Sample records for background atp-binding cassette

  1. ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

    2010-01-01

    Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity. PMID:21118087

  2. ATP-binding cassette transporters, atherosclerosis, and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Westerterp, Marit; Bochem, Andrea E; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Murphy, Andrew J; Wang, Nan; Tall, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Although recent genome-wide association studies have called into question the causal relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease, ongoing research in animals and cells has produced increasing evidence that cholesterol efflux pathways mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and HDL suppress atherosclerosis. These differing perspectives may be reconciled by a modified HDL theory that emphasizes the antiatherogenic role of cholesterol flux pathways, initiated in cells by ABC transporters. ABCA1 and ABCG1 control the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells in the bone marrow and hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Thus, activation of cholesterol efflux pathways by HDL infusions or liver X receptor activation results in suppression of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cell mobilization and extramedullary hematopoiesis, leading to decreased production of monocytes and neutrophils and suppression of atherosclerosis. In addition, macrophage-specific knockout of transporters has confirmed their role in suppression of inflammatory responses in the arterial wall. Recent studies have also shown that ABCG4, a close relative of ABCG1, controls platelet production, atherosclerosis, and thrombosis. ABCG4 is highly expressed in megakaryocyte progenitors, where it promotes cholesterol efflux to HDL and controls the proliferative responses to thrombopoietin. Reconstituted HDL infusions act in an ABCG4-dependent fashion to limit hypercholesterolemia-driven excessive platelet production, thrombosis, and atherogenesis, as occurs in human myeloproliferative syndromes. Activation of ABC transporter-dependent cholesterol efflux pathways in macrophages, hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells, or platelet progenitors by reconstituted HDL infusion or liver X receptor activation remain promising approaches to the treatment of human atherothrombotic diseases. PMID:24385509

  3. Influence of ATP-binding cassette transporters in root exudation of phytoalexins, signals, and disease resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organ-isms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3...

  4. ATP-binding cassette transporters are required for efficient RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-print Network

    Timmons, Lisa; Hull, Dawn; Han, Wang; Echalier, B.; Sundaram, P.

    2006-08-01

    that facilitate RNAi have been identified, current descriptions of RNAi and interrelated mechanisms are far from complete. Here, we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene haf-6 is required for efficient RNAi. HAF-6 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC...

  5. ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA4: Molecular properties and role in vision and macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Molday

    2007-01-01

    ABCA4, also known as ABCR or the rim protein, is a member of the ABCA subfamily of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters\\u000a expressed in vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptor cells and localized to outer segment disk membranes. ABCA4 is organized\\u000a in two tandem halves, each consisting of a transmembrane segment followed successively by a large exocytoplasmic domain, a\\u000a multispanning membrane

  6. Expression of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene ABCG1 (ABC8) in Tangier Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Lorkowski; Mario Kratz; Claudia Wenner; Roland Schmidt; Benedikt Weitkamp; Manfred Fobker; Jürgen Reinhardt; Jürgen Rauterberg; Erwin Arno Galinski; Paul Cullen

    2001-01-01

    Several members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are involved in cholesterol efflux from cells. A defect in one member, ABCA1, results in Tangier disease, a condition characterized by cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and virtual absence of mature circulating high-density lipoproteins. Expression of a second member, ABCG1, is increased by cholesterol-loading in human macrophages. We now show that ABCG1,

  7. ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins: Towards a Computational View of Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jielou

    2004-03-01

    Many large machine proteins can generate mechanical force and undergo large-scale conformational changes (LSCC) to perform varying biological tasks in living cells by utilizing ATP. Important examples include ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. They are membrane proteins that couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to the translocation of substrates across membranes [1]. To interpret how the mechanical force generated by ATP binding and hydrolysis is propagated, a coarse-grained ATP-dependent harmonic network model (HNM) [2,3] is applied to the ABC protein, BtuCD. This protein machine transports vitamin B12 across membranes. The analysis shows that subunits of the protein move against each other in a concerted manner. The lowest-frequency modes of the BtuCD protein are found to link the functionally critical domains, and are suggested to be responsible for large-scale ATP-coupled conformational changes. [1] K. P. Locher, A. T. Lee and D. C. Rees. Science 296, 1091-1098 (2002). [2] Atilgan, A. R., S. R. Durell, R. L. Jernigan, M. C. Demirel, O. Keskin, and I. Bahar. Biophys. J. 80, 505-515(2002); M. M Tirion, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1905-1908 (1996). [3] J. -L. Liao and D. N. Beratan, 2003, to be published.

  8. Protection against chemotherapy-induced alopecia: targeting ATP-binding cassette transporters in the hair follicle?

    PubMed

    Haslam, Iain S; Pitre, Aaron; Schuetz, John D; Paus, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    Currently, efficacious treatments for chemotherapy-induced alopecia (hair loss) are lacking, and incidences of permanent hair loss following high-dose chemotherapy are on the increase. In this article, we describe mechanisms by which the pharmacological defense status of the hair follicle might be enhanced, thereby reducing the accumulation of cytotoxic cancer drugs and preventing or reducing hair loss and damage. We believe this could be achieved via the selective increase in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression within the hair follicle epithelium, following application of topical agonists for regulatory nuclear receptors. Clinical application would require the development of hair follicle-targeted formulations, potentially utilizing nanoparticle technology. This novel approach has the potential to yield entirely new therapeutic options for the treatment and management of chemotherapy-induced alopecia, providing significant psychological and physical benefit to cancer patients. PMID:24100054

  9. A Conserved Mitochondrial ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Exports Glutathione Polysulfide for Cytosolic Metal Cofactor Assembly*?

    PubMed Central

    Schaedler, Theresia A.; Thornton, Jeremy D.; Kruse, Inga; Schwarzländer, Markus; Meyer, Andreas J.; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Balk, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    An ATP-binding cassette transporter located in the inner mitochondrial membrane is involved in iron-sulfur cluster and molybdenum cofactor assembly in the cytosol, but the transported substrate is unknown. ATM3 (ABCB25) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its functional orthologue Atm1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were expressed in Lactococcus lactis and studied in inside-out membrane vesicles and in purified form. Both proteins selectively transported glutathione disulfide (GSSG) but not reduced glutathione in agreement with a 3-fold stimulation of ATPase activity by GSSG. By contrast, Fe2+ alone or in combination with glutathione did not stimulate ATPase activity. Arabidopsis atm3 mutants were hypersensitive to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis and accumulated GSSG in the mitochondria. The growth phenotype of atm3-1 was strongly enhanced by depletion of the mitochondrion-localized, GSH-dependent persulfide oxygenase ETHE1, suggesting that the physiological substrate of ATM3 contains persulfide in addition to glutathione. Consistent with this idea, a transportomics approach using mass spectrometry showed that glutathione trisulfide (GS-S-SG) was transported by Atm1. We propose that mitochondria export glutathione polysulfide, containing glutathione and persulfide, for iron-sulfur cluster assembly in the cytosol. PMID:25006243

  10. ATP binding cassette G5 C1950G polymorphism may affect blood cholesterol concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Weggemans, R M; Zock, P L; Tai, E S; Ordovas, J M; Molhuizen, H O F; Katan, M B

    2002-09-01

    ATP binding cassette protein G5 (ABCG5) and G8 (ABCG8) may be involved in the regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption. Therefore, genetic variation at these loci may affect blood cholesterol concentrations by influencing dietary responsiveness. We studied the association between the ABCG5 C1950G (Gln640Glu) polymorphism and blood cholesterol concentrations in 486 subjects and responsiveness to dietary cholesterol in 99 participants in dietary trials. Mean baseline cholesterol concentrations were 0.65 +/- 0.22 mmol/l higher in 13 subjects with the G/G genotype than in 473 carriers of the C-allele (95% confidence interval 0.22-1.08 mmol/l). The response of serum total cholesterol to dietary cholesterol tended to be larger in subjects with the G/G genotype as compared with carriers of the C-allele. We suggest that the ABCG5 G/G genotype may increase serum cholesterol concentrations and, possibly responsiveness to dietary cholesterol in humans. Studies in other populations and experimental settings are required to confirm or reject this hypothesis. PMID:12220438

  11. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1 in Mouse Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Carlos R.; Marat, Andrea L.; Ni, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yang; Oko, Richard; Smith, Brian T.; Argraves, W. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa lose plasma membrane cholesterol during their maturation in the epididymis and during their capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While acceptors such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and J have been found in male and female reproductive tracts, transporters that mediate cholesterol efflux from plasma membranes of spermatozoa to such acceptors have not yet been defined. Candidate transporters are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily including ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1 and ABCG4, which have all been implicated in the transport of sterols and phospholipids to apolipoproteins and HDL. Here we show that mouse spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis express ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1, but not ABCG4. Moreover, we show that ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1 antibodies decrease cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa to lipid acceptors apoA-I and albumin and inhibit in vitro fertilization. PMID:18793613

  12. Serum albumin promotes ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent sterol uptake in yeast.

    PubMed

    Marek, Magdalena; Silvestro, Daniele; Fredslund, Maria D; Andersen, Tonni G; Pomorski, Thomas G

    2014-12-01

    Sterol uptake in fungi is a multistep process that involves interaction between external sterols and the cell wall, incorporation of sterol molecules into the plasma membrane, and subsequent integration into intracellular membranes for turnover. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in sterol uptake, but key features of their activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we apply fluorescent cholesterol (NBD-cholesterol) to monitor sterol uptake under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in two fungal species, Candida glabrata (Cg) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc). We found that in both fungal species, ABC transporter-dependent uptake of cholesterol under anaerobic conditions and in mutants lacking HEM1 gene is promoted in the presence of the serum protein albumin that is able to bind the sterol molecule. Furthermore, the C. glabrata ABC transporter CgAus1p expressed in S. cerevisiae requires the presence of serum or albumin for efficient cholesterol uptake. These results suggest that albumin can serve as sterol donor in ABC transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of C. glabrata inside infected humans. PMID:25331273

  13. ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg2 lineage contributes to the cardiac vasculature after oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yi; Li, Qinglu; Braunlin, Elizabeth; Garry, Mary G.; Sorrentino, Brian P.; Martin, Cindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to their specialized location, stem and progenitor cells are often exposed to oxidative stress. Although ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 2 (Abcg2)-expressing cells have been implicated in cardiac protective mechanisms involving oxidative stress, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the behavior of cardiac Abcg2-expressing cells when exposed to ROS. The aim of the present study was to characterize the response of the cardiac Abcg2 lineage to oxidative stress. In vitro analysis demonstrated that the antioxidant program regulated by Abcg2 is dependent on a functional transporter. Delivery of paraquat dichloride (PQ), a systemic oxidative stress-inducing agent, to mice confirmed that Abcg2 provides a survival benefit. When exposed to PQ, reporter mice showed an increase in the Abcg2 lineage. Transcriptional and immunohistochemical analysis of Abcg2 lineage-positive cells revealed an enhanced vascular commitment after stress. Finally, preconditioning with PQ demonstrated a reduction in scar size and an increase in angiogenesis after permanent left coronary artery ligation. In conclusion, the data suggest that Abcg2 plays a cytoprotective role in response to in vivo oxidative stress. The contribution of the Abcg2 lineage to the vasculature in the heart is increased after PQ delivery. PMID:24727496

  14. A-Subclass ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins in Brain Lipid Homeostasis and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Armin P.; Özcürümez, Mustafa; Kaminski, Wolfgang E.

    2012-01-01

    The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters comprises 12 structurally related members of the evolutionarily highly conserved superfamily of ABC transporters. ABCA transporters represent a subgroup of “full-size” multispan transporters of which several members have been shown to mediate the transport of a variety of physiologic lipid compounds across membrane barriers. The importance of ABCA transporters in human disease is documented by the observations that so far four members of this protein family (ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA4, ABCA12) have been causatively linked to monogenetic disorders including familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency, neonatal surfactant deficiency, degenerative retinopathies, and congenital keratinization disorders. Recent research also point to a significant contribution of several A-subfamily ABC transporters to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review will give a summary of our current knowledge of the A-subclass of ABC transporters with a special focus on brain lipid homeostasis and their involvement in AD. PMID:22403555

  15. Small substrate transport and mechanism of a molybdate ATP binding cassette transporter in a lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Rice, Austin J; Harrison, Alistair; Alvarez, Frances J D; Davidson, Amy L; Pinkett, Heather W

    2014-05-23

    Embedded in the plasma membrane of all bacteria, ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers facilitate the uptake of several vital nutrients and cofactors. The ABC transporter, MolBC-A, imports molybdate by passing substrate from the binding protein MolA to a membrane-spanning translocation pathway of MolB. To understand the mechanism of transport in the biological membrane as a whole, the effects of the lipid bilayer on transport needed to be addressed. Continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance and in vivo molybdate uptake studies were used to test the impact of the lipid environment on the mechanism and function of MolBC-A. Working with the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, we found that MolBC-A functions as a low affinity molybdate transporter in its native environment. In periods of high extracellular molybdate concentration, H. influenzae makes use of parallel molybdate transport systems (MolBC-A and ModBC-A) to take up a greater amount of molybdate than a strain with ModBC-A alone. In addition, the movement of the translocation pathway in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in a lipid environment is conserved when compared with in-detergent analysis. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that a lipid environment restricts the flexibility of the MolBC translocation pathway. By combining continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and substrate uptake studies, we reveal details of molybdate transport and the logistics of uptake systems that employ multiple transporters for the same substrate, offering insight into the mechanisms of nutrient uptake in bacteria. PMID:24722984

  16. Adipocyte ATP-binding cassette G1 promotes triglyceride storage, fat mass growth, and human obesity.

    PubMed

    Frisdal, Eric; Le Lay, Soazig; Hooton, Henri; Poupel, Lucie; Olivier, Maryline; Alili, Rohia; Plengpanich, Wanee; Villard, Elise F; Gilibert, Sophie; Lhomme, Marie; Superville, Alexandre; Miftah-Alkhair, Lobna; Chapman, M John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Venteclef, Nicolas; Poitou, Christine; Tordjman, Joan; Lesnik, Philippe; Kontush, Anatol; Huby, Thierry; Dugail, Isabelle; Clement, Karine; Guerin, Maryse; Le Goff, Wilfried

    2015-03-01

    The role of the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) transporter in human pathophysiology is still largely unknown. Indeed, beyond its role in mediating free cholesterol efflux to HDL, the ABCG1 transporter equally promotes lipid accumulation in a triglyceride (TG)-rich environment through regulation of the bioavailability of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Because both ABCG1 and LPL are expressed in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ABCG1 is implicated in adipocyte TG storage and therefore could be a major actor in adipose tissue fat accumulation. Silencing of Abcg1 expression by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes compromised LPL-dependent TG accumulation during the initial phase of differentiation. Generation of stable Abcg1 knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed that Abcg1 deficiency reduces TG storage and diminishes lipid droplet size through inhibition of Ppar? expression. Strikingly, local inhibition of adipocyte Abcg1 in adipose tissue from mice fed a high-fat diet led to a rapid decrease of adiposity and weight gain. Analysis of two frequent ABCG1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1893590 [A/C] and rs1378577 [T/G]) in morbidly obese individuals indicated that elevated ABCG1 expression in adipose tissue was associated with increased PPAR? expression and adiposity concomitant to increased fat mass and BMI (haplotype AT>GC). The critical role of ABCG1 in obesity was further confirmed in independent populations of severe obese and diabetic obese individuals. This study identifies for the first time a major role of adipocyte ABCG1 in adiposity and fat mass growth and suggests that adipose ABCG1 might represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity. PMID:25249572

  17. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    PubMed

    Polireddy, Kishore; Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J; Haynes, Mark K; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Tegos, George P; Sklar, Larry A; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  18. A Novel Flow Cytometric HTS Assay Reveals Functional Modulators of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J.; Haynes, Mark K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Tegos, George P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6’s ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  19. Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, A.L.; Dassa, E.; Orelle, C.; Chen, J. (Purdue)

    2010-07-27

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the largest superfamilies of paralogous sequences. All ABC systems share a highly conserved ATP-hydrolyzing domain or protein (the ABC; also referred to as a nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]) that is unequivocally characterized by three short sequence motifs (Fig. 1): these are the Walker A and Walker B motifs, indicative of the presence of a nucleotide-binding site, and the signature motif, unique to ABC proteins, located upstream of the Walker B motif (426). Other motifs diagnostic of ABC proteins are also indicated in Fig. 1. The biological significance of these motifs is discussed in Structure, Function, and Dynamics of the ABC. ABC systems are widespread among living organisms and have been detected in all genera of the three kingdoms of life, with remarkable conservation in the primary sequence of the cassette and in the organization of the constitutive domains or subunits (203, 420). ABC systems couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to an impressively large variety of essential biological phenomena, comprising not only transmembrane (TM) transport, for which they are best known, but also several non-transport-related processes, such as translation elongation (62) and DNA repair (174). Although ABC systems deserve much attention because they are involved in severe human inherited diseases (107), they were first discovered and characterized in detail in prokaryotes, as early as the 1970s (13, 148, 238, 468). The most extensively analyzed systems were the high-affinity histidine and maltose uptake systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Over 2 decades ago, after the completion of the nucleotide sequences encoding these transporters in the respective laboratories of Giovanna Ames and Maurice Hofnung, Hiroshi Nikaido and colleagues noticed that the two systems displayed a global similarity in the nature of their components and, moreover, that the primary sequences of MalK and HisP, the proteins suspected to energize these transporters, shared as much as 32% identity in amino acid residues when their sequences were aligned (171). Later, it was found that several bacterial proteins involved in uptake of nutrients, export of toxins, cell division, bacterial nodulation of plants, and DNA repair displayed the same similarity in their sequences (127, 196). This led to the notion that the conserved protein, which had been shown to bind ATP (198, 201), would probably energize the systems mentioned above by coupling the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport. The latter was demonstrated with the maltose and histidine transporters by use of isolated membrane vesicles (105, 379) and purified transporters reconstituted into proteoliposomes (30, 98). The determination of the sequence of the first eukaryotic protein strongly similar to these bacterial transporters (the P-glycoprotein, involved in resistance of cancer cells to multiple drugs) (169, 179) demonstrated that these proteins were not restricted to prokaryotes. Two names, 'traffic ATPases' (15) and the more accepted name 'ABC transporters' (193, 218), were proposed for members of this new superfamily. ABC systems can be divided into three main functional categories, as follows. Importers mediate the uptake of nutrients in prokaryotes. The nature of the substrates that are transported is very wide, including mono- and oligosaccharides, organic and inorganic ions, amino acids, peptides, ironsiderophores, metals, polyamine cations, opines, and vitamins. Exporters are involved in the secretion of various molecules, such as peptides, lipids, hydrophobic drugs, polysaccharides, and proteins, including toxins such as hemolysin. The third category of systems is apparently not involved in transport, with some members being involved in translation of mRNA and in DNA repair. Despite the large, diverse population of substrates handled and the difference in the polarity of transport, importers and exporters share a common organization made of two hydrophobic membrane-spanning or integral membrane (IM)

  20. Duplication of genes in an ATP-binding cassette transport system increases dynamic range while maintaining ligand specificity.

    PubMed

    Ghimire-Rijal, Sudipa; Lu, Xun; Myles, Dean A; Cuneo, Matthew J

    2014-10-24

    Many bacteria exist in a state of feast or famine where high nutrient availability leads to periods of growth followed by nutrient scarcity and growth stagnation. To adapt to the constantly changing nutrient flux, metabolite acquisition systems must be able to function over a broad range. This, however, creates difficulties as nutrient concentrations vary over many orders of magnitude, requiring metabolite acquisition systems to simultaneously balance ligand specificity and the dynamic range in which a response to a metabolite is elicited. Here we present how a gene duplication of a periplasmic binding protein in a mannose ATP-binding cassette transport system potentially resolves this dilemma through gene functionalization. Determination of ligand binding affinities and specificities of the gene duplicates with fluorescence and circular dichroism demonstrates that although the binding specificity is maintained the Kd values for the same ligand differ over three orders of magnitude. These results suggest that this metabolite acquisition system can transport ligand at both low and high environmental concentrations while preventing saturation with related and less preferentially metabolized compounds. The x-ray crystal structures of the ?-mannose-bound proteins help clarify the structural basis of gene functionalization and reveal that affinity and specificity are potentially encoded in different regions of the binding site. These studies suggest a possible functional role and adaptive advantage for the presence of two periplasmic-binding proteins in ATP-binding cassette transport systems and a way bacteria can adapt to varying nutrient flux through functionalization of gene duplicates. PMID:25210043

  1. The allosteric regulatory mechanism of the Escherichia coli MetNI methionine ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Janet G; Rees, Douglas C

    2015-04-01

    The MetNI methionine importer of Escherichia coli, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to catalyze the high affinity uptake of D- and L-methionine. Early in vivo studies showed that the uptake of external methionine is repressed by the level of the internal methionine pool, a phenomenon termed transinhibition. Our understanding of the MetNI mechanism has thus far been limited to a series of crystal structures in an inward-facing conformation. To understand the molecular mechanism of transinhibition, we studied the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis using detergent-solubilized MetNI. We find that transinhibition is due to noncompetitive inhibition by L-methionine, much like a negative feedback loop. Thermodynamic analyses revealed two allosteric methionine binding sites per transporter. This quantitative analysis of transinhibition, the first to our knowledge for a structurally defined transporter, builds upon the previously proposed structurally based model for regulation. This mechanism of regulation at the transporter activity level could be applicable to not only ABC transporters but other types of membrane transporters as well. PMID:25678706

  2. Quantitation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily-A transporter gene expression in primary human brain cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woojin S; Guillemin, Gilles J; Glaros, Elias N; Lim, Chai K; Garner, Brett

    2006-06-26

    Five ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily-A transporters (ABCA1, ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCA7 and ABCA8) are expressed in the brain. These transporters may regulate brain lipid transport; however, their relative expression level in isolated human brain cells is unknown. We developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify the expression of these genes in human neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and cell lines. Neurons expressed predominantly ABCA1 and ABCA3; astrocytes ABCA1, ABCA2 and ABCA3; microglia ABCA1 and oligodendrocytes ABCA2 and ABCA3. Although ABCA7 and ABCA8 expression was relatively low in all cells, the highest expression occurred in microglia and neurons, respectively. ABCA gene expression in the NTERA-2 and MO3.13 cell lines closely resembled the ABCA expression pattern of primary neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively. PMID:16738483

  3. Repositioning of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors as Antagonists of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Anticancer Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has attenuated the efficacy of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating MDR in cancer cells by increasing efflux of drugs from cancer cells, hence reducing the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Interestingly, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as AST1306, lapatinib, linsitinib, masitinib, motesanib, nilotinib, telatinib and WHI-P154, have been found to have the capability to overcome anticancer drug resistance by inhibiting ABC transporters in recent years. This review will focus on some of the latest and clinical developments with ABC transporters, TKIs and anticancer drug resistance. PMID:25268163

  4. Regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters and cholesterol efflux by glucose in primary human monocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. This may be partially attributable to suppression of macrophage ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated cholesterol efflux by sustained elevated blood glucose concentrations. Two models were used...

  5. Opioid transport by ATP-binding cassette transporters at the blood-brain barrier: implications for neuropsychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Declčves, Xavier; Saubaméa, Bruno; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Some of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1, MDR1), BCRP (ABCG2) and MRPs (ABCCs) that are present at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) influence the brain pharmacokinetics (PK) of their substrates by restricting their uptake or enhancing their clearance from the brain into the blood, which has consequences for their CNS pharmacodynamics (PD). Opioid drugs have been invaluable tools for understanding the PK-PD relationships of these ABC-transporters. The effects of morphine, methadone and loperamide on the CNS are modulated by P-gp. This review examines the ways in which other opioid drugs and some of their active metabolites interact with ABC transporters and suggests new mechanisms that may be involved in the variability of the response of the CNS to these drugs like carrier-mediated system belonging to the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily. Exposure to opioids may also alter the expression of ABC transporters. P-gp can be overproduced during morphine treatment, suggesting that the drug has a direct or, more likely, an indirect action. Variations in cerebral neurotransmitters during exposure to opioids and the release of cytokines during pain could be new endogenous stimuli affecting transporter synthesis. This review concludes with an analysis of the pharmacotherapeutic and clinical impacts of the interactions between ABC transporters and opioids. PMID:21827411

  6. Transcriptional repression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene in macrophages: a novel atherosclerotic effect of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasunori; Chu, Van; Collins, Alan R; Lyon, Christopher J; Wang, Wei; Blaschke, Florian; Bruemmer, Dennis; Caglayan, Evren; Daley, William; Higaki, Jitsuo; Fishbein, Michael C; Tangirala, Rajendra K; Law, Ronald E; Hsueh, Willa A

    2005-10-28

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a powerful accelerator of atherosclerosis. Herein, we describe a novel transcription mechanism through which Ang II inhibits macrophage expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key regulator of reverse cholesterol transport. We demonstrate that chronic Ang II infusion substantially promotes macrophage infiltration, foam cell formation, and atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice and significantly reduces ABCA1 expression in peripheral macrophages. Administration of the Ang II type 1 receptor blocker valsartan inhibited Ang II-induced ABCA1 mRNA repression, macrophage cholesterol accumulation, and atherosclerosis. Ang II treatment reduced ABCA1 promoter activity of in vitro cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages, inducing fos-related antigen 2 (Fra2) protein binding to an ABCA1 promoter E-box motif, a site known to negatively regulate macrophage ABCA1 transcription. Valsartan pretreatment blocked Fra2 binding to the ABCA1 promoter, and Fra2 small interfering RNA pretreatment attenuated Ang II-mediated ABCA1 transcriptional inhibition, confirming the role of Fra2 in this process. This new evidence suggests that Ang II, a well-known proinflammatory and pro-oxidative factor, alters macrophage cholesterol homeostasis by repressing ABCA1 to promote foam cell formation and atherosclerosis. PMID:16224068

  7. FoxO regulates expression of ABCA6, an intracellular ATP-binding-cassette transporter responsive to cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gai, Junfang; Ji, Meiling; Shi, Chenxi; Li, Wenli; Chen, Simin; Wang, Yeyu; Li, Hao

    2013-11-01

    ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) proteins have been recognized as key players in cellular physiological transport processes. ABC transporter A6 (ABCA6) is a member of the ABC subfamily A. Although it was cloned more than 10 years ago, its expression regulation, subcellular localization, and physiologic function remain largely unknown. We here demonstrated that expression of ABCA6 was Forkhead box O (FoxO)-dependent in human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Two functional FoxO-responsive elements were identified in ABCA6 promoter and characterized in detail. ABCA6 mRNA was suppressed by insulin-like growth factor-1 which stimulates the phosphorylation and inactivation of FoxOs while inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase had the opposite effect. By immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, ABCA6 protein is localized primarily in an intracellular compartment, likely representing the Golgi apparatus. ABCA6 mRNA was demonstrated to be responsive to cholesterol loading as well as 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors in human endothelial cells. Our data provide evidence for an essential role of FoxO proteins in the transcription of ABCA6 in human vascular endothelial cells. Based on its cholesterol responsiveness, a potential involvement of ABCA6 in intracellular lipid transport processes may be anticipated. PMID:24028821

  8. An ATP binding cassette transporter is required for cuticular wax deposition and desiccation tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Buda, Gregory J; Barnes, William J; Fich, Eric A; Park, Sungjin; Yeats, Trevor H; Zhao, Lingxia; Domozych, David S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2013-10-01

    The plant cuticle is thought to be a critical evolutionary adaptation that allowed the first plants to colonize land, because of its key roles in regulating plant water status and providing protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Much has been learned about cuticle composition and structure through genetic and biochemical studies of angiosperms, as well as underlying genetic pathways, but little is known about the cuticles of early diverging plant lineages. Here, we demonstrate that the moss Physcomitrella patens, an extant relative of the earliest terrestrial plants, has a cuticle that is analogous in both structure and chemical composition to those of angiosperms. To test whether the underlying cuticle biosynthetic pathways were also shared among distant plant lineages, we generated a genetic knockout of the moss ATP binding cassette subfamily G (ABCG) transporter Pp-ABCG7, a putative ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana ABCG transporters involved in cuticle precursor trafficking. We show that this mutant is severely deficient in cuticular wax accumulation and has a reduced tolerance of desiccation stress compared with the wild type. This work provides evidence that the cuticle was an adaptive feature present in the first terrestrial plants and that the genes involved in their formation have been functionally conserved for over 450 million years. PMID:24163310

  9. Efficient Purification and Reconstitution of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter B6 (ABCB6) for Functional and Structural Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Taimur Khan, Mohiuddin Md.; Tegos, George; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2013-01-01

    The mitochondrial ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6 has been associated with a broad range of physiological functions, including growth and development, therapy-related drug resistance, and the new blood group system Langereis. ABCB6 has been proposed to regulate heme synthesis by shuttling coproporphyrinogen III from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria. However, direct functional information of the transport complex is not known. To understand the role of ABCB6 in mitochondrial transport, we developed an in vitro system with pure and active protein. ABCB6 overexpressed in HEK293 cells was solubilized from mitochondrial membranes and purified to homogeneity. Purified ABCB6 showed a high binding affinity for MgATP (Kd = 0.18 ?m) and an ATPase activity with a Km of 0.99 mm. Reconstitution of ABCB6 into liposomes allowed biochemical characterization of the ATPase including (i) substrate-stimulated ATPase activity, (ii) transport kinetics of its proposed endogenous substrate coproporphyrinogen III, and (iii) transport kinetics of substrates identified using a high throughput screening assay. Mutagenesis of the conserved lysine to alanine (K629A) in the Walker A motif abolished ATP hydrolysis and substrate transport. These results suggest a direct interaction between mitochondrial ABCB6 and its transport substrates that is critical for the activity of the transporter. Furthermore, the simple immunoaffinity purification of ABCB6 to near homogeneity and efficient reconstitution of ABCB6 into liposomes might provide the basis for future studies on the structure/function of ABCB6. PMID:23792964

  10. Influence of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Root Exudation of Phytoalexins, Signals, and in Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Manter, Daniel K.; Martinoia, Enrico; Vivanco, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organisms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3, Atnap5, and Atath10) in root exudation processes using Arabidopsis thaliana. Root exuded phytochemicals were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and it was determined that some of the root exudates from the corresponding ABC transporter mutants were significantly different compared to the wild type. For example, Atabcg37 and Atabcc5 secreted higher levels of the phytoalexin camalexin, and Atabcg36 secreted higher levels of organic acids, specifically salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, we analyzed the root tissue metabolites of these seven ABC transporter mutants and found that the levels of SA, quercetin, and kaempferol glucosides were higher in Atabcg36, which was correlated with higher expression levels of defense genes in the root tissues compared with the wild type. We did not observe significant changes in the root exudates of the half-size transporters except for Atabcf1 that showed lower levels of few organic acids. In summary, full-size transporters are involved in root secretion of phytochemicals. PMID:22783269

  11. Citrulline increases cholesterol efflux from macrophages in vitro and ex vivo via ATP-binding cassette transporters

    PubMed Central

    Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Ayaori, Makoto; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Yakushiji, Emi; Ogura, Masatsune; Terao, Yoshio; Ozasa, Hideki; Sasaki, Makoto; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Sotherden, Grace Megumi; Hosoai, Tamaki; Sakurada, Masami; Ikewaki, Katsunori

    2014-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a mechanism critical to the anti-atherogenic property of HDL. Although citrulline contributes to the amelioration of atherosclerosis via endothelial nitric oxide production, it remains unclear whether it affects RCT. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of citrulline on expressions of specific transporters such as ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)A1 and ABCG1, and the cholesterol efflux from macrophages to apolipoprotein (apo) A-I or HDL in vitro and ex vivo. Citrulline increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 macrophages, translating into enhanced apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. In the human crossover study, 8 healthy male volunteers (age 30–49 years) consumed either 3.2 g/day citrulline or placebo for 1 week. Citrulline consumption brought about significant increases in plasma levels of citrulline and arginine. Supporting the in vitro data, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) differentiated under autologous post-citrulline sera demonstrated enhancement of both apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux through increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 expressions, compared to MDM differentiated under pre-citrulline sera. However, the placebo did not modulate these parameters. Therefore, in addition to improving endothelium function, citrulline might have an anti-atherogenic property by increasing RCT of HDL. PMID:25120277

  12. Moderately lipophilic carboxylate compounds are the selective inducers of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr12p ATP-binding cassette transporter.

    PubMed

    Hatzixanthis, Kostas; Mollapour, Mehdi; Seymour, Ian; Bauer, Bettina E; Krapf, Gerd; Schüller, Christoph; Kuchler, Karl; Piper, Peter W

    2003-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays very strong induction of a single ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, Pdr12p, when stressed with certain weak organic acids. This is a plasma membrane pump catalysing active efflux of the organic acid anion from the cell. Pdr12p action probably allows S. cerevisiae to maintain lower intracellular levels of several weak organic acid preservatives than would be expected on the basis of the free equilibration of the acid across the cell membrane. This in turn facilitates growth in the presence of these preservatives and therefore yeast spoilage of food materials. Pdr12p appears to confer resistance to those carboxylic acids that, to a reasonable degree, partition into both the lipid bilayer and aqueous phases. Its gene (PDR12) is strongly induced by sorbate, benzoate and certain other moderately lipophilic carboxylate compounds, but not by organic alcohols or high levels of acetate. PDR12 induction reflects the operation of a previously uncharacterized S. cerevisiae stress response, for which the induction signal is probably a high intracellular pool of the organic acid anion. PMID:12734796

  13. Genetic polymorphisms of ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCB1 and ABCC2 and their impact on drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Haufroid, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily comprises membrane proteins that translocate a variety of substrates across extra- and intra-cellular membranes, and act as efflux proteins. ABC transporters are characterised by the presence of genetic polymorphisms mainly represented by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which having an impact on their activity. Besides physiological substances, drugs are also substrates of some ABC transporters, mainly ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3 and ABCG2. Identifying the impact of these polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of these drugs may have important clinical implications, certainly for those characterised by a narrow therapeutic index and significant inter- and intra-patient PK variability. This review focuses specifically on ABCB1 and ABCC2 and critically analyses important publications dealing with the influence of ABCB1 and/or ABCC2 polymorphisms on drug disposition in humans. For different reasons discussed in this paper, the effect of ABCB1 and/or ABCC2 polymorphisms on drug concentrations in blood is not always easy to interpret and to correlate with pharmacological effects. In contrast, intracellular or target tissue drug concentrations appear more directly influenced by these polymorphisms, as illustrated with intralymphocyte concentrations for immunosupressants and antiretrovirals or with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations for antiepileptics and antidepressants. Further research on intracellular and/or target tissue drug concentrations are still needed to better characterise the PK-PG (pharmacogenetics) relationship involving ABC transporters. PMID:21039333

  14. ATP-Binding Cassette Genes Genotype and Expression: A Potential Association with Pancreatic Cancer Development and Chemoresistance?

    PubMed Central

    Word, Beverly; Wang, Honggang; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Lyn-Cook, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter genes are associated with differential responses to chemotherapy in various cancers including pancreatic cancer. In this study, four SNPs in the ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 genes were investigated in normal and pancreatic cancerous specimens. The expression of the three transporters was also analyzed. The TT genotypes of G2677T and C3435T in ABCB1 gene were associated with lower risk of developing pancreatic cancer (P = 0.013, OR = 0.35 and P = 0.015, OR = 0.29, resp.). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the common polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene affecting the genetic risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the expression of ABCB1 in 2677TT and 3435TT carriers was lower compared to the wild-type homozygotes and heterozygotes. A cell viability assay, using standard pancreatic cancer cell lines, revealed that the ABCB1 2677TT-3455TT haplotype was more sensitive than the other haplotypes to gemcitabine. Conclusion. Polymorphisms in ABCB1 G2677T and G3435T were associated with differential susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and may predict responses to chemotherapy. PMID:24883056

  15. The COMATOSE ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Is Required for Full Fertility in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Footitt, Steven; Dietrich, Daniela; Fait, Aaron; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Holdsworth, Michael J.; Baker, Alison; Theodoulou, Frederica L.

    2007-01-01

    COMATOSE (CTS) encodes a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter required not only for ?-oxidation of storage lipids during germination and establishment, but also for biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and conversion of indole butyric acid to indole acetic acid. cts mutants exhibited reduced fertilization, which was rescued by genetic complementation, but not by exogenous application of jasmonic acid or indole acetic acid. Reduced fertilization was also observed in thiolase (kat2-1) and peroxisomal acyl-Coenzyme A synthetase mutants (lacs6-1,lacs7-1), indicating a general role for ?-oxidation in fertility. Genetic analysis revealed reduced male transmission of cts alleles and both cts pollen germination and tube growth in vitro were impaired in the absence of an exogenous carbon source. Aniline blue staining of pollinated pistils demonstrated that pollen tube growth was affected only when both parents bore the cts mutation, indicating that expression of CTS in either male or female tissues was sufficient to support pollen tube growth in vivo. Accordingly, abundant peroxisomes were detected in a range of maternal tissues. Although ?-aminobutyric acid levels were reduced in flowers of cts mutants, they were unchanged in kat2-1, suggesting that alterations in ?-aminobutyric acid catabolism do not contribute to the reduced fertility phenotype through altered pollen tube targeting. Taken together, our data support an important role for ?-oxidation in fertility in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and suggest that this pathway could play a role in the mobilization of lipids in both pollen and female tissues. PMID:17468211

  16. Association/Dissociation of the Nucleotide-binding Domains of the ATP-binding Cassette Protein MsbA Measured during Continuous Hydrolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rebecca S.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2013-01-01

    In ATP-binding cassette proteins, the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) work as dimers to bind and hydrolyze ATP, but the molecular mechanism of nucleotide hydrolysis is controversial. It is still unresolved whether hydrolysis leads to dissociation of the ATP-induced dimers or partial opening of the dimers such that the NBDs remain in contact during the hydrolysis cycle. We studied the bacterial lipid flippase MsbA by luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). The LRET signal between optical probes reacted with single-cysteine mutants was employed to follow NBD association/dissociation in real time. The intermonomer distances calculated from LRET data indicate that the NBDs separate completely following ATP hydrolysis, even in the presence of mm MgATP, and that the dissociation occurs following each hydrolysis cycle. The results support association/dissociation, as opposed to constant contact models, for the mode of operation of ATP-binding cassette proteins. PMID:23723071

  17. Localized induction of the ATP-binding cassette B19 auxin transporter enhances adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Poornima; Maloney, Gregory S; Muday, Gloria K

    2013-07-01

    Adventitious roots emerge from aerial plant tissues, and the induction of these roots is essential for clonal propagation of agriculturally important plant species. This process has received extensive study in horticultural species but much less focus in genetically tractable model species. We have explored the role of auxin transport in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in which adventitious root initiation was induced by excising roots from low-light-grown hypocotyls. Inhibition of auxin transport from the shoot apex abolishes adventitious root formation under these conditions. Root excision was accompanied by a rapid increase in radioactive indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport and its accumulation in the hypocotyl above the point of excision where adventitious roots emerge. Local increases in auxin-responsive gene expression were also observed above the site of excision using three auxin-responsive reporters. These changes in auxin accumulation preceded cell division events, monitored by a cyclin B1 reporter (pCYCB1;1:GUS), and adventitious root initiation. We examined excision-induced adventitious root formation in auxin influx and efflux mutants, including auxin insensitive1, pin-formed1 (pin1), pin2, pin3, and pin7, with the most profound reductions observed in ATP-binding cassette B19 (ABCB19). An ABCB19 overexpression line forms more adventitious roots than the wild type in intact seedlings. Examination of transcriptional and translational fusions between ABCB19 and green fluorescent protein indicates that excision locally induced the accumulation of ABCB19 transcript and protein that is temporally and spatially linked to local IAA accumulation leading to adventitious root formation. These experiments are consistent with localized synthesis of ABCB19 protein after hypocotyl excision leads to enhanced IAA transport and local IAA accumulation driving adventitious root formation. PMID:23677937

  18. Insight into Pleiotropic Drug Resistance ATP-binding Cassette Pump Drug Transport through Mutagenesis of Cdr1p Transmembrane Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Kapoor, Khyati; Goyal, Neha; Sen, Sobhan; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Lynn, Andrew M.; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; Monk, Brian C.; Cannon, Richard D.; Komath, Sneha Sudha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    The fungal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Cdr1 protein (Cdr1p), responsible for clinically significant drug resistance, is composed of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). We have probed the nature of the drug binding pocket by performing systematic mutagenesis of the primary sequences of the 12 transmembrane segments (TMSs) found in the TMDs. All mutated proteins were expressed equally well and localized properly at the plasma membrane in the heterologous host Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but some variants differed significantly in efflux activity, substrate specificity, and coupled ATPase activity. Replacement of the majority of the amino acid residues with alanine or glycine yielded neutral mutations, but about 42% of the variants lost resistance to drug efflux substrates completely or selectively. A predicted three-dimensional homology model shows that all the TMSs, apart from TMS4 and TMS10, interact directly with the drug-binding cavity in both the open and closed Cdr1p conformations. However, TMS4 and TMS10 mutations can also induce total or selective drug susceptibility. Functional data and homology modeling assisted identification of critical amino acids within a drug-binding cavity that, upon mutation, abolished resistance to all drugs tested singly or in combinations. The open and closed Cdr1p models enabled the identification of amino acid residues that bordered a drug-binding cavity dominated by hydrophobic residues. The disposition of TMD residues with differential effects on drug binding and transport are consistent with a large polyspecific drug binding pocket in this yeast multidrug transporter. PMID:23824183

  19. Determination of the quaternary structure of a bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in living cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deo R; Mohammad, Mohammad M; Patowary, Suparna; Stoneman, Michael R; Oliver, Julie A; Movileanu, Liviu; Raicu, Valeric?

    2013-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that affects patients with cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium coexpresses two unique forms of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on its surface, the A- and B-band LPS, which are among the main virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. The polysaccharides in A-band LPSs are synthesized in the cytoplasm and translocated into the periplasm via an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter consisting of a transmembrane protein, Wzm, and a cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding protein, Wzt. Most of the biochemical studies of A-band PSs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are focused on the stages of the synthesis and ligation of PS, leaving the export stage involving the ABC transporter mostly unexplored. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that the subunit composition and structure of this bi-component ABC transporter are still unknown. Here we propose a simple but powerful method, based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and optical micro-spectroscopy technology, to probe the structure of dynamic (as opposed to static) protein complexes in living cells. We use this method to determine the association stoichiometry and quaternary structure of the Wzm-Wzt complex in living cells. It is found that Wzt forms a rhombus-shaped homo-tetramer which becomes a square upon co-expression with Wzm, and that Wzm forms a square-shaped homo-tetramer both in the presence and absence of Wzt. Based on these results, we propose a structural model for the double-tetramer complex formed by the bi-component ABC transporter in living cells. An understanding of the structure and behavior of this ABC transporter will help develop antibiotics targeting the biosynthesis of the A-band LPS endotoxin. PMID:23223798

  20. Phenotype prediction of non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms in human ATP-binding cassette transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Liu, Ya-He; Meng, Lu-Lu; Li, Chun Guang; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-02-01

    A large number of non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) have been found in human genome, but there is poor knowledge on the relationship between the genotype and phenotype of these nsSNPs. Human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are able to transport a number of important substrates including endogenous and exogenous compounds. This study aimed to predict the phenotypical impact of nsSNPs of human ABC transporter genes, and the predicted results were further validated by reported phenotypical data from site-directed mutagenesis and clinical genetic studies. One thousand and six hundred thirty-two nsSNPs were found from 49 human ABC transporter genes. Using the PolyPhen and SIFT algorithms, 41.8-53.6% of nsSNPs in ABC transporter genes were predicted to have an impact on protein function. The prediction accuracy was up to 63-85% when compared with known phenotypical data from in vivo and in vitro studies. There was a significant concordance between the prediction results using SIFT and PolyPhen. Of nsSNPs predicted as deleterious, the prediction scores by SIFT and PolyPhen were significantly related to the number of nsSNPs with known phenotypes confirmed by experimental and human studies. The amino acid substitution variants are supposed to be the pathogenetic basis of increased susceptibility to certain diseases with Mendelian or complex inheritance, altered drug resistance and altered drug clearance and response. Predicting the phenotypic consequence of nsSNPs using computational algorithms may provide a better understanding of genetic differences in susceptibility to diseases and drug response. The prediction of nsSNPs in human ABC transporter genes would be useful hints for further genotype-phenotype studies. PMID:20849526

  1. Neratinib Reverses ATP-Binding Cassette B1-Mediated Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance In Vitro, In Vivo, and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-qin; Xie, Jing-dun; Chen, Xing-gui; Sim, Hong May; Zhang, Xu; Liang, Yong-ju; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T.; Sun, Yueli; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Neratinib, an irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is in phase III clinical trials for patients with human epidermal receptor 2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore the ability of neratinib to reverse tumor multidrug resistance attributable to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our results showed that neratinib remarkably enhanced the sensitivity of ABCB1-overexpressing cells to ABCB1 substrates. It is noteworthy that neratinib augmented the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in inhibiting the growth of ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia blasts and KBv200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, neratinib increased doxorubicin accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and Rhodamine 123 accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and primary leukemia blasts. Neratinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 at low concentrations but inhibited it at high concentrations. Likewise, neratinib inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.24 ?M). Neither the expression of ABCB1 at the mRNA and protein levels nor the phosphorylation of Akt was affected by neratinib at reversal concentrations. Docking simulation results were consistent with the binding conformation of neratinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1, which provides computational support for the cross-reactivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with human ABCB1. In conclusion, neratinib can reverse ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo by inhibiting its transport function. PMID:22491935

  2. Poloxamines display a multiple inhibitory activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2011-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common fatal cancer worldwide with more than 500,000 annual deaths. Approximately 40% of the patients with HCC showed tumoral overexpression of transmembrane proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (ABC) which pump drugs out of cells. The overexpression of these efflux transporters confers on the cells a multiple drug resistance phenotype, which is considered a crucial cause of treatment refractoriness in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of pH- and temperature-responsive X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines, Tetronic, PEO-PPO) showing a wide range of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios on the functional activity of three different ABC proteins, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, in two human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. First, the cytotoxicity of the different copolymers (at different concentrations) on both liver carcinoma cell lines was thoroughly evaluated by means of apoptosis analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Thus, viable cells (AV-/PI-), early apoptotic cells (AV+/PI-) and late apoptotic cells (V-FITC+/PI+) were identified. Results pointed out copolymers of intermediate to high hydrophobicity and intermediate molecular weight (e.g., T904) as the most cytotoxic. Then, DiOC2, rhodamine 123 and vinblastine were used as differential substrates of these pumps. HeLa, an epithelial cell line of human cervical cancer that does not express P-gp, was used exclusively as a control and enabled the discerning between P-gp and MRP1 inhibition. Moderate to highly hydrophobic poloxamines T304, T904 and T1301 showed inhibitory activity against P-gp and BCRP but not against MRP1 in both hepatic cell lines. A remarkable dependence of this effect on the copolymer concentration and hydrophobicity was found. No inhibitory effect against these ABC pumps was observed with the hydrophilic T1107. These findings further evidence the potential usefulness of these Trojan horses as both drug nanocarriers and ABC inhibitors in hepatic MDR tumors and infections that involve the activity of these efflux transporters. PMID:21591727

  3. Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lima, Estelita Pereira; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca; Rolim Neto, Modesto Leite

    2014-11-01

    The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 ?M). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 ?M), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated. PMID:25411004

  4. Lapatinib (Tykerb, GW572016) Reverses Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells by Inhibiting the Activity of ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 and G Member 2

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chun-ling; Tiwari, Amit K.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Su, Xiao-dong; Wang, Si-Rong; Liu, Dong-geng; Ashby, Charles R.; Huang, Yan; Robey, Robert W.; Liang, Yong-ju; Chen, Li-ming; Shi, Cheng-Jun; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-wu

    2009-01-01

    Lapatinib is active at the ATP-binding site of tyrosine kinases that are associated with the human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, Her-1, or ErbB1) and Her-2. It is conceivable that lapatinib may inhibit the function of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters by binding to their ATP-binding sites. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of lapatinib to reverse tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) due to overexpression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters. Our results showed that lapatinib significantly enhanced the sensitivity to ABCB1 or ABCG2 substrates in cells expressing these transporters although a small synergetic effect was observed in combining lapatinib and conventional chemotherapeutic agents in parental sensitive MCF-7 or S1 cells. Lapatinib alone, however, did not significantly alter the sensitivity of non-ABCB1 or non-ABCG2 substrates in sensitive and resistant cells. Additionally, lapatinib significantly increased the accumulation of doxorubicin or mitoxantrone in ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpressing cells and inhibited the transport of methotrexate and E217?G by ABCG2. Furthermore, lapatinib stimulated the ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 or ABCG2 with [125I]Iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner. However, lapatinib did not affect the expression of these transporters at mRNA or protein levels. Importantly, lapatinib also strongly enhanced the effect of paclitaxel on the inhibition of growth of the ABCB1-overexpressing KBv200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Overall, we conclude that lapatinib reverses ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting their transport function. These findings may be useful for cancer combinational therapy with lapatinib in the clinic. PMID:18829547

  5. Factors controlling nascent high-density lipoprotein particle heterogeneity: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 activity and cell lipid and apolipoprotein AI availability

    PubMed Central

    Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Nickel, Margaret; Tang, Chongren; Phillips, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles arise in different sizes. We have sought to uncover factors that control this size heterogeneity. Gel filtration, native PAGE, and protein cross-linking were used to analyze the size heterogeneity of nascent HDL produced by BHK-ABCA1, RAW 264.7, J774, and HepG2 cells under different levels of two factors considered as a ratio, the availability of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) -accessible cell lipid, and concentration of extracellular lipid-free apoAI. Increases in the available cell lipid:apoAI ratio due to either elevated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and activity or raised cell density (i.e., increasing numerator) shifted the production of nascent HDL from smaller particles with fewer apoAI molecules per particle and fewer molecules of choline-phospholipid and cholesterol per apoAI molecule to larger particles that contained more apoAI and more lipid per molecule of apoAI. A further shift to larger particles was observed in BHK-ABCA1 cells when the available cell lipid:apoAI ratio was raised still higher by decreasing the apoAI concentration (i.e., the denominator). These changes in nascent HDL biogenesis were reminiscent of the transition that occurs in the size composition of reconstituted HDL in response to an increasing initial lipid:apoAI molar ratio. Thus, the ratio of available cell lipid:apoAI is a fundamental cause of nascent HDL size heterogeneity, and rHDL formation is a good model of nascent HDL biogenesis.—Lyssenko, N. N., Nickel, M., Tang, C., Phillips, M. C. Factors controlling nascent high-density lipoprotein particle heterogeneity: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 activity and cell lipid and apolipoprotein AI availability. PMID:23543682

  6. Influence of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter 1 R219K and M883I Polymorphisms on Development of Atherosclerosis: A Meta-Analysis of 58 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dong; Chen, Yan-Xiu; Li, Bing-Hu; Wang, Jing-Zhou; Liu, Yun; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Gao, Chang-Yue; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) R219K (rs2230806) and M883I (rs4149313) polymorphisms and atherosclerosis (AS), but results remain controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether these two polymorphisms facilitate the susceptibility to AS using a meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane database, Clinicaltrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, CBMdisc, CNKI, Google Scholar and Baidu Library were searched to get the genetic association studies. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 11.0. Results Forty-seven articles involving 58 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. For the ABCA1 R219K polymorphism, 42 studies involving 12,551 AS cases and 19,548 controls were combined showing significant association between this variant and AS risk (for K allele vs. R allele: OR?=?0.77, 95% CI?=?0.71–0.84, P<0.01; for K/K vs. R/R: OR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.51–0.71, P<0.01; for K/K vs. R/K+R/R: OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.60–0.80, P<0.01; for K/K+R/K vs. R/R: OR?=?0.74, 95% CI?=?0.66–0.83, P<0.01). For the ABCA1 M883I polymorphism, 16 studies involving 4,224 AS cases and 3,462 controls were combined. There was also significant association between the variant and AS risk (for I allele vs. M allele: OR?=?0.85, 95% CI?=?0.77–0.95, P<0.01). Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that the ABCA1 R219K and M883I polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to AS. However, due to the high heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the results should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24466114

  7. Analysis of the structural and functional roles of coupling helices in the ATP-binding cassette transporter MsbA through enzyme assays and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Tadaomi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kato, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Minoru

    2014-07-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are constructed from some common structural units: the highly conserved nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), which work as a nucleotide-dependent engine for driving substrate transport, the diverse transmembrane domains (TMDs), which create the translocation pathway, and the coupling helices (CHs), which are located at the NBD-TMD interface. Although the CHs are believed to be essential for NBD-TMD communication, their roles remain unclear. In this study, we performed enzyme assays and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the ABC transporter MsbA and two MsbA mutants in which the amino acid residues of one of the CHs were mutated to alanines: (i) wild type (Wt), (ii) CH1 mutant (Mt1), and (iii) CH2 mutant (Mt2). The experiments show that the CH2 mutation decreases the ATPase activity (kcat) compared with that of the Wt (a decrease of 32%), and a nearly equal degree of decrease in the ATP binding affinity (Km) was observed for both Mt1 and Mt2. The MD simulations successfully accounted for several structural and dynamical origins for these experimental observations. In addition, on the basis of collective motion and morphing analyses, we propose that the reverse-rotational motions and noddinglike motions between the NBDs and TMDs are indispensable for the conformational transition between the inward- and outward-facing conformations. In particular, CH2 is significantly important for the occurrence of the noddinglike motion. These findings provide important insights into the structure-function relationship of ABC transporters. PMID:24937232

  8. ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA1 modulates the secretion of apolipoprotein E from human monocyte-derived macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARNOLD VON ECKARDSTEIN; CLAUS LANGER; THOMAS ENGEL; ISABEL SCHAUKAL; ANDREA CIGNARELLA; JURGEN REINHARDT; STEFAN LORKOWSKI; ZHENGCHEN LI; XIAOQIN ZHOU; PAUL CULLEN; GERD ASSMANN

    2001-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) produced by macrophages in the arterial wall protects against ath- erosclerosis, but the regulation of its secretion by these cells is poorly understood. Here we investigated the contribution of the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABC8 to the secretion of apoE from either primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) or human THP1 macrophages. During incubations of

  9. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named “eibi1.c,” along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants. PMID:21737747

  10. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Promotes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation via Reduced Expression of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter-1 (ABCA1)

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Wonkyoung; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Young Mi

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major pathology of cardiovascular disease, is caused by multiple factors involving psychological stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is released by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, peripheral nerve terminals and epithelial cells, regulates various stress-related responses. Our current study aimed to verify the role of CRH in macrophage foam cell formation, the initial critical stage of atherosclerosis. Our quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and Western blot results indicate that CRH down-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1) and liver X receptor (LXR)-?, a transcription factor for ABCA1, in murine peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Oil-red O (ORO) staining and intracellular cholesterol measurement of macrophages treated with or without oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and with or without CRH (10 nM) in the presence of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) revealed that CRH treatment promotes macrophage foam cell formation. The boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-conjugated cholesterol efflux assay showed that CRH treatment reduces macrophage cholesterol efflux. Western blot analysis showed that CRH-induced down-regulation of ABCA1 is dependent on phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) induced by interaction between CRH and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1). We conclude that activation of this pathway by CRH accelerates macrophage foam cell formation and may promote stress-related atherosclerosis. PMID:26110874

  11. Structural and Functional Characterization of an Orphan ATP-Binding Cassette ATPase Involved in Manganese Utilization and Tolerance in Leptospira spp.

