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1

ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity. PMID:21118087

Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

2010-01-01

2

Erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI774) Antagonizes ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 and ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2-Mediated Drug Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been reported that gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has the ability to modulate the function of certain ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and to reverse ABC subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1; P-glycoprotein)- and ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2; breast cancer resistance protein\\/mitoxan- trone resistance protein)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. However,

Zhi Shi; Xing-Xiang Peng; In-Wha Kim; Suneet Shukla; Qiu-Sheng Si; Robert W. Robey; Susan E. Bates; Tong Shen; Charles R. Ashby; Suresh V. Ambudkar; Zhe-Sheng Chen

2007-01-01

3

Influence of ATP-binding cassette transporters in root exudation of phytoalexins, signals, and disease resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organ-isms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3...

4

The role of ATP binding cassette transporters in tissue defense and organ regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ATP-dependent membrane proteins predominantly expressed in excretory organs, such as the liver, intestine, blood-brain barrier, blood-testes barrier, placenta, and kidney. Here, they play an important role in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of drugs, xenobiotics, and endogenous compounds. In addition, the ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp\\/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP\\/ABCG2), are highly expressed

M. Huls; F. G. M. Russel; R. Masereeuw

2009-01-01

5

PGP4, an ATP Binding Cassette P-Glycoprotein, Catalyzes Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the ABC (for ATP binding cassette) superfamily of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More recently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR\\/PGP) subfamily of ABC transporters have been shown to function in the transport of the phytohormone auxin in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR\\/PGP

Kazuyoshi Terasaka; Joshua J. Blakeslee; Boosaree Titapiwatanakun; Wendy A. Peer; Anindita Bandyopadhyay; Srinivas N. Makam; Ok Ran Lee; Elizabeth L. Richards; Angus S. Murphy; Fumihiko Sato; Kazufumi Yazakic

2005-01-01

6

RESEARCH Open Access ATP-binding cassette transporters in immortalised  

E-print Network

Background: Rapid reperfusion following ischemia is the most effective therapy in stroke therapy. However that impedes the effects of drug therapy. The immortalised human brain microvascular endothelial cell line h of the neurovascular unit via cell-cell, cell-matrix and neuro-endocrine cross talk, amongst others, determining

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

7

N-desmethyl-Loperamide Is Selective for P-Glycoprotein among Three ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters at the  

E-print Network

N-desmethyl-Loperamide Is Selective for P-Glycoprotein among Three ATP-Binding Cassette-binding cassette efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier are P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-brain barrier, the three most prevalent ABC transporters are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (encoded by ABCB1), multidrug

Shen, Jun

8

Molecular Disruption of the Power Stroke in the ATP-binding Cassette Transport Protein MsbA*  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette transporters affect drug pharmacokinetics and are associated with inherited human diseases and impaired chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers and microbial infections. Current alternating access models for ATP-binding cassette exporter activity suggest that ATP binding at the two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains provides a power stroke for the conformational switch of the two membrane domains from the inward-facing conformation to the outward-facing conformation. In outward-facing crystal structures of the bacterial homodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporters MsbA from Gram-negative bacteria and Sav1866 from Staphylococcus aureus, two transmembrane helices (3 and 4) in the membrane domains have their cytoplasmic extensions in close proximity, forming a tetrahelix bundle interface. In biochemical experiments on MsbA from Escherichia coli, we show for the first time that a robust network of inter-monomer interactions in the tetrahelix bundle is crucial for the transmission of nucleotide-dependent conformational changes to the extracellular side of the membrane domains. Our observations are the first to suggest that modulation of tetrahelix bundle interactions in ATP-binding cassette exporters might offer a potent strategy to alter their transport activity. PMID:23306205

Doshi, Rupak; Ali, Anam; Shi, Wilma; Freeman, Elizabeth V.; Fagg, Lisa A.; van Veen, Hendrik W.

2013-01-01

9

Molecular disruption of the power stroke in the ATP-binding cassette transport protein MsbA.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporters affect drug pharmacokinetics and are associated with inherited human diseases and impaired chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers and microbial infections. Current alternating access models for ATP-binding cassette exporter activity suggest that ATP binding at the two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains provides a power stroke for the conformational switch of the two membrane domains from the inward-facing conformation to the outward-facing conformation. In outward-facing crystal structures of the bacterial homodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporters MsbA from gram-negative bacteria and Sav1866 from Staphylococcus aureus, two transmembrane helices (3 and 4) in the membrane domains have their cytoplasmic extensions in close proximity, forming a tetrahelix bundle interface. In biochemical experiments on MsbA from Escherichia coli, we show for the first time that a robust network of inter-monomer interactions in the tetrahelix bundle is crucial for the transmission of nucleotide-dependent conformational changes to the extracellular side of the membrane domains. Our observations are the first to suggest that modulation of tetrahelix bundle interactions in ATP-binding cassette exporters might offer a potent strategy to alter their transport activity. PMID:23306205

Doshi, Rupak; Ali, Anam; Shi, Wilma; Freeman, Elizabeth V; Fagg, Lisa A; van Veen, Hendrik W

2013-03-01

10

Transport in technicolor: mapping ATP-binding cassette transporters in sea urchin embryos.  

PubMed

One quarter of eukaryotic genes encode membrane proteins. These include nearly 1,000 transporters that translocate nutrients, signaling molecules, and xenobiotics across membranes. While it is well appreciated that membrane transport is critical for development, the specific roles of many transporters have remained cryptic, in part because of their abundance and the diversity of their substrates. Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters are one example of cryptic membrane proteins. Although most organisms utilize these ABC transporters during embryonic development, many of these transporters have broad substrate specificity, and their developmental functions remain incompletely understood. Here, we review advances in our understanding of ABC transporters in sea urchin embryos, and methods developed to spatially and temporally map these proteins. These studies reveal that multifunctional transporters are required for signaling, homeostasis, and protection of the embryo, and shed light on how they are integrated into ancestral developmental pathways recapitulated in disease. PMID:25156004

Gökirmak, Tufan; Shipp, Lauren E; Campanale, Joseph P; Nicklisch, Sascha C T; Hamdoun, Amro

2014-09-01

11

Structure-function analysis of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters using chimeric dimers.  

PubMed

ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2? yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:25043761

Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W; Lopez, Tatiana E; Dias, Alexandre M M; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

2014-08-29

12

Differential Sensitivities of the Human ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCG2 and P-Glycoprotein to Cyclosporin A  

E-print Network

Differential Sensitivities of the Human ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCG2 and P of structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents from cells. In this study, we demonstrate that human ABCG2 and P. In this study, we used human ABCG2 and human P-gp, each expressed separately in drug-selected MCF-7 sublines

Hrycyna, Christine A.

13

Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in a HIV-1 transgenic rat model.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes), multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug transporters superfamily, can significantly restrict the entry of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into organs which exhibit a barrier function such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the male genital tract (MGT). In vitro, HIV-1 viral proteins such as glycoprotein-120 (gp120) and transcriptional transactivator (tat) have been shown to alter the expression of these transporters and ARVs permeability. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of these transporters, in vivo, in several tissues obtained from HIV-1 transgenic rats (Tg-rat) (8 and 24 weeks) with those of age-matched wild-type rats. At 24 weeks, significant changes in several drug transporter mRNA expressions were observed, in particular, in brain, kidney, liver and testes. These findings suggest that HIV-1 viral proteins can alter the expression of ABC drug transporters, in vivo, in the context of HIV-1 and further regulate ARVs permeability in several organs including the CNS and MGT, two sites which have been reported to display very low ARVs permeability in the clinic. PMID:24472536

Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

2014-02-21

14

ATP binding cassette transporter A-I and HDL metabolism: Effects of fatty acids  

PubMed Central

Ample evidence indicates that dietary fatty acids alters the plasma levels of HDL-C. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of fatty acids still remain elusive. Recent advances in our understanding of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) function and regulation have provided a valuable insight into the mechanisms by which fatty acids may affect plasma HDL-C levels. ABCA1 mediates the assembly of phospholipids and free cholesterol with apolipoprotein A-I, which is a critical step for HDL biogenesis. Studies have shown that unsaturated fatty acids, but not saturated fatty acids, repress the expression of ABCA1 in vitro. Although information on mechanisms for the fatty acid-mediated regulation of ABCA1 expression is still limited and controversial, recent evidence suggests that unsaturated fatty acids inhibit the expression of ABCA1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The transcriptional repression of ABCA1 expression by unsaturated fatty acids is likely LXR-dependent. Evidence also suggests that histone deacetylation may play a role in the repression. Posttranscriptionally, unsaturated fatty acids may facilitate ABCA1 protein degradation, which may involve phosphorylation of ABCA1 by protein kinases. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of dietary fatty acids in HDL metabolism and their effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:21684139

Lee, Jiyoung; Park, Youngki; Koo, Sung I.

2011-01-01

15

Expression pattern of human ATP-binding cassette transporters in skin  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters transport a variety of substrates across cellular membranes coupled with hydrolysis of ATP. Currently 49 ABC transporters consisting of seven subfamilies, ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCD, ABCE, ABCF, and ABCG, have been identified in humans and they are extensively expressed in various tissues. Skin can develop a number of drug-induced toxicities' such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and psoriasis. Concentration of drugs in the skin cells is associated with the development of adverse drug reactions. ABC transporters play important roles in absorption and disposition of drugs in the cells; however, the expression pattern of human ABC transporters in the skin has not been determined. In this study, the expression patterns of 48 human ABC transporters were determined in the human skin as well as in the liver and small intestine. Most of the ABCA, ABCB, ABCC, ABCD, ABCE, and ABCF family members were highly or moderately expressed in the skin, while ABCG family members were slightly expressed in the skin. Significant interindividual variability was also observed in the expression levels of those ATP transporters in the skin, except for ABCA5 and ABCF1, which were found to be expressed in all of the human skin samples tested in this study. In conclusion, this is the first study to identify the expression pattern of the whole human ABC family of transporters in the skin. The interindividual variability in the expression levels of ABC transporters in the human skin might be associated with drug-induced skin diseases. PMID:25505559

Takenaka, Saya; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

2013-01-01

16

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1 in Mouse Spermatozoa  

PubMed Central

Mammalian spermatozoa lose plasma membrane cholesterol during their maturation in the epididymis and during their capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While acceptors such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and J have been found in male and female reproductive tracts, transporters that mediate cholesterol efflux from plasma membranes of spermatozoa to such acceptors have not yet been defined. Candidate transporters are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily including ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1 and ABCG4, which have all been implicated in the transport of sterols and phospholipids to apolipoproteins and HDL. Here we show that mouse spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis express ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1, but not ABCG4. Moreover, we show that ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1 antibodies decrease cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa to lipid acceptors apoA-I and albumin and inhibit in vitro fertilization. PMID:18793613

Morales, Carlos R.; Marat, Andrea L.; Ni, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yang; Oko, Richard; Smith, Brian T.; Argraves, W. Scott

2010-01-01

17

Serum albumin promotes ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent sterol uptake in yeast.  

PubMed

Sterol uptake in fungi is a multistep process that involves interaction between external sterols and the cell wall, incorporation of sterol molecules into the plasma membrane, and subsequent integration into intracellular membranes for turnover. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been implicated in sterol uptake, but key features of their activity remain to be elucidated. Here, we apply fluorescent cholesterol (NBD-cholesterol) to monitor sterol uptake under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in two fungal species, Candida glabrata (Cg) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc). We found that in both fungal species, ABC transporter-dependent uptake of cholesterol under anaerobic conditions and in mutants lacking HEM1 gene is promoted in the presence of the serum protein albumin that is able to bind the sterol molecule. Furthermore, the C. glabrata ABC transporter CgAus1p expressed in S. cerevisiae requires the presence of serum or albumin for efficient cholesterol uptake. These results suggest that albumin can serve as sterol donor in ABC transporter-dependent sterol uptake, a process potentially important for growth of C. glabrata inside infected humans. PMID:25331273

Marek, Magdalena; Silvestro, Daniele; Fredslund, Maria D; Andersen, Tonni G; Pomorski, Thomas G

2014-12-01

18

A conserved mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter exports glutathione polysulfide for cytosolic metal cofactor assembly.  

PubMed

An ATP-binding cassette transporter located in the inner mitochondrial membrane is involved in iron-sulfur cluster and molybdenum cofactor assembly in the cytosol, but the transported substrate is unknown. ATM3 (ABCB25) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its functional orthologue Atm1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were expressed in Lactococcus lactis and studied in inside-out membrane vesicles and in purified form. Both proteins selectively transported glutathione disulfide (GSSG) but not reduced glutathione in agreement with a 3-fold stimulation of ATPase activity by GSSG. By contrast, Fe(2+) alone or in combination with glutathione did not stimulate ATPase activity. Arabidopsis atm3 mutants were hypersensitive to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis and accumulated GSSG in the mitochondria. The growth phenotype of atm3-1 was strongly enhanced by depletion of the mitochondrion-localized, GSH-dependent persulfide oxygenase ETHE1, suggesting that the physiological substrate of ATM3 contains persulfide in addition to glutathione. Consistent with this idea, a transportomics approach using mass spectrometry showed that glutathione trisulfide (GS-S-SG) was transported by Atm1. We propose that mitochondria export glutathione polysulfide, containing glutathione and persulfide, for iron-sulfur cluster assembly in the cytosol. PMID:25006243

Schaedler, Theresia A; Thornton, Jeremy D; Kruse, Inga; Schwarzländer, Markus; Meyer, Andreas J; van Veen, Hendrik W; Balk, Janneke

2014-08-22

19

Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance  

PubMed Central

In this in vitro study, we determined whether masitinib could reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cells overexpressing the ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) transporter. Masitinib (1.25 and 2.5 ?M) significantly decreases the resistance to mitoxantrone (MX), SN38 and doxorubicin in HEK293 and H460 cells overexpressing the ABCG2 transporter. In addition, masitinib (2.5 ?M) significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of [3H]-MX, a substrate for ABCG2, by inhibiting the function of ABCG2 and significantly decreased the efflux of [3H]-MX. However, masitinib (2.5 ?M) did not significantly alter the expression of the ABCG2 protein. In addition, a docking model suggested that masitinib binds within the transmembrane region of a homology-modeled human ABCG2 transporter. Overall, our in vitro findings suggest that masitinib reverses MDR to various anti-neoplastic drugs in HEK293 and H460 cells overexpressing ABCG2 by inhibiting their transport activity as opposed to altering their levels of expression. PMID:24626598

KATHAWALA, RISHIL J.; CHEN, JUN-JIANG; ZHANG, YUN-KAI; WANG, YI-JUN; PATEL, ATISH; WANG, DE-SHEN; TALELE, TANAJI T.; ASHBY, CHARLES R.; CHEN, ZHE-SHENG

2014-01-01

20

The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB19 Regulates Postembryonic Organ Separation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in plant development, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tropism, apical dominance and in cell growth, division, and expansion. In these processes, the concentration gradient of auxin, which is established by polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins and several ATP-binding cassette/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) transporters, is a crucial signal. Here, we characterized the function of ABCB19 in the control of Arabidopsis organ boundary development. We identified a new abcb19 allele, abcb19-5, which showed stem-cauline leaf and stem-pedicel fusion defects. By virtue of the DII-VENUS marker, the auxin level was found to be increased at the organ boundary region in the inflorescence apex. The expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2) was decreased, while no obvious change in the expression of CUC3 was observed, in abcb19. In addition, the fusion defects were greatly enhanced in cuc3 abcb19-5, which was reminiscent of cuc2 cuc3. We also found that some other organ boundary genes, such as LOF1/2 were down-regulated in abcb19. Together, these results reveal a new aspect of auxin transporter ABCB19 function, which is largely dependent on the positive regulation of organ boundary genes CUC2 and LOFs at the postembryonic organ boundary. PMID:23560110

Mo, Huixian; Qian, Litao; Cao, Ying; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

2013-01-01

21

Rice shoot branching requires an ATP-binding cassette subfamily G protein.  

PubMed

* Shoot branching is important for the establishment of plant architecture and productivity. * Here, characterization of rice (Oryza sativa) reduced culm number 1 (rcn1) mutants revealed that Rcn1 positively controls shoot branching by promoting the outgrowth of lateral shoots. Molecular studies revealed that Rcn1 encodes a novel member of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily G (ABCG subfamily), also known as the white-brown complex (WBC) subfamily, and is designated OsABCG5. * Rcn1 is expressed in leaf primordia of main and axillary shoots, and in the vascular cells and leaf epidermis of older leaves. In addition, Rcn1 is expressed in the crown root primordia, endodermis, pericycle and stele in the root. No effect on Rcn1 expression in shoots or roots was seen when the roots were treated with auxins. Phenotypic analyses of rcn1 and tillering dwarf 3 (d3) double mutants at the seedling stage clarified that Rcn1 works independently of D3 in the branching inhibitor pathway. * Rcn1 is the first functionally defined plant ABCG protein gene that controls shoot branching and could thus be significant in future breeding for high-yielding rice. PMID:19140940

Yasuno, Naoko; Takamure, Itsuro; Kidou, Shin-ichiro; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Ureshi, An-na; Funabiki, Atsushi; Ashikaga, Kazunori; Yamanouchi, Utako; Yano, Masahiro; Kato, Kiyoaki

2009-01-01

22

A Conserved Mitochondrial ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Exports Glutathione Polysulfide for Cytosolic Metal Cofactor Assembly*?  

PubMed Central

An ATP-binding cassette transporter located in the inner mitochondrial membrane is involved in iron-sulfur cluster and molybdenum cofactor assembly in the cytosol, but the transported substrate is unknown. ATM3 (ABCB25) from Arabidopsis thaliana and its functional orthologue Atm1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were expressed in Lactococcus lactis and studied in inside-out membrane vesicles and in purified form. Both proteins selectively transported glutathione disulfide (GSSG) but not reduced glutathione in agreement with a 3-fold stimulation of ATPase activity by GSSG. By contrast, Fe2+ alone or in combination with glutathione did not stimulate ATPase activity. Arabidopsis atm3 mutants were hypersensitive to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis and accumulated GSSG in the mitochondria. The growth phenotype of atm3-1 was strongly enhanced by depletion of the mitochondrion-localized, GSH-dependent persulfide oxygenase ETHE1, suggesting that the physiological substrate of ATM3 contains persulfide in addition to glutathione. Consistent with this idea, a transportomics approach using mass spectrometry showed that glutathione trisulfide (GS-S-SG) was transported by Atm1. We propose that mitochondria export glutathione polysulfide, containing glutathione and persulfide, for iron-sulfur cluster assembly in the cytosol. PMID:25006243

Schaedler, Theresia A.; Thornton, Jeremy D.; Kruse, Inga; Schwarzländer, Markus; Meyer, Andreas J.; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Balk, Janneke

2014-01-01

23

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) in Macrophages: A Dual Function in Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated lipid-laden macrophages in the vascular wall are key modulators of the inflammatory processes underlying atherosclerosis. We demonstrate here that the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCA1 is induced during differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages. ABCA1 has been implicated in macrophage interleukin-1? secretion and apoptosis. Moreover, ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels are strongly upregulated by uptake of modified LDL and

G. Schmitz; W. E. Kaminski; M. Porsch-Özcürümez; J. Klucken; E. Orsó; M. Bodzioch; C. Büchler; W. Drobnik

1999-01-01

24

Structure of an antibacterial peptide ATP-binding cassette transporter in a novel outward occluded state  

PubMed Central

Enterobacteriaceae produce antimicrobial peptides for survival under nutrient starvation. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide with a unique lasso topology. It is secreted by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter McjD, which ensures self-immunity of the producing strain through efficient export of the toxic mature peptide from the cell. Here we have determined the crystal structure of McjD from Escherichia coli at 2.7-Å resolution, which is to the authors’ knowledge the first structure of an antibacterial peptide ABC transporter. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate McjD-dependent immunity to MccJ25 through efflux of the peptide. McjD can directly bind MccJ25 and displays a basal ATPase activity that is stimulated by MccJ25 in both detergent solution and proteoliposomes. McjD adopts a new conformation, termed nucleotide-bound outward occluded. The new conformation defines a clear cavity; mutagenesis and ligand binding studies of the cavity have identified Phe86, Asn134, and Asn302 as important for recognition of MccJ25. Comparisons with the inward-open MsbA and outward-open Sav1866 structures show that McjD has structural similarities with both states without the intertwining of transmembrane (TM) helices. The occluded state is formed by rotation of TMs 1 and 2 toward the equivalent TMs of the opposite monomer, unlike Sav1866 where they intertwine with TMs 3–6 of the opposite monomer. Cysteine cross-linking studies on the McjD dimer in inside-out membrane vesicles of E. coli confirmed the presence of the occluded state. We therefore propose that the outward-occluded state represents a transition intermediate between the outward-open and inward-open conformation of ABC exporters. PMID:24920594

Choudhury, Hassanul G.; Tong, Zhen; Mathavan, Indran; Li, Yanyan; Iwata, So; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Beis, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

25

Inflammatory Regulation of ATP Binding Cassette Efflux Transporter Expression and Function in Microglia  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, including multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mdr1), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps) extrude chemicals from the brain. Although ABC transporters are critical for blood-brain barrier integrity, less attention has been placed on the regulation of these proteins in brain parenchymal cells such as microglia. Prior studies demonstrate that inflammation after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment alters transporter expression in the livers of mice. Here, we sought to determine the effects of inflammation on the expression and function of transporters in microglia. To test this, the expression and function of ABC efflux transport proteins were quantified in mouse BV-2 microglial cells in response to activation with LPS. Intracellular retention of fluorescent rhodamine 123, Hoechst 33342, and calcein acetoxymethyl ester was increased in LPS-treated microglia, suggesting that the functions of Mdr1, Bcrp, and Mrps were decreased, respectively. LPS reduced Mdr1, Bcrp, and Mrp4 mRNA and protein expression between 40 and 70%. Conversely, LPS increased expression of Mrp1 and Mrp5 mRNA and protein. Immunofluorescent staining confirmed reduced Bcrp and Mrp4 and elevated Mrp1 and Mrp5 protein in activated microglia. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) transcriptional signaling attenuated down-regulation of Mdr1a mRNA and potentiated up-regulation of Mrp5 mRNA in LPS-treated cells. Together, these data suggest that LPS stimulates microglia and impairs efflux of prototypical ABC transporter substrates by altering mRNA and protein expression, in part through NF-?B signaling. Decreased transporter efflux function in microglia may lead to the retention of toxic chemicals and aberrant cell-cell communication during neuroinflammation. PMID:22942241

Gibson, Christopher J.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Richardson, Jason R.

2012-01-01

26

Function and expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cultured human Y79 retinoblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to reveal the expression and function of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of drug transporters, in cultured human Y79 retinoblastoma cells. ABC transporter mRNA expression was evaluated by conventional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR analyses. Cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (P-glycoprotein substrate), calcein (MRP substrate), and doxorubicin (P-glycoprotein/MRP substrate) was analyzed by fluorometry. Conventional RT-PCR analysis showed the expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), MRP1, MRP2 and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNAs. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of the MDR1 and MRP2 genes in Y79 cells were much lower than those in human intestinal cell line Caco-2, while the expression level of MRP1 was higher than that in Caco-2 cells. The accumulation of rhodamine 123 was not enhanced by verapamil or reversin 205, inhibitors of P-glycoprotein, indicating no function of P-glycoprotein in Y79 cells. The accumulation of calcein was significantly increased by various MRP inhibitors including probenecid, indicating that MRP functions in Y79 cells. The accumulation of doxorubicin was increased in the presence of metabolic inhibitors (10 mM 2-deoxyglucose and 5 mM sodium azide). However, most MRP inhibitors such as probenecid and indomethacin did not affect doxorubicin accumulation, while cyclosporin A and taclorimus significantly increased doxorubicin accumulation. These results suggest that MRP, but not P-glycoprotein, functions in Y79 cells, and that the efflux of doxorubicin from Y79 cells may be due to an ATP-dependent transporter, which has not been identified yet. PMID:20190417

Ishikawa, Yuka; Nagai, Junya; Okada, Yumi; Sato, Koya; Yumoto, Ryoko; Takano, Mikihisa

2010-01-01

27

Adipocyte ATP-Binding Cassette G1 Promotes Triglyceride Storage, Fat Mass Growth, and Human Obesity.  

PubMed

The role of the ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) transporter in human pathophysiology is still largely unknown. Indeed, beyond its role in mediating free cholesterol efflux to HDL, the ABCG1 transporter equally promotes lipid accumulation in a triglyceride (TG)-rich environment through regulation of the bioavailability of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Because both ABCG1 and LPL are expressed in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that ABCG1 is implicated in adipocyte TG storage and therefore could be a major actor in adipose tissue fat accumulation. Silencing of Abcg1 expression by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes compromised LPL-dependent TG accumulation during the initial phase of differentiation. Generation of stable Abcg1 knockdown 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed that Abcg1 deficiency reduces TG storage and diminishes lipid droplet size through inhibition of Ppar? expression. Strikingly, local inhibition of adipocyte Abcg1 in adipose tissue from mice fed a high-fat diet led to a rapid decrease of adiposity and weight gain. Analysis of two frequent ABCG1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs1893590 [A/C] and rs1378577 [T/G]) in morbidly obese individuals indicated that elevated ABCG1 expression in adipose tissue was associated with increased PPAR? expression and adiposity concomitant to increased fat mass and BMI (haplotype AT>GC). The critical role of ABCG1 in obesity was further confirmed in independent populations of severe obese and diabetic obese individuals. This study identifies for the first time a major role of adipocyte ABCG1 in adiposity and fat mass growth and suggests that adipose ABCG1 might represent a potential therapeutic target in obesity. PMID:25249572

Frisdal, Eric; Le Lay, Soazig; Hooton, Henri; Poupel, Lucie; Olivier, Maryline; Alili, Rohia; Plengpanich, Wanee; Villard, Elise F; Gilibert, Sophie; Lhomme, Marie; Superville, Alexandre; Miftah-Alkhair, Lobna; Chapman, M John; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Venteclef, Nicolas; Poitou, Christine; Tordjman, Joan; Lesnik, Philippe; Kontush, Anatol; Huby, Thierry; Dugail, Isabelle; Clement, Karine; Guerin, Maryse; Le Goff, Wilfried

2015-03-01

28

Small Substrate Transport and Mechanism of a Molybdate ATP Binding Cassette Transporter in a Lipid Environment*  

PubMed Central

Embedded in the plasma membrane of all bacteria, ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers facilitate the uptake of several vital nutrients and cofactors. The ABC transporter, MolBC-A, imports molybdate by passing substrate from the binding protein MolA to a membrane-spanning translocation pathway of MolB. To understand the mechanism of transport in the biological membrane as a whole, the effects of the lipid bilayer on transport needed to be addressed. Continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance and in vivo molybdate uptake studies were used to test the impact of the lipid environment on the mechanism and function of MolBC-A. Working with the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, we found that MolBC-A functions as a low affinity molybdate transporter in its native environment. In periods of high extracellular molybdate concentration, H. influenzae makes use of parallel molybdate transport systems (MolBC-A and ModBC-A) to take up a greater amount of molybdate than a strain with ModBC-A alone. In addition, the movement of the translocation pathway in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in a lipid environment is conserved when compared with in-detergent analysis. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that a lipid environment restricts the flexibility of the MolBC translocation pathway. By combining continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and substrate uptake studies, we reveal details of molybdate transport and the logistics of uptake systems that employ multiple transporters for the same substrate, offering insight into the mechanisms of nutrient uptake in bacteria. PMID:24722984

Rice, Austin J.; Harrison, Alistair; Alvarez, Frances J. D.; Davidson, Amy L.; Pinkett, Heather W.

2014-01-01

29

ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 attenuates ovalbumin-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is an important component of high-density lipoprotein particles that mediates reverse cholesterol transport out of cells by interacting with the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1). apoA-I has also been shown to attenuate neutrophilic airway inflammation in experimental ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma by reducing the expression of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Here, we hypothesized that overexpression of the ABCA1 transporter might similarly attenuate OVA-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation. Tie2-human ABCA1 (hABCA1) mice expressing human ABCA1 under the control of the Tie2 promoter, which is primarily expressed by vascular endothelial cells, but can also be expressed by macrophages, received daily intranasal OVA challenges, 5 d/wk for 5 weeks. OVA-challenged Tie2-hABCA1 mice had significant reductions in total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cells that reflected a decrease in neutrophils, as well as reductions in peribronchial inflammation, OVA-specific IgE levels, and airway epithelial thickness. The reduced airway neutrophilia in OVA-challenged Tie2-hABCA1 mice was associated with significant decreases in G-CSF protein levels in pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, alveolar macrophages, and BALF. Intranasal administration of recombinant murine G-CSF to OVA-challenged Tie2-hABCA1 mice for 5 days increased BALF neutrophils to a level comparable to that of OVA-challenged wild-type mice. We conclude that ABCA1 suppresses OVA-induced airway neutrophilia by reducing G-CSF production by vascular endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages. These findings suggest that ABCA1 expressed by vascular endothelial cells and alveolar macrophages may play important roles in attenuating the severity of neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma. PMID:24813055

Dai, Cuilian; Yao, Xianglan; Vaisman, Boris; Brenner, Todd; Meyer, Katharine S; Gao, Meixia; Keeran, Karen J; Nugent, Gayle Z; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Dagur, Pradeep K; McCoy, J Philip; Remaley, Alan T; Levine, Stewart J

2014-11-01

30

Structure of an antibacterial peptide ATP-binding cassette transporter in a novel outward occluded state.  

PubMed

Enterobacteriaceae produce antimicrobial peptides for survival under nutrient starvation. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide with a unique lasso topology. It is secreted by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter McjD, which ensures self-immunity of the producing strain through efficient export of the toxic mature peptide from the cell. Here we have determined the crystal structure of McjD from Escherichia coli at 2.7-Å resolution, which is to the authors' knowledge the first structure of an antibacterial peptide ABC transporter. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate McjD-dependent immunity to MccJ25 through efflux of the peptide. McjD can directly bind MccJ25 and displays a basal ATPase activity that is stimulated by MccJ25 in both detergent solution and proteoliposomes. McjD adopts a new conformation, termed nucleotide-bound outward occluded. The new conformation defines a clear cavity; mutagenesis and ligand binding studies of the cavity have identified Phe86, Asn134, and Asn302 as important for recognition of MccJ25. Comparisons with the inward-open MsbA and outward-open Sav1866 structures show that McjD has structural similarities with both states without the intertwining of transmembrane (TM) helices. The occluded state is formed by rotation of TMs 1 and 2 toward the equivalent TMs of the opposite monomer, unlike Sav1866 where they intertwine with TMs 3-6 of the opposite monomer. Cysteine cross-linking studies on the McjD dimer in inside-out membrane vesicles of E. coli confirmed the presence of the occluded state. We therefore propose that the outward-occluded state represents a transition intermediate between the outward-open and inward-open conformation of ABC exporters. PMID:24920594

Choudhury, Hassanul G; Tong, Zhen; Mathavan, Indran; Li, Yanyan; Iwata, So; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; van Veen, Hendrik W; Beis, Konstantinos

2014-06-24

31

The saci_2123 gene of the hyperthermoacidophile Sulfolobus acidocaldarius encodes an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters are capable of secreting structurally and functionally unrelated toxic compounds from the cell. Among this group are ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. These membrane proteins are typically arranged as either hetero- or homo-dimers of ABC half-transporters with each subunit consisting of a membrane domain fused at the C-terminus to an ATP-binding domain, or as full transporters in which the two subunits are fused into a single polypeptide. The saci_2123 gene of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is the only gene in the genome that encodes an ATP-binding cassette half-transporter, while a homologous gene is present in the genomes of S. solfataricus, S. tokodaii and S islandicus. Saci_2123 shares homology with well-characterized bacterial and mammalian MDR transporters. The saci_2132 gene is up-regulated when cells are exposed to drugs. A deletion mutant of saci_2132 was found to be more vulnerable to a set of toxic compounds, including detergents, antibiotics and uncouplers as compared to the wild-type strain, while the drug resistance could be restored through the plasmid-based expression of saci_2132. These data demonstrate that Saci_2132 is an archaeal ABC-MDR transporter and therefore it was termed Smr1 (Sulfolobus multidrug resistance transporter 1). PMID:25138279

Yang, Nuan; Driessen, Arnold J M

2015-01-01

32

Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems  

SciTech Connect

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the largest superfamilies of paralogous sequences. All ABC systems share a highly conserved ATP-hydrolyzing domain or protein (the ABC; also referred to as a nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]) that is unequivocally characterized by three short sequence motifs (Fig. 1): these are the Walker A and Walker B motifs, indicative of the presence of a nucleotide-binding site, and the signature motif, unique to ABC proteins, located upstream of the Walker B motif (426). Other motifs diagnostic of ABC proteins are also indicated in Fig. 1. The biological significance of these motifs is discussed in Structure, Function, and Dynamics of the ABC. ABC systems are widespread among living organisms and have been detected in all genera of the three kingdoms of life, with remarkable conservation in the primary sequence of the cassette and in the organization of the constitutive domains or subunits (203, 420). ABC systems couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to an impressively large variety of essential biological phenomena, comprising not only transmembrane (TM) transport, for which they are best known, but also several non-transport-related processes, such as translation elongation (62) and DNA repair (174). Although ABC systems deserve much attention because they are involved in severe human inherited diseases (107), they were first discovered and characterized in detail in prokaryotes, as early as the 1970s (13, 148, 238, 468). The most extensively analyzed systems were the high-affinity histidine and maltose uptake systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Over 2 decades ago, after the completion of the nucleotide sequences encoding these transporters in the respective laboratories of Giovanna Ames and Maurice Hofnung, Hiroshi Nikaido and colleagues noticed that the two systems displayed a global similarity in the nature of their components and, moreover, that the primary sequences of MalK and HisP, the proteins suspected to energize these transporters, shared as much as 32% identity in amino acid residues when their sequences were aligned (171). Later, it was found that several bacterial proteins involved in uptake of nutrients, export of toxins, cell division, bacterial nodulation of plants, and DNA repair displayed the same similarity in their sequences (127, 196). This led to the notion that the conserved protein, which had been shown to bind ATP (198, 201), would probably energize the systems mentioned above by coupling the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport. The latter was demonstrated with the maltose and histidine transporters by use of isolated membrane vesicles (105, 379) and purified transporters reconstituted into proteoliposomes (30, 98). The determination of the sequence of the first eukaryotic protein strongly similar to these bacterial transporters (the P-glycoprotein, involved in resistance of cancer cells to multiple drugs) (169, 179) demonstrated that these proteins were not restricted to prokaryotes. Two names, 'traffic ATPases' (15) and the more accepted name 'ABC transporters' (193, 218), were proposed for members of this new superfamily. ABC systems can be divided into three main functional categories, as follows. Importers mediate the uptake of nutrients in prokaryotes. The nature of the substrates that are transported is very wide, including mono- and oligosaccharides, organic and inorganic ions, amino acids, peptides, ironsiderophores, metals, polyamine cations, opines, and vitamins. Exporters are involved in the secretion of various molecules, such as peptides, lipids, hydrophobic drugs, polysaccharides, and proteins, including toxins such as hemolysin. The third category of systems is apparently not involved in transport, with some members being involved in translation of mRNA and in DNA repair. Despite the large, diverse population of substrates handled and the difference in the polarity of transport, importers and exporters share a common organization made of two hydrophobic membrane-spanning or integral membrane (IM)

Davidson, A.L.; Dassa, E.; Orelle, C.; Chen, J. (Purdue)

2010-07-27

33

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in young Greek nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is essential protein involved in lipid metabolism. The present study was undertaken\\u000a to detect the possible association of polymorphisms in the ABCA1 gene [rs2230806 (R219K) and rs2230808 (R1587K)] and lipid\\u000a profile in Greek young nurses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population consisted of 308 unrelated nurses who were genotyped and the ABCA1 polymorphisms were detected. Additionally,\\u000a lipid

Vana Kolovou; Genovefa Kolovou; Apostolia Marvaki; Agathi Karakosta; Georgios Vasilopoulos; Antonia Kalogiani; Dimitrios Degiannis; Christina Marvaki; Constantinos A Demopoulos

2011-01-01

34

Molecular cloning and functional characterization of an ATP-binding cassette transporter OtrC from Streptomyces rimosus  

PubMed Central

Background The otrC gene of Streptomyces rimosus was previously annotated as an oxytetracycline (OTC) resistance protein. However, the amino acid sequence analysis of OtrC shows that it is a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with multidrug resistance function. To our knowledge, none of the ABC transporters in S. rimosus have yet been characterized. In this study, we aimed to characterize the multidrug exporter function of OtrC and evaluate its relevancy to OTC production. Results In order to investigate OtrC’s function, otrC is cloned and expressed in E. coli The exporter function of OtrC was identified by ATPase activity determination and ethidium bromide efflux assays. Also, the susceptibilities of OtrC-overexpressing cells to several structurally unrelated drugs were compared with those of OtrC-non-expressing cells by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays, indicating that OtrC functions as a drug exporter with a broad range of drug specificities. The OTC production was enhanced by 1.6-fold in M4018 (P?=?0.000877) and 1.4-fold in SR16 (P?=?0.00973) duplication mutants, while it decreased to 80% in disruption mutants (P?=?0.0182 and 0.0124 in M4018 and SR16, respectively). Conclusions The results suggest that OtrC is an ABC transporter with multidrug resistance function, and plays an important role in self-protection by drug efflux mechanisms. This is the first report of such a protein in S. rimosus, and otrC could be a valuable target for genetic manipulation to improve the production of industrial antibiotics. PMID:22906146

2012-01-01

35

ATP-binding cassette-like transporters are involved in the transport of lignin precursors across plasma and vacuolar membranes  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a complex biopolymer derived primarily from the condensation of three monomeric precursors, the monolignols. The synthesis of monolignols occurs in the cytoplasm. To reach the cell wall where they are oxidized and polymerized, they must be transported across the cell membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport process are unclear. There are conflicting views about whether the transport of these precursors occurs by passive diffusion or is an energized active process; further, we know little about what chemical forms are required. Using isolated plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from Arabidopsis, together with applying different transporter inhibitors in the assays, we examined the uptake of monolignols and their derivatives by these native membrane vesicles. We demonstrate that the transport of lignin precursors across plasmalemma and their sequestration into vacuoles are ATP-dependent primary-transport processes, involving ATP-binding cassette-like transporters. Moreover, we show that both plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles selectively transport different forms of lignin precursors. In the presence of ATP, the inverted plasma membrane vesicles preferentially take up monolignol aglycones, whereas the vacuolar vesicles are more specific for glucoconjugates, suggesting that the different ATP-binding cassette-like transporters recognize different chemical forms in conveying them to distinct sites, and that glucosylation of monolignols is necessary for their vacuolar storage but not required for direct transport into the cell wall in Arabidopsis.

