugs are emerging for medicinal use (e.g., dronabinol, nabiximols) and as illicit drugs (e.g., Spice, K2) perpetuating the perception that cannabinoid drugs can be a friend or foe. This special issue will cover these various aspects of cannabinoid pharmacology and therapeutics ranging from basic chemistry, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical trial results, to policy and education efforts in this area. PMID:25801347

    18. Field Friendly Tuberculosis Biosensor

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Proper, N.; Scherman, M. S.; Jevsevar, K. L.; Stone, J.; McNeil, M. R.; Krapf, D.

      2009-10-01

      Tuberculosis (TB) is a fading threat in the United States, but in the developing world it is still a major health-care concern. Given the rising number of cases and lack of resources, there is a desperate need for an affordable, portable detection system. We are working towards the development of a field-friendly immunological biosensor that utilizes florescence microscopy to undertake this task. We observe fluorescently labeled antibodies/antigens as they bind to a glass slide treated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to inhibit non-specific adsorption. Antibodies against the antigens of interest are bound to the PEGylated glass slides via biotin-streptavidin interactions. Then, fluorescently labeled antibodies are mixed with different concentrations of TB antigens and this solution is incubated on the treated glass slides for 30 minutes. The slides are thoroughly rinsed with water following the incubation period. The antigens are then detected by fluorescence using a low-cost biosensor. Our system includes a ``supermarket-scanner'' HeNe laser, home-built electronics, off-the-shelf optics and a Si photodiode. Work is underway to incorporate a flow-cell into the system, in a small portable box.

    19. Design friendly double patterning

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yesilada, Emek

      2012-03-01

      Double patterning using 193nm immersion has been adapted as the solution to enable 2x nm technology nodes until the arrival of EUV tools. As a result the past few years have seen a huge effort in creating double patterning friendly design flows. These flows have so far proposed a combination of decomposition rules at cell level and/or at placement level as well as sophisticated decomposition tools with varying density, design iteration and decomposition complexity penalties. What is more, designers have to familiarize themselves with double patterning challenges and decomposition tools. In this paper an alternative approach is presented that allows the development of dense standard cells with minimal impact on design flow due to double patterning. A real case study is done on 20nm node first metal layer where standard cells are designed without considering decomposition restrictions. The resulting layout is carefully studied in order to establish decomposition or color rules that can map the layout into two masks required for double patterning but without the need of complex coloring algorithms. Since the rules are derived from a decomposition unaware design they do not in return impose heavy restrictions on the design at the cell or placement level and show substantial density gains compared to previously proposed methods. Other key advantages are a simplified design flow without complex decomposition tools that can generate a faster time to market solution all at the same time keeping designers isolated from the challenges of the double patterning. The derived design rules highlight process development path required for design driven manufacturing.

    20. Conceptualizing age-friendly communities.

      PubMed

      Menec, Verena H; Means, Robin; Keating, Norah; Parkhurst, Graham; Eales, Jacquie

      2011-09-01

      On the political and policy front, interest has increased in making communities more "age-friendly", an ongoing trend since the World Health Organization launched its global Age-Friendly Cities project. We conceptualize age-friendly communities by building on the WHO framework and applying an ecological perspective. We thereby aim to make explicit key assumptions of the interplay between the person and the environment to advance research or policy decisions in this area. Ecological premises (e.g., there must be a fit between the older adult and environmental conditions) suggest the need for a holistic and interdisciplinary research approach. Such an approach is needed because age-friendly domains (the physical environment, housing, the social environment, opportunities for participation, informal and formal community supports and health services, transportation, communication, and information) cannot be treated in isolation from intrapersonal factors, such as age, gender, income, and functional status, and other levels of influence, including the policy environment. PMID:21745427

    1. Friends of Recreation and Parks...

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Caverly, Joseph

      1973-01-01

      To acquire additional funding, San Francisco's Department of Recreation and Parks has organized the Friends of Recreation and Parks'' to obtain wide backing from individuals, organizations and businesses, and to coordinate the community's interests. (JA)

    2. Baby P: déjà vu or distinctive?

      PubMed

      de Braal, Bernice

      2009-01-01

      As in the case of Victoria Climbié, the case of Baby P triggered national outrage and widespread reforms to the child protection system in England. But the Baby P case is unique in several key ways. The context and differentiating elements of the Baby P case are explored, as is the public, political and media reaction, the use of new technologies, the main recommendations of the Laming report that followed it, and the role played by New Labour. PMID:20120878

    3. The patient-friendly practice.

      PubMed

      Dooley, Sharon Kay

      2006-01-01

      In today's medical marketplace, patients see themselves as consumers of healthcare with certain customer-service expectations. The medical practice that is indifferent or resistant to these changes is at risk. Having a good understanding of patient-friendly changes can help a practice survive in a changing environment. A patient-friendly office will continue to meet the needs of the patient by adopting this new practice style. PMID:16833071

    4. Continuous exclusive breastfeeding and some related factors in the selected hospitals of Isfahan

      PubMed Central

      Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Fathizadeh, Nahid

      2011-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Exclusive nutrition with breastfeeding is the health provider of the infant and mothers and its continuing would provide more advantages. Exclusive nutrition on different communities is affected by different factors. This study aimed to determine continuous exclusive breastfeeding and some of the related factors. METHODS: This was a descriptive-analysis prospective study. The study population included all the breastfed mothers admitted in the obstetrics wards of the selected hospitals. Selecting the hospitals also was done randomly. Data collection tools included a questionnaire completed by 291 mothers. To obtain the data about breastfeeding duration, mothers were phone called at the first and sixth postpartum months. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics and software SPSS. RESULTS: Estimation of mean and standard deviation of exclusive breastfeeding duration at the first and sixth months after the delivery, respectively, were 3.86 (0.55) and 23.67 (6.63) weeks. One month after the delivery, 93.1%, 6.2% and 0.7% of the mothers, respectively, had exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding with formula milk or other ingredients and discontinuation of breastfeeding; 6 months after the delivery, these values changed to 86.3, 12 and 1.7%, respectively. The most frequent period of breastfeeding discontinuation (6.9%) was related to 1-4 weeks. The results indicated that statistically there was a significant correlation between breastfeeding duration and age and the birth hospital. While the results of the study showed no association between breastfeeding duration and number of the children, duration of marriage, educational level and mothers’ occupation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study represented a high continuous exclusive breastfeeding which perhaps was due to applied baby-friendly hospitals strategies. Furthermore, to prevent from discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding, knowing the discontinuation time and its related factors, particularly the first four postpartum weeks, can increase the knowledge of the health staff about counseling and education. PMID:22224108

    5. Risks associated with obesity in pregnancy, for the mother and baby: a systematic review of reviews.

      PubMed

      Marchi, J; Berg, M; Dencker, A; Olander, E K; Begley, C

      2015-08-01

      Maternal obesity is linked with adverse outcomes for mothers and babies. To get an overview of risks related to obesity in pregnant women, a systematic review of reviews was conducted. For inclusion, reviews had to compare pregnant women of healthy weight with women with obesity, and measure a health outcome for mother and/or baby. Authors conducted full-text screening, quality assurance using the AMSTAR tool and data extraction steps in pairs. Narrative analysis of the 22 reviews included show gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, depression, instrumental and caesarean birth, and surgical site infection to be more likely to occur in pregnant women with obesity compared with women with a healthy weight. Maternal obesity is also linked to greater risk of preterm birth, large-for-gestational-age babies, foetal defects, congenital anomalies and perinatal death. Furthermore, breastfeeding initiation rates are lower and there is greater risk of early breastfeeding cessation in women with obesity compared with healthy weight women. These adverse outcomes may result in longer duration of hospital stay, with concomitant resource implications. It is crucial to reduce the burden of adverse maternal and foetal/child outcomes caused by maternal obesity. Women with obesity need support to lose weight before they conceive, and to minimize their weight gain in pregnancy. PMID:26016557

    6. Do Babies Think? How Do Babies Think? Unit for Child Studies. Selected Papers Number 23.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Phillips, Shelley

      Prior to considering the ability of infants to think, this discussion attempts to dispel prevalent myths about babies' thought processes. The fact that infants do not intentionally manipulate their parents; are not identical; are not simply hedonistic seekers of bodily pleasures; and are not passive, disorganized beings needing training into…

    7. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

      Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)…

    8. Baby Minds: Brain-Building Games Your Baby Will Love. Birth to Age Three.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Acredolo, Linda; Goodwyn, Susan

      Recent research points to the inborn abilities of infants and shows how early experiences influence cognitive skills. This book presents activities for parents and their infants--building on activities babies instinctively love--to develop their unique abilities. The book is organized around six intellectual skills: (1) problem solving; (2)

    9. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.

      2014-01-01

      Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

    10. We want what’s best for our baby: Prenatal Parenting of Babies with Lethal Conditions

      PubMed Central

      Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Krowchuk, Heidi; Hall, Wendasha Jenkins; Denney-Koelsch, Erin

      2015-01-01

      This article reports on qualitative research into the experience of couples who chose to continue their pregnancies after receiving a lethal fetal diagnosis, and to embrace the parenting of their baby in the shortened time they have. This analysis of interview data is part of a larger research project describing parents’ experiences of continuing pregnancy with a known lethal fetal diagnosis (LFD). PMID:26594107

    11. Mother's death means baby is likely to die too.

      PubMed

      Abdulghani, N

      1994-02-01

      A study by Dr. Nagiba Abdulghani, conducted for the University of London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, reports that in almost 2/3 of the cases of maternal death during childbirth in North Yemen, the children died within 1 year of their mothers. The maternal mortality ratio in North Yemen is 753 per 100,000 live births. The study included 224 maternal deaths in 10 hospitals between May, 1987, and April, 1989. 9 out of 10 mothers who died were illiterate. Only 1/5 had received prenatal care. The inaccessibility of health services, the poor quality of care and facilities, and a lack of faith in a system that humiliates women were given as reasons for failure to seek medical care. Causes of death in order of frequency were hepatitis, hemorrhage, infection, and toxemia. 3/4 of the women died postpartum. 1/5 of the babies were stillbirths. 1/5 of the mothers had a history of maternal complications. 1/5 had chronic disease. 2/3 of the women had begun their pregnancies within 1 year of their last childbirth. 1/2 of the women had symptoms ranging from vomiting and fatigue to jaundice and vaginal bleeding. Recommendations of the study included: 1) programs to prevent and treat hepatitis and; 2) an information, education, and communication (IEC) community campaign on the signs of maternal complications. Personnel should also continue their training and research activities. PMID:12345460

    12. Reproduction and the test tube baby.

      PubMed

      Pakalnis, L; Makoroto, J

      1977-02-01

      The goals of research into human reproduction leading to the ultimate of a test tube baby are discussed. While research today focuses on helping the infertile couple or correcting unwanted genetic traits, many problems and questions of an ethical and moral nature are left unanswered. Some of the techniques in current use are described: 1) artificial insemination, 2) in vitro fertilization, 3) in vitro culture, 4) embryo reimplantation, and 5) cloning. It is only responsible to become aware of current research so that it is possible to deal with questions that will confront us. PMID:264800

    13. Inspecting baby Skyrmions with effective metrics

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Gibbons, G. W.; Goulart, E.