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L.; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Hélčne; Haouz, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn2+, we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn2+, suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn2+ toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase. PMID:24123817

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5?-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPAR? response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPAR? to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPAR? to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease. PMID:24122873

  13. Peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter COMATOSE and the multifunctional protein abnormal INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM are required for the production of benzoylated metabolites in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Bussell, John D; Reichelt, Michael; Wiszniewski, Andrew A G; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Smith, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites derived from benzoic acid (BA) are of central importance in the interactions of plants with pests, pathogens, and symbionts and are potentially important in plant development. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation has recently been shown to contribute to BA biosynthesis in plants, but not all of the enzymes involved have been defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter COMATOSE is required for the accumulation of benzoylated secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, including benzoylated glucosinolates and substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. The ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM protein, one of two multifunctional proteins encoded by Arabidopsis, is essential for the accumulation of these compounds, and MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN2 contributes to the synthesis of substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. Of the two major 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolases, KAT2 plays the primary role in BA synthesis. Thus, BA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis employs the same core set of ?-oxidation enzymes as in the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-butyric acid. PMID:24254312

  14. Role of NH2-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: common features in eukaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Kostsin, Dzmitry G; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Morita, Masashi

    2014-10-24

    In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1-3 possesses the NH2-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH2-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH2-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH2-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH2-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH2-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms. PMID:25301552

  15. Reversal of multidrug resistance by the inhibition of ATP-binding cassette pumps employing "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) nanopharmaceuticals: A review.

    PubMed

    Sosnik, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Pumps of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily (ABCs) regulate the access of drugs to the intracellular space. In this context, the overexpression of ABCs is a well-known mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer and infectious diseases (e.g., viral hepatitis and the human immunodeficiency virus) and is associated with therapeutic failure. Since their discovery, ABCs have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets and the search of compounds that inhibit their genetic expression and/or their functional activity has gained growing interest. Different generations of pharmacological ABC inhibitors have been explored over the last four decades to address resistance in cancer, though clinical results have been somehow disappointing. "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration designation for substances that are accepted as safe for addition in food. Far from being "inert", some amphiphilic excipients used in the production of pharmaceutical products have been shown to inhibit the activity of ABCs in MDR tumors, emerging as a clinically translatable approach to overcome resistance. The present article initially overviews the classification, structure and function of the different ABCs, with emphasis on those pumps related to drug resistance. Then, the different attempts to capitalize on the activity of GRAS nanopharmaceuticals as ABC inhibitors are discussed. PMID:24055628

  16. Copy number variation in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC6 gene and ABCC6 pseudogenes in patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Kringen, Marianne K; Stormo, Camilla; Berg, Jens Petter; Terry, Sharon F; Vocke, Christine M; Rizvi, Samar; Hendig, Doris; Piehler, Armin P

    2015-01-01

    Single mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCC6) gene (OMIM 603234) are known to cause the rare autosomal recessive disease pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). Recently, we have found that copy number variations (CNVs) in pseudogenes of the ABCC6 gene are quite common. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and possible contribution of CNV in ABCC6 and its pseudogenes in PXE. Genomic DNA from 212 PXE individuals were examined for copy number by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and compared with healthy individuals. The frequency of PXE individuals with any CNV was higher than in healthy individuals. The majority of variation comprised known and possibly new deletions in the ABCC6 gene and duplications of the ABCC6P1 and ABCC6P2 genes. ABCC6 deletions and ABCC6P2 duplications were not observed in 142 healthy individuals. In conclusion, by pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR, we were able to detect known and possibly new deletions in the ABCC6 gene that may have caused the PXE phenotype. Pyrosequencing may be used in PXE patients who have obtained incomplete genotype from conventional techniques. The frequency of ABCC6P2 pseudogene duplication was more common in PXE patients than healthy individuals and may affect the PXE phenotype. PMID:26029710

  17. Differential Phospholipid Substrates and Directional Transport by ATP-binding Cassette Proteins ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCA4 and Disease-causing Mutants*?

    PubMed Central

    Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCA4 are members of the ABCA subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters that share extensive sequence and structural similarity. Mutations in ABCA1 cause Tangier disease characterized by defective cholesterol homeostasis and high density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency. Mutations in ABCA4 are responsible for Stargardt disease, a degenerative disorder associated with severe loss in central vision. Although cell-based studies have implicated ABCA proteins in lipid transport, the substrates and direction of transport have not been firmly established. We have purified and reconstituted ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCA4 into liposomes for fluorescent-lipid transport studies. ABCA1 actively exported or flipped phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of membranes, whereas ABCA7 preferentially exported phosphatidylserine. In contrast, ABCA4 transported phosphatidylethanolamine in the reverse direction. The same phospholipids stimulated the ATPase activity of these ABCA transporters. The transport and ATPase activities of ABCA1 and ABCA4 were reduced by 25% in the presence of 20% cholesterol. Nine ABCA1 Tangier mutants and the corresponding ABCA4 Stargardt mutants showed significantly reduced phospholipid transport activity and subcellular mislocalization. These studies provide the first direct evidence for ABCA1 and ABCA7 functioning as phospholipid transporters and suggest that this activity is an essential step in the loading of apoA-1 with phospholipids for HDL formation. PMID:24097981

  18. Vacuolar Transport of Abscisic Acid Glucosyl Ester Is Mediated by ATP-Binding Cassette and Proton-Antiport Mechanisms in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burla, Bo; Pfrunder, Stefanie; Nagy, Réka; Francisco, Rita Maria; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant hormone involved in diverse physiological and developmental processes, including abiotic stress responses and the regulation of stomatal aperture and seed germination. Abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) is a hydrolyzable ABA conjugate that accumulates in the vacuole and presumably also in the endoplasmic reticulum. Deconjugation of ABA-GE by the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar ?-glucosidases allows the rapid formation of free ABA in response to abiotic stress conditions such as dehydration and salt stress. ABA-GE further contributes to the maintenance of ABA homeostasis, as it is the major ABA catabolite exported from the cytosol. In this work, we identified that the import of ABA-GE into vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll cells is mediated by two distinct membrane transport mechanisms: proton gradient-driven and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Both systems have similar Km values of approximately 1 mm. According to our estimations, this low affinity appears nevertheless to be sufficient for the continuous vacuolar sequestration of ABA-GE produced in the cytosol. We further demonstrate that two tested multispecific vacuolar ABCC-type ABC transporters from Arabidopsis exhibit ABA-GE transport activity when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which also supports the involvement of ABC transporters in ABA-GE uptake. Our findings suggest that the vacuolar ABA-GE uptake is not mediated by specific, but rather by several, possibly multispecific, transporters that are involved in the general vacuolar sequestration of conjugated metabolites. PMID:24028845

  19. Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter COMATOSE and the Multifunctional Protein ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM Are Required for the Production of Benzoylated Metabolites in Arabidopsis Seeds1[W

    PubMed Central

    Bussell, John D.; Reichelt, Michael; Wiszniewski, Andrew A.G.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Smith, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary metabolites derived from benzoic acid (BA) are of central importance in the interactions of plants with pests, pathogens, and symbionts and are potentially important in plant development. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation has recently been shown to contribute to BA biosynthesis in plants, but not all of the enzymes involved have been defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter COMATOSE is required for the accumulation of benzoylated secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, including benzoylated glucosinolates and substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. The ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM protein, one of two multifunctional proteins encoded by Arabidopsis, is essential for the accumulation of these compounds, and MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN2 contributes to the synthesis of substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. Of the two major 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolases, KAT2 plays the primary role in BA synthesis. Thus, BA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis employs the same core set of ?-oxidation enzymes as in the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-butyric acid. PMID:24254312

  20. Pathogen-Responsive Expression of a Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene Conferring Resistance to the Diterpenoid Sclareol Is Regulated by Multiple Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma J. Campbell; Peer M. Schenk; Kemal Kazan; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Jonathan P. Anderson; Don J. Maclean; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Paul R. Ebert; John M. Manners

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a

  1. Double deletions and missense mutations in the first nucleotide-binding fold of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 ( ABCA1 ) gene in Japanese patients with Tangier disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Guo; Akihiro Inazu; Wenxin Yu; Taeko Suzumura; Michiko Okamoto; Atsushi Nohara; Toshinori Higashikata; Ryuichi Sano; Kazuyoshi Wakasugi; Tetsuo Hayakawa; Koujiro Yoshida; Tadashi Suehiro; Gerd Schmitz; Hiroshi Mabuchi

    2002-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by plasma high-density lipoprotein deficiency caused\\u000a by an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene mutation. We describe three different mutations in Japanese patients with TD. The first patient was homozygous for\\u000a double deletions of 1221?bp between intron 12 and 14 and 19.9?kb between intron 16 and 31. The breakpoint sequence

  2. AtMRP2, an Arabidopsis ATP binding cassette transporter able to transport glutathione S-conjugates and chlorophyll catabolites: functional comparisons with Atmrp1.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y P; Li, Z S; Drozdowicz, Y M; Hortensteiner, S; Martinoia, E; Rea, P A

    1998-01-01

    Three ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter-like activities directed toward large amphipathic organic anions have recently been identified on the vacuolar membrane of plant cells. These are the Mg-ATP-energized, vanadate-inhibitable vacuolar accumulation of glutathione S-conjugates (GS conjugates), chlorophyll catabolites, and bile acids, respectively. Although each of these activities previously had been assigned to distinct pumps in native plant membranes, we describe here the molecular cloning, physical mapping, and heterologous expression of a gene, AtMRP2, from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a multispecific ABC transporter competent in the transport of both GS conjugates and chlorophyll catabolites. Unlike its isoform, AtMRP1, which transports the model Brassica napus chlorophyll catabolite transporter substrate Bn-NCC-1 at low efficiency, heterologously expressed AtMRP2 has the facility for simultaneous high-efficiency parallel transport of GS conjugates and Bn-NCC-1. The properties of AtMRP2 therefore establish a basis for the manipulation of two previously identified plant ABC transporter activities and provide an explanation for how the comparable transporter in native plant membranes would be systematically mistaken for two distinct transporters. These findings are discussed with respect to the functional organization of AtMRP2, the inability of AtMRP2 and AtMRP1 to transport the model bile acid transporter substrate taurocholate (despite the pronounced sensitivity of both to direct inhibition by this agent), the differential patterns of expression of their genes in the intact plant, and the high capacity of AtMRP2 for the transport of glutathionated herbicides and anthocyanins. PMID:9490749

  3. Time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nucleotide-binding Domain from the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter MsbA

    PubMed Central

    Syberg, Falk; Suveyzdis, Yan; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus; Hofmann, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    MsbA is an essential Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter involved in the flipping of lipid A across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is a close homologue of human P-glycoprotein involved in multidrug resistance, and it similarly accepts a variety of small hydrophobic xenobiotics as transport substrates. X-ray structures of three full-length ABC multidrug exporters (including MsbA) have been published recently and reveal large conformational changes during the transport cycle. However, how ATP hydrolysis couples to these conformational changes and finally the transport is still an open question. We employed time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy, a powerful method to elucidate molecular reaction mechanisms of soluble and membrane proteins, to address this question with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we monitored the hydrolysis reaction in the nucleotide-binding domain of MsbA at the atomic level. The isolated MsbA nucleotide-binding domain hydrolyzed ATP with Vmax = 45 nmol mg?1 min?1, similar to the full-length transporter. A Hill coefficient of 1.49 demonstrates positive cooperativity between the two catalytic sites formed upon dimerization. Global fit analysis of time-resolved FTIR data revealed two apparent rate constants of ?1 and 0.01 s?1, which were assigned to formation of the catalytic site and hydrolysis, respectively. Using isotopically labeled ATP, we identified specific marker bands for protein-bound ATP (1245 cm?1), ADP (1101 and 1205 cm?1), and free phosphate (1078 cm?1). Cleavage of the ?-phosphate–?-phosphate bond was found to be the rate-limiting step; no protein-bound phosphate intermediate was resolved. PMID:22593573

  4. Characterization of the Role of a Highly Conserved Sequence in ATP Binding Cassette Transporter G (ABCG) Family in ABCG1 Stability, Oligomerization, and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates cholesterol and oxysterol efflux onto lipidated lipoproteins and plays an important role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport. Here, we identified a highly conserved sequence present in the five ABCG transporter family members. The conserved sequence is located between the nucleotide binding domain and the transmembrane domain and contains five amino acid residues from Asn at position 316 to Phe at position 320 in ABCG1 (NPADF). We found that cells expressing mutant ABCG1, in which Asn316, Pro317, Asp319, and Phe320 in the conserved sequence were replaced with Ala simultaneously, showed impaired cholesterol efflux activity compared with wild type ABCG1-expressing cells. A more detailed mutagenesis study revealed that mutation of Asn316 or Phe 320 to Ala significantly reduced cellular cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol efflux conferred by ABCG1, whereas replacement of Pro317 or Asp319 with Ala had no detectable effect. To confirm the important role of Asn316 and Phe320, we mutated Asn316 to Asp (N316D) and Gln (N316Q), and Phe320 to Ile (F320I) and Tyr (F320Y). The mutant F320Y showed the same phenotype as wild type ABCG1. However, the efflux of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol was reduced in cells expressing ABCG1 mutant N316D, N316Q, or F320I compared with wild type ABCG1. Further, mutations N316Q and F320I impaired ABCG1 trafficking while having no marked effect on the stability and oligomerization of ABCG1. The mutant N316Q and F320I could not be transported to the cell surface efficiently. Instead, the mutant proteins were mainly localized intracellularly. Thus, these findings indicate that the two highly conserved amino acid residues, Asn and Phe, play an important role in ABCG1-dependent export of cellular cholesterol, mainly through the regulation of ABCG1 trafficking. PMID:24320932

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors interact with ATP binding cassette transporter 4/multidrug resistance protein 4: a basis for unanticipated enhanced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Schuetz, John D

    2013-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV-associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:23775562

  6. The ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C member 2 in Bombyx mori larvae is a functional receptor for Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Endo, Haruka; Sato, Ryoichi

    2013-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide, and its Cry toxin genes are essential transgenes for the generation of insect-resistant transgenic crops. Recent reports have suggested that ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2 (ABCC2) proteins are implicated in Cry intoxication, and that a single amino acid insertion results in high levels of resistance to Cry1 toxins. However, there is currently no available direct evidence of functional interactions between ABCC2 and Cry toxins. To address this important knowledge gap, we investigated the role of Bombyx mori ABCC2 (BmABCC2) or its mutant from a Cry1Ab-resistant B. mori strain on Cry1A toxin action. When we expressed BmABCC2 ectopically on Sf9 cells, it served as a functional receptor, and the single amino acid insertion found in BmABCC2 from Cry1Ab-resistant larvae resulted in lack of susceptibility to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Using the same expression system, we found that Bo. mori cadherin-like receptor (BtR175) conferred susceptibility to Cry1A toxins, albeit to a lower degree than BmABCC2. Coexpression of BtR175 and BmABCC2 resulted in the highest cell susceptibility to Cry1A, Cry1F, and even the phylogenetically distant Cry8Ca toxin, when compared with expression of either receptor alone. The susceptibility observed in the coexpressing cells and that in Bo. mori larvae are likely to be correlated, suggesting that BtR175 and BmABCC2 are important factors determining larval susceptibility. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, Cry toxin receptor functionality for ABCC2, and highlights the crucial role of this protein and cadherin in the mechanism of action of Cry toxin. PMID:23432933

  7. Effects of Cellular, Chemical, and Pharmacological Chaperones on the Rescue of a Trafficking-defective Mutant of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Proteins ABCB1/ABCB4*

    PubMed Central

    Gautherot, Julien; Durand-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Delautier, Daničle; Delaunay, Jean-Louis; Rada, Alegna; Gabillet, Julie; Housset, Chantal; Maurice, Michčle; Aďt-Slimane, Tounsia

    2012-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB4 is a phosphatidylcholine translocator specifically expressed at the bile canalicular membrane in hepatocytes, highly homologous to the multidrug transporter ABCB1. Variations in the ABCB4 gene sequence cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3. We have shown previously that the I541F mutation, when reproduced either in ABCB1 or in ABCB4, led to retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi. Here, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing ABCB1-GFP were used as a model to investigate this mutant. We show that ABCB1-I541F is not properly folded and is more susceptible to in situ protease degradation. It colocalizes and coprecipitates with the ER chaperone calnexin and coprecipitates with the cytosolic chaperone Hsc/Hsp70. Silencing of calnexin or overexpression of Hsp70 have no effect on maturation of the mutant. We also tested potential rescue by chemical and pharmacological chaperones. Thapsigargin and sodium 4-phenyl butyrate were inefficient. Glycerol improved maturation and exit of the mutant from the ER. Cyclosporin A, a competitive substrate for ABCB1, restored maturation, plasma membrane expression, and activity of ABCB1-I541F. Cyclosporin A also improved maturation of ABCB4-I541F in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In HepG2 cells transfected with ABCB4-I541F cDNA, cyclosporin A allowed a significant amount of the mutant protein to reach the membrane of bile canaliculi. These results show that the best strategy to rescue conformation-defective ABCB4 mutants is provided by pharmacological chaperones that specifically target the protein. They identify cyclosporin A as a potential novel therapeutic tool for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 patients. PMID:22184139

  8. A subset of bone marrow stromal cells regulate ATP-binding cassette gene expression via insulin-like growth factor-I in a leukemia cell line

    PubMed Central

    BENABOU, NADIA; MIRSHAHI, PEZHMAN; BORDU, CAMILE; FAUSSAT, ANNE-MARIE; TANG, RUOPING; THERWATH, AMU; SORIA, JEANETE; MARIE, JEAN-PIERE; MIRSHAHI, MASSOUD

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF, as a signaling axis in cancer development, progression and metastasis is highlighted by its effects on cancer cells, notably proliferation and acquired resistance. The role of the microenvironment within which cancer cells evolve and which mediates this effect is far from clear. Here, the involvement of IGF-I in inducing multidrug resistance in a myeloid leukemia cell line, grown in the presence of bone marrow-derived stromal cells called ‘Hospicells’ (BMH), is demonstrated. We found that i) drug sensitive as well as resistant leukemia cells express IGF-I and its receptor IGF-IR. However, the resistant cells were found to secrete high levels of IGF-I. ii) Presence of exogenous IGF-I promoted cell proliferation, which decreased when an inhibitor of IGF-IR (picropodophyllin, PPP) was added. iii) BMH and IGF-I are both involved in the regulation of genes of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) related to resistance development (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP). iv) The levels of ABC gene expression by leukemia cells were found to increase in the presence of increasing numbers of BMH. However, these levels decreased when IGF-IR was inhibited by addition of PPP. v) Co-culture of the drug-sensitive leukemia cells with BMH induced protection against the action of daunorubicin. This chemoresistance was amplified by the presence of IGF-I whereas it decreased when IGF-IR was inhibited. Our results underline the role of microenvironment in concert with the IGF-1 pathway in conferring drug resistance to leukemia cells. PMID:25095896

  9. A mutation within the extended X loop abolished substrate-induced ATPase activity of the human liver ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MDR3.

    PubMed

    Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-02-20

    The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. PMID:25533467

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Interact with ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 4/Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A Basis for Unanticipated Enhanced Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV–associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:23775562

  11. Mutant Allele-Specific Uncoupling of PENETRATION3 Functions Reveals Engagement of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter in Distinct Tryptophan Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xunli; Dittgen, Jan; Pi?lewska-Bednarek, Mariola; Molina, Antonio; Schneider, Bernd; Svatoš, Aleš; Doubský, Jan; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Weigel, Detlef; Bednarek, Pawe?; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PENETRATION (PEN) genes quantitatively contribute to the execution of different forms of plant immunity upon challenge with diverse leaf pathogens. PEN3 encodes a plasma membrane-resident pleiotropic drug resistance-type ATP-binding cassette transporter and is thought to act in a pathogen-inducible and PEN2 myrosinase-dependent metabolic pathway in extracellular defense. This metabolic pathway directs the intracellular biosynthesis and activation of tryptophan-derived indole glucosinolates for subsequent PEN3-mediated efflux across the plasma membrane at pathogen contact sites. However, PEN3 also functions in abiotic stress responses to cadmium and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-mediated auxin homeostasis in roots, raising the possibility that PEN3 exports multiple functionally unrelated substrates. Here, we describe the isolation of a pen3 allele, designated pen3-5, that encodes a dysfunctional protein that accumulates in planta like wild-type PEN3. The specific mutation in pen3-5 uncouples PEN3 functions in IBA-stimulated root growth modulation, callose deposition induced with a conserved peptide epitope of bacterial flagellin (flg22), and pathogen-inducible salicylic acid accumulation from PEN3 activity in extracellular defense, indicating the engagement of multiple PEN3 substrates in different PEN3-dependent biological processes. We identified 4-O-?-d-glucosyl-indol-3-yl formamide (4OGlcI3F) as a pathogen-inducible, tryptophan-derived compound that overaccumulates in pen3 leaf tissue and has biosynthesis that is dependent on an intact PEN2 metabolic pathway. We propose that a precursor of 4OGlcI3F is the PEN3 substrate in extracellular pathogen defense. These precursors, the shared indole core present in IBA and 4OGlcI3F, and allele-specific uncoupling of a subset of PEN3 functions suggest that PEN3 transports distinct indole-type metabolites in distinct biological processes. PMID:26023163

  12. Effect of triptolide on the regulation of ATP?binding cassette transporter A1 expression in lipopolysaccharide?induced acute lung injury of rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Gao, Jianlin; Yang, Jianping; Zhang, Yukun; Wang, Lina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of triptolide on ATP?binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)?induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200?250 g were randomly divided into six groups: Normal (N, n=5), Control (C, n=5), LPS (L, n=5), Triptolide 25 µg (TP1, n=5), Triptolide 50 µg (TP2, n=5) and Triptolide 100 µg (TP3, n=5). The N group was not administered anything; the C group was administered 5 ml/kg normal saline intravenously and 7.5 ml/kg 1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) intraperitoneally; the L group was administered 5 mg/kg 0.1% LPS and 1% DMSO; and the TP1, TP2 and TP3 groups were separately injected with 0.1% LPS and 25, 50 or 100 µg/kg triptolide, respectively. All groups had the same liquid?injection volume. Arterial blood gases, tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??) and ABCA1 expression and general pathology were examined following the treatments. It was found that increasing the triptolide dose in the TP1?3 groups resulted in an increase in the expression of ABCA1 mRNA and protein. As compared with the L group, the ABCA1 expression showed a significant increase in TP2 and TP3 groups (P<0.05). In addition, the expression level of TNF?? was significantly increased in the L and TP1 groups, as compared with that in the N or C groups (P<0.05). Conversely, a marked decrease in TNF?? expression was detected in the TP2 and TP3 groups, as compared with the L or TP1 groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study found that triptolide could promote the expression of ABCA1 mRNA and protein and inhibit other inflammatory factors during LPS?induced ALI in rats. Regulating the expression of ABCA1 may be one of the protective mechanisms of triptolide. Furthermore, triptolide?induced increases in ABCA1 expression occurred in a dose?dependent manner between 25 and 100 µg/kg. PMID:25323823

  13. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. PMID:25666946

  14. The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Souza E Silva, Lorena; de Brito Magalhăes, Cíntia Lopes; de Figueiredo, Bianca Barros; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7?-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes. PMID:23244543

  15. A Member of the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE Family of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters Is Required for the Formation of a Functional Cuticle in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Bessire, Michael; Borel, Sandra; Fabre, Guillaume; Carraça, Luis; Efremova, Nadia; Yephremov, Alexander; Cao, Yan; Jetter, Reinhard; Jacquat, Anne-Claude; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Although the multilayered structure of the plant cuticle was discovered many years ago, the molecular basis of its formation and the functional relevance of the layers are not understood. Here, we present the permeable cuticle1 (pec1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which displays features associated with a highly permeable cuticle in several organs. In pec1 flowers, typical cutin monomers, such as ?-hydroxylated fatty acids and 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate, are reduced to 40% of wild-type levels and are accompanied by the appearance of lipidic inclusions within the epidermal cell. The cuticular layer of the cell wall, rather than the cuticle proper, is structurally altered in pec1 petals. Therefore, a significant role for the formation of the diffusion barrier in petals can be attributed to this layer. Thus, pec1 defines a new class of mutants. The phenotypes of the pec1 mutant are caused by the knockout of ATP BINDING CASSETTEG32 (ABCG32), an ABC transporter from the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE family that is localized at the plasma membrane of epidermal cells in a polar manner toward the surface of the organs. Our results suggest that ABCG32 is involved in the formation of the cuticular layer of the cell wall, most likely by exporting particular cutin precursors from the epidermal cell. PMID:21628525

  16. The molecular basis of the action of disulfiram as a modulator of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette transporters MDR1 (ABCB1) and MRP1 (ABCC1).

    PubMed

    Sauna, Zuben E; Peng, Xiang-Hong; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Tekle, Samrawit; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2004-03-01

    The overexpression of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) gene products is a major cause of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. A recent study suggested that disulfiram, a drug used to treat alcoholism, might act as a modulator of P-glycoprotein. In this study, we investigated the molecular and chemical basis of disulfiram as a multidrug resistance modulator. We demonstrate that in intact cells, disulfiram reverses either MDR1- or MRP1-mediated efflux of fluorescent drug substrates. Disulfiram inhibits ATP hydrolysis and the binding of [alpha-32P]8-azidoATP to P-glycoprotein and MRP1, with inhibition curves comparable with those of N-ethylmaleimide, a cysteine-modifying agent. However, if the ATP sites are protected with excess ATP, disulfiram stimulates ATP hydrolysis by both transporters in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, in addition to modifying cysteines at the ATP sites, disulfiram may interact with the drug-substrate binding site. We demonstrate that disulfiram, but not N-ethylmaleimide, inhibits in a concentration-dependent manner the photoaffinity labeling of the multidrug transporter with 125I-iodoarylazidoprazosin and [3H]azidopine. This suggests that the interaction of disulfiram with the drug-binding site is independent of its role as a cysteine-modifying agent. Finally, we have exploited MRP4 (ABCC4) to demonstrate that disulfiram can inhibit ATP binding by forming disulfide bonds between cysteines located in the vicinity of, although not in, the active site. Taken together, our results suggest that disulfiram has unique molecular interactions with both the ATP and/or drug-substrate binding sites of multiple ATP binding cassette transporters, which are associated with drug resistance, and it is potentially an attractive agent to combat multidrug resistance. PMID:14978246

  17. Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusion The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:21247457

  18. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Shah, Viral S; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Welsh, Michael J; Randak, Christoph O

    2015-05-29

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ? 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl(-) channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  19. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 mediates transport of Gimatecan and BNP1350 and can be inhibited by several classic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 and/or ABCG2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Oostendorp, Roos L; van de Steeg, Evita; van der Kruijssen, Cornelia M M; Beijnen, Jos H; Kenworthy, Kathryn E; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2009-04-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are important uptake transporters that can have a profound impact on the systemic pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and elimination of several drugs. Previous in vivo studies of the pharmacokinetics of the lipophilic camptothecin (CPT) analog gimatecan suggested that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 (P-glycoprotein) and/or ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) inhibitors elacridar and pantoprazole could inhibit transporters other than ABCB1 and ABCG2. In this study, we tested the possible role of OATP1B1 in this interaction by screening a number of CPT analogs for their transport affinity by human OATP1B1 in vitro. In addition, the impact of several widely used ABCB1 and/or ABCG2 modulators on this OATP1B1-mediated transport was assessed. We identified two novel CPT anticancer drugs, gimatecan and BNP1350, as OATP1B1 substrates, whereas irinotecan, topotecan, and lurtotecan were not transported by OATP1B1. It is interesting to note that transport of 17beta-estradiol 17beta-d-glucuronide (control), gimatecan, and BNP1350 by OATP1B1 could be completely inhibited by the classic ABCB1 and/or ABCG2 inhibitors elacridar, valspodar, pantoprazole, and, to a lesser extent, zosuquidar and verapamil. Therefore, the effect of these ABCB1 and ABCG2 modulators on the plasma pharmacokinetics of gimatecan and BNP1350 (and possibly also other OATP1B1 substrates) may be partly because of inhibition of OATP1B1 besides inhibition of ABCB1 and/or ABCG2. The findings of this study suggest that OATP1B1 polymorphisms or coadministration with one of the ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitors could affect drug uptake, tissue distribution, and elimination of some CPT anticancer drugs, thereby modifying their efficacy and/or safety profile. PMID:19139163

  20. ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 Mediates the Beneficial Effects of the Liver X Receptor Agonist GW3965 on Object Recognition Memory and Amyloid Burden in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Donkin, James J.; Stukas, Sophie; Hirsch-Reinshagen, Veronica; Namjoshi, Dhananjay; Wilkinson, Anna; May, Sharon; Chan, Jeniffer; Fan, Jianjia; Collins, Jon; Wellington, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    The cholesterol transpoter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) moves lipids onto apolipoproteins including apolipoprotein E (apoE), which is the major cholesterol carrier in the brain and an established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). In amyloid mouse models of AD, ABCA1 deficiency exacerbates amyloidogenesis, whereas ABCA1 overexpression ameliorates amyloid load, suggesting a role for ABCA1 in A? metabolism. Agonists of liver X receptors (LXR), including GW3965, induce transcription of several genes including ABCA1 and apoE, and reduce A? levels and improve cognition in AD mice. However, the specific role of ABCA1 in mediating beneficial responses to LXR agonists in AD mice is unknown. We evaluated behavioral and neuropathogical outcomes in GW3965-treated female APP/PS1 mice with and without ABCA1. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with GW3965 increased ABCA1 and apoE protein levels. ABCA1 was required to observe significantly elevated apoE levels in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid upon therapeutic (33 mg/kg/day) GW3965 treatment. At 33 mg/kg/day, GW3965 was also associated with a trend toward redistribution of A? to the carbonate-soluble pool independent of ABCA1. APP/PS1 mice treated with either 2.5 or 33 mg/kg/day of GW3965 showed a clear trend toward reduced amyloid burden in hippocampus and whole brain, whereas APP/PS1-treated mice lacking ABCA1 failed to display reduced amyloid load in the whole brain and showed trends toward increased hippocampal amyloid. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with either dose of GW3965 completely restored novel object recognition memory to wild-type levels, which required ABCA1. These results suggest that ABCA1 contributes to several beneficial effects of the LXR agonist GW3965 in APP/PS1 mice. PMID:20739291

  1. Mutating the Conserved Q-loop Glutamine 1291 Selectively Disrupts Adenylate Kinase-dependent Channel Gating of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and Reduces Channel Function in Primary Human Airway Epithelia*

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ernst, Sarah E.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Shah, Viral S.; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Welsh, Michael J.; Randak, Christoph O.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and two other non-membrane-bound ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein, exhibit adenylate kinase activity in the presence of physiologic concentrations of ATP and AMP or ADP (ATP + AMP ? 2 ADP). The crystal structure of the nucleotide-binding domain of an SMC protein in complex with the adenylate kinase bisubstrate inhibitor P1,P5-di(adenosine-5?) pentaphosphate (Ap5A) suggests that AMP binds to the conserved Q-loop glutamine during the adenylate kinase reaction. Therefore, we hypothesized that mutating the corresponding residue in CFTR, Gln-1291, selectively disrupts adenylate kinase-dependent channel gating at physiologic nucleotide concentrations. We found that substituting Gln-1291 with bulky side-chain amino acids abolished the effects of Ap5A, AMP, and adenosine 5?-monophosphoramidate on CFTR channel function. 8-Azidoadenosine 5?-monophosphate photolabeling of the AMP-binding site and adenylate kinase activity were disrupted in Q1291F CFTR. The Gln-1291 mutations did not alter the potency of ATP at stimulating current or ATP-dependent gating when ATP was the only nucleotide present. However, when physiologic concentrations of ADP and AMP were added, adenylate kinase-deficient Q1291F channels opened significantly less than wild type. Consistent with this result, we found that Q1291F CFTR displayed significantly reduced Cl? channel function in well differentiated primary human airway epithelia. These results indicate that a highly conserved residue of an ABC transporter plays an important role in adenylate kinase-dependent CFTR gating. Furthermore, the results suggest that adenylate kinase activity is important for normal CFTR channel function in airway epithelia. PMID:25887396

  2. Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of expression likely plays a role in the adaptation of Tetrahymen a to its environment. PMID:20977778

  3. The multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux activity in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis is mediated by an ATP binding cassette transporter of class C (ABCC) principally inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Rioult, Damien; Pasquier, Jennifer; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Poret, Agnčs; Abbas, Imane; Marin, Matthieu; Minier, Christophe; Le Foll, Frank

    2014-08-01

    In marine and estuarine species, immunotoxic and/or immunomodulatory mechanisms are the crossroad of interactions between xenobiotics, microorganisms and physicochemical variations of the environment. In mussels, immunity relies exclusively on innate responses carried out by cells collectively called hemocytes and found in the open hemolymphatic circulatory system of these organisms. However, hemocytes do not form a homogenous population of immune cells since distinct subtypes of mussel blood cells can be distinguished by cytochemistry, flow cytometry or cell motility analysis. Previous studies have also shown that these cells are able to efflux xenobiotics by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter activities conferring a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype. ABC transporters corresponding to vertebrate class B/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to class C/multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) are characterized in Mytilidae. Herein, we have investigated the relative contributions of ABCB- and ABCC-mediated efflux within the different hemocyte subpopulations of Mytilus edulis mussels, collected from areas differentially impacted by chemical contaminants in Normandy (France). RT-PCR analyses provide evidence for the presence of ABCB and ABCC transporters transcripts in hemocytes. Immunodetection of ABCB/P-gp with the monoclonal antibody UIC2 in living hemocytes revealed that expression was restricted to granular structures of spread cells. Efflux transporter activities, with calcein-AM as fluorescent probe, were measured by combining flow cytometry to accurate Coulter cell size measurements in order to get a cell-volume normalized fluorescence concentration. In these conditions, basal fluorescence levels were higher in hemocytes originating from Yport (control site) than in cells collected from the harbor of Le Havre, where mussels are more exposed to with persistent pollutants. By using specific ABCB/P-gp (verapamil, PSC833, zosuquidar) and ABCC/MRP (MK571) blockers, we show that MXR activity is only carried out by MRP-type transporters in M. edulis hemocytes. In addition, cell-type-gated flow cytometry and calculation of the MXR activity factor indicate that ABCC-efflux activity is higher and more inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes than in other hemocyte subtypes. We conclude that, in the hemocytes of M. edulis, MXR phenotype is mediated by an ABCC/MRP-type transporter activity principally supported by eosinophilic granulocytes. A role for ABC transporters in hemocyte migration is discussed. PMID:24345773

  4. ATP Binding and Hydrolysis Properties of ABCB10 and Their Regulation by Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei; Liesa, Marc; Carpenter, Elizabeth P.; Shirihai, Orian S.

    2015-01-01

    ABCB10 (ATP binding cassette sub-family B10) is a mitochondrial inner-membrane ABC transporter. ABCB10 has been shown to protect the heart from the impact of ROS during ischemia-reperfusion and to allow for proper hemoglobin synthesis during erythroid development. ABC transporters are proteins that increase ATP binding and hydrolysis activity in the presence of the transported substrate. However, molecular entities transported by ABCB10 and its regulatory mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we characterized ATP binding and hydrolysis properties of ABCB10 by using the 8-azido-ATP photolabeling technique. This technique can identify potential ABCB10 regulators, transported substrates and amino-acidic residues required for ATP binding and hydrolysis. We confirmed that Gly497 and Lys498 in the Walker A motif, Glu624 in the Walker B motif and Gly602 in the C-Loop motif of ABCB10 are required for proper ATP binding and hydrolysis activity, as their mutation changed ABCB10 8-Azido-ATP photo-labeling. In addition, we show that the potential ABCB10 transported entity and heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (dALA) does not alter 8-azido-ATP photo-labeling. In contrast, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) stimulates ATP hydrolysis without affecting ATP binding, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) inhibits ATP binding and hydrolysis. Indeed, we detectABCB10 glutathionylation in Cys547 and show that it is one of the exposed cysteine residues within ABCB10 structure. In all, we characterize essential residues for ABCB10 ATPase activity and we provide evidence that supports the exclusion of dALA as a potential substrate directly transported by ABCB10. Last, we show the first molecular mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative status, through GSH/GSSG, can regulate ABCB10. PMID:26053025

  5. RESEARCH Open Access ATP-binding cassette transporters in immortalised

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    research but may be enhanced by co-culturing more cells of the neurovascular unit inducing an overall of the neurovascular unit via cell-cell, cell-matrix and neuro-endocrine cross talk, amongst others, determining

  6. Involvement of F1296 and N1303 of CFTR in induced-fit conformational change in response to ATP binding at NBD2

    PubMed Central

    Szollosi, Andras; Vergani, Paola

    2010-01-01

    The chloride ion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) displays a typical adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) protein architecture comprising two transmembrane domains, two intracellular nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), and a unique intracellular regulatory domain. Once phosphorylated in the regulatory domain, CFTR channels can open and close when supplied with cytosolic ATP. Despite the general agreement that formation of a head-to-tail NBD dimer drives the opening of the chloride ion pore, little is known about how ATP binding to individual NBDs promotes subsequent formation of this stable dimer. Structural studies on isolated NBDs suggest that ATP binding induces an intra-domain conformational change termed “induced fit,” which is required for subsequent dimerization. We investigated the allosteric interaction between three residues within NBD2 of CFTR, F1296, N1303, and R1358, because statistical coupling analysis suggests coevolution of these positions, and because in crystal structures of ABC domains, interactions between these positions appear to be modulated by ATP binding. We expressed wild-type as well as F1296S, N1303Q, and R1358A mutant CFTR in Xenopus oocytes and studied these channels using macroscopic inside-out patch recordings. Thermodynamic mutant cycles were built on several kinetic parameters that characterize individual steps in the gating cycle, such as apparent affinities for ATP, open probabilities in the absence of ATP, open probabilities in saturating ATP in a mutant background (K1250R), which precludes ATP hydrolysis, as well as the rates of nonhydrolytic closure. Our results suggest state-dependent changes in coupling between two of the three positions (1296 and 1303) and are consistent with a model that assumes a toggle switch–like interaction pattern during the intra-NBD2 induced fit in response to ATP binding. Stabilizing interactions of F1296 and N1303 present before ATP binding are replaced by a single F1296-N1303 contact in ATP-bound states, with similar interaction partner toggling occurring during the much rarer ATP-independent spontaneous openings. PMID:20876359

  7. Structural model of ATP-binding proteing associated with cystic fibrosis, multidrug resistance and bacterial transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Hyde; Paul Emsley; Michael J. Hartshorn; Michael M. Mimmack; Uzi Gileadi; Stephen R. Pearce; Maurice P. Gallagher; Deborah R. Gill; Roderick E. Hubbard; Christopher F. Higgins

    1990-01-01

    THE ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems now includes over thirty proteins that share extensive sequence similarity and domain organization (reviewed in refs 1-3). This superfamily includes the well characterized periplasmic binding protein-dependent uptake systems of prokaryotes, bacterial exporters, and eukaryotic proteins including the P-glycoprotein associated with multidrug resistance in tumours (MDR), the STE6 gene product that mediates export

  8. ATP Binding to the Motor Domain from an ABC Transporter Drives Formation of a Nucleotide Sandwich Dimer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul C Smith; Nathan Karpowich; Linda Millen; Jonathan E Moody; Jane Rosen; Philip J Thomas; John F Hunt

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that the reaction cycle of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters is driven by dimerization of their ABC motor domains upon binding ATP at their mutual interface. However, no such ATP sandwich complex has been observed for an ABC from an ABC transporter. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of a stable dimer formed by

  9. An ABC transporter complex containing S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced ATP-binding protein is involved in antibiotics production and SAM signaling in Streptomyces coelicolor M145.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Kwon; Mo, Sangjoon; Suh, Joo-Won

    2012-10-01

    A sco3956-deletion mutant (?SCO3956) of Streptomyces coelicolor was generated to characterize the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced, ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter) ATP-binding protein, SCO3956. It produced actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodigiosin (RED) decreased by approx. 82 and 64 %, respectively. In addition, the effect of exogenous SAM was lost in the ?SCO3956. Plasmid-based complementation of sco3956 in ?SCO3956 restored ACT and RED levels of ?SCO3956 to wild-type levels (ACT: 20 ± 1.4 mg g(-1) DCW and RED: 5.3 ± 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW) and the exogenous effect significantly increased ACT and RED by approx. 129 and 135 %, respectively, when compared to the exogenous SAM non-treated sco3956 complementation strain. Thus, the ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, SCO3956, plays a critical role in ACT and RED production serving as a transducer of SAM signaling. PMID:22911564

  10. Application of Hybrid Functional Groups to Predict ATP Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Andreas N.