Miao, Y.C.; Liu, C.

2010-12-28

36

The Allosteric Regulatory Mechanism of the Escherichia coli MetNI Methionine ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter.  

PubMed

The MetNI methionine importer of Escherichia coli, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to catalyze the high affinity uptake of d- and l-methionine. Early in vivo studies showed that the uptake of external methionine is repressed by the level of the internal methionine pool, a phenomenon termed transinhibition. Our understanding of the MetNI mechanism has thus far been limited to a series of crystal structures in an inward-facing conformation. To understand the molecular mechanism of transinhibition, we studied the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis using detergent-solubilized MetNI. We find that transinhibition is due to noncompetitive inhibition by l-methionine, much like a negative feedback loop. Thermodynamic analyses revealed two allosteric methionine binding sites per transporter. This quantitative analysis of transinhibition, the first to our knowledge for a structurally defined transporter, builds upon the previously proposed structurally based model for regulation. This mechanism of regulation at the transporter activity level could be applicable to not only ABC transporters but other types of membrane transporters as well. PMID:25678706

Yang, Janet G; Rees, Douglas C

2015-04-01

37

Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial\\/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to

Xiao-Li Cao; Rui-Xing Yin; Dong-Feng Wu; Lin Miao; Lynn Htet Htet Aung; Xi-Jiang Hu; Qing Li; Ting-Ting Yan; Wei-Xiong Lin; Shang-Ling Pan

2011-01-01

38

ATP-binding cassette and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion transporters in plants: a common theme among diverse detoxification mechanisms.  

PubMed

Plants have developed elaborate detoxification mechanisms to cope with a large number of potentially toxic compounds, which include exogenous xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, especially secondary metabolites. After enzymatic modification or synthesis, such compounds are transported and accumulated in apoplastic cell walls or central vacuoles in plant cells. Membrane transporters actively catalyze translocation of a diverse range of these compounds across various membranes within cells. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic studies have begun to reveal functions of a handful of ATP-binding cassette and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family transporters engaged in transport of organic xenobiotics, heavy metals, metalloids, aluminum, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, terpenoid-derived phytohormones, cuticle lipids, and monolignols in plants. This detoxification versatility and metabolic diversity may underlie the functional diversification in plants of these families of transporters, which are largely involved in multidrug resistance in microorganisms and animals. PMID:24529726

Shoji, Tsubasa

2014-01-01

39

Deletion of an ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily C transporter in Leishmania donovani results in increased virulence.  

PubMed

Genome comparison of Leishmania species sequenced to date has identified several hundred differentially distributed genes which are present as functional genes in some species but as pseudogenes or absent in others. It is not clear whether these differentially distributed genes are important for disease, redundant or even harmful for a particular Leishmania species though a few of these genes have been implicated in Leishmania infection tissue tropism. The L. infantum LinJ.24.1510 gene is an ATP-binding cassette transporter protein subfamily C member which is present in L. donovani complex species and L. mexicana but absent in L. major and L. braziliensis and its substrate is unknown. Experimental deletion of this gene from L. donovani has resulted in an increase in growth as axenic amastigotes and increased virulence in infecting mice. To our knowledge, this is the first gene identified in Leishmania where its deletion results in hypervirulence. PMID:22841683

Zhang, Wen-Wei; Matlashewski, Greg

2012-10-01

40

Repositioning of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors as Antagonists of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Anticancer Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) has attenuated the efficacy of anticancer drugs and the possibility of successful cancer chemotherapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating MDR in cancer cells by increasing efflux of drugs from cancer cells, hence reducing the intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs. Interestingly, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as AST1306, lapatinib, linsitinib, masitinib, motesanib, nilotinib, telatinib and WHI-P154, have been found to have the capability to overcome anticancer drug resistance by inhibiting ABC transporters in recent years. This review will focus on some of the latest and clinical developments with ABC transporters, TKIs and anticancer drug resistance. PMID:25268163

Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Kathawala, Rishil J.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2014-01-01

41

In Vitro Reassembly of the Ribose ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Reveals a Distinct Set of Transport Complexes.  

PubMed

Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importers are primary active transporters that are critical for nutrient uptake. Based on structural and functional studies, ABC importers can be divided into two distinct classes, type I and type II. Type I importers follow a strict alternating access mechanism that is driven by the presence of the substrate. Type II importers accept substrates in a nucleotide-free state, with hydrolysis driving an inward facing conformation. The ribose transporter in Escherichia coli is a tripartite complex consisting of a cytoplasmic ATP-binding cassette protein, RbsA, with fused nucleotide binding domains; a transmembrane domain homodimer, RbsC2; and a periplasmic substrate binding protein, RbsB. To investigate the transport mechanism of the complex RbsABC2, we probed intersubunit interactions by varying the presence of the substrate ribose and the hydrolysis cofactors, ATP/ADP and Mg(2+). We were able to purify a full complex, RbsABC2, in the presence of stable, transition state mimics (ATP, Mg(2+), and VO4); a RbsAC complex in the presence of ADP and Mg(2+); and a heretofore unobserved RbsBC complex in the absence of cofactors. The presence of excess ribose also destabilized complex formation between RbsB and RbsC. These observations suggest that RbsABC2 shares functional traits with both type I and type II importers, as well as possessing unique features, and employs a distinct mechanism relative to other ABC transporters. PMID:25533465

Clifton, Matthew C; Simon, Michael J; Erramilli, Satchal K; Zhang, Huide; Zaitseva, Jelena; Hermodson, Mark A; Stauffacher, Cynthia V

2015-02-27

42

Association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 rs4148217 SNP and serum lipid levels in Mulao and Han nationalities  

PubMed Central

Background The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8) rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P?

2012-01-01

43

Regulation of ATP-binding cassette transporters and cholesterol efflux by glucose in primary human monocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. This may be partially attributable to suppression of macrophage ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated cholesterol efflux by sustained elevated blood glucose concentrations. Two models were used...

44

Identification of a gene cluster encoding an arginine ATP-binding-cassette transporter in the genome of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain DSMZ 13240  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single gene cluster encoding components of a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter for basic amino acids was identified in the incomplete genome sequence of the thermophilic Gram-positive bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus by BLAST searches. The cluster comprises three genes, and these were amplified from chromosomal DNA of G. stearothermophilus, ligated into plasmid vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified

Rebecca Fleischer; Antje Wengner; Frank Scheffel; Heidi Landmesser; Erwin Schneider

2005-01-01

45

A Novel Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter System That Allows Uptake of?Macromolecules  

PubMed Central

A gram-negative bacterium, Sphingomonas sp. strain A1, isolated as a producer of alginate lyase, has a characteristic cell envelope structure and forms a mouth-like pit on its surface. The pit is produced only when the cells have to incorporate and assimilate alginate. An alginate uptake-deficient mutant was derived from cells of strain A1. One open reading frame, algS (1,089 bp), exhibiting homology to the bacterial ATP-binding domain of an ABC transporter, was cloned as a fragment complementing the mutation. algS was followed by two open reading frames, algM1 (972 bp) and algM2 (879 bp), which exhibit homology with the transmembrane permeases of ABC transporters. Disruption of algS of strain A1 resulted in the failure to incorporate alginate and to form a pit. Hexahistidine-tagged AlgS protein (AlgSHis6) overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni2+ affinity column chromatography showed ATPase activity. Based on these results, we propose the occurrence of a novel pit-dependent ABC transporter system that allows the uptake of macromolecules. PMID:10869078

Momma, Keiko; Okamoto, Masako; Mishima, Yumiko; Mori, Shigetarou; Hashimoto, Wataru; Murata, Kousaku

2000-01-01

46

Functional Analysis of an ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene in Botrytis cinerea by Gene Disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The BMR1 gene encoding an ABC transporter was cloned from Botrytis cinerea. To examine the function of BMR1 in B. cinerea, we isolated BMR1-deficient mutants after gene disruption. Disruption vector pBcDF4 was constructed by replacing the BMR1-coding region with a hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene (hph) cassette. The BMR1 disruptants had an increased sensitivity to polyoxin and iprobenfos. Polyoxin and iprobenfos,

Masami NAKAJIMA; Junko SUZUKII; Takehiko HOSAKA; Tadaaki HIBIZ; Katsumi AKUTSU

2001-01-01

47

Nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus gordonii PK488 coaggregation adhesin gene, scaA, and ATP-binding cassette.  

PubMed Central

Human oral viridans group streptococci that coaggregate with Actinomyces naeslundii PK606 express surface proteins related to ScaA, the coaggregation-mediating adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii PK488 (R. N. Andersen, N. Ganeshkumar, and P. E. Kolenbrander, Infect. Immun. 61:981-987, 1993). The nucleotide sequence of the 6,125-bp EcoRI insert of pRA1, containing scaA, the gene encoding ScaA, was determined. Six open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. The orientation of four ORFs, two upstream (ORF 1 and ORF 2) and one downstream (ORF 4) of scaA (ORF 3), indicated transcription in one direction, whereas ORF 5 and ORF 6 were transcribed divergently. Computer analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences identified a consensus binding site for ATP (GxxGxGKS) in the putative 28,054-Da protein encoded by ORF 1. ORF 2 potentially encoded a hydrophobic protein of 29,705 Da with six potential membrane-spanning regions. ScaA was 310 amino acids, 34,787 Da, and contained the lipoprotein consensus sequence LxxC, also reported for the ScaA-related proteins SsaB, FimA, and PsaA from Streptococcus sanguis 12, Streptococcus parasanguis FW213, and Streptococcus pneumoniae R36A, respectively. ORF 4 potentially encoded a 163-amino-acid protein of 17,912 Da, which was nearly identical to the downstream adjacent gene products of ssaB, fimA, and psaA. No significant homology with other proteins was found with the putative ORF 5 gene product, a 229-amino-acid protein of 25,107 Da. ORF 6 was incomplete and encoded a protein larger than 564 amino acids. This putative protein had a consensus Zn2+ binding motif, HExxH, found among bacterial thermolysins and mammalian neutral endopeptidases and was 40% identical to a homologous 210-amino-acid region of human enkephalinase. The genetic organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 3 was similar to those of the bacterial periplasmic-binding protein-dependent transport systems of gram-negative bacteria and binding-lipoprotein-dependent transport systems of gram-positive bacteria, and these genes appeared to encode ABC (ATP-binding cassette) proteins. This report describes a cell-to-cell adherence function associated with an ATP-binding cassette. Images PMID:7927711

Kolenbrander, P E; Andersen, R N; Ganeshkumar, N

1994-01-01

48

ATP-binding cassette transporters protect sea urchin gametes and embryonic cells against the harmful effects of ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

Embryos of marine organisms whose development occurs externally are particularly sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light (bands A and B, respectively, UVA and UVB). ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the first line of cellular defense against chemical or physical stress. The present work investigated the involvement of ABC transporters on UVA or UVB effects on eggs, spermatozoa, and embryonic cells of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter. Gametes or embryos were exposed to UVA (3.6-14.4?kJ?m(-2)) or UVB (0.112-14.4?kJ?m(-2)), and embryonic development was monitored by optical microscopy at different developmental stages in the presence or absence of the ABC-transporter blockers reversin205 (ABCB1 blocker) or MK571 (ABCC1 blocker). E. lucunter eggs, spermatozoa and embryos were resistant to UVA exposure. Resistance to the harmful effects of UVB was strongly associated to ABC transporter activity (embryos?>?eggs?>?spermatozoa). ABCB1 or ABCC1 blockage promoted the injurious effects of UVA on spermatozoa. ABCC1 transporter blockage increased UVB-dependent damage in eggs while ABCB1 transporter inhibition increased harmful effects of UVB in embryonic cells. ABC-transporter activity was not, however, affected by UVB exposure. In conclusion, the present study is the first report on the protective role of ABC transporters against harmful effects of UVA and UVB on sea urchin eggs and embryonic cells. PMID:24254332

Leite, Jocelmo Cássio de Araujo; de Vasconcelos, Raianna Boni; da Silva, Suélenn Guedes; de Siqueira-Junior, José Pinto; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

2014-01-01

49

The Conformational Transition Pathways of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter BtuCD Revealed by Targeted Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

PubMed Central

BtuCD is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporters in Escherichia coli that imports vitamin B12 into the cell by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Crystal structures of BtuCD and its homologous protein HI1470/1 in various conformational states support the “alternating access” mechanism which proposes the conformational transitions of the substrate translocation pathway at transmembrane domain (TMD) between the outward-facing and inward-facing states. The conformational transition at TMD is assumed to couple with the movement of the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) driven by ATP hydrolysis/binding. In this study, we performed targeted molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the atomic details of the conformational transitions of BtuCD importer. The outward-facing to inward-facing (O?I) transition was found to be initiated by the conformational movement of NBDs. The subsequent reorientation of the substrate translocation pathway at TMD began with the closing of the periplasmic gate, followed by the opening of the cytoplamic gate in the last stage of the conformational transition due to the extensive hydrophobic interactions at this region, consistent with the functional requirement of unidirectional transport of the substrates. The reverse inward-facing to outward-facing (I?O) transition was found to exhibit intrinsic diversity of the conformational transition pathways and significant structural asymmetry, suggesting that the asymmetric crystal structure of BtuCD-F is an intermediate state in this process. PMID:22272354

Weng, Jingwei; Fan, Kangnian; Wang, Wenning

2012-01-01

50

Potential role of ATP-binding cassette transporters against acaricides in the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters have been shown to be involved in pesticide detoxification in arthropod vectors and are thought to contribute to the development of drug resistance. Little is currently known about the role they play in ticks, which are among the more important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Here, the role of ABC transporters in the transport of fipronil and ivermectin acaricides in the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) was investigated. Larvae were treated with acaricide alone and acaricide in combination with a sub-lethal dose of the ABC transporter inhibitor cyclosporine A. The LC50 doses and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimated by mortality data using probit analysis were 67.930?p.p.m. (95% CI 53.780-90.861) for fipronil and 3741?p.p.m. (95% CI 2857-4647) for ivermectin. The pre-exposure of larvae to a sub-lethal dose of cyclosporine A reduced the LC50 dose of fipronil to 4.808?p.p.m. (95% CI 0.715-9.527) and that of ivermectin to 167?p.p.m. (95% CI 15-449), which increased toxicity by about 14- and 22-fold, respectively. The comparison of mortality data for each separate acaricide concentration showed the synergic effect of cyclosporine A to be reduced at higher concentrations of acaricide. These results show for the first time a strong association between ABC transporters and acaricide detoxification in R.sanguineus s.l. PMID:25530472

Cafarchia, C; Porretta, D; Mastrantonio, V; Epis, S; Sassera, D; Iatta, R; Immediato, D; Ramos, R A N; Lia, R P; Dantas-Torres, F; Kramer, L; Urbanelli, S; Otranto, D

2015-03-01

51

Physicochemical Factors Controlling the Activity and Energy Coupling of an Ionic Strength-gated ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter*  

PubMed Central

Cells control their volume through the accumulation of compatible solutes. The bacterial ATP-binding cassette transporter OpuA couples compatible solute uptake to ATP hydrolysis. Here, we study the gating mechanism and energy coupling of OpuA reconstituted in lipid nanodiscs. We show that anionic lipids are essential both for the gating and the energy coupling. The tight coupling between substrate binding on extracellular domains and ATP hydrolysis by cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains allows the study of transmembrane signaling in nanodiscs. From the tight coupling between processes at opposite sides of the membrane, we infer that the ATPase activity of OpuA in nanodiscs reflects solute translocation. Intriguingly, the substrate-dependent, ionic strength-gated ATPase activity of OpuA in nanodiscs is at least an order of magnitude higher than in lipid vesicles (i.e. with identical membrane lipid composition, ionic strength, and nucleotide and substrate concentrations). Even with the chemical components the same, the lateral pressure (profile) of the nanodiscs will differ from that of the vesicles. We thus propose that membrane tension limits translocation in vesicular systems. Increased macromolecular crowding does not activate OpuA but acts synergistically with ionic strength, presumably by favoring gating interactions of like-charged surfaces via excluded volume effects. PMID:23979139

Karasawa, Akira; Swier, Lotteke J. Y. M.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Brouwers, Jos; Helms, Bernd; Poolman, Bert

2013-01-01

52

Afatinib circumvents multidrug resistance via dually inhibiting ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs is a formidable barrier to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Expressions of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters contribute to clinical MDR phenotype. In this study, we found that afatinib, a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting EGFR, HER-2 and HER-4, reversed the chemoresistance mediated by ABCG2 in vitro, but had no effect on that mediated by multidrug resistance protein ABCB1 and ABCC1. In addition, afatinib, in combination with topotecan, significantly inhibited the growth of ABCG2-overexpressing cell xenograft tumors in vivo. Mechanistic investigations exhibited that afatinib significantly inhibited ATPase activity of ABCG2 and downregulated expression level of ABCG2, which resulted in the suppression of efflux activity of ABCG2 in parallel to the increase of intracellular accumulation of ABCG2 substrate anticancer agents. Taken together, our findings may provide a new and useful combinational therapeutic strategy of afatinib with chemotherapeutical drug for the patients with ABCG2 overexpressing cancer cells. PMID:25436978

Wang, Xiao-kun; Kin Wah To, Kenneth; Huang, Li-yan; Xu, Jing-hong; Yang, Ke; Wang, Fang; Huang, Zhen-cong; Ye, Sheng; Fu, Li-wu

2014-01-01

53

Functional Coupling of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Abcb6 to Cytochrome P450 Expression and Activity in Liver.  

PubMed

Although endogenous mechanisms that negatively regulate cytochrome P450 (P450) monooxygenases in response to physiological and pathophysiological signals are not well understood, they are thought to result from alterations in the level of endogenous metabolites, involved in maintaining homeostasis. Here we show that homeostatic changes in hepatic metabolite profile in Abcb6 (mitochondrial ATP-binding cassette transporter B6) deficiency results in suppression of a specific subset of hepatic P450 activity. Abcb6 null mice are more susceptible to pentobarbital-induced sleep and zoxazolamine-induced paralysis, secondary to decreased expression and activity of Cyp3a11 and Cyp2b10. The knock-out mice also show decrease in both basal and xeno-inducible expression and activity of a subset of hepatic P450s that appear to be related to changes in hepatic metabolite profile. These data, together with the observation that liver extracts from Abcb6-deficient mice suppress P450 expression in human primary hepatocytes, suggest that this mouse model may provide an opportunity to understand the physiological signals and the mechanisms involved in negative regulation of P450s. PMID:25623066

Chavan, Hemantkumar; Li, Feng; Tessman, Robert; Mickey, Kristen; Dorko, Kenneth; Schmitt, Timothy; Kumer, Sean; Gunewardena, Sumedha; Gaikwad, Nilesh; Krishnamurthy, Partha

2015-03-20

54

Citrulline increases cholesterol efflux from macrophages in vitro and ex vivo via ATP-binding cassette transporters  

PubMed Central

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is a mechanism critical to the anti-atherogenic property of HDL. Although citrulline contributes to the amelioration of atherosclerosis via endothelial nitric oxide production, it remains unclear whether it affects RCT. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of citrulline on expressions of specific transporters such as ATP binding cassette transporters (ABC)A1 and ABCG1, and the cholesterol efflux from macrophages to apolipoprotein (apo) A-I or HDL in vitro and ex vivo. Citrulline increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 macrophages, translating into enhanced apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. In the human crossover study, 8 healthy male volunteers (age 30–49 years) consumed either 3.2 g/day citrulline or placebo for 1 week. Citrulline consumption brought about significant increases in plasma levels of citrulline and arginine. Supporting the in vitro data, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) differentiated under autologous post-citrulline sera demonstrated enhancement of both apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux through increased ABCA1 and ABCG1 expressions, compared to MDM differentiated under pre-citrulline sera. However, the placebo did not modulate these parameters. Therefore, in addition to improving endothelium function, citrulline might have an anti-atherogenic property by increasing RCT of HDL. PMID:25120277

Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Ayaori, Makoto; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Shunichi; Yakushiji, Emi; Ogura, Masatsune; Terao, Yoshio; Ozasa, Hideki; Sasaki, Makoto; Komatsu, Tomohiro; Sotherden, Grace Megumi; Hosoai, Tamaki; Sakurada, Masami; Ikewaki, Katsunori

2014-01-01

55

Whole-Genome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Family Genes in Vitis vinifera  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily constitutes one of the largest protein families known in plants. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of ABC protein genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with ABC protein members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we identified 135 putative ABC proteins with 1 or 2 NBDs in V. vinifera. Of these, 120 encode intrinsic membrane proteins, and 15 encode proteins missing TMDs. V. vinifera ABC proteins can be divided into 13 subfamilies with 79 “full-size,” 41 “half-size,” and 15 “soluble” putative ABC proteins. The main feature of the Vitis ABC superfamily is the presence of 2 large subfamilies, ABCG (pleiotropic drug resistance and white-brown complex homolog) and ABCC (multidrug resistance-associated protein). We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative ABC transporters in different species. This work represents the first complete inventory of ABC transporters in V. vinifera. The identification of Vitis ABC transporters and their comparative analysis with the Arabidopsis counterparts revealed a strong conservation between the 2 species. This inventory could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these transporters in V. vinifera. PMID:24244377

Çak?r, Birsen; K?l?çkaya, Ozan

2013-01-01

56

Inventory and general analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily in maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

The metabolic functions of ATP-binding cassette (or ABC) proteins, one of the largest families of proteins presented in all organisms, have been investigated in many protozoan, animal and plant species. To facilitate more systematic and complicated studies on maize ABC proteins in the future, we present the first complete inventory of these proteins, including 130 open reading frames (ORFs), and provide general descriptions of their classifications, basic structures, typical functions, evolution track analysis and expression profiles. The 130 ORFs were assigned to eight subfamilies based on their structures and homological features. Five of these subfamilies consist of 109 proteins, containing transmembrane domains (TM) performing as transporters. The rest three subfamilies contain 21 soluble proteins involved in various functions other than molecular transport. A comparison of ABC proteins among nine selected species revealed either convergence or divergence in each of the ABC subfamilies. Generally, plant genomes contain far more ABC genes than animal genomes. The expression profiles and evolution track of each maize ABC gene were further investigated, the results of which could provide clues for analyzing their functions. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments (PCR) were conducted to detect induced expression in select ABC genes under several common stresses. This investigation provides valuable information for future research on stress tolerance in plants and potential strategies for enhancing maize production under stressful conditions. PMID:23747399

Pang, Kaiyuan; Li, Yanjiao; Liu, Menghan; Meng, Zhaodong; Yu, Yanli

2013-09-10

57

ABCC1, an ATP Binding Cassette Protein from Grape Berry, Transports Anthocyanidin 3-O-Glucosides[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of anthocyanins in the exocarp of red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars is one of several events that characterize the onset of grape berry ripening (véraison). Despite our thorough understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, little is known about the molecular aspects of their transport. The participation of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins in vacuolar anthocyanin transport has long been a matter of debate. Here, we present biochemical evidence that an ABC protein, ABCC1, localizes to the tonoplast and is involved in the transport of glucosylated anthocyanidins. ABCC1 is expressed in the exocarp throughout berry development and ripening, with a significant increase at véraison (i.e., the onset of ripening). Transport experiments using microsomes isolated from ABCC1-expressing yeast cells showed that ABCC1 transports malvidin 3-O-glucoside. The transport strictly depends on the presence of GSH, which is cotransported with the anthocyanins and is sensitive to inhibitors of ABC proteins. By exposing anthocyanin-producing grapevine root cultures to buthionine sulphoximine, which reduced GSH levels, a decrease in anthocyanin concentration is observed. In conclusion, we provide evidence that ABCC1 acts as an anthocyanin transporter that depends on GSH without the formation of an anthocyanin-GSH conjugate. PMID:23723325

Francisco, Rita Maria; Regalado, Ana; Ageorges, Agnès; Burla, Bo J.; Bassin, Barbara; Eisenach, Cornelia; Zarrouk, Olfa; Vialet, Sandrine; Marlin, Thérèse; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Martinoia, Enrico; Nagy, Réka

2013-01-01

58

Probing Structural Determinants of ATP-Binding Cassette Exporter Conformational Transition Using Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters pump various substrates across the cell membrane by alternating between inward-facing (IF) and outward-facing (OF) conformations of the transmembrane domains (TMDs). However, the structural determinants of the conformational transition and their functional roles are not fully understood. In this study, we carried out coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations with umbrella sampling for the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein from Caenorhabditis elegans in the presence of the membrane and explicit water molecules. The potential of mean force (PMF) is obtained to identify a reliable pathway where the predicted OF and IF structures are in good agreement with available experiments. The CG-MD simulations reveal that the different transmembrane (TM) helices play distinct but highly cooperative roles in the large-scale conformational changes. Most notably, the CG-MD trajectories show that the periplasmic gate is closed before the cytoplasmic gate is opened during the OF to IF conformational transition in response to the dissociation of the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), capturing the unidirectional feature of substrate translocation through the exporter. The structural and dynamical analyses identify the structural determinants and their functional roles in the structural transition. The present work sheds light on how the mechanical force generated upon the NBD dissociation is transferred to the periplasmic end at a distance over 70 Å to close the gate, and subsequently to open the cytoplasmic gate. These results extend our understanding of the ABC transport mechanism. PMID:25549041

Wang, Zi; Liao, Jie-Lou

2015-01-29

59

Substrate binding stabilizes a pre-translocation intermediate in the ATP-binding cassette transport protein MsbA.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein superfamilies that expands from prokaryotes to man. Recent x-ray crystal structures of bacterial and mammalian ABC exporters suggest a common alternating access mechanism of substrate transport, which has also been biochemically substantiated. However, the current model does not yet explain the coupling between substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis that underlies ATP-dependent substrate transport. In our studies on the homodimeric multidrug/lipid A ABC exporter MsbA from Escherichia coli, we performed cysteine cross-linking, fluorescence energy transfer, and cysteine accessibility studies on two reporter positions, near the nucleotide-binding domains and in the membrane domains, for transporter embedded in a biological membrane. Our results suggest for the first time that substrate binding by MsbA stimulates the maximum rate of ATP hydrolysis by facilitating the dimerization of nucleotide-binding domains in a state, which is markedly distinct from the previously described nucleotide-free, inward-facing and nucleotide-bound, outward-facing conformations of ABC exporters and which binds ATP. PMID:23766512

Doshi, Rupak; van Veen, Hendrik W

2013-07-26

60

Influence of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Root Exudation of Phytoalexins, Signals, and in Disease Resistance  

PubMed Central

The roots of plants secrete compounds as a way to exchange information with organisms living in the soil. Here, we report the involvement of seven root-expressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters corresponding to both full and half-size molecules (Atabcg36, Atabcg37, Atabcc5, Atabcf1, Atabcf3, Atnap5, and Atath10) in root exudation processes using Arabidopsis thaliana. Root exuded phytochemicals were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and it was determined that some of the root exudates from the corresponding ABC transporter mutants were significantly different compared to the wild type. For example, Atabcg37 and Atabcc5 secreted higher levels of the phytoalexin camalexin, and Atabcg36 secreted higher levels of organic acids, specifically salicylic acid (SA). Furthermore, we analyzed the root tissue metabolites of these seven ABC transporter mutants and found that the levels of SA, quercetin, and kaempferol glucosides were higher in Atabcg36, which was correlated with higher expression levels of defense genes in the root tissues compared with the wild type. We did not observe significant changes in the root exudates of the half-size transporters except for Atabcf1 that showed lower levels of few organic acids. In summary, full-size transporters are involved in root secretion of phytochemicals. PMID:22783269

Badri, Dayakar V.; Chaparro, Jacqueline M.; Manter, Daniel K.; Martinoia, Enrico; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2012-01-01

61

Altered profile of secondary metabolites in the root exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-binding cassette transporter mutants.  

PubMed

Following recent indirect evidence suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, we identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Of these 25 genes, we also selected six full-length ABC transporters and a half-size transporter for in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses. We compared the exuded root phytochemical profiles of these seven ABC transporter mutants to those of the wild type. There were three nonpolar phytochemicals missing in various ABC transporter mutants compared to the wild type when the samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data suggest that more than one ABC transporter can be involved in the secretion of a given phytochemical and that a transporter can be involved in the secretion of more than one secondary metabolite. The primary and secondary metabolites present in the root exudates of the mutants were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed for the identification of groups of compounds differentially found in some of the mutants compared to the wild type. For instance, the mutant Atpdr6 secreted a lower level of organic acids and Atmrp2 secreted a higher level of amino acids as compared to the wild type. We conclude that the release of phytochemicals by roots is partially controlled by ABC transporters. PMID:18065561

Badri, Dayakar V; Loyola-Vargas, Victor M; Broeckling, Corey D; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Jasinski, Michal; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Sumner, Lloyd W; Banta, Lois M; Stermitz, Frank; Vivanco, Jorge M

2008-02-01

62

Structures of ABCB10, a human ATP-binding cassette transporter in apo- and nucleotide-bound states  

PubMed Central

ABCB10 is one of the three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters found in the inner membrane of mitochondria. In mammals ABCB10 is essential for erythropoiesis, and for protection of mitochondria against oxidative stress. ABCB10 is therefore a potential therapeutic target for diseases in which increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress play a major role. The crystal structure of apo-ABCB10 shows a classic exporter fold ABC transporter structure, in an open-inwards conformation, ready to bind the substrate or nucleotide from the inner mitochondrial matrix or membrane. Unexpectedly, however, ABCB10 adopts an open-inwards conformation when complexed with nonhydrolysable ATP analogs, in contrast to other transporter structures which adopt an open-outwards conformation in complex with ATP. The three complexes of ABCB10/ATP analogs reported here showed varying degrees of opening of the transport substrate binding site, indicating that in this conformation there is some flexibility between the two halves of the protein. These structures suggest that the observed plasticity, together with a portal between two helices in the transmembrane region of ABCB10, assist transport substrate entry into the substrate binding cavity. These structures indicate that ABC transporters may exist in an open-inwards conformation when nucleotide is bound. We discuss ways in which this observation can be aligned with the current views on mechanisms of ABC transporters. PMID:23716676

Shintre, Chitra A.; Pike, Ashley C. W.; Kim, Jung-In; Barr, Alastair J.; Goubin, Solenne; Shrestha, Leela; Yang, Jing; Berridge, Georgina; Ross, Jonathan; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Edwards, Aled M.; Bountra, Chas; Marsden, Brian D.; von Delft, Frank; Bullock, Alex N.; Gileadi, Opher; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; Carpenter, Elisabeth P.