      2014-05-01

      In the present paper we investigate the causal structure of the baby Skyrme model using appropriate geometrical tools. We discuss several features of excitations propagating on top of background solutions and show that the evolution of high frequency waves is governed by a curved effective geometry. Examples are given for which the effective metric describes the interaction between waves and solitonic solutions such as kinks, antikinks, and hedgehogs. In particular, it is shown how violent processes involving the collisions of solitons and antisolitons may induce metrics which are not globally hyperbolic. We argue that it might be illuminating to calculate the effective metric as a diagnostic test for pathological regimes in numerical simulations.

    14. Collodion Baby with TGM1 gene mutation

      PubMed Central

      Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Basudev; Shastri, Sweta; Pandita, Aakash; Pawar, Smita

      2015-01-01

      Collodion baby (CB) is normally diagnosed at the time of birth and refers to a newborn infant that is delivered with a lambskin-like membrane encompassing the total body surface. CB is not a specific disease entity, but is a common phenotype in conditions like harlequin ichthyosis, lamellar ichthyosis, nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, and trichothiodystrophy. We report a CB that was brought to our department and later diagnosed to have TGM1 gene c.984+1G>A mutation. However, it could not be ascertained whether the infant had lamellar ichthyosis or congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (both having the same mutation). The infant was lost to follow-up. PMID:26451124

    15. Traumatic brain injury and shaken baby syndrome.

      PubMed

      Paiva, Wellingson S; Soares, Matheus S; Amorim, Robson L O; de Andrade, A Ferreira; Matushita, Hamilton; Teixeira, Manoel J

      2011-01-01

      Shaken baby syndrome is a serious form of physical child abuse, which is frequently overlooked. It is defined as vigorous manual shaking of an infant who is being held by the extremities or shoulders, leading to whiplash-induced intracranial and intraocular bleeding and no external signs of head trauma. This syndrome is seen most commonly in children under 2 years, mainly in children under 6 months. This article summarizes issues related to clinical presentation, diagnosis, risk factors, and interventions for healthcare professionals. PMID:22525633

    16. Nutrition of allergic babies and children.

      PubMed

      Cantani, A

      1999-01-01

      Atopic diseases of babies and children are frequent, disabilitating, chronic and even life-threatening. The currently available cow's milk (CM) substitutes for infants with CM allergy (CMA) are soy protein (SP) formulas (SPFs), hydrolyzed formulas (HF), and homemade meat-based formulas. However, in the past few years the antigenicity/allergenicity of SPFs has been over-emphasized in the medical literature. We have demonstrated that SPF allergy incidence in oral food challenge (OFC)/doubleblind food challenge (DBFC)-based epidemiological studies attains 3-4%. CM-based protein hydrolysates have provoked 200 severe and less severe reactions. PMID:11075624

    17. Perceptions of baby talk, frequency of receiving baby talk, and self-esteem among community and nursing home residents.

      PubMed

      O'Connor, B P; Rigby, H

      1996-03-01

      Community-living seniors (n = 113) and nursing home residents (n = 43) provided their impressions of baby-talk and neutral-talk scenarios and completed measures of functional health, need for succorance, and self-esteem. Two orthogonal dimensions were found in perceptions of baby talk: Warmth and Superiority. The personality trait of need for succorance was consistently associated with perceptions of warmth in baby talk, whereas functional health, age, and institutionalization were associated with perceptions of superiority. Significant interactions were found between perceptions of baby talk and frequency of receiving baby talk in the prediction of self-esteem, providing suggestive evidence for previously expressed concerns about potentially harmful effects of receiving baby talk on self-esteem among seniors who have negative perceptions of baby talk. However, older persons with positive perceptions of baby talk reported higher self-esteem when they frequently received baby talk, in accordance with person-environment theory. The self-esteem interaction for men occurred on the Superiority dimension, whereas the interaction for women occurred on the Warmth dimension. PMID:8726380

    18. What to Do if Your Baby's Screening Reveals a Possible Hearing Problem

      MedlinePlus

      ... for Parents Name of baby: ________________________________ Birthday: ______/______/______ By 1 month old: Make sure that your baby’s hearing has ... your baby is 1 month old. By 3 months old: If your baby didn’t pass the ...

    19. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

      Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

    20. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue?

      PubMed

      1998-09-01

      This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high. PMID:12348885

    1. Baby Galaxies in the Adult Universe

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2004-01-01

      [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

      This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's 'birth-rate' over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer 'offspring,' and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals).

      Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or 'today' side of the timeline.

      The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away.

    2. Teenagers and Their Babies: A Perinatal Home Visitor's Guide

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick

      2008-01-01

      "Teenagers and Their Babies" is a self-study and preparation guide for paraprofessional home-based visitors to engage expectant and new parents in an exploration of their baby's development and their expectations for parenthood. The guide includes service interventions--strategies, techniques, and activities--for home visitors and doulas to use…

    3. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Williams, Julia J.

      2009-01-01

      The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

    4. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

      2012-01-01

      Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study

    5. Babies' Self-Regulation: Taking a Broad Perspective

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

      2011-01-01

      Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay

    6. [Intra-uterine growth standards for Cape Colored babies].

      PubMed

      Jaroszewicz, A M; Schumann, D E; Keet, M P

      1975-03-29

      Intra-uterine weight, length and head circumference values are reported for Cape Coloured babies. Separate values are given for girls and boys and for firstborns and laterborns. The weight percentile values are lower than those of Scottish babies, but higher than those reported previously for the Coloured population group. PMID:1145378

    7. Baby Care Basics: What Every Infant Caregiver Needs To Know.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Texas Child Care, 2002

      2002-01-01

      Presents information on caring for infants in a child care setting. Suggestions include responding quickly to crying, setting the schedule to baby's pace, talking to the baby, using proper hand-washing procedures, checking the room daily for safety, going outdoors every day, and building partnerships with parents. Includes a sample form for…

    8. Infants & Toddlers "What's Going On? How to Hold Squriming Babies

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Honig, Alice Sterling

      2005-01-01

      Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…

    9. Pedagogy with Babies: Perspectives of Eight Nursery Managers

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

      2015-01-01

      The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…

    10. The Effects of Baby Sign Training on Child Development

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai

      2014-01-01

      Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…

    11. Baby Boomers and Community College: A Study of Motivations

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cunningham, DiAnne H.

      2009-01-01

      Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and…

    12. Babies' Self-Regulation: Taking a Broad Perspective

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

      2011-01-01

      Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…

    13. Baby Boom Caregivers: Care in the Age of Individualization

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace

      2012-01-01

      Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…

    14. Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boom Generation: A Different Perspective.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Easterlin, Richard A.; And Others

      1990-01-01

      Examined average economic status of baby boom cohorts as they approach retirement using data on their life cycle income experience. Findings suggest that baby boomers are likely to enter old age in better economic position than preboom cohorts because of deferred marriages, reduced childbearing, and increased labor force participation of wives…

    15. Better Baby Care: A Book for Family Day Care Providers.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Nash, Margaret; Tate, Costella

      A resource for child caregivers providing family day care for infants and toddlers, this book is designed to provide information and suggestions in a format that is easy to follow, and in language that is easy to read. Chapter 1 gives tips on "baby-proofing" the home, as well as ideas for toys, equipment, and how to integrate a baby into the…

    16. Fussy Babies, Worried Families, and a New Service Network

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Gilkerson, Linda; Gray, Larry; Mork, Nancy

      2005-01-01

      The authors document the conceptualization, over time, of "fussy baby syndrome" and the establishment of a Fussy Baby Clinic. Excessive infant crying (commonly called colic) typically subsides in the first 3 months but may set up a cycle of parent-infant distress. Families studied felt a high degree of emotional stress and physical exhaustion;…

    17. Baby Boom Equals Career Bust. Monographs on Career Education.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Moore, Charles Guy

      Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…

    18. Baby Boomers and Community College: A Study of Motivations

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cunningham, DiAnne H.

      2009-01-01

      Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and

    19. The total thermal insulation of the new-born baby.

      PubMed

      Hey, E N; Katz, G; O'Connell, B

      1970-05-01

      1. One hundred and seventeen healthy new-born babies weighing between 0.9 and 4.8 kg at delivery have been studied during the first ten days of life, and sixteen of these babies have been studied serially for 6 weeks after birth. The babies lay supine in a draught-free environment (air speed 4-5 cm/sec) of moderate humidity. The operative temperature was between 26 and 38 degrees C for the babies who were studied naked.2. Total non-evaporative heat loss was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and the concomitant change in mean body temperature.3. Approximately 10% of the total body surface area was in contact with the mattress or floor. Conductive heat loss accounted for only about 5% of all non-evaporative heat loss when the naked baby was lying on a thick foam mattress, but for as much as 25% when the baby was lying in a water-jacketed chamber with a floor of clear plastic approximately 5 mm thick.4. Insulation to heat loss by convection and radiation varied with environmental temperature. Total specific insulation was low in a warm environment when the naked baby vasodilated, and rose by between 16 and 25% to a maximum in an environment of 31 degrees C. It decreased significantly when the baby became physically active in environments with a temperature less than this.5. Total specific insulation in an environment of 31 degrees C varied with body size: it averaged 0.156 degrees C.m(2).hr/kcal in seven naked babies weighing 0.9-1.2 kg, rose to 0.190 degrees C.m(2).hr/kcal in twelve babies weighing 1.8-2.2 kg, and averaged 0.201 degrees C.m(2).hr/kcal in the thirty-four babies who weighed over 3 kg. Tissue insulation accounted for 23% of this total specific insulation in the smaller babies, and about 28% of the total in babies weighing over 3 kg.6. Clothing ten babies in a vest, napkin and long cotton nightdress increased the total specific insulation by an average of 0.23 degrees C.m(2).hr/kcal. PMID:5503276