    2014-01-01

    The ATP binding proteins exist as a hybrid of proteins with Walker A motif and universal stress proteins (USPs) having an alternative motif for binding ATP. There is an urgent need to find a reliable and comprehensive hybrid predictor for ATP binding proteins using whole sequence information. In this paper the open source LIBSVM toolbox was used to build a classifier at 10-fold cross-validation. The best hybrid model was the combination of amino acid and dipeptide composition with an accuracy of 84.57% and Mathews correlation coefficient (MCC) value of 0.693. This classifier proves to be better than many classical ATP binding protein predictors. The general trend observed is that combinations of descriptors performed better and improved the overall performances of individual descriptors, particularly when combined with amino acid composition. The work developed a comprehensive model for predicting ATP binding proteins irrespective of their functional motifs. This model provides a high probability of success for molecular biologists in predicting and selecting diverse groups of ATP binding proteins irrespective of their functional motifs. PMID:24729962

  11. ATP binding to two sites is necessary for dimerization of nucleotide-binding domains of ABC proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zoghbi, Maria E.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

    2014-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters have a functional unit formed by two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). ATP-bound NBDs dimerize in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides sandwiched at the dimer interface. Both NBDs contribute residues to each of the two nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) in the dimer. In previous studies, we showed that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from M. jannaschii forms ATP-bound dimers that dissociate completely following hydrolysis of one of the two bound ATP molecules. Since hydrolysis of ATP at one NBS is sufficient to drive dimer dissociation, it is unclear why all ABC proteins contain two NBSs. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) to study ATP-induced formation of NBD homodimers containing two NBSs competent for ATP binding, and NBD heterodimers with one active NBS (acceptor-labeled) and one binding-defective NBS (donor-labeled). The results showed that binding of two ATP molecules is necessary for NBD dimerization. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dissociation, but two binding sites are required to form the ATP-sandwich NBD dimer necessary for hydrolysis. PMID:24269240

  12. ATP Alone Triggers the Outward Facing Conformation of the Maltose ATP-binding Cassette Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Duong, Franck

    2013-01-01

    The maltose transporter MalFGK2 is a study prototype for ABC importers. During catalysis, the MalFG membrane domain alternates between inward and outward facing conformations when the MalK dimer closes and hydrolyzes ATP. Because a rapid ATP hydrolysis depends on MalE and maltose, it has been proposed that closed liganded MalE facilitates the transition to the outward facing conformation. Here we find that, in contrast to the expected, ATP is sufficient for the closure of MalK and for the conversion of MalFG to the outward facing state. The outward facing transporter binds MalE with nanomolar affinity, yet neither MalE nor maltose is necessary or facilitates the transition. Thus, the rapid hydrolysis of ATP observed in the presence of MalE and maltose is not because closed liganded MalE accelerates the formation of the outward facing conformation. These findings have fundamental implications for the description of the transport reaction. PMID:23243313

  13. The ABCC6 transporter: what lessons can be learnt from other ATP-binding cassette transporters?

    PubMed Central

    Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hosen, Mohammad J.; Paepe, Anne De

    2013-01-01

    ABC transporters represent a large family of ATP-driven transmembrane transporters involved in uni- or bidirectional transfer of a large variety of substrates. Divided in seven families, they represent 48 transporter proteins, several of which have been associated with human disease. Among the latter is ABCC6, a unidirectional exporter protein primarily expressed in liver and kidney. ABCC6 deficiency has been shown to cause the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers, resulting in oculocutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms. Unique in the group of connective tissue disorders, the pathophysiological relation between the ABCC6 transporter and ectopic mineralization in PXE remains enigmatic, not in the least because of lack of knowledge on the substrate(s) of ABCC6 and its unusual expression pattern. Because many features, including structure and transport mechanism, are shared by many ABC transporters, it is worthwhile to evaluate if and to what extent the knowledge on the physiology and pathophysiology of these other transporters may provide useful clues toward understanding the (patho)physiological role of ABCC6 and how its deficiency may be dealt with. PMID:24137173

  14. ATP-binding cassette protein E is involved in gene transcription and translation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-print Network

    Baillie, David

    assays. ABCE promoters drove GFP expressions in hypoderm, pharynx, vulvae, head, and tail neurons at all of organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, and mitochondria [1,2]. A functional ABC transporter gen

  15. Tangier disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Rosier; Harald Funke; José Real; Zahir Amoura; Jean-Charles Piette; Jean-Francois Deleuze; H. Bryan Brewer; Nicolas Duverger; Patrice Denčfle; Gerd Assmann; Stephan Rust

    1999-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) was first discovered nearly 40 years ago in two siblings living on Tangier Island. This autosomal co-dominant condition is characterized in the homozygous state by the absence of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) from plasma, hepatosplenomegaly, peripheral neuropathy and frequently premature coronary artery disease (CAD). In heterozygotes, HDL-C levels are about one-half those of normal individuals. Impaired cholesterol efflux from

  16. The gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 is mutated in Tangier disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Bodzioch; Evelyn Orsó; Jochen Klucken; Thomas Langmann; Alfred Böttcher; Wendy Diederich; Wolfgang Drobnik; Stefan Barlage; Christa Büchler; Mustafa Porsch-Özcürümez; Wolfgang E. Kaminski; Harry W. Hahmann; Kurt Oette; Gregor Rothe; Charalampos Aslanidis; Karl J. Lackner; Gerd Schmitz

    1999-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by absence of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and deposition of cholesteryl esters in the reticulo-endothelial system with splenomegaly and enlargement of tonsils and lymph nodes. Although low HDL cholesterol is associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, this condition is not consistently found in

  17. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)

    2012-10-24

    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  18. Identification of ATP-Binding Regions in the RyR1 Ca2+ Release Channel

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Olga B.; Baker, Mariah R.; Tran, Tina P.; Le, Tri; Serysheva, Irina I.

    2012-01-01

    ATP is an important modulator of gating in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), also known as a Ca2+ release channel in skeletal muscle cells. The activating effect of ATP on this channel is achieved by directly binding to one or more sites on the RyR1 protein. However, the number and location of these sites have yet to be determined. To identify the ATP-binding regions within RyR1 we used 2N3ATP-2?,3?-Biotin-LC-Hydrazone (BioATP-HDZ), a photo-reactive ATP analog to covalently label the channel. We found that BioATP-HDZ binds RyR1 specifically with an IC50?=?0.6±0.2 mM, comparable with the reported EC50 for activation of RyR1 with ATP. Controlled proteolysis of labeled RyR1 followed by sequence analysis revealed three fragments with apparent molecular masses of 95, 45 and 70 kDa that were crosslinked by BioATP-HDZ and identified as RyR1 sequences. Our analysis identified four glycine-rich consensus motifs that can potentially constitute ATP-binding sites and are located within the N-terminal 95-kDa fragment. These putative nucleotide-binding sequences include amino acids 699–704, 701–706, 1081–1084 and 1195–1200, which are conserved among the three RyR isoforms. Located next to the N-terminal disease hotspot region in RyR1, these sequences may communicate the effects of ATP-binding to channel function by tuning conformational motions within the neighboring cytoplasmic regulatory domains. Two other labeled fragments lack ATP-binding consensus motifs and may form non-canonical ATP-binding sites. Based on domain topology in the 3D structure of RyR1 it is also conceivable that the identified ATP-binding regions, despite their wide separation in the primary sequence, may actually constitute the same non-contiguous ATP-binding pocket within the channel tetramer. PMID:23144945

  19. Cassette Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This catalog lists cassette books produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped during 1989. Books are listed alphabetically within subject categories under nonfiction and fiction headings. Nonfiction categories include: animals and wildlife, the arts, bestsellers, biography, blindness and physical handicaps,…

  20. Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage chole...

  1. Enhancement of avermectin and ivermectin production by overexpression of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Xuan; Song, Yuan; Wen, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2010-12-01

    We investigated the function of maltose ABC transporter system encoded by malEFG-a and the effect of its overexpression on antibiotic production in Streptomyces avermitilis. A malEFG-a deletion mutant was unable to grow in a minimal medium with maltose as sole carbon source and produce avermectin. Maltose utilization and avermectin production were restored by introduction of a single copy of malEFG-a. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of malE-a was induced by maltose, and was strongly repressed by glucose. When multi-copy, integrative malEFG-a gene expression vectors were introduced into wild-type strain ATCC31267 and ivermectin-producer OI-31, antibiotic production increased by 2.6- to 3.3-fold and the time required for fermentation decreased by about 10%. The overexpression of malEFG-a improved the utilization rate of starch, and thereby enhanced avermectin production. Such an approach would be useful for the improvement of commercial antibiotic production using starch as the main carbon source in the fermentation process. PMID:20655739

  2. Functional ATP-binding cassette drug efflux transporters in isolated human and rat hepatocytes significantly affect assessment of drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Patrik; Englund, Gunilla; Skogastierna, Cristine; Lööf, Johan; Johansson, Jenny; Hoogstraate, Janet; Afzelius, Lovisa; Andersson, Tommy B

    2014-03-01

    Freshly isolated hepatocytes are considered the gold standard for in vitro studies of hepatic drug disposition. To ensure a reliable supply of cells, cryopreserved human hepatocytes are often used. ABC-superfamily drug efflux transporters are key elements in hepatic drug disposition. These transporters are often considered lost after isolation of hepatocytes. In the present study, the expression and activity of ABC transporters BCRP, BSEP, P-gp, MRP2, MRP3, and MRP4 in human and rat cryopreserved hepatocytes were investigated. In commercially available human cryopreserved hepatocytes, all drug efflux transporters except human BCRP (hBCRP) exhibited similar expression levels as in fresh liver biopsies. Expression levels of hBCRP were 60% lower in cryopreserved human hepatocytes than in liver tissue, which could lead to, at most, a 2.5-fold reduction in hBCRP-mediated efflux. Fresh rat hepatocytes showed significantly lower levels of rat BCRP compared with liver expression levels; expression levels of other ABC transporters were unchanged. ABC transporters in human cryopreserved cells were localized to the plasma membrane. Functional studies could demonstrate P-gp and BCRP activity in both human cryopreserved and fresh rat hepatocytes. Inhibiting P-gp-mediated efflux by elacridar in in vitro experiments significantly decreased fexofenadine efflux from hepatocytes, resulting in an increase in apparent fexofenadine uptake. The results from the present study clearly indicate that ABC transporter-mediated efflux in freshly isolated as well as cryopreserved rat and human hepatocytes should be taken into account in in vitro experiments used for modeling of drug metabolism and disposition. PMID:24396144

  3. Two SNPs of ATP-binding cassette B1 gene on the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Huang, Zonghai; Zheng, Kehong; Zhao, Haiping; Hu, Wenxiu

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the role of ABCB1 C3435T and G2677T/A in the susceptibility and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. A total of 316 patients with colorectal cancer and 316 controls were collected between January 2009 and January 2011. Genotyping of ABCB1 C3435T and G2677T/A was conducted by the methods of Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that subjects carrying CT and CC genotypes of ABCB1 C3435T were more frequently observed in colorectal cancer patients when compared with controls, and the adjusted ORs were 1.62 (1.05-2.52) and 2.05 (1.25-3.36), respectively. By Cox regression analysis, we found that the TT genotype of ABCB1 C3435T was significantly associated with shorter PFS and OS in patients with colorectal cancer when compared with CC genotype, with adjusted HR (95% CI) of 2.57 (1.14-6.04) and 2.54 (1.05-6.61), respectively. We found that the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism could affect the susceptibility and clinical outcome of colorectal cancer patients.

  4. Differential Sensitivities of the Human ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCG2 and P-Glycoprotein to Cyclosporin A

    E-print Network

    Hrycyna, Christine A.

    with radiotherapy or surgery. Many cancers, however, are intrinsically resistant or become resistant to a variety called BCRP, MXR1, or ABCP, was first cloned from drug-resistant breast cancer and colon cancer cell-Glycoprotein to Cyclosporin A Karin F. K. Ejendal and Christine A. Hrycyna Department of Chemistry and the Purdue Cancer

  5. Apatinib (YN968D1) reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting the efflux function of multiple ATP-binding cassette transporters

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Yan-jun; Liang, Yong-ju; Huang, Hong-bing; Zhao, Hong-yun; Wu, Chung-Pu; Wang, Fang; Tao, Li-yang; Zhang, Chuan-zhao; Dai, Chun-Ling; Tiwari, Amit K.; Ma, Xiao-xu; Wah To, Kenneth Kin; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-wu

    2010-01-01

    Apatinib, a small-molecule multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is in phase III clinical trial for treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer in China. In this study, we determined the effect of apatinib on the interaction of specific antineoplastic compounds with P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, ABCC1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2). Our results showed that apatinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of ABCB1 or ABCG2 substrate drugs in KBv200, MCF-7/adr and HEK293/ABCB1 cells overexpressing ABCB1 and S1-M1-80, MCF-7/FLV1000 and HEK293/ABCG2-R2 cells overexpressing ABCG2 (wild-type). In contrast, apatinib did not alter the cytotoxicity of specific substrates in the parental cells and cells overexpressing ABCC1. Apatinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin in the multidrug resistance (MDR) cells. Furthermore, apatinib significantly inhibited the photolabeling of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 with [125I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent fashion. The ATPase activity of both ABCB1 and ABCG2 was significantly increased by apatinib. However, apatinib, at a concentration the produced a reversal of MDRl, did not significantly alter the expression of the ABCB1 or ABCG2 protein or mRNA levels or the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. Importantly, apatinib significantly enhanced the effect of paclitaxel against the ABCB1 resistant KBv200 cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, apatinib reverses ABCB1- and ABCG2-mediated MDR by inhibiting their transport function, but not by blocking AKT or ERK1/2 pathway or downregulating ABCB1 or ABCG2 expression. Apatinib may be useful in circumventing MDR to other conventional antineoplastic drugs. PMID:20876799

  6. ATP binding to cytochrome c diminishes electron flow in the mitochondrial respiratory pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Craig, D. B.; Wallace, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Eukaryotic cytochrome c possesses an ATP-binding site of substantial specificity and high affinity that is conserved between highly divergent species and which includes the invariant residue arginine91. Such evolutionary conservatism strongly suggests a physiological role for ATP binding that demands further investigation. We report the preparation of adducts of the protein and the affinity labels 8-azido adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde, and 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine. The two former reagents were seen to react at the arginine91-containing site, yet the reaction of the latter, although specific, occurred elsewhere, suggesting caution is necessary in its use. None of the adducts displayed significant modification of global structure, stability, or physicochemical properties, leading us to believe that the 8-N3-ATP and oATP adducts are good stabilized models of the noncovalent interaction; yet modification led to significant, and sometimes pronounced, effects on biological activity. We therefore propose that the role of ATP binding to this site, which we have shown to occur when the phosphorylation potential of the system is high under the equivalent of physiological conditions, is to cause a decrease in electron flow through the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Differences in the degree of inhibition produced by differences in adduct chemistry suggest that this putative regulatory role is mediated primarily by electrostatic effects. PMID:8391357

  7. Effect of ATP binding and hydrolysis on dynamics of canine parvovirus NS1.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Einari A; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Kalliolinna, Olli; Häkkinen, Milla M; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2010-05-01

    The replication protein NS1 is essential for genome replication and protein production in parvoviral infection. Many of its functions, including recognition and site-specific nicking of the viral genome, helicase activity, and transactivation of the viral capsid promoter, are dependent on ATP. An ATP-binding pocket resides in the middle of the modular NS1 protein in a superfamily 3 helicase domain. Here we have identified key ATP-binding amino acid residues in canine parvovirus (CPV) NS1 protein and mutated amino acids from the conserved A motif (K406), B motif (E444 and E445), and positively charged region (R508 and R510). All mutations prevented the formation of infectious viruses. When provided in trans, all except the R508A mutation reduced infectivity in a dominant-negative manner, possibly by hindering genome replication. These results suggest that the conserved R510 residue, but not R508, is the arginine finger sensory element of CPV NS1. Moreover, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), complemented by computer simulations, was used to assess the binding properties of mutated fluorescent fusion proteins. These experiments identified ATP-dependent and -independent binding modes for NS1 in living cells. Only the K406M mutant had a single binding site, which was concluded to indicate ATP-independent binding. Furthermore, our data suggest that DNA binding of NS1 is dependent on its ability to both bind and hydrolyze ATP. PMID:20219935

  8. Critical roles of interdomain interactions for modulatory ATP binding to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Johannes D; Holdensen, Anne Nyholm; Andersen, Jens Peter

    2014-10-17

    ATP has dual roles in the reaction cycle of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Upon binding to the Ca2E1 state, ATP phosphorylates the enzyme, and by binding to other conformational states in a non-phosphorylating modulatory mode ATP stimulates the dephosphorylation and other partial reaction steps of the cycle, thereby ensuring a high rate of Ca(2+) transport under physiological conditions. The present study elucidates the mechanism underlying the modulatory effect on dephosphorylation. In the intermediate states of dephosphorylation the A-domain residues Ser(186) and Asp(203) interact with Glu(439) (N-domain) and Arg(678) (P-domain), respectively. Single mutations to these residues abolish the stimulation of dephosphorylation by ATP. The double mutation swapping Asp(203) and Arg(678) rescues ATP stimulation, whereas this is not the case for the double mutation swapping Ser(186) and Glu(439). By taking advantage of the ability of wild type and mutant Ca(2+)-ATPases to form stable complexes with aluminum fluoride (E2·AlF) and beryllium fluoride (E2·BeF) as analogs of the E2·P phosphoryl transition state and E2P ground state, respectively, of the dephosphorylation reaction, the mutational effects on ATP binding to these intermediates are demonstrated. In the wild type Ca(2+)-ATPase, the ATP affinity of the E2·P phosphoryl transition state is higher than that of the E2P ground state, thus explaining the stimulation of dephosphorylation by nucleotide-induced transition state stabilization. We find that the Asp(203)-Arg(678) and Ser(186)-Glu(439) interdomain bonds are critical, because they tighten the interaction with ATP in the E2·P phosphoryl transition state. Moreover, ATP binding and the Ser(186)-Glu(439) bond are mutually exclusive in the E2P ground state. PMID:25193668

  9. Cysteine substitution mutants give structural insight and identify ATP binding and activation sites at P2X receptors

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jonathan A.; Evans, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    P2X receptors for extracellular ATP are a distinct family of ligand gated cation channels involved in physiological processes ranging from synaptic transmission to muscle contraction. Common ATP binding motifs are absent from P2X receptors and the extent of the agonist binding site is unclear. We used cysteine scanning mutagenesis, radiolabelled 2-azido ATP binding, and methanethiosulfonate (MTS) compounds, to identify amino acid residues involved in ATP binding and gating of the human P2X1 receptor. The pattern of MTSEA-biotinylation was also used to determine the accessibility of substituted cysteine residues and whether this changed on addition of ATP. Analysis of cysteine substituted mutants of the last 44 amino acid residues (S286-I329) in the extracellular loop before the second transmembrane segment showed that N290, F291, R292 and K309 mutants had reduced ATP potency and 2-azido ATP binding. MTS reagents produced further shifts in ATP potency at these residues suggesting that they are directly involved in ATP binding; the effects were dependent on the charge of the MTS reagent at K309C, one explanation for this is that K309 interacts directly with the negatively charged phosphate of ATP. The remainder of the cysteine substitutions had little or no effect on ATP potency. However at the mutants D316C, G321C, A323C, and I328C MTS reagents did not change ATP potency but modified agonist evoked responses suggesting that this region may contribute to the gating of the channel. PMID:17428985

  10. Video Cartridges and Cassettes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kletter, Richard C.; Hudson, Heather

    The economic and social significance of video cassettes (viewer-controlled playback system) is explored in this report. The potential effect of video cassettes on industrial training, education, libraries, and television is analyzed in conjunction with the anticipated hardware developments. The entire video cassette industry is reviewed firm by…

  11. Structure-guided development of specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitors targeting the ATP-binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Tso, Shih-Chia; Qi, Xiangbing; Gui, Wen-Jun; Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chuang, Jacinta L; Wernstedt-Asterholm, Ingrid; Morlock, Lorraine K; Owens, Kyle R; Scherer, Philipp E; Williams, Noelle S; Tambar, Uttam K; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T

    2014-02-14

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDKs 1-4) negatively regulate activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation. PDK isoforms are up-regulated in obesity, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer and are potential therapeutic targets for these important human diseases. Here, we employed a structure-guided design to convert a known Hsp90 inhibitor to a series of highly specific PDK inhibitors, based on structural conservation in the ATP-binding pocket. The key step involved the substitution of a carbonyl group in the parent compound with a sulfonyl in the PDK inhibitors. The final compound of this series, 2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]isoindoline-4,6-diol, designated PS10, inhibits all four PDK isoforms with IC50 = 0.8 ?M for PDK2. The administration of PS10 (70 mg/kg) to diet-induced obese mice significantly augments pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity with reduced phosphorylation in different tissues. Prolonged PS10 treatments result in improved glucose tolerance and notably lessened hepatic steatosis in the mouse model. The results support the pharmacological approach of targeting PDK to control both glucose and fat levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24356970

  12. Structure-guided Development of Specific Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Inhibitors Targeting the ATP-binding Pocket*

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Shih-Chia; Qi, Xiangbing; Gui, Wen-Jun; Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Wernstedt-Asterholm, Ingrid; Morlock, Lorraine K.; Owens, Kyle R.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Williams, Noelle S.; Tambar, Uttam K.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDKs 1–4) negatively regulate activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation. PDK isoforms are up-regulated in obesity, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer and are potential therapeutic targets for these important human diseases. Here, we employed a structure-guided design to convert a known Hsp90 inhibitor to a series of highly specific PDK inhibitors, based on structural conservation in the ATP-binding pocket. The key step involved the substitution of a carbonyl group in the parent compound with a sulfonyl in the PDK inhibitors. The final compound of this series, 2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]isoindoline-4,6-diol, designated PS10, inhibits all four PDK isoforms with IC50 = 0.8 ?m for PDK2. The administration of PS10 (70 mg/kg) to diet-induced obese mice significantly augments pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity with reduced phosphorylation in different tissues. Prolonged PS10 treatments result in improved glucose tolerance and notably lessened hepatic steatosis in the mouse model. The results support the pharmacological approach of targeting PDK to control both glucose and fat levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24356970

  13. Three-Dimensional Structures Reveal Multiple ADP/ATP Binding Modes

    SciTech Connect

    C Simmons; C Magee; D Smith; L Lauman; J Chaput; J Allen

    2011-12-31

    The creation of synthetic enzymes with predefined functions represents a major challenge in future synthetic biology applications. Here, we describe six structures of de novo proteins that have been determined using protein crystallography to address how simple enzymes perform catalysis. Three structures are of a protein, DX, selected for its stability and ability to tightly bind ATP. Despite the addition of ATP to the crystallization conditions, the presence of a bound but distorted ATP was found only under excess ATP conditions, with ADP being present under equimolar conditions or when crystallized for a prolonged period of time. A bound ADP cofactor was evident when Asp was substituted for Val at residue 65, but ATP in a linear configuration is present when Phe was substituted for Tyr at residue 43. These new structures complement previously determined structures of DX and the protein with the Phe 43 to Tyr substitution [Simmons, C. R., et al. (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 649-658] and together demonstrate the multiple ADP/ATP binding modes from which a model emerges in which the DX protein binds ATP in a configuration that represents a transitional state for the catalysis of ATP to ADP through a slow, metal-free reaction capable of multiple turnovers. This unusual observation suggests that design-free methods can be used to generate novel protein scaffolds that are tailor-made for catalysis.

  14. Trapping the ATP binding state leads to a detailed understanding of the F1-ATPase mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kwangho; Pu, Jingzhi; Karplus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The rotary motor enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase uses the proton-motive force across a membrane to synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi (H2PO4?) under cellular conditions that favor the hydrolysis reaction by a factor of 2 × 105. This remarkable ability to drive a reaction away from equilibrium by harnessing an external force differentiates it from an ordinary enzyme, which increases the rate of reaction without shifting the equilibrium. Hydrolysis takes place in the neighborhood of one conformation of the catalytic moiety F1-ATPase, whose structure is known from crystallography. By use of molecular dynamics simulations we trap a second structure, which is rotated by 40° from the catalytic dwell conformation and represents the state associated with ATP binding, in accord with single-molecule experiments. Using the two structures, we show why Pi is not released immediately after ATP hydrolysis, but only after a subsequent 120° rotation, in agreement with experiment. A concerted conformational change of the ?3?3 crown is shown to induce the 40° rotation of the ?-subunit only when the ?E subunit is empty, whereas with Pi bound, ?E serves as a latch to prevent the rotation of ?. The present results provide a rationalization of how F1-ATPase achieves the coupling between the small changes in the active site of ?DP and the 40° rotation of ?. PMID:25453082

  15. Agrobacterium rhizogenes GALLS Protein Contains Domains for ATP Binding, Nuclear Localization, and Type IV Secretion?

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Larry D.; Vergunst, Annette C.; Neal-McKinney, Jason; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Moyer, Deborah M.; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; Ream, Walt

    2006-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are closely related plant pathogens that cause different diseases, crown gall and hairy root. Both diseases result from transfer, integration, and expression of plasmid-encoded bacterial genes located on the transferred DNA (T-DNA) in the plant genome. Bacterial virulence (Vir) proteins necessary for infection are also translocated into plant cells. Transfer of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and Vir proteins requires a type IV secretion system, a protein complex spanning the bacterial envelope. A. tumefaciens translocates the ssDNA-binding protein VirE2 into plant cells, where it binds single-stranded T-DNA and helps target it to the nucleus. Although some strains of A. rhizogenes lack VirE2, they are pathogenic and transfer T-DNA efficiently. Instead, these bacteria express the GALLS protein, which is essential for their virulence. The GALLS protein can complement an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant for tumor formation, indicating that GALLS can substitute for VirE2. Unlike VirE2, GALLS contains ATP-binding and helicase motifs similar to those in TraA, a strand transferase involved in conjugation. Both GALLS and VirE2 contain nuclear localization sequences and a C-terminal type IV secretion signal. Here we show that mutations in any of these domains abolished the ability of GALLS to substitute for VirE2. PMID:17012398

  16. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics studies on the human LMTK3 domain and the mechanism of ATP binding.

    PubMed

    Anbarasu, K; Jayanthi, S

    2014-05-01

    Estrogen positive breast cancer is a dreadful disease in women worldwide. The human estrogen receptor-? (ER?) pathway plays a critical role in estrogenic signaling and targeting ER? in breast cancer treatment. The key role of Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) in regulation of ER? has been identified and it is found to be a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer. With lack of structural studies on LMTK3, the breast cancer therapeutics research remains elusive. In this computational study, we performed structural studies on LMTK3 by structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the apo state and the ATP bound state. The structure of the LMTK3 domain was developed by using I-TASSER server and validated by quality index and Ramachandran plot. MD simulation analysis explained the structural behavior of the LMTK3 domain in the dynamic system and the apo state showed defined protein folding with stable conformation. The mechanism of ATP binding was studied using molecular docking, resulting in the identification of critical residues and the ATP binding cavity. Furthermore, MD simulation of the LMTK3-ATP complex was performed and the trajectory analyses confirmed the stability and effective binding of ATP in the dynamic system. Overall, our computational reports provide more information on the structure-function relationship of LMTK3 with ATP. The critical residues Tyr185 and Asp284 found in the ATP binding cavity may be useful in designing potential inhibitors on human LMTK3. PMID:24619340

  17. Cardiac myosin isoforms exhibit differential rates of MgADP release and MgATP binding detected by myocardial viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Tanner, Bertrand C W; Lombardo, Andrew T; Tremble, Sarah M; Maughan, David W; Vanburen, Peter; Lewinter, Martin M; Robbins, Jeffrey; Palmer, Bradley M

    2013-01-01

    We measured myosin crossbridge detachment rate and the rates of MgADP release and MgATP binding in mouse and rat myocardial strips bearing one of the two cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. Mice and rats were fed an iodine-deficient, propylthiouracil diet resulting in ~100% expression of ?-MyHC in the ventricles. Ventricles of control animals expressed ~100% ?-MyHC. Chemically-skinned myocardial strips prepared from papillary muscle were subjected to sinusoidal length perturbation analysis at maximum calcium activation pCa 4.8 and 17°C. Frequency characteristics of myocardial viscoelasticity were used to calculate crossbridge detachment rate over 0.01 to 5mM [MgATP]. The rate of MgADP release, equivalent to the asymptotic value of crossbridge detachment rate at high MgATP, was highest in mouse ?-MyHC (111.4±6.2s(-1)) followed by rat ?-MyHC (65.0±7.3s(-1)), mouse ?-MyHC (24.3±1.8s(-1)) and rat ?-MyHC (15.5±0.8s(-1)). The rate of MgATP binding was highest in mouse ?-MyHC (325±32 mM(-1) s(-1)) then mouse ?-MyHC (152±23 mM(-1) s(-1)), rat ?-MyHC (108±10 mM(-1) s(-1)) and rat ?-MyHC (55±6 mM(-1) s(-1)). Because the events of MgADP release and MgATP binding occur in a post power-stroke state of the myosin crossbridge, we infer that MgATP release and MgATP binding must be regulated by isoform- and species-specific structural differences located outside the nucleotide binding pocket, which is identical in sequence for these four myosins. We postulate that differences in the stiffness profile of the entire myosin molecule, including the thick filament and the myosin-actin interface, are primarily responsible for determining the strain on the nucleotide binding pocket and the subsequent differences in the rates of nucleotide release and binding observed among the four myosins examined here. PMID:23123290

  18. Targeting the hydrophobic region of Hsp90's ATP binding pocket with novel 1,3,5-triazines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taeho; Seo, Young Ho

    2013-12-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that plays an important role in regulating the maturation and stabilization of many oncogenic proteins. In an attempt to discover a new class of Hsp90 inhibitors, a series of 1,3,5-triazine compounds were rationally designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. Compound 3b was found to degrade Hsp90's client proteins of Her2, Met and Akt and to induce the expression level of Hsp70. The binding mode of 3b in the ATP-binding site of Hsp90 was predicted by the molecular docking. PMID:24125885

  19. The tomato R gene products I-2 and MI-1 are functional ATP binding proteins with ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Tameling, Wladimir I L; Elzinga, Sandra D J; Darmin, Patricia S; Vossen, Jack H; Takken, Frank L W; Haring, Michel A; Cornelissen, Ben J C

    2002-11-01

    Most plant disease resistance (R) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a C-terminal Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. The NBS contains three ATP/GTP binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or P-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. In this article, we show that the NBS of R proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. The N-terminal halves of two tomato R proteins, I-2 conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Mi-1 conferring resistance to root-knot nematodes and potato aphids, were produced as glutathione S-transferase fusions in Escherichia coli. In a filter binding assay, purified I-2 was found to bind ATP rather than other nucleoside triphosphates. ATP binding appeared to be fully dependent on the presence of a divalent cation. A mutant I-2 protein containing a mutation in the P-loop showed a strongly reduced ATP binding capacity. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both I-2 and Mi-1 exerted ATPase activity. Based on the strong conservation of NBS domains in R proteins of the NBS-LRR class, we propose that they all are capable of binding and hydrolyzing ATP. PMID:12417711

  20. The ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) modulates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in C57BL\\/6 and apoE-knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Joyce; M J Amar; G Lambert; B L Vaisman; B Paigen; Fruchart J Najib; R F Hoyt; E D Neufeld; A T Remaley; D S Fredrickson; H B Brewer; Fojo S Santamarina

    2002-01-01

    Identification of mutations in the ABCA1 transporter (ABCA1) as the genetic defect in Tangier disease has generated interest in modulating atherogenic risk by enhancing ABCA1 gene expression. To investigate the role of ABCA1 in atherogenesis, we analyzed diet-induced atherosclerosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human ABCA1 (hABCA1-Tg) and spontaneous lesion formation in hABCA1-Tg x apoE-knockout (KO) mice. Overexpression of hABCA1 in

  1. Stimulation of CD36 and the key effector of reverse cholesterol transport ATP-binding cassette A1 in monocytoid cells by niacin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Rubic; Matthias Trottmann; Reinhard L Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    Niacin, the first lipid lowering drug shown to improve survival after myocardial infarction, decreases LDL and increases HDL cholesterol levels. These effects cannot fully be explained by its suspected mechanism of action, inhibition of lipolysis and hepatic VLDL synthesis. Niacin has also been shown to interfere with the cyclic AMP (cAMP)\\/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and massively stimulate prostaglandin D2

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene MFABC1 and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from Monilinia fructicola.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, Guido; Dait, Qun; Paradkar, Manjiri R

    2003-10-01

    Brown rot, caused by Moniliniafructicola (G Wint) Honey, is a serious disease of peach in all commercial peach production areas in the USA, including South Carolina where it has been primarily controlled by pre-harvest application of 14-alpha demethylation (DMI) fungicides for more than 15 years. Recently, the Qo fungicide azoxystrobin was registered for brown rot control and is currently being investigated for its potential as a DMI fungicide rotation partner because of its different mode of action. In an effort to investigate molecular mechanisms of DMI and Qo fungicide resistance in M fructicola, the ABC transporter gene MfABC1 and the alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 were cloned to study their potential role in conferring fungicide resistance. The MfABC1 gene was 4380 bp in length and contained one intron of 71 bp. The gene revealed high amino acid homologies with atrB from Aspergillus nidulans (Eidam) Winter, an ABC transporter conferring resistance to many fungicides, including DMI fungicides. MfABC1 gene expression was induced after myclobutanil and propiconazole treatment in isolates with low sensitivity to the same fungicides, and in an isolate with high sensitivity to propiconazole. The results suggest that the MfABC1 gene may be a DMI fungicide resistance determinant in M fructicola. The alternative oxidase gene MfAOX1 from M fructicola was cloned and gene expression was analyzed. The MfAOX1 gene was 1077 bp in length and contained two introns of 54 and 67 bp. The amino acid sequence was 63.8, 63.8 and 57.7% identical to alternative oxidases from Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, Aspergillus niger van Teighem and A nidulans, respectively. MfAOX1 expression in some but not all M fructicola isolates was induced in mycelia treated with azoxystrobin. Azoxystrobin at 2 microg ml(-1) significantly induced MfAOX1 expression in isolates with low MfAOX1 constitutive expression levels. PMID:14561072

  3. Variants in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA7), Apolipoprotein E ?4, and the Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Mayeux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Importance Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. Objective To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Design, Setting, and Participants The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance–weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Main Outcomes and Measures Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Results Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10–9), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8

  4. Differential expression of ATP-binding cassette and/or major facilitator superfamily class efflux pumps contributes to voriconazole resistance in Aspergillus flavus.

    PubMed

    Natesan, S Krishnan; Lamichchane, A K; Swaminathan, Subramanian; Wu, Wenjuan

    2013-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients. Although clinical failures are attributed to poor host immunity, antifungal drug resistance may be a contributing factor. Reports of voriconazole (VRC) resistance (VRC-R) in clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. continue to emerge from various centers around the world, and mechanisms contributing to drug resistance are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to study the role of multidrug resistance efflux pumps (MDR-EPs) in VRC-R in Aspergillus flavus using efflux pump inhibitors and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Relative quantification of various MDR-EPs was performed pre-exposure and postexposure to VRC, which demonstrated an increase in 1 or more efflux pump gene transcripts to varying degrees in VRC-susceptible and VRC-R isolates of A. flavus. Exposure to sub-MIC of VRC causes up-regulation of genes encoding MDR-EPs, contributing to triazole resistance in A. flavus and may not be detected during routine antifungal susceptibility testing in vitro. PMID:23886435

  5. Genetic Association Analysis of ATP Binding Cassette Protein Family Reveals a Novel Association of ABCB1 Genetic Variants with Epilepsy Risk, but Not with Drug-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Shabeesh; Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Vellichiramal, Neetha Nanoth; Sathyan, Sanish; Joseph, Vijai; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value?=?0.0002; allelic p-value?=?0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value?=?0.0008; allelic p-value?=?0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value?=?0.01; allelic p-value?=?0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with greater tendency for MTLE-HS in south Indian ancestry from Kerala. PMID:24586633

  6. Involvement of a Soybean ATP-Binding Cassette-Type Transporter in the Secretion of Genistein, a Signal Flavonoid in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akifumi Sugiyama; Nobukazu Shitan; Kazufumi Yazaki

    2008-01-01

    Legume plants have an ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into nutrients via symbiosis with soil microbes. As the initial event of the symbiosis, legume plants secrete flavonoids into the rhizosphere to attract rhizobia. Secretion of flavonoids is indispens- able for the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, but almost nothing is known about the membrane transport mech- anism of flavonoid secretion

  7. Interferon-g Induces Downregulation of Tangier Disease Gene (ATP-Binding-Cassette Transporter 1) in Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Constantinos G. Panousis; Steven H. Zuckerman

    2000-01-01

    Cholesterol efflux is a fundamental process that serves to mitigate cholesterol accumulation and macrophage foam cell formation. Recently, we reported that cholesterol efflux to high density lipoprotein subfraction 3 was reduced by interferon-g (IFN-g) and that this decrease was associated with an increase in acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) expression. In the present study, although treatment of murine peritoneal macrophages

  8. Automatic cassette to cassette radiant impulse processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheets, Ronald E.

    1985-01-01

    Single wafer rapid annealing using high temperature isothermal processing has become increasingly popular in recent years. In addition to annealing, this process is also being investigated for suicide formation, passivation, glass reflow and alloying. Regardless of the application, there is a strong necessity to automate in order to maintain process control, repeatability, cleanliness and throughput. These requirements have been carefully addressed during the design and development of the Model 180 Radiant Impulse Processor which is a totally automatic cassette to cassette wafer processing system. Process control and repeatability are maintained by a closed loop optical pyrometer system which maintains the wafer at the programmed temperature-time conditions. Programmed recipes containing up to 10 steps may be easily entered on the computer keyboard or loaded in from a recipe library stored on a standard 5 {1}/{4?} floppy disk. Cold wall heating chamber construction, controlled environment (N 2, A, forming gas) and quartz wafer carriers prevent contamination of the wafer during high temperature processing. Throughputs of 150-240 wafers per hour are achieved by quickly heating the wafer to temperature (450-1400°C) in 3-6 s with a high intensity, uniform (± 1%) radiant flux of 100 {W}/{cm 2}, parallel wafer handling system and a wafer cool down stage.

  9. A new DEAD-box helicase ATP-binding protein (OsABP) from rice is responsive to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Vaid, Neha; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2012-09-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase family comprise enzymes that participate in every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with a diverse range of cellular functions including response to abiotic stress. In the present study, we report on the identification of a new DEAD-box helicase ATP-binding protein (OsABP) from rice which is upregulated in response e to multiple abiotic stress treatments  including NaCl, dehydration, ABA, blue and red light. It possesses an ORF of 2772 nt, encoding a protein of 923 aa, which contains the DEAD and helicase C-terminal domains, along with the nine conserved motifs specific to DEAD-box helicases. The in silico putative interaction with other proteins showed that OsABP interacts with proteins involved in RNA metabolism, signal transduction or stress response. These results imply that OsABP might perform important functions in the cellular response to specific abiotic stress. PMID:22899052

  10. Cassette Books. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The catalog contains references for approximately 1200 cassette books available from the Library of Congress, Division for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. Nonfiction items are arranged by the Dewey Decimal system, and fiction, foreign language, and children's books are arranged alphabetically by title. Provided for each citation is the…

  11. ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Rhee, Dong Keun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Bon A [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyong Bai [Department of Bioinformatics, Korea University, Yeongigun, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hbkim5212@hotmail.com

    2005-06-03

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast.

  12. Novel ATP-binding heat-inducible protein of Mr = 37,000 that is sensitive to transformation in BALB/3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, A.; Hirayama, C.; Ohtsuka, K.; Hirayoshi, K.; Nagata, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    Using affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose, we have identified a major ATP-binding protein in Nonidet P-40 extracts of avian and mammalian cells labeled with (35S)methionine. After washing ATP-agarose beads with high-ionic-strength buffer (0.4 M NaCl), the 37-kD protein was shown to be one of the major ATP-binding proteins while p72 and grp78, which are members of the hsp70 family, also bound to ATP-agarose. This protein consisted of several spots on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the most basic spot was approximately 9.2 in chick embryo fibroblasts, whereas it was about 8.8 in mouse 3T3 cells. The identities of these proteins in mouse and chick cells were confirmed by peptide mapping. After heat-shock treatment of BALB/3T3 cells, the major heat-shock protein, hsp70, was shown to be induced very rapidly after heat shock and was recovered in the ATP-binding fraction. Besides hsp70, a 37-kD protein was also found to be induced by heat shock. This protein was drastically induced by treating the cells with alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, an iron chelating reagent, but not with sodium arsenite, calcium ionophore, or tunicamycin. The synthesis and the total amount of this ATP-binding protein increased in mouse 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, methylcholanthrene, or activated c-Ha-ras oncogene compared to their normal counterparts. The incorporation of (32P)orthophosphate was not detected in either normal or transformed cells. These studies established that a major ATP-binding protein of Mr = 37,000 is a heat-inducible protein and that the synthesis of this protein is regulated by malignant transformation.

  13. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on HDL-cholesterol concentrations depend on ABCA1 genetic variants in the Boston Puerto Rican health study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 (ABCG5/G8) are associated with HDL-C concentrations. To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants on HDL-C concentrations is dependent on ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1), we studied potential interactions between ...

  14. Biochemical and structural aspects of the ATP-binding domain in inflammasome-forming human NLRP proteins.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Wijekoon, Champa P; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Muruve, Daniel A

    2013-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptors (NLRs) regulate innate immunity by activating inflammatory responses in a variety of biological systems following the recognition of pathogen- or disease-associated molecular patterns. NLRs are characterized by a central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization (NACHT) domain found in P-loop NTPases. In this review, we detail the functional and structural properties of the NACHT domain of a subfamily of NLRs, the NLRPs (NLR containing a pyrin domain), based on previous studies, sequence analysis, homology modeling, and structure predictions. Several NLRPs have been found to regulate inflammatory responses through the assembly of oligomeric caspase 1-activating platforms known as inflammasomes, the 3-dimensional structure of the NLRP NACHT domain has still not been solved. Homology modeling suggests that sequence variability within the NACHT domains of different NLRP family members may alter the topology of the ATP-binding pocket. Based on this finding, we discuss the potential therapeutic prospects aligned with the NACHT domain and the development of selective inhibitors of inflammasome activity. PMID:24078393

  15. Identification of mutations in regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds of the cystic fibrosis gene

    SciTech Connect

    Kerem, B.; Zielenski, J.; Markiewicz, D.; Bozon, D.; Kennedy, D.; Rommens, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Gazit, E. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Yahav, J. (Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)); Riordan, J.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Collins, F.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Tsui, Lapchee (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-11-01

    Additional mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene were identified in the regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds (NBFs) of the predicted polypeptide. The patient cohort included 46 Canadian CF families with well-characterized DNA marker haplotypes spanning the disease locus and several other families from Israel. Eleven mutations were found in the first NBF, 2 were found in the second NBF, but none was found in the R-domain. Seven of the mutations were of the missense type affecting some of the highly conserved amino acid residues in the first NBF; 3 were nonsense mutations; 2 would probably affect mRNA splicing; 2 corresponded to small deletions, including another 3-base-pair deletion different from the major mutation ({delta}F508), which could account for 70% of the CF chromosomes in the population. Nine of these mutations accounted for 12 of the 31 non-{delta}F508 CF chromosomes in the Canadian families. The highly heterogeneous nature of the remaining CF mutations provides important insights into the structure and function of the protein, but it also suggests that DNA-based genetic screening for CF carrier status will not be straightforward.

  16. The ATP-binding site of brain phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230 as revealed by 5?- p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    György Vereb; András Balla; Pál Gergely; Matthias P Wymann; Hülya Gülkan; Silke Suer; Ludwig M. G Heilmeyer

    2001-01-01

    The ATP-binding site of purified bovine brain phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 230 (PI4K230) was studied by its reaction with 5?-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA), an ATP-like alkylating reagent. Four hundred to eight hundred micromolar FSBA inactivated PI4K230 specifically with apparently first-order kinetics and resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity in 36–130 min. The specificity of the reaction with FSBA was demonstrated by the lack

  17. The histone H4 tail regulates the conformation of the ATP-binding pocket in the SNF2h chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Racki, Lisa R.; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Ed; Leonard, John; Cooke, Roger; Narlikar, Geeta J.

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin remodeling complex ACF helps establish the appropriate nucleosome spacing for generating repressed chromatin states. ACF activity is stimulated by two defining features of the nucleosomal substrate: a basic patch on the histone H4 N-terminal tail and the specific length of flanking DNA. Yet the mechanisms by which these two substrate cues function in the ACF remodeling reaction is not well understood. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with spin-labeled ATP analogs to probe the structure of the ATP active site under physiological solution conditions, we identify a closed state of the ATP-binding pocket that correlates with ATPase activity. We find that the H4 tail promotes pocket closure. We further show that ATPase stimulation by the H4 tail does not require a specific structure connecting the H4 tail and the globular domain. In the case of many DNA helicases, closure of the ATP- binding pocket is regulated by specific DNA substrates. Pocket closure by the H4 tail may analogously provide a mechanism to directly couple substrate recognition to activity. Surprisingly, the flanking DNA, which also stimulates ATP hydrolysis, does not promote pocket closure, suggesting that the H4 tail and flanking DNA may be recognized in different reaction steps. PMID:24607692

  18. The ATP-binding site of brain phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4K230 as revealed by 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine.

    PubMed

    Vereb, G; Balla, A; Gergely, P; Wymann, M P; Gülkan, H; Suer, S; Heilmeyer, L M

    2001-03-01

    The ATP-binding site of purified bovine brain phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase 230 (PI4K230) was studied by its reaction with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine (FSBA), an ATP-like alkylating reagent. Four hundred to eight hundred micromolar FSBA inactivated PI4K230 specifically with apparently first-order kinetics and resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity in 36--130 min. The specificity of the reaction with FSBA was demonstrated by the lack of inactivation with 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyl chloride and by protection with ATP and ATP analogues against inactivation. Most ATP analogues competed with FSBA inactivation in order of their increasing hydrophobicity, parallel to their inhibitory potency in activity measurements. The specific binding of FSBA to PI4K230 was demonstrated also by Western-blot experiments. These results suggest that FSBA-reactive group(s) involved in the enzyme activity are located near to the ATP-binding site in a hydrophobic region of native PI4K230. Experiments with site-directed mutagenesis indicate that the conserved Lys-1792 plays essential role in the enzyme activity and serves as one target of affinity labelling by FSBA. Prevention of both Lys-1792-directed and Lys-1792-independent binding of FSBA by Cibacron Blue 3GA suggest that these sites are located spatially close to each other. PMID:11311856

  19. The rem Mutations in the ATP-Binding Groove of the Rad3/XPD Helicase Lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome-Like Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Montelone, Beth A.; Aguilera, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease. PMID:25500814

  20. Decipher the Mechanisms of Protein Conformational Changes Induced by Nucleotide Binding through Free-Energy Landscape Analysis: ATP Binding to Hsp70

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaď, Adrien; Delarue, Patrice; Senet, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    ATP regulates the function of many proteins in the cell by transducing its binding and hydrolysis energies into protein conformational changes by mechanisms which are challenging to identify at the atomic scale. Based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, a method is proposed to analyze the structural changes induced by ATP binding to a protein by computing the effective free-energy landscape (FEL) of a subset of its coordinates along its amino-acid sequence. The method is applied to characterize the mechanism by which the binding of ATP to the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of Hsp70 propagates a signal to its substrate-binding domain (SBD). Unbiased MD simulations were performed for Hsp70-DnaK chaperone in nucleotide-free, ADP-bound and ATP-bound states. The simulations revealed that the SBD does not interact with the NBD for DnaK in its nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states whereas the docking of the SBD was found in the ATP-bound state. The docked state induced by ATP binding found in MD is an intermediate state between the initial nucleotide-free and final ATP-bound states of Hsp70. The analysis of the FEL projected along the amino-acid sequence permitted to identify a subset of 27 protein internal coordinates corresponding to a network of 91 key residues involved in the conformational change induced by ATP binding. Among the 91 residues, 26 are identified for the first time, whereas the others were shown relevant for the allosteric communication of Hsp70 s in several experiments and bioinformatics analysis. The FEL analysis revealed also the origin of the ATP-induced structural modifications of the SBD recently measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. The pathway between the nucleotide-free and the intermediate state of DnaK was extracted by applying principal component analysis to the subset of internal coordinates describing the transition. The methodology proposed is general and could be applied to analyze allosteric communication in other proteins. PMID:24348227

  1. Sensitivity of a renal K+ channel (ROMK2) to the inhibitory sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide is enhanced by coexpression with the ATP-binding cassette transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.