2013-01-01

63

HDAC inhibitor-induced drug resistance involving ATP-binding cassette transporters (Review)  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are becoming a novel and promising class of antineoplastic agents that have been used for cancer therapy in the clinic. Two HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat and romidepsin, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat T-cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, similar to common anticancer drugs, HDAC inhibitors have been found to induce multidrug resistance (MDR), which is an obstacle for the success of chemotherapy. The most common cause of MDR is considered to be the increased expression of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Numerous studies have identified that the upregulation of ABC transporters is often observed following treatment with HDAC inhibitors, particularly the increased expression of P-glycoprotein, which leads to drug efflux, reduces intracellular drug concentration and induces MDR. The present review summarizes the key ABC transporters involved in MDR following various HDAC inhibitor treatments in a range of cancer cell lines and also explored the potential mechanisms that result in MDR, including the effect of nuclear receptors, which are the upstream regulatory factors of ABC transporters. PMID:25624882

NI, XUAN; LI, LI; PAN, GUOYU

2015-01-01

64

Differential expression and functionality of ATP binding cassette transporters in the human hair follicle.  

PubMed

Adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in the active transport of an extremely diverse range of substrates across biological membranes. These transporters are commonly implicated in the development of multidrug resistance and are also involved in numerous physiological and homeostatic processes, including lipid transport, cell migration and differentiation. Since the expression of ABC transporters in the human hair follicle (HF) is as yet unclear, this study aimed to close this knowledge gap. By qPCR analysis, numerous members of the ABC transporter superfamily, such as ABCB1, G2 and A12, were found to be transcribed in full-length human scalp HFs. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the intrafollicular protein expression of different xenobiotic ABC transporters (ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCG2) varies greatly, with ABCG2 expression primarily restricted to the epithelial stem cell region of the outer root sheath (bulge), whereas both ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCC4 expression was more widespread. Lipid transporters ABCA1, ABCA12 and ABCA4 were almost uniformly expressed throughout the HF epithelium. Functional ABCB1/G2 activity was demonstrated by exclusion of the substrate dye, Hoechst 33342. In the bulge, this was reversed by ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibition. These data encourage one to further investigate ABC transporters as potentially important regulators of HF epithelial biology. Clinically, pharmacological modulation of the activity of selected intrafollicular ABC transporters may permit novel therapeutic interventions, such as protecting HF stem cells from chemotherapy-induced damage, counteracting cholesterol-associated hypertrichosis, and manipulating the intrafollicular prostaglandin balance in androgenetic alopecia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25418064

Haslam, I S; El-Chami, C; Faruqi, H; Shahmalak, A; O'Neill, C A; Paus, R

2014-11-21

65

ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ? 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5?-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5?-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5?) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

2013-01-01

66

Neratinib Reverses ATP-Binding Cassette B1-Mediated Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance In Vitro, In Vivo, and Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

Neratinib, an irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is in phase III clinical trials for patients with human epidermal receptor 2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore the ability of neratinib to reverse tumor multidrug resistance attributable to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our results showed that neratinib remarkably enhanced the sensitivity of ABCB1-overexpressing cells to ABCB1 substrates. It is noteworthy that neratinib augmented the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in inhibiting the growth of ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia blasts and KBv200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, neratinib increased doxorubicin accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and Rhodamine 123 accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and primary leukemia blasts. Neratinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 at low concentrations but inhibited it at high concentrations. Likewise, neratinib inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.24 ?M). Neither the expression of ABCB1 at the mRNA and protein levels nor the phosphorylation of Akt was affected by neratinib at reversal concentrations. Docking simulation results were consistent with the binding conformation of neratinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1, which provides computational support for the cross-reactivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with human ABCB1. In conclusion, neratinib can reverse ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo by inhibiting its transport function. PMID:22491935

Zhao, Xiao-qin; Xie, Jing-dun; Chen, Xing-gui; Sim, Hong May; Zhang, Xu; Liang, Yong-ju; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T.; Sun, Yueli; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2012-01-01

67

The role of ATP-binding cassette transporter A2 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia multidrug resistance  

PubMed Central

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most prevalent hematologic malignancies in children. Although the cure rate of ALL has improved over the past decades, the most important reason for ALL treatment failure is multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon. The current study aims to explain the mechanisms involved in multidrug resistance of childhood ALL, and introduces ATP-binding cassette transporterA2 (ABCA2) as an ABC transporter gene which may have a high impact on MDR. Benefiting from articles published inreputable journals from1994 to date and experiments newly performed by our group, a comprehensive review is written about ABCA2 and its role in MDR regarding childhood ALL. ABCA2 transports drugs from the cytoplasm into the lysosomal compartment, where they may become degraded and exported from the cell. The aforementioned mechanism may contribute to MDR. It has been reported that ABCA2 may induce resistance to mitoxantrone, estrogen derivatives and estramustine. It is resistant to the aforementioned compounds. Furthermore, the overexpression ofABCA2 in methotrexate, vinblastine and/or doxorubicin treated Jurkat cells are observed in several publications. The recent study of our group showsthatthe overexpression ofABCA2 gene in children with ALL increases the risk of MDR by 15 times. ABCA2 is the second identified member of the ABCA; ABC transporters' subfamily. ABCA2 gene expression profile is suggested to be an unfavorable prognostic factor in ALL treatment. Better understanding of the MDR mechanisms and the factors involved may improve the therapeutic outcome of ALL by modifying the treatment protocols. PMID:25254091

Aberuyi, N; Rahgozar, S; Moafi, A

2014-01-01

68

Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.  

PubMed

Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage cholesterol efflux, favoring cholesterol accumulation in the artery wall. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to further explore the relationship between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) through transcription factors liver-x-receptor-alpha (LXR-?) and sterol receptor element binding protein (SREBP)-1. BMDM isolated from C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 100 ?M linoleic acid (18:2) or palmitic acid (16:0) for 16 h, and 25 ?g/mL oxidized low density lipoprotein for an additional 24 h. ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression was suppressed to a greater extent by 18:2 (60 % and 54 %, respectively) than 16:0 (30 % and 29 %, respectively) relative to the control (all p < 0.01). 18:2 decreased ABCA1 protein levels by 94 % and high density lipoprotein (HDL) mediated cholesterol efflux by 53 % (both p < 0.05), and had no significant effect on ABCG1, LXR-? or SREBP-1 protein levels. 16:0 had no effect on ABCA1, ABCG1, LXR-? or SREBP-1 protein expression or HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. These results suggest that 18:2, relative to 16:0, attenuated macrophage HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux through down regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels but not through changes in LXR-? or SREBP-1 expression. The effect of 18:2 relative to 16:0 on macrophages cholesterol homeostasis may exacerbate the predisposition of individuals with T2DM to increased CVD risk. PMID:24595513

Spartano, Nicole L; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R; Obin, Martin S; Greenberg, Andrew S; Lichtenstein, Alice H

2014-05-01

69

Two ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters Involved in (S)-2-Aminoethyl-Cysteine Uptake in Thermus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

Thermus thermophilus exhibits hypersensitivity to a lysine analog, (S)-2-aminoethyl-cysteine (AEC). Cosmid libraries were constructed using genomes from two AEC-resistant mutants, AT10 and AT14, and the cosmids that conferred AEC resistance on the wild-type strain were isolated. When the cosmid library for mutant AT14 was screened, two independent cosmids, conferring partial AEC resistance to the wild type, were obtained. Two cosmids carried a common genomic region from TTC0795 to TTC0810. This region contains genes encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter consisting of TTC0806/TTC0795, using TTC0807 as the periplasmic substrate-binding protein. Sequencing revealed that AT14 carries mutations in TTC0795 and TTC0969, causing decreases in the thermostability of the products. TTC0969 encodes the nucleotide-binding protein of a different ABC transporter consisting of TTC0967/TTC0968/TTC0969/TTC0970 using TTC0966 as the periplasmic substrate-binding protein. By similar screening for cosmids constructed for the mutant AT10, mutations were found at TTC0807 and TTC0969. Mutation in either of the transporter components gave partial resistance to AEC in the wild-type strain, while mutations of both transporters conferred complete AEC resistance. This result indicates that both transporters are involved in AEC uptake in T. thermophilus. To elucidate the mechanism of AEC uptake, crystal structures of TTC0807 were determined in several substrate-binding forms. The structures revealed that TTC0807 recognizes various basic amino acids by changing the side-chain conformation of Glu19, which interacts with the side-chain amino groups of the substrates. PMID:23794618

Kanemaru, Yuko; Hasebe, Fumihito; Tomita, Takeo; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa

2013-01-01

70

Up-Regulation of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes infection using host lipid metabolism pathways that are thus considered potential targets for indirect anti-HCV strategies. HCV enters the cell via clathrin-dependent endocytosis, interacting with several receptors, and virus-cell fusion, which depends on acidic pH and the integrity of cholesterol-rich domains of the hepatocyte membrane. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates cholesterol efflux from hepatocytes to extracellular Apolipoprotein A1 and moves cholesterol within cell membranes. Furthermore, it generates high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. HDL protects against arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We show that the up-regulation of ABCA1 gene expression and its cholesterol efflux function in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells, using the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist GW3965, impairs HCV infection and decreases levels of virus produced. ABCA1-stimulation inhibited HCV cell entry, acting on virus-host cell fusion, but had no impact on virus attachment, replication, or assembly/secretion. It did not affect infectivity or properties of virus particles produced. Silencing of the ABCA1 gene and reduction of the specific cholesterol efflux function counteracted the inhibitory effect of the GW3965 on HCV infection, providing evidence for a key role of ABCA1 in this process. Impaired virus-cell entry correlated with the reorganisation of cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). The inhibitory effect could be reversed by an exogenous cholesterol supply, indicating that restriction of HCV infection was induced by changes of cholesterol content/distribution in membrane regions essential for virus-cell fusion. Stimulation of ABCA1 expression by GW3965 inhibited HCV infection of both human primary hepatocytes and isolated human liver slices. This study reveals that pharmacological stimulation of the ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux pathway disrupts membrane cholesterol homeostasis, leading to the inhibition of virus–cell fusion and thus HCV cell entry. Therefore besides other beneficial roles, ABCA1 might represent a potential target for HCV therapy. PMID:24646941

Gondeau, Claire; Douam, Florian; Lebreton, Stéphanie; Lagaye, Sylvie; Pol, Stanislas; Helle, François; Plengpanich, Wanee; Guérin, Maryse; Bourgine, Maryline; Michel, Marie Louise; Lavillette, Dimitri; Roingeard, Philippe; le Goff, Wilfried; Budkowska, Agata

2014-01-01

71

Isolation of a genomic clone containing the promoter region of the human ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCB6.  

PubMed

We previously reported on the isolation of a new rat ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCB6. We now report the isolation of the full-length cDNA and genomic clones containing the human ABCB6 gene. ABCB6 is 100% identical to the cloned MTABC3 human ABC transporter and contains the typical ABC signature, Walker A and B motifs. We found that HuABCB6 is expressed at low levels in normal human liver. We found that ABCB6 was overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinomas compared to paired surrounding non-malignant tissue. We found that there was no difference in ABCB6 gene copy between human liver cancer and its paired non-malignant tissue. Because HuABCB6 was overexpressed in human cancers compared to peri-tumoral tissue in the absence of gene amplification, transcriptional regulation may play an important role in its expression. Therefore, we isolated a 14 kb genomic DNA clone containing the HuABCB6 promoter and 5'-flanking region. The 5'-flanking region contains a CpG island, lacks an appropriately positioned TATA element and contains a number of putative transcription factor binding sites. Two transcription start sites were identified by S1 nuclease mapping at -274 and -296 bp from the start codon. Transient transfection of the HuABCB6 promoter constructs (HuABCB6/1.68, 1.39, 1.13, 0.90, 0.52) containing the luciferase reporter gene resulted in a 1100-2300-fold increase in luciferase activity compared to the empty vector control whereas HuABCB6/1.68 subcloned in the reverse orientation resulted in no activity. We observed a significant decrease in luciferase activity with the promoter constructs, HuABCB6/0.25, 0.15 and 0.06, which indicates that an orientation-dependent functional promoter is contained within our previously predicted promoter region of -315 bp to -565 bp as deletion of this 250 bp sequence resulted in a loss of promoter activity. PMID:11955620

Emadi-Konjin, H Pasha; Zhang, Hui; Anandan, Vasuki; Sun, Daxi; Schuetz, John; Furuya, Katryn N

2002-03-19

72

Evaluation of the role of ATP-binding cassette transporters as a defence mechanism against temephos in populations of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The role of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of the insecticide, temephos, was assessed in the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Bioassays were conducted using mosquito populations that were either susceptible or resistant to temephos by exposure to insecticide alone or in combination with sublethal doses of the ABC transporter inhibitor, verapamil (30, 35 and 40 ?M). The best result in the series was obtained with the addition of verapamil (40 ?M), which led to a 2x increase in the toxicity of temephos, suggesting that ABC transporters may be partially involved in conferring resistance to the populations evaluated.

Lima, Estelita Pereira; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca; Rolim, Modesto Leite

2014-01-01

73

Altered Profile of Secondary Metabolites in the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Mutants1(C)(W)(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Following,recent,indirect,evidence,suggesting,a role for ATP-binding cassette,(ABC) transporters,in root exudation of phytochemicals, we identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Of these 25 genes, we also selected six full-length,ABC transporters,and a half-size transporter,for in-depth,molecular,and biochemical analyses.,We compared the exuded,root,phytochemical,profiles,of these,seven,ABC transporter,mutants

Dayakar V. Badri; Victor M. Loyola-Vargas; Corey D. Broeckling; Clelia De-la-Pena; Michal Jasinski; Diana Santelia; Enrico Martinoia; Lloyd W. Sumner; Lois M. Banta; Frank Stermitz; Jorge M. Vivanco

2008-01-01

74

Hydrolysis at One of the Two Nucleotide-binding Sites Drives the Dissociation of ATP-binding Cassette Nucleotide-binding Domain Dimers*  

PubMed Central

The functional unit of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters consists of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). ATP binding elicits association of the two NBDs, forming a dimer in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides “sandwiched” at the dimer interface. Each of the two nucleotide-binding sites is formed by residues from the two NBDs. We recently found that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii dimerizes in response to ATP binding and dissociates completely following ATP hydrolysis. However, it is still unknown whether dissociation of NBD dimers follows ATP hydrolysis at one or both nucleotide-binding sites. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer to study heterodimers formed by one active (donor-labeled) and one catalytically defective (acceptor-labeled) NBD. Rapid mixing experiments in a stop-flow chamber showed that NBD heterodimers with one functional and one inactive site dissociated at a rate indistinguishable from that of dimers with two hydrolysis-competent sites. Comparison of the rates of NBD dimer dissociation and ATP hydrolysis indicated that dissociation followed hydrolysis of one ATP. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dimer dissociation. PMID:24129575

Zoghbi, Maria E.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

2013-01-01

75

Drug resistance is conferred on the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of full-length melanoma-associated human ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB5.  

PubMed

ABCB5, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is highly expressed in melanoma cells, and may contribute to the extreme resistance of melanomas to chemotherapy by efflux of anti-cancer drugs. Our goal was to determine whether we could functionally express human ABCB5 in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to demonstrate an efflux function for ABCB5 in the absence of background pump activity from other human transporters. Heterologous expression would also facilitate drug discovery for this important target. DNAs encoding ABCB5 sequences were cloned into the chromosomal PDR5 locus of a S. cerevisiae strain in which seven endogenous ABC transporters have been deleted. Protein expression in the yeast cells was monitored by immunodetection using both a specific anti-ABCB5 antibody and a cross-reactive anti-ABCB1 antibody. ABCB5 function in recombinant yeast cells was measured by determining whether the cells possessed increased resistance to known pump substrates, compared to the host yeast strain, in assays of yeast growth. Three ABCB5 constructs were made in yeast. One was derived from the ABCB5-? mRNA, which is highly expressed in human tissues but is a truncation of a canonical full-size ABC transporter. Two constructs contained full-length ABCB5 sequences: either a native sequence from cDNA or a synthetic sequence codon-harmonized for S. cerevisiae. Expression of all three constructs in yeast was confirmed by immunodetection. Expression of the codon-harmonized full-length ABCB5 DNA conferred increased resistance, relative to the host yeast strain, to the putative substrates rhodamine 123, daunorubicin, tetramethylrhodamine, FK506, or clorgyline. We conclude that full-length ABCB5 can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae and confers drug resistance. PMID:25115303

Keniya, Mikhail V; Holmes, Ann R; Niimi, Masakazu; Lamping, Erwin; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Gottesman, Michael M; Cannon, Richard D

2014-10-01

76

Genetic Separation of FK506 Susceptibility and Drug Transport in the Yeast Pdr5 ATP-binding Cassette Multidrug Resistance Transporter  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the yeast Pdr5 ATP-binding cassette transporter leads to pleiotropic drug resistance to a variety of structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds. To identify Pdr5 residues involved in substrate recognition and/or drug transport, we used a combination of random in vitro mutagenesis and phenotypic screening to isolate novel mutant Pdr5 transporters with altered substrate specificity. A plasmid library containing randomly mutagenized PDR5 genes was transformed into appropriate drug-sensitive yeast cells followed by phenotypic selection of Pdr5 mutants. Selected mutant Pdr5 transporters were analyzed with respect to their expression levels, subcellular localization, drug resistance profiles to cycloheximide, rhodamines, antifungal azoles, steroids, and sensitivity to the inhibitor FK506. DNA sequencing of six PDR5 mutant genes identified amino acids important for substrate recognition, drug transport, and specific inhibition of the Pdr5 transporter. Mutations were found in each nucleotide-binding domain, the transmembrane domain 10, and, most surprisingly, even in predicted extracellular hydrophilic loops. At least some point mutations identified appear to influence folding of Pdr5, suggesting that the folded structure is a major substrate specificity determinant. Surprisingly, a S1360F exchange in transmembrane domain 10 not only caused limited substrate specificity, but also abolished Pdr5 susceptibility to inhibition by the immunosuppressant FK506. This is the first report of a mutation in a yeast ATP-binding cassette transporter that allows for the functional separation of substrate transport and inhibitor susceptibility. PMID:9450972

Egner, Ralf; Rosenthal, Friederike E.; Kralli, Anastasia; Sanglard, Dominique; Kuchler, Karl

1998-01-01

77

Isolation and characterization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter system genes from loofah witches' broom phytoplasma.  

PubMed

A clone containing a 3903 bp EcoRI-restriction fragment was obtained from a lambda(ZAP) genomic library of loofah witches' broom (LfWB) phytoplasma by plaque hybridization using a PCR fragment as a probe. Sequence analysis revealed that this fragment contained three open reading frames (ORFs). The deduced amino acid sequences of ORF 1 and ORF 2 showed a high homology with the ATP-binding proteins of the ABC transporter system genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and encoded proteins with a molecular mass of 36 and 30 kDa, respectively. Based on amino acid sequence similarity, secondary structure, hydrophilicity and a signal peptide sequence at the N-terminus, we predicted that ORF 3 might encode a specific solute-binding prolipoprotein of the ABC transporter system with a molecular mass of 62 kDa. The cleavage site of this prolipoprotein signal peptide was similar to those of gram-positive bacteria. In addition to nutrient uptake, ABC transporter systems of bacteria also play a role in signal transduction, drug-resistance and perhaps virulence. The possible implications of the system to the survival and the pathogenesis of phytoplasma were discussed. PMID:17654010

Huang, Chun-Lin; Ho, Kuo-Chieh

2007-10-01

78

Block of ATP-binding cassette B19 ion channel activity by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid impairs polar auxin transport and root gravitropism.  

PubMed

Polar transport of the hormone auxin through tissues and organs depends on membrane proteins, including some B-subgroup members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The messenger RNA level of at least one B-subgroup ABCB gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ABCB19, increases upon treatment with the anion channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), possibly to compensate for an inhibitory effect of the drug on ABCB19 activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, NPPB blocked ion channel activity associated with ABCB19 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells as measured by patch-clamp electrophysiology. NPPB inhibited polar auxin transport through Arabidopsis seedling roots similarly to abcb19 mutations. NPPB also inhibited shootward auxin transport, which depends on the related ABCB4 protein. NPPB substantially decreased ABCB4 and ABCB19 protein levels when cycloheximide concomitantly inhibited new protein synthesis, indicating that blockage by NPPB enhances the degradation of ABCB transporters. Impairing the principal auxin transport streams in roots with NPPB caused aberrant patterns of auxin signaling reporters in root apices. Formation of the auxin-signaling gradient across the tips of gravity-stimulated roots, and its developmental consequence (gravitropism), were inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NPPB that did not affect growth rate. These results identify ion channel activity of ABCB19 that is blocked by NPPB, a compound that can now be considered an inhibitor of polar auxin transport with a defined molecular target. PMID:25324509

Cho, Misuk; Henry, Elizabeth M; Lewis, Daniel R; Wu, Guosheng; Muday, Gloria K; Spalding, Edgar P

2014-12-01

79

Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

2015-01-01

80

Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936

Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

2015-01-01

81

Vacuolar Transport of Abscisic Acid Glucosyl Ester Is Mediated by ATP-Binding Cassette and Proton-Antiport Mechanisms in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant hormone involved in diverse physiological and developmental processes, including abiotic stress responses and the regulation of stomatal aperture and seed germination. Abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) is a hydrolyzable ABA conjugate that accumulates in the vacuole and presumably also in the endoplasmic reticulum. Deconjugation of ABA-GE by the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar ?-glucosidases allows the rapid formation of free ABA in response to abiotic stress conditions such as dehydration and salt stress. ABA-GE further contributes to the maintenance of ABA homeostasis, as it is the major ABA catabolite exported from the cytosol. In this work, we identified that the import of ABA-GE into vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll cells is mediated by two distinct membrane transport mechanisms: proton gradient-driven and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Both systems have similar Km values of approximately 1 mm. According to our estimations, this low affinity appears nevertheless to be sufficient for the continuous vacuolar sequestration of ABA-GE produced in the cytosol. We further demonstrate that two tested multispecific vacuolar ABCC-type ABC transporters from Arabidopsis exhibit ABA-GE transport activity when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which also supports the involvement of ABC transporters in ABA-GE uptake. Our findings suggest that the vacuolar ABA-GE uptake is not mediated by specific, but rather by several, possibly multispecific, transporters that are involved in the general vacuolar sequestration of conjugated metabolites. PMID:24028845

Burla, Bo; Pfrunder, Stefanie; Nagy, Réka; Francisco, Rita Maria; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

2013-01-01

82

The homodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporter LmrA mediates multidrug transport by an alternating two-site (two-cylinder engine) mechanism  

PubMed Central

The bacterial LmrA protein and the mammalian multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein are closely related ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that confer multidrug resistance on cells by mediating the extrusion of drugs at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The mechanisms by which transport is mediated, and by which ATP hydrolysis is coupled to drug transport, are not known. Based on equilibrium binding experiments, photoaffinity labeling and drug transport assays, we conclude that homodimeric LmrA mediates drug transport by an alternating two-site transport (two-cylinder engine) mechanism. The transporter possesses two drug-binding sites: a transport-competent site on the inner membrane surface and a drug-release site on the outer membrane surface. The interconversion of these two sites, driven by the hydrolysis of ATP, occurs via a catalytic transition state intermediate in which the drug transport site is occluded. The mechanism proposed for LmrA may also be relevant for P-glycoprotein and other ABC transporters. PMID:10835349

van Veen, Hendrik W.; Margolles, Abelardo; Müller, Michael; Higgins, Christopher F.; Konings, Wil N.

2000-01-01

83

An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice  

PubMed Central

Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named “eibi1.c,” along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants. PMID:21737747

Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-01-01

84

An ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Is Required for Cuticular Wax Deposition and Desiccation Tolerance in the Moss Physcomitrella patens[W  

PubMed Central

The plant cuticle is thought to be a critical evolutionary adaptation that allowed the first plants to colonize land, because of its key roles in regulating plant water status and providing protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Much has been learned about cuticle composition and structure through genetic and biochemical studies of angiosperms, as well as underlying genetic pathways, but little is known about the cuticles of early diverging plant lineages. Here, we demonstrate that the moss Physcomitrella patens, an extant relative of the earliest terrestrial plants, has a cuticle that is analogous in both structure and chemical composition to those of angiosperms. To test whether the underlying cuticle biosynthetic pathways were also shared among distant plant lineages, we generated a genetic knockout of the moss ATP binding cassette subfamily G (ABCG) transporter Pp-ABCG7, a putative ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana ABCG transporters involved in cuticle precursor trafficking. We show that this mutant is severely deficient in cuticular wax accumulation and has a reduced tolerance of desiccation stress compared with the wild type. This work provides evidence that the cuticle was an adaptive feature present in the first terrestrial plants and that the genes involved in their formation have been functionally conserved for over 450 million years. PMID:24163310

Buda, Gregory J.; Barnes, William J.; Fich, Eric A.; Park, Sungjin; Yeats, Trevor H.; Zhao, Lingxia; Domozych, David S.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

2013-01-01

85

Structural and functional characterization of an orphan ATP-binding cassette ATPase involved in manganese utilization and tolerance in Leptospira spp.  

PubMed

Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn(2+), we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn(2+), suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn(2+) toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase. PMID:24123817

Benaroudj, Nadia; Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Hélène; Haouz, Ahmed; Picardeau, Mathieu

2013-12-01

86

Involvement of a soybean ATP-binding cassette-type transporter in the secretion of genistein, a signal flavonoid in legume-Rhizobium symbiosis.  

PubMed

Legume plants have an ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into nutrients via symbiosis with soil microbes. As the initial event of the symbiosis, legume plants secrete flavonoids into the rhizosphere to attract rhizobia. Secretion of flavonoids is indispensable for the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, but almost nothing is known about the membrane transport mechanism of flavonoid secretion from legume root cells. In this study, we performed biochemical analyses to characterize the transport mechanism of flavonoid secretion using soybean (Glycine max) in which genistein is a signal flavonoid. Plasma membrane vesicles prepared from soybean roots showed clear transport activity of genistein in an ATP-dependent manner. This transport activity was inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a typical inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, but was hardly affected by various ionophores, such as gramicidin D, nigericin, or valinomycin, suggesting involvement of an ABC transporter in the secretion of flavonoids from soybean roots. The K(m) and V(max) values of this transport were calculated to be 158 mum and 322 pmol mg protein(-1) min(-1), respectively. Competition experiments using various flavonoids of both aglycone and glucoside varieties suggested that this ABC-type transporter recognizes genistein and daidzein, another signaling compound in soybean root exudates, as well as other isoflavonoid aglycones as its substrates. Transport activity was constitutive regardless of the availability of nitrogen nutrition. This is, to our knowledge, the first biochemical characterization of the membrane transport of flavonoid secretion from roots. PMID:17556512

Sugiyama, Akifumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2007-08-01

87

Peroxisomal ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter COMATOSE and the Multifunctional Protein ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM Are Required for the Production of Benzoylated Metabolites in Arabidopsis Seeds1[W  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites derived from benzoic acid (BA) are of central importance in the interactions of plants with pests, pathogens, and symbionts and are potentially important in plant development. Peroxisomal ?-oxidation has recently been shown to contribute to BA biosynthesis in plants, but not all of the enzymes involved have been defined. In this report, we demonstrate that the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter COMATOSE is required for the accumulation of benzoylated secondary metabolites in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds, including benzoylated glucosinolates and substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. The ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM protein, one of two multifunctional proteins encoded by Arabidopsis, is essential for the accumulation of these compounds, and MULTIFUNCTIONAL PROTEIN2 contributes to the synthesis of substituted hydroxybenzoylcholines. Of the two major 3-ketoacyl coenzyme A thiolases, KAT2 plays the primary role in BA synthesis. Thus, BA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis employs the same core set of ?-oxidation enzymes as in the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid from indole-3-butyric acid. PMID:24254312

Bussell, John D.; Reichelt, Michael; Wiszniewski, Andrew A.G.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Smith, Steven M.

2014-01-01

88

TGD1, -2, and -3 Proteins Involved in Lipid Trafficking Form ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter with Multiple Substrate-binding Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are essential proteins in species as diverse as archaea and humans. Their domain architecture has remained relatively fixed across these species, with rare exceptions. Here, we show one exception to be the TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL 1, 2, and 3 (TGD1, -2, and -3) putative lipid transporter located at the chloroplast inner envelope membrane. TGD2 was previously shown to be in a complex of >500 kDa. We demonstrate that this complex also contains TGD1 and -3 and is very stable because it cannot be broken down by gentle denaturants to form a “core” complex similar in size to standard ABC transporters. The complex was purified from Pisum sativum (pea) chloroplast envelopes by native gel electrophoresis and examined by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins besides TGD1, -2, or -3 included a potassium efflux antiporter and a TIM17/22/23 family protein, but these were shown to be in separate high molecular mass complexes. Quantification of the complex components explained the size of the complex because 8–12 copies of the substrate-binding protein (TGD2) were found per functional transporter. PMID:22544736

Roston, Rebecca L.; Gao, Jinpeng; Murcha, Monika W.; Whelan, James; Benning, Christoph

2012-01-01

89

Identification of a novel ATP-binding cassette transporter involved in long-chain fatty acid import and its role in triacylglycerol accumulation in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Rhodococcus are specialists in the biosynthesis and accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs). As no transport protein related to TAG metabolism has yet been characterized in these bacteria, we used the available genomic information of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 to perform a broad survey of genes coding for putative lipid transporter proteins in this oleaginous micro-organism. Among the seven genes encoding putative lipid transporters, ro05645 (now called ltp1: lipid transporter protein) coding for an ATP-binding cassette protein was found clustered with others genes encoding enzymes catalysing the three putative acylation reactions of the Kennedy pathway for TAG synthesis. Overexpression of ltp1 in the RHA1 strain led to an increase of approximately sixfold and threefold in biomass and TAG production, respectively, when cells were cultivated on palmitic acid and oleic acid. Moreover, overexpression of ltp1 also promoted a significant increase in the uptake of a fluorescently labelled long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), as compared with the WT strain RHA1, and its further incorporation into the TAG fraction. Gluconate-grown cells showed increasing amounts of intracellular free fatty acids, but not of TAG, after overexpressing ltp1. Thus, for the first time to our knowledge, a transporter functionally related to TAG metabolism was identified in oleaginous rhodococci. Our results suggested that Ltp1 is an importer of LCFAs that plays a functional role in lipid homeostasis of R. jostii RHA1. PMID:24739215

Villalba, María S; Alvarez, Héctor M

2014-07-01

90

Control of Mycosphaerella graminicola on Wheat Seedlings by Medical Drugs Known To Modulate the Activity of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters?  

PubMed Central

Medical drugs known to modulate the activity of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (modulators) were tested for the ability to potentiate the activity of the azole fungicide cyproconazole against in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella graminicola and to control disease development due to this pathogen on wheat seedlings. In vitro modulation of cyproconazole activity could be demonstrated in paper disk bioassays. Some of the active modulators (amitriptyline, flavanone, and phenothiazines) increased the accumulation of cyproconazole in M. graminicola, suggesting that they reversed cyproconazole efflux. However, synergism between cyproconazole and modulators against M. graminicola on wheat seedlings could not be shown. Despite their low in vitro toxicity to M. graminicola, some modulators (amitriptyline, loperamide, and promazine) did show significant intrinsic disease control activity in preventive and curative foliar spray tests with wheat seedlings. The results suggest that these compounds have indirect disease control activity based on modulation of fungal ABC transporters essential for virulence and constitute a new class of disease control agents. PMID:17545327

Roohparvar, Ramin; Huser, Aurelie; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; De Waard, Maarten A.

2007-01-01

91

Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome. PMID:12524452

Shitan, Nobukazu; Bazin, Ingrid; Dan, Kazuyuki; Obata, Kazuaki; Kigawa, Koji; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Fumihiko; Forestier, Cyrille; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2003-01-01

92

Protective effect of Astragalus polysaccharides on ATP binding cassette transporter A1 in THP-1 derived foam cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha.  

PubMed

Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the main extract from the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported to benefit the treatment of immune-inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders. In atherosclerotic plaques, proinflammatory cytokines exert adverse effects on lipids thereby aggravating atherosclerosis. Recent evidence shows that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can down-regulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), which plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and determines the process of atherosclerosis. In the present study, the effects of APS on ABCA1 expression, cholesterol effluent rate and total cholesterol content of THP-1 derived foam cells exposed to TNF-alpha were investigated. Compared with the foam cells exposed to TNF-alpha, ABCA1 expression was promoted in the presence of APS. Consequently the cholesterol effluent rate increased and the total cholesterol content decreased significantly. TNF-alpha could enhance the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) in the foam cells. This effect could be attenuated by APS. These findings suggest that APS could protect ABCA1 against the lesion of TNF-alpha in THP-1 derived foam cells, which may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic properties. PMID:19653192

Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Cheng, Bei; Mei, Chun-Li; Li, Qing-Xian; Xiao, Hua; Zeng, Qiu-Tang; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

2010-03-01

93

Altered Profile of Secondary Metabolites in the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Mutants1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Following recent indirect evidence suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, we identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Of these 25 genes, we also selected six full-length ABC transporters and a half-size transporter for in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses. We compared the exuded root phytochemical profiles of these seven ABC transporter mutants to those of the wild type. There were three nonpolar phytochemicals missing in various ABC transporter mutants compared to the wild type when the samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data suggest that more than one ABC transporter can be involved in the secretion of a given phytochemical and that a transporter can be involved in the secretion of more than one secondary metabolite. The primary and secondary metabolites present in the root exudates of the mutants were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed for the identification of groups of compounds differentially found in some of the mutants compared to the wild type. For instance, the mutant Atpdr6 secreted a lower level of organic acids and Atmrp2 secreted a higher level of amino acids as compared to the wild type. We conclude that the release of phytochemicals by roots is partially controlled by ABC transporters. PMID:18065561

Badri, Dayakar V.; Loyola-Vargas, Victor M.; Broeckling, Corey D.; De-la-Peña, Clelia; Jasinski, Michal; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Banta, Lois M.; Stermitz, Frank; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2008-01-01

94

The Role of Arabidopsis ABCG9 and ABCG31 ATP Binding Cassette Transporters in Pollen Fitness and the Deposition of Steryl Glycosides on the Pollen Coat[W  

PubMed Central

The pollen coat protects pollen grains from harmful environmental stresses such as drought and cold. Many compounds in the pollen coat are synthesized in the tapetum. However, the pathway by which they are transferred to the pollen surface remains obscure. We found that two Arabidopsis thaliana ATP binding cassette transporters, ABCG9 and ABCG31, were highly expressed in the tapetum and are involved in pollen coat deposition. Upon exposure to dry air, many abcg9 abcg31 pollen grains shriveled up and collapsed, and this phenotype was restored by complementation with ABCG9pro:GFP:ABCG9. GFP-tagged ABCG9 or ABCG31 localized to the plasma membrane. Electron microscopy revealed that the mutant pollen coat resembled the immature coat of the wild type, which contained many electron-lucent structures. Steryl glycosides were reduced to about half of wild-type levels in the abcg9 abcg31 pollen, but no differences in free sterols or steryl esters were observed. A mutant deficient in steryl glycoside biosynthesis, ugt80A2 ugt80B1, exhibited a similar phenotype. Together, these results indicate that steryl glycosides are critical for pollen fitness, by supporting pollen coat maturation, and that ABCG9 and ABCG31 contribute to the accumulation of this sterol on the surface of pollen. PMID:24474628

Choi, Hyunju; Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yu-Young; Jin, Jun-Young; Lee, Saet Buyl; Yamaoka, Yasuyo; Muranaka, Toshiya; Suh, Mi Chung; Fujioka, Shozo; Lee, Youngsook

2014-01-01

95

Crystal Structures and Mutational Analysis of the Arginine, Lysine, Histidine-binding Protein ArtJ from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Implications for Interactions of ArtJ with its Cognate ATP-binding Cassette Transporter, Art(MP) 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

ArtJ is the substrate-binding component (receptor) of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system ArtJ-(MP)2 from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus that is specific for arginine, lysine, and histidine. The highest affinity is found for arginine (Kd=0.039(±0.014) ?M), while the affinities for lysine and histidine are about tenfold lower. We have determined the X-ray structures of ArtJ liganded with each of

Ardeschir Vahedi-Faridi; Viola Eckey; Frank Scheffel; Claudia Alings; Heidi Landmesser; Erwin Schneider; Wolfram Saenger

2008-01-01

96

Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in rodent and human sertoli cells: relevance to the permeability of antiretroviral therapy at the blood-testis barrier.  