    20. Born in Bradford, a cohort study of babies born in Bradford, and their parents: Protocol for the recruitment phase

      PubMed Central

      Raynor, Pauline

      2008-01-01

      Background Bradford, one of the most deprived cities in the United Kingdom, has a wide range of public health problems associated with socioeconomic deprivation, including an infant mortality rate almost double that for England and Wales. Infant mortality is highest for babies of Pakistani origin, who comprise almost half the babies born in Bradford. The Born in Bradford cohort study aims to examine environmental, psychological and genetic factors that impact on health and development perinatally, during childhood and subsequent adult life, and those that influence their parents' health and wellbeing. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Methods Most Bradford women attend for antenatal care and give birth at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, which has approximately 5,800 births per year. Women are eligible for recruitment if they plan to give birth here. Babies born from March 2007 are eligible to participate, recruitment is planned to continue until 2010. Fathers of babies recruited are invited to participate. Women are usually recruited when they attend for a routine oral glucose tolerance test at 26–28 weeks gestation. Recruitment of babies is at birth. Fathers are recruited whenever possible during the antenatal period, or soon after the birth. The aim is to recruit 10,000 women, their babies, and the babies' fathers. At recruitment women have blood samples taken, are interviewed to complete a semi-structured questionnaire, weighed, and have height, arm circumference and triceps skinfold measured. Umbilical cord blood is collected at birth. Within two weeks of birth babies have their head, arm and abdominal circumference measured, along with subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness. Fathers self-complete a questionnaire at recruitment, have height and weight measured, and provide a saliva sample. Participants are allocated a unique study number. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. A wide range of hospital and community sources is being accessed to provide data for the women and children. Data are checked for accuracy and consistency. Conclusion Born in Bradford will increase understanding of the factors that contribute to health and wellbeing, and identify factors that influence differences in them between people of Pakistani and European origin. PMID:18811926

    1. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults.

      PubMed

      Khonsari, Shadi; Suganthy, Mayuran; Burczynska, Beata; Dang, Vu; Choudhury, Manika; Pachenari, Azra

      2016-01-01

      The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

    2. Baby schema modulates the brain reward system in nulliparous women

      PubMed Central

      Glocker, Melanie L.; Langleben, Daniel D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Griffin, Mark D.; Sachser, Norbert; Gur, Ruben C.

      2009-01-01

      Ethologist Konrad Lorenz defined the baby schema (“Kindchenschema”) as a set of infantile physical features, such as round face and big eyes, that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in the human, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. The neural basis of this fundamental altruistic instinct is not well understood. Prior studies reported a pattern of brain response to pictures of children, but did not dissociate the brain response to baby schema from the response to children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and controlled manipulation of the baby schema in infant faces, we found that baby schema activates the nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the mesocorticolimbic system mediating reward processing and appetitive motivation, in nulliparous women. Our findings suggest that engagement of the mesocorticolimbic system is the neurophysiologic mechanism by which baby schema promotes human caregiving, regardless of kinship. PMID:19451625

    3. Baby schema modulates the brain reward system in nulliparous women.

      PubMed

      Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Griffin, Mark D; Sachser, Norbert; Gur, Ruben C

      2009-06-01

      Ethologist Konrad Lorenz defined the baby schema ("Kindchenschema") as a set of infantile physical features, such as round face and big eyes, that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in the human, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. The neural basis of this fundamental altruistic instinct is not well understood. Prior studies reported a pattern of brain response to pictures of children, but did not dissociate the brain response to baby schema from the response to children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and controlled manipulation of the baby schema in infant faces, we found that baby schema activates the nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the mesocorticolimbic system mediating reward processing and appetitive motivation, in nulliparous women. Our findings suggest that engagement of the mesocorticolimbic system is the neurophysiologic mechanism by which baby schema promotes human caregiving, regardless of kinship. PMID:19451625

    4. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

      PubMed Central

      KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

      2015-01-01

      The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

    5. "Friends" Raping Friends. Could It Happen to You?

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Hughes, Jean O'Gorman; Sandler, Bernice R.

      This publication concerning rape committed by acquaintances and "friends" is designed to provide information and support for college students. The early warning signs and how to react to potential "acquaintance" or "date" rape are addressed. Consideration is given to why this type of rape occurs and information is provided on how to avoid date…

    6. Distinguishing Our "Would-Be Friends" from Our "True Friends"

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Parish, Thomas S.; Rehbein, Gary C.

      2007-01-01

      For Dr. William Glasser (1965), the world-famous originator of Reality Therapy, the first question that he generally asks of all those who seek his services is: "What do you want?" While seeking to acquire an answer to this inquiry, however, he strongly recommends that the therapist also "make friends with the client," so that the relationship is…

    7. Intermediate peer contexts and educational outcomes: Do the friends of students' friends matter?

      PubMed

      Carbonaro, William; Workman, Joseph

      2016-07-01

      Sociologists of education have long been interested in the effects of peer relations on educational outcomes. Recent theory and research on adolescence suggest that peers on the boundaries of students' friendship networks may play an important role in shaping behaviors and educational outcomes. In this study, we examine the importance of a key "intermediate peer context" for students' outcomes: the friends of a student's friends. Our findings indicate both friends' and friends' friends' characteristics independently predict students' college expectations and their risk of dropping out of high school (although only friends' characteristics predict GPA). Our models suggest the magnitude of students' friends-of-friends' characteristics are at least as large their friends' characteristics. Together, the association between the peer context and students outcomes is considerably larger when accounting for both the characteristics of students' friends and the friends of their friends. PMID:27194659

    8. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

      Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

      2012-01-01

      ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319.56-48 Section 319.56-48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables §...

    9. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-06-24

      ... Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with regulations for the importation of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of baby squash and baby...

    10. 76 FR 81467 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-12-28

      ... Collection; Importation of Baby Corn and Baby Carrots From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... with regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. DATES: We will consider...: For information on regulations for the importation of baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia,...

    11. EVALUATION OF ALL BABIES CRY, A SECOND GENERATION UNIVERSAL ABUSIVE HEAD TRAUMA PREVENTION PROGRAM

      PubMed Central

      Morrill, Allison C.; McElaney, Lisa; Peixotto, Betsy; VanVleet, Marcia; Sege, Robert

      2015-01-01

      Child maltreatment results in significant individual, family, and societal costs. This study assessed the efficacy of All Babies Cry (ABC), a media-based infant maltreatment prevention program, using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental staged evaluation design. ABC’s messaging, designed and tested through a series of focus groups, provides strategies for reducing parental stress and soothing infants. Participants (n = 423) were first-time parents, 70% fathers, recruited at two hospitals. The first 211 were controls; the next 212 received ABC. Participants were interviewed 3 times: at baseline in hospital, and by telephone 5 weeks (n = 359; 85%) and 17 weeks (n = 326; 77%) later. Researchers measured parents’ perceptions, intentions, and use of strategies to calm crying and manage caregiver stress. Outcomes were based on the Strengthening Families Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was well received, appears effective in improving mediators of behavior, and may change parental behavior. PMID:26456987

    12. SOME OF MY BEST FRIENDS.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      CREAN, ROBERT

      "SOME OF MY BEST FRIENDS" IS A PLAY WHICH CONSISTS OF FIVE CHARACTERS--THE SPEAKER, CATHERINE, A PROTESTANT, AMY, A JEW, ANTHONY, AN ITALIAN CATHOLIC, AND PETER, A NEGRO. THE PLAY IS PERFORMED IN A ROUND ACTING AREA RATHER THAN ON A STAGE, AND THERE IS NO SCENERY. THE AUDIENCE SURROUNDS THE ACTING AREA AND PLAYS AN ACTIVE ROLE AS THE SPEAKER TALKS…

    13. Free Our Friends in Learning

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Stidham, Sue

      2007-01-01

      Many secrets can be told by the physical surroundings of library media centers. Whether the center is kid-friendly is one of the first obvious tell-tale signs. When a library center has Arthur & D.W., Clifford, Pooh & Eeyore, shells, special rocks, etc. hidden by the circulation center or in the back in boxes, it's time to revolt. The movie Free…

    14. Patients, friends, and relationship boundaries.

      PubMed Central

      Rourke, J. T.; Smith, L. F.; Brown, J. B.

      1993-01-01

      When patient and physician are close friends, both professional and personal relationships can suffer. Jointly exploring and setting explicit boundaries can help avoid conflict and maintain these valuable relationships. This is particularly important when the physician practises in a small community where such concurrent relationships are unavoidable. PMID:8292931

    15. Introduction to the Baby Jane Doe papers.

      PubMed

      Fox, Daniel M

      1986-01-01

      A conference was held at the State University of New York at Stony Brook in October 1984 to discuss the controversy concerning treatment of a newborn with severe congenital defects that became known as the Baby Jane Doe case. Fox provides some background information on the case to introduce a set of of six articles consisting of papers delivered at the conference. These articles deal with historical aspects of the treatment debate (Stanley J. Reiser), problems of clinical decision making (John M. Freeman), the legal issues involved (John A. Robertson), coverage of the case by the media (Stephen Klaidman and Tom L. Beauchamp), federal efforts to regulate the treatment of handicapped newborns (Lawrence D. Brown), and the alliance that arose between opponents of abortion and advocates of the rights of the handicapped (Constance Paige and Elisa B. Karnofsky). PMID:11643930

    16. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

      SciTech Connect

      Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

      2007-12-20

      After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

    17. A study of in-hospital midwifery practices that affect breastfeeding outcomes.

      PubMed

      McAllister, Helen; Bradshaw, Sue; Ross-Adjie, Gail

      2009-11-01

      Whilst breastfeeding is undoubtedly best for both mother and baby, many factors influence a woman's decision about whether to start and when to cease feeding. This study sought to determine which variables, influenced by midwifery practice, may influence the length of breastfeeding. Mothers who had given birth to a live baby at a Perth private hospital were invited to complete a validated, anonymous questionnaire asking about their breastfeeding experience, both in hospital and following discharge. The response rate was 50% (n=266). Although 94% of women were breastfeeding on discharge from hospital, this rate reduced to 59% at 6 months and 21% at 12 months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 7.4 months (SD +/- 4.1). Of five variables thought to be associated with an increased length of breastfeeding, only two were found to be statistically significant: whether a mother could independently attach the baby on discharge (p=0.003) and whether or not artificial baby milk was administered in hospital (p<0.001). In order to improve breastfeeding rates, education for both mothers and midwives must be targeted towards ensuring mothers are able to independently attach their baby on discharge from hospital. The findings also support the discouragement of artificial feeding unless there is a medical indication or the mother has made an informed request. PMID:20043433

    18. Gay rights one baby-step at a time: protecting hospital visitation rights for same-sex partners while the lack of surrogacy rights lingers: comment on "Ethical challenges in end-of-life care for GLBTI individuals" by Colleen Cartwright.