    PubMed Central

    McNicholas, C M; Guggino, W B; Schwiebert, E M; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G; Egan, M E

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate here that coexpression of ROMK2, an inwardly rectifying ATP-sensitive renal K+ channel (IKATP) with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) significantly enhances the sensitivity of ROMK2 to the sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide. When expressed alone, ROMK2 is relatively insensitive to glibenclamide. The interaction between ROMK2, CFTR, and glibenclamide is modulated by altering the phosphorylation state of either ROMK2, CFTR, or an associated protein, as exogenous MgATP and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of glibenclamide on ROMK2. Thus CFTR, which has been demonstrated to interact with both Na+ and Cl- channels in airway epithelium, modulates the function of renal ROMK2 K+ channels. PMID:8755607

  2. Nestin-positive progenitor cells derived from adult human pancreatic islets of Langerhans contain side population (SP) cells defined by expression of the ABCG2 (BCRP1) ATP-binding cassette transporter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Lechner; Colin A Leech; Elizabeth J Abraham; Anna L Nolan; Joel F Habener

    2002-01-01

    The disease diabetes mellitus arises as a consequence of a failure of the ?-cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas to produce insulin in the amounts required to meet the needs of the body. Whole pancreas or islet transplants in patients with severe diabetes effectively restore insulin production. A lack of availability of donor pancreata requires the development

  3. The ATP binding site of the chromatin remodeling homolog Lsh is required for nucleosome density and de novo DNA methylation at repeat sequences.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianke; Briones, Victorino; Barbour, Samantha; Yu, Weishi; Han, Yixing; Terashima, Minoru; Muegge, Kathrin

    2015-02-18

    Lsh, a chromatin remodeling protein of the SNF2 family, is critical for normal heterochromatin structure. In particular, DNA methylation at repeat elements, a hallmark of heterochromatin, is greatly reduced in Lsh(-/-) (KO) cells. Here, we examined the presumed nucleosome remodeling activity of Lsh on chromatin in the context of DNA methylation. We found that dynamic CG methylation was dependent on Lsh in embryonic stem cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP function is critical for de novo methylation at repeat sequences. The ATP binding site of Lsh is in part required to promote stable association of the DNA methyltransferase 3b with the repeat locus. By performing nucleosome occupancy assays, we found distinct nucleosome occupancy in KO ES cells compared to WT ES cells after differentiation. Nucleosome density was restored to wild-type level by re-expressing wild-type Lsh but not the ATP mutant in KO ES cells. Our results suggest that ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling is the primary molecular function of Lsh, which may promote de novo methylation in differentiating ES cells. PMID:25578963

  4. The ATP binding site of the chromatin remodeling homolog Lsh is required for nucleosome density and de novo DNA methylation at repeat sequences

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jianke; Briones, Victorino; Barbour, Samantha; Yu, Weishi; Han, Yixing; Terashima, Minoru; Muegge, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Lsh, a chromatin remodeling protein of the SNF2 family, is critical for normal heterochromatin structure. In particular, DNA methylation at repeat elements, a hallmark of heterochromatin, is greatly reduced in Lsh?/? (KO) cells. Here, we examined the presumed nucleosome remodeling activity of Lsh on chromatin in the context of DNA methylation. We found that dynamic CG methylation was dependent on Lsh in embryonic stem cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP function is critical for de novo methylation at repeat sequences. The ATP binding site of Lsh is in part required to promote stable association of the DNA methyltransferase 3b with the repeat locus. By performing nucleosome occupancy assays, we found distinct nucleosome occupancy in KO ES cells compared to WT ES cells after differentiation. Nucleosome density was restored to wild-type level by re-expressing wild-type Lsh but not the ATP mutant in KO ES cells. Our results suggest that ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling is the primary molecular function of Lsh, which may promote de novo methylation in differentiating ES cells. PMID:25578963

  5. Characterization of [35S]-ATP?S and [3H]-?,?-MeATP binding sites in rat brain cortical synaptosomes: regulation of ligand binding by divalent cations

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Rainer; Reiser, Georg

    1997-01-01

    We made a comparative analysis of the binding characteristics of the radioligands [35S]-ATP?S and [3H]-?,?-MeATP in order to test whether these ligands can be used to analyse P2-purinoceptors in synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. Synaptosomes possess sites with high affinity for [35S]-ATP?S (Kd=22.2±9.1?nM, Bmax=14.8 pmol?mg?1 protein). The rank order of the competition potency of the different compounds (ATP?S, ATP, ATP?S>ADP?S, 2-MeSATP>deoxyATP, ADP>>UTP, ?,?-MeATP, AMP, Reactive Blue-2, suramin, isoPPADS) is consistent with pharmacological properties of P2Y-purinoceptors. Under identical conditions [35S]-ATP?S and [3H]-?,?-MeATP bind to different binding sites at synaptosomal membranes from rat brain cortex. The affinity of the [3H]-?,?-MeATP binding sites (Kd=13.7±1.8?nM, Bmax=6.34±0.28?pmol?mg?1 protein) was 38 fold higher than the potency of ?,?-MeATP to displace [35S]-ATP?S binding (Ki=0.52??M). ATP and ADP?S competed at both binding sites with different affinities, 60 fold and 175 fold, respectively. The other agonists tested (2-MeSATP, UTP, GTP) did not affect specific [35H]-?,?-MeATP binding at concentrations up to 100??M. The antagonists (suramin, isoPPADS, Evan's Blue) showed completely different affinities for both binding sites. Binding of [35S]-ATP?S on synaptosomes was regulated by GTP, which is indicative for G-protein coupled receptors. The Kd value for the high affinity binding site was reduced in the presence of GTP about 5 fold (from 1.8?nM to 8.6?nM). In the presence of Mg2+ the affinity was increased (Kd 1.8?nM versus 22?nM in the absence of Mg2+). The binding of both radioligands was regulated in an opposite manner by physiological concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Binding of [3H]-?,?-MeATP to synaptosomal membranes was increased 3 fold by raising the Ca2+ concentration from 10??M to 1?mM, whereas the addition of Mg2+ in the same concentration range resulted in an 80% reduction of the binding. In contrast, [35S]-ATP?S binding was not influenced at the same range of Ca2+ or Mg2+ concentrations (10??M to 1?mM). The addition of Mg2+ (5?mM) increased the affinity of [35S]-ATP?S for the high affinity site 10 fold. Diadenosine polyphosphates had a bimodal effect on [35S]-ATP?S binding to synaptosomal membranes. AP5A and Ap6A enhanced binding of [35S]-ATP?S 1.6 fold in a concentration range between 0.1 and 50??M. Ap3A was a weak inhibitor with a Ki value of 7.2??M. Ap4A, AP5A and Ap6A inhibited with Ki values>100??M. These data support the concept that diadenosine polyphosphates do not directly interact with ATP?S binding sites. In conclusion, on the basis of present knowledge of the interaction of P2-purinoceptor active compounds with P2X- and/or P2Y-purinoceptors, our data strongly suggest that [35S]-ATP?S is a useful tool to study P2Y-purinoceptors. Thus, the [35S]-ATP?S binding site might to a large extent represent P2Y-purinoceptors in synaptosomes from rat brain cortex. The nucleotide binding is regulated by G proteins, indicated by the effects of GTP/Mg2+ on binding. PMID:9222547

  6. ATP Regulation of Type-1 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Activity Does Not Require Walker A-type ATP-binding Motifs*

    PubMed Central

    Betzenhauser, Matthew J.; Wagner, Larry E.; Park, Hyung Seo; Yule, David I.

    2009-01-01

    ATP is known to increase the activity of the type-1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R1). This effect is attributed to the binding of ATP to glycine rich Walker A-type motifs present in the regulatory domain of the receptor. Only two such motifs are present in neuronal S2+ splice variant of InsP3R1 and are designated the ATPA and ATPB sites. The ATPA site is unique to InsP3R1, and the ATPB site is conserved among all three InsP3R isoforms. Despite the fact that both the ATPA and ATPB sites are known to bind ATP, the relative contribution of these two sites to the enhancing effects of ATP on InsP3R1 function is not known. We report here a mutational analysis of the ATPA and ATPB sites and conclude neither of these sites is required for ATP modulation of InsP3R1. ATP augmented InsP3-induced Ca2+ release from permeabilized cells expressing wild type and ATP-binding site-deficient InsP3R1. Similarly, ATP increased the single channel open probability of the mutated InsP3R1 to the same extent as wild type. ATP likely exerts its effects on InsP3R1 channel function via a novel and as yet unidentified mechanism. PMID:19386591

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Novel Deguelin Derivative, L80, which Disrupts ATP Binding to the C-terminal Domain of Heat Shock Protein 90.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Chan; Min, Hye-Young; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Ho Shin; Kim, Kyong-Cheol; Park, So-Jung; Seong, Myeong A; Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Hyun-Ju; Suh, Young-Ger; Kim, Kyu-Won; Hong, Hyun-Seok; Kim, Hee; Lee, Min-Young; Lee, Jeewoo; Lee, Ho-Young

    2015-08-01

    The clinical benefit of current anticancer regimens for lung cancer therapy is still limited due to moderate efficacy, drug resistance, and recurrence. Therefore, the development of effective anticancer drugs for first-line therapy and for optimal second-line treatment is necessary. Because the 90-kDa molecular chaperone heat shock protein (Hsp90) contributes to the maturation of numerous mutated or overexpressed oncogenic proteins, targeting Hsp90 may offer an effective anticancer therapy. Here, we investigated antitumor activities and toxicity of a novel deguelin-derived C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor, designated L80. L80 displayed significant inhibitory effects on the viability, colony formation, angiogenesis-stimulating activity, migration, and invasion of a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and their sublines with acquired resistance to paclitaxel with minimal toxicity to normal lung epithelial cells, hippocampal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and ocular cells. Biochemical analyses and molecular docking simulation revealed that L80 disrupted Hsp90 function by binding to the C-terminal ATP-binding pocket of Hsp90, leading to the disruption of the interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? and Hsp90, downregulation of HIF-1? and its target genes, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), and decreased the expression of various Hsp90 client proteins. Consistent with these in vitro findings, L80 exhibited significant antitumor and antiangiogenic activities in H1299 xenograft tumors. These results suggest that L80 represents a novel C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor with effective anticancer activities with minimal toxicities. PMID:25976766

  8. Mapping of ATP binding regions in poly(A) polymerases by photoaffinity labeling and by mutational analysis identifies a domain conserved in many nucleotidyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, G.; Jenö, P.; Keller, W.

    1999-01-01

    We have identified regions in poly(A) polymerases that interact with ATP. Conditions were established for efficient cross-linking of recombinant bovine and yeast poly(A) polymerases to 8-azido-ATP. Mn2+ strongly stimulated this reaction due to a 50-fold lower Ki for 8-azido-ATP in the presence of Mn2+. Mutations of the highly conserved Asp residues 113, 115, and 167, critical for metal binding in the catalytic domain of bovine poly(A) polymerase, led to a strong reduction of cross-linking efficiency, and Mn2+ no longer stimulated the reaction. Sites of 8-azido-ATP cross-linking were mapped in different poly(A) polymerases by CNBr-cleavage and analysis of tryptic peptides by mass spectroscopy. The main cross-link in Schizosaccharomyces pombe poly(A) polymerase could be assigned to the peptide DLELSDNNLLK (amino acids 167-177). Database searches with sequences surrounding the cross-link site detected significant homologies to other nucleotidyltransferase families, suggesting a conservation of the nucleotide-binding fold among these families of enzymes. Mutations in the region of the "helical turn motif" (a domain binding the triphosphate moiety of the nucleotide) and in the suspected nucleotide-binding helix of bovine poly(A) polymerase impaired ATP binding and catalysis. The results indicate that ATP is bound in part by the helical turn motif and in part by a region that may be a structural analog to the fingers domain found in many polymerases. PMID:10595540

  9. Mapping of ATP binding regions in poly(A) polymerases by photoaffinity labeling and by mutational analysis identifies a domain conserved in many nucleotidyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Jenö, P; Keller, W

    1999-11-01

    We have identified regions in poly(A) polymerases that interact with ATP. Conditions were established for efficient cross-linking of recombinant bovine and yeast poly(A) polymerases to 8-azido-ATP. Mn2+ strongly stimulated this reaction due to a 50-fold lower Ki for 8-azido-ATP in the presence of Mn2+. Mutations of the highly conserved Asp residues 113, 115, and 167, critical for metal binding in the catalytic domain of bovine poly(A) polymerase, led to a strong reduction of cross-linking efficiency, and Mn2+ no longer stimulated the reaction. Sites of 8-azido-ATP cross-linking were mapped in different poly(A) polymerases by CNBr-cleavage and analysis of tryptic peptides by mass spectroscopy. The main cross-link in Schizosaccharomyces pombe poly(A) polymerase could be assigned to the peptide DLELSDNNLLK (amino acids 167-177). Database searches with sequences surrounding the cross-link site detected significant homologies to other nucleotidyltransferase families, suggesting a conservation of the nucleotide-binding fold among these families of enzymes. Mutations in the region of the "helical turn motif" (a domain binding the triphosphate moiety of the nucleotide) and in the suspected nucleotide-binding helix of bovine poly(A) polymerase impaired ATP binding and catalysis. The results indicate that ATP is bound in part by the helical turn motif and in part by a region that may be a structural analog to the fingers domain found in many polymerases. PMID:10595540

  10. Solution structure of the 45-residue MgATP-binding peptide of adenylate kinase as examined by 2-D NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.C.; Byler, D.M.; Susi, H.; Brown, M.; Kuby, S.A.; Mildvan A.S.

    1988-05-17

    The structure of a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of rabbit muscle adenylate kinase has been studied in aqueous solution by two-dimensional NMR, FTIR, and CD spectroscopy. This peptide, which binds MgATP and is believed to represent most of the MgATP-binding site of the enzyme, appears to maintain a conformation similar to that of residues 1-45 in the X-ray structure of intact porcine adenylate kinase, with 42% of the residues of the peptide showing NOEs indicative of phi and psi angles corresponding to those found in the protein. The NMR studies suggest that the peptide is composed of two helical regions of residues 4-7 and 23-29, and three stretches of ..beta..-strand at residues 8-15, 30-32, and 35-40, yielding an overall secondary structure consisting of 24% ..cap alpha..-helix, 38% ..beta..-structure, and 38% aperiodic. Although the resolution-enhanced amide I band of the peptide FTIR spectrum is broad and rather featureless, possible due to disorder, it can be fit by using methods developed on well-characterized globular proteins. The CD spectrum is best fit by assuming the presence of at most 13% ..cap alpha..-helix in the peptide, 24 +/- 2% ..beta..-structure, and 66 +/- 4% aperiodic. The inability of the high-frequency FTIR and CD methods to detect helices in the amount found by NMR may result from the short helical lengths as well as from static and dynamic disorder in the peptide. Upon binding of MgATP, numerous conformation changes in the backbone of the peptide are detected by NMR, with smaller alterations in the overall secondary structure as assess by CD.

  11. Status Panel For Video Cassette Recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr.; Herbison, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Central array of light-emitting diodes displays status of 30 video cassette recorders (VCR's) monitoring integrated testing of Space Shuttle. Remote status panel linked to VCR's by one 37-conductor cable. Transistor/ transistor logic chips in interface circuit allow LED array to function without drawing power from VCR control circuits.

  12. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  13. Human small cell lung cancer NYH cells selected for resistance to the bisdioxopiperazine topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor ICRF-187 demonstrate a functional R162Q mutation in the Walker A consensus ATP binding domain of the alpha isoform.

    PubMed

    Wessel, I; Jensen, L H; Jensen, P B; Falck, J; Rose, A; Roerth, M; Nitiss, J L; Sehested, M

    1999-07-15

    Bisdioxopiperazine drugs such as ICRF-187 are catalytic inhibitors of DNA topoisomerase II, with at least two effects on the enzyme: namely, locking it in a closed-clamp form and inhibiting its ATPase activity. This is in contrast to topoisomerase II poisons as etoposide and amsacrine (m-AMSA), which act by stabilizing enzyme-DNA-drug complexes at a stage in which the DNA gate strand is cleaved and the protein is covalently attached to DNA. Human small cell lung cancer NYH cells selected for resistance to ICRF-187 (NYH/187) showed a 25% increase in topoisomerase IIalpha level and no change in expression of the beta isoform. Sequencing of the entire topoisomerase IIalpha cDNA from NYH/187 cells demonstrated a homozygous G-->A point mutation at nucleotide 485, leading to a R162Q conversion in the Walker A consensus ATP binding site (residues 161-165 in the alpha isoform), this being the first drug-selected mutation described at this site. Western blotting after incubation with ICRF-187 showed no depletion of the alpha isoform in NYH/187 cells in contrast to wild-type (wt) cells, whereas equal depletion of the beta isoform was observed in the two sublines. Alkaline elution assay demonstrated a lack of inhibition of etoposide-induced DNA single-stranded breaks in NYH/187 cells, whereas this inhibition was readily apparent in NYH cells. Site-directed mutagenesis in human topoisomerase IIalpha introduced into a yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with a temperature-conditional yeast TOP2 mutant demonstrated that R162Q conferred resistance to the bisdioxopiperazines ICRF-187 and -193 but not to etoposide or m-AMSA. Both etoposide and m-AMSA induced more DNA cleavage with purified R162Q enzyme than with the wt. The R162Q enzyme has a 20-25% decreased catalytic capacity compared to the wt and was almost inactive at <0.25 mM ATP compared to the wt. Kinetoplast DNA decatenation by the R162Q enzyme at 1 mM ATP was not resistant to ICRF-187 compared to wt, whereas it was clearly less sensitive than wt to ICRF-187 at low ATP concentrations. This suggests that it is a shift in the equilibrium to an open-clamp state in the enzyme's catalytic cycle caused by a decreased ATP binding by the mutated enzyme that is responsible for bisdioxopiperazine resistance. PMID:10416608

  14. Structural Diversity of Class 1 Integrons and Their Associated Gene Cassettes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from a Hospital in China

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yong; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Jing, Hua; Zhu, Baoli; Liu, Cui Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae strains carrying class 1 integrons are becoming more common worldwide, and their role in the dissemination of drug resistance is significant. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural diversity of class 1 integrons and their associated gene cassettes in K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a total of 176 K. pneumoniae isolates in a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China for the period of November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011. The presence of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 51.1% (90/176). Fourteen different gene cassettes and 10 different gene cassette arrays were detected. dfrA and aadA cassettes were predominant and cassette combination dfrA1-orfC was most frequently found (13.6%, 24/176). Strong association between resistance to a variety of drugs (both phenotypes and the associated genes) and the presence of class 1 integrons was observed. In addition, we also identified an association between some previously identified prevalent sequence types (such as ST11, ST15, ST147, ST562, and ST716) and the presence of class 1 integrons. Conclusions/Significance Data from this study demonstrated that class 1 integrons are highly diverse and are associated with a variety of drug resistance phenotypes, drug resistance genes, as well as genotypes among K. pneumoniae isolates. Continuous monitoring of gene cassettes in class 1 integrons is warranted to improve the understanding and control of drug resistance among hospital settings. PMID:24098729

  15. Listening and Learning: Audio Cassettes at Deakin University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, J. E.

    Student attitudes about using audio cassettes in the course "Images of Man" at Deakin University, Australia, were evaluated in 1979. A total of 192 off-campus and 39 on-campus students responded to a mail questionnaire. Responses indicate the following: students stopped cassettes to take a break and to replay sections; 70 percent listened to…

  16. Cellular pathways controlling integron cassette site folding

    PubMed Central

    Loot, Céline; Bikard, David; Rachlin, Anna; Mazel, Didier

    2010-01-01

    By mobilizing small DNA units, integrons have a major function in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. The acquisition of gene cassettes occurs by recombination between the attI and attC sites catalysed by the IntI1 integron integrase. These recombination reactions use an unconventional mechanism involving a folded single-stranded attC site. We show that cellular bacterial processes delivering ssDNA, such as conjugation and replication, favour proper folding of the attC site. By developing a very sensitive in vivo assay, we also provide evidence that attC sites can recombine as cruciform structures by extrusion from double-stranded DNA. Moreover, we show an influence of DNA superhelicity on attC site extrusion in vitro and in vivo. We show that the proper folding of the attC site depends on both the propensity to form non-recombinogenic structures and the length of their variable terminal structures. These results draw the network of cell processes that regulate integron recombination. PMID:20628355

  17. The effect of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol levels depends on the ABCA1 gene variation in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 have shown an association with HDL-C. One of the most likely mechanisms to explain those associations is through ABCA1. Objective: To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on HDL-C is dependent on ABCA1, we studied potential interacti...

  18. Hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a specific ABC transporter gene expression profile clearly distinct from other stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leilei Tang; Saskia M Bergevoet; Christian Gilissen; Theo de Witte; Joop H Jansen; Bert A van der Reijden; Reinier AP Raymakers

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect cells against unrelated (toxic) substances by pumping them across cell membranes. Earlier we showed that many ABC transporters are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compared to more committed progenitor cells. The ABC transporter expression signature may guarantee lifelong protection of HSCs but may also preserve stem cell integrity by extrusion of agents

  19. Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauli V Luoma

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. RESULTS: Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes

  20. Kanamycin Resistance Cassette for Genetic Manipulation of Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuebin; Ruby, John; Wu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Treponema denticola has been recognized as an important oral pathogen of the "red complex" bacterial consortium that is associated with the pathogenesis of endodontal and periodontal diseases. However, little is known about the virulence of T. denticola due to its recalcitrant genetic system. The difficulty in genetically manipulating oral spirochetes is partially due to the lack of antibiotic resistance cassettes that are useful for gene complementation following allelic replacement mutagenesis. In this study, a kanamycin resistance cassette was identified and developed for the genetic manipulation of T. denticola ATCC 35405. Compared to the widely used ermF-ermAM cassette, the kanamycin cassette used in the transformation experiments gave rise to additional antibiotic-resistant T. denticola colonies. The kanamycin cassette is effective for allelic replacement mutagenesis as demonstrated by inactivation of two open reading frames of T. denticola, TDE1430 and TDE0911. In addition, the cassette is also functional in trans-chromosomal complementation. This was determined by functional rescue of a periplasmic flagellum (PF)-deficient mutant that had the flgE gene coding for PF hook protein inactivated. The integration of the full-length flgE gene into the genome of the flgE mutant rescued all of the defects associated with the flgE mutant that included the lack of PF filament and spirochetal motility. Taken together, we demonstrate that the kanamycin resistance gene is a suitable cassette for the genetic manipulation of T. denticola that will facilitate the characterization of virulence factors attributed to this important oral pathogen. PMID:25888173

  1. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  2. [Quality assurance in radiology: quality control of radiographic cassettes].

    PubMed

    Ferretti, P P; Sarti, M; Messori, P; Boni, L; Seligardi, P; Tassoni, D; Cattini, V; Piccagli, V; Barani, A; Bianchi, C; Borasi, G; Troiso, A; Soliani Raschini, C

    1996-09-01

    A "quality team" in radiology, whose members are the authors of this paper, has implemented a quality control program to test the cassettes with intensifying screen systems used in radiology departments. 149 systems-124 of them for general purpose radiology and 25 for mammography-were submitted to the following tests: visual inspection of radiographic cassettes and intensifying screens, screen-film contact, intensifying screen cleanliness and relative sensitivity of the intensifying screens. The results of each type of test are reported in detail in the paper, on a 3-point scale: good, sufficient and poor. The overall results of the quality control tests show 78% of general purpose radiology cassettes to qualify as good (69%) or sufficient (9%), while 22% were of poor quality. 88% of the mammographic cassettes qualified as good (76%) or sufficient (12%), while 12% were of poor quality. All tests were easy to perform and required limited resources. The necessary procedures to keep quality high over time are also reported. To conclude, the results obtained with our quality control program could be used as an effective tool to address and plan the turnover of the cassettes with intensifying screens which are usually used in diagnostic radiology practice. PMID:8975314

  3. Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laboratory strains of Escherichia coli contain a functional CRISPR/Cas system (as judged by appearance of phage resistance at conditions of artificial co-overexpression of Cas genes and a CRISPR cassette engineered to target a ? phage), no natural phage resistance due to CRISPR system function was observed in this best-studied organism and no E. coli CRISPR spacer matches sequences of well-studied E. coli phages. To better understand the apparently “silent” E. coli CRISPR/Cas system, we systematically characterized processed transcripts from CRISPR cassettes. Using an engineered strain with genomically located spacer matching phage ? we show that endogenous levels of CRISPR cassette and cas genes expression allow only weak protection against infection with the phage. However, derepression of the CRISPR/Cas system by disruption of the hns gene leads to high level of protection. PMID:20624226

  4. The Real World Spanish Cassette Program. Script Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternburg, Sheldon G.

    This dual cassette program, accompanied by a script book, is designed to give students listening practice in Spanish, particularly for regional differences of pronunciation and for variety in idiomatic construction. The program may be integrated with texts used in intermediate and advanced levels of instruction. The announcements, jingles, and…

  5. The Real World French Cassette Program. Script Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternburg, Sheldon G.; Sammarco, Anthony M., Jr.

    This dual cassette package, accompanied by a script book, is designed to give students listening practice in French, particularly for regional differences of pronunciation and for variety in idiomatic constructions. The program may be integrated with texts used in intermediate and advanced levels of instruction. The announcements, jingles, and…

  6. A chloride-inducible gene expression cassette and its use in induced lysis of Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J W; Venema, G; Kok, J

    1997-12-01

    A chloride-inducible promoter previously isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis (J. W. Sanders, G. Venema, J. Kok, and K. Leenhouts, Mol. Gen. Genet., in press) was exploited for the inducible expression of homologous and heterologous genes. An expression cassette consisting of the positive-regulator gene gadR, the chloride-inducible promoter Pgad, and the translation initiation signals of gadC was amplified by PCR. The cassette was cloned upstream of Escherichia coli lacZ, the holin-lysin cassette (lytPR) of the lactococcal bacteriophage r1t, and the autolysin gene of L. lactis, acmA. Basal activity of Pgad resulted in a low level of expression of all three proteins. Growth in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl of a strain containing the gadC::lacZ fusion resulted in a 1,500-fold increase of beta-galactosidase activity. The background activity levels of LytPR and AcmA had no deleterious effects on cell growth, but induction of lysin expression by addition of 0.5 M NaCl resulted in inhibition of growth. Lysis was monitored by following the release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme PepX. Released PepX activity was maximal at 1 day after induction of lytPR expression with 0.1 M NaCl. Induction of acmA expression resulted in slower release of PepX from the cells. The presence of the inducing agent NaCl resulted in the stabilization of osmotically fragile cells. PMID:9406408

  7. THE REAL ISSUE WITH WALL DEPOSITS IN CLOSED FILTER CASSETTES - WHAT'S THE SAMPLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Brisson, M.

    2009-09-12

    The measurement of aerosol dusts has long been utilized to assess the exposure of workers to metals. Tools used to sample and measure aerosol dusts have gone through many transitions over the past century. In particular, there have been several different techniques used to sample for beryllium, not all of which might be expected to produce the same result. Today, beryllium samples are generally collected using filters housed in holders of several different designs, some of which are expected to produce a sample that mimics the human capacity for dust inhalation. The presence of dust on the interior walls of cassettes used to hold filters during metals sampling has been discussed in the literature for a number of metals, including beryllium, with widely varying data. It appears that even in the best designs, particulates can enter the sampling cassette and deposit on the interior walls rather than on the sampling medium. The causes are not well understood but are believed to include particle bounce, electrostatic forces, particle size, particle density, and airflow turbulence. Historically, the filter catch has been considered to be the sample, but the presence of wall deposits, and the potential that the filter catch is not representative of the exposure to the worker, puts that historical position into question. This leads to a fundamental question: What is the sample? This article reviews the background behind the issue, poses the above-mentioned question, and discusses options and a possible path forward for addressing that question.

  8. Cassette less SOFC stack and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Meinhardt, Kerry D

    2014-11-18

    A cassette less SOFC assembly and a method for creating such an assembly. The SOFC stack is characterized by an electrically isolated stack current path which allows welded interconnection between frame portions of the stack. In one embodiment electrically isolating a current path comprises the step of sealing a interconnect plate to a interconnect plate frame with an insulating seal. This enables the current path portion to be isolated from the structural frame an enables the cell frame to be welded together.

  9. The Political Use of the Teshuva Cassette Culture in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nissim Leon

    2011-01-01

    The present work of ethnography describes the political uses of audiotapes and videotapes by religious fundamentalists in\\u000a Israel during the 1990s. The article deals with the use of the teshuva cassette culture in constructing Shas’s political message\\u000a in the 1999 Knesset elections. Shas presented the video- and audiotape “J’Accuse” as a way of contending with the crisis of\\u000a confidence that

  10. A New Class of Genetic Element, Staphylococcus Cassette Chromosome mec, Encodes Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Katayama; T. Ito; K. Hiramatsu

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that the methicillin-resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus strain N315 is localized within a large (52-kb) DNA cassette (designated the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)) inserted in the chromosome. By sequence determination of the entire DNA, we identified two novel genes (designated cassette chromosome recombinase genes (ccrA and ccrB)) encoding polypeptides having a partial homology to

  11. The cost-effectiveness of carbon-fibre cassettes in mobile chest radiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Brennan; S. P. Hourihan

    1998-01-01

    .   Employment of carbon fibre materials is an effective method of reducing radiation dose, yet the increased associated costs\\u000a have led to a reluctance in implementation. This study investigates the level of dose reduction achievable, while maintaining\\u000a image quality, in mobile chest radiography using carbon-fibre cassettes, compared with plastic cassettes, and balances this\\u000a against increased expense of the cassettes. Dose

  12. A Chloride-Inducible Gene Expression Cassette and Its Use in Induced Lysis of Lactococcus lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Venema; Jan Willem Sanders; Jan Kok

    1997-01-01

    A chloride-inducible promoter previously isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis was exploited for the inducible expression of homologous and heterologous genes. An expression cassette consisting of the positive-regulator gene gadR, the chloride-inducible promoter Pgad, and the translation initiation signals of gadC was amplified by PCR. The cassette was cloned upstream of Escherichia coli lacZ, the holin-lysin cassette (lytPR) of

  13. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A high-speed, high-capacity digital data storage system has been developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates sophisticated, yet easy to use and economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts.

  14. Chromosome inversions, adaptive cassettes and the evolution of species' ranges.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Mark; Barrett, Brian

    2015-05-01

    A chromosome inversion can spread when it captures locally adapted alleles or when it is introduced into a species by hybridization with adapted alleles that were previously absent. We present a model that shows how both processes can cause a species range to expand. Introgression of an inversion that carries novel, locally adapted alleles is a particularly powerful mechanism for range expansion. The model supports the earlier proposal that introgression of an inversion triggered a large range expansion of a malaria mosquito. These results suggest a role for inversions as cassettes of genes that can accelerate adaptation by crossing species boundaries, rather than protecting genomes from introgression. PMID:25583098

  15. Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria: the role of gene cassettes and integrons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth M. Hall; Christina M. Collis

    1998-01-01

    Resistance of gram-negative organisms to antibiotics such as ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol is caused by many different acquired genes, and a substantial proportion of these are part of small mobile elements known as gene cassettes. A gene cassette consists of the gene and a downstream sequence, known as a 59-base element (59-be), that acts as a specific recombination site.

  16. A mouse model of sitosterolemia: absence of Abcg8\\/sterolin-2 results in failure to secrete biliary cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L Klett; Kangmo Lu; Astrid Kosters; Edwin Vink; Mi-Hye Lee; Michael Altenburg; Sarah Shefer; Ashok K Batta; Hongwei Yu; Jianliang Chen; Richard Klein; Norbert Looije; Ronald Oude-Elferink; Albert K Groen; Nobuyo Maeda; Gerald Salen; Shailendra B Patel

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in either of two genes comprising the STSL locus, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 (encoding sterolin-1) and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-2), result in sitosterolemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder of sterol trafficking characterized by increased plasma plant sterol levels. Based upon the genetics of sitosterolemia, ABCG5\\/sterolin-1 and ABCG8\\/sterolin-2 are hypothesized to function as obligate heterodimers. No phenotypic difference has yet

  17. A novel chalcone derivative which acts as a microtubule depolymerising agent and an inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP in in-vitro and in-vivo glioblastoma models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahcene Boumendjel; Anne McLeer-Florin; Pierre Champelovier; Diane Allegro; Dima Muhammad; Florence Souard; Madiha Derouazi; Vincent Peyrot; Bertrand Toussaint; Jean Boutonnat

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, in spite of intensive search, no significant increase in the survival of patients with glioblastoma has been obtained. The role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and especially the activity of efflux pumps belonging to the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) family may, in part, explain this defect. METHODS: The in-vitro activities of JAI-51 on cell proliferation

  18. Association of Multidrug Resistance in Epilepsy with a Polymorphism in the Drug-Transporter Gene ABCB1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asra Siddiqui; Reinhold Kerb; Michael E. Weale; Ulrich Brinkmann; Alice Smith; David B. Goldstein; Nicholas W. Wood; Sanjay M. Sisodiya

    2003-01-01

    background One third of patients with epilepsy have drug-resistant epilepsy, which is associated with an increased risk of death and debilitating psychosocial consequences. Because this form is resistant to multiple antiepileptic drugs, the mode of resistance must be non- specific, involving drug-efflux transporters such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1, also known as MDR1 and P-glycoprotein 170). We

  19. The crystal structure of pneumococcal surface antigen PsaA reveals a metal-binding site and a novel structure for a putative ABC-type binding protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C Lawrence; Patricia A Pilling; V Chandana Epa; Anne M Berry; A David Ogunniyi; James C Paton

    1998-01-01

    Background: The surface protein PsaA of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae plays an essential role in its virulence. PsaA is a putative ATP-binding cassette-type (ABC-type) binding protein involved in the uptake of Mn2+ and possibly Zn2+ and is considered to be both a potential drug target and and a candidate vaccine component.Results: The structure of PsaA has been determined to

  20. Engineered Nanostructured ?-Sheet Peptides Protect Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Houchao; Lee, Sung Chang; Moeller, Arne; Roy, Rituparna Sinha; Siu, Fai Yiu; Zimmermann, Jörg; Stevens, Raymond C.; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Zhang, Qinghai

    2013-01-01

    We have designed ?-strand peptides (BP) that stabilize integral membrane proteins (IMP). BPs self-assemble in solution as filaments and become restructured upon association with IMPs; the resulting IMP/BP complexes resist aggregation when diluted in detergent-free buffer and are examined as stable, single particles with low detergent background by electron microscopy. This enables clear visualization of a spectrum of flexible conformations in the highly dynamic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA. PMID:23817067

  1. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi silencing targeting ABCC2 increasing the sensitivity of a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line against cisplatin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si Ming Xie; Wei Yi Fang; Zhen Liu; Shuang Xi Wang; Xin Li; Teng Fei Liu; Wei Bing Xie; Kai Tai Yao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High resistance to drug is taken as a characteristic of human tumors, which is usually mediated by multidrug resistance-associated genes. ABCC2, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug resistance transporter, is found to be expressed in a variety of human cancers. In this study the effect of a RNAi construct targeting ABCC2 on the chemosensitivity of NPC cell line CNE2 against cisplatin

  2. Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.W.; Mak, H.K.; Lachman, R.S.

    1987-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

  3. Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery.

    PubMed

    Herman, M W; Mak, H K; Lachman, R S

    1987-05-01

    A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette. PMID:3495126

  4. High-Oleic Ground Beef and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Postmenopausal Women

    E-print Network

    Ghahramany, Ghazal

    2012-07-16

    of selected genes was quantified by real-time PCR. ATP-binding cassette A 1, ATP-binding cassette G1, and low-density lipoprotein receptor relative expression was increased with premium ground beef consumption. A significant increase was seen in stearoyl-Coenzyme-A...

  5. Arginine deiminase pathway is far more important than urease for acid resistance and intracellular survival in Laribacter hongkongensis: a possible result of arc gene cassette duplication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Laribacter hongkongensis is a Gram-negative, urease-positive bacillus associated with invasive bacteremic infections in liver cirrhosis patients and fish-borne community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler’s diarrhea. Its mechanisms of adaptation to various environmental niches and host defense evasion are largely unknown. During the process of analyzing the L. hongkongensis genome, a complete urease cassette and two adjacent arc gene cassettes were found. We hypothesize that the urease cassette and/or the arc gene cassettes are important for L. hongkongensis to survive in acidic environment and macrophages. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by constructing single, double and triple non-polar deletion mutants of the urease and two arc gene cassettes of L. hongkongensis using the conjugation-mediated gene deletion system and examining their effects in acidic environment in vitro, in macrophages and in a mouse model. Results HLHK9?ureA, HLHK9?ureC, HLHK9?ureD and HLHK9?ureE all exhibited no urease activity. HLHK9?arcA1 and HLHK9?arcA2 both exhibited arginine deiminase (ADI) activities, but HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 double deletion mutant exhibited no ADI activity. At pH 2 and 3, survival of HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9?ureA/arcA1/arcA2 were markedly decreased (p < 0.001) but that of HLHK9?ureA was slightly decreased (p < 0.05), compared to wild type L. hongkongensis HLHK9. Survival of HLHK9?ureA/arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 in macrophages were also markedly decreased (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 respectively) but that of HLHK9?ureA was slightly decreased (p < 0.05), compared to HLHK9, although expression of arcA1, arcA2 and ureA genes were all upregulated. Using a mouse model, HLHK9?ureA exhibited similar survival compared to HLHK9 after passing through the murine stomach, but survival of HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9?ureA/arcA1/arcA2 were markedly reduced (p < 0.01). Conclusions In contrast to other important gastrointestinal tract pathogens, ADI pathway is far more important than urease for acid resistance and intracellular survival in L. hongkongensis. The gene duplication of the arc gene cassettes could be a result of their functional importance in L. hongkongensis. PMID:24533585

  6. Transcriptional regulation of the ABCC6 gene and the background of impaired function of missense disease-causing mutations

    PubMed Central

    Arányi, Tamás; Bacquet, Caroline; de Boussac, Hugues; Ratajewski, Marcin; Pomozi, Viola; Fülöp, Krisztina; Brampton, Christopher N.; Pulaski, Lukasz; Saux, Olivier Le; Váradi, András

    2013-01-01

    The human ATP-binding cassette family C member 6 (ABCC6) gene encodes an ABC transporter protein expressed primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent in the kidneys and the intestines. We review here the mechanisms of this restricted tissue-specific expression and the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? which is responsible for the expression pattern. Detailed analyses uncovered further regulators of the expression of the gene pointing to an intronic primate-specific regulator region, an activator of the expression of the gene by binding CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta, which interacts with other proteins acting in the proximal promoter. This regulatory network is affected by various environmental stimuli including oxidative stress and the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 pathway. We also review here the structural and functional consequences of disease-causing missense mutations of ABCC6. A significant clustering of the missense disease-causing mutations was found at the domain–domain interfaces. This clustering means that the domain contacts are much less permissive to amino acid replacements than the rest of the protein. We summarize the experimental methods resulting in the identification of mutants with preserved transport activity but failure in intracellular targeting. These mutants are candidates for functional rescue by chemical chaperons. The results of such research can provide the basis of future allele-specific therapy of ABCC6-mediated disorders like pseudoxanthoma elasticum or the generalized arterial calcification in infancy. PMID:23483032

  7. A recombinase system facilitates cloning of expression cassettes in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Weide, Thomas; Bockau, Ulrike; Rave, Angelika; Herrmann, Lutz; Hartmann, Marcus WW

    2007-01-01

    Background Tetrahymena thermophila is one of the best characterized unicellular eukaryotes and its genome is sequenced in its entirety. However, the AT-richness of the genome and an unusual codon usage cause problems in cloning and expression of the ciliate DNA. To overcome these technical hiatuses we developed a Cre-dependent recombinase system. Results We created novel donor and acceptor vectors that facilitate the transfer of expression cassettes from the donor into novel acceptor plasmid. Expression vectors were used that encode the 19 kDa C-terminus of the MSP1 protein of Plasmodium falciparum and a blasticidin S (bsdR) resistance gene, respectively. The functional expression of these genes was demonstrated by western blot analysis with MSP1 specific antibodies and by a blasticidin growing assay. Conclusion The Cre dependent recombinase system in combination with the modular structure of the donor vectors ease cloning and expression of foreign genes in the ciliate system, providing a powerful tool for protistology research in future. PMID:17328820

  8. A recyclable Candida albicans URA3 cassette for PCR product-directed gene disruptions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R B; Davis, D; Enloe, B M; Mitchell, A P

    2000-01-15

    For some time, gene disruptions in Candida albicans have been made with the hisG-URA3-hisG ('Ura-blaster') cassette, which can be re-used in successive transformations of a single strain after homologous excision of URA3. However, the hisG repeats are too large for efficient PCR amplification of the entire cassette, so it cannot be used for PCR product-directed gene disruptions. We describe here a gene disruption cassette, URA3-dpl200, with 200 bp flanking repeats that permit efficient PCR amplification. After transformation and integration to produce both arg5::URA3-dpl200 and rim101::URA3-dpl200 alleles, we find that arg5::dpl200 and rim101::dpl200 segregants, respectively, can be obtained. We have used the cassette to create rim101::dpl200/rim101::URA3-dpl200 mutants exclusively through PCR product-directed disruption. PMID:10620776

  9. The GoldenBricks assembly: A standardized one-shot cloning technique for complete cassette assembly

    E-print Network

    Pauthenier, Cyrille

    2012-11-05

    BBF RFC 92 proposes a new standard assembly method for the Parts Registry. The method makes one-shot cloning of a complete eukaryotic or prokaryotic cassette possible in one day while keeping compatibility with the BBF RFC ...

  10. Novel integrons and gene cassettes from a Cascadian submarine gas-hydrate-bearing core.

    PubMed

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mitani, Yasuo; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether integrons are present in a submarine gas hydrate community, metagenomic DNA was extracted from a gas-hydrate-bearing core, 150 m below the seafloor, from the Cascadian Margin. Integrons and gene cassettes were recovered by PCR from metagenomic DNA and sequenced. Thirty-seven integron integrase phylotypes were identified. The phylotypes were diverse and included members with homology to integrases from Methylomonas methanica, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, Thermodesulfatator indicus, and marine uncultured bacteria. The gene cassette composition, 153 gene cassettes, was dominated by two types of encoded putative proteins. The first of these was predicted oxidoreductases, such as iron/sulfur cluster-binding proteins. A second type was alkyl transferases. Some cassette proteins showed homologies with those from methane-related archaea. These observations suggest that integrons may assist in the adaptation of microbial communities in this environment. PMID:24117886

  11. How To Choose Audio and Video Tape and Cassettes That Best Fit Your Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judson

    1978-01-01

    An audiovisual consultant presents a guide to selecting suitable and cost effective tape and cassettes. He describes and illustrates physical properties of tapes and includes a list of manufacturers and suppliers. (MF)

  12. Original Article High prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -negative pathogens and are thus a useful marker of antibiotic resistance. Shigellae are noteworthy for their multiple gene cassettes, usually antibiotic resistance genes [9]. Class 1 and 2 are the most frequent in Gram

  13. Novel Method for Genomic Promoter Shuffling by Using Recyclable Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xuelei; Xu, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Genetic elements of interest can be introduced into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome via homologous recombination. The current method is to link such an element to a selectable marker gene to be integrated into the target locus. However, the marker gene in this method cannot be reused, which limits repeated manipulation of the yeast genome. An alternative method is to utilize a counterselectable gene, such as URA3, with flanking tandem repeats. After integration, URA3 along with one copy of the repeat can be popped out via internal recombination, leaving behind one copy of the unwanted repeat. Here we describe a novel concept of genetic element shuffling in which the tandem repeats are made of the desired genetic element, so that after integration and popping out, only one copy of the element remains at the desired locus to function. As a proof of principle, we constructed three recyclable cassettes (PPGK1-URA3-PPGK1, PGAL1-URA3-PGAL1, and PtetO7-URA3-PtetO7) and integrated them upstream of an engineered chromosomal PHIS3-mCherry-Myc locus. After promoter shuffling, the mCherry-Myc gene was regulated precisely as anticipated. PMID:24014535

  14. Reassembly of anthramycin biosynthetic gene cluster by using recombinogenic cassettes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunfeng; Phelan, Vanessa V; Farnet, Chris M; Zazopoulos, Emmanuel; Bachmann, Brian O

    2008-07-01

    The reassembly and heterologous expression of complete gene clusters in shuttle vectors has enabled investigations of several large biosynthetic pathways in recent years. With a gene cluster in a mobile construct, the interrogation of gene functions from both culturable and nonculturable organisms is greatly accelerated and large pathway engineering efforts can be executed to produce "new" natural products. However, the genetic manipulation of complete natural product biosynthetic gene clusters is often complicated by their sheer size (10-200 kbp), which makes standard restriction/ligation-based methods impracticable. To circumvent these problems, alternative recombinogenic methods, which depend on engineered homology-based recombination have recently arisen as a powerful alternative. Here, we describe a new general technique that can be used to reconstruct large biosynthetic pathways from overlapping cosmids by retrofitting each cosmid with a "recombinogenic cassette" that contains a shared homologous element and orthogonal antibiotic markers. We employed this technique to reconstruct the anthramycin biosynthetic gene cluster of the thermotolerant actinomycete Streptomyces refuineus, from two >30 kbp cosmids into a single cosmid and integrate it into the genome of Streptomyces lividans. Anthramycin production in the heterologous Streptomyces host confirmed the integrity of the reconstructed pathway and validated the proposed boundaries of the gene cluster. Notably, anthramycin production by recombinant S. lividans was seen only during growth at high temperature--a property also shown by the natural host. This work provides tools to engineer the anthramycin biosynthetic pathway and to explore the connection between anthramycin production and growth at elevated temperatures. PMID:18512205

  15. Sequential gene deletions in Hypocrea jecorina using a single blaster cassette.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Lukas; Seiboth, Bernhard

    2005-09-01

    In Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph: Trichoderma reesei) multiple gene deletions are limited by the number of readily available selection markers. We have therefore constructed a blaster cassette which enables successive gene knock-outs in H. jecorina. This 3.5 kb pyr4 blaster cassette contains the H. jecorina pyr4 marker gene encoding orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase flanked by two direct repeats of the Streptoalloteichus hindustanus bleomycin gene (Sh ble), which facilitate the excision of the blaster cassette by homologous recombination after each round of deletion. Functionality of this pyr4 blaster cassette was demonstrated by deletion of the glk1 encoding glucokinase and hxk1 encoding hexokinase. 1.4-1.8 kb of the non-coding flanking regions of both target genes were cloned into the respective blaster cassettes and transformation of a pyr4 negative H. jecorina strain with the two cassettes resulted in 10-13% of the transformants in the deletion of one of the two kinase genes. For excision of the pyr4 blaster cassettes, Deltaglk1 strains were selected for growth in the presence of 5-fluoroorotic acid. Recombination between the two Sh ble elements resulted in uridine auxotrophic strains which retained their respective glucokinase negative phenotype. Subsequent transformation of one of these auxotrophic Deltaglk1 strains with the hexokinase blaster cassette resulted in pyr4 prototrophic strains deleted in both glk1 and hxk1. Deltaglk1 strains showed reduced growth on d-glucose and d-fructose whereas Deltahxkl strains showed reduced compact growth on d-glucose but were unable to grow on d-fructose as carbon source. The double Deltaglk1Deltahxk1 deletion strain was completely unable to grow on either d-glucose or d-fructose. PMID:16091959

  16. An expeditious method for constructing T-vectors using Eam 1105 I cassettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Xuejun; Zhang Zhichao; Bao Yongming; Yang Qing; An Lijia

    2002-01-01

    An expeditious method is described for constructing T-vectors containing complementary 3?-thymidine overhangs. A T-vector\\u000a was developed by cloning a 90-bpEam 1105 I cassette containing 2Eam 1105 I restriction sites into a modified pUC119 vector. TheEam 1105 I cassette was generated by PCR with 2 specific primers containing different recognition sequences ofEam 1105 I. The recombinant vector was easily converted into

  17. Integron Gene Cassettes: A Repository of Novel Protein Folds with Distinct Interaction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sureshan, Visaahini; Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Boucher, Yan; Koenig, Jeremy E.; Stokes, H. W.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

    2013-01-01

    Mobile gene cassettes captured within integron arrays encompass a vast and diverse pool of genetic novelty. In most cases, functional annotation of gene cassettes directly recovered by cassette-PCR is obscured by their characteristically high sequence novelty. This inhibits identification of those specific functions or biological features that might constitute preferential factors for lateral gene transfer via the integron system. A structural genomics approach incorporating x-ray crystallography has been utilised on a selection of cassettes to investigate evolutionary relationships hidden at the sequence level. Gene cassettes were accessed from marine sediments (pristine and contaminated sites), as well as a range of Vibrio spp. We present six crystal structures, a remarkably high proportion of our survey of soluble proteins, which were found to possess novel folds. These entirely new structures are diverse, encompassing all-?, ?+? and ?/? fold classes, and many contain clear binding pocket features for small molecule substrates. The new structures emphasise the large repertoire of protein families encoded within the integron cassette metagenome and which remain to be characterised. Oligomeric association is a notable recurring property common to these new integron-derived proteins. In some cases, the protein–protein contact sites utilised in homomeric assembly could instead form suitable contact points for heterogeneous regulator/activator proteins or domains. Such functional features are ideal for a flexible molecular componentry needed to ensure responsive and adaptive bacterial functions. PMID:23349695

  18. Multiple Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosomes and Allelic Variants of Cassette Chromosome Recombinases in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Norway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Merethe Hanssen; Johanna U. Ericson Sollid

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the nature of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements and cognate insertion sites in a collection of 42 clinical staphylococcal isolates of various species from Norway. The ccr and mec genes and the attachment sites (attL\\/attR) were identified by PCR, Southern blot hybridization, and DNA sequenc- ing. We found 10 possibly new SCCmec types and one previously

  19. A comparison of the closed-face cassette at different orientations while measuring total particles.

    PubMed

    Cook, David M; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

    2015-01-01

    The current method for sampling aerosols using the 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) sampler is based on the orientation of the cassette at ?45° from horizontal. There is some concern as to whether this method is appropriate and may be underestimating exposures. An alternative orientation at ?0° (horizontal) has been discussed. This research compared the CFC's orientation at 45° from horizontal to the proposed orientation at horizontal, 0° in a controlled laboratory setting. The particles used in this study were fused alumina oxide in four sizes, approximately 9.5 ?m, 12.8 ?m, 18 ?m, and 44.3 ?m in aerodynamic diameter. For each test, one aerosol was dispersed in a wind tunnel operating at 0.2 m/s with samplers mounted in the breathing zone of a rotating mannequin. A sampling event consisted of four pairs of samplers, placed side by side (one pair at 45° and another at 0° cassette orientation), and exposed for a period of 45 minutes. A total of 12 sampling events, 3 sample events per particle size, were conducted with a total of 94 samples collected. Mass concentration measurements were compared to assess the relationship between the sampler orientations of the cassettes. In addition, the relationship between the mass collected on the cassette filter and on the interior walls of the cassette was also assessed. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the measured concentrations based on the orientation of the CFCs. The amount of mass collected on the interior walls of the cassettes was relatively low (<5%) compared to expected (up to 100%) wall losses for both orientations. PMID:25337937

  20. Storing self-contained gel capillary cassettes for POC medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Zahariadis, George; Pilarski, Linda M

    2013-10-21

    For effective clinical uptake of the lab on a chip/point of care technology (LOC-POC), in addition to cost advantages LOC-POC devices should offer multiple patient screening panels for related diseases as well as cold-chain transportation and storage abilities. We recently described a device that performs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously screen raw clinical samples from up to 16 patients for multiple infectious agents (Manage et al., Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2576-2584). This cassette contains glass capillaries with desiccated semi-solid acrylamide gels that include all the reagents except for the sample, with integrated quality control. Here we report the development of protocols to store assembled PCR cassettes at room temperature, 4 °C or -20 °C as well as at +40 °C. We show that our cassettes are stable, with no loss of activity for at least 3 months at RT and at least 7 months at 4 °C and -20 °C. However, the activity of desiccated cassettes degrades when stored for more than 2 weeks at 40 °C, insufficient time for post-manufacture delivery and use of cassette PCR. To address this, we have evaluated two stage storage protocols. PCR cassettes can initially be stored at 4 °C and -20 °C for prolonged periods of time and removed for shorter term storage at RT, retaining activity for at least a month, which would facilitate transport to remote areas for testing. Effective use of cassette PCR in high temperature regions of the world, for experimental purposes defined here as 40 °C, appears to be feasible only after a first stage storage in the cold, followed by no more than 1 week at 40 °C. This should allow sufficient time for delivery by the manufacturer to a central area well served by power and refrigeration, for later ambient temperature transport and use in under-resourced areas that lack refrigeration. PMID:23966212

  1. A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring plasmids of genetically engineered microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedenstierna, K. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring genetically engineered plasmids carried by strains of Escherichia coli has been developed. The cassette consists of a Vibrio proteolyticus 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene surrounded by promoters and terminators from the rrnB operon of Escherischia coli. The identifier RNA is expressed and successfully processed so that approximately 30% of the 5S rRNA isolated from either whole cells or 70S ribosomes is of the V. proteolyticus type. Cells carrying the identifier are readily detectable by hybridization. Accurate measurements show that the identification cassette has little effect on fitness compared to a strain containing an analogous plasmid carrying wild type E. coli 5S rRNA, and the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene is not inactivated after prolonged growth. These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing small standardized identification cassettes that can utilize already existing highly sensitive rRNA detection methods. Cassettes of this type could in principle be incorporated into either the engineered regions of recombinant plasmids or their hosts.