PubMed

The blood-testis barrier (BTB), composed primarily of Sertoli cells, is responsible for protecting developing germ cells from xenobiotic exposure. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrps), have been shown to restrict antiretroviral drug permeability at blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. However, it remains unclear whether these transporters are functional at the level of Sertoli cells and can regulate anti-HIV drug permeability at the BTB. This study investigated the functional expression of ABC transporters in a mouse Sertoli cell line system (TM4) and in primary cultures of human Sertoli cells (HSECs). Expression of multidrug resistance Mdr1a/1b/MDR1/P-gp, Mrp1/MRP1, and Mrp4/MRP4 is confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analysis in TM4 cells and HSECs. Immunofluorescence studies revealed plasma membrane localization of P-gp, Mrp1/MRP1, and Mrp4/MRP4 in both cell systems. However, Bcrp expression and localization was only detected in rodent cells. Accumulation of 1) rhodamine-6G (R-6G), a fluorescent P-gp substrate, 2) [³H]atazanavir, a HIV protease inhibitor and known P-gp substrate, 3) 2'7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), a fluorescent Mrp substrate, and 4) [³H]mitoxantrone, a BCRP substrate, by TM4 monolayer cells in the presence of established inhibitors demonstrates that these transporters are functional. In addition, several anti-HIV drugs significantly enhance the accumulation of R-6G, [³H]atazanavir, BCECF, and [³H]mitoxantrone by TM4 cells. This study provides the first evidence of ABC transporter expression and activity in Sertoli cells and suggests that these transporters could play an important role in restricting antiretroviral drug permeability at the BTB. PMID:21990609

Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

2012-01-01

97

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Interact with ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 4/Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A Basis for Unanticipated Enhanced Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV–associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:23775562

Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2013-01-01

98

Regulation of ATP-binding Cassette Transporters and Cholesterol Efflux by Glucose in Primary Human Monocytes and Murine Bone Marrow-derived Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Purpose Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis. This may be partially attributable to suppression of macrophage ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated cholesterol efflux by sustained elevated blood glucose concentrations. 2 models were used to assess this potential relationship: human monocytes/leukocytes and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Methods 10 subjects (4 F/6 M, 50–85 years, BMI 25–35 kg/m2) underwent an oral glucose challenge. Baseline and 1- and 2-h post-challenge ABC-transporter mRNA expression was determined in monocytes, leukocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In a separate study, murine-BMDM were exposed to 5 mmol/L D-glucose (control) or additional 20 mmol/L D-or L-glucose and 25 ug/mL oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). High density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux and ABC-transporter (ABCA1 and ABCG1) expression were determined. Results Baseline ABCA1and ABCG1 expression was lower (> 50 %) in human monocytes and PBMC than leukocytes (p < 0.05). 1 h post-challenge leukocyte ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression increased by 37 % and 30 %, respectively (p < 0.05), and began to return to baseline thereafter. There was no significant change in monocyte ABC-transporter expression. In murine BMDM, higher glucose concentrations suppressed HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux (10 %; p < 0.01) without significantly affecting ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Data demonstrate that leukocytes are not a reliable indicator of monocyte ABC-transporter expression. Conclusions Human monocyte ABC-transporter gene expression was unresponsive to a glucose challenge. Correspondingly, in BMDM, hyperglycemia attenuated macrophage cholesterol efflux in the absence of altered ABC-transporter expression, suggesting that hyperglycemia, per se, suppresses cholesterol transporter activity. This glucose-related impairment in cholesterol efflux may potentially contribute to diabetes-associated atherosclerosis. PMID:24838154

Spartano, N. L.; Lamon-Fava, S.; Matthan, N. R.; Ronxhi, J.; Greenberg, A. S.; Obin, M. S.; Lichtenstein, A. H.

2014-01-01

99

Fasting Induces Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2 and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters via Protein Kinase A and Sirtuin-1 in Mouse and Human  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine whether 3?-5?-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) dependent mechanisms modulate ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) transport protein expression. ABC transport proteins (ABCC2–4) are essential for chemical elimination from hepatocytes and biliary excretion. Nuclear factor-E2 related-factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that mediates ABCC induction in response to chemical inducers and liver injury. However, a role for NRF2 in the regulation of transporter expression in nonchemical models of liver perturbation is largely undescribed. Results: Here we show that fasting increased NRF2 target gene expression through NRF2- and SIRT1–dependent mechanisms. In intact mouse liver, fasting induces NRF2 target gene expression by at least 1.5 to 5-fold. In mouse and human hepatocytes, treatment with 8-Bromoadenosine-cAMP, a cAMP analogue, increased NRF2 target gene expression and antioxidant response element activity, which was decreased by the PKA inhibitor, H-89. Moreover, fasting induced NRF2 target gene expression was decreased in liver and hepatocytes of SIRT1 liver-specific null mice and NRF2-null mice. Lastly, NRF2 and SIRT1 were recruited to MAREs and Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs) in the human ABCC2 promoter. Innovation: Oxidative stress mediated NRF2 activation is well described, yet the influence of basic metabolic processes on NRF2 activation is just emerging. Conclusion: The current data point toward a novel role of nutrient status in regulation of NRF2 activity and the antioxidant response, and indicates that cAMP/PKA and SIRT1 are upstream regulators for fasting-induced activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 15–30. PMID:23725046

Kulkarni, Supriya R.; Donepudi, Ajay C.; Xu, Jialin; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Qiuqiong C.; Driscoll, Maureen V.; Johnson, Delinda A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Li, Xiaoling

2014-01-01

100

A Mutation within the Extended X Loop Abolished Substrate-induced ATPase Activity of the Human Liver ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter MDR3.  

PubMed

The human multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3/ABCB4) belongs to the ubiquitous family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and is located in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. There it flops the phospholipids of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) family from the inner to the outer leaflet. Here, we report the characterization of wild type MDR3 and the Q1174E mutant, which was identified previously in a patient with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC-3). We expressed different variants of MDR3 in the yeast Pichia pastoris, purified the proteins via tandem affinity chromatography, and determined MDR3-specific ATPase activity in the presence or absence of phospholipids. The ATPase activity of wild type MDR3 was stimulated 2-fold by liver PC or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. Furthermore, the cross-linking of MDR3 with a thiol-reactive fluorophore blocked ATP hydrolysis and exhibited no PC stimulation. Similarly, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin lipids did not induce an increase of wild type MDR3 ATPase activity. The phosphate analogues beryllium fluoride and aluminum fluoride led to complete inhibition of ATPase activity, whereas orthovanadate inhibited exclusively the PC-stimulated ATPase activity of MDR3. The Q1174E mutation is located in the nucleotide-binding domain in direct proximity of the leucine of the ABC signature motif and extended the X loop, which is found in ABC exporters. Our data on the Q1174E mutant demonstrated basal ATPase activity, but PC lipids were incapable of stimulating ATPase activity highlighting the role of the extended X loop in the cross-talk of the nucleotide-binding domain and the transmembrane domain. PMID:25533467

Kluth, Marianne; Stindt, Jan; Dröge, Carola; Linnemann, Doris; Kubitz, Ralf; Schmitt, Lutz

2015-02-20

101

Nrf2 upregulates ATP binding cassette transporter expression and activity at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.  

PubMed

Activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a sensor of oxidative stress, is neuroprotective in animal models of cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and spinal cord injury. We show here that Nrf2 activation with sulforaphane (SFN) in vivo or in vitro increases expression and transport activity of three ATP-driven drug efflux pumps at the blood-brain barrier [P-glycoprotein, ATP binding cassette b1 (Abcb1); multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2), Abcc2; and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), Abcg2]. Dosing rats with SFN increased protein expression of all three transporters in brain capillaries and decreased by 50% brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil. Exposing rat or mouse brain capillaries to SFN increased P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 transport activity and protein expression; SFN increased P-glycoprotein activity in mouse spinal cord capillaries. Inhibiting transcription or translation abolished upregulation of P-glycoprotein activity. No such effects were seen in brain capillaries from Nrf2-null mice, indicating Nrf2 dependence. Nrf2 signaled indirectly to increase transporter activity/expression. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin abolished the SFN-induced increase in transporter activity/expression, and the p53-activator nutlin-3 increased P-glycoprotein activity. SFN did not alter P-glycoprotein transport activity in brain and spinal cord capillaries from p53-null mice. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) blocked the effects of SFN and nutlin-3 on P-glycoprotein activity. These results implicate Nrf2, p53, and NF-?B in the upregulation of P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 at blood-CNS barriers. They imply that the barriers are tightened selectively (efflux transporter upregulation) by oxidative stress, providing increased neuroprotection, but also reduced penetration of many therapeutic drugs. PMID:24948812

Wang, Xueqian; Campos, Christopher R; Peart, John C; Smith, Lindsay K; Boni, Jessica L; Cannon, Ronald E; Miller, David S

2014-06-18

102

Nrf2 Upregulates ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Expression and Activity at the Blood–Brain and Blood–Spinal Cord Barriers  

PubMed Central

Activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a sensor of oxidative stress, is neuroprotective in animal models of cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and spinal cord injury. We show here that Nrf2 activation with sulforaphane (SFN) in vivo or in vitro increases expression and transport activity of three ATP-driven drug efflux pumps at the blood–brain barrier [P-glycoprotein, ATP binding cassette b1 (Abcb1); multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2), Abcc2; and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), Abcg2]. Dosing rats with SFN increased protein expression of all three transporters in brain capillaries and decreased by 50% brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil. Exposing rat or mouse brain capillaries to SFN increased P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 transport activity and protein expression; SFN increased P-glycoprotein activity in mouse spinal cord capillaries. Inhibiting transcription or translation abolished upregulation of P-glycoprotein activity. No such effects were seen in brain capillaries from Nrf2-null mice, indicating Nrf2 dependence. Nrf2 signaled indirectly to increase transporter activity/expression. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin abolished the SFN-induced increase in transporter activity/expression, and the p53-activator nutlin-3 increased P-glycoprotein activity. SFN did not alter P-glycoprotein transport activity in brain and spinal cord capillaries from p53-null mice. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) blocked the effects of SFN and nutlin-3 on P-glycoprotein activity. These results implicate Nrf2, p53, and NF-?B in the upregulation of P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 at blood–CNS barriers. They imply that the barriers are tightened selectively (efflux transporter upregulation) by oxidative stress, providing increased neuroprotection, but also reduced penetration of many therapeutic drugs. PMID:24948812

Wang, Xueqian; Campos, Christopher R.; Peart, John C.; Smith, Lindsay K.; Boni, Jessica L.; Cannon, Ronald E.

2014-01-01

103

A subset of bone marrow stromal cells regulate ATP-binding cassette gene expression via insulin-like growth factor-I in a leukemia cell line  

PubMed Central

The importance of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF, as a signaling axis in cancer development, progression and metastasis is highlighted by its effects on cancer cells, notably proliferation and acquired resistance. The role of the microenvironment within which cancer cells evolve and which mediates this effect is far from clear. Here, the involvement of IGF-I in inducing multidrug resistance in a myeloid leukemia cell line, grown in the presence of bone marrow-derived stromal cells called ‘Hospicells’ (BMH), is demonstrated. We found that i) drug sensitive as well as resistant leukemia cells express IGF-I and its receptor IGF-IR. However, the resistant cells were found to secrete high levels of IGF-I. ii) Presence of exogenous IGF-I promoted cell proliferation, which decreased when an inhibitor of IGF-IR (picropodophyllin, PPP) was added. iii) BMH and IGF-I are both involved in the regulation of genes of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) related to resistance development (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP). iv) The levels of ABC gene expression by leukemia cells were found to increase in the presence of increasing numbers of BMH. However, these levels decreased when IGF-IR was inhibited by addition of PPP. v) Co-culture of the drug-sensitive leukemia cells with BMH induced protection against the action of daunorubicin. This chemoresistance was amplified by the presence of IGF-I whereas it decreased when IGF-IR was inhibited. Our results underline the role of microenvironment in concert with the IGF-1 pathway in conferring drug resistance to leukemia cells. PMID:25095896

BENABOU, NADIA; MIRSHAHI, PEZHMAN; BORDU, CAMILE; FAUSSAT, ANNE-MARIE; TANG, RUOPING; THERWATH, AMU; SORIA, JEANETE; MARIE, JEAN-PIERE; MIRSHAHI, MASSOUD

2014-01-01

104

Effects of silencing the ATP-binding cassette protein E1 gene by electroporation on the proliferation and migration of EC109 human esophageal cancer cells.  

PubMed

In the present study, the gene expression of ATP?binding cassette protein E1 (ABCE1) in the EC109 human esophageal cancer cell line was silenced using electroporation to examine the effect if the ABCE1 gene on the growth migration and cell cycle of cancer cells. The small interference (si)RNA sequence of ABCE1 was designed and synthesized to transfect the EC109 cells by electroporation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCE1 were then detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) and western blot analysis. The analysis of the cell cycle and apoptosis was performed using flow cytometry. The effect of silencing the ABCE1 gene on the proliferation, migration and invasive ability of the EC109 human esophageal cancer cells were assessed using a Cell counting kit?8 (CCK?8) and with proliferation, wound?healing and cell invasion assays. The mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCE1 were significantly lower in the experimental group compared with the control group (P<0.05). The apoptotic rate of the experimental group was markedly higher than the control group and blank group (P<0.01). The CCK?8 proliferation assay revealed that, compared with the control and blank groups, the proliferation of the EC109 cells in the experimental group was significantly inhibited (P<0.05). The wound healing assay revealed that the migration capacity of the cells in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The Transwell chamber assay demonstrated that the invasive ability of the EC109 cells in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.01). These results revealed that ABCE1 is closely associated with cell proliferation, invasion and migration in esophageal cancer and silencing the ABCE1 gene by electroporation can significantly reduce the proliferation, invasion and migration capacity of EC109 cells in vitro. PMID:25815591

Li, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Liu-Zhong; Huo, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Ying; Yang, Qing-Hui; Zhang, Qing-Qin

2015-07-01

105

Residues of a proposed gate region in type I ATP-binding cassette import systems are crucial for function as revealed by mutational analysis.  

PubMed

The type I ATP-binding cassette (ABC) importer for positively charged amino acids of the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus consists of the extracellular solute binding protein, ArtJ, and a homodimer each of the transmembrane subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding and -hydrolyzing subunit, ArtP. We have investigated the functional consequences of mutations affecting conserved residues from two peptide regions in ArtM, recently proposed to form a 'gate' by which access of a substrate to the translocation path is controlled (Hollenstein et al., 2007 [14]). Transporter variants were reconstituted into proteoliposomes and assayed for ArtJ/arginine-stimulated ATPase activity. Replacement of residues from region 1 (Arg-63, Pro-66) caused no or only moderate reduction in ATPase activity. In contrast, mutating residues from gate region 2 (Lys-159, Leu-163) resulted in a substantial increase in ATPase activity which, however, as demonstrated for variants ArtM(K159I) and ArtM(K159E), is not coupled to transport. Replacing homologous residues in the closely related histidine transporter of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (HisJ-QMP2) caused different phenotypes. Mutation to isoleucine of HisQ(K163) or HisM(H172), both homologous to ArtM(K159), abolished ATPase activity. The mutations most likely caused a structural change as revealed by limited proteolysis. In contrast, substantial, albeit reduced, enzymatic activity was observed with variants of HisQ(L167?G) or HisM(L176?G), both homologous to ArtM(L163). Our study provides the first experimental evidence in favor of a crucial role of residues from the proposed gate region in type I ABC importer function. PMID:23747295

Weidlich, Daniela; Wiesemann, Nicole; Heuveling, Johanna; Wardelmann, Kristina; Landmesser, Heidi; Sani, Katayoun Behnam; Worth, Catherine L; Preissner, Robert; Schneider, Erwin

2013-09-01

106

The novel BCR-ABL and FLT3 inhibitor ponatinib is a potent inhibitor of the multidrug resistance-associated ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2  

PubMed Central

Ponatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against BCR-ABL with mutations including T315I, and also against fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3). We tested interactions between ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 50 to 200 nM and the multidrug resistance-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Ponatinib enhanced uptake of substrates of ABCG2 and ABCB1, but not ABCC1, in cells overexpressing these proteins, with a greater effect on ABCG2 than on ABCB1. Ponatinib potently inhibited [125I]-IAAP binding to ABCG2 and ABCB1, indicating binding to their drug substrate sites, with IC50s of 0.04 ?M and 0.63 ?M, respectively. Ponatinib stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity at low concentrations, consistent with it being a substrate of both proteins at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The ponatinib IC50s of BCR-ABL-expressing K562 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCG2 were approximately the same as and 2-fold higher than that of K562, respectively, consistent with ponatinib being a substrate of both proteins, but inhibiting its own transport, and resistance was also attenuated to a small degree by ponatinib-induced downregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression on resistant K562 cells. Ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations produced synergistic cytotoxicity with ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs and enhanced apoptosis induced by these drugs, including daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, topotecan and flavopiridol, in cells overexpressing these transport proteins. Combinations of ponatinib and chemotherapy drugs warrant further testing. PMID:22778153

Sen, Rupashree; Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Fang, Hong-Bin; Cai, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Baer, Maria R.

2012-01-01

107

c-MYC oncoprotein dictates transcriptional profiles of ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in chronic myelogenous leukemia CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents remains one of the major impediments to a successful treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Misregulation of the activity of a specific group of ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) is responsible for reducing the intracellular concentration of drugs in leukemic cells. Moreover, a consistent body of evidence also suggests that ABC transporters play a role in cancer progression beyond the efflux of cytotoxic drugs. Despite a large number of studies that investigated the function of the ABC transporters, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the ABC genes. Here, we present data showing that the oncoprotein c-MYC is a direct transcriptional regulator of a large set of ABC transporters in CML. Furthermore, molecular analysis carried out in CD34+ hematopoietic cell precursors of 21 CML patients reveals that the overexpression of ABC transporters driven by c-MYC is a peculiar characteristic of the CD34+ population in CML and was not found either in the population of mononuclear cells from which they had been purified nor in CD34+ cells isolated from healthy donors. Finally, we describe how the methylation state of CpG islands may regulate the access of c-MYC to ABCG2 gene promoter, a well-studied gene associated with multidrug resistance in CML, hence, affecting its expression. Taken together, our findings support a model in which c-MYC-driven transcriptional events, combined with epigenetic mechanisms, direct and regulate the expression of ABC genes with possible implications in tumor malignancy and drug efflux in CML. PMID:21693596

Porro, Antonio; Iraci, Nunzio; Soverini, Simona; Diolaiti, Daniel; Gherardi, Samuele; Terragna, Carolina; Durante, Sandra; Valli, Emanuele; Kalebic, Thea; Bernardoni, Roberto; Perrod, Chiara; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Baccarani, Michele; Martinelli, Giovanni; Perini, Giovanni

2011-08-01

108

Functional and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide Co-polymerase Proteins Required for Polymer Export in ATP-binding Cassette Transporter-dependent Capsule Biosynthesis Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and Escherichia coli K1 bacteria produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is composed of ?2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA). Biosynthesis of PSA in these bacteria occurs via an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter-dependent pathway. In N. meningitidis, export of PSA to the surface of the bacterium requires two proteins that form an ABC transporter (CtrC and CtrD) and two additional proteins, CtrA and CtrB, that are proposed to form a cell envelope-spanning export complex. CtrA is a member of the outer membrane polysaccharide export (OPX) family of proteins, which are proposed to form a pore to mediate export of CPSs across the outer membrane. CtrB is an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide co-polymerase (PCP) family. PCP proteins involved in other bacterial polysaccharide assembly systems form structures that extend into the periplasm from the inner membrane. There is currently no structural information available for PCP or OPX proteins involved in an ABC transporter-dependent CPS biosynthesis pathway to support their proposed roles in polysaccharide export. Here, we report cryo-EM images of purified CtrB reconstituted into lipid bilayers. These images contained molecular top and side views of CtrB and showed that it formed a conical oligomer that extended ?125 Å from the membrane. This structure is consistent with CtrB functioning as a component of an envelope-spanning complex. Cross-complementation of CtrA and CtrB in E. coli mutants with defects in genes encoding the corresponding PCP and OPX proteins show that PCP-OPX pairs require interactions with their cognate partners to export polysaccharide. These experiments add further support for the model of an ABC transporter-PCP-OPX multiprotein complex that functions to export CPS across the cell envelope. PMID:21454677

Larue, Kane; Ford, Robert C.; Willis, Lisa M.; Whitfield, Chris

2011-01-01

109

Molecular phylogenetic study and expression analysis of ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family in Oryza sativa in response to salt stress.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter is a large gene superfamily that utilizes the energy released from ATP hydrolysis for transporting myriad of substrates across the biological membranes. Although many investigations have been done on the structural and functional analysis of the ABC transporters in Oryza sativa, much less is known about molecular phylogenetic and global expression pattern of the complete ABC family in rice. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis constructing neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood trees based on various statistical methods of different ABC protein subfamily of five plant lineages including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green algae), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Selaginella moellendorffii (lycophyte), Arabidopsis thaliana (dicot) and O. sativa (monocot) to explore the origin and evolutionary patterns of these ABC genes. We have identified several conserved motifs in nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of ABC proteins among all plant lineages during evolution. Amongst the different ABC protein subfamilies, 'ABCE' has not yet been identified in lower plant genomes (algae, moss and lycophytes). The result indicated that gene duplication and diversification process acted upon these genes as a major operative force creating new groups and subgroups and functional divergence during evolution. We have demonstrated that rice ABCI subfamily consists of only half size transporters that represented highly dynamic members showing maximum sequence variations among the other rice ABC subfamilies. The evolutionary and the expression analysis contribute to a deep insight into the evolution and diversity of rice ABC proteins and their roles in response to salt stress that facilitate our further understanding on rice ABC transporters. PMID:25531538

Saha, Jayita; Sengupta, Atreyee; Gupta, Kamala; Gupta, Bhaskar

2015-02-01

110

Time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nucleotide-binding Domain from the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter MsbA  

PubMed Central

MsbA is an essential Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter involved in the flipping of lipid A across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is a close homologue of human P-glycoprotein involved in multidrug resistance, and it similarly accepts a variety of small hydrophobic xenobiotics as transport substrates. X-ray structures of three full-length ABC multidrug exporters (including MsbA) have been published recently and reveal large conformational changes during the transport cycle. However, how ATP hydrolysis couples to these conformational changes and finally the transport is still an open question. We employed time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy, a powerful method to elucidate molecular reaction mechanisms of soluble and membrane proteins, to address this question with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we monitored the hydrolysis reaction in the nucleotide-binding domain of MsbA at the atomic level. The isolated MsbA nucleotide-binding domain hydrolyzed ATP with Vmax = 45 nmol mg?1 min?1, similar to the full-length transporter. A Hill coefficient of 1.49 demonstrates positive cooperativity between the two catalytic sites formed upon dimerization. Global fit analysis of time-resolved FTIR data revealed two apparent rate constants of ?1 and 0.01 s?1, which were assigned to formation of the catalytic site and hydrolysis, respectively. Using isotopically labeled ATP, we identified specific marker bands for protein-bound ATP (1245 cm?1), ADP (1101 and 1205 cm?1), and free phosphate (1078 cm?1). Cleavage of the ?-phosphate–?-phosphate bond was found to be the rate-limiting step; no protein-bound phosphate intermediate was resolved. PMID:22593573

Syberg, Falk; Suveyzdis, Yan; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus; Hofmann, Eckhard

2012-01-01

111

Sonic hedgehog signaling proteins and ATP-binding cassette G2 are aberrantly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway has been shown in several cancer types, but has not been explored in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We assessed 67 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma for expression of SHH (ligand), GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 (transcriptional effectors of SHH signaling), and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G2 (a downstream target of SHH signaling), using immunohistochemistry. For comparison, we assessed the expression levels of these proteins in 28 cases of follicular lymphoma, 5 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, and 5 reactive lymph nodes. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, SHH was expressed in 61 of 67 (91%) cases, GLI1 in 62 of 67 (93%), GLI2 in 41 of 56 (73%), and GLI3 in 22 of 56 (39%). Expression of ABCG2 was detected in 52 of 55 (95%) cases and was high in 15 (27%) cases. SHH expression positively correlated with expression levels of ABCG2 (P=0.05). Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with high ABCG2 expression showed significantly shorter overall survival (P=0.031) and failure-free survival (P=0.029) compared with patients with tumors with low or no expression of ABCG2. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas expressed SHH, and GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 more frequently and more intensely than cases of follicular lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. In conclusion, our data show that SHH signaling proteins and ABCG2 are aberrantly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and that ABCG2 expression has prognostic implications. These findings also provide evidence that dysregulation of the SHH pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:19593328

Kim, Ji Eun; Singh, Rajesh R; Cho-Vega, Jeong Hee; Drakos, Elias; Davuluri, Yogesh; Khokhar, Faisal A; Fayad, Luis; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Vega, Francisco

2009-10-01

112

Mycophenolic acid induces ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line, we found that MPA upregulated ABCA1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPA induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of MPA upregulating ABCA1 was due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I and plays an important role in atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we developed a high-throughput screening method using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line to find upregulators of ABCA1. Using this method in the present study, we found that mycophenolic acid (MPA) upregulated ABCA1 expression (EC50 = 0.09 {mu}M). MPA upregulation of ABCA1 expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells. Previous work has indicated that MPA is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}; EC50 = 5.2-9.3 {mu}M). Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) is a target gene of PPAR{gamma} and may directly regulate ABCA1 expression. Western blot analysis showed that MPA induced LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Addition of PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. These data suggest that MPA increased ABCA1 expression mainly through activation of PPAR{gamma}. Thus, the effects of MPA on upregulation of ABCA1 expression were due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 signaling pathway. This is the first report that the antiatherosclerosis activity of MPA is due to this mechanism.

Xu, Yanni; Lai, Fangfang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Yexiang; Liu, Qi; Li, Ni; Wei, Yuzhen; Feng, Tingting; Zheng, Zhihui; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Liyan; Hong, Bin [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)] [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China); Si, Shuyi, E-mail: sisyimb@hotmail.com [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)] [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)

2011-11-04

113

A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.  

PubMed

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. PMID:25666946

Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

2015-03-13

114

Evidence for a molecular diode-based mechanism in a multispecific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter: SER-1368 as a gatekeeping residue in the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette multidrug efflux pumps transport a wide range of substrates. Current models suggest that a drug binds relatively tightly to a transport site in the transmembrane domains when the protein is in the closed inward facing conformation. Upon binding of ATP, the transporter can switch to an outward facing (drug off or drug releasing) structure of lower affinity. ATP hydrolysis is critically important for remodeling the drug-binding site to facilitate drug release and to reset the transporter for a new transport cycle. We characterized the novel phenotype of an S1368A mutant that lies in the putative drug-binding pocket of the yeast multidrug transporter Pdr5. This substitution created broad, severe drug hypersensitivity, although drug binding, ATP hydrolysis, and intradomain signaling were indistinguishable from the wild-type control. Several different rhodamine 6G efflux and accumulation assays yielded evidence consistent with the possibility that Ser-1368 prevents reentry of the excluded drug. PMID:25112867

Mehla, Jitender; Ernst, Robert; Moore, Rachel; Wakschlag, Adina; Marquis, Mary Kate; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Golin, John

2014-09-19

115

Effects of a fixed-intensity of endurance training and pistacia atlantica supplementation on ATP-binding cassette G4 expression  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine triphosphate-cassette binding protein (ABC) type G is considered as a part of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process in modification and metabolism of plasma and tissue cholesterol. This study aims to evaluate the effect of endurance training with or without Pistacia atlantica (Baneh) supplementation on the female rat tissues ABC type G expression and its correlation with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. Methods Twenty Wistar rats (six to eight weeks old, 125–135 g weight) were arbitrarily allocated into training (n?=?10) and control (n?=?10) groups and further divided into saline-control (n?=?5), saline-training (n?=?5), Baneh-control (n?=?5), and Baneh-training (n?=?5). The training groups were given exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 25 m/min (0% grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. The rats were fed orally with Baneh extract and saline for six weeks. Seventy-two hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed and their tissues were excised for tissues ABCG4 expression which was detected by Real-time PCR method. Results The ABCG4 gene expressions were significantly higher in liver (P?=?02), small intestine (P?=?06), and visceral fat tissues (P?=?04) of the trained rats compared to the tissues of the control rats, but were lower in Baneh treated rats (liver P?=?045, small intestine P?=?06 and visceral fat P?=?004) with lower HDL-C concentrations (P?=?008). Conclusions The Baneh administration lowered tissues ABCG4 expression and plasma HDL-C concentrations while endurance training increased the expression in female rat tissues. PMID:24267473

2013-01-01

116

Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations  

PubMed Central

Background Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusion The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions. PMID:21247457

2011-01-01

117

Block of ATP-Binding Cassette B19 Ion Channel Activity by 5-Nitro-2-(3-Phenylpropylamino)-Benzoic Acid Impairs Polar Auxin Transport and Root Gravitropism1[OPEN  

PubMed Central

Polar transport of the hormone auxin through tissues and organs depends on membrane proteins, including some B-subgroup members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. The messenger RNA level of at least one B-subgroup ABCB gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), ABCB19, increases upon treatment with the anion channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB), possibly to compensate for an inhibitory effect of the drug on ABCB19 activity. Consistent with this hypothesis, NPPB blocked ion channel activity associated with ABCB19 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells as measured by patch-clamp electrophysiology. NPPB inhibited polar auxin transport through Arabidopsis seedling roots similarly to abcb19 mutations. NPPB also inhibited shootward auxin transport, which depends on the related ABCB4 protein. NPPB substantially decreased ABCB4 and ABCB19 protein levels when cycloheximide concomitantly inhibited new protein synthesis, indicating that blockage by NPPB enhances the degradation of ABCB transporters. Impairing the principal auxin transport streams in roots with NPPB caused aberrant patterns of auxin signaling reporters in root apices. Formation of the auxin-signaling gradient across the tips of gravity-stimulated roots, and its developmental consequence (gravitropism), were inhibited by micromolar concentrations of NPPB that did not affect growth rate. These results identify ion channel activity of ABCB19 that is blocked by NPPB, a compound that can now be considered an inhibitor of polar auxin transport with a defined molecular target. PMID:25324509

Cho, Misuk; Henry, Elizabeth M.; Lewis, Daniel R.; Wu, Guosheng; Muday, Gloria K.

2014-01-01

118

GCN20, a novel ATP binding cassette protein, and GCN1 reside in a complex that mediates activation of the eIF-2 alpha kinase GCN2 in amino acid-starved cells.  

PubMed Central

GCN2 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) and thereby stimulates translation of GCN4 mRNA in amino acid-starved cells. We isolated a null mutation in a previously unidentified gene, GCN20, that suppresses the growth-inhibitory effect of eIF-2 alpha hyperphosphorylation catalyzed by mutationally activated forms of GCN2. The deletion of GCN20 in otherwise wild-type strains impairs derepression of GCN4 translation and reduces the level of eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation in vivo, showing that GCN20 is a positive effector of GCN2 kinase function. In accordance with this conclusion, GCN20 was co-immunoprecipitated from cell extracts with GCN1, another factor required to activate GCN2, and the two proteins interacted in the yeast two-hybrid system. We conclude that GCN1 and GCN20 are components of a protein complex that couples the kinase activity of GCN2 to the availability of amino acids. GCN20 is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins and is closely related to ABC proteins identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, rice and humans, suggesting that the function of GCN20 may be conserved among diverse eukaryotic organisms. Images PMID:7621831

Vazquez de Aldana, C R; Marton, M J; Hinnebusch, A G

1995-01-01

119

An attenuated mutant of the Rv1747 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a mutant of its cognate kinase, PknF, show increased expression of the efflux pump-related iniBAC operon  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporter Rv1747 is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice and in macrophages. Its structure suggests it is an exporter. Rv1747 forms a two-gene operon with pknF coding for the serine/threonine protein kinase PknF, which positively modulates the function of the transporter. We show that deletion of Rv1747 or pknF results in a number of transcriptional changes which could be complemented by the wild type allele, most significantly up-regulation of the iniBAC genes. This operon is inducible by isoniazid and ethambutol and by a broad range of inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis and is required for efflux pump functioning. However, neither the Rv1747 or pknF mutant showed increased susceptibility to a range of drugs and cell wall stress reagents including isoniazid and ethambutol, cell wall structure and cell division appear normal by electron microscopy, and no differences in lipoarabinomannan were found. Transcription from the pknF promoter was not induced by a range of stress reagents. We conclude that the loss of Rv1747 affects cell wall biosynthesis leading to the production of intermediates that cause induction of iniBAC transcription and implicates it in exporting a component of the cell wall, which is necessary for virulence. PMID:23915284

Spivey, Vicky L; Whalan, Rachael H; Hirst, Elizabeth M A; Smerdon, Stephen J; Buxton, Roger S

2013-01-01

120

The bovine ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 Tyr581Ser single-nucleotide polymorphism increases milk secretion of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin.  