      PubMed

      Hernandez, Jaime O

      2012-09-01

      Recognizing that GLBTI individuals are often barred from visiting their partners in hospitals or from acting as health care surrogates for incapacitated partners, President Obama directed the Department of Health and Human Services to address these issues. In response, the department amended its rules to prohibit hospitals from restricting, limiting, or denying visitation privileges on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. But the changes do not affect the designation of a health care surrogate, a matter largely governed by state law. Therefore, subject to state law, same-sex partners can still be legally barred from making health care decisions for their incapacitated partners, and it remains essential that they execute advance directives and appoint one another as their health care proxies. PMID:23180337

    19. Establishment of an intermediate care ward for babies and mothers.

      PubMed Central

      Dear, P R; McLain, B I

      1987-01-01

      This paper describes one year's experience with the running of a special postnatal ward area, established so that babies who needed more treatment and monitoring than is generally undertaken on postnatal wards but who did not need the facilities of the neonatal unit could be kept by their mother's bedside. This 'intermediate care ward' admitted 297 babies with their mothers during its first year of operation. We estimate that the opening of the ward led to a 20% reduction in admissions to the neonatal unit, without disadvantage to any baby. The indications for admission are outlined and the reactions of patients and staff to the innovation discussed. PMID:3619477

    20. Keeping mothers and babies together--breastfeeding and bonding.

      PubMed

      Rapley, Gill

      2002-10-01

      A close examination of the WHO/UNICEF (2001) Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding reveals a central theme: that of keeping mothers and babies together. Two of the steps, in particular, emphasise that close contact is maintained: step four--skin contact and the initiation of breastfeeding, and step seven--rooming-in. The reason for this is that separation interferes with the establishment of breastfeeding and increases the likelihood of complications. This article considers the impact separation of mother and baby may have and asks whether it is any coincidence that breastfeeding relies on the togetherness of mother and baby. PMID:12851979

    1. Friends of the National Library of Medicine

      MedlinePlus

      ... Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... Paul G. Rogers Chairman, Friends of the National Library of Medicine and former member of the U.S. ...

    2. The myth of the miracle baby: how neonatal nurses interpret media accounts of babies of extreme prematurity.

      PubMed

      Green, Janet; Darbyshire, Philip; Adams, Anne; Jackson, Debra

      2015-09-01

      Improved life sustaining technology in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) has resulted in an increased probability of survival in extremely premature babies. Miracle baby stories in the popular press are a regular occurrence and these reports are often the first source from which the general public learn about extremely premature babies. The research from which this paper is drawn sought to explore the care-giving and ethical dilemmas of neonatal nurses when caring for extremely premature babies 24 weeks gestation and less. This current paper aims to outline the views of neonatal nurses on miracle baby stories in the media. Data were collected via a questionnaire to 760 Australian neonatal nurses with 414 returned, representing a response rate of 54.4%. Narrative was collected from semi-structured interviews with 24 experienced neonatal nurses in NSW, Australia. A qualitative approach utilising thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the data. The theme the myth of the miracle baby is seen as generating myths and unrealistic expectations on the part of vulnerable families and the public. Neonatal nurses, as the primary caregivers for tiny babies and their families, viewed popular media publications with suspicion, believing published reports to be incomplete, inaccurate and biased towards the positive. PMID:25824907

    3. Postpartum care -- what's best for mother and baby.

      PubMed

      1997-01-01

      This special feature focuses on the care of mothers and infants during the postpartum period. Postpartum care should include prevention, early detection and treatment of complications and disease, and provision of advice. Most maternal mortality is due to postpartum hemorrhage within 4 hours of delivery, especially among anemic women. The uterus should be well contracted, and blood loss should be minimal. Sepsis, as indicated by fever, should be treated with antibiotics, but preventive measures include cleanliness and hygiene at delivery. Infections are more likely after cesarean section, prolonged labor, and early rupture of membranes. Handwashing prevents infection. Women should be encouraged to pass urine in the first 12 hours after delivery. Bathing frequently relieves painful episiotomy. 85% of neonatal deaths are due to preterm birth and low birth weight. Keeping the baby warm helps prevent low body temperature and infections. Parents need social support in adjusting to congenital defects. Infants with infections should be recognized on time, managed correctly, and referred to a district hospital. Breast feeding should start immediately or within the first hour of birth. Mothers need adequate rest and a nutritious diet. Breast tenderness is common during the first 4 days after delivery. Breast feeding on demand and proper hygiene helps to prevent infections and breast tenderness. Postpartum depression requires support from families and expert advice. Exclusive breast feeding inhibits ovulation until menstruation returns. Family planning may begin during lactation with a progestin-only pill, IUD, or diaphragm. HIV-positive mothers should discontinue breast feeding and take extreme care to mix formula with clean water. Mothers should be immunized with two doses of tetanus toxoid. Pregnant mothers need iodized oil and vitamin A supplements. Reproductive tract infections should be treated. PMID:12321360

    4. For Professors, "Friending" Can Be Fraught

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Lipka, Sara

      2007-01-01

      People connect on Facebook by asking to "friend" one another. A typical user lists at least 100 such connections, while newbies are informed, "You don't have any friends yet." A humbling statement. It might make one want to find some. But friending students can be even dicier than befriending them. In the real world, casual professors may ask…

    5. A study of cleft lip and palate in neonates born in a large Malaysian maternity hospital over a 2-year period.

      PubMed

      Boo, N Y; Arshad, A R

      1990-02-01

      Out of 52,379 babies delivered in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, over a 2-year period, 64 were born with cleft lip and/or palates. The rate of occurrence of cleft was 1.24 per 1000 livebirths or 1.20 per 1000 deliveries. The Chinese babies had the highest incidence (1.9 per 1000 deliveries) while the Malays had the lowest (0.98 per 1000 deliveries). The most common type was unilateral cleft of the primary and secondary palates. Among the Indian babies, cleft of the secondary palate was most common. 18.8 percent of all the affected babies had positive family history of cleft. 10.9% of the mothers of affected babies had positive history of drug ingestion especially Chinese herbs during pregnancy. Associated congenital abnormalities occurred in 15.6% of the babies with cleft lip and/or palate. PMID:2333547

    6. Adolescent Boys' Intentions of Seeking Help from Male Friends and Female Friends

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Sears, Heather A.; Graham, Joanna; Campbell, Anna

      2009-01-01

      This study examined adolescent boys' intentions of seeking help from male friends and female friends. We evaluated mean differences in boys' help-seeking intentions; assessed whether boys' individual characteristics predicted their intentions; and examined perceived support from male friends and female friends as mediators of these relationships.…

    7. Classroom Friends and Very Best Friends: A Short-Term Longitudinal Analysis of Relationship Quality

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      McChristian, Chrystal L.; Ray, Glen E.; Tidwell, Pamela S.; LoBello, Steven G.

      2012-01-01

      Second-, third-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children evaluated relationship qualities of a self-nominated friend and a self-nominated very best friend over a 6-month school year period. Results demonstrated that 76% of the friend relationships and 50% of the very best friend relationships were maintained over the course of the study. Children in…

    8. The Effects of Two Bathing Methods on the Time of Separation of Umbilical Cord in Term Babies in Turkey

      PubMed Central

      Ayyildiz, Tulay; Kulakci, Hulya; Niyazi Ayoglu, Ferruh; Kalinci, Nihal; Veren, Funda

      2015-01-01

      Background: Umbilical cord infection developing subsequent to bacterial colonization is one of the outstanding reasons of newborn mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped and developing countries Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of sponge and tub bathing methods on umbilical cord separation time in full term babies in Turkey. Patients and Methods: This quasi-experimental and randomized controlled study was performed on 100 healthy term newborn babies and their mothers. One-hundred full-term babies (51 sponge bathing, 49 tub bathing) born at a state hospital between 14.03.2013 and 18.05.2013 with gestational age of 38-42 weeks, weighing 2500 grams and above and met the selection criteria were included as the study sample. Two booklets were prepared about sponge bathing and tub bathing. Mothers were instructed about sponge bathing and tub bathing, umbilical cord care in prenatal and postnatal periods. The first postnatal visit was performed at the hospital. Home visits and telephone calls were continued until the day of cord separation. Number, percent, mean and standard deviation values, qui-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for data assessment. Results: The time of separation of umbilical cord in babies who were given sponge bathing (6.1 ± 1.4) was shorter compared to those given tub bathing (8.3 ± 2.5) (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Since wetting of umbilical cord during tub bathing delays the separation of umbilical cord, sponge bathing is recommended for newborns until the umbilical cord falls off. PMID:25763277

    9. Southern hospitality.

      PubMed

      Parsons, H

      1992-03-01

      Self Memorial Hospital's hostesses are the embodiment of a patient-oriented service philosophy instituted by Bob Borland when he created the $5-million-a-year Hospitality Services department. PMID:10117979

    10. The friendly art of persuasion.

      PubMed

      Davidhizar, R; Eshleman, J

      1999-12-01

      The ability to persuade is a critical skill for the health care professional in relating to employees, colleagues, and groups of individuals if health care objectives are to be promoted. However, persuasion is an art, which requires careful preplanning and deliberative actions if it is to be carried out successfully. Persuasion done in a friendly manner is more likely to be effective. This article provides techniques that will enable the health care professional to use persuasive methods most advantageously. PMID:10787627

    11. Pot Use During Pregnancy Tied to Low Birth Weight Babies

      MedlinePlus

      ... 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women who use marijuana may be putting their baby at risk for ... countries continue to legalize the use of cannabis [marijuana], understanding the relationship between cannabis and fetal health ...

    12. Small Bump in Blood Pressure During Pregnancy Might Harm Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... During Pregnancy Might Harm Baby Risks for low birth weight and stillbirth increase, research suggests To use the ... had about 70 percent greater odds for low birth weight or stillbirth compared to women with normal blood ...

    13. EVALUATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINING PESTICIDES IN BABY FOOD

      EPA Science Inventory

      Three extraction methods and two detection techniques for determining pesticides in baby food were evaluated. The extraction techniques examined were supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), enhanced solvent extraction (ESE), and solid phase extraction (SPE). The detection techni...

    14. Child Safety: Keeping Your Home Safe for Your Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... keys out of your child's reach. Store the gun in a separate place from the bullets. When your baby is placed on anything above the ground, like a changing ... Adapted with permission from a booklet ...