  2. Significant Productivity Improvement of the Baculovirus Expression Vector System by Engineering a Novel Expression Cassette

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; López-Vidal, Javier; Escribano, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the development of a baculovirus vector expression cassette containing rearranged baculovirus-derived genetic regulatory elements. This newly designed expression cassette conferred significant production improvements to the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), including prolonged cell integrity after infection, improved protein integrity, and around 4-fold increase in recombinant protein production yields in insect cells with respect to a standard baculovirus vector. The expression cassette consisted of a cDNA encoding for the baculovirus transactivation factors IE1 and IE0, expressed under the control of the polyhedrin promoter, and a homologous repeated transcription enhancer sequence operatively cis-linked to the p10 promoter or to chimeric promoters containing p10. The prolonged cell integrity observed in cells infected by baculoviruses harbouring the novel expression cassette reduced the characteristic proteolysis and aberrant forms frequently found in baculovirus-derived recombinant proteins. The new expression cassette developed here has the potential to significantly improve the productivity of the BEVS. PMID:24824596

  3. Assessing ATP binding and hydrolysis by NLR proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nucleotide-binding and leucine rich repeat domain-containing proteins (NLR) are central to the formation of many inflammasome complexes. Several inflammasome forming NLR proteins are known to be ATPases, but the nucleotide binding specificity of many remains to be characterized. The oligomerization of NLR proteins and assembly of inflammasomes require the ATP (or other nucleotide) binding activity of the NLR proteins. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the nucleotide binding properties of these proteins are useful tools in studying the regulation of inflammasome activity, and will be outlined in this Chapter. PMID:23852603

  4. ATP binding to a multisubunit enzyme: statistical thermodynamics analysis

    E-print Network

    Yunxin Zhang

    2012-03-22

    Due to inter-subunit communication, multisubunit enzymes usually hydrolyze ATP in a concerted fashion. However, so far the principle of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, from the viewpoint of statistical thermodynamics, a simple model is presented. In this model, we assume that the binding of ATP will change the potential of the corresponding enzyme subunit, and the degree of this change depends on the state of its adjacent subunits. The probability of enzyme in a given state satisfies the Boltzmann's distribution. Although it looks much simple, this model can fit the recent experimental data of chaperonin TRiC/CCT well. From this model, the dominant state of TRiC/CCT can be obtained. This study provided a new way to understand biophysical processes by statistical thermodynamics analysis.

  5. Supplemental Data Directed Evolution of ATP Binding Proteins

    E-print Network

    Heller, Eric

    GA 3') and gc132 (5' ACC TAG TCT CCC CTT TCT CAC GGT GCG CTT GAA GAA GCC TTT ACA GCC CTC ACA GGA 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 765 ATC TCC ACA GAT GGC GCA G 3'; 5 is a mixture of bases127 (5'GCT AAT ACG ACT CAC TAT AGG GAC AAT TAC TAT TTA CAA TTA CAA TGG ACT ACA AGG ACG ACG A 3

  6. Capture and quality control mechanisms for ATP binding

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Martinis, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic events in members of the nucleotidylyl transferase superfamily are initiated by a millisecond binding of ATP in the active site. Through metadynamics simulations on a class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRSs), the largest group in the superfamily, we calculate the free energy landscape of ATP selection and binding. Mutagenesis studies and fluorescence spectroscopy validated the identification of the most populated intermediate states. The rapid first binding step involves formation of encounter complexes captured through a fly-casting mechanism that acts up on the triphosphate moiety of ATP. In the slower nucleoside binding step, a conserved histidine in the HxxH motif orients the incoming ATP through base-stacking interactions resulting in a deep minimum in the free energy surface. Mutation of this histidine significantly decreases the binding affinity measured experimentally and computationally. The metadynamics simulations further reveal an intermediate quality control state that the synthetases and most likely other members of the superfamily use to select ATP over other nucleoside triphosphates. PMID:23276298

  7. Statistical Mechanics Analysis of ATP Binding to a Multisubunit Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Due to inter-subunit communication, multisubunit enzymes usually hydrolyze ATP in a concerted fashion. However, so far the principle of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics, a simple model is presented. In this model, we assume that the binding of ATP will change the potential of the corresponding enzyme subunit, and the degree of this change depends on the state of its adjacent subunits. The probability of enzyme in a given state satisfies the Boltzmann's distribution. Although it looks much simple, this model can fit the recent experimental data of chaperonin TRiC/CCT well. From this model, the dominant state of TRiC/CCT can be obtained. This study provide a new way to understand biophysical processe by statistical mechanics analysis.

  8. Optimization of wheat co-transformation procedure with gene cassettes resulted in an improvement in transformation frequency.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qin; Cong, Ling; He, Guangyuan; Chang, Junli; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao

    2007-03-01

    Genetic manipulation using gene cassettes was applied to the elite wheat variety EM12 via particle bombardment, which allows an improvement in transformation frequency. We simultaneously transferred to wheat immature embryos with two non-linked genes, gus and bar, on either separate gene cassettes or one plasmid. The linear gene cassettes were excised and purified by restriction digestion of the plasmid, and consisted of promoters, open reading frames and terminators. No difference was observed in GUS transient expression of between gene cassettes and single whole plasmid. However, the stable transformation frequency was significantly increased to 1.1% using gene cassettes, compared with 0.4% when using single plasmid. Procedures of the efficient co-transformation with gene cassettes were developed. Factors influencing on the transformation frequency were also studied in order to optimize the procedure. These were acceleration pressure, target distance, gold particle size, the quantity ratio of gene cassettes and the age of target explants. Based on the transient and stable expression of the gus gene cassettes, optimization of transformation parameters improved the reproducibility of transformation in the elite wheat variety. PMID:17195929

  9. STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Cameron juggle cassettes on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron juggle cassette tapes on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Laughing at Cameron's stunt are Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin (foreground), Commander Steven R. Nagel (behind Cameron), and MS Jerry L. Ross (at floor level). Ross snacks on chocolate candy during the performance.

  10. Modifying lysine biosynthesis and catabolism in corn with a single bifunctional expression/silencing transgene cassette.

    PubMed

    Frizzi, Alessandra; Huang, Shihshieh; Gilbertson, Larry A; Armstrong, Toni A; Luethy, Michael H; Malvar, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Although it is one of the major crops in the world, corn has poor nutritional quality for human and animal consumption due to its low lysine content. Here, we report a method of simultaneous expression of a deregulated lysine biosynthetic enzyme, CordapA, and reduction of a bifunctional lysine degradation enzyme, lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharophine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH), in transgenic corn plants by a single transgene cassette. This is accomplished by inserting an inverted-repeat sequence targeting the maize LKR/SDH gene into an intron of a transgene cassette that expresses CordapA. This combination of LKR/SDH silencing and CordapA expression led to the accumulation of free lysine to over 4000 p.p.m. in transgenic corn grain, compared to less than 100 p.p.m. in wild-type controls. This intron-embedded silencing cassette design reduces the number of transgene cassettes needed in transgenic approaches for manipulating metabolic pathways that sometimes require expression of one gene and silencing of another. PMID:17725550

  11. Extracting Metalworking Fluid Aerosol Samples in Cassettes by Provisional ASTM and NIOSH Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Harper

    2002-01-01

    Recent provisional methods for the determination of metalworking fluid aerosol in workplace air involve a solvent extraction procedure to separate the nonvolatile fraction of the fluid from insoluble material such as metal turnings and dirt. The procedure calls for preweighing a filter (W1) and assembling it into a cassette and taking a sample. In the laboratory the filter is removed

  12. A test cassette for x-ray-exposure experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, K. B.; Celeste, J.; Rekow, V.; Bopp, D. R.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Horton, R.; Newlander, C. D. [Gray Research, Inc., 655 Discovery Drive, Suite 300, Huntsville, Alabama 35806 (United States); Jenkins, P.; Trautz, K. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We present the design and operation of a test cassette for exposure of samples to radiation environments at the National Ignition Facility. The cassette provides options for square and round samples and exposure areas; the cassette provides for multiple levels of filtration on a single sample, which allows dynamic range in experiments. The samples had normal lines of sight to the x-ray source in order to have uniform x-ray illumination. The incident x-radiation onto the samples was determined by the choice of filter thicknesses and materials. The samples were held at precise locations, accurate to within a few hundred microns, in the target chamber in order to have a known fluence incident. In the cassette, the samples were held in place in such a way that a minimal ''line contact'' allows them to have the maximal mechanical response to the x-ray load. We present postshot images of the debris found on films used for filters, and pre- and postexposure specimens.

  13. Integrase-Mediated Recombination of the veb1 Gene Cassette Encoding an Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Daniel; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    The veb1 gene cassette encodes the extended spectrum ?-lactamase, VEB-1 that is increasingly isolated from worldwide Gram-negative rods. Veb1 is commonly inserted into the variable region of different class 1 integrons in which it is always associated with a downstream-located aadB gene cassette encoding an aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the majority of veb1-containing integrons also carry an insertion sequence, IS1999 that is inserted upstream of the veb1 gene cassette and disrupts the integron specific recombination site, attI1. Investigation of the recombination properties of the sites surrounding veb1 revealed that insertion of IS1999 reduces significantly the recombination frequency of attI1 and that veb1 attC is not efficient for recombination in contrast to aadB attC. Subsequent sequence optimisation of veb1 attC by mutagenesis, into a more consensual attC site resembling aadB attC, successfully improved recombination efficiency. Overall, this work gives some insights into the organisation of veb1-containing integrons. We propose that IS1999 and the nature of veb1 attC stabilize the veb1 gene cassette environment likely by impairing recombination events upstream or downstream of veb1, respectively. PMID:23251590

  14. A Novel Cassette Method for Probe Evaluation in the Designed Biochips

    PubMed Central

    Zinkevich, Vitaly; Sapojnikova, Nelly; Mitchell, Julian; Kartvelishvili, Tamar; Asatiani, Nino; Alkhalil, Samia; Bogdarina, Irina; Al-Humam, Abdulmohsen A.

    2014-01-01

    A critical step in biochip design is the selection of probes with identical hybridisation characteristics. In this article we describe a novel method for evaluating DNA hybridisation probes, allowing the fine-tuning of biochips, that uses cassettes with multiple probes. Each cassette contains probes in equimolar proportions so that their hybridisation performance can be assessed in a single reaction. The model used to demonstrate this method was a series of probes developed to detect TORCH pathogens. DNA probes were designed for Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes virus and these were used to construct the DNA cassettes. Five cassettes were constructed to detect TORCH pathogens using a variety of genes coding for membrane proteins, viral matrix protein, an early expressed viral protein, viral DNA polymerase and the repetitive gene B1 of Toxoplasma gondii. All of these probes, except that for the B1 gene, exhibited similar profiles under the same hybridisation conditions. The failure of the B1 gene probe to hybridise was not due to a position effect, and this indicated that the probe was unsuitable for inclusion in the biochip. The redesigned probe for the B1 gene exhibited identical hybridisation properties to the other probes, suitable for inclusion in a biochip. PMID:24897111

  15. STS-29 MS Bagian juggles audio cassettes on Discovery's, OV-103's, middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    On aft middeck, STS-29 Mission Specialist (MS) James P. Bagian juggles TEAC audio cassettes freefloating above foam insert as he attempts to organize them. In front of Bagian are aft middeck lockers and part of the open airlock hatch. Behind him are the starboard wall-mounted sleep restraints.

  16. Stacking multiple transgenes at a selected genomic site via repeated recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchanges.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongsen; Moon, Bryan P; Xing, Aiqiu; Liu, Zhan-Bin; McCardell, Richard P; Damude, Howard G; Falco, S Carl

    2010-10-01

    Recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchange (RMCE) has been successfully used to insert transgenes at previously characterized genomic sites in plants. Following the same strategy, groups of transgenes can be stacked to the same site through multiple rounds of RMCE. A gene-silencing cassette, designed to simultaneously silence soybean (Glycine max) genes fatty acid ?-6 desaturase 2 (FAD2) and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase 2 (FATB) to improve oleic acid content, was first inserted by RMCE at a precharacterized genomic site in soybean. Selected transgenic events were subsequently retransformed with the second DNA construct containing a Yarrowia lipolytica diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGAT1) to increase oil content by the enhancement of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and three other genes, a Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthetase gene (DHPS), a barley (Hordeum vulgare) high-lysine protein gene (BHL8), and a truncated soybean cysteine synthase gene (CGS), to improve the contents of the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. Molecular characterization confirmed that the second RMCE successfully stacked the four overexpression cassettes to the previously integrated FAD2-FATB gene-silencing cassette. Phenotypic analyses indicated that all the transgenes expressed expected phenotypes. PMID:20720171

  17. Gel Cassette Preparation1 1. Place a Short Plate on top of the Spacer Plate.

    E-print Network

    Raizada, Manish N.

    plates into the Casting Frame, keeping the Short Plate facing front. Insure both plates are flush at the bottom on a level surface. 3. Lock the pressure cams to secure the glass plates. 4. Engage the spring loaded lever and place the gel cassette assembly on the gray casting stand gasket. Insure the horizontal

  18. Video Cassettes: The Systems, the Market, the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Martin

    In its survey of the videocassette field, this book details the background, current status, problems, and potentials of the various systems designed to record and reproduce films and other audiovisual material through a conventional television set. The systems used by CBS (a miniaturized film format), Avco, Sony, Ampex (all magnetic tape formats),…

  19. Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically preserved before being returned to Earth for analyses. Our results suggest that with protocol modifications and future verification testing we can utilize the versatile EMCS to conduct tightly controlled experiments inside our culture cassettes for a wide variety of organisms. These physiological experiments would be designed to answer questions at the molecular level about the specific stress responses of space flight.

  20. Use of cassette dosing to enhance the throughput of rat brain microdialysis studies.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Gauri; Sun, Kefeng; Liederer, Bianca M; Ding, Xiao; Liu, Xingrong

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to increase the throughput of rat brain microdialysis studies by administration of compounds as a cassette as opposed to discrete study. Eight compounds (carbamazepine, citalopram, desmethylclozapine, diphenhydramine, gabapentin, metoclopramide, naltrexone, and stavudine) were selected and administered as an intravenous bolus dose at 0.5-3.3 mg/kg each followed by an intravenous infusion at 1 mg/kg per hour for 6 hours in rats in a cassette or discrete dosing. The dialysate, plasma, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The microdialysis probe recovery was determined by an in vitro gain method. The recovery between the cassette and discrete dosing was similar, with an average of 1.0 ± 0.10-fold difference. The stavudine interstitial fluid (ISF) concentration, as measured by brain microdialysis, was below the low limit of quantitation and was excluded from the analyses. The ratios of ISF concentration to unbound plasma concentration were within 2-fold for six of the remaining seven compounds, with an average of 0.92 ± 0.51-fold difference between the cassette and discrete methods. The ratios of ISF concentration to unbound brain concentration, as measured by the brain homogenate method, were also similar, with a 1.1 ± 0.7-fold difference. In addition, the ratios of ISF to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations were similar, with a 1.5 ± 0.6-fold difference. The results from this study support the use of a cassette dosing approach to enhance the throughput of rat brain microdialysis studies in drug discovery. PMID:25943358

  1. Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of the EMCS ARC Seed Cassettes.

  2. Novel integron gene cassette arrays identified in a global collection of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Krauland, Mary; Harrison, Lee; Paterson, David; Marsh, Jane

    2010-03-01

    Investigation of integron carriage in a global collection of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica identified 3 unique class 1 integron gene cassette arrays not previously reported in this species. The present study used PCR and DNA sequence analysis to characterize the structure of these gene cassette arrays. A approximately 4.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette array arr2/cmlA5/bla (OXA10) /aadA1 was found in isolates belonging to serovars Isangi and Typhimurium from South Africa. A approximately 6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassettes aac(6')IIc/ereA2/IS1247/aac/arr/ereA2 was found in isolates belonging to serovar Heidelberg from the Philippines. In this gene cassette array, the insertion sequence, IS1247, and two putative resistance genes, disrupt the erythromycin resistance gene cassette. Finally, a approximately 6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette qacH/dfrA32/ereA1/aadA2/cmlA/aadA1 was found in serovar Stanley isolates from Taiwan. This integron, which has not been previously reported in any bacterial species, contains a new dihydrofolate reductase gene cassette sequence designated dfrA32, with only 90% sequence similarity to previously reported dfrA cassettes. The S. enterica integrons described in the present study represent novel collections of resistance genes which confer multi-drug resistance and have the potential to be widely disseminated among S. enterica as well as other bacterial species. PMID:19921331

  3. Novel Integron Gene Cassette Arrays Identified in a Global Collection of Multi-Drug Resistant Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica

    PubMed Central

    Krauland, Mary; Harrison, Lee; Paterson, David

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of integron carriage in a global collection of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica identified 3 unique class 1 integron gene cassette arrays not previously reported in this species. The present study used PCR and DNA sequence analysis to characterize the structure of these gene cassette arrays. A ~4.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette array arr2/cmlA5/blaOXA10/ aadA1 was found in isolates belonging to serovars Isangi and Typhimurium from South Africa. A ~6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassettes aac(6?)IIc/ereA2/IS1247/aac/ arr/ereA2 was found in isolates belonging to serovar Heidelberg from the Philippines. In this gene cassette array, the insertion sequence, IS1247, and two putative resistance genes, disrupt the erythromycin resistance gene cassette. Finally, a ~6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette qacH/dfrA32/ereA1/aadA2/cmlA/aadA1 was found in serovar Stanley isolates from Taiwan. This integron, which has not been previously reported in any bacterial species, contains a new dihydrofolate reductase gene cassette sequence designated dfrA32, with only 90% sequence similarity to previously reported dfrA cassettes. The S. enterica integrons described in the present study represent novel collections of resistance genes which confer multi-drug resistance and have the potential to be widely disseminated among S. enterica as well as other bacterial species. PMID:19921331

  4. SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis) 1. Glass cassette and casting stand

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Marius

    SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis) 1. Glass cassette (10 ml) using following reagents except 10% APS10 and TEMED15 . 2.4ml dH2O 5.0ml Acrylamide/Bis20 2 following reagents except 10% APS10 and TEMED15 . 5.7ml dH2O 1.7ml Acrylamide/Bis20 2.5ml stacking buffer40

  5. A new efficient gene disruption cassette for repeated use in budding yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Güldener; Susanne Heck; Thomas Fiedler; Jens Beinhauer; Johannes H. Hegemann

    1996-01-01

    The dominant kanr marker gene plays an important role in gene disruption experiments in budding yeast, as this marker can be used in a variety of yeast strains lacking the conventional yeast markers. We have developed a loxP-kanMX-loxP gene disruption cassette, which combines the advantages of the heterologous kanr marker with those from the Cre-lox P recombination system. This disruption

  6. Characterization of the cassette containing genes for type 3 capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The capsular polysaccharide is the major virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Previously, we identified and cloned a region from the S. pneumoniae chromosome specific for the production of type 3 capsular polysaccharide. Now, by sequencing the region and characterizing mutations genetically and in an in vitro capsule synthesis assay, we have assigned putative functions to the products of the type-specific genes. Using DNA from the right end of the region in mapping studies, we have obtained further evidence indicating that the capsule genes of each serotype are contained in a gene cassette located adjacent to this region. We have cloned the region flanking the left end of the cassette from the type 3 chromosome and have found that it is repeated in the S. pneumoniae chromosome. The DNA sequence and hybridization data suggest a model for recombination of the capsule gene cassettes that not only describes the replacement of capsule genes, but also suggests an explanation for binary capsule type formation, and the creation of novel capsule types. PMID:7869055

  7. Viral Expression Cassette Elements to Enhance Transgene Target Specificity and Expression in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Sara Kathleen; Rivera-Soto, Ricardo; Gray, Steven James

    2015-01-01

    Over the last five years, the number of clinical trials involving AAV (adeno-associated virus) and lentiviral vectors continue to increase by about 150 trials each year. For continued success, AAV and lentiviral expression cassettes need to be designed to meet each disease's specific needs. This review discusses how viral vector expression cassettes can be engineered with elements to enhance target specificity and increase transgene expression. The key differences relating to target specificity between ubiquitous and tissue-specific promoters are discussed, as well as how endogenous miRNAs and their target sequences have been used to restrict transgene expression. Specifically, relevant studies indicating how cis-acting elements such as introns, WPRE, polyadenylation signals, and the CMV enhancer are highlighted to show their utility for enhancing transgene expression in gene therapy applications. All discussion bears in mind that expression cassettes have space constraints. In conclusion, this review can serve as a menu of vector genome design elements and their cost in terms of space to thoughtfully engineer viral vectors for gene therapy. PMID:25636961

  8. Linear friction weld process monitoring of fixture cassette deformations using empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, O. J.; Gibson, C.; Wilson, P.; Lohse, N.; Popov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Due to its inherent advantages, linear friction welding is a solid-state joining process of increasing importance to the aerospace, automotive, medical and power generation equipment industries. Tangential oscillations and forge stroke during the burn-off phase of the joining process introduce essential dynamic forces, which can also be detrimental to the welding process. Since burn-off is a critical phase in the manufacturing stage, process monitoring is fundamental for quality and stability control purposes. This study aims to improve workholding stability through the analysis of fixture cassette deformations. Methods and procedures for process monitoring are developed and implemented in a fail-or-pass assessment system for fixture cassette deformations during the burn-off phase. Additionally, the de-noised signals are compared to results from previous production runs. The observed deformations as a consequence of the forces acting on the fixture cassette are measured directly during the welding process. Data on the linear friction-welding machine are acquired and de-noised using empirical mode decomposition, before the burn-off phase is extracted. This approach enables a direct, objective comparison of the signal features with trends from previous successful welds. The capacity of the whole process monitoring system is validated and demonstrated through the analysis of a large number of signals obtained from welding experiments.

  9. Genomic donor cassette sharing during VLRA and VLRC assembly in jawless vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Das, Sabyasachi; Li, Jianxu; Holland, Stephen J; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M; Hirano, Masayuki; Schorpp, Michael; Aravind, L; Cooper, Max D; Boehm, Thomas

    2014-10-14

    Lampreys possess two T-like lymphocyte lineages that express either variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) A or VLRC antigen receptors. VLRA(+) and VLRC(+) lymphocytes share many similarities with the two principal T-cell lineages of jawed vertebrates expressing the ?? and ?? T-cell receptors (TCRs). During the assembly of VLR genes, several types of genomic cassettes are inserted, in step-wise fashion, into incomplete germ-line genes to generate the mature forms of antigen receptor genes. Unexpectedly, the structurally variable components of VLRA and VLRC receptors often possess partially identical sequences; this phenomenon of module sharing between these two VLR isotypes occurs in both lampreys and hagfishes. By contrast, VLRA and VLRC molecules typically do not share their building blocks with the structurally analogous VLRB receptors that are expressed by B-like lymphocytes. Our studies reveal that VLRA and VLRC germ-line genes are situated in close proximity to each other in the lamprey genome and indicate the interspersed arrangement of isotype-specific and shared genomic donor cassettes; these features may facilitate the shared cassette use. The genomic structure of the VLRA/VLRC locus in lampreys is reminiscent of the interspersed nature of the TCRA/TCRD locus in jawed vertebrates that also allows the sharing of some variable gene segments during the recombinatorial assembly of TCR genes. PMID:25228758

  10. Modulation of Gene Expression by Polymer Nanocapsule Delivery of DNA Cassettes Encoding Small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Min; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Small RNAs, including siRNAs, gRNAs and miRNAs, modulate gene expression and serve as potential therapies for human diseases. Delivery to target cells remains the fundamental limitation for use of these RNAs in humans. To address this challenge, we have developed a nanocapsule delivery technology that encapsulates small DNA molecules encoding RNAs into a small (30nm) polymer nanocapsule. For proof of concept, we transduced DNA expression cassettes for three small RNAs. In one application, the DNA cassette encodes an shRNA transcriptional unit that downregulates CCR5 and protects from HIV-1 infection. The DNA cassette nanocapsules were further engineered for timed release of the DNA cargo for prolonged knockdown of CCR5. Secondly, the nanocapsules provide an efficient means for delivery of gRNAs in the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate integrated HIV-1. Finally, delivery of microRNA-125b to mobilized human CD34+ cells enhances survival and expansion of the CD34+ cells in culture. PMID:26035832

  11. Ubiquitin promoter-terminator cassette promotes genetically stable expression of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Shohael, Abdullah Mohammad; Kim, You-Wang; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Lettuce is a commercially important leafy vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, and it is also a target crop for plant factories. In this study, lettuce was selected as an alternative platform for recombinant miraculin production because of its fast growth, agronomic value, and wide availability. The taste-modifying protein miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the red berries of the West African native shrub Richadella dulcifica. Because of its limited natural availability, many attempts have been made to produce this protein in suitable alternative hosts. We produced transgenic lettuce with miraculin gene driven either by the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette from lettuce or a 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. Miraculin gene expression and miraculin accumulation in both cassettes were compared by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression level of the miraculin gene and protein in transgenic lettuce was higher and more genetically stable in the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette than in the 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. These results demonstrated that the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette is an efficient platform for the genetically stable expression of the miraculin protein in lettuce and hence this platform is of benefit for recombinant miraculin production on a commercial scale. PMID:21830129

  12. Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

  13. Hygromycin B and Apramycin Antibiotic Resistance Cassettes for Use in Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Andrew; Gaynor, Erin C.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium. PMID:24751825

  14. Natural transformation facilitates transfer of transposons, integrons and gene cassettes between bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Sara; Harms, Klaus; Fricke, W Florian; Johnsen, Pĺl J; da Silva, Gabriela J; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated to what extent natural transformation acting on free DNA substrates can facilitate transfer of mobile elements including transposons, integrons and/or gene cassettes between bacterial species. Naturally transformable cells of Acinetobacter baylyi were exposed to DNA from integron-carrying strains of the genera Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella to determine the nature and frequency of transfer. Exposure to the various DNA sources resulted in acquisition of antibiotic resistance traits as well as entire integrons and transposons, over a 24 h exposure period. DNA incorporation was not solely dependent on integrase functions or the genetic relatedness between species. DNA sequence analyses revealed that several mechanisms facilitated stable integration in the recipient genome depending on the nature of the donor DNA; homologous or heterologous recombination and various types of transposition (Tn21-like and IS26-like). Both donor strains and transformed isolates were extensively characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, integron- and cassette-specific PCRs, DNA sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoreses (PFGE), Southern blot hybridizations, and by re-transformation assays. Two transformant strains were also genome-sequenced. Our data demonstrate that natural transformation facilitates interspecies transfer of genetic elements, suggesting that the transient presence of DNA in the cytoplasm may be sufficient for genomic integration to occur. Our study provides a plausible explanation for why sequence-conserved transposons, IS elements and integrons can be found disseminated among bacterial species. Moreover, natural transformation of integron harboring populations of competent bacteria revealed that interspecies exchange of gene cassettes can be highly efficient, and independent on genetic relatedness between donor and recipient. In conclusion, natural transformation provides a much broader capacity for horizontal acquisitions of genetic elements and hence, resistance traits from divergent species than previously assumed. PMID:22876180

  15. Predicting film dose to aid in cassette placement for radiation therapy portal verification film images.

    PubMed

    Keys, Richard A; Marks, James E; Haus, Arthur G

    2002-12-01

    EC film has improved portal localization images with better contrast and improved distinction of bony structures and air-tissue interfaces. A cassette with slower speed screens was used with EC film to image the treatment portal during the entire course of treatment (verification) instead of taking separate films after treatment. Measurements of film density vs source to film distance (SFD) were made using 15 and 25 cm thick water phantoms with both 6 and 18 MV photons from I to 40 cm past the phantom. A characteristic (H & D) curve was measured in air to compare dose to film density. Results show the reduction in radiation between patient and cassette more closely follows an "inverse cube law" rather than an inverse square law. Formulas to calculate radiation exposure to the film, and the desired SFD were based on patient tumor dose, calculation of the exit dose, and the inverse cube relationship. A table of exposure techniques based on the SFD for a given tumor dose was evaluated and compared to conventional techniques. Although the film has a high contrast, there is enough latitude that excellent films can be achieved using a fixed SFD based simply on the tumor dose and beam energy. Patient diameter has a smaller effect. The benefits of imaging portal films during the entire treatment are more reliability in the accuracy of the portal image, ability to detect patient motion, and reduction in the time it takes to take portal images. PMID:12512719

  16. Plug-and-play genetic access to drosophila cell types using exchangeable exon cassettes.

    PubMed

    Diao, Fengqiu; Ironfield, Holly; Luan, Haojiang; Diao, Feici; Shropshire, William C; Ewer, John; Marr, Elizabeth; Potter, Christopher J; Landgraf, Matthias; White, Benjamin H

    2015-03-01

    Genetically encoded effectors are important tools for probing cellular function in living animals, but improved methods for directing their expression to specific cell types are required. Here, we introduce a simple, versatile method for achieving cell-type-specific expression of transgenes that leverages the untapped potential of "coding introns" (i.e., introns between coding exons). Our method couples the expression of a transgene to that of a native gene expressed in the cells of interest using intronically inserted "plug-and-play" cassettes (called "Trojan exons") that carry a splice acceptor site followed by the coding sequences of T2A peptide and an effector transgene. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach in Drosophila using lines containing suitable MiMIC (Minos-mediated integration cassette) transposons and a palette of Trojan exons capable of expressing a range of commonly used transcription factors. We also introduce an exchangeable, MiMIC-like Trojan exon construct that can be targeted to coding introns using the Crispr/Cas system. PMID:25732830

  17. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  18. Structural basis for functional cooperation between tandem helicase cassettes in Brr2-mediated remodeling of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Karine F.; Jovin, Sina Mozaffari; Weber, Gert; Pena, Vladimir; Lührmann, Reinhard; Wahl, Markus C.

    2012-01-01

    Assembly of a spliceosome, catalyzing precursor–messenger RNA splicing, involves multiple RNA–protein remodeling steps, driven by eight conserved DEXD/H-box RNA helicases. The 250-kDa Brr2 enzyme, which is essential for U4/U6 di-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein disruption during spliceosome catalytic activation and for spliceosome disassembly, is the only member of this group that is permanently associated with the spliceosome, thus requiring its faithful regulation. At the same time, Brr2 represents a unique subclass of superfamily 2 nucleic acid helicases, containing tandem helicase cassettes. Presently, the mechanistic and regulatory consequences of this unconventional architecture are unknown. Here we show that in human Brr2, two ring-like helicase cassettes intimately interact and functionally cooperate and how retinitis pigmentosa-linked Brr2 mutations interfere with the enzyme’s function. Only the N-terminal cassette harbors ATPase and helicase activities in isolation. Comparison with other helicases and mutational analyses show how it threads single-stranded RNA, and structural features suggest how it can load onto an internal region of U4/U6 di-snRNA. Although the C-terminal cassette does not seem to engage RNA in the same fashion, it binds ATP and strongly stimulates the N-terminal helicase. Mutations at the cassette interface, in an intercassette linker or in the C-terminal ATP pocket, affect this cross-talk in diverse ways. Together, our results reveal the structural and functional interplay between two helicase cassettes in a tandem superfamily 2 enzyme and point to several sites through which Brr2 activity may be regulated. PMID:23045696

  19. Background ionising radiation: a pictorial perspective.

    PubMed

    Bibbo, Giovanni; Piotto, Lino

    2014-09-01

    Ionising radiation from natural sources, known as background radiation, has existed on earth since the earth's formation. The exposure of humans and other living creatures to this radiation is a feature of the earth's environment which is continuing and inescapable. The word "radiation" brings fear to many people: a fear of the unknown, as human's senses cannot detect the presence of ionising radiation. In this study, a catalogue of images of the distribution of radioactivity in every day objects and foods has been produced using an imaging plate from a computed radiography cassette. The aim of the study is that by visually demonstrating that every day objects and foods are radioactive would alleviate the fear of "radiation" by becoming aware that we live in a radioactive environment and even our body is radioactive. PMID:24972814

  20. Ambient Influenza and Avian Influenza Virus during Dust Storm Days and Background Days

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Shih; Tsai, Feng Ta; Lin, Chien Kun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2010-01-01

    Background The spread of influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) presents a significant threat to human health. Avian influenza outbreaks in downwind areas of Asian dust storms (ADS) suggest that viruses might be transported by dust storms. Objectives We developed a technique to measure ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses. We then used this technique to measure concentrations of these viruses on ADS days and background days, and to assess the relationships between ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses, and air pollutants. Methods A high-volume air sampler was used in parallel with a filter cassette to evaluate spiked samples and unspiked samples. Then, air samples were monitored during ADS seasons using a filter cassette coupled with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Air samples were monitored during ADS season (1 January to 31 May 2006). Results We successfully quantified ambient influenza virus using the filtration/real-time qPCR method during ADS days and background days. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the concentration of influenza virus in ambient air. In both the spiked and unspiked samples, the concentration of influenza virus sampled using the filter cassette was higher than that using the high-volume sampler. The concentration of ambient influenza A virus was significantly higher during the ADS days than during the background days. Conclusions Our data imply the possibility of long-range transport of influenza virus. PMID:20435545

  1. A new variant of self-excising ?-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletion and homokaryon purification in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Edyta; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

    2014-05-01

    In a previous study, we developed a cassette employing a bacterial ?-recombinase acting on six recognition sequences (?-rec/six), which allowed repetitive site-specific gene deletion and marker recycling in Neurospora crassa. However, only one positive selection marker was used in the cassette. A tedious subsequent procedure was needed to purify homokaryons due to the lack of a negative selection after cassette eviction. Additionally, the endoxylanase xylP promoter from Penicillium chrysogenum used in the construct was not strongly regulated in N. crassa, which led to low efficiency in cassette eviction. Herein we report an improved variant of the self-excising ?-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletions in N. crassa using a native endoxylanase gh10-2 promoter from N. crassa, plus the introduction of a bidirectional selection marker to facilitate homokaryon selection using a thymidine kinase (tk) gene (negative selection) in addition to the phosphinothricin resistance gene (bar(r)) (positive selection). PMID:24556286

  2. Resistance patterns and integron cassette arrays of Enterobacter cloacae complex strains of human origin.

    PubMed

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Pawlowski, Konrad; Kaznowski, Adam

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the resistance patterns and characterize the distribution and genetic content of resistance integrons within Enterobacter cloacae complex strains originating from hospitalized patients. The strains were included in the E. cloacae complex study following sequence analysis of the hsp60 gene. The determination of resistance towards eight classes of antimicrobials was followed by PCR detection of integrons and analyses of the size and sequences of their variable parts. The majority of 69 clinical strains of the E. cloacae complex were identified as Enterobacter hormaechei. They were isolated from a variety of samples, including urine, wounds, blood and stools. The remaining isolates belonged to E. cloacae clusters III and IV, E. cloacae subsp. cloacae and Enterobacter kobei. Fifty-two isolates (75.4?%) were resistant to more than three unrelated antibiotics. The resistance for each antibiotic, except imipenem, was significantly associated with the presence of integrons. Class 1 integrons were detected in 55?% of isolates: 63.3?% of 'E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii', 50?% of E. cloacae cluster III, 40?% of 'E. hormaechei subsp. oharae', 33?% belonging to E. cloacae cluster IV and 20?% of 'E. hormaechei subsp. hormaechei' were intI1-positive. All of the integrons were located on transferable genetic elements. The transferred resistance primarily included that to aminoglycosides, ticarcillin, piperacillin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and tetracycline. Sequence analysis of the variable regions of integrons identified two groups of genes: those encoding aminoglycoside adenylotransferases responsible for resistance to aminoglycosides, and dfr cassettes conferring resistance to trimethoprim. Integrons of the E. cloacae complex showed limited variability of genes encoding resistance to therapeutics and were stable in structure with the following cassette arrays: dfrA12-orfF-aadA2, aadB-aadA2, dfrA1-aadA1 and aacA4-aadA1. Hospital-dependent differences in type and arrays of gene cassettes were observed, which seemed to be conserved and not liable to changes. PMID:21330416

  3. Consumer Education Resources Catalog. 1980 Supplement. 16mm Films, Multi Media Kits, Video Cassettes, Simulations & Games, Printed Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra

    This supplement to the Consumer Education Resources Catalog (see note) lists teaching-learning resources available for preview at the Michigan Consumer Education Center. A subject index to multi-media identifies titles of films, video cassettes, multi-media kits, and games under seven specific subjects. These are (1) Factors Affecting Consumer…

  4. Consumer Education Resources Catalog: 16mm Films, Multi Media Kits, Video Cassettes, Simulations & Games, Printed Materials. 1978 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra; Neal, Kathy

    This consumer education resources catalog provides an annotated guide to 16mm films, multi-media kits, video cassettes, simulations and games, and printed materials related to consumer education available from Michigan Department of Education's Regional Education Media Centers. The first major section lists available media by specific subject…

  5. Tests on the integration of the ITER divertor dummy armour prototype on a simplified model of cassette body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Dell'Orco; A Canneta; G Cattadori; G. P Gaspari; M Merola; G Polazzi; G Vieider; D Zito

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, in the frame of the European R&D on ITER high heat flux components, the fabrication of a full scale ITER Divertor Outboard mock-up was launched. It comprised a Cassette Body, designed with some mechanical and hydraulic simplifications with respect to the reference body, and the actively cooled Dummy Armour Prototype (DAP). This DAP consists of the Vertical Target,

  6. Design, Syntheses and Biological Applications of Through-bond Energy Transfer Cassettes and Novel Non-covalently Cell Penetrating Peptides 

    E-print Network

    Han, Junyan

    2012-02-14

    A xanthene-BODIPY cassette is used as a ratiometric intracellular pH reporter for imaging protein-dye conjugates in living cells. A model was hypothesized to explain the pH-dependent energy transfer efficiencies from the donor to the acceptor based...

  7. Rearrangements of the transposable mating-type cassettes of fission yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, D H; Klar, A J

    1984-01-01

    The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, switches mating type every few cell divisions. Switching is controlled by the genes of the mating-type locus, which consists of three components, mat1, mat2-P and mat3-M, each separated by approximately 15 kb. Copy transposition of P (Plus) or M (Minus) information from mat2-P or mat3-M into the expression locus mat1 mediates cell type switching. The mating-type locus undergoes events at high frequency (10(-2)-10(-6)) which stabilize one or other mating type. These events are shown to be rearrangements which result in either deletion or insertion of DNA between cassettes. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6325178

  8. Alkaline phosphatase from rat liver and kidney is differentially modulated 1 1 Abbreviations: ABC, ATP binding cassette; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ATP-DPH, ATP-diphosphohydrolase; DMSO, dimethylsulphoxide; GALP, germ-cell alkaline phosphatase; IBMX, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; IntALP, intestinal alkaline phosphatase; MRP, multidrug resistance protein; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; PALP, placental alkaline phosphatase; Pgp, P-glycoprotein; p-NPL, p-nitrophenol; p-NPP, p-nitrophenylphosphate; theophylline, 1,3-dimethylxanthine; TNALP, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J Martins; Maria R Negrăo; Cândido Hipólito-Reis

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and modulators of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and hepatic taurocholate uptake on the activity of tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNALP) in liver and kidney.Design and Results: ALP activity was determined in rat liver and kidney homogenates. Levamisole had a stronger inhibitory effect on renal TNALP than on the hepatic

  9. PCR- and ligation-mediated synthesis of split-marker cassettes with long flanking homology regions for gene disruption in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    de Hoogt, R; Luyten, W H; Contreras, R; De Backer, M D

    2000-06-01

    Because Candida albicans is a diploid organism, two consecutive steps of gene disruption are required to generate a gene knock-out. The same marker (URA3) is often used for disruption of both copies of the gene. This is possible because, after the first round of disruption, homologous recombination between direct repeats flanking the URA3 marker and the subsequent counterselection allow for the efficient recovery of Ura- revertants. Unfortunately, the URA-blaster disruption cassette cannot be used in a PCR-based disruption approach. The hisG repeats flanking the URA3 gene in the disruption cassette anneal to one another during PCR and thereby prevent amplification of the complete cassette. We explored the use of transformation based on split-marker recombination to circumvent this problem. To avoid any cloning steps and to retain the advantage of long flanking regions for disruption, we combined this with a PCR- and ligation-mediated approach for generating marker cassettes. We used this approach to disrupt the C. albicans FAL1 (ATP-dependent RNA helicase) gene. Long 5' and 3' FAL1-specific regions were amplified by PCR and individually ligated to a URA-blaster cassette. The resulting ligation reactions were used separately as templates to generate two FAL1 disruption cassettes with overlapping URA3 marker regions. Simultaneous transformation with both overlapping disruption cassettes yielded efficient disruption of one FAL1 allele. PMID:10868276

  10. A Q-like transcription factor regulates biofilm development in Escherichia coli by controlling expression of the DLP12 lysis cassette.

    PubMed

    Rueggeberg, Karl-Gustav; Toba, Faustino A; Thompson, Mitchell G; Campbell, Bryan R; Hay, Anthony G

    2013-04-01

    The DLP12 lysis cassette (essD, ybcT, rzpD/rzoD) is required in certain Escherichia coli strains for normal curli expression and biofilm development. Tightly controlled regulation of the lysis cassette is of particular importance, since its overexpression causes host cell lysis. In silico analysis revealed a putative intrinsic transcriptional terminator 100 bp upstream of essD and within 2000 bp of ybcQ (Q(DLP12)), a putative lambda (?) Q-like antiterminator. We hypothesized that Q(DLP12) may be required for effective expression of the lysis cassette. In this work we report on the role of Q(DLP12) as a positive regulator of DLP12 lysis cassette expression. Mutants lacking Q(DLP12) exhibited a biofilm-defective phenotype analogous to that of the lysis cassette knockouts. This defect occurred through the downregulation of curli transcription, which is also consistent with that seen in the lysis cassette mutants and was restored by complementation by ectopic expression of Q(DLP12). In addition, Q(DLP12) overexpression caused cell lysis, as demonstrated by leakage of ?-galactosidase activity from cells. This was accompanied by upregulation of the DLP12 lysis cassette as demonstrated by increased essD transcription, which was documented with gfp-reporter assays, RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We provide evidence that this Q-mediated effect resulted from direct interaction of Q(DLP12) with the lysis cassette promoter (essDp), as demonstrated by electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay (EMSA). We propose that Q(DLP12) encodes a functional transcriptional regulator, which promotes expression of the DLP12 lysis cassette. This work provides evidence of a regulator from a defective prophage affecting host cell physiology. PMID:23378572

  11. Measurement of long lived radioactive impurities retained in the disposable cassettes on the Tracerlab MX system during the production of [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D; Orr, P; Gillanders, J; Corrigan, G; Marshall, C

    2011-10-01

    Using a High- Purity Germanium gamma-ray spectrometer, a number of radioisotopes have been identified within Tracerlab MX radiochemistry system cassettes used to synthesise [18F]FDG. Twenty radiochemistry cassettes were measured and the average total activity of each radioisotope was determined. Using these values and decay correction, the minimum time the cassettes should be left in a decay store before the specific activity falls below 0.4B q/g, the limit for disposal alongside Clinical Waste was found to be 24 months. PMID:21641809

  12. Shielding of Sleeping Beauty DNA Transposon-delivered Transgene Cassettes by Heterologous Insulators in Early Embryonal Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trine Dalsgaard; Brian Moldt; Nynne Sharma; Gernot Wolf; Alexander Schmitz; Finn S Pedersen; Jacob G Mikkelsen

    2009-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system represents an important alternative to viral integrating vector systems but may, as its viral counterparts, be subject to transcriptional silencing. To investigate shielding of SB-delivered transgene cassettes against transcriptional repression, we establish silencing assays in which SB vector–containing F9 murine teratocarcinoma cell clones are identified by strategies that include or exclude selection for transgene

  13. Fitness Cost of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Way of Continuous Culture?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sui Mae; Ender, Miriam; Adhikari, Rajan; Smith, John M. B.; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte; Cook, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of introducing type I or IV staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements on the growth yield of Staphylococcus aureus in glucose-limited continuous culture. Type I showed increased glucose consumption and ATP demand per gram of cells synthesized and decreased cell yield compared to those of the parent strain. In contrast, type IV SCCmec elements had no adverse energetic effect. PMID:17283194

  14. Structural Comparison of Three Types of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Integrated in the Chromosome in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TERUYO ITO; YUKI KATAYAMA; KAZUMI ASADA; NAMIKO MORI; KANAE TSUTSUMIMOTO; CHUNTIMA TIENSASITORN; KEIICHI HIRAMATSU

    2001-01-01

    The b-lactam resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus is carried by a novel mobile genetic element, designated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), identified in the chromosome of a Japanese methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. We now report identification of two additional types of mecA- carrying genetic elements found in the MRSA strains isolated in other countries of the world. There

  15. Novel Type of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Berglund; Teruyo Ito; Megumi Ikeda; Xiao Xue Ma; Bo Soderquist; Keiichi Hiramatsu

    2008-01-01

    We identified a novel type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element carried by methi- cillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain JCSC6082 isolated in Sweden. The SCCmec element was demarcated by characteristic nucleotide sequences at both ends and was integrated at the 3 end of orfX. The element carried a novel combination of a type 5 ccr gene complex and class

  16. A Simple Method to Construct T-Vectors Using XcmI Cassettes Amplified by Nonspecific PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chulman Jo; Sangmee Ahn Jo

    2001-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most powerful tools in cloning genes. For the direct cloning of PCR products, T-vectors, which contain complementary 3?-thymidine overhangs, are widely used. In the present study, we developed a plasmid, pNB-T, which was constructed by cloning an XcmI cassette with a sufficient length of DNA (over 500 bp long) between two XcmI

  17. The HicAB cassette, a putative novel, RNA-targeting toxin-antitoxin system in archaea and bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kira S. Makarova; Nick V. Grishin; Eugene V. Koonin

    2006-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) are abundant, diverse, horizontally mobile gene modules that encode powerful resistance mechanisms in prokaryotes. We use the comparative-genomic approach to predict a new TAS that consists of a two-gene cassette encoding unchara- cterized HicA and HicB proteins. Numerous bacterial and archaeal genomes encode from one to eight HicAB modules which appear to be highly prone to horizontal

  18. Development of a heat shock inducible expression cassette for plants: Characterization of parameters for its use in transient expression assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Michael Ainley; Joe L. Key

    1990-01-01

    A heat-inducible expression cassette has been constructed to study the conditional expression of sense or antisense orientations of any sequence of interest in transgenic plants or plant tissues. The construct includes the promoter and all but 5 bases of the mRNA leader from the soybeanGmhsp17.5-E gene, the polylinker from pUC18 (modified to remove the ATG), and a fragment that contains

  19. Highly effective removal of floxed Blasticidin S resistance cassettes from Dictyostelium discoideum mutants by extrachromosomal expression of Cre.