PubMed

The bovine adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein) polymorphism Tyr581Ser (Y581S) has recently been shown to increase in vitro transepithelial transport of antibiotics. Since this transporter has been extensively related to the active secretion of drugs into milk, the potential in vivo effect of this polymorphism on secretion of xenobiotics in livestock could have striking consequences for milk production, the dairy industry, and public health. Our purpose was to study the in vivo effect of this polymorphism on the secretion of danofloxacin, a widely used veterinary antibiotic, into milk. Danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) was administered to six Y/Y 581 homozygous and six Y/S 581 heterozygous lactating cows, and plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No differences were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of danofloxacin in plasma between the two groups of animals. In contrast, Y/S heterozygous cows showed a 2-fold increase in danofloxacin levels in milk. In addition, the pharmacokinetic elimination parameters, mean residence time and elimination half-life, were significantly lower in the milk of the animals carrying the Y/S polymorphism. These in vivo results are in agreement with our previously published in vitro data, which showed a greater capacity of the S581 variant in accumulation assays, and demonstrate, for the first time, an important effect of the Y581S single-nucleotide polymorphism on antibiotic secretion into cow milk. These findings could be extended to other ABCG2 substrates, and may be relevant for the treatment of mastitis and for the design of accurate and novel strategies to handle milk residues. PMID:23230133

Otero, Jon A; Real, Rebeca; de la Fuente, Álvaro; Prieto, Julio G; Marqués, Margarita; Álvarez, Ana I; Merino, Gracia

2013-03-01

121

Human ATP-Binding Cassette transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 confer resistance to CUDC-101, a multi-acting inhibitor of histone deacetylase, epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.  

PubMed

CUDC-101 is the first small-molecule inhibitor designed to simultaneously inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) in cancer cells. Recently, in its first in human phase I study, CUDC-101 showed promising single agent activity against advanced solid tumors and favorable pharmacodynamic profile. However, the risk of developing drug resistance to CUDC-101 can still present a significant therapeutic challenge to clinicians in the future. One of the most common mechanisms of developing multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is associated with the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2. Together, they are able to reduce the efficacy and modify the pharmacological properties of anti-cancer agents, including many small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here, we have investigated the impact of ABCB1 and ABCG2 on the efficacy of CUDC-101 in human cancer cells. We revealed that although CUDC-101 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic activities against most cancer cell lines, the overexpression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 in cancer cells significantly reduced the activity of CUDC-101 against HDAC, EGFR and HER2, as well as its cytotoxicity and proapoptotic activity. Moreover, we showed that CUDC-101 modulated the function of both transporters without affecting the protein expression of either ABCB1 or ABCG2. More importantly, our study provides support for the rationale of combining CUDC-101 with modulators of ABC drug transporters to improve drug efficacy and overcome multidrug resistance associated with the overexpression of ABCB1 and ABCG2. PMID:25450670

Wu, Chung-Pu; Hsiao, Sung-Han; Su, Ching-Ya; Luo, Shi-Yu; Li, Yan-Qing; Huang, Yang-Hui; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Chiun-Wei

2014-12-15

122

The human ATP binding cassette gene ABCA13, located on chromosome 7p12.3, encodes a 5058 amino acid protein with an extracellular domain encoded in part by a 4.8-kb conserved exon.  

PubMed

The ABCA subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters includes eleven members to date. In this study, we describe a new, unusually large gene on chromosome 7p12.3, ABCA13. This gene spans over 450 kb and is split into 62 exons. The predicted ABCA13 protein consists of 5,058 ami- no acid residues making it the largest ABC protein described to date. Like the other ABCA subfamily members, ABCA13 contains a hydrophobic, predicted transmembrane segment at the N-terminus, followed by a large hydrophilic region. In the case of ABCA13, the hydrophilic region is unexpectedly large, more than 3,500 amino acids, encoded by 30 exons, two of which are 4.8 and 1.7 kb in length. These two large exons are adjacent to each other and are conserved in the mouse Abca13 gene. Tissue profiling of the major transcript reveals the highest expression in human trachea, testis, and bone marrow. The expression of the gene was also determined in 60 tumor cell lines and the highest expression was detected in the SR leukemia, SNB-19 CNS tumor and DU-145 prostate tumor cell lines. ABCA13 has high similarity with other ABCA subfamily genes which are associated with human inherited diseases: ABCA1 with the cholesterol transport disorders Tangier disease and familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and ABCA4 with several retinal degeneration disorders. The ABCA13 gene maps to chromosome 7p12.3, a region that contains an inherited disorder affecting the pancreas (Shwachman-Diamond syndrome) as well as a locus involved in T-cell tumor invasion and metastasis (INM7), and therefore is a positional candidate for these pathologies. PMID:12697998

Prades, C; Arnould, I; Annilo, T; Shulenin, S; Chen, Z Q; Orosco, L; Triunfol, M; Devaud, C; Maintoux-Larois, C; Lafargue, C; Lemoine, C; Denèfle, P; Rosier, M; Dean, M

2002-01-01

123

ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 Mediates the Beneficial Effects of the Liver X Receptor Agonist GW3965 on Object Recognition Memory and Amyloid Burden in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 Mice*  

PubMed Central

The cholesterol transpoter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) moves lipids onto apolipoproteins including apolipoprotein E (apoE), which is the major cholesterol carrier in the brain and an established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). In amyloid mouse models of AD, ABCA1 deficiency exacerbates amyloidogenesis, whereas ABCA1 overexpression ameliorates amyloid load, suggesting a role for ABCA1 in A? metabolism. Agonists of liver X receptors (LXR), including GW3965, induce transcription of several genes including ABCA1 and apoE, and reduce A? levels and improve cognition in AD mice. However, the specific role of ABCA1 in mediating beneficial responses to LXR agonists in AD mice is unknown. We evaluated behavioral and neuropathogical outcomes in GW3965-treated female APP/PS1 mice with and without ABCA1. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with GW3965 increased ABCA1 and apoE protein levels. ABCA1 was required to observe significantly elevated apoE levels in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid upon therapeutic (33 mg/kg/day) GW3965 treatment. At 33 mg/kg/day, GW3965 was also associated with a trend toward redistribution of A? to the carbonate-soluble pool independent of ABCA1. APP/PS1 mice treated with either 2.5 or 33 mg/kg/day of GW3965 showed a clear trend toward reduced amyloid burden in hippocampus and whole brain, whereas APP/PS1-treated mice lacking ABCA1 failed to display reduced amyloid load in the whole brain and showed trends toward increased hippocampal amyloid. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with either dose of GW3965 completely restored novel object recognition memory to wild-type levels, which required ABCA1. These results suggest that ABCA1 contributes to several beneficial effects of the LXR agonist GW3965 in APP/PS1 mice. PMID:20739291

Donkin, James J.; Stukas, Sophie; Hirsch-Reinshagen, Veronica; Namjoshi, Dhananjay; Wilkinson, Anna; May, Sharon; Chan, Jeniffer; Fan, Jianjia; Collins, Jon; Wellington, Cheryl L.

2010-01-01

124

Requirement of Staphylococcus aureus ATP-Binding Cassette-ATPase FhuC for Iron-Restricted Growth and Evidence that It Functions with More than One Iron Transporter  

PubMed Central

In Staphylococcus aureus, fhuCBG encodes an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is required for the transport of iron(III)-hydroxamates; mutation of either fhuB or fhuG eliminates transport. In this paper, we describe construction and characterization of an S. aureus fhuCBG deletion strain. The ?fhuCBG::ermC mutation not only resulted in a strain that was incapable of growth on iron(III)-hydroxamates as a sole source of iron but also resulted in a strain which had a profound growth defect in iron-restricted laboratory media. The growth defect was not a result of the inability to transport iron(III)-hydroxamates since S. aureus fhuG::Tn917 and S. aureus fhuD1::Km fhuD2::Tet mutants, which are also unable to transport iron(III)-hydroxamates, do not have similar iron-restricted growth defects. Complementation experiments demonstrated that the growth defect of the ?fhuCBG::ermC mutant was the result of the inability to express FhuC and that this was the result of an inability to transport iron complexed to the S. aureus siderophore staphylobactin. Transport of iron(III)-staphylobactin is dependent upon SirA (binding protein), SirB (permease), and SirC (permease). S. aureus expressing FhuC with a Walker A K42N mutation could not utilize iron(III)-hydroxamates or iron(III)-staphylobactin as a sole source of iron, supporting the conclusion that FhuC, as expected, functions with FhuB, FhuG, and FhuD1 or FhuD2 to transport iron(III)-hydroxamates and is the “genetically unlinked” ABC-ATPase that functions with SirA, SirB, and SirC to transport iron(III)-staphylobactin. Finally, we demonstrated that the ?fhuCBG::ermC strain had decreased virulence in a murine kidney abscess model. PMID:16513734

Speziali, Craig D.; Dale, Suzanne E.; Henderson, James A.; Vinés, Enrique D.; Heinrichs, David E.

2006-01-01

125

Crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of an ABC transporter from Geobacillus kaustophilus.  

PubMed

The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, represent one of the largest superfamilies of primary transporters, which are very essential for various biological functions. The crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of an ABC transporter from Geobacillus kaustophilus has been determined at 1.77 Å resolution. The crystal structure revealed that the protomer has two thick arms, (arm I and II), which resemble 'L' shape. The ATP-binding pocket is located close to the end of arm I. ATP molecule is docked into the active site of the protein. The dimeric crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of ABC transporter from G. kaustophilus has been compared with the previously reported crystal structure of ATP-binding subunit of ABC transporter from Salmonella typhimurium. PMID:25724946

Manjula, M; Pampa, K J; Kumar, S M; Mukherjee, S; Kunishima, N; Rangappa, K S; Lokanath, N K

2015-03-27

126

Structural model of ATP-binding proteing associated with cystic fibrosis, multidrug resistance and bacterial transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems now includes over thirty proteins that share extensive sequence similarity and domain organization (reviewed in refs 1-3). This superfamily includes the well characterized periplasmic binding protein-dependent uptake systems of prokaryotes, bacterial exporters, and eukaryotic proteins including the P-glycoprotein associated with multidrug resistance in tumours (MDR), the STE6 gene product that mediates export

Stephen C. Hyde; Paul Emsley; Michael J. Hartshorn; Michael M. Mimmack; Uzi Gileadi; Stephen R. Pearce; Maurice P. Gallagher; Deborah R. Gill; Roderick E. Hubbard; Christopher F. Higgins

1990-01-01

127

interrupted by short-lived (non-conducting) `flickery' closures, with low frequency and brief duration independent of ATP binding and hydrolysis. We refer to the `open burst' as a  

E-print Network

the segments during exposure to the test [ATP] was then normalized to that obtained during the bracketing. Biochemistry 29, 9343­9352 (1990). 7. Davidson, A. L. & Chen, J. ATP-binding cassette transporters in bacteria­1098 (2002). 10. Chen, J., Lu, G., Lin, J., Davidson, A. L. & Quiocho, F. A. A tweezers-like motion

Allen, Jont

128

Equilibrated Atomic Models of Outward-Facing P-glycoprotein and Effect of ATP Binding on Structural Dynamics  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms. PMID:25600711

Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G.

2015-01-01

129

Equilibrated atomic models of outward-facing P-glycoprotein and effect of ATP binding on structural dynamics.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that alternates between inward- and outward-facing conformations to capture and force substrates out of cells like a peristaltic pump. The high degree of similarity in outward-facing structures across evolution of ABC transporters allowed construction of a high-confidence outward-facing Pgp atomic model based on crystal structures of outward-facing Sav1866 and inward-facing Pgp. The model adhered to previous experimentally determined secondary- and tertiary- configurations during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in the presence or absence of MgATP. Three long lasting (>100 ns) meta-stable states were apparent in the presence of MgATP revealing new insights into alternating access. The two ATP-binding pockets are highly asymmetric resulting in differential control of overall structural dynamics and allosteric regulation of the drug-binding pocket. Equilibrated Pgp has a considerably different electrostatic profile compared to Sav1866 that implicates significant kinetic and thermodynamic differences in transport mechanisms. PMID:25600711

Pan, Lurong; Aller, Stephen G

2015-01-01

130

ATP-binding cassette transporters are required for efficient RNA interference in Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

reticular organelles. We further demonstrate that eight additional ABC genes from diverse subfamilies are each required for efficient RNAi in C. elegans. Thus, the ability to mount a robust RNAi response to dsRNA depends upon the deployment of two ancient...

Timmons, Lisa; Hull, Dawn; Han, Wang; Echalier, B.; Sundaram, P.

2006-08-01

131

A Novel Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter System That Allows Uptake of Macromolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

by Ni21 affinity column chromatography showed ATPase activity. Based on these results, we propose the occurrence of a novel pit-dependent ABC transporter system that allows the uptake of macromolecules. Alginate is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of a-L-mannu- ronate and its 59-epimer, a-L-guluronate, and is produced by brown seaweeds and certain bacteria. Other than its utilization in the medical, chemical, and food

KEIKO MOMMA; MASAKO OKAMOTO; YUMIKO MISHIMA; SHIGETAROU MORI; WATARU HASHIMOTO; KOUSAKU MURATA

2000-01-01

132

ATP-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine-vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface. PMID:24019465

Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

2013-09-24

133

Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 10-mediated paclitaxel resistance: a preclinical study.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel displays clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. In this study, we show that masitinib, a small molecule stem-cell growth factor receptor (c-Kit) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, at nontoxic concentrations, significantly attenuates paclitaxel resistance in HEK293 cells transfected with ABCC10. Our in vitro studies indicated that masitinib (2.5 ?mol/L) enhanced the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of paclitaxel by inhibiting the ABCC10 transport activity without altering the expression level of ABCC10 protein. Furthermore, masitinib, in combination with paclitaxel, significantly inhibited the growth of ABCC10-expressing tumors in nude athymic mice in vivo. Masitinib administration also resulted in a significant increase in the levels of paclitaxel in the plasma, tumors, and lungs compared with paclitaxel alone. In conclusion, the combination of paclitaxel and masitinib could serve as a novel and useful therapeutic strategy to reverse paclitaxel resistance mediated by ABCC10. PMID:24431074

Kathawala, Rishil J; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Kang; Patel, Atish; Abuznait, Alaa H; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Sun, Yue-Li; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ashby, Charles R; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2014-03-01

134

The gene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 is mutated in Tangier disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tangier disease (TD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by absence of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and deposition of cholesteryl esters in the reticulo-endothelial system with splenomegaly and enlargement of tonsils and lymph nodes. Although low HDL cholesterol is associated with an increased risk for coronary artery disease, this condition is not consistently found in

Marek Bodzioch; Evelyn Orsó; Jochen Klucken; Thomas Langmann; Alfred Böttcher; Wendy Diederich; Wolfgang Drobnik; Stefan Barlage; Christa Büchler; Mustafa Porsch-Özcürümez; Wolfgang E. Kaminski; Harry W. Hahmann; Kurt Oette; Gregor Rothe; Charalampos Aslanidis; Karl J. Lackner; Gerd Schmitz

1999-01-01

135

Effect of ATP binding cassette/multidrug resistance proteins on ATP efflux of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) in mammalian tumors or tissues is often associated with the overexpression of the putative drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp). One theory concerning the mechanism of Pgp activity is that efflux of ATP is coupled to drug efflux. Evidence in support of this theory has been observed in mammalian cells. Recently, the STS1 gene, which is a multidrug resistance gene related to the mammalian Pgp's, has been characterized in S. cerevisiae. Also, the mouse mdr3 Pgp has been functionally expressed in yeast cells. Therefore, it was of interest to determine whether the expression of these proteins affected ATP efflux from yeast. Although both genes were shown to confer MDR, thus confirming functional expression, the endogenous glucose-dependent, drug-stimulated ATP efflux activity of yeast was not affected by expression of STS1, and was decreased by the expression of mouse mdr3. PMID:9020050

Boyum, R; Guidotti, G

1997-01-01

136

ATP-binding cassette transporter enhances tolerance to DDT in Tetrahymena.  

PubMed

The reuse of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) as an indoor residual spray was permitted by the World Health Organization in 2007, and approximately 14 countries still use DDT to control disease vectors. The extensive exposure of insects to DDT has resulted in the emergence of DDT resistance, especially in mosquitoes, and the mechanism for this resistance in mosquitoes has been widely reported. Spraying can also introduce DDT directly into surface water, and DDT can subsequently accumulate in microorganisms, but the mechanism for the resistance to DDT degradation in microorganisms is unclear. Using whole-genome microarray analysis, we detected an abcb15 gene that was up-regulated in a specific manner by DDT treatment in T. thermophile. The deduced ABCB15 peptide sequence had two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to form the structure TMD-NBD-TMD-NBD, and each NBD contained three conserved motifs: Walker-A, C-loop, and Walker-B, which indicated the T. thermophila abcb15 was a typical ABC transporter gene. The expression of ABCB15 fused with a C-terminal green fluorescent protein was found to be on the periphery of the cell, suggesting that ABCB15 was a membrane pump protein. In addition, cells with abcb15 partially knocked down (abcb15-KD) grew slower than wild-type cells in the presence of 256 mg L(-1) DDT, indicating the tolerance of abcb15-KD strain to DDT exposure was decreased. Thus, we suggest that in Tetrahymena, the membrane pump protein encoded by ABCT gene abcb15 can enhance the tolerance to DDT and protect cells from this exogenous toxin by efficiently pumping it to the extracellular space. PMID:25260902

Ning, YingZhi; Dang, Huai; Liu, GuangLong; Xiong, Jie; Yuan, DongXia; Feng, LiFang; Miao, Wei

2015-03-01

137

ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH. radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD.-, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396-. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction.

Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

2014-06-01

138

ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch  

PubMed Central

Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH· radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD·?, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396?. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction. PMID:24898692

Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

2014-01-01

139

A Computational Analysis of ATP Binding of SV40 Large Tumor Antigen Helicase Motor  

PubMed Central

Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen (LTag) is an efficient helicase motor that unwinds and translocates DNA. The DNA unwinding and translocation of LTag is powered by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide pocket between two adjacent subunits of an LTag hexamer. Based on the set of high-resolution hexameric structures of LTag helicase in different nucleotide binding states, we simulated a conformational transition pathway of the ATP binding process using the targeted molecular dynamics method and calculated the corresponding energy profile using the linear response approximation (LRA) version of the semi-macroscopic Protein Dipoles Langevin Dipoles method (PDLD/S). The simulation results suggest a three-step process for the ATP binding from the initial interaction to the final tight binding at the nucleotide pocket, in which ATP is eventually “locked” by three pairs of charge-charge interactions across the pocket. Such a “cross-locking” ATP binding process is similar to the binding zipper model reported for the F1-ATPase hexameric motor. The simulation also shows a transition mechanism of Mg2+ coordination to form the Mg-ATP complex during ATP binding, which is accompanied by the large conformational changes of LTag. This simulation study of the ATP binding process to an LTag and the accompanying conformational changes in the context of a hexamer leads to a refined cooperative iris model that has been proposed previously. PMID:19779548

Shi, Yemin; Liu, Hanbin; Gai, Dahai; Ma, Jianpeng; Chen, Xiaojiang S.

2009-01-01

140

Mechanical Modulation of ATP-binding Affinity of V1-ATPase*  

PubMed Central

V1-ATPase is a rotary motor protein that rotates the central shaft in a counterclockwise direction hydrolyzing ATP. Although the ATP-binding process is suggested to be the most critical reaction step for torque generation in F1-ATPase (the closest relative of V1-ATPase evolutionarily), the role of ATP binding for V1-ATPase in torque generation has remained unclear. In the present study, we performed single-molecule manipulation experiments on V1-ATPase from Thermus thermophilus to investigate how the ATP-binding process is modulated upon rotation of the rotary shaft. When V1-ATPase showed an ATP-waiting pause, it was stalled at a target angle and then released. Based on the response of the V1-ATPase released, the ATP-binding probability was determined at individual stall angles. It was observed that the rate constant of ATP binding (kon) was exponentially accelerated with forward rotation, whereas the rate constant of ATP release (koff) was exponentially reduced. The angle dependence of the koff of V1-ATPase was significantly smaller than that of F1-ATPase, suggesting that the ATP-binding process is not the major torque-generating step in V1-ATPase. When V1-ATPase was stalled at the mean binding angle to restrict rotary Brownian motion, kon was evidently slower than that determined from free rotation, showing the reaction rate enhancement by conformational fluctuation. It was also suggested that shaft of V1-ATPase should be rotated at least 277° in a clockwise direction for efficient release of ATP under ATP-synthesis conditions. PMID:23155048

Tirtom, Naciye Esma; Okuno, Daichi; Nakano, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Ken; Noji, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

141

Elucidating the site of protein-ATP binding by top-down mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) top-down mass spectrometry strategy for determining the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding site on chicken adenylate kinase is described. Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), but the ability to detect protein-ligand complexes depends on their stability in the gas phase. Previously, we showed that collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of protein-nucleotide triphosphate complexes yield products from the dissociation of a covalent phosphate bond of the nucleotide with subsequent release of the nucleotide monophosphate (Yin, S. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2008, 19, 1199-1208). The intrinsic stability of electrostatic interactions in the gas phase allows the diphosphate group to remain noncovalently bound to the protein. This feature is exploited to yield positional information on the site of ATP-binding on adenylate kinase. CAD and electron capture dissociation (ECD) of the adenylate kinase-ATP complex generate product ions bearing mono- and diphosphate groups from regions previously suggested as the ATP-binding pocket by NMR and crystallographic techniques. Top-down MS may be a viable tool to determine the ATP-binding sites on protein kinases and identify previously unknown protein kinases in a functional proteomics study. PMID:20163968

Yin, Sheng; Loo, Joseph A

2010-06-01

142

Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors  

SciTech Connect

P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)

2012-10-24

143

Coupling between ATP Binding and DNA Cleavage by DNA Topoisomerase II  

E-print Network

Coupling between ATP Binding and DNA Cleavage by DNA Topoisomerase II A UNIFYING KINETIC cleavage. We dissected the DNA cleavage reaction by measuring rate and equilibrium constants is extremely slow but which allows DNA cleavage. A minimal kinetic and thermodynamic framework is established

Herschlag, Dan

144

Identification of ATP-Binding Regions in the RyR1 Ca2+ Release Channel  

PubMed Central

ATP is an important modulator of gating in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), also known as a Ca2+ release channel in skeletal muscle cells. The activating effect of ATP on this channel is achieved by directly binding to one or more sites on the RyR1 protein. However, the number and location of these sites have yet to be determined. To identify the ATP-binding regions within RyR1 we used 2N3ATP-2?,3?-Biotin-LC-Hydrazone (BioATP-HDZ), a photo-reactive ATP analog to covalently label the channel. We found that BioATP-HDZ binds RyR1 specifically with an IC50?=?0.6±0.2 mM, comparable with the reported EC50 for activation of RyR1 with ATP. Controlled proteolysis of labeled RyR1 followed by sequence analysis revealed three fragments with apparent molecular masses of 95, 45 and 70 kDa that were crosslinked by BioATP-HDZ and identified as RyR1 sequences. Our analysis identified four glycine-rich consensus motifs that can potentially constitute ATP-binding sites and are located within the N-terminal 95-kDa fragment. These putative nucleotide-binding sequences include amino acids 699–704, 701–706, 1081–1084 and 1195–1200, which are conserved among the three RyR isoforms. Located next to the N-terminal disease hotspot region in RyR1, these sequences may communicate the effects of ATP-binding to channel function by tuning conformational motions within the neighboring cytoplasmic regulatory domains. Two other labeled fragments lack ATP-binding consensus motifs and may form non-canonical ATP-binding sites. Based on domain topology in the 3D structure of RyR1 it is also conceivable that the identified ATP-binding regions, despite their wide separation in the primary sequence, may actually constitute the same non-contiguous ATP-binding pocket within the channel tetramer. PMID:23144945

Popova, Olga B.; Baker, Mariah R.; Tran, Tina P.; Le, Tri; Serysheva, Irina I.

2012-01-01

145

Cassette Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists cassette books produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped during 1989. Books are listed alphabetically within subject categories under nonfiction and fiction headings. Nonfiction categories include: animals and wildlife, the arts, bestsellers, biography, blindness and physical handicaps,…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

146

Predicting protein-ATP binding sites from primary sequence through fusing bi-profile sampling of multi-view features  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine-5?-triphosphate (ATP) is one of multifunctional nucleotides and plays an important role in cell biology as a coenzyme interacting with proteins. Revealing the binding sites between protein and ATP is significantly important to understand the functionality of the proteins and the mechanisms of protein-ATP complex. Results In this paper, we propose a novel framework for predicting the proteins’ functional residues, through which they can bind with ATP molecules. The new prediction protocol is achieved by combination of sequence evolutional information and bi-profile sampling of multi-view sequential features and the sequence derived structural features. The hypothesis for this strategy is single-view feature can only represent partial target’s knowledge and multiple sources of descriptors can be complementary. Conclusions Prediction performances evaluated by both 5-fold and leave-one-out jackknife cross-validation tests on two benchmark datasets consisting of 168 and 227 non-homologous ATP binding proteins respectively demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed protocol. Our experimental results also reveal that the residue structural characteristics of real protein-ATP binding sites are significant different from those normal ones, for example the binding residues do not show high solvent accessibility propensities, and the bindings prefer to occur at the conjoint points between different secondary structure segments. Furthermore, results also show that performance is affected by the imbalanced training datasets by testing multiple ratios between positive and negative samples in the experiments. Increasing the dataset scale is also demonstrated useful for improving the prediction performances. PMID:22651691

2012-01-01

147

XENOBIOTIC REGULATION OF THE ATP BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER ABCB6 AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE TO HEPATIC HEME HOMEOSTASIS  

E-print Network

Heme is indispensable for mammalian life. It is an essential component of numerous heme proteins, with functions including oxygen transport and storage, energy metabolism, drug and steroid metabolism and signal transduction. ...

Chavan, Hemantkumar Dilip

2013-12-31

148

Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage chole...

149

Brucella ovis lacking a species-specific putative ATP-binding cassette transporter is attenuated but immunogenic in rams.  

PubMed

Ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis is considered one of the most important reproductive diseases of rams worldwide. This study aimed to characterize the kinetics of infection of a ?abcAB B. ovis mutant strain in rams. Twelve 1-year-old crossbred rams were used. Six rams were challenged with 2 mL of a suspension containing 1.2×10(9) CFU/mL of B. ovis strain ATCC25840 (wild type) by intraprepucial inoculation and additional 50 ?L in each conjunctival sac of a suspension containing 1.2×10(10) CFU/mL of the same strain. The other six rams were challenged with an equivalent number of CFU of the mutant strain ?abcAB B. ovis through the same routes. Serum samples for serology and semen and urine samples for bacteriologic culture and PCR were collected weekly during 24 weeks. At 24 weeks post infection, tissue samples were collected for bacteriologic culture and PCR. All rams inoculated with wild type or the ?abcAB strain seroconverted at the fourth week post infection, remaining positive up to the 16th week post infection. PCR and bacteriology demonstrated that only rams inoculated with the wild type strain shed the organism in semen and urine. Lymphocytes from rams inoculated with wild type or ?abcAB B. ovis had significantly higher proliferation in response to B. ovis antigens when compared with unstimulated controls. Tissue bacteriology and PCR detected B. ovis in all rams challenged with the wild type strain, whereas only one ?abcAB-infected ram had a positive iliac lymph node sample by PCR. PMID:24075357

Silva, Ana Patrícia C; Macêdo, Auricélio A; Costa, Luciana F; Turchetti, Andréia P; Bull, Valquíria; Pessoa, Moisés S; Araújo, Márcio S S; Nascimento, Ernane F; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Paixão, Tatiane A; Santos, Renato L

2013-12-27

150

Gene Expression Profiling of Transporters in the Solute Carrier and ATP-Binding Cassette Superfamilies in Human Eye Substructures  

PubMed Central

The barrier epithelia of the cornea and retina control drug and nutrient access to various compartments of the human eye. While ocular transporters are likely to play a critical role in homeostasis and drug delivery, little is known about their expression, localization and function. In this study, the mRNA expression levels of 445 transporters, metabolic enzymes, transcription factors and nuclear receptors were profiled in five regions of the human eye: cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid and retina. Through RNA expression profiling and immunohistochemistry, several transporters were identified as putative targets for drug transport in ocular tissues. Our analysis identified SLC22A7 (OAT2), a carrier for the anti-viral drug, acyclovir, in the corneal epithelium, in addition to ABCG2 (BCRP), an important xenobiotic efflux pump, in retinal nerve fibers and the retinal pigment epithelium. Collectively, our results provide an understanding of the transporters that serve to maintain ocular homeostasis and which may be potential targets for drug delivery to deep compartments of the eye. PMID:23268600

Dahlin, Amber; Geier, Ethan; Stocker, Sophie L.; Cropp, Cheryl D.; Grigorenko, Elena; Bloomer, Michele; Siegenthaler, Julie; Xu, Lu; Basile, Anthony S.; Tang-Liu, Diane D-S.; Giacomini, Kathy

2014-01-01

151

Heterocyclic cyclohexanone monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin can inhibit the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cancer multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical that inhibits the xenobiotic ABC efflux transporters implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 5 (MRP1 and MRP5). The use of CUR in the clinic however, is complicated by its instability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Monocarbonyl analogs of CUR (MACs) are compounds without CUR's unstable ?-diketone moiety and were reported to have improved stability and in vivo disposition. Whether the MACs can be used as MDR reversal agents is less clear, as the absence of a ?-diketone may negatively impact transporter inhibition. In this study, we investigated 23 heterocyclic cyclohexanone MACs for inhibitory effects against P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP5. Using flow cytometry and resistance reversal assays, we found that many of these compounds inhibited the transport activity of the ABC transporters investigated, often with much greater potency than CUR. Overall the analogs were most effective at inhibiting BCRP and we identified three compounds, A12 (2,6-bis((E)-2,5-dimethoxy-benzylidene)cyclohexanone), A13 (2,6-bis((E)-4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone) and B11 (3,5-bis((E)-2-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one), as the most promising BCRP inhibitors. These compounds inhibited BCRP activity in a non-cell line, non-substrate-specific manner. Their inhibition occurred by direct transporter interaction rather than modulating protein or cell surface expression. From these results, we concluded that MACs, such as the heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogs in this study, also have potential as MDR reversal agents and may be superior alternatives to the unstable parent compound, CUR. PMID:25543853

Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

2015-02-01

152

Multidrug resistance protein 4/ ATP binding cassette transporter 4: a new potential therapeutic target for acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Less than a third of adults patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are cured by current treatments, emphasizing the need for new approaches to therapy. We previously demonstrated that besides playing a role in drug-resistant leukemia cell lines, multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) regulates leukemia cell proliferation and differentiation through the endogenous MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, cAMP. Here, we studied the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in tumor progression in a mouse xenograft model and in leukemic stem cells (LSCs) differentiation. We found a decrease in the mitotic index and an increase in the apoptotic index associated with the inhibition of tumor growth when mice were treated with rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor) and/or probenecid (MRPs inhibitor). Genetic silencing and pharmacologic inhibition of MRP4 reduced tumor growth. Furthermore, MRP4 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vivo. Interestingly, when LSC population was isolated, we observed that increased cAMP levels and MRP4/ABCC4 blockade resulted in LSCs differentiation. Taken together, our findings show that MRP4/ABCC4 has a relevant role in tumor growth and apoptosis and in the eradication of LSCs, providing the basis for a novel promising target in AML therapy. PMID:25301721

Copsel, Sabrina; Bruzzone, Ariana; May, Maria; Beyrath, Julien; Wargon, Victoria; Cany, Jeannette; Frans, G.M. Russel; Shayo, Carina; Davio, Carlos

2014-01-01

153

ATP binding to synaspsin IIa regulates usage and clustering of vesicles in terminals of hippocampal neurons.  

PubMed

Synaptic transmission is expensive in terms of its energy demands and was recently shown to decrease the ATP concentration within presynaptic terminals transiently, an observation that we confirm. We hypothesized that, in addition to being an energy source, ATP may modulate the synapsins directly. Synapsins are abundant neuronal proteins that associate with the surface of synaptic vesicles and possess a well defined ATP-binding site of undetermined function. To examine our hypothesis, we produced a mutation (K270Q) in synapsin IIa that prevents ATP binding and reintroduced the mutant into cultured mouse hippocampal neurons devoid of all synapsins. Remarkably, staining for synaptic vesicle markers was enhanced in these neurons compared with neurons expressing wild-type synapsin IIa, suggesting overly efficient clustering of vesicles. In contrast, the mutation completely disrupted the capability of synapsin IIa to slow synaptic depression during sustained 10 Hz stimulation, indicating that it interfered with synapsin-dependent vesicle recruitment. Finally, we found that the K270Q mutation attenuated the phosphorylation of synapsin IIa on a distant PKA/CaMKI consensus site known to be essential for vesicle recruitment. We conclude that ATP binding to synapsin IIa plays a key role in modulating its function and in defining its contribution to hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity. PMID:25609616

Shulman, Yoav; Stavsky, Alexandra; Fedorova, Tatiana; Mikulincer, Dan; Atias, Merav; Radinsky, Igal; Kahn, Joy; Slutsky, Inna; Gitler, Daniel

2015-01-21

154

Functional role of ATP binding to synapsin I in synaptic vesicle trafficking and release dynamics.  