    15. Teen Moms May Ignore Advice for Helping Babies Sleep Safely

      MedlinePlus

      ... Teen Moms May Ignore Advice for Helping Babies Sleep Safely Awareness of SIDS risk didn't spur ... their instincts directly contradicted expert advice and safe sleep recommendations, the study found. The study was published ...

    16. More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156347.html More IVF Tries Improve Odds of Having a Baby Some ... three-to-four cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF), a new British study suggests. Among more than ...

    17. Noisy Electronic Toys May Hamper Babies' Verbal Skills

      MedlinePlus

      ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156371.html Noisy Electronic Toys May Hamper Babies' Verbal Skills Study found ... their children this Christmas, new research suggests that electronic toys that light up, talk or play music ...

    18. Zika Virus Causes Brain Defects in Babies: CDC

      MedlinePlus

      ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158287.html Zika Virus Causes Brain Defects in Babies: CDC Agency says evidence confirms ... definite and direct cause of microcephaly and other brain-related birth defects, U.S. health officials announced Wednesday. " ...

    19. Pregnancy Problems? Boost the Chance of Having a Baby

      MedlinePlus

      ... Chance of Having a Baby For those who dream of being parents, pregnancy problems can be tremendously ... doesn’t work, doctors may recommend medication, surgery, artificial insemination (in which a woman is injected with ...

    20. Study: Extremely Premature Babies At Greater Risk for Autism

      MedlinePlus

      ... Study: Extremely Premature Babies at Greater Risk for Autism Researchers identified differences in the brains of these ... very prematurely are at higher risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, a new study suggests. Researchers found ...

    1. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

      MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

      ... and pregnancy Zika virus and pregnancy Microcephaly Medicine safety and pregnancy Prescription medicine before and during pregnancy ... your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Ask our experts! Have a question? We've ...

    2. Antibiotics Don't Boost Baby's Weight: Study

      MedlinePlus

      ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157902.html Antibiotics Don't Boost Baby's Weight: Study Contrary to ... March 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Infants who receive antibiotics during the first six months of life don' ...

    3. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

      PubMed

      MacDonald, Cheryl

      2013-05-01

      Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people. PMID:23789249

    4. When Your Baby's in the NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit)

      MedlinePlus

      ... sides. The single monitor (which picks up and displays all the necessary information in one place) is ... pulse oximetry (or pulse ox) machine also may display your baby's blood oxygen levels on the monitor. ...

    5. Baby Doe and the Search for a Quality Life.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Powell, T. Hennessy; Hecimovic, Anton

      1985-01-01

      The author reviews quality of life arguments proposed in Baby Doe cases involving severely handicapped infants and views quality of life in terms of six dimensions: educability, relationships, residence, access, technology, and medical considerations. (CL)

    6. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

      PubMed

      Squier, Waney

      2011-11-01

      The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate subcortical white matter have been assumed to be due to trauma but factors specific to this age group offer other explanations. Finally, examples of the most common causes of the triad encountered in clinical diagnostic and forensic practice are briefly annotated. PMID:21947257

    7. Learning the baby: an interpretive study of teen mothers.

      PubMed

      SmithBattle, Lee

      2007-08-01

      This study examined how parenting is learned by teenage mothers, and the challenges, resources, and constraints for learning and knowing the baby. A convenience sample of 18 families, consisting of teens and their parents, were interviewed once prenatally and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 10 months postpartum. Interpretive analysis revealed four patterns in learning the baby as meaningful constellations of family and social worlds. The implications of the findings for strengthening nursing care for these families are described. PMID:17645954

    8. Extended supersymmetry and BPS solutions in baby Skyrme models

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Adam, C.; Queiruga, J. M.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

      2013-05-01

      We continue the investigation of supersymmetric extensions of baby Skyrme models in d = 2 + 1 dimensions. In a first step, we show that the CP(1) form of the baby Skyrme model allows for the same N = 1 SUSY extension as its O(3) formulation. Then we construct the N = 1 SUSY extension of the gauged baby Skyrme model, i.e., the baby Skyrme model coupled to Maxwell electrodynamics. In a next step, we investigate the issue of N = 2 SUSY extensions of baby Skyrme models. We find that all gauged and ungauged submodels of the baby Skyrme model which support BPS soliton solutions allow for an N = 2 extension such that the BPS solutions are one-half BPS states (i.e., annihilated by one-half of the SUSY charges). In the course of our investigation, we also derive the general BPS equations for completely general N = 2 supersymmetric field theories of (both gauged and ungauged) chiral superfields, and apply them to the gauged nonlinear sigma model as a further, concrete example.

    9. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      2008-01-01

      NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm.

      Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis.

      The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test.

      Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager.

      The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

    10. Cross-correlations of American baby names.

      PubMed

      Barucca, Paolo; Rocchi, Jacopo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

      2015-06-30

      The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavioral patterns, and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e., cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. Although these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the 20th century. We unambiguously demonstrate that cultural evolution of society can be observed and quantified by looking at cultural traits. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: Although databases covering more than one century (such as the one we used) are rare, the cultural evolution on shorter timescales can be studied due to the fact that many human activities are usually recorded in the present digital era. PMID:26069207

    11. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms.

      PubMed

      Burlando, Alfredo

      2014-08-01

      Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it. PMID:25007970

    12. Gender discrimination weighs heavily down on babies.

      PubMed

      Koshy, L M

      1995-12-30

      During a pediatric conference in New Delhi, India, physicians compared their experiences with various diseases to the body of knowledge contained in Western-oriented medical textbooks. One physician noted that the most important longterm intervention to prevent low birth weight babies and congenital malformations is social and involves reducing discrimination against women in India. Many childhood disorders, such as thalassemia, can be prevented by proper genetic screening. Children with thalassemia depend upon blood transfusions to survive, yet they can contract serious and life-threatening illness from an unsafe blood supply. Another physician implicated improper handling by parents in habit disorders such as thumb sucking. A report on childhood epilepsy noted that 20% of the cases are resistant to therapy. A session on nephrotic syndrome relayed the practical experiences of the pediatricians. The fact that this syndrome recurs until puberty and, thus, requires longterm management makes it an important pediatric topic. Asthma was described as a condition which is increasing and which parents are afraid to acknowledge. Another physician suggested adding childbirth to the list of medical emergencies in India, since 75% of them are attended by untrained personnel who may contribute to the incidence of death from neonatal tetanus. PMID:12179193

    13. Shaken baby syndrome: the quest for evidence.

      PubMed

      Squier, Waney

      2008-01-01

      Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), characterized by the triad of subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage, and encephalopathy, was initially based on the hypothesis that shaking causes tearing of bridging veins and bilateral subdural bleeding. It remains controversial. New evidence since SBS was first defined three decades ago needs to be reviewed. Neuropathology shows that most cases do not have traumatic axonal injury, but hypoxic-ischaemic injury and brain swelling. This may allow a lucid interval, which traumatic axonal injury will not. Further, the thin subdural haemorrhages in SBS are unlike the thick unilateral space-occupying clots of trauma. They may not originate from traumatic rupture of bridging veins but from vessels injured by hypoxia and haemodynamic disturbances, as originally proposed by Cushing in 1905. Biomechanical studies have repeatedly failed to show that shaking alone can generate the triad in the absence of significant neck injury. Impact is needed and, indeed, seems to be the cause of the majority of cases of so-called SBS. Birth-related subdural bleeds are much more frequent than previously thought and their potential to cause chronic subdural collections and mimic SBS remains to be established. PMID:18173622

    14. Cross-correlations of American baby names

      PubMed Central

      Barucca, Paolo; Rocchi, Jacopo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

      2015-01-01

      The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavioral patterns, and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e., cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. Although these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the 20th century. We unambiguously demonstrate that cultural evolution of society can be observed and quantified by looking at cultural traits. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: Although databases covering more than one century (such as the one we used) are rare, the cultural evolution on shorter timescales can be studied due to the fact that many human activities are usually recorded in the present digital era. PMID:26069207

    15. Healthy Birth Practice #6: Keep Mother and Baby Together— It’s Best for Mother, Baby, and Breastfeeding

      PubMed Central

      Crenshaw, Jeannette T.

      2014-01-01

      Mothers and babies have a physiologic need to be together at the moment of birth and during the hours and days that follow. Keeping mothers and babies together is a safe and healthy birth practice. Evidence supports immediate, uninterrupted skin-to-skin care after vaginal birth and during and after cesarean surgery for all stable mothers and babies, regardless of feeding preference. Unlimited opportunities for skin-to-skin care and breastfeeding promote optimal maternal and child outcomes. This article is an updated evidence-based review of the “Lamaze International Care Practices That Promote Normal Birth, Care Practice #6: No Separation of Mother and Baby, With Unlimited Opportunities for Breastfeeding,” published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(3), 2007. PMID:25411542

    16. Mid-arm circumference: an alternative measure for screening low birth weight babies.

      PubMed

      Das, Jagadish C; Afroze, Ainun; Khanam, S T; Paul, Nibedita

      2005-04-01

      Birth weight is a reliable and sensitive indicator for predicting the immediate or later outcome of a newborn child. In a developing country like Bangladesh, where more than 75% of deliveries occur in rural community and are mostly attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) or relatives, birth weight cannot be recorded mainly due to paucity of suitable weighing scale. To overcome the problem associated with weighing the newborn, it was considered justified to find out other simpler measurements that could be used as substitute of weighing, in order to identify low birth weight babies. A cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Dhaka city on 560 newborn babies born during a period of 18 months in 2000-2001 to examine relative validity of mid-arm circumference as a screening measure of low birth weight babies. Mid-arm circumference, length, head circumference, chest circumference, abdominal girth, and calf circumference were considered. The study showed a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between mid-arm circumference (r = 0.956) and birth weight, followed by calf circumference (r = 0.946) and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001). The study showed that in identifying newborns of <2500 gm a mid-arm circumference of <9 cm had the best sensitivity (96.2%) and specificity (97.3%). A value of <8 cm and <6.8 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2000 gm and <1500 gm respectively. Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in this work. The researchers recommend designing of simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' newborns in rural community for their timely management. PMID:16689134

    17. Getting your home ready - after the hospital

      MedlinePlus

      ... ready for your return. If your surgery is planned, prepare your home in advance. If your hospital stay was unplanned, have family or friends prepare your home for you. You may not need all of the changes listed below. But read carefully for some good ...

    18. Talking about Babies, Toddlers, and Sleep

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Mindell, Jodi A.