    PubMed

    Linkner, Joern; Nordholz, Benjamin; Junemann, Alexander; Winterhoff, Moritz; Faix, Jan

    2012-02-01

    The inactivation of proteins in cells is inevitable to study their physiological role in various cellular processes. In contrast to strategies to alter the amount of active proteins in cells, only a gene knockout guarantees complete removal of the protein of interest. For Dictyostelium discoideum cells, the gene replacement construct typically consists of a Blasticidin S resistance (Bsr) cassette flanked by fragments of the target gene to allow insertion by homologous recombination. More advanced knockout constructs additionally carry loxP sites on both sides of the Bsr cassettes for subsequent removal of the selection marker by transient expression of Cre recombinase, thus allowing generation of multiple knockouts using just a single selection marker. However, due to its design, the available neomycin selection-based Cre expression plasmid occasionally tends to integrate into the genome and also yield only a moderate number of transfectants in liquid media. In some cases, for instance in SCAR-null cells, it was not possible to remove the Bsr cassette without stable integration of the Cre expression vector into the genome. To circumvent these difficulties we designed the extrachromosomal Cre-recombinase expression vector pTX-NLS-Cre. We verified the greatly improved efficacy of this novel Cre-loxP approach by removal of the Bsr cassette in five different cell lines including the SCAR-null mutant. As a consequence, this vector will be a highly valuable means for the rapid generation of single or multiple mutants remaining sensitive to the most reliable selection markers Blasticidin S and neomycin. PMID:22154549

  20. Detection of integron-associated gene cassettes and other antimicrobial resistance genes in enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anirban; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Dharanidharan, Ramamurthy; Ghosh, Amit; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan

    2015-06-01

    Twenty seven Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) strains isolated from children in Kolkata, India, were tested for their antimicrobial resistance, presence of integrons and resistance encoding genes. Almost all the strains (>90%) were resistant to two or more antimicrobials. About 59-92% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Most of these antimicrobial agents have been used in the treatment of diarrhea and other infectious diseases. In addition, about half a number of strains (48-55%) were resistant to clindamycin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ampicillin/sulbactam and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Moxifloxacin and metronidazole resistance ranged from 30 to 40%. All strains however, were found to be susceptible to chloramphenicol and imipenem. Class 1 integrase (intI1) was detected in seven and class 2 integrase (intI2) in one of the twenty seven ETBF strains. Resistance gene cassettes carried by these integrons had different alleles of dfr or aad genes. Beside these integron-borne genes, other genes encoding different antimicrobial resistance were also detected. Resistance genes such as cep(A) and tet(Q) were detected in most of the ETBF strains. To the best of our knowledge, this work constituted the first extensive report from India on the detection of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes in ETBF. PMID:25634362

  1. Creating Transgenic shRNA Mice by Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Premsrirut, Prem K.; Dow, Lukas E.; Park, Youngkyu; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) enables sequence-specific, experimentally induced silencing of virtually any gene by tapping into innate regulatory mechanisms that are conserved among most eukaryotes. The principles that enable transgenic RNAi in cell lines can also be used to create transgenic animals, which express short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in a regulated or tissue-specific fashion. However, RNAi in transgenic animals is somewhat more challenging than RNAi in cultured cells. The activities of promoters that are commonly used for shRNA expression in cell culture can vary enormously in different tissues, and founder lines also typically vary in transgene expression due to the effects of their single integration sites. There are many ways to produce mice carrying shRNA transgenes and the method described here uses recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). RMCE permits insertion of the shRNA transgene into a well-characterized locus that gives reproducible and predictable expression in each founder and enhances the probability of potent expression in many cell types. This procedure is more involved and complex than simple pronuclear injection, but if even a few shRNA mice are envisioned, for example, to probe the functions of several genes, the effort of setting up the processes outlined below are well worthwhile. Note that when creating a transgenic mouse, one should take care to use the most potent shRNA possible. As a rule of thumb, the sequence chosen should provide >90% knockdown when introduced into cultured cells at single copy (e.g., on retroviral infection at a multiplicity of ?0.3). PMID:24003198

  2. Type 1 Capsule Genes of Staphylococcus aureus Are Carried in a Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome Genetic Element

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Thanh T.; Ouyang, Shu; Bush, Kelly; Lee, Chia Y.

    2002-01-01

    The cap1 genes are required for the synthesis of type 1 capsular polysaccharide (CP1) in Staphylococcus aureus. We previously showed that the cap1 locus was associated with a discrete genetic element in S. aureus M. In this report, we defined the boundaries of the cap1 element by comparing its restriction pattern to that of a corresponding region from the CP1-negative strain Becker. The element was located in the SmaI-G chromosomal fragment of the standard mapping strain NCTC8325. The sequences of the entire cap1 element and the flanking regions were determined. We found that there were two additional cap1 genes not previously identified. The cap1 operon was located in a staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) element similar to the resistance island SCCmec recently described for methicillin resistance in S. aureus. Notably, the SCCcap1 element was located at the same insertion site as all the SCCmec elements in the staphylococcal chromosome. The excision of SCCcap1 could be demonstrated only in the presence of the recombinase genes from an SCCmec element, verifying that SCCcap1 is a genuine SCC element but defective in mobilization. A novel enterotoxin gene, whose transcript was detected by Northern blotting, was found next to the SCCcap1 locus. We propose that the enterotoxin gene and SCCcap1 were inserted into this locus at the juxtaposition by independent events. Sequence comparison revealed numerous DNA rearrangements and mutations in SCCcap1 and the left flanking region, suggesting that the SCCcap1 had been inserted at the SCC attC site a long time ago. In addition, most genes in this region were incomplete, with the exception of the 15 cap1 genes, implying that the cap1 genes confer a survival advantage on strain M. PMID:12057957

  3. Generation of transgenic energy cane plants with integration of minimal transgene expression cassette.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Walid M; Hao, Wu; Xiong, Yuan; Steeves, Cody; Sandhu, Surinder K; Altpeter, Fredy

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to serve as feedstock and direct replacement for petrochemicals in the fuel, chemical, pharmaceutical and material industries. Energy cane has been identified by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as prime lignocellulosic feedstock as it produces record biomass yields and is able to grow on low-value land with reduced inputs. Molecular improvement of energy cane is an essential step toward the development of a high-value crop and may contribute to improved biomass conversion to value added products. Such improvements require a development of an efficient regeneration and transformation system for the vegetatively propagated energy cane varieties. In this report, an efficient biolistic gene delivery protocol for energy canes (genotype L 79-1002 and Ho 00-961) has been established with immature leaf rolls as explants. Embryonic calli, developed approximately 6 weeks after culture initiation and was used as target for biolistic transfer of a minimum expression cassette of P-ubi::nptII::35S polyA derived from plasmid pJFNPTII. Putative transgenic clones of callus were obtained after selection on callus induction medium supplemented with 30 mg l(-1) geneticin. Regeneration was carried out on NB medium, which is modified from MS supplemented with 1.86 mg l(-1) naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 0.1mg l(-1), 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 20mg l(-1) paromomycin. Shoots growing on selection media were transferred to hormone free medium with 20 mg l(-1) paromomycin. Putative transgenic lines were first analyzed by PCR. Transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Immunochromathography assays confirmed transgene expression. PMID:25751171

  4. Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Di Leo, Rosa; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H.W.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C. (MIT); (UT-Australia); (Macquarie); (Toronto); (New South)

    2012-02-15

    The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. We report the 1.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

  5. Widespread presence of dfrA12 and its association with dfrA12-aadA2 cassette in Salmonella enterica isolates from swine.

    PubMed

    Padungtod, Pawin; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2011-11-01

    One hundred and eighty-nine Salmonella isolates from swine were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents, presence of dfrA12 and class 1 integrons containing dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 cassette. All isolates were multidrug resistant and exhibited highest resistance prevalence to trimethoprim (93%). Most isolates (89%) were intll-positive and 107 isolates (57%) carried dfrA12, all of which were resistant to trimethoprim. Forty-eight dfrA12-harboring strains (45%) were intl1-positive together with dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette. Fifteen isolates contained dfrA12 but not intl1 and dfrA12-aadA2 cassette. The results indicated a wide distribution of dfrA12 and its role in dissemination of trimethoprim resistance among Salmonella isolates from fattening pigs. PMID:22299418

  6. Integron types, gene cassettes, antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids of Shigella sonnei isolates from outbreaks and sporadic cases in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chung-Che; Lee, Tsong-Ming; Tsai, Mei-Yin; Chang, Lin-Li

    2011-02-01

    This study analysed the presence, location and transferability of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in 103 Shigella sonnei outbreak isolates and in 32 sporadic isolates from Taiwan. Multiple antimicrobial resistance was common in both outbreak (95?%) and sporadic (97?%) isolates. Class 1 integrons were present in 34 outbreak isolates (33?%) and in six sporadic isolates (19?%). This study is the first, to our knowledge, to identify an atypical sul3-associated class 1 integron carrying the estX-psp-aadA2-cmlA-aadA1-qacH cassette array in Shigella. Class 2 integrons carrying the dfr1-sat2-aadA1 cassette array were predominant in outbreak isolates (90?%) but were not present in sporadic isolates. Other antimicrobial resistance genes not associated with integrons were found to encode resistance to ampicillin (bla(TEM)), chloramphenicol (cat1), sulfonamide (sul2) and tetracycline (tetA and tetB). The most common plasmid size was 130 kb (observed in 43 and 97?% of 1998 outbreak and sporadic isolates, respectively). In conclusion, the plasmid location of resistance genes and horizontal plasmid transfer promote the spread of multiple resistance genes in outbreak and sporadic isolates of S. sonnei. PMID:20947666

  7. Revelation of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Thailand and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lawung, R; Chuong, L V; Cherdtrakulkiat, R; Srisarin, A; Prachayasittikul, V

    2014-12-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent, and its typing plays a crucial role in epidemiology and evolution in both health and community settings. Multiplex PCR and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing based on mec complexes and cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) allotypes have been developed for MRSA identification. The first of these procedures can identify 4 mec classes (A, B, C1, and E) and 2 ccr allotypes (B2 and B4) in one tube, and the second can identify mecA, mec class C2, and 3 allotypes (A1, A3, and C). Our method offers a novel means to further differentiate between the main SCCmec types I through XI and is both highly sensitive (detectable up to 0.3?g DNA) and specific (100%). Several SCCmec types (I, III, IV, V and a non-typeable group) were found in 66 MRSA isolates obtained from Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. SCCmec type III was highly predominant in both regions. The designed assay is rapid, convenient, flexible, and reliable. Therefore, this assay is suitable for the high-throughput screening of the main SCCmec types of MRSA isolates. PMID:25205542

  8. ATP binds to proteasomal ATPases in pairs with distinct functional effects implying an ordered reaction cycle

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David M.; Fraga, Hugo; Reis, Christian; Kafri, Galit; Goldberg, Alfred L.

    2011-01-01

    In the eukaryotic 26S proteasome, the 20S particle is regulated by six AAA ATPase subunits, and in archaea by a homologous ring complex, PAN. To clarify the role of ATP in proteolysis, we studied how nucleotides bind to PAN. Although PAN has six identical subunits it binds ATPs in pairs, and its subunits exhibit three conformational states with high, low, or no affinity for ATP. When PAN binds two ATP?S molecules, or two ATP?S plus two ADP molecules it is maximally active in binding protein substrates, associating with the 20S particle, and promoting 20S gate-opening. However, binding of four ATP?S molecules reduces these functions. The 26S proteasome shows similar nucleotide dependence. These findings imply an ordered cyclical mechanism in which two ATPase subunits bind ATP simultaneously and dock into the 20S. These results can explain how these hexameric ATPases interact with and “wobble” on top of the heptameric 20S proteasome. PMID:21335235

  9. ATP Binding Enables Broad Antibiotic Selectivity of Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase(3)-IIIa

    E-print Network

    Ullmann, G. Matthias

    group of structurally diverse antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosome and prevent proper bacterial; dynamic protein domains; normal-mode analysis; conformational frustration The bacterial enzyme flexibility. Additionally, we must consider correlated motions of dynamic protein domains, which show

  10. Coordinating role of His216 in MgATP binding and cleavage in pyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Adina-Zada, Abdussalam; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C; Attwood, Paul V

    2014-02-18

    His216 is a well-conserved residue in pyruvate carboxylases and, on the basis of structures of the enzyme, appears to have a role in the binding of MgATP, forming an interaction with the 3'-hydroxyl group of the ribose ring. Mutation of this residue to asparagine results in a 9-fold increase in the Km for MgATP in its steady-state cleavage in the absence of pyruvate and a 3-fold increase in the Km for MgADP in its steady-state phosphorylation by carbamoyl phosphate. However, from single-turnover experiments of MgATP cleavage, the Kd of the enzyme·MgATP complex is essentially the same in the wild-type enzyme and H216N. Direct stopped-flow measurements of nucleotide binding and release using the fluorescent analogue FTP support these observations. However, the first-order rate constant for MgATP cleavage in the single-turnover experiments in H216N is only 0.75% of that for the wild-type enzyme, and thus, the MgATP cleavage step is rate-limiting in the steady state for H216N but not for the wild-type enzyme. Close examination of the structure of the enzyme suggested that His216 may also interact with Glu218, which in turn interacts with Glu305 to form a proton relay system involved in the deprotonation of bicarbonate. Single-turnover MgATP cleavage experiments with mutations of these two residues resulted in kinetic parameters similar to those observed in H216N. We suggest that the primary role of His216 is to coordinate the binding of MgATP and the deprotonation of bicarbonate in the reaction to form the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate by participation in a proton relay system involving Glu218 and Glu305. PMID:24460480

  11. The oxidation-state-dependent ATP-binding site of cytochrome c. A possible physiological significance.

    PubMed Central

    Corthésy, B E; Wallace, C J

    1986-01-01

    Cytochrome c binds certain physiological anions that are known to modulate the biological properties of the protein, although it is not known whether this effect is fortuitous or has physiological significance. We have examined the ability of the protein and its semisynthetic analogues to associate with certain of these anions, e.g. ATP, ADP, Pi and citrate. Our results show that specific residues or clusters of residues on the surface of horse heart cytochrome c are involved in the recognition sites for these anions. We also observed that binding at one site is linked to the oxidation state of the protein. PMID:3019313

  12. Building Background Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  13. Background Subtraction Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. McIvor

    Background subtraction is a commonly used class of techniques for segmenting out objects of interest in a scene for applications such as surveillance. This paper surveys a repre- sentative sample of the published techiques for background subtraction, and analyses them with respect to three important attributes: foreground detection; background maintenance; and postprocessing.

  14. Combination of Multiplex PCRs for Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type Assignment: Rapid Identification System for mec, ccr, and Major Differences in Junkyard Regions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Kondo; Teruyo Ito; Xiao Xue Ma; Shinya Watanabe; Barry N. Kreiswirth; Jerome Etienne; Keiichi Hiramatsu

    2007-01-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, in combination with genotyping of the Staphy- lococcus aureus chromosome, has become essential for defining methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in epidemiological studies. We have developed a convenient system for SCCmec type assignment. The system consists of six multiplex PCRs (M-PCRs) for identifying the ccr gene complex (ccr), the mec gene complex (mec), and

  15. Association between the methicillin resistance of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, their staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec) subtype classification, and their toxin gene profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae-Seok Kim; Wonkeun Song; Han-Sung Kim; Hyoun Chan Cho; Kyu Man Lee; Myung-Sik Choi; Eui-Chong Kim

    2006-01-01

    Virulence and antimicrobial resistance are important determinators of the clinical manifestations and of the treatments of bacterial infections. Here, we studied the associations between the methicillin resistance of clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates, their classifications as particular staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) subtypes, and their toxin gene profiles. In total, 252 S. aureus isolates were collected from 13 healthcare facilities in

  16. A Family of Insertion Sequences That Impacts Integrons by Specific Targeting of Gene Cassette Recombination Sites, the IS1111-attC Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sasha G. Tetu; Andrew J. Holmes

    2008-01-01

    Integrons facilitate the evolution of complex phenotypes by physical and transcriptional linkage of genes. They can be categorized as chromosomal integrons (CIs) or mobile resistance integrons (MRIs). The signif- icance of MRIs for the problem of multiple antibiotic resistance is well established. CIs are more widespread, but their only demonstrated significance is as a reservoir of gene cassettes for MRIs.

  17. Emergent and evolving antimicrobial resistance cassettes in community-associated fusidic acid and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, Matthew J.; Reuter, Sandra; Harris, Simon R.; Holden, Matthew T.G.; Cartwright, Edward J.; Greaves, Daniel; Gerver, Sarah M.; Hope, Russell; Brown, Nicholas M.; Török, M. Estee; Parkhill, Julian; Köser, Claudio U.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fusidic acid is a topical and systemic antimicrobial used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in hospitals and the community. Sales of fusidic acid and resistance rates among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) doubled between 1990 and 2001. For the following decade, fusidic acid resistance rates among isolates from Addenbrooke's Hospital (Cambridge, UK) were compared with national resistance rates from MRSA bacteraemia surveillance data and with antimicrobial sales data. Sales of fusidic acid remained relatively constant between 2002 and 2012, whilst fusidic acid resistance increased two- and four-fold in MRSA bacteraemias nationally and in MRSA isolates from Cambridge, respectively. A subgroup of MRSA resistant only to fusidic acid increased after 2006 by 5-fold amongst bacteraemias nationally and 17-fold (to 7.7% in 2012) amongst Cambridge MRSA isolates. All of the available local isolates from 2011 to 2012 (n = 23) were acquired in the community, were not related epidemiologically and belonged to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) groups ST1, 5, 8, 45 or 149 as revealed from analysis of whole-genome sequence data. All harboured the fusC gene on one of six distinct staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) elements, four of which were dual-resistance chimeras that encoded ?-lactam and fusidic acid resistance. In summary, fusidic acid-resistant MRSA increased in prevalence during the 2000s with notable rises after 2006. The development of chimeric cassettes that confer dual resistance to ?-lactams and fusidic acid demonstrates that the genetics underpinning resistance in community-associated MRSA are evolving. PMID:25769787

  18. The Cosmic Background Explorer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

  19. The IBEX background monitor

    E-print Network

    Crew, Geoffrey B.

    The IBEX Background Monitor (IBaM) provides a small and lightweight method for independently measuring IBEX’s high-energy proton background by integrating the flux of >~14 keV protons over a ~7° conical FOV. The IBaM is ...

  20. The microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M. Uson; David T. Wilkinson

    1988-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. The spectrum of the microwave background: Heterodyne radiometer methods (lambda >= 3 mm). Bolometric measurements (lambda <= 3 mm). Measurements using interstellar molecules. Summary and future prospects. 3. Polarization of the microwave background. 4. Anisotropy searches. 5. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect: Concept and cosmological consequences. Measurements. Cosmological applications.

  1. Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

    2009-01-15

    Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

  2. New Mobile Gene Cassettes Containing an Aminoglycoside Resistance Gene aacA7 and a Chloramphenicol Resistance Gene catB3 in an Integron in pBWH301

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Bunny; Andh. W. Stokes; W. STOKES

    1995-01-01

    The multidrug resistance plasmid pBWH301 was shown to contain a sulI-associated integron with five inserted gene cassettes, aacA7-catB3-aadB-oxa2-orfD, all of which can be mobilized by the integron-encoded DNA integrase. TheaadB,oxa2, and orfD cassettes are identical to known cassettes. TheaacA7gene encodes a protein that is a member of one of the three known families of aminoglycoside acetyltransferases classified as AAC(6*)-I. The

  3. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Silk

    2003-01-01

    .  I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory\\u000a and the implications for cosmology are described, and I summarize the prospects for future progress.

  5. Building Background Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donna Ross

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

  6. Background and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    Background & Statistics FAQ About Homeless Veterans Homeless Veterans Facts Demographics of Homeless Veterans Incarcerated Veterans Research Briefs Sources FAQ ... VETERANS In May 2007, the Bureau of Justice Statistics released a special report on incarcerated veterans. The ...

  7. Background Studies for EXIST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Pendleton, G. N.; Fishman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results from a study of the trapped proton and electron background for several orbital inclinations and altitudes. This study includes time dependent effects. In addition we describe a 3 component cosmic background model developed at the University of Southampton, UK. The three components are cosmic diffuse gamma rays, atmospheric albedo gamma rays, and cosmic ray protons. We present examples of how this model was applied to BATSE and discuss its application to EXIST.

  8. New mobile gene cassettes containing an aminoglycoside resistance gene, aacA7, and a chloramphenicol resistance gene, catB3, in an integron in pBWH301.

    PubMed

    Bunny, K L; Hall, R M; Stokes, H W

    1995-03-01

    The multidrug resistance plasmid pBWH301 was shown to contain a sull-associated integron with five inserted gene cassettes, aacA7-catB3-aadB-oxa2-orfD, all of which can be mobilized by the integron-encoded DNA integrase. The aadB, oxa2, and orfD cassettes are identical to known cassettes. The aacA7 gene encodes a protein that is a member of one of the three known families of aminoglycoside acetyltransferases classified as AAC(6')-I. The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the catB3 gene is closely related to members of a recently identified family of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases. The catB3 gene displays a relatively high degree of sequence identity to a chromosomally located open reading frame in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and this may represent evidence for the acquisition by a cassette of a chromosomal gene. PMID:7793874

  9. Process for assembly and transformation into Saccharomyces cerevisiae of a synthetic yeast artificial chromosome containing a multigene cassette to express enzymes that enhance xylose utilization designed for an automated pla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) containing a multigene cassette for expression of enzymes that enhance xylose utilization (xylose isomerase [XI] and xylulokinase [XKS]) was constructed and transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to demonstrate feasibility as a stable protein expression system ...

  10. ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member 16 increases plant tolerance to abscisic acid and assists in basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C Neal; Traw, M Brian

    2014-10-01

    Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and ?-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

  11. Typing of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Encoding Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated at the Bone Marrow Transplant Centre of Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Bouchami; W. Achour; Assia Ben Hassen

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element that carries the gene mecA mediating the methicillin resistance in staphylococci. It is composed of mec and ccr gene complexes. Six SCCmec types have been defined so far. SCCmec typing of 13 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) out of 72 (18%) non redundant S. aureus strains recovered in 1998–2007 at the Bone

  12. Local Variants of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in Sporadic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Resistant Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci: Evidence of Horizontal Gene Transfer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Merethe Hanssen; Gry Kjeldsen; Johanna U. Ericson Sollid

    2004-01-01

    The mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus is located on the genetic element staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC). Different SCCmecs have been classified according to their putative recombinase genes (ccrA and ccrB) and overall genetic composition. Clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS; n 39) and S. aureus (n 20) from Norway, India, Italy, Finland, the United States, and the United Kingdom were

  13. Characterization of Class 1 Integrons from Pseudomonas aeruginosa That Contain the blaVIM-2 Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing  Lactamase Gene and of Two Novel Aminoglycoside Resistance Gene Cassettes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURENT POIREL; THIERRY LAMBERT; SALIH TURKOGLU; ESTHEL RONCO; JEAN-LOUIS GAILLARD; PATRICE NORDMANN

    2001-01-01

    Two clonally unrelated Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical strains, RON-1 and RON-2, were isolated in 1997 and 1998 from patients hospitalized in a suburb of Paris, France. Both isolates expressed the class B carbapenem-hydrolyzing b-lactamase VIM-2 previously identified in Marseilles in the French Riviera. In both isolates, the blaVIM-2 cassette was part of a class 1 integron that also encoded aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes.

  14. Evaluation of Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG Rapid Cassette Test Kits for Diagnosis of Melioidosis in an Area of Endemicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanaporn Wuthiekanun; Premjit Amornchai; Wirongrong Chierakul; Allen C. Cheng; Nicholas J. White; Sharon J. Peacock; Nicholas P. J. Day

    2004-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based rapid cassette immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM immuno- chromogenic test kit was compared to the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for the diagnosis of acute melioidosis in northeastern Thailand. Admission sera from 70 culture-confirmed septicemic melioidosis patients and 30 patients with localized infections were tested. As a control group, 80 patients with other acute febrile illnesses (other

  15. The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec type V from Staphylococcus aureus ST398 is packaged into bacteriophage capsids.

    PubMed

    Chlebowicz, Monika A; Mašla?ová, Ivana; Kuntová, Lucie; Grundmann, Hajo; Pant??ek, Roman; Doška?, Ji?í; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe

    2014-07-01

    The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) confers methicillin resistance to Staphylococcus aureus. While SCCmec is generally regarded as a mobile genetic element, the precise mechanisms by which large SCCmec elements are exchanged between staphylococci have remained enigmatic. In the present studies, we observed that the clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolate UMCG-M4 with the sequence type 398 contains four prophages belonging to the serological groups A, B and Fa. Previous studies have shown that certain serological group B bacteriophages of S. aureus are capable of generalized transduction. We therefore assessed the transducing capabilities of the phages from strain UMCG-M4. The results show that some of these phages can indeed transduce plasmid pT181 to the recipient S. aureus strain RN4220. Therefore, we also investigated the possible involvement of these transducing phages in the transmission of the large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element of S. aureus UMCG-M4. While no transduction of the complete SCCmec element was observed, we were able to demonstrate that purified phage particles did contain large parts of the SCCmec element of the donor strain, including the methicillin resistance gene mecA. This shows that staphylococcal phages can encapsulate the resistance determinant mecA of a large SCCmec type V (5C2&5) element, which may lead to its transfer to other staphylococci. PMID:24951306

  16. Evaluation of various staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types in Staphylococcus epidermidis invasive strains from hospitalised patients in Iran.

    PubMed

    Havaei, Seyed Asghar; Namvar, Amirmorteza Ebrahimzadeh; Moghim, Sharareh; Lari, Abdolaziz Rastegar

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is known to be a major cause of nosocomial infections particularly in catheter-associated bacteraemia, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and immunocompromised patients in different health care units. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, especially to ?-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin, has increased the mortality due to S. epidermidis. A kind of low affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP2?), which is encoded by the mecA gene that is located in the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), mediates the resistance to methicillin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SCCmec types and evaluate the antibiotic profile assay in invasive strains isolated from clinical samples. The study focused on invasive strains, determining the antimicrobial resistance profile, designing new primers for detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec typing with the multiplex PCR method. By using the PCR molecular test, 87.1% of all isolates were found to be positive for the mecA gene. In SCCmec typing, different types (I-V) were identified, in which SCCmec type I was detected in 3 isolates, SCCmec type II in 5 isolates, SCCmec type III in 22 isolates, SCCmec type IV in 27 isolates and SCCmec type V was distinguished in 4 isolates. Since coagulase-negative staphylococci are reported as a major cause of hospital infections, molecular typing methods like SCCmec typing would be a helpful method to control and prevent bacterial infections. PMID:25819046

  17. Vaccination with polymerase chain reaction-generated linear expression cassettes protects mice against lethal influenza A challenge.

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Adrián; Jimenez, Gretchen; Rusalov, Denis; Planchon, Rodrick; Lalor, Peggy; Carner, Kristin; Chaplin, Jennifer A; Komai, Michael; Manthorpe, Marston; Kaslow, David C; Rolland, Alain

    2007-08-01

    The feasibility of a linear expression cassette (LEC)-based influenza A DNA vaccine was demonstrated in mice, using a lethal dose (LD90) of a mouse-adapted A/Hong Kong/8/68 (H3N2) influenza strain. LECs expressing hemagglutinin (HA) from either the homotypic H3N2 or the heterotypic H1N1 (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) influenza virus were produced by polymerase chain reaction and either phosphodiester- or phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotide primers. Survival subsequent to lethal viral challenge was used as a primary end point; weight loss was the secondary end point. Survival and weight loss data showed that protection can be achieved in mice with 50 microg of phosphate-buffered saline-formulated LEC DNA or 2 microg of Vaxfectin-formulated LEC DNA. Survival correlated with neutralizing antibody titers (hemagglutination inhibition, HAI); titers obtained after vaccination with LEC were equivalent to those obtained with HA (H3N2) plasmid DNA control. Vaccination with heterotypic H1 HA-LEC DNA provided no protection against viral challenge. PMID:17705698

  18. Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    Discovery of the Microwave Background Cosmic microwave background radiation Signals from the early universe, or pigeon droppings? #12;Microwave Background Radiation The spectrum is a near- perfect match background. Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background MWMW 370 km/s #12;Microwave Background Features

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

  1. Matching Background Color

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

  2. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

  3. David Smith Academic background

    E-print Network

    David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

  4. PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

  5. Country background Forest history

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    season prone to forest fires. Atlantic climate is wet with temperatures moderated by the ocean33 Country background Forest history During the Gallo-Roman period (1st­4th century AD), forests this proportion decreased dramatically to only 15­17 % of the land area. This residual forest was then severely

  6. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

    1999-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

  7. Shark Species Profiles Background

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    skeletons that are made of bone. Although all sharks have some similarities such as having gills and fins there are small spots long the sides of the shark and a black blotch near the pectoral fin Diet: Marine mammalsShark Species Profiles Background: Sharks have existed for about 400 million years, before

  8. Construction of Escherichia coli strains with chromosomally integrated expression cassettes for the synthesis of 2?-fucosyllactose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The trisaccharide 2?-fucosyllactose (2?-FL) is one of the most abundant oligosaccharides found in human milk. Due to its prebiotic and anti-infective properties, 2?-FL is discussed as nutritional additive for infant formula. Besides chemical synthesis and extraction from human milk, 2?-FL can be produced enzymatically in vitro and in vivo. The most promising approach for a large-scale formation of 2?-FL is the whole cell biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by intracellular synthesis of GDP-L-fucose and subsequent fucosylation of lactose with an appropriate ?1,2-fucosyltransferase. Even though whole cell approaches have been demonstrated for the synthesis of 2?-FL, further improvements of the engineered E. coli host are required to increase product yields. Furthermore, an antibiotic-free method of whole cell synthesis of 2?-FL is desirable to simplify product purification and to avoid traces of antibiotics in a product with nutritional purpose. Results Here we report the construction of the first selection marker-free E. coli strain that produces 2?-FL from lactose and glycerol. To construct this strain, recombinant genes of the de novo synthesis pathway for GDP-L-fucose as well as the gene for the H. pylori fucosyltransferase futC were integrated into the chromosome of E. coli JM109 by using the ?-Red recombineering technique. Strains carrying additional copies of the futC gene and/or the gene fkp (from Bacteroides fragilis) for an additional salvage pathway for GDP-L-fucose production were used and shown to further improve production of 2?-FL in shake flask experiments. An increase of the intracellular GDP-L-fucose concentration by expression of fkp gene as well as an additional copy of the futC gene lead to an enhanced formation of 2?-FL. Using an improved production strain, feasibility of large scale 2?-FL production was demonstrated in an antibiotic-free fed-batch fermentation (13 l) with a final 2?-FL concentration of 20.28?±?0.83 g l-1 and a space-time-yield of 0.57 g l-1 h-1. Conclusions By chromosomal integration of recombinant genes, altering the copy number of these genes and analysis of 2?-FL and intracellular GDP-L-fucose levels, we were able to construct and improve the first selection marker-free E. coli strain which is capable to produce 2?-FL without the use of expression plasmids. Analysis of intracellular GDP-L-fucose levels identified the de novo synthesis pathway of GDP-L-fucose as one bottleneck in 2?-FL production. In antibiotic-free fed-batch fermentation with an improved strain, scale-up of 2?-FL could be demonstrated. PMID:23635327

  9. Acid-soluble internal capsules for closed-face cassette elemental sampling and analysis of workplace air.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Ashley, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles that are collected using closed-face filter cassettes (CFCs), which are used widely in the sampling of workplace aerosols, can deposit in places other than on the filter and thereby may not be included in the ensuing analysis. A technique for ensuring that internal non-filter deposits are included in the analysis is to collect airborne particles within an acid-soluble internal capsule that, following sampling, can be dissolved along with the filter for subsequent elemental analysis. An interlaboratory study (ILS) was carried out to evaluate the use of cellulosic CFC capsule inserts for their suitability in the determination of trace elements in airborne samples. The ILS was performed in accordance with an applicable ASTM International standard practice, ASTM E691, which describes statistical procedures for investigating interlaboratory precision. Performance evaluation materials consisted of prototype cellulose acetate capsules attached to mixed-cellulose ester filters. Batches of capsules were dosed with Pb-containing materials (standard aqueous solutions, and certified reference material soil and paint). Also, aerosol samples containing nine target analyte elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, and Ni) were generated using a multiport sampler; various concentrations and sampling times were employed to yield samples fortified at desired loading levels. Triplicates of spiked capsules at three different loadings were conveyed to each volunteer laboratory; loading levels were unknown to the participants. The laboratories were asked to prepare the samples by acid dissolution and to analyze aliquots of extracted samples by atomic spectrometry in accordance with applicable ASTM International Standards. Participants were asked to report their results in units of ?g of each target element per sample. For the elements investigated, inter-laboratory precision and recovery estimates from the participating laboratories demonstrated the utility of the cellulosic capsule inserts for the measurement of sampled trace elements. PMID:23548078

  10. Trans-spliced Cas9 allows cleavage of HBB and CCR5 genes in human cells using compact expression cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Eli J.; Appleton, Caleb M.; White, Douglas E.; Brown, Matthew T.; Deshmukh, Harshavardhan; Kemp, Melissa L.; Bao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used in a wide variety of biological studies; however, the large size of CRISPR/Cas9 presents challenges in packaging it within adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) for clinical applications. We identified a two-cassette system expressing pieces of the S. pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) protein which splice together in cellula to form a functional protein capable of site-specific DNA cleavage. With specific CRISPR guide strands, we demonstrated the efficacy of this system in cleaving the HBB and CCR5 genes in human HEK-293T cells as a single Cas9 and as a pair of Cas9 nickases. The trans-spliced SpCas9 (tsSpCas9) displayed ~35% of the nuclease activity compared with the wild-type SpCas9 (wtSpCas9) at standard transfection doses, but had substantially decreased activity at lower dosing levels. The greatly reduced open reading frame length of the tsSpCas9 relative to wtSpCas9 potentially allows for more complex and longer genetic elements to be packaged into an AAV vector including tissue-specific promoters, multiplexed guide RNA expression, and effector domain fusions to SpCas9. For unknown reasons, the tsSpCas9 system did not work in all cell types tested. The use of protein trans-splicing may help facilitate exciting new avenues of research and therapeutic applications through AAV-based delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 systems. PMID:26126518

  11. agr Dysfunction Affects Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type-Dependent Clinical Outcomes in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Kyung; Cho, Jeong Eun; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Jung, Younghee; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Kim, Chung-Jong; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Park, Wan Beom; Bang, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Kyoung Un; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Nam-Joong; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmec) type-dependent clinical outcomes may vary due to geographical variation in the presence of virulence determinants. We compared the microbiological factors and mortality attributed to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia between SCCmec types II/III and type IV. All episodes of MRSA bacteremia in a tertiary-care hospital (South Korea) over a 4.5-year period were reviewed. We studied the microbiological factors associated with all blood MRSA isolates, including spa type, agr type, agr dysfunction, and the genes for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)-mec, in addition to SCCmec type. Of 195 cases, 137 involved SCCmec types II/III, and 58 involved type IV. The mortality attributed to MRSA bacteremia was less frequent among the SCCmec type IV (5/58) than that among types II/III (39/137, P = 0.002). This difference remained significant when adjusted for clinical factors (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04 to 0.49; P = 0.002). Of the microbiological factors tested, agr dysfunction was the only significant factor that showed different positivity between the SCCmec types, and it was independently associated with MRSA bacteremia-attributed mortality (aOR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.72 to 12.92; P = 0.003). SCCmec type IV is associated with lower MRSA bacteremia-attributed mortality than are types II/III, which might be explained by the high rate of agr dysfunction in SCCmec types II/III in South Korea. PMID:25779574

  12. The cosmic microwave background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

  13. Quantum backgrounds and QFT

    E-print Network

    Jae-Suk Park; John Terilla; Thomas Tradler

    2009-09-21

    We introduce the concept of a quantum background and a functor QFT. In the case that the QFT moduli space is smooth formal, we construct a flat quantum superconnection on a bundle over QFT which defines algebraic structures relevant to correlation functions in quantum field theory. We go further and identify chain level generalizations of correlation functions which should be present in all quantum field theories.

  14. Cosmic Microwave Background Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Richard Bond

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ell -space are consistent with a Delta T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the

  15. Development of a Cell-Based, High-Throughput Screening Assay for Cholesterol Efflux Using a Fluorescent Mimic of Cholesterol

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jun; Cai, Sutang; Peterson, Blake R.

    2011-04-01

    on cholesterol efflux could be tested simultaneously by plate-reader in a short period of time. Treatment of THP-1-derived macrophages with inhibitors of the membrane transporter ATP-binding cassette A1, such as glyburide or a specific antibody, significantly...

  16. Flavonoid Dimers as Bivalent Modulators for Pentamidine and Sodium Stiboglucanate Resistance in Leishmania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris L. K. Wong; Kin-Fai Chan; Brendan A. Burkett; Yunzhe Zhao; Yi Chai; Hongzhe Sun; Tak Hang Chan; Larry M. C. Chow

    2007-01-01

    Drug resistance by overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is an impediment in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Flavonoids are known to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in Leishmania and mammalian cancers by inhibiting ABC transporters. Here, we found that synthetic flavonoid dimers with three (compound 9c) or four (compound 9d) ethylene glycol units exhibited a significantly higher reversing activity than other

  17. Gene-specific markers for the wheat gene Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 which confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The locus Lr34/Yr18/Pm38 confers partial and durable resistance against the devastating fungal pathogens leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew. In previous studies, this broad-spectrum resistance was shown to be controlled by a single gene which encodes a putative ATP-binding cassette transport...

  18. Role of the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1) for endothelial progenitor cell function and survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius F. H. Mueller; Shazia Afzal; Ulrich Marc Becher; Sven Wassmann; Georg Nickenig; Kerstin Wassmann

    2010-01-01

    The multidrug resistance related protein-1 (MRP1) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) of cell surface transport proteins expressed in multiple cell lines and tissues including endothelial cells and haematopoietic stem cells. MRP1 blockade has been shown to prevent endothelial cell apoptosis and improve endothelial function. Besides mature endothelial cells vascular homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contributes

  19. Tissue and developmental expression of a gene from Hessian fly encoding an ABC-active-transporter protein during interactions with wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the transcriptional patterns of a putative white (w) gene encoding an ABC-transporter protein during development in Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor. The deduced amino acid sequence for the Hessian fly white showed 77 to 74% similarities to white/ATP-binding-cassette proteins and 57 t...

  20. Correction of Apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Lipid Efflux and High Density Lipoprotein Particle Formation in Human Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Fibroblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired cell cholesterol trafficking in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease results in the first known instance of impaired regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a lipid transporter mediating the rate-limiting step in high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, as a cause of lo...

  1. OLIGOPEPTIDE TRANSPORTERS AND THEIR ROLE IN FE(II)- AND FE(III)-NICOTIANAMINE TRANSPORT IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of organisms to transport small peptides (two to five amino acids) is wide-ranging, and is present in humans, bacteria, fungi, archaea, and plants. There are three major groups of peptide transporters, divided by their substrate specificity: the ATP binding cassette (ABC), the peptide tr...

  2. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  3. Transcriptome-based identification of ABC transporters in the western tarnished plant bug lygus hesperus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a large superfamily of proteins that mediate diverse physiological functions by coupling ATP hydrolysis with substrate transport across lipid membranes. In insects, these proteins play roles in metabolism, development, eye pigmentation, and xenobiotic cle...

  4. The ABCG5 Polymorphism Contributes to Individual Responses to Dietary Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ATP binding cassette G5 (ABCG5) polymorphisms have been postulated to play a role in the response to dietary cholesterol. The objective of this study was to examine the contribution of the ABCG5 polymorphism on the plasma response to consumption of cholesterol and carotenoids from eggs. For this...

  5. Ligand, receptor, and cell type-dependent regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA in prostate cancer epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent evidence suggests that the liver X receptor (LXR) is a potential anti-cancer target in prostate carcinoma. There is little characterization, however, of how the two major isoforms LXRa or LXRß regulate the LXR-responsive genes ATP-binding cassette sub-family A 1 (ABCA1) and sub-family member ...

  6. Tumour stem cells and drug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tito Fojo; Susan Bates; Michael Dean

    2005-01-01

    The contribution of tumorigenic stem cells to haematopoietic cancers has been established for some time, and cells possessing stem-cell properties have been described in several solid tumours. Although chemotherapy kills most cells in a tumour, it is believed to leave tumour stem cells behind, which might be an important mechanism of resistance. For example, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters

  7. Drosophila ABC Transporter DmHMT-1 Confers Tolerance to Cadmium.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Half molecule ATP-binding cassette transporters of the HMT1(heavy metal tolerance factor 1)subfamily are required for Cd2+ tolerance in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis elegans and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and have homologs in other species, including plants and humans. Based on studies i...

  8. Sonic Hedgehog promotes multiple drug resistance by regulation of drug transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Sims-Mourtada; J G Izzo; J Ajani; K S C Chao; KSC Chao

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to successful chemotherapy is intrinsic or acquired multi-drug resistance (MDR). The most common cause of MDR involves increased drug efflux from cancer cells mediated by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The regulation of ABC transporters in the context of cancer is poorly understood, and clinical efforts to inhibit their function have not been fruitful.

  9. BioMed Central Page 1 of 9

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -gp expression is stimulated in astrocytes activated by various brain insults [5]. P-gp consists of a group: The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transmembrane transporter, is expressed by astrocytes in the adult brain, and is positively modulated during astrogliosis. In a search for factors involved

  10. Mutations in the canilicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) gene, a novel ABC transporter, in patients with hyperbilirubinemia II\\/Dubin-Johnson syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morimasa Wada; Satoshi Toh; Ken Taniguchi; Takanori Nakamura; Takeshi Uchiumi; Kimitoshi Kohno; Ichiro Yoshida; Akihiko Kimura; Shotaro Sakisaka; Yukihiko Adachi; Michihiko Kuwano

    1998-01-01

    Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily are mutated to cause diseases that include cystic fibrosis, hyperinsulinemia, adrenoleukodys- trophy, Stargardt disease and multidrug resistance. We recently isolated a novel human member of ABC transporter superfamily as the candidate transporter for the glucuronide and glutathione-conjugated antitumor agents, and found it highly homologous to the rat cmoat gene. Consistent with recent

  11. The ABC of ABCs: a phylogenetic and functional classification of ABC systems in living organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elie Dassa; Philippe Bouige

    2001-01-01

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved not only in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification.

  12. Diminished Self-Chaperoning Activity of the DF508 Mutant of CFTR Results in Protein Misfolding

    E-print Network

    Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    Diminished Self-Chaperoning Activity of the DF508 Mutant of CFTR Results in Protein Misfolding) Diminished Self-Chaperoning Activity of the DF508 Mutant of CFTR Results in Protein Misfolding. PLoS Comput The absence of a functional ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) protein called the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane

  13. Structure, Function, Expression, Genomic Organization, and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Human ABCB1 (MDR1), ABCC (MRP), and ABCG2 (BCRP) Efflux Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Supratim Choudhuri; Curtis D. Klaassen

    2006-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a large family of membrane proteins, which transport a variety of compounds through the membrane against a concentration gradient at the cost of ATP hydrolysis. Substrates of the ABC transporters include lipids, bile acids, xenobiotics, and peptides for antigen presentation. As they transport exogenous and endogenous compounds, they reduce the body load of potentially

  14. P-Glycoprotein Does Not Reduce Substrate Concentration from the Extracellular Leaflet of the Plasma Membrane in Living Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Chen; Alok C. Pant; Sanford M. Simon

    2001-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters, is an important mediator of multidrug resistance in cancer. Pgp exhibits a very broad specificity for substrates. These substrates share a common feature of being amphipathic and can orient into either leaflet of the membrane bilayer. Current evidence suggests that Pgp recognizes and extracts substrates from the membrane bilayer,

  15. Novel mutations in ABCA1 gene in Japanese patients with Tangier disease and familial high density lipoprotein deficiency with coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Huang; Kengo Moriyama; Takafumi Koga; Han Hua; Masato Ageta; Seiro Kawabata; Koji Mawatari; Takuro Imamura; Tanenao Eto; Mitsunobu Kawamura; Tamio Teramoto; Jun Sasaki

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) gene have been recently identified as the molecular defect in Tangier disease (TD) and familial high density lipoprotein deficiency (FHA). We here report novel mutations in the ABCA1 gene in two sisters from a Japanese family with TD who have been described previously (S. Ohtaki, H. Nakagawa, N. Kida, H. Nakamura, K.

  16. Accumulation of cardiolipin and lysocardiolipin in fibroblasts from Tangier disease subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Fobker; Reinhard Voss; Holger Reinecke; Christina Crone; Gerd Assmann; Michael Walter

    2001-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very low high density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma levels, cellular cholesteryl ester accumulation and reduced cholesterol excretion in response to HDL apolipoproteins. Molecular defects in the ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) have recently been identified as the cause of TD. ABCA1 plays a key role in the translocation

  17. Cholesterol and apolipoprotein B metabolism in Tangier disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst J Schaefer; Margaret E Brousseau; Margaret R Diffenderfer; Jeffrey S Cohn; Francine K Welty; John O'Connor Jr.; Gregory G Dolnikowski; Jian Wang; Robert A Hegele; Peter J Jones

    2001-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD), caused by mutations in the gene encoding ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABCA1), is a rare genetic disorder in which homozygotes have a marked deficiency of high density lipoproteins (HDL), as well as concentrations of low density lipoproteins (LDL) that are typically 40% of normal. Although it is well known that the reduced levels of HDL in TD are

  18. Accumulation of RhoA, RhoB, RhoG, and Rac1 in Fibroblasts from Tangier Disease Subjects Suggests a Regulatory Role of Rho Family Proteins in Cholesterol Efflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Utech; Gunnar Höbbel; Stephan Rust; Holger Reinecke; Gerd Assmann; Michael Walter

    2001-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very low high density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma levels, cellular cholesteryl ester accumulation and reduced cholesterol excretion in response to HDL apolipoproteins. Molecular defects in the ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) have recently been identified as the cause of TD. ABCA1 plays a key role in the translocation

  19. Steps toward discovering the function and expression of multiple drug resistance genes in "Arabidopsis thaliana"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily is the largest protein family identified in all organisms. It is a highly conserved domain responsible for the ATP-dependent transport of substances including ions, carbohydrates, xenobiotics, drugs, and peptides. Also, the subfamily, multidrug resistance...

  20. The Backgrounds Data Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  1. Sequencing of IncX-Plasmids Suggests Ubiquity of Mobile Forms of a Biofilm-Promoting Gene Cassette Recruited from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Burmřlle, Mette; Norman, Anders; Sřrensen, Sřren J.; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are a highly effective means with which genetic traits that influence human health, such as virulence and antibiotic resistance, are disseminated through bacterial populations. The IncX-family is a hitherto sparsely populated group of plasmids that are able to thrive within Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a replicon-centric screening method was used to locate strains from wastewater sludge containing plasmids belonging to the IncX-family. A transposon aided plasmid capture method was then employed to transport IncX-plasmids from their original hosts (and co-hosted plasmids) into a laboratory strain (Escherichia coli Genehogs®) for further study. The nucleotide sequences of the three newly isolated IncX-plasmids (pLN126_33, pMO17_54, pMO440_54) and the hitherto un-sequenced type-plasmid R485 revealed a remarkable occurrence of whole or partial gene cassettes that promote biofilm-formation in Klebsiella pneumonia or E. coli, in all four instances. Two of the plasmids (R485 and pLN126_33) were shown to directly induce biofilm formation in a crystal violet retention assay in E. coli. Sequence comparison revealed that all plasmid-borne forms of the type 3 fimbriae encoding gene cassette mrkABCDF were variations of a composite transposon Tn6011 first described in the E. coli IncX plasmid pOLA52. In conclusion, IncX-plasmids isolated from Enterobacteriaceae over almost 40 years and on three different continents have all been shown to carry a type 3 fimbriae gene cassette mrkABCDF stemming from pathogenic K. pneumoniae. Apart from contributing general knowledge about IncX-plasmids, this study also suggests an apparent ubiquity of a mobile form of an important virulence factor and is an illuminating example of the recruitment, evolution and dissemination of genetic traits through plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer. PMID:22844447

  2. The centromere site of the segregation cassette of broad-host-range plasmid RA3 is located at the border of the maintenance and conjugative transfer modules.