PubMed

Synapsins (Syns) are synaptic vesicle (SV)-associated proteins involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity, which display a highly conserved ATP binding site in the central C-domain, whose functional role is unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrated that ATP binding to SynI is mediated by a conformational transition of a flexible loop that opens to make the binding site accessible; such transition, prevented in the K269Q mutant, is not significantly affected in the absence of Ca(2+) or by the E373K mutation that abolishes Ca(2+)-binding. Indeed, the ATP binding to SynI also occurred under Ca(2+)-free conditions and increased its association with purified rat SVs regardless of the presence of Ca(2+) and promoted SynI oligomerization. However, although under Ca(2+)-free conditions, SynI dimerization and SV clustering were enhanced, Ca(2+) favored the formation of tetramers at the expense of dimers and did not affect SV clustering, indicating a role of Ca(2+)-dependent dimer/tetramer transitions in the regulation of ATP-dependent SV clustering. To elucidate the role of ATP/SynI binding in synaptic physiology, mouse SynI knock-out hippocampal neurons were transduced with either wild-type or K269Q mutant SynI and inhibitory transmission was studied by patch-clamp and electron microscopy. K269Q-SynI expressing inhibitory synapses showed increased synaptic strength due to an increase in the release probability, an increased vulnerability to synaptic depression and a dysregulation of SV trafficking, when compared with wild-type SynI-expressing terminals. The results suggest that the ATP-SynI binding plays predocking and postdocking roles in the modulation of SV clustering and plasticity of inhibitory synapses. PMID:25355227

Orlando, Marta; Lignani, Gabriele; Maragliano, Luca; Fassio, Anna; Onofri, Franco; Baldelli, Pietro; Giovedí, Silvia; Benfenati, Fabio

2014-10-29

155

Conserved mechanisms of microtubule-stimulated ADP release, ATP binding, and force generation in transport kinesins  

PubMed Central

Kinesins are a superfamily of microtubule-based ATP-powered motors, important for multiple, essential cellular functions. How microtubule binding stimulates their ATPase and controls force generation is not understood. To address this fundamental question, we visualized microtubule-bound kinesin-1 and kinesin-3 motor domains at multiple steps in their ATPase cycles—including their nucleotide-free states—at ?7 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy. In both motors, microtubule binding promotes ordered conformations of conserved loops that stimulate ADP release, enhance microtubule affinity and prime the catalytic site for ATP binding. ATP binding causes only small shifts of these nucleotide-coordinating loops but induces large conformational changes elsewhere that allow force generation and neck linker docking towards the microtubule plus end. Family-specific differences across the kinesin–microtubule interface account for the distinctive properties of each motor. Our data thus provide evidence for a conserved ATP-driven mechanism for kinesins and reveal the critical mechanistic contribution of the microtubule interface. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03680.001 PMID:25209998

Atherton, Joseph; Farabella, Irene; Yu, I-Mei; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Houdusse, Anne; Topf, Maya; Moores, Carolyn A

2014-01-01

156

Critical role of ?-phosphate in structural transition of Na,K-ATPase upon ATP binding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active transport of sodium and potassium ions by Na,K-ATPase is accompanied by the enzyme conformational transition between E1 and E2 states. ATP and ADP bind to Na,K-ATPase in the E1 conformation with similar affinity but the properties of enzyme in complexes with these nucleotides are different. We have studied thermodynamics of Na,K-ATPase binding with adenine nucleotides at different temperatures using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our data indicate that ?-phosphate is involved in complex formation by increasing the affinity of adenine nucleotides to Na,K-ATPase by an order of magnitude, while ?-phosphate does not affect it. ATP binding to Na,K-ATPase in contrast to ADP binding generates a structural transition in the enzyme, which is consistent with the movement of a significant portion of the surface area to a solvent-protected state. We propose that ATP binding leads to convergence of the nucleotide-binding and phosphorylation domains transferring the enzyme from the ``E1-open'' to ``E1-closed'' conformation ready for phosphorylation.

Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Anashkina, Anastasia A.; Klimanova, Elizaveta A.; Dergousova, Elena A.; Lopina, Olga D.; Makarov, Alexander A.

2014-06-01

157

Critical roles of interdomain interactions for modulatory ATP binding to sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.  

PubMed

ATP has dual roles in the reaction cycle of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase. Upon binding to the Ca2E1 state, ATP phosphorylates the enzyme, and by binding to other conformational states in a non-phosphorylating modulatory mode ATP stimulates the dephosphorylation and other partial reaction steps of the cycle, thereby ensuring a high rate of Ca(2+) transport under physiological conditions. The present study elucidates the mechanism underlying the modulatory effect on dephosphorylation. In the intermediate states of dephosphorylation the A-domain residues Ser(186) and Asp(203) interact with Glu(439) (N-domain) and Arg(678) (P-domain), respectively. Single mutations to these residues abolish the stimulation of dephosphorylation by ATP. The double mutation swapping Asp(203) and Arg(678) rescues ATP stimulation, whereas this is not the case for the double mutation swapping Ser(186) and Glu(439). By taking advantage of the ability of wild type and mutant Ca(2+)-ATPases to form stable complexes with aluminum fluoride (E2·AlF) and beryllium fluoride (E2·BeF) as analogs of the E2·P phosphoryl transition state and E2P ground state, respectively, of the dephosphorylation reaction, the mutational effects on ATP binding to these intermediates are demonstrated. In the wild type Ca(2+)-ATPase, the ATP affinity of the E2·P phosphoryl transition state is higher than that of the E2P ground state, thus explaining the stimulation of dephosphorylation by nucleotide-induced transition state stabilization. We find that the Asp(203)-Arg(678) and Ser(186)-Glu(439) interdomain bonds are critical, because they tighten the interaction with ATP in the E2·P phosphoryl transition state. Moreover, ATP binding and the Ser(186)-Glu(439) bond are mutually exclusive in the E2P ground state. PMID:25193668

Clausen, Johannes D; Holdensen, Anne Nyholm; Andersen, Jens Peter

2014-10-17

158

ATP Binding by Proteasomal ATPases Regulates Cellular Assembly and Substrate-induced Functions of the 26 S Proteasome*  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of ATP binding by six different ATPase subunits (Rpt1–6) in the cellular assembly and molecular functions of mammalian 26 S proteasome. Four Rpt subunits (Rpt1–4) with ATP binding mutations were incompetent for cellular assembly into 26 S proteasome. In contrast, analogous mutants of Rpt5 and Rpt6 were incorporated normally into 26 S proteasomes in both intact cells and an in vitro assembly assay. Surprisingly, purified 26 S proteasomes containing either mutant Rpt5 or Rpt6 had normal basal ATPase activity and substrate gate opening for hydrolysis of short peptides. However, these mutant 26 S proteasomes were severely defective for ATP-dependent in vitro degradation of ubiquitylated and non-ubiquitylated proteins and did not display substrate-stimulated ATPase and peptidase activities characteristic of normal proteasomes. These results reveal differential roles of ATP binding by various Rpt subunits in proteasome assembly and function. They also indicate that substrate-stimulated ATPase activity and gating depend on the concerted action of a full complement of Rpt subunits competent for ATP binding and that this regulation is essential for normal proteolysis. Thus, protein substrates appear to promote their own degradation by stimulating proteasome functions involved in proteolysis. PMID:23212908

Kim, Young-Chan; Li, Xiaohua; Thompson, David; DeMartino, George N.

2013-01-01

159

A Novel, Modification-Dependent ATP-Binding Aptamer Selected from an RNA Library Incorporating a Cationic Functionality  

E-print Network

A Novel, Modification-Dependent ATP-Binding Aptamer Selected from an RNA Library Incorporating-4), and that over the course of evolution the present day DNA-RNA-protein world developed from this ancestral RNA of hundreds of novel RNA and DNA motifs that can act as catalysts and high affinity receptors (10, 11

Heller, Eric

160

An essential role for ATP binding and hydrolysis in the chaperone activity of GRP94 in cells  

E-print Network

An essential role for ATP binding and hydrolysis in the chaperone activity of GRP94 in cells Olga) Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone for which only few client are functional. Because these constructs enable direct visu- alization of chaperone-expressing cells, we used

Snapp, Erik Lee

161

Identification of Mutations in Regions Corresponding to the Two Putative Nucleotide (ATP)Binding Folds of the Cystic Fibrosis Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene were identified in the regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds (NBFs) of the predicted polypeptide. The patient cohort included 46 Canadian CF families with well-characterized DNA marker haplotypes spanning the disease locus and several other families from Israel. Eleven mutations were found in the first NBF, 2 were found

Bat-Sheva Kerem; Julian Zielenski; Danuta Markiewicz; Dominique Bozon; Ephraim Gazit; Jacob Yahav; Dara Kennedy; John R. Riordan; Francis S. Collins; Johanna M. Rommens; Lap-Chee Tsui

1990-01-01

162

Three-Dimensional Structures Reveal Multiple ADP/ATP Binding Modes  

SciTech Connect

The creation of synthetic enzymes with predefined functions represents a major challenge in future synthetic biology applications. Here, we describe six structures of de novo proteins that have been determined using protein crystallography to address how simple enzymes perform catalysis. Three structures are of a protein, DX, selected for its stability and ability to tightly bind ATP. Despite the addition of ATP to the crystallization conditions, the presence of a bound but distorted ATP was found only under excess ATP conditions, with ADP being present under equimolar conditions or when crystallized for a prolonged period of time. A bound ADP cofactor was evident when Asp was substituted for Val at residue 65, but ATP in a linear configuration is present when Phe was substituted for Tyr at residue 43. These new structures complement previously determined structures of DX and the protein with the Phe 43 to Tyr substitution [Simmons, C. R., et al. (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 649-658] and together demonstrate the multiple ADP/ATP binding modes from which a model emerges in which the DX protein binds ATP in a configuration that represents a transitional state for the catalysis of ATP to ADP through a slow, metal-free reaction capable of multiple turnovers. This unusual observation suggests that design-free methods can be used to generate novel protein scaffolds that are tailor-made for catalysis.

C Simmons; C Magee; D Smith; L Lauman; J Chaput; J Allen

2011-12-31

163

Conformational Changes Produced by ATP Binding to the Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump*  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to study the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) reaction cycle by characterizing conformational changes associated with calcium, ATP, and vanadate binding to purified PMCA. This was accomplished by studying the exposure of PMCA to surrounding phospholipids by measuring the incorporation of the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog 1-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine to the protein. ATP could bind to the different vanadate-bound states of the enzyme either in the presence or in the absence of Ca2+ with high apparent affinity. Conformational movements of the ATP binding domain were determined using the fluorescent analog 2?(3?)-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5?-triphosphate. To assess the conformational behavior of the Ca2+ binding domain, we also studied the occlusion of Ca2+, both in the presence and in the absence of ATP and with or without vanadate. Results show the existence of occluded species in the presence of vanadate and/or ATP. This allowed the development of a model that describes the transport of Ca2+ and its relation with ATP hydrolysis. This is the first approach that uses a conformational study to describe the PMCA P-type ATPase reaction cycle, adding important features to the classical E1-E2 model devised using kinetics methodology only. PMID:24025327

Mangialavori, Irene C.; Ferreira-Gomes, Mariela S.; Saffioti, Nicolás A.; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M.; Rossi, Rolando C.; Rossi, Juan Pablo F. C.

2013-01-01

164

Discovery of a new ATP-binding motif involved in peptidic azoline biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive research, the cyclodehydratase responsible for azoline biogenesis in thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) natural products remains enigmatic. The collaboration of two proteins, C and D, is required for cyclodehydration. The C protein is homologous to E1 ubiquitin-activating enzymes, while the D protein is within the YcaO superfamily. Recent studies have demonstrated that TOMM YcaOs phosphorylate amide carbonyl oxygens to facilitate azoline formation. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of an uncharacterized YcaO from Escherichia coli (Ec-YcaO). Ec-YcaO harbors an unprecedented fold and ATP-binding motif. This motif is conserved among TOMM YcaOs and is required for cyclodehydration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the C protein regulates substrate binding and catalysis and that the proline-rich C-terminus of the D protein is involved in C protein recognition and catalysis. This study identifies the YcaO active site and paves the way for the characterization of the numerous YcaO domains not associated with TOMM biosynthesis. PMID:25129028

Dunbar, Kyle L.; Chekan, Jonathan R.; Cox, Courtney L.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Nair, Satish K.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

2014-01-01

165

A microsomal ATP-binding protein involved in efficient protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed Central

Protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum depends on nucleoside triphosphates. Photoaffinity labelling of microsomes with azido-ATP prevents protein transport at the level of association of precursor proteins with the components of the transport machinery, Sec61alpha and TRAM proteins. The same phenotype of inactivation was observed after depleting a microsomal detergent extract of ATP-binding proteins by passage through ATP-agarose and subsequent reconstitution of the pass-through into proteoliposomes. Transport was restored by co-reconstitution of the ATP eluate. This eluate showed eight distinct bands in SDS gels. We identified five lumenal proteins (Grp170, Grp94, BiP/Grp78, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), one membrane protein (ribophorin I) and two ribosomal proteins (L4 and L5). In addition to BiP (Grp78), Grp170 was most efficiently retained on ATP-agarose. Purified BiP did not stimulate transport activity. Sequence analysis revealed a striking similarity of Grp170 and the yeast microsomal protein Lhs1p which was recently shown to be involved in protein transport into yeast microsomes. We suggest that Grp170 mediates efficient insertion of polypeptides into the microsomal membrane at the expense of nucleoside triphosphates. Images PMID:9003769

Dierks, T; Volkmer, J; Schlenstedt, G; Jung, C; Sandholzer, U; Zachmann, K; Schlotterhose, P; Neifer, K; Schmidt, B; Zimmermann, R

1996-01-01

166

Structural modeling and molecular dynamics studies on the human LMTK3 domain and the mechanism of ATP binding.  

PubMed

Estrogen positive breast cancer is a dreadful disease in women worldwide. The human estrogen receptor-? (ER?) pathway plays a critical role in estrogenic signaling and targeting ER? in breast cancer treatment. The key role of Lemur tyrosine kinase-3 (LMTK3) in regulation of ER? has been identified and it is found to be a novel therapeutic target for breast cancer. With lack of structural studies on LMTK3, the breast cancer therapeutics research remains elusive. In this computational study, we performed structural studies on LMTK3 by structural modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the apo state and the ATP bound state. The structure of the LMTK3 domain was developed by using I-TASSER server and validated by quality index and Ramachandran plot. MD simulation analysis explained the structural behavior of the LMTK3 domain in the dynamic system and the apo state showed defined protein folding with stable conformation. The mechanism of ATP binding was studied using molecular docking, resulting in the identification of critical residues and the ATP binding cavity. Furthermore, MD simulation of the LMTK3-ATP complex was performed and the trajectory analyses confirmed the stability and effective binding of ATP in the dynamic system. Overall, our computational reports provide more information on the structure-function relationship of LMTK3 with ATP. The critical residues Tyr185 and Asp284 found in the ATP binding cavity may be useful in designing potential inhibitors on human LMTK3. PMID:24619340

Anbarasu, K; Jayanthi, S

2014-05-01

167

Expression of an ATP-binding cassette transporter-encoding gene (YOR1) is required for oligomycin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies a new target gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae called YOR1 which is important for oligomycin resistance. It discusses the relationship of the expression of this gene and others responsible for resistance to cyclohexamide. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Katzmann, D.J.; Hallstrom, T.C.; Moye-Rowley, W.S. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

168

Polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G5 and G8 transporters: their effect on cholesterol metabolism after moderate weight loss in overweight and obese hyperlipidemic women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effect of polymorphisms ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters on changes in lipid levels, cholesterol absorption rate (ABS), fractional synthesis rate (FSR), and turnover (TO) after moderate weight loss (WtL) in women. Cholesterol metabolism was measured pre and post WtL in 35 hyperlipidemic...

169

Characterization of DalS, an ATP-binding Cassette Transporter for d-Alanine, and Its Role in Pathogenesis in Salmonella enterica*  

PubMed Central

Expansion into new host niches requires bacterial pathogens to adapt to changes in nutrient availability and to evade an arsenal of host defenses. Horizontal acquisition of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI)-2 permitted the expansion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium into the intracellular environment of host cells by allowing it to deliver bacterial effector proteins across the phagosome membrane. This is facilitated by the SsrA-SsrB two-component regulatory system and a type III secretion system encoded within SPI-2. SPI-2 acquisition was followed by evolution of existing regulatory DNA, creating an expanded SsrB regulon involved in intracellular fitness and host infection. Here, we identified an SsrB-regulated operon comprising an ABC transporter in Salmonella. Biochemical and structural studies determined that the periplasmic solute-binding component, STM1633/DalS, transports d-alanine and that DalS is required for intracellular survival of the bacteria and for fitness in an animal host. This work exemplifies the role of nutrient exchange at the host-pathogen interface as a critical determinant of disease outcome. PMID:22418438

Osborne, Suzanne E.; Tuinema, Brian R.; Mok, Mac C. Y.; Lau, Pui Sai; Bui, Nhat Khai; Tomljenovic-Berube, Ana M.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Zhang, Kun; Junop, Murray; Coombes, Brian K.

2012-01-01

170

Genetic Association Analysis of ATP Binding Cassette Protein Family Reveals a Novel Association of ABCB1 Genetic Variants with Epilepsy Risk, but Not with Drug-Resistance  

PubMed Central

Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value?=?0.0002; allelic p-value?=?0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value?=?0.0008; allelic p-value?=?0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value?=?0.01; allelic p-value?=?0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with greater tendency for MTLE-HS in south Indian ancestry from Kerala. PMID:24586633

Balan, Shabeesh; Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Vellichiramal, Neetha Nanoth; Sathyan, Sanish; Joseph, Vijai; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Banerjee, Moinak

2014-01-01

171

Variants in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA7), Apolipoprotein E ?4, and the Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Importance Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. Objective To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Design, Setting, and Participants The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance–weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Main Outcomes and Measures Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Results Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10–9), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8

Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Mayeux, Richard

2013-01-01

172

Conserved glycolipid termini in capsular polysaccharides synthesized by ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathways in Gram-negative pathogens  

PubMed Central

Bacterial capsules are surface layers made of long-chain polysaccharides. They are anchored to the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pasteurella multocida. Capsules protect pathogens from host defenses including complement-mediated killing and phagocytosis and therefore represent a major virulence factor. Capsular polysaccharides are synthesized by enzymes located in the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and are then translocated to the cell surface. Whereas the enzymes that synthesize the polysaccharides have been studied in detail, the structure and biosynthesis of the anchoring elements have not been definitively resolved. Here we determine the structure of the glycolipid attached to the reducing terminus of the polysialic acid capsular polysaccharides from E. coli K1 and N. meningitidis group B and the heparosan-like capsular polysaccharide from E. coli K5. All possess the same unique glycolipid terminus consisting of a lyso-phosphatidylglycerol moiety with a ?-linked poly-(3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) (poly-Kdo) linker attached to the reducing terminus of the capsular polysaccharide. PMID:23610430

Willis, Lisa M.; Stupak, Jacek; Richards, Michele R.; Lowary, Todd L.; Li, Jianjun; Whitfield, Chris

2013-01-01

173

Cystathionine ?-Synthase (CBS) Domains 1 and 2 Fulfill Different Roles in Ionic Strength Sensing of the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter OpuA*  

PubMed Central

The cystathionine ?-synthase module of OpuA in conjunction with an anionic membrane surface acts as a sensor of internal ionic strength, which allows the protein to respond to osmotic stress. We now show by chemical modification and cross-linking studies that CBS2-CBS2 interface residues are critical for transport activity and/or ionic regulation of transport, whereas CBS1 serves no functional role. We establish that Cys residues in CBS1, CBS2, and the nucleotide-binding domain are more accessible for cross-linking at high than low ionic strength, indicating that these domains undergo conformational changes when transiting between the active and inactive state. Structural analyses suggest that the cystathionine ?-synthase module is largely unstructured. Moreover, we could substitute CBS1 by a linker and preserve ionic regulation of transport. These data suggest that CBS1 serves as a linker and the structured CBS2-CBS2 interface forms a hinge point for ionic strength-dependent rearrangements that are transmitted to the nucleotide-binding domain and thereby affect translocation activity. PMID:21878634

Karasawa, Akira; Erkens, Guus B.; Berntsson, Ronnie P.-A.; Otten, Renee; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Mulder, Frans A. A.; Poolman, Bert

2011-01-01

174

Enhanced production of ATP-binding cassette protein exporter-dependent lipase by modifying the growth medium components of Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

The industrially-important thermostable lipase, TliA, was extracellularly produced in the recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens by the homologous expression of TliA and its cognate ABC protein exporter, TliDEF. To increase the secretory production of TliA, we optimized the growth temperature and the culture medium of P. fluorescens. The total amount and the specific productivity of lipase was highest at 25 °C of cell growth temperature, although maximal cell growth was observed at 30 °C. Using the culture medium composed of 20 g dextrin l(-1), 40 g Tween 80 l(-1) and 30 g peptone l(-1), TliA was produced at a level of 2,200 U ml(-1) in a flask culture. The TliA production increased about 3.8-fold (8,450 U ml(-1)) in batch fermentation using a 2.5 l fermentor, which was about 7.7-fold higher than that of previously reported TliA production. PMID:24737082

Eom, Gyeong Tae; Song, Jae Kwang

2014-08-01

175

Construction of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and analysis of their growth under stress conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that is difficult to eliminate since it can survive under multiple stress conditions such as low pH and low temperature. Understanding its survival under stress conditions is important to control this pathogen in food. ABC transporters have been shown...

176

Cryopyrin/NALP3 binds ATP/dATP, is an ATPase, and requires ATP binding to mediate inflammatory signaling  

PubMed Central

The CATERPILLER (CLR/NLR) gene family encodes a family of putative nucleotide-binding proteins important for host defense. Although nucleotide binding is thought to be central to this family, this aspect is largely unstudied. The CATERPILLER protein cryopyrin/NALP3 regulates IL-1? processing by assembling the multimeric inflammasome complex. Mutations within the exon encoding the nucleotide-binding domain are associated with hereditary periodic fevers characterized by constitutive IL-1? production. We demonstrate that purified cryopyrin binds ATP, dATP, and ATP-agarose, but not CTP, GTP, or UTP, and exhibits ATPase activity. Mutation of the nucleotide-binding domain reduces ATP binding, caspase-1 activation, IL-1? production, cell death, macromolecular complex formation, self-association, and association with the inflammasome component ASC. Disruption of nucleotide binding abolishes the constitutive activation of disease-associated mutants, identifying nucleotide binding by cryopyrin as a potential target for antiinflammatory pharmacologic intervention. PMID:17483456

Duncan, Joseph A.; Bergstralh, Daniel T.; Wang, Yanhong; Willingham, Stephen B.; Ye, Zhengmao; Zimmermann, Albert G.; Ting, Jenny Pan-Yun

2007-01-01

177

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection  

SciTech Connect

Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

Drumm, J.; Mi, K; Bilder, P; Sun, M; Lim, J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H; Basaraba, R; So, M; Zhu, G; et. al.

2009-01-01

178

Automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system  

DOEpatents

An automated cassette-to-cassette substrate handling system includes a cassette storage module for storing a plurality of substrates in cassettes before and after processing. A substrate carrier storage module stores a plurality of substrate carriers. A substrate carrier loading/unloading module loads substrates from the cassette storage module onto the plurality of substrate carriers and unloads substrates from the plurality of substrate carriers to the cassette storage module. A transport mechanism transports the plurality of substrates between the cassette storage module and the plurality of substrate carriers and transports the plurality of substrate carriers between the substrate carrier loading/unloading module and a processing chamber. A vision system recognizes recesses in the plurality of substrate carriers corresponding to empty substrate positions in the substrate carrier. A processor receives data from the vision system and instructs the transport mechanism to transport substrates to positions on the substrate carrier in response to the received data.

Kraus, Joseph Arthur; Boyer, Jeremy James; Mack, Joseph; DeChellis, Michael; Koo, Michael

2014-03-18

179

ATP-binding motifs play key roles in Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, function for bi-polar growth control in fission yeast  

SciTech Connect

Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein with various functions related to the cell growth and division. It has been reported that Krp1p, kinesin-related protein 1, which belongs to the kinesin heavy chain superfamily, localizes on microtubules and may play an important role in cytokinesis. However, the function of Krp1p has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we overexpressed an intact form and three different mutant forms of Krp1p in fission yeast constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in two ATP-binding motifs or by truncation of the leucine zipper-like motif (LZiP). We observed hyper-extended microtubules and the aberrant nuclear shape in Krp1p-overexpressed fission yeast. As a functional consequence, a point mutation of ATP-binding domain 1 (G89E) in Krp1p reversed the effect of Krp1p overexpression in fission yeast, whereas the specific mutation in ATP-binding domain 2 (G238E) resulted in the altered cell polarity. Additionally, truncation of the leucine zipper-like domain (LZiP) at the C-terminal of Krp1p showed a normal nuclear division. Taken together, we suggest that krp1p is involved in regulation of cell-polarized growth through ATP-binding motifs in fission yeast.

Rhee, Dong Keun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Bon A [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyong Bai [Department of Bioinformatics, Korea University, Yeongigun, Chungnam 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: hbkim5212@hotmail.com

2005-06-03

180

ATP Utilization by Yeast Replication Factor C IV. RFC ATP-BINDING MUTANTS SHOW DEFECTS IN DNA REPLICATION, DNA REPAIR, AND CHECKPOINT  

E-print Network

the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Four of the five RFC genes have consensus ATP-binding motifs. To determine mu- tations in all RFC genes tested permitted cell growth, although poor growth was observed for rfc2. Most double mu- tants combining mutations in two RFC genes were invi- able. Except for the rfc1-K359R

Burgers, Peter M.

181

Kinetics of ATP and TNP-ATP binding to the active site of CheA from Thermotoga maritima.  

PubMed

The mechanism of nucleotide binding to the active site of Thermotoga maritima CheA was investigated using stopped-flow fluorescence experiments that monitored binding of ATP and TNP-ATP to the catalytic domain (P4) of CheA that had been engineered to include a tryptophan residue as a fluorescent reporter group at the active site (P4(F487W)). Rapid decreases in protein intrinsic fluorescence and increases in TNP-ATP fluorescence were observed during binding reactions, and time courses were analyzed to define the kinetic mechanisms for ATP and TNP-ATP binding. This analysis indicated that binding of ATP(Mg(2+)) to P4(F487W) involves a single reversible step with a k(on) of 0.92 +/- 0.09 microM(-1) s(-1), a k(off) of 1.9 +/- 0.4 s(-1), and a K(d) of 1.5-2.1 microM (all values determined at 4 degrees C). Binding of TNP-ATP(Mg(2+)) to P4(F487W) involves a more complicated mechanism, requiring at least three sequential steps. Computer simulations and nonlinear regression analysis were used to estimate the rate constants of the forward and reverse reactions for each of the three steps in the reaction scheme [Formula: see text] Similar analysis indicated that an alternative reaction scheme, involving a rate-limiting conformational change in P4 prior to TNP-ATP binding, did an equally good job of accounting for all of the kinetics results:[Formula: see text] In both models, steps 2 and 3 have slow reversal rates that contribute to the high affinity of the active site for TNP-ATP (K(d) = 0.015 microM). These results highlight the dramatic effect of the TNP moieties on CheA-nucleotide interactions, and they provide the first detailed information about the kinetic mechanism underlying interaction of a protein histidine kinase with this tight-binding inhibitor. PMID:20565117

Eaton, Anna K; Stewart, Richard C

2010-07-13

182

The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on HDL-cholesterol concentrations depend on ABCA1 genetic variants in the Boston Puerto Rican health study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background and aims: ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 (ABCG5/G8) are associated with HDL-C concentrations. To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 genetic variants on HDL-C concentrations is dependent on ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1), we studied potential interactions between ...

183

Identification of mutations in regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds of the cystic fibrosis gene  

SciTech Connect

Additional mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene were identified in the regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds (NBFs) of the predicted polypeptide. The patient cohort included 46 Canadian CF families with well-characterized DNA marker haplotypes spanning the disease locus and several other families from Israel. Eleven mutations were found in the first NBF, 2 were found in the second NBF, but none was found in the R-domain. Seven of the mutations were of the missense type affecting some of the highly conserved amino acid residues in the first NBF; 3 were nonsense mutations; 2 would probably affect mRNA splicing; 2 corresponded to small deletions, including another 3-base-pair deletion different from the major mutation ({delta}F508), which could account for 70% of the CF chromosomes in the population. Nine of these mutations accounted for 12 of the 31 non-{delta}F508 CF chromosomes in the Canadian families. The highly heterogeneous nature of the remaining CF mutations provides important insights into the structure and function of the protein, but it also suggests that DNA-based genetic screening for CF carrier status will not be straightforward.

Kerem, B.; Zielenski, J.; Markiewicz, D.; Bozon, D.; Kennedy, D.; Rommens, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Gazit, E. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Yahav, J. (Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)); Riordan, J.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Collins, F.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Tsui, Lapchee (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1990-11-01

184

Examination of MgATP binding in a tryptophan-shift mutant of phosphofructokinase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.  

PubMed

A tryptophan-shift variant of Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase (BsPFK), W179F/F76W, was constructed to evaluate the binding and allosteric characteristics associated with MgATP. W179F/F76W BsPFK has a specific activity of 77+/-1 U/mg at pH 7 and 25 degrees C, which is a 35% decrease compared to the wild-type enzyme. The K(m) for MgATP increases from 43+/-3 microM for wild-type BsPFK to 160+/-7 microM in the variant. Binding and allosteric interaction between Fru-6-P and PEP for the variant are similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. W179F/F76W BsPFK has distinct fluorescence properties relative to wild-type or other tryptophan-shifted mutants of BsPFK. The binding of MgATP produces an 80% decrease in the fluorescence intensity while MgADP causes a 70% decrease. Capitalizing on these fluorescence changes, dissociation constants of 30+/-1 microM and 0.53+/-0.02 mM were measured for MgATP and MgADP, respectively. In addition, PEP was shown to enhance MgATP binding by 2.6-fold. PMID:15752723

Riley-Lovingshimer, Michelle R; Reinhart, Gregory D

2005-04-01

185

par-2, a gene required for blastomere asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes zinc-finger and ATP-binding motifs.  

PubMed Central

The par-2 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans functions in early embryogenesis to ensure an asymmetric first cleavage and the segregation of cytoplasmic factors. Both processes appear to be required to generate daughter blastomeres with distinct developmental potential. We isolated an allele of par-2 by using a screen for maternal-effect lethal mutations in a strain known for its high frequency of transposition events. A transposable element was found to be linked to this allele. Sequences flanking the site of transposon insertion were cloned and found to rescue the par-2 mutant phenotype. DNA in the par-2 region hybridized to a 2.3-kb germ-line-enriched mRNA. The cDNA corresponding to this germ-line-enriched message was cloned, sequenced, and used to identify the molecular lesions associated with three par-2 alleles. Sequence analysis of the par-2 cDNA revealed that the predicted protein contained two distinct motifs found in other known proteins: an ATP-binding site and a cysteine-rich motif which identifies the par-2 gene product as a member of a growing class of putative zinc-binding proteins. Images PMID:8016123

Levitan, D J; Boyd, L; Mello, C C; Kemphues, K J; Stinchcomb, D T

1994-01-01

186

Intrasteric Inhibition of ATP Binding Is Not Required To Prevent Unregulated Autophosphorylation or Signaling by the Insulin Receptor  

PubMed Central

Receptor tyrosine kinases may use intrasteric inhibition to suppress autophosphorylation prior to growth factor stimulation. To test this hypothesis we made an Asp1161Ala mutant in the activation loop that relieved intrasteric inhibition of the unphosphorylated insulin receptor (IR) and its recombinant cytoplasmic kinase domain (IRKD) without affecting the activated state. Solution studies with the unphosphorylated mutant IRKD demonstrated conformational changes and greater catalytic efficiency from a 10-fold increase in kcat and a 15-fold-lower Km ATP although Km peptide was unchanged. Kinetic parameters of the autophosphorylated mutant and wild-type kinase domains were virtually identical. The Asp1161Ala mutation increased the rate of in vitro autophosphorylation of the IRKD or IR at low ATP concentrations and in the absence of insulin. However, saturation with ATP (for the IRKD) or the presence of insulin (for the IR) yielded equivalent rates of autophosphorylation for mutant versus wild-type kinases. Despite a biochemically more active kinase domain, the mutant IR expressed in C2C12 myoblasts was not constitutively autophosphorylated. However, it displayed a 2.5-fold-lower 50% effective concentration for insulin stimulation of autophosphorylation and was dephosphorylated more slowly following withdrawal of insulin than wild-type IR. In tests of the regulation of the unphosphorylated basal state, these results demonstrate that neither intrasteric inhibition against ATP binding nor suppression of kinase activity is required to prevent premature autophosphorylation of the IR. Finally, the lower rate of dephosphorylation suggests invariant residues of the activation loop such as Asp1161 may function at multiple junctures in cellular regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:11390649

Frankel, Mark; Ablooglu, Ararat J.; Leone, Joseph W.; Rusinova, Elena; Ross, J. B. Alexander; Heinrikson, Robert L.; Kohanski, Ronald A.

2001-01-01

187

Unique ATPase Site Architecture Triggers cis-Mediated Synchronized ATP Binding in Heptameric AAA+-ATPase Domain of Flagellar Regulatory Protein FlrC.  

PubMed

Bacterial enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs) oligomerize through AAA(+) domains and use ATP hydrolysis-driven energy to isomerize the RNA polymerase-?(54) complex during transcriptional initiation. Here, we describe the first structure of the central AAA(+) domain of the flagellar regulatory protein FlrC (FlrC(C)), a bEBP that controls flagellar synthesis in Vibrio cholerae. Our results showed that FlrC(C) forms heptamer both in nucleotide (Nt)-free and -bound states without ATP-dependent subunit remodeling. Unlike the bEBPs such as NtrC1 or PspF, a novel cis-mediated "all or none" ATP binding occurs in the heptameric FlrC(C), because constriction at the ATPase site, caused by loop L3 and helix ?7, restricts the proximity of the trans-protomer required for Nt binding. A unique "closed to open" movement of Walker A, assisted by trans-acting "Glu switch" Glu-286, facilitates ATP binding and hydrolysis. Fluorescence quenching and ATPase assays on FlrC(C) and mutants revealed that although Arg-349 of sensor II, positioned by trans-acting Glu-286 and Tyr-290, acts as a key residue to bind and hydrolyze ATP, Arg-319 of ?7 anchors ribose and controls the rate of ATP hydrolysis by retarding the expulsion of ADP. Heptameric state of FlrC(C) is restored in solution even with the transition state mimicking ADP·AlF3. Structural results and pulldown assays indicated that L3 renders an in-built geometry to L1 and L2 causing ?(54)-FlrC(C) interaction independent of Nt binding. Collectively, our results underscore a novel mechanism of ATP binding and ?(54) interaction that strives to understand the transcriptional mechanism of the bEBPs, which probably interact directly with the RNA polymerase-?(54) complex without DNA looping. PMID:25688103

Dey, Sanjay; Biswas, Maitree; Sen, Udayaditya; Dasgupta, Jhimli

2015-04-01

188

Structural Models of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) NOD1 and NOD2 NACHT Domains Suggest Differential ATP Binding Orientations: Insights from Computational Modeling, Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NOD2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors playing pivotal roles in innate immune signaling. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize bacterial peptidoglycan derivatives iE-DAP and MDP, respectively and undergoes conformational alternation and ATP-dependent self-oligomerization of NACHT domain followed by downstream signaling. Lack of structural adequacy of NACHT domain confines our understanding about the NOD-mediated signaling mechanism. Here, we predicted the structure of NACHT domain of both NOD1 and NOD2 from model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio) using computational methods. Our study highlighted the differential ATP binding modes in NOD1 and NOD2. In NOD1, ?-phosphate of ATP faced toward the central nucleotide binding cavity like NLRC4, whereas in NOD2 the cavity was occupied by adenine moiety. The conserved ‘Lysine’ at Walker A formed hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and Aspartic acid (Walker B) formed electrostatic interaction with ATP. At Sensor 1, Arg328 of NOD1 exhibited an H-bond with ATP, whereas corresponding Arg404 of NOD2 did not. ‘Proline’ of GxP motif (Pro386 of NOD1 and Pro464 of NOD2) interacted with adenine moiety and His511 at Sensor 2 of NOD1 interacted with ?-phosphate group of ATP. In contrast, His579 of NOD2 interacted with the adenine moiety having a relatively inverted orientation. Our findings are well supplemented with the molecular interaction of ATP with NLRC4, and consistent with mutagenesis data reported for human, which indicates evolutionary shared NOD signaling mechanism. Together, this study provides novel insights into ATP binding mechanism, and highlights the differential ATP binding modes in zebrafish NOD1 and NOD2. PMID:25811192

Maharana, Jitendra; Sahoo, Bikash Ranjan; Bej, Aritra; Sahoo, Jyoti Ranjan; Dehury, Budheswar; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Martha, Sushma Rani; Balabantray, Sucharita; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; Behera, Bijay Kumar

2015-01-01

189

The rem Mutations in the ATP-Binding Groove of the Rad3/XPD Helicase Lead to Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome-Like Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic TFIIH complex is involved in Nucleotide Excision Repair and transcription initiation. We analyzed three yeast mutations of the Rad3/XPD helicase of TFIIH known as rem (recombination and mutation phenotypes). We found that, in these mutants, incomplete NER reactions lead to replication fork breaking and the subsequent engagement of the homologous recombination machinery to restore them. Nevertheless, the penetrance varies among mutants, giving rise to a phenotype gradient. Interestingly, the mutations analyzed reside at the ATP-binding groove of Rad3 and in vivo experiments reveal a gain of DNA affinity upon damage of the mutant Rad3 proteins. Since mutations at the ATP-binding groove of XPD in humans are present in the Xeroderma pigmentosum-Cockayne Syndrome (XP-CS), we recreated rem mutations in human cells, and found that these are XP-CS-like. We propose that the balance between the loss of helicase activity and the gain of DNA affinity controls the capacity of TFIIH to open DNA during NER, and its persistence at both DNA lesions and promoters. This conditions NER efficiency and transcription resumption after damage, which in human cells would explain the XP-CS phenotype, opening new perspectives to understand the molecular basis of the role of XPD in human disease. PMID:25500814

Montelone, Beth A.; Aguilera, Andrés

2014-01-01

190

Inactivation of Na,K-ATPase following Co(NH3)4ATP binding at a low affinity site in the protomeric enzyme unit.  