      2012-01-01

      Jodi Mindell, PhD, the associate director of the Sleep Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, describes how parents and caregivers can help children develop healthy sleeping habits beginning in infancy. Healthy sleep habits are an essential skill for children's overall health and well-being, and they impact family functioning. Dr.…

    19. A case of shaken baby syndrome after discharge from the newborn intensive care unit.

      PubMed

      Hoffman, Jacqueline M

      2005-06-01

      Preterm infants may be at higher risk of physical abuse after hospital discharge. Nonaccidental or inflicted head neurotrauma is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity in physical-abuse cases, and shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is the most common form of abuse. In the majority of the cases, parents who shake their infant do not intend to harm the infant. This article presents a report of a former preterm infant who presented to the pediatrician's office with a maternal report of an accidental fall. Shaken baby syndrome was suspected based on bilateral subdural hemorrhages of varying ages, which were inconsistent with the history provided. The differential diagnosis and systematic clinical evaluation for SBS are provided, and medical and nursing management is discussed. Patient care, advocacy, and mandatory reporting are reviewed. The newborn intensive care unit caregivers' role in preventing SBS in this high-risk population, including specific parent teaching and anticipatory guidance, is reviewed with an emphasis on teaching all caregivers about the dangers of shaking an infant. PMID:16034736

    20. A Newborn Baby Care Support App and System for mHealth

      PubMed Central

      Kuo, Ming-Chuan; Lu, Yen-Chiao; Chang, Polun

      2012-01-01

      This study was to develop a usability-engineered mhealth application for a mother with new-born baby and to evaluate its acceptance. Baby’s Health Handbook and hospital consultation service records were analyzed to design the contents of app. Special interface design principles were used for enhancing usability. App data were transmitted to an Excel-based server for management. Systems were evaluated in a 800-bed medical center in Taiwan with a questionnaire designed based on the Technology Acceptance Model for Mobile Service. 64 post-partum women were invited to use and evaluate the system and services at the next day after babies were delivered. The evaluation results indicated an overall satisfying perception with an average of 3.98(SD=0.71). The subjects perceived the system meeting their expectations, needs and the majority were willing to pay for service up to $6 per month. The mhealth appears having a great potential as an important health service model. PMID:24199091

    1. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

      2008-02-01

      Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

    2. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

      SciTech Connect

      Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego

      2014-08-20

      We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

    3. η Carinae Baby Homunculus Uncovered by ALMA

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Abraham, Zulema; Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego; Beaklini, Pedro P. B.

      2014-08-01

      We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the "Baby Homunculus."

    4. Planning sex of baby -- the Barthakur method.

      PubMed

      Koshy, L M

      1994-07-30

      The sex of any given human zygote is dependent upon when the ovum is placed in the fallopian tube. Dr. Inderjit K. Barthakur's has developed a way for heterosexual couples to conceive either male or female children depending upon the timing of their coitus. To have a baby of preferred gender, a couple should have coitus in accordance with the advice of a well-informed instructor who can determine the exact date of rupture of the Graafian follicle with ultrasound scanning. The method requires these preconditions: keeping a temperature chart from 3-4 months before the month in which the pregnancy is planned, abstaining from sex during that particular month until the time advised by the instructor, and having daily ultrasound scans after the 9th day of the menstrual cycle to ensure the highest degree of accuracy in identifying the best time for intercourse. Accurate sex determination of the fetus has occurred in 71 of 72 cases managed by the four physicians who practice this method in India. A more simple alternative which is easily communicable to the poor and uneducated has also been developed by the doctors, but it is only 80% successful. These high rates of success have generated widespread international interest, but the ICMR, the Health Ministry, and others have turned down appeals to support studies of the method because they do not want to encourage potential discrimination against females. Abortion, however, which is often gender-biased, is legal. Dr. Barthakur and her colleagues ensure that the couples taken for instruction should desire a child of the sex opposite to the existing one and no tests are conducted after conception to confirm the sex of the fetus. Under current funding constraints, all expenses for the procedures are met jointly by the involved doctors and couples who are well-off enough to go in for repeated ultrasounds. PMID:12179183

    5. Implementing the ten steps to successful breastfeeding in multiple hospitals serving low-wealth patients in the US: innovative research design and baseline findings

      PubMed Central

      2013-01-01

      Background The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are maternity practices proven to support successful achievement of exclusive breastfeeding. They also are the basis for the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). This study explores implementation of these steps in hospitals that serve predominantly low wealth populations. Methods A quasi-experimental design with mixed methods for data collection and analysis was included within an intervention project. We compared the impact of a modified Ten Steps implementation approach to a control group. The intervention was carried out in hospitals where: 1) BFHI designation was not necessarily under consideration, and 2) the majority of the patient population was low wealth, i.e., eligible for Medicaid. Hospitals in the research aspect of this project were systematically assigned to one of two groups: Initial Intervention or Initial Control/Later Intervention. This paper includes analyses from the baseline data collection, which consisted of an eSurvey (i.e., Carolina B-KAP), Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey tool (mPINC), the BFHI Self-Appraisal, key informant interviews, breastfeeding data, and formatted feedback discussion. Results Comparability was ensured by statistical and non-parametric tests of baseline characteristics of the two groups. Additional findings of interest included: 1) a universal lack of consistent breastfeeding records and statistics for regular monitoring/review, 2) widespread misinterpretation of associated terminology, 3) health care providers’ reported practices not necessarily reflective of their knowledge and attitudes, and 4) specific steps were found to be associated with hospital breastfeeding rates. A comprehensive set of facilitators and obstacles to initiation of the Ten Steps emerged, and hospital-specific practice change challenges were identified. Discussion This is one of the first studies to examine introduction of the Ten Steps in multiple hospitals with a control group and in hospitals that were not necessarily interested in BFHI designation, where the population served is predominantly low wealth, and with the use of a mixed methods approach. Limitations including numbers of hospitals and inability to adhere to all elements of the design are discussed. Conclusions For improvements in quality of care for breastfeeding dyads, innovative and site-specific intervention modification must be considered. PMID:23688264

    6. Incidence of Down's syndrome in a large Malaysian maternity hospital over an 18 month period.

      PubMed

      Hoe, T S; Boo, N Y; Clyde, M M

      1989-06-01

      Over an 18 month period, 34,522 livebirths were delivered in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. 36 of them had Down's Syndrome. Based on our findings, the incidence of Down's syndrome among the Malaysian babies born in this hospital was 1:959 livebirths. According to racial distributions, the incidence among Malay was 1:981 livebirths, Chinese 1:940 livebirths, and Indian 1:860 livebirths. Our incidence was lower than those from the Western populations. Unlike others' studies, there was also a female preponderance of Down's syndrome among the Malaysian babies. PMID:2531468

    7. Amitriptyline poisoning of a baby: how informative can hair analysis be?

      PubMed

      Allibe, Nathalie; Eysseric-Guerin, Hélène; Kintz, Pascal; Bartoli, Mireille; Bost-Bru, Cécile; Grenier, Florian; Scolan, Virginie; Stanke-Labesque, Françoise

      2015-04-01

      We reported a case of a 6-month-old baby girl who was hospitalized in the pediatric emergency for central nervous system disorders then coma. Toxicology analysis showed the presence of amitriptyline (AMI) and its metabolite nortriptyline (NOR) in blood and urine of the baby. Additional investigations suggested a shaken baby syndrome. Given the family context, a judge ordered hair tests for both the child and his parents to document drug exposure. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was then developed to quantify AMI and NOR in hair. After decontamination and segmentation, 20 mg of hair was incubated overnight at 55 °C in methanol (MeOH). The LC-MS/MS method used an online solid phase extraction and the analysis was performed using two transitions per compound. The LOQ and LOD for the two compounds were estimated at 0.0075 ng/mg and 0.005 ng/mg respectively. All hair segments tested for both parents were negative. For the baby two strands of hair were collected one day after the acute intoxication for the first and 5 weeks later for the second. The first strand was not decontaminated before analysis to avoid losing specimen. The high and relatively homogenous concentrations of AMI (with a range of value from 6.65 to 9.69 ng/mg) and NOR (with a range of value from 7.12 to 8.96 ng/mg) measured suggested that contamination could have occurred. The analysis of the second strand after decontamination allowed to detect AMI and NOR in all hair segments. The obtained values varied between 0.54 and 1.41 ng/mg for AMI and between 1.26 and 4.00 ng/mg for NOR. These results supported the hypothesis of a chronic exposure during several months before hair collection with regular increase. However a single overdose could not be totally excluded. The interpretation of results must take into account the pharmacological and physiological parameters of hair of the children. PMID:25676714

    8. Hospital diversification.

      PubMed

      Eastaugh, Steven R

      2005-01-01

      Hospital diversification and its impact on the operating ratio are studied for 168 hospitals during the period from 1999 to 2004. Diversification and the operating ratio are modeled in a two-stage least squares (TSLS) framework as being jointly dependent. Institutional diversification is found to yield a better financial position, and the better operating ratio allows the institution the wherewithal to diversify. The impact of external government planning and hospital competition are also measured. An institution lifecycle hypothesis is advanced to explain hospital behavior: boom and bust, diversification and divestiture, occasionally leading to closure or merger. Management's attitude concerning risk and reward is considered. PMID:18972998

    9. Charge Master: Friend or Foe?

      PubMed

      Wan, Wenshuai; Itri, Jason

      2016-01-01

      Prices charged for imaging services can be found in the charge master, a catalog of retail list prices for medical goods and services. This article reviews the evolution of reimbursement in the United States and provides a balanced discussion of the factors that influence charge master prices. Reduced payments to hospitals have pressured hospitals to generate additional revenue by increasing charge master prices. An unfortunate consequence is that those least able to pay for health care, the uninsured, are subjected to the highest charges. Yet, differences in pricing also represent an opportunity for radiology practices, which provide imaging services that are larger in scope or superior in quality to promote product differentiation. Physicians, hospital executives, and policy makers need to work together to improve the existing reimbursement system to promote high-quality, low-cost imaging. PMID:26640083

    10. Fatal spontaneous subdural bleeding due to neonatal giant cell hepatitis: a rare differential diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome.