    PubMed

    Kulinska, Anna; Cao, Yunhong; Macioszek, Malgorzata; Hayes, Finbarr; Jagura-Burdzy, Grazyna

    2011-04-01

    RA3 is a low-copy-number, broad-host-range (BHR) conjugative plasmid of the IncU incompatibility group isolated originally from Aeromonas spp. A 4.9-kb fragment of RA3 is sufficient to stabilize an otherwise unstable replicon in Escherichia coli. This fragment specifies the korA-incC-korB-orf11 operon coding for an active partition system related to the central control operon of IncP-1 plasmids and found also in BHR environmental plasmids recently classified as the PromA group. All four genes in the cassette are necessary for segregation. IncC and KorB of RA3 belong to the ParA and ParB families of partitioning proteins, respectively. In contrast with IncP-1 plasmids, neither KorB nor IncC are involved in transcriptional autoregulation. Instead, KorA exerts transcriptional control of the operon by binding to a palindromic sequence that overlaps the putative -35 promoter motif of the cassette. The Orf11 protein is not required for regulation, but its absence decreases the stabilization potential of the segregation module. A region discontiguous from the cassette harbors a set of unrelated repeat motifs distributed over ?300 bp. Dissection of this region identified the centromere sequence that is vital for partitioning. The ?300-bp fragment also encompasses the origin of conjugative transfer, oriT, and the promoter that drives transcription of the conjugative transfer operon. A similar set of cis-acting motifs are evident in the PromA group of environmental plasmids, highlighting a common evolutionary origin of segregation and conjugative transfer modules in these plasmids and members of the IncU group. PMID:21296952

  3. Differences between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremic isolates harboring type IV and type V staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec genes based on prior patient healthcare exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-Y. Chen; J.-L. Wang; T. H.-H. Chen; W.-C. Chiang; S.-C. Chen; S.-C. Chang; P.-R. Hsueh

    2010-01-01

    This observational study enrolled adult patients with bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) who were treated at the emergency department of a teaching hospital from 2001 to 2007. MRSA isolates with type IV\\u000a and type V staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) genes (SCC IV\\/V-MRSA) were included in the final analysis. Healthcare-associated SCC IV\\/V-MRSA (HA-SCC IV\\/V-MRSA) and community-acquired\\u000a SCC IV\\/V-MRSA

  4. Dendritic cells phenotype fitting under hypoxia or lipopolysaccharide; adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette transporters far beyond an efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Lloberas, N; Rama, I; Llaudó, I; Torras, J; Cerezo, G; Cassis, L; Franquesa, M; Merino, A; Benitez-Ribas, D; Cruzado, J M; Herrero-Fresneda, I; Bestard, O; Grinyó, J M

    2013-06-01

    This study examines adenosine 5'-triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporters as a potential therapeutic target in dendritic cell (DC) modulation under hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Functional capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) (mixed lymphocyte reaction: MLR) and maturation of iDCs were evaluated in the presence or absence of specific ABC-transporter inhibitors. Monocyte-derived DCs were cultured in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4/granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Their maturation under hypoxia or LPS conditions was evaluated by assessing the expression of maturation phenotypes using flow cytometry. The effect of ABC transporters on DC maturation was determined using specific inhibitors for multi-drug resistance (MDR1) and multi-drug resistance proteins (MRPs). Depending on their maturation status to elicit T cell alloresponses, the functional capacity of DCs was studied by MLR. Mature DCs showed higher P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression with confocal microscopy. Up-regulation of maturation markers was observed in hypoxia and LPS-DC, defining two different DC subpopulation profiles, plasmacytoid versus conventional-like, respectively, and different cytokine release T helper type 2 (Th2) versus Th1, depending on the stimuli. Furthermore, hypoxia-DCs induced more B lymphocyte proliferation than control-iDC (56% versus 9%), while LPS-DCs induced more CD8-lymphocyte proliferation (67% versus 16%). ABC transporter-inhibitors strongly abrogated DC maturation [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ): P-glycoprotein inhibition using valspodar (PSC833) 5 ?M, CAS 115104-28-4 (MK571) 50 ?M and probenecid 2·5 ?M], induced significantly less lymphocyte proliferation and reduced cytokine release compared with stimulated-DCs without inhibitors. We conclude that diverse stimuli, hypoxia or LPS induce different profiles in the maturation and functionality of DC. Pgp appears to play a role in these DC events. Thus, ABC-transporters emerge as potential targets in immunosuppressive therapies interfering with DCs maturation, thereby abrogating innate immune response when it is activated after ischaemia. PMID:23600833

  5. The Effect of Regular Aerobic Exercise on Reverse Cholesterol Transport A1 and Apo Lipoprotein A-I Gene Expression in Inactive Women

    PubMed Central

    Tofighi, Asghar; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Jamali Qarakhanlou, Bahram; Babaei, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is currently a cause of mortality in some parts of the world. The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA1) gene prepares instructions to produce the ATP-binding cassette transporter protein whose operation is for export of phospholipids and cholesterol, outside cells where they are limited to Apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1). Increased ABCA1 activity could inhibit atherosclerosis. Objectives: In the present study, the effect of aerobic exercise was investigated on gene expression and biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: The participants included 36 inactive women, which were randomly assigned to control (CON) and experimental (EX) groups. The EX group performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and the CON group remained inactive. Fasting blood samples were collected 24 hours before the first session and 48 hours after completion of the course. The ABCA1 and APOA1 gene expressions were measured using semi-quantitative-RT-PCR. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (version 18). Results: A significant increase in blood ABCA1 (EX group P < 0.002, t = - 9.876) and Apo A-I (EX group P < 0.05, t = 2.76) gene expression was shown following the 12 weeks of training. Plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration increased (P < 0.001, t = 4.90 respectively) while plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration decreased (P < 0.001, t = 4.27) in the EX group compared with the CON group. Conclusions: Aerobic exercises can increase ABCA1 and APO-A1 gene expression. Induction of these genes can effectively prevent cardiovascular disease. PMID:26023346

  6. Background sources in optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    The characterization and measurement of background radiation relevant to optical communications system performance is addressed. The necessary optical receiver parameters are described, and radiometric concepts required for the calculation of collected background power are developed. The most important components of optical background power are discussed, and their contribution to the total collected background power in various communications scenarios is examined.

  7. Cosmic Microwave Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mather, John; Hinshaw, Gary; Page, Lyman

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the relic of the early phases of the expanding universe, is bright, full of information, and difficult to measure. Along with the recession of galaxies and the primordial nucleosynthesis, it is one of the strongest signs that the Hot Big Bang Model of the universe is correct. It is brightest around 2 mm wavelength, has a temperature of T_{cmb} = 2.72548 ± 0.00057 K, and has a blackbody spectrum within 50 parts per million. Its spatial fluctuations (around 0.01% on 1{}^{circ } scales) are possibly the relics of quantum mechanical processes in the early universe, modified by processes up to the decoupling at a redshift of about 1,000 (when the primordial plasma became mostly transparent). In the cold dark matter (DM) model with cosmic acceleration (? CDM), the fluctuation statistics are consistent with the model of inflation and can be used to determine other parameters within a few percent, including the Hubble constant, the ? constant, the densities of baryonic and dark matter, and the primordial fluctuation amplitude and power spectrum slope. In addition, the polarization of the fluctuations reveals the epoch of reionization at a redshift approximately twice that determined from the Gunn-Peterson trough due to optically thick Lyman ? absorption in QSO spectra. It is of historic importance, and a testament to the unity of theory and experiment, that we now have a standard model of cosmology that is consistent with all of the observations.Current observational challenges include (1) improvement of the spectrum distortion measurements, especially at long wavelengths, where the measured background is unexpectedly bright; (2) the search for the B-mode polarization (the divergence-free part of the polarization map), arising from propagating gravitational waves; and (3) the extension of fluctuation measurements to smaller angular scales. Much more precise spectrum observations near 2 mm are likely and would test some very interesting theories. Current theoretical challenges include explanation of the dark matter and dark energy; understanding, estimating, and removing the interference of foreground sources that limit the measurements of the CMB; detailed understanding of the influence of nonequilibrium processes on the decoupling and reionization phases; and searches for signs of the second order or exotic processes (e.g., isocurvature fluctuations, cosmic strings, non-Gaussian fluctuations). At this writing, we await the cosmological results of the Planck mission.

  8. Does your gene need a background check? How genetic background

    E-print Network

    Dworkin, Ian

    best to exploit genetic background effects to broaden genetic research programs. What are geneticDoes your gene need a background check? How genetic background impacts the analysis of mutations, USA 2 Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY, USA The premise of genetic analysis

  9. JEM-X background models

    E-print Network

    J. Huovelin; S. Maisala; J. Schultz; N. J. Westergaard; C. A. Oxborrow; P. Kretschmar; N. Lund

    2003-09-10

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diffuse background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors, with significant difference in spatial signatures between JEM-X units. According to our modelling, instrument background dominates over diffuse background in all positions and for all energies of JEM-X.

  10. First Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Containing a mecB-Carrying Gene Complex Independent of Transposon Tn6045 in a Macrococcus caseolyticus Isolate from a Canine Infection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Schwendener, Sybille; Thomann, Andreas; Gobeli Brawand, Stefanie; Perreten, Vincent

    2015-08-01

    A methicillin-resistant mecB-positive Macrococcus caseolyticus (strain KM45013) was isolated from the nares of a dog with rhinitis. It contained a novel 39-kb transposon-defective complete mecB-carrying staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCCmecKM45013). SCCmecKM45013 contained 49 coding sequences (CDSs), was integrated at the 3' end of the chromosomal orfX gene, and was delimited at both ends by imperfect direct repeats functioning as integration site sequences (ISSs). SCCmecKM45013 presented two discontinuous regions of homology (SCCmec coverage of 35%) to the chromosomal and transposon Tn6045-associated SCCmec-like element of M. caseolyticus JCSC7096: (i) the mec gene complex (98.8% identity) and (ii) the ccr-carrying segment (91.8% identity). The mec gene complex, located at the right junction of the cassette, also carried the ?-lactamase gene blaZm (mecRm-mecIm-mecB-blaZm). SCCmecKM45013 contained two cassette chromosome recombinase genes, ccrAm2 and ccrBm2, which shared 94.3% and 96.6% DNA identity with those of the SCCmec-like element of JCSC7096 but shared less than 52% DNA identity with the staphylococcal ccrAB and ccrC genes. Three distinct extrachromosomal circularized elements (the entire SCCmecKM45013, ?SCCmecKM45013 lacking the ccr genes, and SCCKM45013 lacking mecB) flanked by one ISS copy, as well as the chromosomal regions remaining after excision, were detected. An unconventional circularized structure carrying the mecB gene complex was associated with two extensive direct repeat regions, which enclosed two open reading frames (ORFs) (ORF46 and ORF51) flanking the chromosomal mecB-carrying gene complex. This study revealed M. caseolyticus as a potential disease-associated bacterium in dogs and also unveiled an SCCmec element carrying mecB not associated with Tn6045 in the genus Macrococcus. PMID:25987634

  11. Novel Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type, Tentatively Designated Type VIII, Harboring Class A mec and Type 4 ccr Gene Complexes in a Canadian Epidemic Strain of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunyan Zhang; Jo-Ann McClure; Sameer Elsayed; John M. Conly

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element characterized by flanking terminal direct and, in most cases, inverted repeat sequences, the mec and ccr gene complexes, and their surrounding DNA regions. Unique combinations of the mec and ccr gene complexes generate various SCCmec types. Six SCCmec types have been reported to date. We describe here a novel SCCmec

  12. The Development of a Pilot Library of Cassette Tapes Dealing with Recent Advances in the Strategies and Features of Educational Research. Final Report. Including a Report of an External Project Evaluation Conducted by Jerry L. Brown, Indiana University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    A project was designed to develop and test a library of cassette audiotapes for improving the technical skills of educational researchers. Fourteen outstanding researchers from diverse fields were identified, and a short instructional tape was prepared by each. Subjects of the tapes included instructional objectives for intellectual skills,…

  13. Identification of Multiresistance Gene cfr in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Pigs: Plasmid Location and Integration into a Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Dexi; Wu, Congming; Wang, Yang; Fan, Run; Schwarz, Stefan; Zhang, Suxia

    2015-06-01

    The multiresistance gene cfr was found in 8/231 porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. They were characterized by multilocus sequence typing, spa typing, dru typing, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing as ST627-t002-dt12w-IVb, ST6-t304-dt12w-IVb, ST9-t899-dt12w-IVb, ST9-t899-dt12ae-IVb, or ST63-t899-dt12v-IVb. Different cfr gene regions were detected on plasmids of ca. 35 kb in seven isolates. For the first time, an ISEnfa4-cfr-IS256 fragment was found to be inserted upstream of the ccr genes in a chromosomal SCCmec IVb element of the remaining isolate. PMID:25824234

  14. The class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and their active site: evolutionary conservation of an ATP binding site.

    PubMed

    Eriani, G; Cavarelli, J; Martin, F; Ador, L; Rees, B; Thierry, J C; Gangloff, J; Moras, D

    1995-05-01

    Previous sequence analyses have suggested the existence of two distinct classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. The partition was established on the basis of exclusive sets of sequence motifs (Eriani et al. [1990] Nature 347:203-306). X-ray studies have now well defined the structural basis of the two classes: the class I enzymes share with dehydrogenases and kinases the classic nucleotide binding fold called the Rossmann fold, whereas the class II enzymes possess a different fold, not found elsewhere, built around a six-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. The two classes of synthetases catalyze the same global reaction that is the attachment of an amino acid to the tRNA, but differ as to where on the terminal adenosine of the tRNA the amino acid is placed: class I enzymes act on the 2' hydroxyl whereas the class II enzymes prefer the 3' hydroxyl group. The three-dimensional structure of aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from yeast, a typical class II enzyme, is described here, in relation to its function. The crucial role of the sequence motifs in substrate binding and enzyme structure is high-lighted. Overall these results underline the existence of an intimate evolutionary link between the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, despite their actual structural diversity. PMID:7783225

  15. Effects of metal cations on [3H]alpha,beta-methylene ATP binding in rat vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Michel, A D; Humphrey, P P

    1994-08-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of metal cations (as their chloride salts) on the binding of [3H]alpha,beta-methylene ATP ([3H]alpha beta meATP) to rat vas deferens membranes using a vacuum filtration receptor binding assay. Whereas NaCl and KCl (0.01 and 30 mM) did not affect total binding of 1 nM [3H]alpha beta meATP, several divalent and trivalent cation salts markedly increased binding. The trivalent cation salts, FeCl3 and AlCl3 (0.1 to 100 microM), produced the greatest increases in total binding of [3H]alpha beta meATP, however, their effects were most probably due to precipitation of the radioligand. In contrast, several divalent cations, at concentrations between 1 microM and 1-10 mM, increased total binding of [3H]alpha beta meATP to rat vas deferens by between 87% and 215% while having no effect on either filter binding or non specific binding. The following pEC50 values for potentiating binding of the radioligand were obtained: ZnCl2 (5.44), MnCl2 (4.52), CaCl2 (4.17), CoCl2 (4.06), MgCl2 (3.67) and BaCl2 (3.10). Both EDTA and EGTA (0.01-1 mM) inhibited the binding of the radioligand. The effects of ZnCl2, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were examined in saturation studies. In the absence of added divalent cations, [3H]alpha beta meATP labelled both high (pKd = 9.15) and low (pKd = 7.06) affinity binding sites. The affinity of the radioligand for its high affinity sites was increased by 3 mM CaCl2 (pKd = 9.56) and by 30 microM ZnCl2 (pKd = 9.46) but not by 3 mM MgCl2. The Bmax of the low affinity site for [3H]alpha beta meATP was increased (approximately 4 fold) by both 3 mM MgCl2 and 30 microM ZnCl2 but not by 3 mM CaCl2. The selective effect of CaCl2 on the high affinity binding sites enabled these sites to be labelled in the presence of 3 mM CaCl2 using a low concentration of [3H]alpha beta meATP (1 nM); the sites exhibited the binding characteristics expected of the P2x purinoceptor. The selective effect of MgCl2 on the low affinity binding sites enabled these sites to be labelled in the presence of 3 mM MgCl2 and using a high concentration of [3H]alpha beta meATP (100 nM). A comparison of the binding characteristics of the high and low affinity sites for [3H]alpha beta meATP revealed several other differences, in addition to their cation selectivity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7990967

  16. Fragment-Based Screening Maps Inhibitor Interactions in the ATP-Binding Site of Checkpoint Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Santisteban, M. Cris; Westwood, Isaac M.; Boxall, Kathy; Brown, Nathan; Peacock, Sam; McAndrew, Craig; Barrie, Elaine; Richards, Meirion; Mirza, Amin; Oliver, Antony W.; Burke, Rosemary; Hoelder, Swen; Jones, Keith; Aherne, G. Wynne; Blagg, Julian; Collins, Ian; Garrett, Michelle D.; van Montfort, Rob L. M.

    2013-01-01

    Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) is an important serine/threonine kinase in the cellular response to DNA damage. A fragment-based screening campaign using a combination of a high-concentration AlphaScreen™ kinase assay and a biophysical thermal shift assay, followed by X-ray crystallography, identified a number of chemically different ligand-efficient CHK2 hinge-binding scaffolds that have not been exploited in known CHK2 inhibitors. In addition, it showed that the use of these orthogonal techniques allowed efficient discrimination between genuine hit matter and false positives from each individual assay technology. Furthermore, the CHK2 crystal structures with a quinoxaline-based fragment and its follow-up compound highlight a hydrophobic area above the hinge region not previously explored in rational CHK2 inhibitor design, but which might be exploited to enhance both potency and selectivity of CHK2 inhibitors. PMID:23776527

  17. An essential role for ATP binding and hydrolysis in the chaperone activity of GRP94 in cells

    E-print Network

    Snapp, Erik Lee

    ) Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone for which only few client for chaperone activity in vivo and that the essential protein-binding domain of GRP94 is distinct from the N-terminal domain. endoplasmic reticulum peptide hormones protein folding The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone

  18. Three High-Lysine Mutations Control the Leve1 of ATP Binding HSP70-like Proteins in the Maize Endosperm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriano Marocco; Annalisa Santucci; Sergio Cerioli; Mario Motto; Richard Thompson; Francesco Salaminid

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and deposition of seed storage proteins in maize are affected by severa1 dominant and recessive mutants. The effect of three independent mutations, floury-2 (fl2), Defective endosperm-630 (De-BtO), and Mucronate (Mc), that reduce zein level in the endosperm were investigated. These mutations also control the level of b-70, a polypeptide bound to protein bodies, which is separable into the

  19. A new staphylococcal sigma factor in the conserved gene cassette: functional significance and implication for the evolutionary processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Morikawa; Yumiko Inose; Hideyuki Okamura; Atsushi Maruyama; Hideo Hayashi; Kunio Takeyasu; Toshiko Ohta

    2003-01-01

    Background : Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and causes a serious hospital infection due to the acquired multidrug resistance. Unlike the well-studied bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis , which have seven and 18 sigma fac- tors, respectively, only two sigma factors have been known for S. aureus . We searched for possible sigma factor genes

  20. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  1. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  2. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Wilson

    1979-01-01

    The discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation is discussed beginning with radio astronomical measuring techniques, followed by the history of the detection of background radiation, and a summary of some of its properties. Attention is given to the design and operation of a radiotelescope, its antenna and radiometer, exhibiting its advantages, including the ability to measure a collecting area

  3. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-01-01

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 75 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies

  4. Radar background signal reduction study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Knott; C. J. Ray; M. S. West; R. J. Wohlers

    1980-01-01

    This report summarizes a study whose objective was to identify materials and\\/or techniques to reduce radar background signals for ground plane radar cross section (RCS) ranges. Background signal reduction is essential for improving the accuracy of RCS measurements and the primary application is for operations at the RATSCAT range on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. A survey

  5. Background

    Cancer.gov

    The discovery that proteins and peptides are "leaked" by tumors into clinically accessible bodily fluids such as blood has led to the possibility of diagnosing cancer at an early stage or monitoring response to treatment by collecting these fluids and testing for the presence of cancer-related biomarkers. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) are examples of blood-borne cancer protein biomarkers that are currently being used in the clinic.

  6. Background

    Cancer.gov

    Extensive evidence has demonstrated that 24-hour dietary recalls provide the highest quality, least biased dietary data. Traditional 24-hour recalls, however, are expensive and impractical for large-scale research because they rely on trained interviewers and multiple administrations to estimate usual intakes. As a result, researchers often make use of food frequency questionnaires, which are less expensive but contain substantial error.

  7. Background events in microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Vallerga, J.; Wargelin, B.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements have been made to assess the characteristics and origins of background events in microchannel plates (MCPs). An overall background rate of about 0.4 events/sq cm persec has been achieved consistently for MCPs that have been baked and scrubbed. The temperature and gain of the MCPs are found to have no significant effect on the background rate. Detection of 1.46-MeV gamma rays from the MCP glass confirms the presence of K-40, with a concentration of 0.0007 percent, in MCP glass. It is shown that beta decay from K-40 is sufficient to cause the background rate and spectrum observed. Anticoincidence measurements indicate the the background rate caused by cosmic ray interactions is small (less than 0.016 events/sq cm per sec).

  8. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    E-print Network

    B. Majorovits; I. Abt; M. Laubenstein; O. Volynets

    2011-05-18

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10^-5 counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of 22Na, 26Al, 226Ra and 228Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  9. Problem solving Using background knowledge

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    . Connect all 9 dots with four lines without lifting your pen from the page. Using background knowledge Pizza Children Cups · Retrieval affected by domain similarity ­ Both similar and cross-mapped examples

  10. Low background techniques in XMASS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Atsushi [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida, Gifu, 506-1205 (Japan)

    2011-04-27

    The XMASS project aims to detect pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, neutrino-less double beta decay, and dark matter searches using ultra-pure liquid xenon. The first stage of XMASS project is concentrated on dark matter searches using 800 kg liquid xenon detector which requires low background and low threshold. Several techniques applied to XMASS detector for low background will be presented.

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    E-print Network

    Eric Gawiser; Joseph Silk

    2000-02-02

    We summarize the theoretical and observational status of the study of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Its thermodynamic spectrum is a robust prediction of the Hot Big Bang cosmology and has been confirmed observationally. There are now 76 observations of Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy, which we present in a table with references. We discuss the theoretical origins of these anisotropies and explain the standard jargon associated with their observation.

  12. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3? anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  13. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. Galán; J. A. García; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. Tomás; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  14. A Novel Serotype-Specific Gene Cassette (gltA-gltB) Is Required for Expression of Teichoic Acid-Associated Surface Antigens in Listeria monocytogenes of Serotype 4b

    Microsoft Academic Search

    XIANG-HE LEI; FRANZ FIEDLER; ZHENG LAN; SOPHIA KATHARIOU

    2001-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b strains account for about 40% of sporadic cases and many epidemics of listeriosis. Mutations in a chromosomal locus resulted in loss of reactivity with all three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which were specific to serotype 4b and the closely related serotypes 4d and 4e. Here we show that this locus contains a serotype 4b-4d-4e-specific gene cassette (3,071

  15. ATP-Dependent Binding Cassette Transporter G Family Member 16 Increases Plant Tolerance to Abscisic Acid and Assists in Basal Resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC30001[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C. Neal; Traw, M. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and ?-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

  16. Backgrounds in the NPDGamma Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuker Dogan, Serpil

    2012-10-01

    The NPDGamma experiment, which measures the parity-violating directional gamma asymmetry in neutron-proton capture, completed its first run cycle in June at the Fundamental Neutron Physics Beamline at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source. In the experiment intense polarized low-energy neutron beam interacts with liquid para-hydrogen target. Gamma rays from the capture reaction are detected by 48 CsI(Tl) detectors with the 3? acceptance angle. The goal of the experiment is to measure the asymmetry with precision of 1 x10-8. The polarized neutrons also interact with other materials in the beam windows and the walls of the target vessel producing a background to the signal that dilutes the PV gamma asymmetry and these materials (primarily Aluminum) could, in principle, have their own PV asymmetries. Therefore, it is important to study the backgrounds and their contributions to measured signals. I will discuss the detected backgrounds and their effect on NPDGamma.

  17. Illuminating the Background: Topics in Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nathan J.

    The cosmic microwave background provides a wealth of information about the origin and history of the universe. The statistics of the anisotropy and the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, among other things, can tell us about the distribution of matter, the redshift of reionization, and the nature of the primordial uctuations. From the lensing of cosmic microwave background due to intervening matter, we can extract information about neutrinos and the equation of state of dark energy. A measurement of the large angular scale B-mode polarization has been called the "smoking gun" of in ation, a theory that describes a possible early rapid expansion of the universe. The focus of current experiments is to measure this B-mode polarization, while several experiments, such as POLARBEAR, are also looking to measure the lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This dissertation will discuss several different topics in cosmic microwave background polarization research. I will make predictions for future experiments and I will also show analysis for two current experiments, POLARBEAR and BICEP. I will show how beam systematics affect the measurement of cosmological parameters and how well we must limit these systematics in order to get unbiased constraints on cosmological parameters for future experiments. I will discuss a novel way of using the temperature-polarization cross correlation to constrain the amount of inflationary gravitational waves. Through Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, I will determine how well future experiments will be able to constrain the neutrino masses and their degeneracy parameters. I will show results from current data analysis and calibration being done on the Cedar Flat deployment for the POLARBEAR experiment which is currently being constructed in the Atacama desert in Chile. Finally, I will analyze the claim of detection of cosmological birefringence in the BICEP data and show that there is reason to believe it is due to systematic effects in the data.

  18. Pro Isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-Bromo Cassette Connects H3K4me Readout to CyP33 and HDAC-Mediated Repression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhanxin; Song, Jikui; Milne, Thomas A.; Wang, Gang G.; Li, Haitao; Allis, C. David; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Rockefeller)

    2010-09-13

    The MLL1 gene is a frequent target for recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemia stem cells. Here, we report on structure-function studies that elucidate molecular events in MLL1 binding of histone H3K4me3/2 marks and recruitment of the cyclophilin CyP33. CyP33 contains a PPIase and a RRM domain and regulates MLL1 function through HDAC recruitment. We find that the PPIase domain of CyP33 regulates the conformation of MLL1 through proline isomerization within the PHD3-Bromo linker, thereby disrupting the PHD3-Bromo interface and facilitating binding of the MLL1-PHD3 domain to the CyP33-RRM domain. H3K4me3/2 and CyP33-RRM target different surfaces of MLL1-PHD3 and can bind simultaneously to form a ternary complex. Furthermore, the MLL1-CyP33 interaction is required for repression of HOXA9 and HOXC8 genes in vivo. Our results highlight the role of PHD3-Bromo cassette as a regulatory platform, orchestrating MLL1 binding of H3K4me3/2 marks and cyclophilin-mediated repression through HDAC recruitment.

  19. MicroRNA-106a confers cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells by targeting adenosine triphosphatase-binding cassette A1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanxin; Li, Xuenan; Cheng, Song; Wei, Wei; Li, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered to have pivotal roles in regulating the drug resistance of various types of human cancer, including cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fewer studies have explored the roles of miR-106a in NSCLC-cell resistance to DDP and its precise molecular mechanism has remained elusive. In the present study, whether miR-106a was able to mediate resistance of the lung cancer cell line A549 to DDP was investigated. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze miR-106a mRNA expression levels. miR-106a expression levels were upregulated in the DDP-resistant cell line A549/DDP compared with its parental cell line, A549. miR-106a-transfection induced DDP-resistance in A549 cells, while repression of miR-106a by anti-miR-106a in A549/DDP resulted in enhanced DDP cytotoxicity. Furthermore, it was discovered that the mechanism of miR-106a-induced DDP resistance involved the expression of adenosine triphosphatase-binding cassette, sub-family A, member 1 (ABCA1), as indicated by transfection of cells with short interfering RNA-ABCA1. The results of the present study suggested a novel mechanism underlying DDP-resistance in NSCLC. PMID:25339370

  20. Studies with an immobilized metal affinity chromatography cassette system involving binuclear triazacyclononane-derived ligands: automation of batch adsorption measurements with tagged recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Petzold, Martin; Coghlan, Campbell J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-07-18

    This study describes the determination of the adsorption isotherms and binding kinetics of tagged recombinant proteins using a recently developed IMAC cassette system and employing automated robotic liquid handling procedures for IMAC resin screening. These results confirm that these new IMAC resins, generated from a variety of different metal-charged binuclear 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) ligands, interact with recombinant proteins containing a novel N-terminal metal binding tag, NT1A, with static binding capacities similar to those obtained with conventional hexa-His tagged proteins, but with significantly increased association constants. In addition, higher kinetic binding rates were observed with these new IMAC systems, an attribute that can be positively exploited to increase process productivity. The results from this investigation demonstrate that enhancements in binding capacities and affinities were achieved with these new IMAC resins and chosen NT1A tagged protein. Further, differences in the binding performances of the bis(tacn) xylenyl-bridged ligands were consistent with the distance between the metal binding centres of the two tacn moieties, the flexibility of the ligand and the potential contribution from the aromatic ring of the xylenyl group to undergo ?/? stacking interactions with the tagged proteins. PMID:24891160

  1. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    A review the implications of the spectrum and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background for cosmology. Thermalization and processes generating spectral distortions are discussed. Anisotropy predictions are described and compared with observational constraints. If the evidence for large-scale power in the galaxy distribution in excess of that predicted by the cold dark matter model is vindicated, and the observed structure originated via gravitational instabilities of primordial density fluctuations, the predicted amplitude of microwave background anisotropies on angular scales of a degree and larger must be at least several parts in 10 exp 6.

  2. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Cosmic Horizons: Astronomy at the Cutting Edge, provides an overview of how scientists are working to explain the origin of the universe. Specifically, it discusses the two major theories about the origin of the universe (Big Bang and Steady State), the search for microwave background radiation, and the discovery of the first observational evidence to support the Big Bang theory.

  4. The Kondo Problem Historical background

    E-print Network

    The Kondo Problem Historical background Kondo solution (Fermi liquid and perturbation) RG flow (Luttinger liquid) for single channel Multichannel Kondo effect by Andrzej Nowojewski #12;#12;#12;Resistance-d Hamiltonian: Jun Kondo Prog. Th. Phys 32, 37 (1964) #12;Use perturbation theory to calculate transition

  5. Advanced Network Technology. Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This background paper analyzes technologies for tomorrow's information superhighways. Advanced networks will first be used to support scientists in their work, but will soon be deployed more widely in business, entertainment, health care, and education. Significant progress has been made toward the development of gigabit network technology since…

  6. Mars Background Information General Information

    E-print Network

    Dennis, Robert G.

    close. Not until the Viking Missions was anything successfully landed on Mars. Viking conducted testsMars Background Information General Information Here are some quick facts about Mars in comparison with Earth: Mars Earth Atmosphere 95% CO2, 5% N2, Ar & trace gasses 0.007 atm pressure 78% N2, 21% O2, 1

  7. REPORT NO. 1 background material

    E-print Network

    to large amounts of ionizing radiation can produce deleterious effects on the human body so exposed. More the current knowledge on effects of radiation exposure and on human exposure levREPORT NO. 1 background material for the development of radiation protection standards May 13

  8. Atmospheric Neutrinos: Background and Signal

    SciTech Connect

    Mocioiu, Irina [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 104 Davey Lab 122, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2010-11-24

    We discuss a brief history of atmospheric neutrinos, from background to proton decay searches to proving neutrino oscillations. We then discuss how high statistics atmospheric neutrino measurements in the IceCube Deep Core Array can provide useful information about neutrino oscillation parameters and other neutrino properties.

  9. Employment with a Criminal Background

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Hennessy

    Seeking employment is highly competitive, and it becomes more difficult when in poverty and with a criminal past. Many factors influence this complex situation. Hiring an ex- convict does pose a risk to the employer, and negative stereotypes reinforce anxiety over this risk. A common belief is that a criminal background means a person can't be trusted and that they

  10. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-print Network

    Garza, J G; Calvet, D; Castel, J F; Christensen, F E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Decker, T; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galán, J; García, J A; Giomataris, I; Hill, R M; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jakobsen, A C; Jourde, D; Mirallas, H; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M J; Ruz, J; Tomás, A; Vafeiadis, T; Vogel, J K

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  11. Climate Change The Physical Background

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    Climate Change ­ The Physical Background Andreas Sterl KNMI · Basics of the climate system/18) #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11.10.2007 Observed climate change #12;Andreas Sterl · Anthropogenic influence · Projected changes & impact #12;Andreas Sterl, SEAMOCS workshop, Palmse, 11

  12. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Silk

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found

  13. Mathematical background of Parrondo's paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrends, Ehrhard

    2004-05-01

    Parrondo's paradox states that there are losing gambling games which, when being combined stochastically or in a suitable deterministic way, give rise to winning games. Here we investigate the probabilistic background. We show how the properties of the equilibrium distributions of the Markov chains under consideration give rise to the paradoxical behavior, and we provide methods how to find the best a priori strategies.

  14. Shark Fact or Fiction? Background

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    in saltwater. Most sharks are hot-blooded. The chance of being attacked by a shark is very high. Shark finning are hot-blooded. FICTION The chance of being attacked by a shark is very high. FICTION Shark finningShark Fact or Fiction? Background: This is a fun classroom activity based on the basic biology

  15. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, B. L.; Phlips, B. F.; Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91 [2], nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database [3], and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) [4] using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, ?-, ?+, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both ?- and ?+. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  16. Simulation of HEAO 3 background

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, B. L. [George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Phlips, B. F. [USRA, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kroeger, R. A.; Kurfess, J. D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

    1997-05-10

    A Monte Carlo technique for modeling background in space-based gamma-ray telescopes has been developed. The major background components included in this modeling technique are the diffuse cosmic gamma-ray flux, the Earth's atmospheric flux, and decay of nuclei produced by spallation of cosmic rays, trapped protons and their secondaries, the decay of nuclei produced by neutron capture, and the de-excitation of excited states produced by inelastic scattering of neutrons. The method for calculating the nuclear activation and decay component of the background combines the low Earth orbit proton and neutron spectra, the spallation cross sections from Alice91, nuclear decay data from the National Nuclear Data Center's (NNDC) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database, and three-dimensional gamma-ray and beta transport with Electron Gamma-ray Shower version 4 (EGS4) using MORSE combinatorial geometry. This Monte Carlo code handles the following decay types: electron capture, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +}, meta-stable isotope and short lived intermediate states, and isotopes that have branchings to both {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}. Actual background from the HEAO 3 space instrument are used to validate the code.

  17. Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background

    E-print Network

    - 1 - Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology Background: Over the last 20 years, hurricane research at AOML has focused on improved scientific understanding of hurricanes and of tropical meteorology scientific goals for AOMLs hurricane research derive from the U.S. Weather Research Programs (USWRP

  18. Superspace geometry for supermembrane backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard de Wit; Kasper Peeters; Jan Plefka

    1998-01-01

    We construct part of the superspace vielbein and tensor gauge field in terms of the component fields of 11-dimensional on-shell supergravity. The result can be utilized to describe supermembranes and corresponding matrix models for Dirichlet particles in non-trivial supergravity backgrounds to second order in anticommuting coordinates. We exhibit the ?-invariance of the corresponding supermembrane action, which at this order holds

  19. The Cosmic Background Explorer /COBE/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, under study by NASA since 1976, will map the spectrum and the angular distribution of diffuse radiation from the universe over the entire wavelength range from 1 micron to 1.3 cm. It carries three instruments: a set of differential microwave radiometers (DMR) at 23.5, 31.4, 53, and 90GHz, a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 1 to 100 per cm, and a diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE) covering 1 to 300 microns. They will use the ideal space environment, a one year lifetime, and standard instrument techniques to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity and accuracy, providing a fundamental data base for cosmology. The instruments are united by common purpose as well as similar environmental and orbital requirements. The data from all three experiments will be analyzed together, to distinguish nearby sources of radiation from the cosmologically interesting diffuse background radiations. Construction is planned to begin in 1982 for a launch in 1988.

  20. Ice absorption toward background stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Claudia; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Kessler-Silacci, Jacqueline; Evans, Neal J., II; Augereau, Jean-Charles; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Brown, Joanna; Geers, Vincent; Jřrgensen, Jes K.; Lahuis, Fred

    We present results of ice absorption between 5-20 ?m toward background stars as part of the Cores to Disks (c2d) Legacy program (Evans et al. 2003). Molecules such as H2O, CO2, HCOOH, NH3, CH3OH, and NH4+ have bands in this wavelength region. Absorption from H2O bands at 6 and 13 ?m is observed toward all sources. We detect strong CO2 absorption toward CK 2, a background star with high extinction in the Serpens dark cloud. The abundance of CO2 with respect to H2O is 30-40%, similar to what is observed toward protostars. Also, at 6.8 ?m, CK 2 shows a feature which may be due to NH4+ . Other sources with lower extinction, such as Elias 13 and Elias 16 in the Taurus dark cloud, do not show this feature. By probing different lines of sight, we can learn how ice composition varies with extinction. The abundances found toward background stars are then compared to abundances observed toward protosatars.

  1. Stealths on Anisotropic Holographic Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Eloy Ayón-Beato; Mokhtar Hassaďne; María Montserrat Juárez-Aubry

    2015-06-11

    In this paper, we are interested in exploring the existence of stealth configurations on anisotropic backgrounds playing a prominent role in the non-relativistic version of the gauge/gravity correspondence. By stealth configuration, we mean a nontrivial scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity whose energy-momentum tensor evaluated on the anisotropic background vanishes identically. In the case of a Lifshitz spacetime with a nontrivial dynamical exponent z, we spotlight the role played by the anisotropy to establish the holographic character of the stealth configurations, i.e. the scalar field is shown to only depend on the radial holographic direction. This configuration which turns out to be massless and without integration constants is possible for a unique value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Then, using a simple conformal argument, we map this configuration into a stealth solution defined on the so-called hyperscaling violation metric which is conformally related to the Lifshitz spacetime. This holographic configuration obtained through a conformal mapping constitutes only a particular class within the stealth solutions defined on the hyperscaling violation as it is shown by deriving the most general stealth configurations. The case of the Schrodinger background is also exhaustively analyzed and we establish that the presence of the null direction makes their stealth configurations not necessarily holographic in general and characterized by a self-interacting behavior. Finally, for completeness we also study the stealth configurations on the Schrodinger inspired hyperscaling violation spacetimes.

  2. Evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine-cassette assay as a survey tool for Schistosoma mansoni in different transmission settings within Bugiri District, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Adriko, M; Standley, C J; Tinkitina, B; Tukahebwa, E M; Fenwick, A; Fleming, F M; Sousa-Figueiredo, J C; Stothard, J R; Kabatereine, N B

    2014-08-01

    Diagnosis of schistosomiasis at the point-of-care (POC) is a growing topic in neglected tropical disease research. There is a need for diagnostic tests which are affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid, equipment-free and delivered to those who need it, and POC is an important tool for disease mapping and guiding mass deworming. The aim of present study was to evaluate the relative diagnostic performance of two urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) cassette assays, one commercially available and the other in experimental production, against results obtained using the standard Kato-Katz faecal smear method (six thick smears from three consecutive days), as a 'gold-standard', for Schistosoma mansoni infection in different transmission settings in Uganda. Our study was conducted among 500 school children randomly selected across 5 schools within Bugiri district, adjacent to Lake Victoria in Uganda. Considering results from the 469 pupils who provided three stool samples for the six Kato-Katz smears, 293 (76%) children had no infection, 109 (23%) were in the light intensity category, while 42 (9%) and 25 (5%) were in the moderate and heavy intensity categories respectively. Following performance analysis of CCA tests in terms of sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, overall performance of the commercially available CCA test was more informative than single Kato-Katz faecal smear microscopy, the current operational field standard for disease mapping. The current CCA assay is therefore a satisfactory method for surveillance of S. mansoni in an area where disease endemicity is declining due to control interventions. With the recent resolution on schistosomiasis elimination by the 65th World Health Assembly, the urine POC CCA test is an attractive tool to augment and perhaps replace the Kato-Katz sampling within ongoing control programmes. PMID:24727052

  3. Genetic diagnosis of community-acquired MRSA: a multiplex real-time PCR method for Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing and detecting toxin genes.

    PubMed

    Motoshima, Maiko; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Matsuda, Junichi; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Yasuaki; Kohno, Shigeru; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2010-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a wide range of infections in health care settings and community environments. In particular, community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) is important for clinicians because many fatal cases in healthy populations have been reported. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element and carries the central determinant for broad-spectrum beta-lactam resistance encoded by the mecA gene. The emergence of MRSA is due to the acquisition and insertion of the SCCmec element into the chromosome. CA-MRSA is characterized as SCCmec type IV. Thus, we aimed to establish a novel multiplex real-time PCR method to distinguish SCCmec type, which enables us to evaluate the pathogenicity of MRSA. A total of 778 MRSA were isolated at Nagasaki University Hospital from 2000 to 2007. All isolates were subjected to minimal inhibitory concentration testing and PCR for SCCmec typing and detecting genes of toxins: tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1), sec (encoded enterotoxin type c), etb (exfoliative toxin type b), and lukS/F-PV (Panton-Valentine leukocidin). PCR was performed to amplify a total of 10 genes in the same run. The 667 MRSA clones detected from pus in 778 clones were classified as SCCmec type II (77.7%), type IV (19.2%), and type I (3.0%). 87.5% of SCCmec type II clone had tst and sec genes. No isolate was lukS/F-PV positive. The present study indicates the high rate of lukS/F-PV-negative SCCmec type IV in Nagasaki. Our PCR method is convenient for typing MRSA and detecting toxins in Japan. PMID:20139668

  4. Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    Outline Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples Computing the reversal and biological background 2 Definitions and examples Signed permutations and reversal distance Elementary without hurdles and fortresses #12;Outline Introduction and biological background Definitions and examples

  5. The Extragalactic Gamma Ray Background

    E-print Network

    Charles D. Dermer

    2007-05-10

    One way to understand the nonthermal history of the universe is by establishing the origins of the unresolved and truly diffuse extragalactic gamma rays. Dim blazars and radio/gamma galaxies certainly make an important contribution to the galactic gamma-ray background given the EGRET discoveries, and previous treatments are reviewed and compared with a new analysis. Studies of the gamma-ray intensity from cosmic rays in star-forming galaxies and from structure formation shocks, as well as from dim GRBs, are briefly reviewed. A new hard gamma-ray source class seems required from the predicted aggregate intensity compared with the measured intensity.

  6. Symmetric M-Theory Backgrounds

    E-print Network

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2011-01-01

    We classify symmetric backgrounds of eleven-dimensional supergravity up to local isometry. In other words, we classify triples (M,g,F), where (M,g) is an eleven-dimensional lorentzian locally symmetric space and F is an invariant 4-form, satisfying the equations of motion of eleven-dimensional supergravity. The possible (M,g) are given either by (not necessarily nondegenerate) Cahen-Wallach spaces or by products AdS_d x M for 1 < d < 8 and M a not necessarily irreducible riemannian symmetric space of dimension 11-d. In most cases we determine the corresponding F-moduli spaces.

  7. Human Multidrug Resistance Associated Protein 4 Confers Resistance to Camptothecins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan Tian; Jing Zhang; Theresa May Chin Tan; Eli Chan; Wei Duan; Sui Yung Chan; Urs Alex Boelsterli; Paul Chi-Lui Ho; Hongyuan Yang; Jin-Song Bian; Min Huang; Yi-Zhun Zhu; Weiping Xiong; Xiaotian Li; Shufeng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP) 4 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter family. Camptothecins (CPTs) have shown substantial anticancer activity against a broad spectrum of tumors by inhibiting DNA topoisomerase I, but tumor resistance is one of the major reasons for therapeutic failure. P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, MRP1, and MRP2 have been implicated

  8. Mutational analysis of the binding affinity and transport activity for N -acetylglucosamine of the novel ABC transporter Ngc in the chitin-degrader Streptomyces olivaceoviridis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saito; H. Schrempf

    2004-01-01

    The highly differentiated bacterium Streptomyces olivaceoviridis efficiently hydrolyses chitin, a highly abundant natural polysaccharide, to low molecular weight products including N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N,N’ -diacetylchitobiose (chitobiose). NAG is taken up by a PTS (phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system) which includes the PtsC2 protein, and via the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter Ngc, which itself includes the substrate-binding protein NgcE. This is at present

  9. Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis increase ABCA1 expression and promote cholesterol efflux from THP1 macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akio Iio; Kenji Ohguchi; Hiroe Maruyama; Shigemi Tazawa; Yoko Araki; Kenji Ichihara; Yoshinori Nozawa; Masafumi Ito

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane transporter that directly contributes to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis by regulating the cellular efflux of cholesterol. Since ABCA1 plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, identification of a novel substance that is capable of increasing its expression would be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis. In

  10. P-Glycoprotein - Implications of Metabolism of Neoplastic Cells and Cancer Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Breier; Miroslav Barancik; Zdenka Sulova; Branislav Uhrik

    2005-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of neoplastic tissues is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The predominant cause of MDR is the overexpression and drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a product of the MDR gene). P-gp is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters family, with broad substrate specificity for several substances including anticancer drugs, linear and cyclic peptides,

  11. Biogenesis of cytosolic ribosomes requires the essential iron–sulphur protein Rli1p and mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyula Kispal; Katalin Sipos; Heike Lange; Zsuzsanna Fekete; Tibor Bedekovics; Tamás Janáky; Jochen Bassler; Daili J Aguilar Netz; Janneke Balk; Carmen Rotte; Roland Lill

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria perform a central function in the biogenesis of cellular iron-sulphur (Fe\\/S) proteins. It is unknown to date why this biosynthetic pathway is indispensable for life, the more so as no essential mitochondrial Fe\\/S pro- teins are known. Here, we show that the soluble ATP- binding cassette (ABC) protein Rli1p carries N-terminal Fe\\/S clusters that require the mitochondrial and cytosolic

  12. Gene-specific markers for the wheat gene Lr34\\/Yr18\\/Pm38 which confers resistance to multiple fungal pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evans S. Lagudah; Simon G. Krattinger; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Ravi P. Singh; Julio Huerta-Espino; Wolfgang Spielmeyer; Gina Brown-Guedira; Liselotte L. Selter; Beat Keller

    2009-01-01

    The locus Lr34\\/Yr18\\/Pm38 confers partial and durable resistance against the devastating fungal pathogens leaf rust, stripe rust, and powdery mildew.\\u000a In previous studies, this broad-spectrum resistance was shown to be controlled by a single gene which encodes a putative ATP-binding\\u000a cassette transporter. Alleles of resistant and susceptible cultivars differed by only three sequence polymorphisms and the\\u000a same resistance haplotype was

  13. Translational Control Mechanisms Analyzed in Neurospora crassa 

    E-print Network

    Wei, Jiajie

    2013-07-11

    and my husband. vi NOMENCLATURE AAP arginine attenuator peptide ABC ATP-binding cassette AdoMetDC S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase ATF4 activating transcription factor 4 3-AT 3-aminotriazole CPE cytoplasmic polyadenylation element... CPEB cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein CPS carbamoyl phosphate synthetase CrPV cricket paralysis virus CTT C-terminal tail CYH cycloheximide 4E-BP 4E-biding protein eEF eukaryotic elongation factor eIF eukaryotic initiation...