PubMed

The Na(+)-dependent or E1 stages of the Na,K-ATPase reaction require a few micromolar ATP, but submillimolar concentrations are needed to accelerate the K(+)-dependent or E2 half of the cycle. Here we use Co(NH(3))(4)ATP as a tool to study ATP sites in Na,K-ATPase. The analogue inactivates the K(+) phosphatase activity (an E2 partial reaction) and the Na,K-ATPase activity in parallel, whereas ATP-[(3)H]ADP exchange (an E1 reaction) is affected less or not at all. Although the inactivation occurs as a consequence of low affinity Co(NH(3))(4)ATP binding (K(D) approximately 0.4-0.6 mm), we can also measure high affinity equilibrium binding of Co(NH(3))(4)[(3)H]ATP (K(D) = 0.1 micro m) to the native enzyme. Crucially, we find that covalent enzyme modification with fluorescein isothiocyanate (which blocks E1 reactions) causes little or no effect on the affinity of the binding step preceding Co(NH(3))(4)ATP inactivation and only a 20% decrease in maximal inactivation rate. This suggests that fluorescein isothiocyanate and Co(NH(3))(4)ATP bind within different enzyme pockets. The Co(NH(3))(4)ATP enzyme was solubilized with C(12)E(8) to a homogeneous population of alphabeta protomers, as verified by analytical ultracentrifugation; the solubilization did not increase the Na,K-ATPase activity of the Co(NH(3))(4)ATP enzyme with respect to parallel controls. This was contrary to the expectation for a hypothetical (alphabeta)(2) membrane dimer with a single ATP site per protomer, with or without fast dimer/protomer equilibrium in detergent solution. Besides, the solubilized alphabeta protomer could be directly inactivated by Co(NH(3))(4)ATP, to less than 10% of the control Na,K-ATPase activity. This suggests that the inactivation must follow Co(NH(3))(4)ATP binding at a low affinity site in every protomeric unit, thus still allowing ATP and ADP access to phosphorylation and high affinity ATP sites. PMID:12591931

Ward, Douglas G; Cavieres, José D

2003-04-25

191

Background  

E-print Network

Efficiency of the EMDR procedure is based on a presumption of neuropsychological changes in therapeutic process.The aim of the investigation is to scann and give evidence of electroactivity changes, during the process of EMDR procedure and after finishing it. Materials and methods We have recorded a continual polygraph EEG, before, during and after EMDR therapy, in patient with combat-related PTSD. Results Before the treatment, EEG recorded basic activity of low voltage (attenuation) of 20 ?V, frequency of beta range (17-26 Hz), bioccipital, with no pathologic activity. Patient had prominent vegetative symptoms (anxiety, heart rate 100/min). Background activity immediately

Grozdanko Grbesa; Maja Simonovic; Dorjanka Jankovic

192

Background  

E-print Network

Background: Although the outcomes of caustic ingestion differ between children and adults, it is unclear whether such outcomes differ among adults as a function of their age. This retrospective study was performed to ascertain whether the clinical outcomes of caustic ingestion differ significantly between elderly and non-elderly adults. Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for caustic ingestion between June 1999 and July 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Three hundred eighty nine patients between the ages of 17 and 107 years were divided into two groups: non-elderly (ingestion, substance ingested, systemic and gastrointestinal complications, psychological and systemic comorbidities, severity of mucosal injury, and time to expiration. Results: The incidence of psychological comorbidities was higher for the non-elderly group. By contrast, the incidence of systemic comorbidities, the grade of severity of mucosal damage, and the incidence of systemic complications were higher for the elderly group. The percentages of ICU admissions and deaths in the ICU were higher and the cumulative survival rate was lower for the elderly group. Elderly subjects, those with systemic complications had the greatest mortality risk due to caustic ingestion. Conclusions: Caustic ingestion by subjects ?65 years of age is associated with poorer clinical outcomes as compared to subjects < 65 years of age; elderly subjects with systemic complications have the poorest clinical outcomes. The severity of gastrointestinal tract injury appears to have no impact on the survival of elderly subjects.

Jui-min Chang; Nai-jen Liu; Betty Chien-jung Pai; Yun-hen Liu; Ming-hung Tsai; Ching-song Lee; Yin-yi Chu; Chih-chuan Lin; Cheng-tang Chiu; Hao-tsai Cheng

193

Evaluation of a Brucella melitensis mutant deficient in O-polysaccharide export system ATP-binding protein as a rough vaccine candidate.  

PubMed

Rough Brucella mutants have been sought as vaccine candidates that do not interfere with the conventional serological diagnosis of brucellosis. In this study, a rough mutant of Brucella melitensis was generated by the disruption of the wzt gene, which encodes the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) export system ATP-binding protein. In vivo, the mutant 16M?wzt was attenuated and conferred a level of protection against B. melitensis 16M challenge similar to that conferred by the vaccine strain B. melitensis M5 in mice. In pregnant sheep, the mutant 16M?wzt did not induce abortion. In vitro, 16M?wzt was more susceptible to polymyxin B and complement-mediated killing than B. melitensis 16M was. Most importantly, although 16M?wzt had a rough phenotype, it was able to synthesize O-PS and did not induce detectable specific antibodies in sheep. These results suggested that 16M?wzt deserved to further systematic evaluation as a vaccine for target animal hosts due to its promising features. PMID:25043564

Wang, Zhen; Niu, Jian Rui; Wang, Xiao Lei; Wu, Tong Lei; Cheng, Jie; Lu, Lin; Wu, Qing Min

2014-08-01

194

The ATP binding site of the chromatin remodeling homolog Lsh is required for nucleosome density and de novo DNA methylation at repeat sequences  

PubMed Central

Lsh, a chromatin remodeling protein of the SNF2 family, is critical for normal heterochromatin structure. In particular, DNA methylation at repeat elements, a hallmark of heterochromatin, is greatly reduced in Lsh?/? (KO) cells. Here, we examined the presumed nucleosome remodeling activity of Lsh on chromatin in the context of DNA methylation. We found that dynamic CG methylation was dependent on Lsh in embryonic stem cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ATP function is critical for de novo methylation at repeat sequences. The ATP binding site of Lsh is in part required to promote stable association of the DNA methyltransferase 3b with the repeat locus. By performing nucleosome occupancy assays, we found distinct nucleosome occupancy in KO ES cells compared to WT ES cells after differentiation. Nucleosome density was restored to wild-type level by re-expressing wild-type Lsh but not the ATP mutant in KO ES cells. Our results suggest that ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling is the primary molecular function of Lsh, which may promote de novo methylation in differentiating ES cells. PMID:25578963

Ren, Jianke; Briones, Victorino; Barbour, Samantha; Yu, Weishi; Han, Yixing; Terashima, Minoru; Muegge, Kathrin

2015-01-01

195

New crystal structures of HSC-70 ATP binding domain confirm the role of individual binding pockets and suggest a new method of inhibition.  

PubMed

In recent years the chaperone HSC-70 has become a target for drug design with a strong focus in anticancer therapies. In our study of possible inhibitors of HSC-70 enzymatic activity we screened compounds by NMR as well as X-ray crystallography. As part of our screening efforts we crystallized the human HSC-70 ATP binding domain and obtained novel crystal forms in addition to known structures. The new crystal structures highlight the mobility of the entire domain previously described by NMR, which was linked to its chaperone activity but not yet demonstrated by X-ray crystallography. Conformational changes across the entire molecule have been elucidated in response to the binding of small molecule ligands and show a pattern of mobility consistent with postulated signal transduction modes between the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and the substrate binding domain (SBD). In addition, two crystal structures contained glycerol bound at a new site. Binding studies performed with glycerol analogs proved inhibitory properties of the site, which were further characterized by isothermal calorimetry and in silico docking studies. The presence of two binding pockets enabled us to explore a novel method of inhibition by compounds that bridge the adjacent phosphate and glycerol binding sites. Finally, an example of such a bridged inhibitor is proposed. PMID:25433210

Zhang, Ziming; Cellitti, Jason; Teriete, Peter; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Stec, Boguslaw

2015-01-01

196

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device...

2010-04-01

197

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892.1850...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use...

2014-04-01

198

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892.1850...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use...

2013-04-01

199

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device...

2012-04-01

200

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892.1850...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use...

2012-04-01

202

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device...

2011-04-01

203

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer. 892.1860 Section...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer is a device...

2014-04-01

204

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892.1850...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use...

2010-04-01

205

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiographic film cassette. 892.1850 Section 892.1850...Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A radiographic film cassette is a device intended for use...

2011-04-01

206

Easily constructed and inexpensive three-layer cassette for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the design, construction, and use of a three-layer photographic cassette that is suitable for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography. The cassette can be produced easily and at a fraction of the cost of commercially available cassettes. The three-tiered design allows for the simultaneous exposure of 108 standard-sized glass microscope slides to three 20 X 34 cm pieces of /sup 3/H-Ultrofilm (LKB). The small between- or within-film variation of gray values recorded for either background, tritium-containing standards, or neighboring brain sections labeled with /sup 3/H-spiroperidol demonstrates the reliability of the cassette for autoradiographic quantification of tritium label.

Altar, C.A.

1984-10-01

207

An easily constructed and inexpensive three-layer cassette for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography.  

PubMed

This report describes the design, construction, and use of a three-layer photographic cassette that is suitable for tritium-sensitive film autoradiography. The cassette can be produced easily and at a fraction of the cost of commercially available cassettes. The three-tiered design allows for the simultaneous exposure of 108 standard-sized glass microscope slides to three 20 X 34 cm pieces of 3H-Ultrofilm (LKB). The small between- or within-film variation of gray values recorded for either background, tritium-containing standards, or neighboring brain sections labeled with 3H-spiroperidol demonstrates the reliability of the cassette for autoradiographic quantification of tritium label. PMID:6536827

Altar, C A

1984-10-01

208

Metal switch-controlled myosin II from Dictyostelium discoideum supports closure of nucleotide pocket during ATP binding coupled to detachment from actin filaments.  

PubMed

G-proteins, kinesins, and myosins are hydrolases that utilize a common protein fold and divalent metal cofactor (typically Mg(2+)) to coordinate purine nucleotide hydrolysis. The nucleoside triphosphorylase activities of these enzymes are activated through allosteric communication between the nucleotide-binding site and the activator/effector/polymer interface to convert the free energy of nucleotide hydrolysis into molecular switching (G-proteins) or force generation (kinesins and myosin). We have investigated the ATPase mechanisms of wild-type and the S237C mutant of non-muscle myosin II motor from Dictyostelium discoideum. The S237C substitution occurs in the conserved metal-interacting switch-1, and we show that this substitution modulates the actomyosin interaction based on the divalent metal present in solution. Surprisingly, S237C shows rapid basal steady-state Mg(2+)- or Mn(2+)-ATPase kinetics, but upon binding actin, its MgATPase is inhibited. This actin inhibition is relieved by Mn(2+), providing a direct and experimentally reversible linkage of switch-1 and the actin-binding cleft through the swapping of divalent metals in the reaction. Using pyrenyl-labeled F-actin, we demonstrate that acto·S237C undergoes slow and weak MgATP binding, which limits the rate of steady-state catalysis. Mn(2+) rescues this effect to near wild-type activity. 2'(3')-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-ADP release experiments show the need for switch-1 interaction with the metal cofactor for tight ADP binding. Our results are consistent with strong reciprocal coupling of nucleoside triphosphate and F-actin binding and provide additional evidence for the allosteric communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding site and the filament-binding region. PMID:23960071

Cochran, Jared C; Thompson, Morgan E; Kull, F Jon

2013-09-27

209

The three-dimensional structure of MAP kinase p38[beta]: different features of the ATP-binding site in p38[beta] compared with p38[alpha  

SciTech Connect

The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in response to environmental stress and cytokines and play a significant role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. Of the four p38 isoforms known to date, two (p38{alpha} and p38{beta}) have been identified as targets for cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, it was reported that specific inhibition of the p38{alpha} isoform is necessary and sufficient for anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo, while further inhibition of p38{beta} may not provide any additional benefit. In order to aid the development of p38{alpha}-selective compounds, the three-dimensional structure of p38{beta} was determined. To do so, the C162S and C119S,C162S mutants of human MAP kinase p38{beta} were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening hits in crystallization trials in the presence of an inhibitor led upon optimization to crystals that diffracted to 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and allowed structure determination (PDB codes 3gc8 and 3gc9 for the single and double mutant, respectively). The structure of the p38{alpha} C162S mutant in complex with the same inhibitor is also reported (PDB code 3gc7). A comparison between the structures of the two kinases showed that they are highly similar overall but that there are differences in the relative orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains that causes a reduction in the size of the ATP-binding pocket in p38{beta}. This difference in size between the two pockets could be exploited in order to achieve selectivity.

Patel, Sangita B.; Cameron, Patricia M.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy; Thompson, Jed; O'Neill, Edward A.; Tennis, Trevor; Liu, Luping; Becker, Joseph W.; Scapin, Giovanna; Merck

2010-10-18

210

4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) induces neuronal SH-SY5Y cell death via hampering ATP binding at kinase domain of Akt1.  

PubMed

Inhibition mechanism(s) of protein kinase B/Akt1 and its consequences on related cell signaling were investigated in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE), one of the most reactive aldehyde by-products of lipid peroxidation. In silico data indicate that 4-HNE interacts with kinase domain of Akt1 with the total docking score of 6.0577 and also forms H-bond to Glu234 residue similar to highly potent Akt1 inhibitor imidazopiperidine analog 8b, in which the protonated imidazole nitrogen involves in two hydrogen bonds between Glu234 and Asp292. The strong hydrogen bonding with Glu234 and hydrophobic interactions with several residues, namely Leu156, Gly157, Val164, Ala177, Tyr229, Ala230, Met281 and Thr291, at the vicinity which is normally occupied by the ribose of ATP, appear to be the main causes of Akt1 inhibition and lead to the significant conformational change on this region of protein. Results of mutational docking prove that Glu234 plays a major role in 4-HNE-mediated Akt1 inhibition. In silico data on Akt inhibition were further validated by observing the down-regulated levels of phosphorylated (Thr308/Ser493) Akt1 as well as the altered levels of the downstream targets of pAkt, namely downregulated levels of pGSK3? (Ser9), ?-catenin, Bcl2 and upregulated levels of pro-apoptotic markers, namely Bad, Bax, P(53) and caspase-9/3. The cellular fate of such pAkt inhibition was evidenced by increased reactive oxygen species, degraded nuclei, transferase dUTP nick end labeling positive cells and upregulated levels of pJNK1/2. We identified that 4-HNE-mediated Akt1 inhibition was due to the competitive inhibition of ATP by 4-HNE at the kinase domain of ATP binding sites. PMID:24825450

Kashyap, Mahendra P; Singh, Abhishek K; Yadav, Dharmendra K; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Chaturvedi, Vishal; Rai, Navneet

2015-02-01

211

Cassette for handling banknotes or the like  

DOEpatents

A cassette for banknotes and like valuable articles is provided with a displaceable lid (6) and locking means (10) for latching the lid of the cassette when the cassette is located outside a housing (25) in which it is intended to be placed. An operating means (8) is arranged to co-act with the locking means and with a latching element (15). The latching element is arranged to be released in dependence upon a pre-set program. A signal circuit is arranged to send a code signal to a detector circuit (23) when electrical contact elements on the cassette and the housing co-act with one another, which detector circuit, when the signal coincides with the signal program in the detector circuit, causes a signal to be sent for moving the latching means to a non-latching position.

Lundblad, Leif (Haradsvagen 102, S-141 41 Huddinge, SE)

1981-08-11

212

A disposable microfluidic cassette for DNA amplification and detection.  

PubMed

A pneumatically driven, disposable, microfluidic cassette comprised of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermal cycler, an incubation chamber to label PCR amplicons with up-converting phosphor (UPT) reporter particles, conduits, temperature-activated, normally closed hydrogel valves, and a lateral flow strip, was constructed and tested. The hydrogel valves, which were opened and closed with the aid of electrically controlled thermoelectric units, provided a simple means to seal the PCR reactor and suppress bubble formation. The hydrogel-based flow control was electronically addressable, leakage-free, and biocompatible. To test the device, a solution laden with genomic DNA isolated from B. cereus was introduced into the microfluidic cassette and a specific 305 bp fragment was amplified. The PCR amplicons were labelled with the phosphor (UPT) reporter particles, applied to the lateral flow strip, bound to pre-immobilized ligands, and detected with an IR laser that scanned the lateral flow strip and excited the phosphor (UPT) particles that, in turn, emitted light in the visible spectrum. The UPT particles do not bleach, they provide a permanent record, and they readily facilitate the filtering of background noise. The cassette described herein will be used for rapid testing at the point of care. PMID:16372068

Wang, Jing; Chen, Zongyuan; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Mauk, Michael G; Bau, Haim H

2006-01-01

213

Identification of differentially expressed proteins by treatment with PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through analysis of ATP-binding proteome.  

PubMed

O-GlcNAc (2-acetamino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranose), an important modification for cellular processes, is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) is a nonselective inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, which increases the level of protein O-GlcNAcylation and is known to induce insulin-resistance in adipose cells due to uncharacterized targets of this inhibitor. In this study, using ATP affinity chromatography, we applied a targeted proteomic approach for identification of proteins induced by treatment with PUGNAc. For optimization of proteomic methods using ATP affinity chromatography, comparison of two cell lines (3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes) and two different digestion steps was performed using four different structures of immobilized ATP-bound resins. Using this approach, based on DNA sequence homologies, we found that the identified proteins covered almost half of ATP-binding protein families classified by PROSITE. The optimized ATP affinity chromatography approach was applied for identification of proteins that were differentially expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes following treatment with PUGNAc. For label-free quantitation, a gel-assisted method was used for digestion of the eluted proteins, and analysis was performed using two different MS modes, data-independent (671 proteins identified) and data-dependent (533 proteins identified) analyses. Among identified proteins, 261 proteins belong to nucleotide-binding proteins and we focused on some nucleotide-binding proteins, ubiquitin-activation enzyme 1 (E1), Hsp70, vasolin-containing protein (Vcp), and Hsp90, involved in ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and insulin signaling pathways. In addition, we found that treatment with PUGNAc resulted in increased ubiquitination of proteins in a time-dependent manner, and a decrease in both the amount of Akt and the level of phosphorylation of Akt, a key component in insulin signaling, through downregulation of Hsp90. In this study, based on a targeted proteomic approach using ATP affinity chromatography, we found four proteins related to ubiquitination and insulin signaling pathways that were induced by treatment with PUGNAc. This result would provide insight into understanding functions of PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23946262

Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Ja-Hye; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Baek, Moon-Chang

2013-10-01

214

Antibiotic-resistance cassettes for Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes encoding resistance to four different antibiotics (erythromycin, kanamycin, tetracycline and spectinomycin) were cloned in the polylinker of various Escherichia coli plasmid vectors. These cassettes can be inserted into cloned Bacillus subtilis (Bs) genes and used to create tagged chromosomal disruptions after recombination into Bs and selection in the presence of the appropriate antibiotic.

Anne-Marie Guérout-Fleury; Kamran Shazand; Niels Frandsen; Patrick Stragier

1995-01-01

215

Kassette oder Spule? Die Compactkassette zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit. (Cassette or Reel? The Compact Cassette between Claims and Reality).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of compact cassettes in the context of individualized foreign language teaching in laboratory work at the university level. Presents and comments on some technical data regarding the relative merits of cassettes v reels. (IFS/WGA)

Jung, Udo O. H.

1979-01-01

216

CryoEM and molecular dynamics of the circadian KaiB-KaiC complex indicates that KaiB monomers interact with KaiC and block ATP binding clefts.  

PubMed

The circadian control of cellular processes in cyanobacteria is regulated by a posttranslational oscillator formed by three Kai proteins. During the oscillator cycle, KaiA serves to promote autophosphorylation of KaiC while KaiB counteracts this effect. Here, we present a crystallographic structure of the wild-type Synechococcus elongatus KaiB and a cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) structure of a KaiBC complex. The crystal structure shows the expected dimer core structure and significant conformational variations of the KaiB C-terminal region, which is functionally important in maintaining rhythmicity. The KaiBC sample was formed with a C-terminally truncated form of KaiC, KaiC-?489, which is persistently phosphorylated. The KaiB-KaiC-?489 structure reveals that the KaiC hexamer can bind six monomers of KaiB, which form a continuous ring of density in the KaiBC complex. We performed cryoEM-guided molecular dynamics flexible fitting simulations with crystal structures of KaiB and KaiC to probe the KaiBC protein-protein interface. This analysis indicated a favorable binding mode for the KaiB monomer on the CII end of KaiC, involving two adjacent KaiC subunits and spanning an ATP binding cleft. A KaiC mutation, R468C, which has been shown to affect the affinity of KaiB for KaiC and lengthen the period in a bioluminescence rhythm assay, is found within the middle of the predicted KaiBC interface. The proposed KaiB binding mode blocks access to the ATP binding cleft in the CII ring of KaiC, which provides insight into how KaiB might influence the phosphorylation status of KaiC. PMID:23796516

Villarreal, Seth A; Pattanayek, Rekha; Williams, Dewight R; Mori, Tetsuya; Qin, Ximing; Johnson, Carl H; Egli, Martin; Stewart, Phoebe L

2013-09-23

217

Comparative analysis of CRISPR cassettes from the human gut metagenomic contigs  

PubMed Central

Background CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a prokaryotic adaptive defence system that provides resistance against alien replicons such as viruses and plasmids. Spacers in a CRISPR cassette confer immunity against viruses and plasmids containing regions complementary to the spacers and hence they retain a footprint of interactions between prokaryotes and their viruses in individual strains and ecosystems. The human gut is a rich habitat populated by numerous microorganisms, but a large fraction of these are unculturable and little is known about them in general and their CRISPR systems in particular. Results We used human gut metagenomic data from three open projects in order to characterize the composition and dynamics of CRISPR cassettes in the human-associated microbiota. Applying available CRISPR-identification algorithms and a previously designed filtering procedure to the assembled human gut metagenomic contigs, we found 388 CRISPR cassettes, 373 of which had repeats not observed previously in complete genomes or other datasets. Only 171 of 3,545 identified spacers were coupled with protospacers from the human gut metagenomic contigs. The number of matches to GenBank sequences was negligible, providing protospacers for 26 spacers. Reconstruction of CRISPR cassettes allowed us to track the dynamics of spacer content. In agreement with other published observations we show that spacers shared by different cassettes (and hence likely older ones) tend to the trailer ends, whereas spacers with matches in the metagenomes are distributed unevenly across cassettes, demonstrating a preference to form clusters closer to the active end of a CRISPR cassette, adjacent to the leader, and hence suggesting dynamical interactions between prokaryotes and viruses in the human gut. Remarkably, spacers match protospacers in the metagenome of the same individual with frequency comparable to a random control, but may match protospacers from metagenomes of other individuals. Conclusions The analysis of assembled contigs is complementary to the approach based on the analysis of original reads and hence provides additional data about composition and evolution of CRISPR cassettes, revealing the dynamics of CRISPR-phage interactions in metagenomes. PMID:24628983

2014-01-01

218

Finger-Actuated, Self-Contained Immunoassay Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:19597994

Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A.; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G.; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

2010-01-01

219

Finger-actuated, self-contained immunoassay cassettes.  

PubMed

The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:19597994

Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

2009-12-01

220

Characterization of a multiple endogenously expressed adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters using nuclear and cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive form of human astrocytoma, with poor prognosis due to multi-drug resistance to a number of anticancer drugs. The observed multi-drug resistance is primarily due to the efflux activity of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) efflux transporters such as Pgp, MRP1 and BCRP. The expression of these transporters has been demonstrated in nuclear and cellular membranes of the LN-229 human glioblastoma cell line. Nuclear membrane and cellular membrane fragments from LN-229 cells were immobilized on the IAM stationary phase to create nuclear and cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns, (NMAC(LN-229)) and (CMAC(LN-229)), respectively. Pgp, MRP1 and BCRP transporters co-immobilized on both columns were characterized and compared by establishing the binding affinities for estrone-3-sulfate (3.8 vs. 3.7?M), verapamil (0.6 vs. 0.7?M) and prazosin (0.099 vs. 0.033?M) on each column and no significant differences were observed. Since the marker ligands had overlapping selectivities, the selective characterization of each transporter was carried out by saturation of the binding sites of the non-targeted transporters. The addition of verapamil (Pgp and MRP1 substrate) to the mobile phase allowed the comparative screening of eight compounds at the nuclear and cellular BCRP using etoposide as the marker ligand. AZT increased the retention of etoposide (+15%), a positive allosteric interaction, on the CMAC(LN-229) column and decreased it (-5%) on the NMAC(LN-229), while the opposite effect was produced by rhodamine. The results indicate that there are differences between the cellular and nuclear membrane expressed BCRP and that NMAC and CMAC columns can be used to probe these differences. PMID:24642394

Habicht, K-L; Singh, N S; Khadeer, M A; Shimmo, R; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

2014-04-25

221

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892...Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is a...

2013-04-01

222

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892...Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is a...

2014-04-01

223

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892...Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is a...

2011-04-01

224

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892...Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is a...

2012-04-01

225

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. 892...Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a) Identification. A radiographic film/cassette changer programmer is a...

2010-04-01

226

Apparatus and method for loading and unloading multiple digital tape cassettes utilizing a removable magazine  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method to automate the handling of multiple digital tape cassettes for processing by commercially available cassette tape readers and recorders. A removable magazine rack stores a plurality of tape cassettes, and cooperates with a shuttle device that automatically inserts and removes cassettes from the magazine to the reader and vice-versa. Photocells are used to identify and index to the desired tape cassette. The apparatus allows digital information stored on multiple cassettes to be processed without significant operator intervention.

Lindenmeyer, C.W.

1993-01-26

227

Mutation of the ATP-binding pocket of SSA1 indicates that a functional interaction between Ssa1p and Ydj1p is required for post-translational translocation into the yeast endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed Central

The translocation of proteins across the yeast ER membrane requires ATP hydrolysis and the action of DnaK (hsp70) and DnaJ homologues. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the cytosolic hsp70s that promote post-translational translocation are the products of the Ssa gene family. Ssa1p maintains secretory precursors in a translocation-competent state and interacts with Ydj1p, a DnaJ homologue. Although it has been proposed that Ydj1p stimulates the ATPase activity of Ssa1p to release preproteins and engineer translocation, support for this model is incomplete. To this end, mutations in the ATP-binding pocket of SSA1 were constructed and examined both in vivo and in vitro. Expression of the mutant Ssa1p's slows wild-type cell growth, is insufficient to support life in the absence of functional Ssa1p, and results in a dominant effect on post-translational translocation. The ATPase activity of the purified mutant proteins was not enhanced by Ydj1p and the mutant proteins could not bind an unfolded polypeptide substrate. Our data suggest that a productive interaction between Ssa1p and Ydj1p is required to promote protein translocation. PMID:11014801

McClellan, A J; Brodsky, J L

2000-01-01

228

Conversion from film to magnetic cassette recording for current meter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a conversion of the Geodyne 102 current meter, which recorded its data on film, to digital cassette tape recording. Sufficient information is included to enable the reader to implement this modification.

A. I. Nakamura; R. R. Harvey

1978-01-01

229

Self-illuminative cascade-reaction-driven anticancer therapeutic cassettes made of cooperatively interactive nanocomplexes.  

PubMed

Therapeutic options based on near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths have attracted attention owing to in vivo lowest-background interventions and the development of several nano-architectures with localized surface plasmon resonance. Because of their limited tissue penetration, the clinical use of NIR light-driven treatments is not widespread; this technology is inapplicable to infection sites in the deeper areas of internal tissues. In this study, we demonstrate a self-illuminative therapeutic cassette able to exert anticancer effects via a series of enzymatic, chemical, and optical cooperative cascade reactions. It consists of (1) NIR-illuminative nanocomplexes and (2) NIR-sensitive therapeutic cassettes, which demonstrate a 60% chemically-induced killing effect in a prostate cancer model without external NIR irradiation. This technology can also be actively exploited as an imaging agent due to adaptation of a self-illuminating nanocomplex. Consequently, these novel therapeutic cassettes, which work not only as a powerful internal NIR stimulant, but also as a biological imaging platform, provide a new rational design concept for biomedical use. PMID:25537832

Song, Woo Chul; Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Jang, Min Su; Choi, Jin-Ha; Oh, Byung-Keun; Um, Soong Ho

2015-02-01

230

Point Mutations in Human ? Cardiac Myosin Heavy Chain Have Differential Effects on Sarcomeric Structure and Assembly: An ATP Binding Site Change Disrupts Both Thick and Thin Filaments, Whereas Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mutations Display Normal Assembly  

PubMed Central

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a human heart disease characterized by increased ventricular mass, focal areas of fibrosis, myocyte, and myofibrillar disorganization. This genetically dominant disease can be caused by mutations in any one of several contractile proteins, including ? cardiac myosin heavy chain (?MHC). To determine whether point mutations in human ?MHC have direct effects on interfering with filament assembly and sarcomeric structure, full-length wild-type and mutant human ?MHC cDNAs were cloned and expressed in primary cultures of neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRC) under conditions that promote myofibrillogenesis. A lysine to arginine change at amino acid 184 in the consensus ATP binding sequence of human ?MHC resulted in abnormal subcellular localization and disrupted both thick and thin filament structure in transfected NRC. Diffuse ?MHC K184R protein appeared to colocalize with actin throughout the myocyte, suggesting a tight interaction of these two proteins. Human ?MHC with S472V mutation assembled normally into thick filaments and did not affect sarcomeric structure. Two mutant myosins previously described as causing human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, R249Q and R403Q, were competent to assemble into thick filaments producing myofibrils with well defined I bands, A bands, and H zones. Coexpression and detection of wild-type ?MHC and either R249Q or R403Q proteins in the same myocyte showed these proteins are equally able to assemble into the sarcomere and provided no discernible differences in subcellular localization. Thus, human ?MHC R249Q and R403Q mutant proteins were readily incorporated into NRC sarcomeres and did not disrupt myofilament formation. This study indicates that the phenotype of myofibrillar disarray seen in HCM patients which harbor either of these two mutations may not be directly due to the failure of the mutant myosin heavy chain protein to assemble and form normal sarcomeres, but may rather be a secondary effect possibly resulting from the chronic stress of decreased ?MHC function. PMID:9105042

Becker, K. David; Gottshall, Kim R.; Hickey, Reed; Perriard, Jean-Claude; Chien, Kenneth R.

1997-01-01

231

Contamination of X-ray Cassettes with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus in a Radiology Department  

PubMed Central

Background We performed surveillance cultures of the surfaces of X-ray cassettes to assess contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods The surfaces of 37 X-ray cassettes stored in a radiology department were cultured using mannitol salt agar containing 6 µg/mL oxacillin. Suspected methicillin-resistant staphylococcal colonies were isolated and identified by biochemical testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis was performed to determine the clonal relationships of the contaminants. Results Six X-ray cassettes (16.2%) were contaminated with MRSA. During the isolation procedure, we also detected 19 X-ray cassettes (51.4%) contaminated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus (MRSH), identified as yellow colonies resembling MRSA on mannitol salt agar. PFGE analysis of the MRSA and MRSH isolates revealed that most isolates of each organism were identical or closely related to each other, suggesting a common source of contamination. Conclusions X-ray cassettes, which are commonly in direct contact with patients, were contaminated with MRSA and MRSH. In hospital environments, contaminated X-ray cassettes may serve as fomites for methicillin-resistant staphylococci. PMID:22563556

Kim, Han-Sung; Park, Ji-Young; Koo, Hyun-Sook; Choi, Chul-Sun; Song, Wonkeun; Cho, Hyoun Chan; Lee, Kyu Man

2012-01-01

232

The effect of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol levels depends on the ABCA1 gene variation in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: ATP-binding cassette transporters G5/G8 have shown an association with HDL-C. One of the most likely mechanisms to explain those associations is through ABCA1. Objective: To assess whether the effect of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on HDL-C is dependent on ABCA1, we studied potential interacti...