      PubMed

      Guddat, Saskia S; Ehrlich, Edwin; Martin, Hubert; Tsokos, Michael

      2011-09-01

      A 7-week-old girl showed vomiting after feeding, facial pallor, loss of muscle tone and respiratory depression. An emergency doctor performed successful resuscitation and after arrival in hospital, cranial ultrasound showed left-sided subdural hemorrhage, cerebral edema with a shift of the midline, and a decrease in cerebral perfusion. Ophthalmologic examination showed retinal hemorrhage. In view of this, the doctors suspected shaken baby syndrome and approached the parents with their suspicions, but they denied any shaking or trauma. Despite surgery for the subdural hemorrhage the girl died a few hours later with a severe coagulopathy. Autopsy verified subdural hemorrhage, cerebral edema and retinal hemorrhage, but also revealed intact bridging veins and a lack of optic nerve sheath hemorrhage, therefore shaken baby syndrome could not be proven by autopsy. Histological examination showed severe neonatal giant cell hepatitis as the cause of the severe coagulopathy and the associated spontaneous subdural bleeding. Neonatal giant cell hepatitis may be responsible for unexpected deaths in infancy and, although rarely associated with subdural bleeding, must be considered as a potential differential diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome. PMID:21331818

    11. Baby lifecheck--is it a public health initiative?

      PubMed

      Wood, Antonia

      2010-01-01

      As part of its policy to reduce health equalities and make child health a priority, the Government has introduced a free, nationally-available online NHS health promotion tool called Baby LifeCheck. Targeted at parents and carers of babies aged 5-8 months, it provides information and advice to help parents make positive changes to improve their child's long-term health outcomes. Research had suggested that parents of babies aged 5-8 months often felt isolated and had questions or worries about their child's development and about feeding, sleep and safety. Users follow a programme consisting of.a confidential lifestyle questionnaire, feedback on the results and suggestions for change and improvement, with links to sources of support and further information. The numbers of people using the Baby LifeCheck website has exceeded targets, but feedback from Netmums, a large online support network for parents, is that their members find the website simplistic, patronising and unnecessary.This article suggests that while Baby LifeCheck is in some respects a usable tool in the context of health promotion, it falls short of being a public health initiative. It is only likely to be used by those who are computer-literate and already motivated to invest in their child's health and well-being. Public health initiatives require collaborative working between agencies. They also require practitioners as well as tools. If one is available without the other, outcomes are likely to be inadequate. PMID:20397550

    12. Colonisation of babies and their families by group B streptococci.

      PubMed Central

      Weindling, A M; Hawkins, J M; Coombes, M A; Stringer, J

      1981-01-01

      A high incidence of group B streptococcal disease of the newborn in West Berkshire led to a prospective study of the condition. Cultures taken from 1090 babies shortly after birth showed that 65 (6%) were colonised with the streptococcus. Thirty of these babies were assigned to group 1. Bacteriological samples were taken from babies and mothers at birth and at four, eight, and 12 weeks, and also from fathers and siblings. Fifty uncolonised babies and their families were similarly studied and served as controls (group 2). In group 1,28 of the 30 mothers and 14 of the 28 fathers examined were colonised by group B streptococci. In group 2 the streptococci were isolated from three babies, 12 mothers, and 11 out of 45 fathers during follow-up. These findings suggest that group B streptococci are carried predominantly in the lower gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. Most families are lightly colonised, but in others maternal colonisation is stable and heavy and the incidence of paternal colonisation high. Results of serotyping suggest that sexual transmission occurs, which may explain the difficulty in eradicating the organism during pregnancy. PMID:6799041

    13. E835 Store Baby Sitting Procedures

      SciTech Connect

      Werkema, Steve

      2002-01-01

      Control of the RF frequency: (1) 'RF Freq Check' on P85 (E835 Baby Sitter) should be turned OFF. (2) The RF frequency should be adjusted so that it is in the notch of the 4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup response. The RF frequency device to be controlled depends on which RF system is on. If ARF2 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS1. If ARF3 is on, the RF frequency device is A:RLLFS0. IMPORTANT NOTE: A:RLLFS0 and A:RLLFS1 have very different data base scaling (A:RLLFS0 is 4 bytes and A:RLLFS1 is 2 bytes). A:RLLFS0 can be safely knobbed with a mult factor of 1.0 (i.e. no multiplier is required). A:RLLFS1 requires a mult factor of 0.02 or smaller. The monitoring and adjustment of the RF frequency is accomplished by the following steps: (3) Set up SA1 so that it is connected to CP48-SCH (4-8 GHz momentum cooling pickup). Set the SA center frequency to a harmonic of the RF frequency. This is most easily accomplished by doing one of the following: (a) If ARF3 is on, send P41 file 22 to SA1. (b) If ARF2 is on, set A:RLLFS0 to the set value of A:RLLFS1 then send P41 file 22 to SA1. (4) SA1 can be viewed on CATV channel pbar 20. If the notch in the momentum cooling pickup response is not at the center frequecy of SA1 adjust the RF. (On the low energy ramp, 1 division on the SA1 display at 5.5 GHz corresponds to 2.3 Hz in revolution frequency). Once you've made an adjustment to the RF frequency you should reset the SA1 display according to step 3 above.

    14. "Friendly" Catalog Forgives User Errors.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Cochrane, Pauline A.

      1982-01-01

      Describes the features and operations of a user-searchable online catalog called PaperChase which was developed and implemented for the retrieval of medical literature by physicians at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. Interaction with the system and use of the catalog during its first year of operation are discussed. (JL)

    15. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper.

      PubMed

      Kain, Victoria J

      2014-12-01

      The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner. PMID:24096383

    16. Topological phase transitions in the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Adam, C.; Naya, C.; Romanczukiewicz, T.; Sanchez-Guillen, J.; Wereszczynski, A.

      2015-05-01

      We demonstrate that the gauged BPS baby Skyrme model with a double vacuum potential allows for phase transitions from a non-solitonic to a solitonic phase, where the latter corresponds to a ferromagnetic liquid. Such a transition can be generated by increasing the external pressure P or by turning on an external magnetic field H. As a consequence, the topological phase where gauged BPS baby skyrmions exist, is a higher density phase. For smaller densities, obtained for smaller values of P and H, a phase without solitons is reached. We find the critical line in the P, H parameter space. Furthermore, in the soliton phase, we find the equation of state for the baby skyrmion matter V = V( P,H) at zero temperature, where V is the "volume", i.e., area of the solitons.

    17. Inflating baby-Skyrme branes in six dimensions

      SciTech Connect

      Brihaye, Yves; Delsate, Terence; Kodama, Yuta; Sawado, Nobuyuki

      2010-11-15

      We consider a six-dimensional brane world model, where the brane is described by a localized solution to the baby-Skyrme model extending in the extra dimensions. The branes have a cosmological constant modeled by inflating four-dimensional slices, and we further consider a bulk cosmological constant. We construct solutions numerically and present evidence that the solutions cease to exist for large values of the brane cosmological constant in some particular case. Then we study the stability of the model by considering perturbation of the gravitational part (resp. baby Skyrmion) with fixed matter fields (resp. gravitational background). Our results indicate that the perturbation equations do not admit localized solutions for certain type of perturbation. The stability analysis can be alternatively seen as leading to a particle spectrum; we give mass estimations for the baby-Skyrme perturbation and for the graviton.

    18. Friends Don't Let Friends ... Or Do They? Developmental and Gender Differences in Intervening in Friends' ATOD Use

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Flanagan, Constance A.; Elek-Fisk, Elvira; Gallay, Leslie S.

      2004-01-01

      This study focused on the strategies adolescents endorsed for situations in which friends were experimenting with alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Four hypothetical vignettes (concerning a friend smoking, using drugs, getting drunk at a party, or deciding whether to attend a party with alcohol and drugs) were presented to 2697 5th-12th graders.…

    19. Human milk use in Australian hospitals, 1949-1985.

      PubMed

      Thorley, Virginia

      2012-07-01

      This paper will draw mainly on the experiences of fourteen women to explore the use of expressed human milk by hospitals in Australia from the postwar period through to 1985. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of common practices before the decline of human milk banking and other uses of expressed breastmilk in Australian hospitals, thus providing a source for future comparison against the more rigorous, uniform practices being instituted in the new milk banks of the early-21st century. The ten mothers included were a convenience sample drawn from the author's networks, with recruitment continuing till a range of hospital types and a majority of states were included. Three of the mothers also had experience as trainee midwives and midwives, and four midwives contributed their experiences as staff members, only. The hospitals ranged from large teaching hospitals to small private hospitals and were in metropolitan, regional and country locations. The practices included routine expression and expression for specific purposes, whether for the mother's own baby or to donate. Some hospitals pooled the donor milk for premature or sick babies. PMID:22946147

    20. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

      SciTech Connect

      Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

      1998-01-01

      A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

    1. Good Agreements Make Good Friends

      PubMed Central

      Han, The Anh; Pereira, Luís Moniz; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom

      2013-01-01

      When starting a new collaborative endeavor, it pays to establish upfront how strongly your partner commits to the common goal and what compensation can be expected in case the collaboration is violated. Diverse examples in biological and social contexts have demonstrated the pervasiveness of making prior agreements on posterior compensations, suggesting that this behavior could have been shaped by natural selection. Here, we analyze the evolutionary relevance of such a commitment strategy and relate it to the costly punishment strategy, where no prior agreements are made. We show that when the cost of arranging a commitment deal lies within certain limits, substantial levels of cooperation can be achieved. Moreover, these levels are higher than that achieved by simple costly punishment, especially when one insists on sharing the arrangement cost. Not only do we show that good agreements make good friends, agreements based on shared costs result in even better outcomes. PMID:24045873

    2. What can be done to keep babies' skin healthy?

      PubMed

      Atherton, David; Mills, Kathryn

      2004-07-01

      Establishing a skincare routine that keeps babies' skin healthy remains a challenge for midwives and parents, since up to 50% of babies suffer from at least one episode of nappy rash at some time. Nappy rash is an irritant contact dermatitis caused by the interaction of several factors, particularly the prolonged contact of the skin with urine and faeces, which makes the skin more prone to disruption through friction with the nappy. Infection is not a primary cause of nappy rash, though secondary infection by Candida albicans can occur. Prevention of nappy rash is the ultimate goal, but if the condition does develop, treatment should aim to reverse the skin damage and prevent recurrence. We propose that routine baby skincare should comprise gentle cleansing whenever the nappy is soiled (using warm water or alcohol-free baby wipes), the use of good-quality super-absorbent nappies, and the application of a barrier preparation at every nappy change. Ideally, a barrier preparation should be clinically proven to be effective in babies and mimic the skin's natural function by forming a long-lasting barrier to maintain optimum moisture levels. It should not contain any unnecessary ingredients, including antiseptic, preservative or perfume (or other potential sensitisers), or any ingredients that are toxic or have undocumented safety. Treatment of nappy rash should comprise essentially the same actions as its prevention. Application of a barrier ointment at every nappy change can help to both prevent and treat this condition. Topical steroid therapy should be reserved for use where the condition has failed to respond to other approaches, and antifungal treatment should only be employed where Candida infection is established or suspected. Implementing these measures would form a simple skincare routine that could help keep babies' skin healthy. PMID:15314924

    3. Pedagogy with babies: perspectives of eight nursery managers

      PubMed Central

      Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools

      2015-01-01

      The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and staff give rise to different and sometimes conflicting aims for such interactions; for example attachments to staff, peer interactions or early learning. Research shows marked variations of pedagogy aims and organisation with babies in nurseries in different national and cultural contexts. It also demonstrates variation between nurseries in similar contexts and between staff in their beliefs and values about work with babies. This paper reports on an exploratory study of the beliefs, aspirations and approaches of eight managers concerning pedagogy with babies in two similar English local authorities. These managers spoke of the importance of being responsive to the concerns and priorities of parents, whilst being sensitive to the demands of the work on their staff. The main finding was of the contradictions and confusions managers felt were inherent in the work, arising from both conflicting policy objectives and personal beliefs and aspirations; sometimes their own and sometimes those of individual staff and parents. Urban, Vandenbroeck, Van Laere, Lazzari, and Peeters' [(2012). Towards competent systems in early childhood education and care. Implications for policy and practice. European Journal of Education, 47(4), 508–526.] concept of the ‘competent system’ is used to recommend a grounded approach to the development of a more culturally, socially and individually responsive pedagogy with babies than appears to exist at present. PMID:26692633

    4. Labor and Delivery Experiences of Mothers with Suspected Large Babies

      PubMed Central

      Cheng, Erika R.; Declercq, Eugene R.; Belanoff, Candice; Stotland, Naomi E.; Iverson, Ronald E.