  14. Novel microtubule-targeting agents, pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines, induce apoptosis in multi-drug-resistant cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seema-Maria Nathwani; Stephen Butler; Darren Fayne; Naomi N. McGovern; Balazs Sarkadi; Mary J. Meegan; David G. Lloyd; Giuseppe Campiani; Mark Lawler; D. Clive Williams; Daniela M. Zisterer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  The development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) due to the expression of members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter\\u000a family is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. The broad range of substrate specificities associated with these transporters\\u000a leads to the efflux of many anti-cancer drugs from tumour cells. Therefore, the development of new chemotherapeutic agents\\u000a that are not substrates of

  15. A Two-Component System Regulates the Expression of an ABC Transporter for Xylo-Oligosaccharides in Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smadar Shulami; Galia Zaide; Gennady Zolotnitsky; Yael Langut; Geoff Feld; Abraham L. Sonenshein; Yuval Shoham

    2007-01-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus T-6 utilizes an extensive and highly regulated hemicellulolytic system. The genes comprising the xylanolytic system are clustered in a 39.7-kb chromosomal segment. This segment contains a 6-kb transcriptional unit (xynDCEFG) coding for a potential two-component system (xynDC) and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system (xynEFG). The xynD promoter region contains a 16-bp inverted repeat resembling the operator site

  16. Effects of Oligopeptide Permease in Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hung Wang; Chia-Yu Lin; Yueh-Hsia Luo; Pei-Jane Tsai; Yee-Shin Lin; Ming T. Lin; Woei-Jer Chuang; Ching-Chuan Liu; Jiunn-Jong Wu

    2005-01-01

    The oligopeptide permease (Opp) of group A streptococci (GAS) is a membrane-associated protein and belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter family. It is encoded by a polycistronic operon containing oppA, oppB, oppC, oppD, and oppF. The biological function of these genes in GAS is poorly understood. In order to understand more about the effects of Opp on GAS virulence factors,

  17. Taxol Resistance Mediated by Transfection of the Liver-specific Sister Gene of P-Glycoprotein1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Childs; Richard Lin Yeh; David Hui; Victor Ling

    The sister gene of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) is a liver-specific ATP-binding cassette protein highly related to the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) family (S. Childs et al, Cancer Res., 55: 2029-2034, 1995). Spgp appears to be related to the Pgp family by an ancient duplication occurring before the division of fish and mammals. P-Glycoproteins have diverse functions including broad specificity multidrug resistance in cell

  18. Disposition of 9-nitrocamptothecin and its 9-aminocamptothecin metabolite in relation to ABC transporter genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Zamboni; Ramesh K. Ramanathan; Howard L. McLeod; Sridhar Mani; Douglas M. Potter; Sandra Strychor; Lauren J. Maruca; Cristi R. King; Laura L. Jung; Robert A. Parise; Merrill J. Egorin; Todd A. Davis; Sharon Marsh

    2006-01-01

    Summary  Purpose: The source of the pharmacokinetic variability of 9-nitrocamptothecin (9NC) and its 9-aminocamptothecin (9AC) metabolite\\u000a is unknown. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been reported to modulate camptothecin analogues, are associated\\u000a with camptothecin resistance, and might also affect 9NC and 9AC pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the\\u000a functional consequence of known single nucleotide polymorphisms in the transporter

  19. An up-date review on individualized dosage adjustment of calcineurin inhibitors in organ transplant patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satohiro Masuda; Ken-ichi Inui

    2006-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporine (ciclosporin A), are the primary immunosuppressive agents used on recipients of organ transplantations. The hepatic metabolism of these drugs by cytochrome P450 IIIA (CYP3A) subfamilies is considered a major eliminating process. The intestinal efflux-pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp) (multidrug resistance 1 [MDR1], ATP-binding cassette B1 [ABCB1]) and CYP3A4 have been demonstrated as important for the bioavailability

  20. Targeted dual agent nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh B Patil

    2008-01-01

    Tumor drug resistance is a major challenge for the success of chemotherapy in cancer. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confers resistance to a broad range of chemically diverse anticancer drugs. The objective of this research was to develop a delivery system that will overcome drug resistance in tumor cells. It was hypothesized that ligand-functionalized,

  1. A novel ABC transporter gene ABC2 involved in multidrug susceptibility but not pathogenicity in rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Jin Lee; Kyosuke Yamamoto; Hiroshi Hamamoto; Ryoji Nakaune; Tadaaki Hibi

    2005-01-01

    We cloned a novel ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene ABC2 from the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea. ABC2 protein had nucleotide-binding folds (NBF) and predicted transmembrane domains (TMD6) arranged in a duplicate [NBF–TMD6]2 configuration and showed the highest amino acid homology with BMR1 of Botrytis cinerea. Transcription of the gene was up-regulated by treatment with many toxicants, including several blasticides,

  2. P-glycoprotein and alloimmune T-cell activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shona S. Pendse; David M. Briscoe; Markus H. Frank

    2003-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the human multidrug resistant (MDR1) gene product and cancer multidrug resistance-associated adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is physiologically expressed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but its role in cellular immunity is only beginning to be elucidated. A role of P-gp in the secretion of several T-cell and antigen presenting cell-derived cytokines has been described, and additional functions

  3. Stargardt Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rando Allikmets

    When the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, ABCA4 (originally named ABCR), was cloned and characterized in 1997 as the causal gene for autosomal recessive Stargardt disease (arSTGD or STGD1) (1) it seemed as if just another missing link was added to the extensive table of genetic determinants of rare monogenic retinal\\u000a dystrophies. Now, 9 yr later, the ABCA4

  4. From MDR to MXR: new understanding of multidrug resistance systems, their properties and clinical significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Litman; T. E. Druley; W. D. Stein; S. E. Bates

    2001-01-01

    :   The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts\\u000a numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across cell membranes. The first known human ABC transporter\\u000a was P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which confers multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs. In recent years, we have obtained\\u000a an increased understanding of the

  5. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of a High-Affinity Betaine Uptake System (BusA) in Lactococcus lactis Reveals a New Functional Organization within Bacterial ABC Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID OBIS; ALAIN GUILLOT; JEAN-CLAUDE GRIPON; PIERRE RENAULT; ALEXANDER BOLOTIN; MICHEL-YVES MISTOU

    1999-01-01

    The cytoplasmic accumulation of exogenous betaine stimulates the growth of Lactococcus lactis cultivated under hyperosmotic conditions. We report that L. lactis possesses a single betaine transport system that be- longs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Through transposon mutagenesis, a mu- tant deficient in betaine transport was isolated. We identified two genes, busAA and busAB, grouped in an

  6. Osmotic Upshift Transiently Inhibits Uptake via ABC Transporters in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Fox, M. A.; White, J. P.; Hosie, A. H. F.; Lodwig, E. M.; Poole, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters from several rhizobia and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, but not secondarily coupled systems, were inhibited by high concentrations (100 to 500 mM) of various osmolytes, an effect reversed by the removal of the osmolyte. ABC systems were also inactivated in isolated pea bacteroids, probably due to the obligatory use of high-osmolarity isolation media. Measurement of nutrient cycling in isolated pea bacteroids is impeded by this effect. PMID:16816205

  7. Liver X Receptor Activation Controls Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking and Esterification in Human Macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Rigamonti; L. Helin; S. Lestavel; A. L. Mutka; M. Lepore; C. Fontaine; M. A. Bouhlel; S. Bultel; J. C. Fruchart; E. Ikonen; V. Clavey; B. Staels; G. Chinetti-Gbaguidi

    2005-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that regulate macrophage cholesterol efflux by inducing ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ABCG1\\/ABCG4 gene expression. The Niemann-Pick C (NPC) proteins NPC1 and NPC2 are located in the late endosome, where they control cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane. The mobilization of cholesterol from intracellular pools to the plasma membrane is a determinant

  8. Piperine, a piperidine alkaloid from Piper nigrum re-sensitizes P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP dependent multidrug resistant cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen Li; Yu Lei; Yingjie Jia; Na Li; Michael Wink; Yonggang Ma

    Over-expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in tumor cells is one of the important mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), which impairs the efficacy of chemotherapy. P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP are ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters, which can expel a variety of lipophilic anti-cancer drugs and protect tumor cells. During a screening of MDR reversal agents among alkaloids of various structural

  9. A structural analysis of asymmetry required for catalytic activity of an ABC-ATPase domain dimer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Zaitseva; Christine Oswald; Thorsten Jumpertz; Stefan Jenewein; Alexander Wiedenmann; I Barry Holland; Lutz Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporter haemolysin (Hly)B, a central element of a Type I secretion machinery, acts in concert with two additional proteins in Escherichia coli to translocate the toxin HlyA directly from the cyto- plasm to the exterior. The basic set of crystal structures necessary to describe the catalytic cycle of the isolated HlyB-NBD (nucleotide-binding domain) has now been completed.

  10. An ABC-type multidrug transporter of Lactococcus lactis possesses an exceptionally broad substrate specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerrit J. Poelarends; Piotr Mazurkiewicz; Monique Putman; Robbert H. Cool; Hendrik W. van Veen; Wil N. Konings

    2000-01-01

    LmrA is a 590-amino acid membrane protein which confers multidrug resistance on Lactococcus lactis cells by extruding amphiphilic compounds from the inner leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Its structural and functional characteristics place it in the P-glycoprotein cluster of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, making it the first prokaryotic multidrug transporter of this cluster.

  11. Common sequence variations in ABCG8 are related to plant sterol metabolism in healthy volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jogchum Plat; Marjolijn C. E. Bragt; Ronald P. Mensink

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 are related to plasma plant sterol concentrations. It is not known whether these poly- morphisms are also associated with variations in serum plant sterol concentrations during interventions affecting plant sterol metabolism. We therefore decided to study changes in serum plant sterol concentrations with ABCG5\\/G8 poly- morphisms after consumption of

  12. Molecular models of the open and closed states of the whole human CFTR protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Mornon; Pierre Lehn; Isabelle Callebaut

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), involved in cystic fibrosis (CF), is a chloride channel belonging\\u000a to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Using the experimental structure of Sav1866 as template, we previously modeled\\u000a the human CFTR structure, including membrane-spanning domains (MSD) and nucleotide-binding domains (NBD), in an outward-facing\\u000a conformation (open channel state). Here, we constructed a model of the CFTR

  13. Science Signaling Podcast: 5 October 2010

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dirk M. Hermann (University Hospital Essen; Department of Neurology REV)

    2010-10-05

    This is a conversation with Dirk Hermann about a Research Article published in the 5 October 2010 issue of Science Signaling. ElAli and Hermann report that apolipoprotein E (ApoE) regulates ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters in the ischemic brain, thereby controlling brain-to-blood drug distribution. Inhibition of ApoE signaling is a potential clinical strategy for enhancing the delivery of neuroprotective drugs to the brain after ischemic stroke.

  14. Treadmill exercise enhances ABCA1 expression in rat liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki; Behzad Mehdi Khabazian; Seyed Alireza Hossaini-Kakhak; Fatehmeh Rahbarizadeh; Mehdi Hedayati

    2007-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCs) belong to a large family and include 49 mammalian transmembrane transporters that transfer a variety of substrates across the lipid bilayers in an energy-dependent manner. ABCA1 is a member of this family which plays a crucial role in plasma HDL-C remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate liver ABCA1 expression and plasma HDL level

  15. Metabolism and transport of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Brand; Wel van der P. A. I; M. J. Rein; D. Barron; G. Williamson; Bladeren van P. J; I. M. C. M. Rietjens

    2008-01-01

    Metabolism and transport from intestinal cells back into the lumen by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is believed to limit the bioavailability of flavonoids. We studied metabolism and transport of the citrus flavonoid hesperetin, the aglycone of hesperidin, using a two-compartment transwell Caco-2 cell monolayer system, simulating the intestinal barrier. The role of apically located ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (MDR1\\/ABCB1), multidrug resistance

  16. Transcriptional profiling of the PDR gene family in rice roots in response to plant growth regulators, redox perturbations and weak organic acid stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Moons

    2008-01-01

    The role of plant pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters remains poorly understood.\\u000a We characterized the expression of the rice pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) gene family in roots, where PDR transporters\\u000a are believed to have major functions. A prototypical oligonucleotide array was developed containing 70-mers chosen in the\\u000a gene-specific 3? untranslated regions of the rice PDR genes,

  17. Structural, mechanistic and clinical aspects of MRP1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R Hipfner; Roger G Deeley; Susan P. C Cole

    1999-01-01

    The cDNA encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug resistance protein MRP1 was originally cloned from a drug-selected lung cancer cell line resistant to multiple natural product chemotherapeutic agents. MRP1 is the founder of a branch of the ABC superfamily whose members (from species as diverse as plants and yeast to mammals) share several distinguishing structural features that may contribute to functional

  18. Respiratory distress syndrome due to a novel homozygous ABCA3 mutation in a term neonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussain Parappil; Ahmad Al Baridi; Sajjad ur Rahman; Mahmood H Kitchi; P Ruef; M Griese; P Lohse; C Aslanidis; G Schmitz; L Koch; J Poeschl

    2011-01-01

    The authors report, for the first time in the literature, a case of respiratory distress syndrome in a term baby due to homozygosity for a p.Trp308Arg\\/W308R substitution in the ATP-binding cassette transporter 3. The sequence was confirmed by genetic analysis of the baby and both parents. Management and long-term outcome of a patient carrying this novel genetic defect have not

  19. Sensitive and Specific Fluorescent Probes for Functional Analysis of the Three Major Types of Mammalian ABC Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina V. Lebedeva; Praveen Pande; Wayne F. Patton

    2011-01-01

    An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1\\/2 (ABCC1\\/2) and BCRP\\/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression

  20. Absence of N -linked glycosylation does not affect plasma membrane localization of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP\\/ABCG2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Mohrmann; Maria A. J. van Eijndhoven; Alfred H. Schinkel; Jan H. M. Schellens

    2005-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP\\/ABCG2) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporter that confers resistance to various anticancer drugs like topotecan and mitoxantrone. To obtain more insight in its cellular functioning, we investigated phosphorylation and N-linked glycosylation of BCRP. In the epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line, we did not detect phosphorylation of BCRP, in contrast to MRP2, which

  1. Subpopulations of high density lipoproteins in homozygous and heterozygous Tangier disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bela F Asztalos; Margaret E Brousseau; Judith R McNamara; Katalin V Horvath; Paul S Roheim; Ernst J Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is characterized by severe high-density lipoproteins (HDL) deficiency, hypercatabolism of HDL constituents, impaired cellular cholesterol efflux, and mutations in the gene of ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABC-1). In the present study, we determined plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels, and HDL subpopulations, in 110 subjects from a large TD kindred in which the proband was homozygous for an A?C

  2. Cellular cholesterol efflux in heterozygotes for Tangier disease is markedly reduced and correlates with high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and particle size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret E. Brousseau; Gretchen P. Eberhart; Josée Dupuis; Bela F. Asztalos; Allison L. Goldkamp; Ernst J. Schaefer; Mason W. Freeman

    Tangier disease (TD), caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABC-1) gene, is a rare genetic disor- der characterized by severe deficiency of high density lipo- proteins (HDL) in the plasma, hypercatabolism of HDL, and defective apolipoprotein (apo)-mediated cellular cho- lesterol efflux. In the present study, we assessed plasma lipid concentrations, HDL particle size and subspecies, and cellular cholesterol

  3. Tangier disease and ABCA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Oram

    2000-01-01

    Tangier disease is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a severe high-density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency, sterol deposition in tissue macrophages, and prevalent atherosclerosis. Mutations in the ATP binding cassette transporter ABCA1 cause Tangier disease and other familial HDL deficiencies. ABCA1 controls a cellular pathway that secretes cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoproteins. This implies that an inability of newly

  4. Association of ABCA1 with Syntaxin 13 and Flotillin-1 and Enhanced Phagocytosis in Tangier Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Maa Bared; Christa Buechler; Alfred Boettcher; Rania Dayoub; Alexander Sigruener; Margot Grandl; Christian Rudolph; Ashraf Dada; Gerd Schmitz

    2004-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) facilitates the cellular release of cholesterol and choline-phospholipids to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and several studies indicate that vesicular transport is associated with ABCA1 function. Syntaxins play a major role in vesicular fusion and have also been demonstrated to interact with members of the ABC-transporter family. Therefore, we focused on the identification of syntaxins that

  5. Identification of a cluster IV pleiotropic drug resistance transporter gene expressed in the style of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Trombik; Michal Jasinski; Jérome Crouzet; Marc Boutry

    2008-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporters of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily are composed of five clusters. We have\\u000a cloned a gene, NpPDR2, belonging to the still uncharacterized cluster IV from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. NpPDR2 transcripts were found in the roots and mature flowers. In the latter, NpPDR2 expression was restricted to the style and only after pollination. A 1.5-kb genomic sequence containing

  6. Extension of the Rhizobium meliloti succinoglycan biosynthesis gene cluster: identification of the exsA gene encoding an ABC transporter protein, and the exsB gene which probably codes for a regulator of succinoglycan biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anke Becker; Helge Küster; Karsten Niehaus; Alfred Pühler

    1995-01-01

    Two new genes, designated exsA and exsB, were identified adjacent to the 24 kb exo gene cluster of Rhizobium meliloti, which is involved in succinoglycan (EPS I) biosynthesis. The derived amino acid sequence of ExsA displayed significant homologies to ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. R. meliloti strains mutated in exsA were characterized by a decreased ratio of HMW to

  7. The Cosmic Background Imager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Angela C.; Jones, Michael E.; Allison, James R.; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Bond, J. Richard; Bronfman, Leonardo; Bustos, Ricardo; Davis, Richard J.; Dickinson, Clive; Leech, Jamie; Mason, Brian S.; Myers, Steven T.; Pearson, Timothy J.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Reeves, Rodrigo; Shepherd, Martin C.; Sievers, Jonathan L.

    2011-12-01

    We describe an upgrade to the Cosmic Background Imager instrument to increase its surface brightness sensitivity at small angular scales. The upgrade consisted of replacing the 13 0.9-m antennas with 1.4-m antennas incorporating a novel combination of design features, which provided excellent sidelobe and spillover performance for low manufacturing cost. Off-the-shelf spun primaries were used, and the secondary mirrors were oversized and shaped relative to a standard Cassegrain in order to provide an optimum compromise between aperture efficiency and low spillover lobes. Low-order distortions in the primary mirrors were compensated for by custom machining of the secondary mirrors. The secondaries were supported on a transparent dielectric foam cone to minimize scattering. The antennas were tested in the complete instrument, and the beam shape and spillover noise contributions were as expected. We demonstrate the performance of the telescope and the intercalibration with the previous system using observations of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect in the cluster Abell 1689. The enhanced instrument has been used to study the cosmic microwave background, the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect and diffuse Galactic emission.

  8. The cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Because angular anisotropies and spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background radiation are judged to be inevitable at some level, in a realistic cosmological model, the evidence for spectral distortions and its theoretical implications are described. The evidence for anisotropy is then discussed, and theoretical predictions of radiation anisotropy are summarized and compared with the data available. It is found that spectral distortions at the 3-sigma level near the peak of the blackbody spectrum, although inconsistent with the predicted distortions due to Compton scattering in the early universe, are elegantly interpreted in terms of radiation from an early, pregalactic generation of massive stars which had been thermalized by a modest amount of dust at high redshift. The quadrupole anisotropy at the 4-sigma level is most simply interpreted in terms of the large-scale structure of the universe.

  9. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  10. Texture induced microwave background anisotropies

    SciTech Connect

    Borrill, Julian; Copeland, Edmund J.; Liddle, Andrew R.; Stebbins, Albert; Veeraraghavan, Shoba

    1994-03-01

    We use numerical simulations to calculate the cosmic microwave background anisotropy induced by the evolution of a global texture field, with special emphasis on individual textures. Both spherically symmetric and general configurations are analyzed, and in the latter case we consider field configurations which exhibit unwinding events and also ones which do not. We compare the results given by evolving the field numerically under both the expanded core (XCORE) and non-linear sigma model (NLSM) approximations with the analytic predictions of the NLSM exact solution for a spherically symmetric self-similar (SSSS) unwinding. We find that the random unwinding configuration spots' typical peak height is 60-75\\% and angular size typically only 10% of those of the SSSS unwinding, and that random configurations without an unwinding event nonetheless may generate indistinguishable hot and cold spots. A brief comparison is made with other work.

  11. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  12. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  13. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  14. Cosmic microwave?background?theory

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Richard

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in ?-space are consistent with a ?T flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are ?(10?5)2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at ? ? 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted ? cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 ± 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 ± 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 ± 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 ± 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on ? and moderate constraints on ?tot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant. PMID:9419321

  15. The Hop Cassette of the PAC1 Receptor Confers Coupling to Ca2+ Elevation Required for Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide-evoked Neurosecretion*

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Tomris; Grimaldi, Maurizio; Eiden, Lee E.

    2014-01-01

    We have identified the single PAC1 receptor variant responsible for Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores and influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in bovine chromaffin cells and the domain of this receptor variant that confers coupling to [Ca2+]i elevation. This receptor (bPAC1hop) contains a 28-amino acid “hop” insertion in the third intracellular loop, with a full-length 171-amino acid N terminus. Expression of the bPAC1hop receptor in NG108–15 cells, which lack endogenous PAC1 receptors, reconstituted high affinity PACAP binding and PACAP-dependent elevation of both cAMP and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). Removal of the hop domain and expression of this receptor (bPAC1null) in NG108–15 cells reconstituted high affinity PACAP binding and PACAP-dependent cAMP generation but without a corresponding [Ca2+] i elevation. PC12-G cells express sufficient levels of PAC1 receptors to provide PACAP-saturable coupling to adenylate cyclase and to drive PACAP-dependent differentiation but do not express PAC1 receptors at levels found in postmitotic neuronal and endocrine cells and do not support PACAP-mediated neurosecretion. Expression of bPAC1hop, but not bPAC1null, at levels comparable with those of bPAC1hop in bovine chromaffin cells resulted in acquisition by PC12-G cells of PACAP-dependent [Ca2+] i increase and extracellular Ca2+ influx. In addition, PC12-G cells expressing bPAC1hop acquired the ability to release [3H] norepinephrine in a Ca2+ influx-dependent manner in response to PACAP. Expression of PACAP receptors in neuroendocrine rather than nonneuroendocrine cells reveals key differences between PAC1hop and PAC1null coupling, indicating an important and previously unrecognized role of the hop cassette in PAC1-mediated Ca2+ signaling in neuroendocrine cells. PMID:17213203

  16. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  17. DarkLight radiation backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

    2013-11-07

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

  18. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of about one degree. A number of ground-based interferometers provided measurements of the fluctuations with higher accuracy over the next three years, including the Very Small Array [16], Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) [61], and the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) [78]. DASI was the first to detect the polarization of the CMB and the CBI provided the first E-mode polarization spectrum with compelling evidence that it is out of phase with the T-mode spectrum. In June 2001, NASA launched its second CMB mission (after COBE), Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Explorer (WMAP) [44], to make much more precise measurements of the CMB sky. WMAP measured the differences in the CMB temperature across the sky creating a full-sky map of the CMB in five different frequency bands. The mission also measured the CMB's E-mode and the foreground polarization. As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft has ended its mission after nine years of operation. Although WMAP provided very accurate measurements of the large angular-scale fluctuations in the CMB, it did not have the angular resolution to cover the smaller-scale fluctuations that had been observed by previous ground-based interferometers. A third space mission, the Planck Surveyor [1], was launched by ESA* in May 2009 to measure the CMB on smaller scales than WMAP, as well as making precise measurements of the polarization of CMB. Planck represents an advance over WMAP in several respects: it observes in higher resolution, hence allowing one to probe the CMB power spectrum to smaller scales; it has a higher sensitivity and observes in nine frequency bands rather than five, hence improving the astrophysical foreground models. The mission has a wide variety of scientific aims, including: (1) detecting the total intensity/polarization of the primordial CMB anisotropies; (2) creating a galaxy-cluster catalogue through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect [93]; (3) observing the gravitational lensing of the CMB and the integrated Sachs Wolfe (ISW) effect [82]; (4) observing br

  19. New cluster of plasmid-located class 1 integrons in Vibrio cholerae O1 and a dfrA15 cassette-containing integron in Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated in Angola.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Salvia, Anna Maria; Sami, Joana; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro Maria

    2006-07-01

    The resistance profile and its correlation with mobile genetic elements were investigated in 11 Vibrio cholerae O1 and 2 Vibrio parahaemolyticus clinical isolates, as well as in 1 V. cholerae O1 and 1 V. cholerae non-O1 environmental isolate, isolated between 1991 and 1996 in different provinces of Angola. All clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. They also contained a large conjugative plasmid (p3iANG) with a set of three class 1 integrons harboring dfrA15, blaP1, and qacH-aadA8 cassettes, which code for resistance to trimethoprim, beta-lactams, quaternary ammonium compounds, and aminoglycosides, clustered in a 19-kb region. Chloramphenicol (cat1), kanamycin (aph), sulfonamide (sul2), and tetracycline (tetG) resistance genes were also carried on the plasmid within the same 19-kb region. A chromosomal integron containing the dfrA15 cassette was also revealed in V. parahaemolyticus strains. SXT integrase genes were present in six V. cholerae isolates but apparently were not associated with known SXT-associated resistance genes. This study indicates that plasmids and integrons contributed mainly to the circulation of multiple-drug resistance determinants in Vibrio strains from Angola. PMID:16801431

  20. New Cluster of Plasmid-Located Class 1 Integrons in Vibrio cholerae O1 and a dfrA15 Cassette-Containing Integron in Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated in Angola

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Daniela; Salvia, Anna Maria; Sami, Joana; Cappuccinelli, Piero; Colombo, Mauro Maria

    2006-01-01

    The resistance profile and its correlation with mobile genetic elements were investigated in 11 Vibrio cholerae O1 and 2 Vibrio parahaemolyticus clinical isolates, as well as in 1 V. cholerae O1 and 1 V. cholerae non-O1 environmental isolate, isolated between 1991 and 1996 in different provinces of Angola. All clinical isolates of V. cholerae O1 were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. They also contained a large conjugative plasmid (p3iANG) with a set of three class 1 integrons harboring dfrA15, blaP1, and qacH-aadA8 cassettes, which code for resistance to trimethoprim, beta-lactams, quaternary ammonium compounds, and aminoglycosides, clustered in a 19-kb region. Chloramphenicol (cat1), kanamycin (aph), sulfonamide (sul2), and tetracycline (tetG) resistance genes were also carried on the plasmid within the same 19-kb region. A chromosomal integron containing the dfrA15 cassette was also revealed in V. parahaemolyticus strains. SXT integrase genes were present in six V. cholerae isolates but apparently were not associated with known SXT-associated resistance genes. This study indicates that plasmids and integrons contributed mainly to the circulation of multiple-drug resistance determinants in Vibrio strains from Angola. PMID:16801431

  1. Efficient conditional and promoter-specific in vivo expression of cDNAs of choice by taking advantage of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange using FlEx gene traps

    PubMed Central

    Schebelle, Laura; Wolf, Claudia; Stribl, Carola; Javaheri, Tahereh; Schnütgen, Frank; Ettinger, Andreas; Ivics, Zoltán; Hansen, Jens; Ruiz, Patricia; von Melchner, Harald; Wurst, Wolfgang; Floss, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) exploits the possibility to unidirectionally exchange any genetic material flanked by heterotypic recombinase recognition sites (RRS) with target sites in the genome. Due to a limited number of available pre-fabricated target sites, RMCE in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells has not been tapped to its full potential to date. Here, we introduce a universal system, which allows the targeted insertion of any given transcriptional unit into 85 742 previously annotated retroviral conditional gene trap insertions, representing 7013 independent genes in mouse ES cells, by RMCE. This system can be used to express any given cDNA under the control of endogenous trapped promoters in vivo, as well as for the generation of transposon ‘launch pads’ for chromosomal region-specific ‘Sleeping Beauty’ insertional mutagenesis. Moreover, transcription of the gene-of-interest is only activated upon Cre-recombinase activity, a feature that adds conditionality to this expression system, which is demonstrated in vivo. The use of the RMCE system presented in this work requires one single-cloning step followed by one overnight gateway clonase reaction and subsequent cassette exchange in ES cells with efficiencies of 40% in average. PMID:20139417

  2. Background, an important factor in visual search.

    PubMed

    De Vries, Jelmer P; Hooge, Ignace T C; Wertheim, Alexander H; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2013-06-28

    The ability to detect an object depends on the contrast between the object and its background. Despite this, many models of visual search rely solely on the properties of target and distractors, and do not take the background into account. Yet, both target and distractors have their individual contrasts with the background. These contrasts generally differ, because the target and distractors are different in at least one feature. Therefore, background is likely to play an important role in visual search. In three experiments we manipulated the properties of the background (luminance, orientation and spatial frequency, respectively) while keeping the target and distractors constant. In the first experiment, in which target and distractors had a different luminance, changing the background luminance had an extensive effect on search times. When background luminance was in between that of the target and distractors, search times were always short. Interestingly, when the background was darker than both the target and the distractors, search times were much longer than when the background was lighter. Manipulating orientation and spatial frequency of the background, on the other hand, resulted in search times that were longest for small target-background differences. Thus, background plays an important role in search. This role depends on the individual contrast of both target and distractors with the background and the type of feature contrast (luminance, orientation or spatial frequency). PMID:23623804

  3. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  4. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  5. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  6. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  7. 32 CFR 1292.3 - Background.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Background. 1292.3 Section 1292.3 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY OF DLA ACTIVITIES AND RESOURCES § 1292.3 Background. Section 21 of the...

  8. Locally covariant charged fields and background independence

    E-print Network

    Jochen Zahn

    2014-10-28

    We discuss gauge background independence at the example of the charged Dirac field. We show that a perturbative version of background independence, termed perturbative agreement by Hollands and Wald, can be fulfilled, and discuss some of its consequences.

  9. Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations

    E-print Network

    Durrer, Ruth

    Microwave Background Anisotropies from Scaling Seed Perturbations Ruth Durrer and Mairi, Switzerland Abstract We study microwave background anisotropies induced by scaling seed pertur- bations. Thus, compensation, which is mainly the consequence of physically sensible initial conditions, is very

  10. Functional variability of the Lr34 durable resistance gene in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Krattinger, Simon G; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Herren, Gerhard; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2012-05-01

    Breeding for durable disease resistance is challenging, yet essential to improve crops for sustainable agriculture. The wheat Lr34 gene is one of the few cloned, durable resistance genes in plants. It encodes an ATP binding cassette transporter and has been a source of resistance against biotrophic pathogens, such as leaf rust (Puccinina triticina), for over 100?years. As endogenous Lr34 confers quantitative resistance, we wanted to determine the effects of transgenic Lr34 with specific reference to how expression levels affect resistance. Transgenic Lr34 wheat lines were made in two different, susceptible genetic backgrounds. We found that the introduction of the Lr34 resistance allele was sufficient to provide comparable levels of leaf rust resistance as the endogenous Lr34 gene. As with the endogenous gene, we observed resistance in seedlings after cold treatment and in flag leaves of adult plants, as well as Lr34-associated leaf tip necrosis. The transgene-based Lr34 resistance did not involve a hypersensitive response, altered callose deposition or up-regulation of PR genes. Higher expression levels compared to endogenous Lr34 were observed in the transgenic lines both at seedling as well as adult stage and some improvement of resistance was seen in the flag leaf. Interestingly, in one genetic background the transgenic Lr34-based resistance resulted in improved seedling resistance without cold treatment. These data indicate that functional variability in Lr34-based resistance can be created using a transgenic approach. PMID:22321563

  11. ABCA12 mutations and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis: a review of genotype/phenotype correlations and of pathogenetic concepts.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masashi

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in ABCA12 have been described in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI) including harlequin ichthyosis (HI), congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), and lamellar ichthyosis (LI). HI shows the most severe phenotype. CIE and LI are clinically characterized by fine, whitish scales on a background of erythematous skin, and large, thick, dark scales over the entire body without serious background erythroderma, respectively. To date, a total of 56 ABCA12 mutations have been reported in 66 ARCI families including 48 HI, 10 LI, and 8 CIE families of African, European, Pakistani/Indian, and Japanese origin (online database: http://www.derm-hokudai.jp/ABCA12/). A total of 62.5% of reported ABCA12 mutations are expected to lead to truncated proteins. Most mutations in HI are truncation mutations and homozygous or compound heterozygous truncation mutations always results in HI phenotype. In CIE families, at least one mutation on each allele is typically a missense mutation. Combinations of missense mutations in the first ATP-binding cassette of ABCA12 underlie the LI phenotype. ABCA12 is a keratinocyte lipid transporter associated with lipid transport in lamellar granules, and loss of ABCA12 function leads to a defective lipid barrier in the stratum corneum, resulting in an ichthyotic phenotype. Recent work using mouse models confirmed ABCA12 roles in skin barrier formation. PMID:20672373

  12. ATP hydrolysis-dependent conformational changes in the extracellular domain of ABCA1 are associated with apoA-I binding[S

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Kohjiro; Takahashi, Kei; Azuma, Yuya; Takada, Mie; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Matsuo, Michinori; Kioka, Noriyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Although it is predicted that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) directly binds to ABCA1, the physiological importance of this interaction is still controversial and the conformation required for apoA-I binding is unclear. In this study, the role of the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) of ABCA1 in apoA-I binding was determined by inserting a TEV protease recognition sequence in the linker region of ABCA1. Analyses of ATP binding and occlusion to wild-type ABCA1 and various NBD mutants revealed that ATP binds equally to both NBDs and is hydrolyzed at both NBDs. The interaction with apoA-I and the apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux required not only ATP binding but also hydrolysis in both NBDs. NBD mutations and cellular ATP depletion decreased the accessibility of antibodies to a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope that was inserted at position 443 in the extracellular domain (ECD), suggesting that the conformation of ECDs is altered by ATP hydrolysis at both NBDs. These results suggest that ATP hydrolysis at both NBDs induces conformational changes in the ECDs, which are associated with apoA-I binding and cholesterol efflux. PMID:22028339

  13. Alternative splicing generates a second isoform of the catalytic A subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Hernando, N; Bartkiewicz, M; Collin-Osdoby, P; Osdoby, P; Baron, R

    1995-01-01

    We have identified a second isoform of the catalytic A subunit of the vacuolar H+ pump in chicken osteoclasts. In this isoform (A2) a 72-bp cassette replaces a 90-bp cassette present in the classical A1 isoform. The A1-specific cassette encodes a region of the protein that contains one of the three ATP-binding consensus sequences (the P-loop) identified in this polypeptide, as well as the pharmacologically relevant Cys254. In contrast, the A2-specific cassette does not contain any of these features. These two isoforms, which appear to be ubiquitously expressed, are encoded by a single gene and are generated by alternative splicing of two mutually exclusive exons. The alternative RNA processing involves the recognition of a single site, the boundary between the A2- and A1-specific exons, as either acceptor (in A1) or donor (in A2) splice site. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7597085

  14. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) press kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft, and its mission are described. COBE was designed to study the origin and dynamics of the universe including the theory that the universe began with a cataclysmic explosion referred to as the Big Bang. To this end, earth's cosmic background - the infrared radiation that bombards earth from every direction - will be measured by three sophisticated instruments: the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR), the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS), and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE).

  15. Fiche Pratique: Concours TV 5--La television a l'ecole; Autre temps, autre temps; Cassette FDM frequence plus--l'invite; Science en francais (Practical Ideas: TV 5 Competition--Television in Schools; Once Again, Another Tense; The "FDM" Audiocassette Series--The Guest; Science in French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuncea, Nicolae; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The language classroom activities described include work with TV programs (interviews, cooking demonstrations, scenes without soundtrack); exercises with passe compose and passe simple verb tenses; descriptions of available French cassette programs; and use of texts on scientific subjects to build reading for meaning. (CNP)

  16. Background Check Consent Statement This Background Check Consent Statement documents your consent for Indiana University to obtain a background

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    for Indiana University to obtain a background check from a consumer reporting agency consisting of a criminal. Indiana University requires a background check for the following individuals: 1) new employees in any position; 2) any employee, student, or volunteer affiliated with Indiana University who will be working

  17. INVESTIGATION Genomic Background and Generation Time

    E-print Network

    Lynch, Michael

    varied between populations, especially for clutch size, suggesting that genomic background influ- ences affecting the ability of natural populations to respond to selective pressures. Most spontaneous mutations

  18. Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lim, Eugene A [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States)] [ISCAP and Physics Department, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D, E-mail: richard.easther@yale.edu, E-mail: john.giblin@yale.edu, E-mail: eugene.a.lim@gmail.com, E-mail: wipark@muon.kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: stewart@hep.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We consider the impact of thermal inflation-a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios-on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range.

  19. Novel Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Type, Tentatively Designated Type VIII, Harboring Class A mec and Type 4 ccr Gene Complexes in a Canadian Epidemic Strain of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kunyan; McClure, Jo-Ann; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element characterized by flanking terminal direct and, in most cases, inverted repeat sequences, the mec and ccr gene complexes, and their surrounding DNA regions. Unique combinations of the mec and ccr gene complexes generate various SCCmec types. Six SCCmec types have been reported to date. We describe here a novel SCCmec type identified in a Canadian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic strain. MRSA clinical isolates were screened for known SCCmec types by multiplex and conventional PCR methods. Three phenotypically and genotypically identical MRSA clinical isolates with a pulsotype identical to CMRSA9 were identified locally and found to be nontypeable by available SCCmec typing schemes. Complete sequencing of the SCCmec element revealed a nucleotide fragment of 32,168 bp integrated at an identical chromosomal integration site (attBscc) at the 3? end of the orfX gene. The nucleotide sequences at the chromosome-SCCmec junction regions were typical of other SCCmec types, but the element harbored a unique combination of class A mec and type 4 ccr gene complexes. Sequence recombination analysis suggested that this unique SCCmec type may be derived from homologous recombination between the previously described SCCRP62A of S. epidermidis strain RP62A and SCC composite island of S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, respectively, or via recombination of other staphylococcal strains that carry the same or similar mobile cassettes. We identified a previously undescribed type of SCCmec from isolate C10682, tentatively designated type VIII, and we provide compelling evidence supporting the ability of SCC elements to transfer horizontally or undergo recombination to generate new SCCmec types. PMID:19064897

  20. MEGA: a low-background radiation detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kareem Kazkaz; Craig E. Aalseth; Todd W. Hossbach; Victor M. Gehman; Jeremy D. Kephart; Harry S. Miley

    2004-01-01

    The multiple-element gamma assay (MEGA) is a low-background detector designed to support environmental monitoring and national security applications. MEGA also demonstrates technology needed for Majorana, a next generation neutrino mass experiment. It will employ active and passive shielding to reduce backgrounds. It will also exploit multicoincidence signatures to identify specific radioactive isotopes. MEGA is expected to begin testing in late

  1. Cosmic Microwave Background: The New Cosmology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This AstroBulletin article takes an in-depth look at the newest technology and instruments used to study the Cosmic Microwave Background. The site includes text and a seven minute video. There are links to three essays: "What Is the Cosmic Microwave Background?", "Antarctica: A Hotbed of Cold-Weather Research" and "DASI Does It."

  2. The Extrgalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; M. H. Salamon

    2001-04-23

    The COMPTEL and EGRET detectors aboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory measured an extragalactic gamma-ray background extending from MeV energies up to about 100 GeV. Calculations performed making reasonable assumptions indicate that blazars can account for the background between about 10 MeV and at least 10 GeV. Below 30 MeV, the background flux and spectrum are not very well determined and a dedicated satellite detector will be required to remedy this situation. Below 10 MeV, supernovae and possibly AGN may contribute to the extragalactic background flux. Above 10 GeV, the role of blazars in contributing to the background is unclear because we do not have data on their spectra at these energies and because theoretical models predict that many of them will have spectra which should cut off in this energy range. At these higher energies, a new component, perhaps from topological defects, may contribute to the background, as well as X-ray selected BL Lac objects. The future GLAST detector should provide important data on the emission of extragalactic sources above 10 GeV and help resolve this issue. GLAST may also be able to detect the signature of intergalactic absorption by pair production interactions of background gamma-rays of energy above 20 GeV with starlight photons, this signature being a steepening of the background spectrum.

  3. The Physics of Microwave Background Anisotropies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hu, Wayne

    Probing whether space is curved or flat, cosmologists have been searching for clues in ripples in the universe's microwave background left from the big bang. These tutorials, created by Professor Wayne Hu of the University of Chicago, explain the cosmic microwave background for neophytes, as well as more advanced readers.

  4. Real-Time Discriminative Background Subtraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Cheng; Minglun Gong; Dale Schuurmans; Terry Caelli

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine the problem of segmenting foreground objects in live video when background scene tex- tures change over time. In particular, we formulate background subtraction as minimizing a penalized instantaneous risk func- tional—yielding a local online discriminative algorithm that can quickly adapt to temporal changes. We analyze the algo- rithm's convergence, discuss its robustness to nonstationarity, and provide an

  5. Cerenkov background radiation in imaging detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward I. Rosenblatt; Edward A. Beaver; Ross D. Cohen; J. B. Linsky; Ron W. Lyons

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss results of an analysis of background dark data obtained with the Digicon detector in the faint object spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Time sequenced data are presented which show the background recorded by the detector as it orbits the Earth at an altitude of 600 km. The authors propose that Cerenkov radiation produced by cosmic

  6. Low-Background Counting at Homestake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iseley Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Background characterization at Homestake is an ongoing project crucial to the experiments located there. From neutrino physics to WIMP detection, low-background materials and their screening require highly sensitive detectors. Naturally, shielding is needed to lower ``noise'' in these detectors. Because of its vast depth, Homestake will be effective in shielding against cosmic-ray radiation. This means little, however, if radiation from

  7. Statistical Background Subtraction for a Mobile Observer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Hayman; Jan-olof Eklundh

    2003-01-01

    Statistical background modelling and subtraction has proved to be a popular and effective class of algorithms for segmenting independently moving foreground objects out from a static background, without requiring any a priori in- formation of the properties of foreground objects. This pa- per presents two contributions on this topic, aimed towards robotics where an active head is mounted on a

  8. THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND B. Winstein

    E-print Network

    Collar, Juan I.

    THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION B. Winstein Center for Cosmological Physics by the NSF #12;1 Introduction By studying the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation field, cosmologists and promise in studies of the microwave radiation left over from the early universe. They are aimed

  9. Anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Silk

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical predictions of the angular anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation on both small and large angular scales are presented, and the effect of massive neutrinos on both the background radiation anisotropy and on the galaxy correlation function over very large scales is reviewed. Current observations show that the quadrupole anisotropy provides the greatest constraint on theory, and the

  10. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEPHEN POLLAINE

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present

  11. Gifted Students from Low-Education Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Pelchar, Taylor K.; Cochran, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Gifted children from low-education backgrounds often experience barriers to educational and career success. This article reviews the growing body of literature regarding gifted students from low-education backgrounds and the related literature on the challenges and characteristics of first-generation college students. A mother and daughter…

  12. Atmospheric muon background in the ANTARES detector

    E-print Network

    S. Cecchini; E. Korolkova; A. Margiotta; L. Thompson

    2005-10-28

    An evaluation of the background due to atmospheric muons in the ANTARES high energy neutrino telescope is presented. Two different codes for atmospheric shower simulation have been used. Results from comparisons between these codes at sea level and detector level are presented. The first results on the capability of ANTARES to reject this class of background are given.

  13. Modeling ambient background in complex detection scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Kiff; Leon E. Smith; Kenneth D. Jarman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation detection instrumentation is being widely deployed as a countermeasure against the movement and use of radiological dispersal devices and nuclear weapons. Accurate ambient background modeling is critical for accurate simulation of detection scenarios of interest; these background source terms influence minimum detectable limits and are thus a significant factor in overall system performance. Described below are the methods used

  14. Integrated far-infrared background from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi

    1991-01-01

    The integrated radiation from galaxies is calculated at far-IR and submillimeter wavelengths. The peak of the far-IR background radiation is 100-130 microns, and its total energy content is 0.5-6 percent of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). At wavelengths longward of 400 microns, the CMB dominates over the far-IR radiation from galaxies in intensity. The autocorrelation of fluctuations from the average angle of the far-IR background of galaxies is calculated. The contribution of galaxies to the anisotropy of the background radiation at wavelengths longer than about 400 microns where the CMB is predominant is obtained. It is found that, in general, earlier galaxy formation predicts stronger far-IR background radiation. The prompt initial enrichment model for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies, in particular those with an exponential star formation rate, produces much larger intensity of the integrated radiation than the accretion model.

  15. Role of the N-terminal transmembrane domain in the endo-lysosomal targeting and function of the human ABCB6 protein.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Katalin; Kucsma, Nora; Brozik, Anna; Tusnady, Gabor E; Bergam, Ptissam; van Niel, Guillaume; Szakacs, Gergely

    2015-04-01

    ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B (ABCB) 6 is a homodimeric ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in the plasma membrane and in the intracellular organelles. The intracellular localization of ABCB6 has been a matter of debate, as it has been suggested to reside in the mitochondria and the endo-lysosomal system. Using a variety of imaging modalities, including confocal microscopy and EM, we confirm the endo-lysosomal localization of ABCB6 and show that the protein is internalized from the plasma membrane through endocytosis, to be distributed to multivesicular bodies and lysosomes. In addition to the canonical nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and transmembrane domain (TMD), ABCB6 contains a unique N-terminal TMD (TMD0), which does not show sequence homology to known proteins. We investigated the functional role of these domains through the molecular dissection of ABCB6. We find that the folding, dimerization, membrane insertion and ATP binding/hydrolysis of the core-ABCB6 complex devoid of TMD0 are preserved. However, in contrast with the full-length transporter, the core-ABCB6 construct is retained at the plasma membrane and does not appear in Rab5-positive endosomes. TMD0 is directly targeted to the lysosomes, without passage to the plasma membrane. Collectively, our results reveal that TMD0 represents an independently folding unit, which is dispensable for catalysis, but has a crucial role in the lysosomal targeting of ABCB6. PMID:25627919

  16. Caveolin-1 reduces HIV-1 infectivity by restoration of HIV Nef mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux by apoA-I

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV infection results in inhibited cholesterol efflux by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in macrophages, and this impairment involves Nef mediated down-regulation and redistribution of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1). We investigated the effect of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) on the cholesterol efflux by apoA-I in HIV infected primary and THP-1 cell-differentiated macrophages as well as astrocyte derived glioblastoma U87 cells. Results Our results reveal that Cav-1 restores the Nef -mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux by apoA-I in both cell types. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicate a physical association of Cav-1 and Nef. The level of ABCA-1 expression remains the same whether Cav-1 is over-expressed or not. In addition, we examined the cholesterol composition of HIV particles released from Cav-1 treated cells and identified that the cholesterol content is dramatically reduced. The infectivity level of these virus particles is also significantly decreased. Conclusions These observations suggest that the interplay of Cav-1 with Nef and cholesterol subsequently counters Nef induced impairment of cholesterol efflux by apoA-l. The findings provide a cellular mechanism by which Cav-1 has an ability to restore HIV mediated impairment of cholesterol efflux in macrophages. This subsequently influences the cholesterol content incorporated into virus particles thereby inhibiting HIV infectivity and contributing to HIV’s persistent infection of macrophages. PMID:23067370

  17. Development of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor devoid of ABC transporter-dependent drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kaliszczak, M; Patel, H; Kroll, S H B; Carroll, L; Smith, G; Delaney, S; Heathcote, D A; Bondke, A; Fuchter, M J; Coombes, R C; Barrett, A G M; Ali, S; Aboagye, E O

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) control cell cycle progression, RNA transcription and apoptosis, making them attractive targets for anticancer drug development. Unfortunately, CDK inhibitors developed to date have demonstrated variable efficacy. Methods: We generated drug-resistant cells by continuous low-dose exposure to a model pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine CDK inhibitor and investigated potential structural alterations for optimal efficacy. Results: We identified induction of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1 and ABCG2, in resistant cells. Assessment of features involved in the ABC transporter substrate specificity from a compound library revealed high polar surface area (>100?Ĺ2) as a key determinant of transporter interaction. We developed ICEC-0782 that preferentially inhibited CDK2, CDK7 and CDK9 in the nanomolar range. The compound inhibited phosphorylation of CDK substrates and downregulated the short-lived proteins, Mcl-1 and cyclin D1. ICEC-0782 induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. The permeability and cytotoxicity of ICEC-0782 were unaffected by ABC transporter expression. Following daily oral dosing, the compound inhibited growth of human colon HCT-116 and human breast MCF7 tumour xenografts in vivo by 84% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: We identified a promising pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compound devoid of ABC transporter interaction, highly suitable for further preclinical and clinical evaluation for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24071597

  18. Expression of HNF4alpha in the human and rat choroid plexus – Implications for drug transport across the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF) barrier

    PubMed Central

    Niehof, Monika; Borlak, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Background The choroid plexus consists of highly differentiated epithelium and functions as a barrier at the interface of the blood-cerebrospinal-fluid (CSF). This tissue may therefore determine the bioavailability and transport of drugs to the brain. Little is known about the expression of drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (DME) and of drug transporters in the human choroid plexus. Notably, the transcription factor and zinc finger protein HNF4alpha is a master regulator of DMEs and of drug transporters. As of today its activity in the blood-CSF barrier is unknown. Here we report our efforts in determining HNF4alpha activity in the regulation of ABC transporters in the human and rat choroid plexus. Results We report expression of HNF4alpha by qRT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry and evidence transcript expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCC1-6 in choroid plexus. Additionally, HNF4alpha DNA binding activity at regulatory sequences of ABCB4 and ABCC1 was determined by EMSA bandshift assays with a specific antibody. We then performed siRNA mediated functional knock down of HNF4alpha in Caco-2 cells and found ABCC1 gene expression to be repressed in cell culture experiments. Conclusion Our study evidences activity of HNF4alpha in human and rat choroid plexus. This transcription factor targets DMEs and drug transporters and may well determine availability of drugs at the blood-CSF barrier. PMID:19575803

  19. Multidrug resistance protein 1 localization in lipid raft domains and prostasomes in prostate cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Gomŕ, Alba; Mir, Roser; Martínez-Soler, Fina; Tortosa, Avelina; Vidal, August; Condom, Enric; Pérez–Tomás, Ricardo; Giménez-Bonafé, Pepita

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the problems in prostate cancer (CaP) treatment is the appearance of the multidrug resistance phenotype, in which ATP-binding cassette transporters such as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) play a role. Different localizations of the transporter have been reported, some of them related to the chemoresistant phenotype. Aim This study aimed to compare the localization of MRP1 in three prostate cell lines (normal, androgen-sensitive, and androgen-independent) in order to understand its possible role in CaP chemoresistance. Methods MRP1 and caveolae protein markers were detected using confocal microscopy, performing colocalization techniques. Lipid raft isolation made it possible to detect these proteins by Western blot analysis. Caveolae and prostasomes were identified by electron microscopy. Results We show that MRP1 is found in lipid raft fractions of tumor cells and that the number of caveolae increases with malignancy acquisition. MRP1 is found not only in the plasma membrane associated with lipid rafts but also in cytoplasmic accumulations colocalizing with the prostasome markers Caveolin-1 and CD59, suggesting that in CaP cells, MRP1 is localized in prostasomes. Conclusion We hypothesize that the presence of MRP1 in prostasomes could serve as a reservoir of MRP1; thus, taking advantage of the release of their content, MRP1 could be translocated to the plasma membrane contributing to the chemoresistant phenotype. The presence of MRP1 in prostasomes could serve as a predictor of malignancy in CaP. PMID:25525371

  20. Sm-like protein Hfq: Location of the ATP-binding site and the effect of ATP on HfqRNA complexes

    E-print Network

    Mura, Cameron

    , France 2 Department of Chemistry, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710, USA 3 Department of Chemistry, Laboratoire Raymond Latarjet, Centre Universitaire d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay, France (RECEIVED March 15, 2007: Hfq; Sm; Sm-like; translation; conformational change; electrophoresis Sm and Sm-like proteins