      2015-01-01

      Objective To characterize the prevalence of and factors associated with clinicians’ prenatal suspicion of a large baby; and to determine whether communicating fetal size concerns to patients was associated with labor and delivery interventions and outcomes. Methods We examined data from women without a prior cesarean who responded to Listening to Mothers III, a nationally representative survey of women who had given birth between July 2011 and June 2012 (n=1,960). We estimated the effect of having a suspected large baby (SLB) on the odds of six labor and delivery outcomes. Results Nearly one-third (31.2%) of women were told by their maternity care providers that their babies might be getting “quite large”; however, only 9.9% delivered a baby weighing ≥4,000 grams (19.7% among mothers with SLBs, 5.5% without). Women with SLBs had increased adjusted odds of medically-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.6), attempted self-induced labor (AOR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4–2.7), and use of epidural analgesics (AOR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.4–2.9). No differences were noted for overall cesarean rates, although women with SLBs were more likely to ask for (AOR 4.6; 95% CI: 2.8–7.6) and have planned (AOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0–4.5) cesarean deliveries. These associations were not affected by adjustment for gestational age and birthweight. Conclusion Only one in five US women who were told that their babies might be getting quite large actually delivered infants weighing ≥4,000 grams. However, the suspicion of a large baby was associated with an increase in perinatal interventions, regardless of actual fetal size. PMID:26140835

    5. "Collodion baby": A unique challenge for newborn hearing screening.

      PubMed

      Jasper, Kayla M; Gaudreau, Philip; Cartee, Todd V; Reilly, Brian K

      2016-01-01

      We present an infant with collodion membrane who had an obstructed external auditory canal, causing the infant to fail her newborn hearing screen (otoacoustic emissions) bilaterally. An auditory brainstem response (ABR) test was deferred due to the reported increased risk of infections in these babies. Meticulous but gentle debridement of the membranes on the external auditory canal, using a combination of otic drops (ofloxacin), emollients (baby oil/mineral oil), and suctioning, permitted the infant to ultimately pass otoacoustic emissions bilaterally and subsequent serial audiograms. PMID:27178521

    6. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

      PubMed Central

      2012-01-01

      Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention), or continue simply to receive usual care (control). We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28?weeks of babys gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7%) with an average age of 27.6?years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement I am prepared to be a new mother (OR?=?2.73, CI?=?1.04, 7.18, p?=?0.042) between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026). We also observed a significant improvement of attitudes toward alcohol consumption from baseline to follow-up (OR?=?3.57, CI?=?1.13 11.24, p?=?0.029). Conclusions This pilot study is the first randomized evaluation of text4baby. It is a promising program in that exposure to the text messages was associated with changes in specific beliefs targeted by the messages. PMID:23181985

    7. Impaired bacteriological responses in babies after maternal iron dextran infusion.

      PubMed Central

      Webster, M H; Waitkins, S A; Stott, A

      1981-01-01

      The effect of a total dose infusion of iron dextran in pregnancy on 15 mothers and their babies was compared with 19 controls. The bacteriostatic effect and opsonising ability of the sera, of babies born to the treated mothers, were considerably impaired. This was associated with a significantly lower transferrin concentration in these mothers. Although these in vitro tests were not associated with an increase in overt infection during the perinatal period, they suggest the need for caution in the use of total dose infusions in pregnancy. PMID:7019264

    8. The wise baby as the voice of the true self.

      PubMed

      Bethelard, F; Young-Bruehl, E

      1999-10-01

      Sandor Ferenczi wrote about a typical dream of the "Wise Baby" and later used this figure to represent the child who is traumatized into precocious wisdom, who becomes "the family psychiatrist." We discuss Ferenczi's theory of traumatization and the "split self," noting how it was taken up in D. W. Winnicott's "True Self/False Self" conceptualization. We then present three patients' wise baby dreams to show how these trauma theories can be used in dream interpretation and how dream interpretation can support them. PMID:10618822

    9. Peakons and Q-balls in the baby Skyrme model

      SciTech Connect

      Lis, Jakub

      2011-10-15

      In this paper, we investigate the Q-ball Ansatz in the baby Skyrme model. First, the appearance of peakons, i.e. solutions with extremely large absolute values of the second derivative at maxima, is analyzed. It is argued that such solutions are intrinsic to the baby Skyrme model and do not depend on the detailed form of a potential used in calculations. Next, we concentrate on compact nonspinning Q-balls. We show the failure of a small parameter expansion in this case. Finally, we explore the existence and parameter dependence of Q-ball solutions.

    10. Baby Skyrme model, near-BPS approximations, and supersymmetric extensions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Bolognesi, S.; Zakrzewski, W.

      2015-02-01

      We study the baby Skyrme model as a theory that interpolates between two distinct BPS systems. For this, a near-BPS approximation can be used when there is a small deviation from each of the two BPS limits. We provide analytical explanation and numerical support for the validity of this approximation. We then study the set of all possible supersymmetric extensions of the baby Skyrme model with N =1 and the particular ones with extended N =2 supersymmetries and relate this to the above mentioned almost-BPS approximation.

    11. A remark on spin and statistics of baby skyrmion

      SciTech Connect

      Otsu, H. ); Sato, T. )

      1991-09-28

      The authors study spin and statistics of baby skyrmion, which is a topological soliton solution in the (2 + 1)-dimensional O(3) {sigma}-model. In this paper it is shown that the Hopf term written in terms of CP variables does not naively represent the topological charge associated with the non-triviality of {Pi}{sub 1} (S{sup 2} {r arrow} S{sup 2}). It is also pointed out, therefore, that the baby skyrmion cannot behave as anyon, even if the Hopf term written in terms of CP variables is added to the model.

    12. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Presenting as Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia in a Collodion Baby

      PubMed Central

      Al Pakra, Mohammed; Al Jabri, Abdullah; Hanafy, Ehab

      2015-01-01

      We report a rare case of myelodysplastic syndrome that presented early as amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a collodion baby, which is a rare congenital disorder characterized by thick, taut membrane resembling oiled parchment or collodion, which is subsequently shed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a collodion baby who presented with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and who has a significant family history of the same condition. We document the rarity of this possible association and also the need for further study to establish whether a causal relationship exists. PMID:26904703

    13. Retirement prospects of the baby boom generation: a different perspective.

      PubMed

      Easterlin, R A; Macdonald, C; Macunovich, D J

      1990-12-01

      We examine the average economic status of baby boom cohorts as they approach retirement chiefly using data on their life cycle income experience to date. Contrary to popular impression, baby boomers are likely to enter old age in an even better economic position than pre-boom cohorts. Economic and demographic adjustments that they made, such as deferred marriages, reduced childbearing, and increased labor force participation of wives, have compensated for their relatively low wage rates. Potential downside effects of reduced childbearing regarding Social Security and health care prospects are discussed. PMID:2286336

    14. Myelodysplastic Syndrome Presenting as Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia in a Collodion Baby.

      PubMed

      Al Pakra, Mohammed; Al Jabri, Abdullah; Hanafy, Ehab

      2015-01-01

      We report a rare case of myelodysplastic syndrome that presented early as amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a collodion baby, which is a rare congenital disorder characterized by thick, taut membrane resembling oiled parchment or collodion, which is subsequently shed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a collodion baby who presented with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and who has a significant family history of the same condition. We document the rarity of this possible association and also the need for further study to establish whether a causal relationship exists. PMID:26904703

    15. Living in the Real World--"Babies Get Out: Outdoor Settings for Infant Toddler Play."

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Greenman, Jim

      1991-01-01

      Suggests advantages and design considerations for outdoor settings for babies. Climate, wildlife, equipment, and the needs and natures of both babies and caregivers are discussed. Provides ideas for landscape design and structures. (SH)

    16. From Baby Bottle to Cup: Choose Training Cups Carefully, Use Them Temporarily

      MedlinePlus

      ... DENTAL PATIENT ... From baby bottle to cup Choose training cups carefully, use them temporarily T ooth decay ... you make the change from baby bottle to training cup, be very careful about d what kind ...

    17. Taking Care of You and Your Baby While You're Pregnant

      MedlinePlus

      ... tilefish. These fish sometimes have high levels of mercury, which could hurt your baby. If you eat ... and other heavy metals (such as copper and mercury), could be damaging to the baby. However, working ...

    18. Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds

      MedlinePlus

      ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158484.html Babies Fed Rice-Based Cereals Have Higher Arsenic Levels, Study Finds ... April 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Parents commonly give rice to their babies as a first food. Now, ...

    19. Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, but Get Fewer Later

      MedlinePlus

      ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158513.html Day Care Babies Catch Stomach Bugs Earlier, But Get ... TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies in day care catch their first stomach bug earlier than ...

    20. Friends' Influence on Adolescents' Adjustment to School.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Berndt, Thomas J.; Keefe, Keunho

      1995-01-01

      Examined the influence of friends' behaviors and the features of their friendships on 297 adolescents' school adjustment. Found that students whose friends described themselves as more disruptive increased in self-reported disruption over the course of the school year. Girls' self-reported disruption was more influenced by that of their best…