233

Dual gene expression cassette vectors with antibiotic selection markers for engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background Manipulations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae classically depend on use of auxotrophy selection markers. There are several disadvantages to this in a microbial cell factory setting: (1) auxotrophies must first be engineered in prototrophic strains, and many industrial strains are polyploid/aneuploid prototrophs (2) available strain auxotrophies must be paired with available repair plasmids (3) remaining auxotrophies must be repaired prior to development of industrial bioprocesses. Use of dominant antibiotic resistance markers can circumvent these problems. However, there are relatively few yeast antibiotic resistance marker vectors available; furthermore, available vectors contain only one expression cassette, and it is often desirable to introduce more than one gene at a time. Results To overcome these problems, eight new shuttle vectors have been developed. The plasmids are maintained in yeast under a 2 ?m ori and in E. coli by a pUC ori. They contain two yeast expression cassettes driven by either (1) the constitutive TEF1 and PGK1 promoters, or (2) the constitutive TEF1 promoter and the inducible GAL10 or HXT7 promoters. Expression strength of these promoters over a typical production time frame in glucose/galactose medium was examined, and identified the TEF1 and HXT7 promoters as preferred promoters over long term fermentations. Selection is provided by either aphA1 (conferring resistance to G418 in yeast and kanamycin/neomycin in E. coli) or ble (conferring resistance to phleomycin in both yeast and E. coli). Selection conditions for these plasmids/antibiotics in defined media were examined, and selection considerations are reviewed. In particular, medium pH has a strong effect on both G418 and phleomycin selection. Conclusions These vectors allow manipulations in prototrophic yeast strains with expression of two gene cassettes per plasmid, and will be particularly useful for metabolic engineering applications. The vector set expands the (currently limited) selection of antibiotic marker plasmids available for use in yeast, and in addition makes available dual gene expression cassettes on individual plasmids using antibiotic selection. The resistance gene cassettes are flanked by loxP recognition sites to allow CreA-mediated marker removal and recycling, providing the potential for genomic integration of multiple genes. Guidelines for selection using G418 and phleomycin are provided. PMID:24161108

2013-01-01

234

Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laboratory strains of Escherichia coli contain a functional CRISPR/Cas system (as judged by appearance of phage resistance at conditions of artificial co-overexpression of Cas genes and a CRISPR cassette engineered to target a ? phage), no natural phage resistance due to CRISPR system function was observed in this best-studied organism and no E. coli CRISPR spacer matches sequences of well-studied E. coli phages. To better understand the apparently “silent” E. coli CRISPR/Cas system, we systematically characterized processed transcripts from CRISPR cassettes. Using an engineered strain with genomically located spacer matching phage ? we show that endogenous levels of CRISPR cassette and cas genes expression allow only weak protection against infection with the phage. However, derepression of the CRISPR/Cas system by disruption of the hns gene leads to high level of protection. PMID:20624226

Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

2010-01-01

235

A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes.  

PubMed

A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer's design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G; Hart, Robert W; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H

2011-12-15

236

Evaluation of an Audio Cassette Tape Lecture Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audio-cassette continuing education course (Selected Topics in Pharmacology) from Extension Services in Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin was offered to a selected test market of pharmacists and evaluated using a pre-, post-test design. Results showed significant increase in cognitive knowledge and strong approval of students. (JT)

Blank, Jerome W.

1975-01-01

237

Directory of Spoken-Voice Audio-Cassettes, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most listings in this catalog, which draws on many sources of production and is not a guide to one company's output, are for programs of college or adult level interest, with the exception of the "Careers" listings, geared toward high school students. The catalog also has lists of producers of children's cassettes and those designed for school…

McKee, Gerald, Ed.

238

I. Supplementary Experimental Procedures Synthetic Enhancer Cassette Design  

E-print Network

a minimal probability to bind DNA-binding proteins. This was done by constructing an algorithm that randomly with NheI before being used as an insert in the cloning step. Strain Construction Synthetic enhancer were taken: first the LacI inducible GlnG + 54 promoter cassette was cloned via PCR from the pglnAp2

Phillips, Rob

239

Patterns of Availability and Use of Audiotape Cassettes in Special Libraries. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability and use of audiotape cassettes is studied in terms of user requirements. The following factors were examined: how special libraries utilize audiotape cassettes; who the users of the medium are; how the libraries acquire and maintain their collection; and opinions of librarians as to the value of the audiotape cassette as a medium for dissemination of information.

Hughes, J. M., II

1975-01-01

240

Antibiotic resistance gene cassettes derived from the ? interposon for use in E. coli and Streptomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three antibiotic resistance gene cassettes, derived from the ? interposon (Prentki and Krisch (1984) Gene 29, 303–313) were constructed. These cassettes carry different antibiotic resistance genes, conferring resistance to geneticin, hygromycin or viomycin, flanked by short inverted repeats containing transcription and translation termination signals and synthetic polylinkers. These cassettes were designated ?aac, ?hyg and ?vph. Resistance phenotypes conferred by these

Marie-Hélène Blondelet-Rouault; Jaroslav Weiser; Ahmed Lebrihi; Pavel Branny; Jean-Luc Pernodet

1997-01-01

241

Generation of Cell Lines to Complement Adenovirus Vectors using Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange  

PubMed Central

Background Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has many favourable characteristics for development as a gene therapy vector. However, the utility of current Ad5 vectors is limited by transient transgene expression, toxicity and immunogenicity. The most promising form of vector is the high capacity type, which is deleted for all viral genes. However, these vectors can only be produced to relatively low titres and with the aid of helper virus. Therefore a continuing challenge is the generation of more effective Ad5 vectors that can still be grown to high titres. Our approach is to generate complementing cell lines to support the growth of Ad5 vectors with novel late gene deficiencies. Results We have used LoxP/Cre recombination mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) to generate cell lines expressing Ad5 proteins encoded by the L4 region of the genome, the products of which play a pivotal role in the expression of Ad5 structural proteins. A panel of LoxP parent 293 cell lines was generated, each containing a GFP expression cassette under the control of a tetracycline-regulated promoter inserted at a random genome location; the cassette also contained a LoxP site between the promoter and GFP sequence. Clones displayed a variety of patterns of regulation, stability and level of GFP expression. Clone A1 was identified as a suitable parent for creation of inducible cell lines because of the tight inducibility and stability of its GFP expression. Using LoxP-targeted, Cre recombinase-mediated insertion of an L4 cassette to displace GFP from the regulated promoter in this parent clone, cell line A1-L4 was generated. This cell line expressed L4 100K, 22K and 33K proteins at levels sufficient to complement L4-33K mutant and L4-deleted viruses. Conclusions RMCE provides a method for rapid generation of Ad5 complementing cell lines from a pre-selected parental cell line, chosen for its desirable transgene expression characteristics. Parent cell lines can be selected for high or low gene expression, and for tight regulation, allowing viral protein expression to mirror that found during infection. Cell lines derived from a single parent will allow the growth of different vectors to be assessed without the complication of varying complementing protein expression. PMID:21182761

2010-01-01

242

THE REAL ISSUE WITH WALL DEPOSITS IN CLOSED FILTER CASSETTES - WHAT'S THE SAMPLE?  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of aerosol dusts has long been utilized to assess the exposure of workers to metals. Tools used to sample and measure aerosol dusts have gone through many transitions over the past century. In particular, there have been several different techniques used to sample for beryllium, not all of which might be expected to produce the same result. Today, beryllium samples are generally collected using filters housed in holders of several different designs, some of which are expected to produce a sample that mimics the human capacity for dust inhalation. The presence of dust on the interior walls of cassettes used to hold filters during metals sampling has been discussed in the literature for a number of metals, including beryllium, with widely varying data. It appears that even in the best designs, particulates can enter the sampling cassette and deposit on the interior walls rather than on the sampling medium. The causes are not well understood but are believed to include particle bounce, electrostatic forces, particle size, particle density, and airflow turbulence. Historically, the filter catch has been considered to be the sample, but the presence of wall deposits, and the potential that the filter catch is not representative of the exposure to the worker, puts that historical position into question. This leads to a fundamental question: What is the sample? This article reviews the background behind the issue, poses the above-mentioned question, and discusses options and a possible path forward for addressing that question.

Brisson, M.

2009-09-12

243

Cassette less SOFC stack and method of assembly  

DOEpatents

A cassette less SOFC assembly and a method for creating such an assembly. The SOFC stack is characterized by an electrically isolated stack current path which allows welded interconnection between frame portions of the stack. In one embodiment electrically isolating a current path comprises the step of sealing a interconnect plate to a interconnect plate frame with an insulating seal. This enables the current path portion to be isolated from the structural frame an enables the cell frame to be welded together.

Meinhardt, Kerry D

2014-11-18

244

Internal wall losses of pharmaceutical dusts during closed-face, 37-mm polystyrene cassette sampling.  

PubMed

A current practice for the determination of personal exposures to dusts involves the aspiration of known quantities of air through membrane filters held in 37-mm plastic cassettes. Samples are collected with the cassettes in the closed-face configuration. A major negative bias error has been identified with this sampling procedure for low-level pharmaceutical dusts. For the pharmaceuticals studied, on average, 62% of the active dust collected in each sample was found on the inside surface of the cassette top. Only 22% of the total active ingredient of the dust was found on the filters. The remaining 16% was found on the inside of the cassette bottoms; electrostatic attraction appears to be the reason that pharmaceutical dusts adhere to the inside surface of the cassette. Adherence to the inside surfaces of the polystyrene cassette occurs without regard to the type of material used to seal the two-piece cassette together. The use of shrink wrap versus plastic tape versus using no sealing material had no effect on where or how much of the active ingredient was found on the inside cassette surfaces. Because very little active ingredient was identified in backup cassettes, it is hypothesized that the active ingredient found on the inside of the bottom portion of the cassettes (past the filter and support pad) got there by falling off the filter during filter removal from the cassette prior to analysis. To eliminate both of these errors, an internal cassette extraction procedure was developed that (1) negates the error caused by static charging and (2) eliminates the need for opening the cassettes prior to analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1951066

Puskar, M A; Harkins, J M; Moomey, J D; Hecker, L H

1991-07-01

245

Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same  

DOEpatents

Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

2012-10-23

246

Blocking of Na+/K+ transport by the MgPO4 complex analogue Co(NH3)4PO4 leaves the Na+/Na(+)-exchange reaction of the sodium pump unaltered and shifts its high-affinity ATP-binding site to a Na(+)-like form.  

PubMed

Inactivation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity by the MgPO4 complex analogue Co(NH3)4PO4 leads, in everted red blood cell vesicles, to the parallel inactivation of 22Na+/K+ flux and 86Rb/Rb+ exchange, but leaves the 22Na+/Na(+)-exchange activity and the uncoupled ATP-supported 22Na+ transport unaffected. Furthermore, inactivation of purified Na+/K(+)-ATPase by Co(NH3)4PO4 leads to a parallel decrease of the capacity of the [3H]ouabain receptor site, when binding was studied by the Mg2+/Pi-supported pathway (ouabain-enzyme complex II) but the capacity of the ouabain receptor site was unaltered, when the Na+/Mg2+/ATP-supported pathway (ouabain-enzyme complex I) was used. No change in the dissociation constants of either ouabain receptor complex was observed following inactivation of Na+/K(+)-ATPase. When eosin was used as a marker for the high-affinity ATP-binding site of the E1 conformation, formation of stable E'2.Co(NH3)4PO4 complex led to a shift in the high-affinity ATP-binding site towards the sodium form. This led to an increase in the dissociation constant of the enzyme complex with K+, from 1.4 mM with the unmodified enzyme to 280 mM with the Co(NH3)4PO4-inactivated enzyme. It was concluded, that the effects of Co(NH3)4PO4 on the partial activities of the sodium pump are difficult to reconcile with an alpha, beta-protomeric enzyme working according the Albers-Post scheme. The data are consistent with an alpha 2, beta 2 diprotomeric enzyme of interacting catalytic subunits working with a modified version of the Albers-Post model. PMID:1699757

Buxbaum, E; Schoner, W

1990-10-24

247

A New Class of Genetic Element, Staphylococcus Cassette Chromosome mec, Encodes Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that the methicillin-resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus strain N315 is localized within a large (52-kb) DNA cassette (designated the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)) inserted in the chromosome. By sequence determination of the entire DNA, we identified two novel genes (designated cassette chromosome recombinase genes (ccrA and ccrB)) encoding polypeptides having a partial homology to

Y. Katayama; T. Ito; K. Hiramatsu

2000-01-01

248

Tumor inhibition by genomically integrated inducible RNAi-cassettes  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes by post-transcriptional silencing of gene expression. In this study we wondered whether inducible RNAi-cassettes integrated into cellular DNA possess the power to trigger neoplastic growth. For this purpose inducible RNAi vectors containing tetracycline (Tet)-responsive derivatives of the H1 promoter for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to target human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), which is overexpressed in a broad spectrum of human tumors. In the absence of doxycycline (Dox) HeLa clones expressing TetR, that carry the RNAi-cassette stably integrated, exhibited no significant alteration in Plk1 expression levels. In contrast, exposure to Dox led to marked downregulation of Plk1 mRNA to 3% and Plk1 protein to 14% in cell culture compared to mismatch shRNA/Plk1-expressing cells. As a result of Plk1 depletion cell proliferation decreased to 17%. Furthermore, for harnessing RNAi for silencing disease-related genes in vivo we transplanted inducible RNAi-HeLa cells onto nude mice. After administration of Dox knockdown of Plk1 expression was observed correlating to a significant inhibition of tumor growth. Taken together, our data revealed that genomically integrated RNAi-elements are suitable to hamper tumor growth by conditional expression of shRNA. PMID:16945954

Kappel, Sven; Matthess, Yves; Zimmer, Brigitte; Kaufmann, Manfred; Strebhardt, Klaus

2006-01-01

249

Development of a versatile cassette for directional genome walking using cassette ligation-mediated PCR and its application in the cloning of complete lipolytic genes from Bacillus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the invention of the PCR technology, adaptation techniques to clone DNA fragments flanking the known sequence continue to be developed. We describe a perfectly annealed cassette available in almost unlimited quantities with variable sticky–and blunt–end restriction enzyme recognition sites for efficient restriction and ligation with the restricted target genomic DNA. The cassette provides a 200-bp sequence, which is used

Mulalo B. Nthangeni; Faranani Ramagoma; Matsobane G. Tlou; Derek Litthauer

2005-01-01

250

Mobile gene cassettes and integrons: capture and spread of genes by site-specific recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An integron is a genetic unit that includes the deter- minants of the components of a site-specific recombi- nation system capable of capturing and mobilizing genes that are contained in mobile elements called gene cassettes. An integron also provides a promoter for expression of the cassette genes, and integrons thus act both as natural cloning systems and as expression

Ruth M. Hall; Christina M. Collis

1995-01-01

251

Motion Pictures and Video Cassettes 1971. AV-USA Supplement 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The financial status of the motion picture and of the video cassette industry in 1970 are reviewed. Based on production rates and income of these industries, trends are discovered. Figures on local origination of television programing and commercials are also included. The section on video cassettes includes the following information: the current…

Hope, Thomas W.

252

SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis) 1. Glass cassette and casting stand  

E-print Network

SDS-PAGE (Sodium dodecyl sulphate Poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis) 1. Glass cassette the wells with dH2O. Here gel cassette is ready to go. 3. Electrophoresis Module assembly Place the gel between the glass plates with a piece of paper. 2. Gel preparation and casting Place the comb between

Schmidt, Marius

253

Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in the Integrated Cassettes of Integrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmids containing cloned integron fragments which differ only with respect to either the sequence of the promoter(s) or the number and order of inserted cassettes were used to examine the expression of resistance genes encoded in integron-associated gene cassettes. All transcripts detected commenced at the common promoter Pant, and alterations in the sequence of Pant affected the level of resistance

CHRISTINA M. COLLIS; ANDRUTH M. HALL

1995-01-01

254

Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria: the role of gene cassettes and integrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of gram-negative organisms to antibiotics such as ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol is caused by many different acquired genes, and a substantial proportion of these are part of small mobile elements known as gene cassettes. A gene cassette consists of the gene and a downstream sequence, known as a 59-base element (59-be), that acts as a specific recombination site.

Ruth M. Hall; Christina M. Collis

1998-01-01

255

Development of a versatile cassette for directional genome walking using cassette ligation-mediated PCR and its application in the cloning of complete lipolytic genes from Bacillus species.  

PubMed

Since the invention of the PCR technology, adaptation techniques to clone DNA fragments flanking the known sequence continue to be developed. We describe a perfectly annealed cassette available in almost unlimited quantities with variable sticky-and blunt-end restriction enzyme recognition sites for efficient restriction and ligation with the restricted target genomic DNA. The cassette provides a 200-bp sequence, which is used to design a variety of cassette-specific primers. The dephosphorylation prevents cassette self-ligation and creates a nick at the cassette: target genome DNA ligation site suppressing unspecific PCR amplifications. We introduce the single-strand amplification PCR (SSA-PCR) technique where a lone known locus-specific primer is firstly used to enrich the targeted template DNA strand resulting in significant PCR product specificity during the second round conventional nested PCR. The distance between the known locus-specific primer and the nearest location of the restriction enzyme used determined the length of the obtained PCR product. We used this technique to walk downstream into the isochorismatase and upstream into the hypothetical conserved genes flanking the mature extracellular lipase gene from Bacillus licheniformis. We further demonstrated the potential of the technique as a cost-effective method during PCR-based prospecting for novel genes by designing "universal" degenerate primers that detected homologues of Family VII bacterial lipolytic genes in Bacillus species. The cassette ligation-mediated PCR was used to clone complete nucleotide sequences encoding functional lipolytic genes from B. licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus. PMID:15722149

Nthangeni, Mulalo B; Ramagoma, Faranani; Tlou, Matsobane G; Litthauer, Derek

2005-05-01

256

Inducible and Reversible Lentiviral and Recombination Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) Systems for Controlling Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of gene expression to invoke loss of function (LoF) or gain of function (GoF) phenotypes is important for interrogating complex biological questions both in vitro and in vivo. Doxycycline (Dox)-inducible gene expression systems are commonly used although success is often limited by high background and insufficient sensitivity to Dox. Here we develop broadly applicable platforms for reliable, tightly controlled and reversible Dox-inducible systems for lentiviral mediated generation of cell lines or FLP Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE) into the Collagen 1a1 (Col1a1) locus (FLP-In Col1a1) in mouse embryonic stem cells. We significantly improve the flexibility, usefulness and robustness of the Dox-inducible system by using Tetracycline (Tet) activator (Tet-On) variants which are more sensitive to Dox, have no background activity and are expressed from single Gateway-compatible constructs. We demonstrate the usefulness of these platforms in ectopic gene expression or gene knockdown in multiple cell lines, primary neurons and in FLP-In Col1a1 mouse embryonic stem cells. We also improve the flexibility of RMCE Dox-inducible systems by generating constructs that allow for tissue or cell type-specific Dox-inducible expression and generate a shRNA selection algorithm that can effectively predict potent shRNA sequences able to knockdown gene expression from single integrant constructs. These platforms provide flexible, reliable and broadly applicable inducible expression systems for studying gene function. PMID:25768837

Bersten, David C.; Sullivan, Adrienne E.; Li, Dian; Bhakti, Veronica; Bent, Stephen J.; Whitelaw, Murray L.

2015-01-01

257

The use of carbon fibre material in radiographic cassettes: estimation of the dose and contrast advantages.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to estimate the dose and contrast advantages of replacing radiographic cassette fronts fabricated from aluminium with cassette fronts fabricated from low atomic number material (carbon fibre). The simulation used a realistic imaging geometry and calculations were made both with and without an anti-scatter grid. Account was taken of the scatter generated in the cassette front and the effect of beam hardening on primary contrast. Dose and contrast were evaluated for a range of cassette front thicknesses and tube potentials (60-150 kV) as well as for four examinations representative of situations with varying amounts of scatter. The results with an anti-scatter grid show a clear dose and contrast advantage in all cases when an aluminium cassette front is replaced with a low attenuation cassette front. The contrast advantage is dependent upon the examination and is generally greater for imaging bony structures than for imaging soft tissue. If a 1.74 mm aluminium cassette front is compared with a 1.1 mm carbon fibre cassette front, then the dose advantages are 16%, 9%, 8% and 6% and the contrast advantages are 10%, 7%, 4% and 5% for the AP paediatric pelvis examination at 60 kV, the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine examination at 80 kV, the lateral lumbar spine examination at 100 kV and the posteroanterior (PA) chest examination at 150 kV, respectively. The results without an anti-scatter grid show an increased dose advantage when a low attenuation cassette front is used, but the contrast advantage is small and in some situations negative. PMID:9166075

Dance, D R; Lester, S A; Carlsson, G A; Sandborg, M; Persliden, J

1997-04-01

258

Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery.  

PubMed

A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette. PMID:3495126

Herman, M W; Mak, H K; Lachman, R S

1987-05-01

259

Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

Herman, M.W.; Mak, H.K.; Lachman, R.S.

1987-05-01

260

Inactivation of the Ecs ABC Transporter of Staphylococcus aureus Attenuates Virulence by Altering Composition and Function of Bacterial Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEcs is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in aerobic and facultative anaerobic Gram-positive Firmicutes. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Ecs causes pleiotropic changes in the bacterial phenotype including inhibition of intramembrane proteolysis. The molecule(s) transported by Ecs is (are) still unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study we mutated the ecsAB operon in two Staphylococcus aureus strains, Newman and LS-1. Phenotypic and functional

Ing-Marie Jonsson; Jarmo T. Juuti; Patrice François; Rana Almajidi; Milla Pietiäinen; Myriam Girard; Catharina Lindholm; Manfred J. Saller; Arnold J. M. Driessen; Pentti Kuusela; Maria Bokarewa; Jacques Schrenzel; Vesa P. Kontinen; Olivier Neyrolles

2010-01-01

261

Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant

Nina Weichert; Eva Kaltenborn; Andreas Hector; Markus Woischnik; Andrea Schams; Andreas Holzinger; Sun?ana Kern; Matthias Griese

2011-01-01

262

Insight into the Interaction of Metal Ions with TroA from Streptococcus suis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe scavenging ability of sufficient divalent metal ions is pivotal for pathogenic bacteria to survive in the host. ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type metal transporters provide a considerable amount of different transition metals for bacterial growth. TroA is a substrate binding protein for uptake of multiple metal ions. However, the function and structure of the TroA homologue from the epidemic Streptococcus suis

Beiwen Zheng; Qiangmin Zhang; Jia Gao; Huiming Han; Ming Li; Jingren Zhang; Jianxun Qi; Jinghua Yan; George F. Gao

2011-01-01

263

Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD) in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of

Chan Woo Chung; Jinsun You; Kyeongyeon Kim; Yuseok Moon; Hoeon Kim; Jung Hoon Ahn

2009-01-01

264

Porphyrin Homeostasis Maintained by ABCG2 Regulates Self-Renewal of Embryonic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundUnder appropriate culture conditions, undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells can undergo multiple self-renewal cycles without loss of pluripotency suggesting they must be equipped with specific defense mechanisms to ensure sufficient genetic stability during self-renewal expansion. The ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG2 is expressed in a wide variety of somatic and embryonic stem cells. However, whether it plays an important role

Jimmy Susanto; Yu-Hsing Lin; Yun-Nan Chen; Chia-Rui Shen; Yu-Ting Yan; Sheng-Ta Tsai; Chung-Hsuan Chen; Chia-Ning Shen; Mikhail V. Blagosklonny

2008-01-01

265

In Silico Quantitative StructureActivity Relationship Studies on P-gp Modulators of Tetrahydroisoquinoline-Ethyl-Phenylamine Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The drug efflux by a transport protein is the main reason for MDR. In humans, MDR mainly occurs when the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins is overexpressed simultaneously. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is most commonly associated with human MDR; it utilizes energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a number

Changdev G Gadhe; Thirumurthy Madhavan; Gugan Kothandan; Seung Joo Cho

2011-01-01

266

Engineered Nanostructured ?-Sheet Peptides Protect Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

We have designed ?-strand peptides (BP) that stabilize integral membrane proteins (IMP). BPs self-assemble in solution as filaments and become restructured upon association with IMPs; the resulting IMP/BP complexes resist aggregation when diluted in detergent-free buffer and are examined as stable, single particles with low detergent background by electron microscopy. This enables clear visualization of a spectrum of flexible conformations in the highly dynamic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA. PMID:23817067

Tao, Houchao; Lee, Sung Chang; Moeller, Arne; Roy, Rituparna Sinha; Siu, Fai Yiu; Zimmermann, Jörg; Stevens, Raymond C.; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Zhang, Qinghai

2013-01-01

267

A recombinase system facilitates cloning of expression cassettes in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila  

PubMed Central

Background Tetrahymena thermophila is one of the best characterized unicellular eukaryotes and its genome is sequenced in its entirety. However, the AT-richness of the genome and an unusual codon usage cause problems in cloning and expression of the ciliate DNA. To overcome these technical hiatuses we developed a Cre-dependent recombinase system. Results We created novel donor and acceptor vectors that facilitate the transfer of expression cassettes from the donor into novel acceptor plasmid. Expression vectors were used that encode the 19 kDa C-terminus of the MSP1 protein of Plasmodium falciparum and a blasticidin S (bsdR) resistance gene, respectively. The functional expression of these genes was demonstrated by western blot analysis with MSP1 specific antibodies and by a blasticidin growing assay. Conclusion The Cre dependent recombinase system in combination with the modular structure of the donor vectors ease cloning and expression of foreign genes in the ciliate system, providing a powerful tool for protistology research in future. PMID:17328820

Weide, Thomas; Bockau, Ulrike; Rave, Angelika; Herrmann, Lutz; Hartmann, Marcus WW

2007-01-01

268

Optimization of AAV expression cassettes to improve packaging capacity and transgene expression in neurons  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can deliver transgenes to diverse cell types and are therefore useful for basic research and gene therapy. Although AAV has many advantages over other viral vectors, its relatively small packaging capacity limits its use for delivering large genes. The available transgene size is further limited by the existence of additional elements in the expression cassette without which the gene expression level becomes much lower. By using alternative combinations of shorter elements, we generated a series of AAV expression cassettes and systematically evaluated their expression efficiency in neurons to maximize the transgene size available within the AAV packaging capacity while not compromising the transgene expression. We found that the newly developed smaller expression cassette shows comparable expression efficiency with an efficient vector generally used for strong gene expression. This new expression cassette will allow us to package larger transgenes without compromising expression efficiency. PMID:24618276

2014-01-01

269

COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

270

The GoldenBricks assembly: A standardized one-shot cloning technique for complete cassette assembly  

E-print Network

BBF RFC 92 proposes a new standard assembly method for the Parts Registry. The method makes one-shot cloning of a complete eukaryotic or prokaryotic cassette possible in one day while keeping compatibility with the BBF RFC ...

Pauthenier, Cyrille

2012-11-05

271

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2011-04-01

272

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2013-04-01

273

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2014-04-01

274

Novel integrons and gene cassettes from a Cascadian submarine gas-hydrate-bearing core.  

PubMed

To determine whether integrons are present in a submarine gas hydrate community, metagenomic DNA was extracted from a gas-hydrate-bearing core, 150 m below the seafloor, from the Cascadian Margin. Integrons and gene cassettes were recovered by PCR from metagenomic DNA and sequenced. Thirty-seven integron integrase phylotypes were identified. The phylotypes were diverse and included members with homology to integrases from Methylomonas methanica, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, Thermodesulfatator indicus, and marine uncultured bacteria. The gene cassette composition, 153 gene cassettes, was dominated by two types of encoded putative proteins. The first of these was predicted oxidoreductases, such as iron/sulfur cluster-binding proteins. A second type was alkyl transferases. Some cassette proteins showed homologies with those from methane-related archaea. These observations suggest that integrons may assist in the adaptation of microbial communities in this environment. PMID:24117886

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mitani, Yasuo; Maruyama, Akihiko

2014-02-01

275

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2010-04-01

276

Delineating a conserved genetic cassette promoting outgrowth of body appendages.  

PubMed

The acquisition of the external genitalia allowed mammals to cope with terrestrial-specific reproductive needs for internal fertilization, and thus it represents one of the most fundamental steps in evolution towards a life on land. How genitalia evolved remains obscure, and the key to understanding this process may lie in the developmental genetics that underpins the early establishment of the genital primordium, the genital tubercle (GT). Development of the GT is similar to that of the limb, which requires precise regulation from a distal signaling epithelium. However, whether outgrowth of the GT and limbs is mediated by common instructive signals remains unknown. In this study, we used comprehensive genetic approaches to interrogate the signaling cascade involved in GT formation in comparison with limb formation. We demonstrate that the FGF ligand responsible for GT development is FGF8 expressed in the cloacal endoderm. We further showed that forced Fgf8 expression can rescue limb and GT reduction in embryos deficient in WNT signaling activity. Our studies show that the regulation of Fgf8 by the canonical WNT signaling pathway is mediated in part by the transcription factor SP8. Sp8 mutants elicit appendage defects mirroring WNT and FGF mutants, and abolishing Sp8 attenuates ectopic appendage development caused by a gain-of-function ?-catenin mutation. These observations indicate that a conserved WNT-SP8-FGF8 genetic cassette is employed by both appendages for promoting outgrowth, and suggest a deep homology shared by the limb and external genitalia. PMID:23358455

Lin, Congxing; Yin, Yan; Bell, Sheila M; Veith, G Michael; Chen, Hong; Huh, Sung-Ho; Ornitz, David M; Ma, Liang

2013-01-01

277

An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection\\u000a of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic\\u000a acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling,\\u000a and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry

Dafeng Chen; Michael Mauk; Xianbo Qiu; Changchun Liu; Jitae Kim; Sudhir Ramprasad; Serge Ongagna; William R. Abrams; Daniel Malamud; Paul L. A. M. Corstjens; Haim H. Bau

2010-01-01

278

The function of integron-associated gene cassettes in Vibrio species: the tip of the iceberg  

PubMed Central

The integron is a genetic element that incorporates mobile genes termed gene cassettes into a reserved genetic site via site-specific recombination. It is best known for its role in antibiotic resistance with one type of integron, the class 1 integron, a major player in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes across Gram negative pathogens and commensals. However, integrons are ancient structures with over 100 classes (including class 1) present in bacteria from the broader environment. While, the class 1 integron is only one example of an integron being mobilized into the clinical environment, it is by far the most successful. Unlike clinical class 1 integrons which are largely found on plasmids, other integron classes are found on the chromosomes of bacteria and carry diverse gene cassettes indicating a non-antibiotic resistance role(s). However, there is very limited knowledge on what these alternative roles are. This is particularly relevant to Vibrio species where gene cassettes make up approximately 1–3% of their entire genome. In this review, we discuss how emphasis on class 1 integron research has resulted in a limited understanding by the wider research community on the role of integrons in the broader environment. This has the capacity to be counterproductive in solving or improving the antibiotic resistance problem into the future. Furthermore, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on how gene cassettes in Vibrio species drive adaptation and evolution. From research in Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722, new insight into how gene cassettes affect cellular physiology offers new alternative roles for the gene cassette resource. At least a subset of gene cassettes are involved in host surface polysaccharide modification suggesting that gene cassettes may be important in processes such as bacteriophage resistance, adhesion/biofilm formation, protection from grazers and bacterial aggregation. PMID:24367362

Rapa, Rita A.; Labbate, Maurizio

2013-01-01

279

Influence of cassette design on three-dimensional perfusion culture of artificial bone.  

PubMed

Media perfusion is often required to maintain cell viability within topographically complex 3-dimensional scaffold cultures. Osteoblast-seeded scaffolds for bone regeneration require robust cell proliferation and survival both within the scaffold and over the exterior for optimal osteogenic capacity. Conventional press-fitting cassettes ensure internal fluid flow through the scaffold but may restrict external flow around the scaffold, resulting in a barren (cell-free) external scaffold surface. In this study, we aimed to solve this problem by modifying the cassette structure to enhance external flow in an oscillatory perfusion culture system. Mouse osteoblast-like MC 3T3-E1 cells were seeded in porous ceramic scaffolds and incubated for 3 days either under static culture conditions or in an oscillatory perfusion bioreactor. Scaffolds were held in the bioreactor with either conventional press-fitting cassettes or cassettes with rings to separate the scaffold exterior from the internal cassette wall. The external surfaces of scaffolds maintained under static conditions were well seeded, but cells failed to grow deeply into the core, reflecting poor internal chemotransport. Alternatively, scaffolds cultured by perfusion with press-fitting cassettes had poor cell viability at the cassette-external scaffold surface interface, but cells were widely distributed within the scaffold core. Scaffolds cultured using the modified cassettes with 1 or 2 rings exhibited uniformly distributed living cells throughout the internal pores and over the entire external surface, possibly because of the improved medium flow over the scaffold surface. This modified oscillatory perfusion culture system may facilitate the production of engineered bone with superior osteogenic capacity for grafting. PMID:24764314

Du, Dajiang; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

2015-01-01

280

Site-specific transformation of Drosophila via phiC31 integrase-mediated cassette exchange.  

PubMed

Position effects can complicate transgene analyses. This is especially true when comparing transgenes that have inserted randomly into different genomic positions and are therefore subject to varying position effects. Here, we introduce a method for the precise targeting of transgenic constructs to predetermined genomic sites in Drosophila using the C31 integrase system in conjunction with recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). We demonstrate the feasibility of this system using two donor cassettes, one carrying the yellow gene and the other carrying GFP. At all four genomic sites tested, we observed exchange of donor cassettes with an integrated target cassette carrying the mini-white gene. Furthermore, because RMCE-mediated integration of the donor cassette is necessarily accompanied by loss of the target cassette, we were able to identify integrants simply by the loss of mini-white eye color. Importantly, this feature of the technology will permit integration of unmarked constructs into Drosophila, even those lacking functional genes. Thus, C31 integrase-mediated RMCE should greatly facilitate transgene analysis as well as permit new experimental designs. PMID:16547094

Bateman, Jack R; Lee, Anne M; Wu, C-ting

2006-06-01

281

Improving yeast strains using recyclable integration cassettes, for the production of plant terpenoids  

PubMed Central

Background Terpenoids constitute a large family of natural products, attracting commercial interest for a variety of uses as flavours, fragrances, drugs and alternative fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers a versatile cell factory, as the precursors of terpenoid biosynthesis are naturally synthesized by the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Results S. cerevisiae wild type yeast cells, selected for their capacity to produce high sterol levels were targeted for improvement aiming to increase production. Recyclable integration cassettes were developed which enable the unlimited sequential integration of desirable genetic elements (promoters, genes, termination sequence) at any desired locus in the yeast genome. The approach was applied on the yeast sterol biosynthetic pathway genes HMG2, ERG20 and IDI1 resulting in several-fold increase in plant monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The improved strains were robust and could sustain high terpenoid production levels for an extended period. Simultaneous plasmid-driven co-expression of IDI1 and the HMG2 (K6R) variant, in the improved strain background, maximized monoterpene production levels. Expression of two terpene synthase enzymes from the sage species Salvia fruticosa and S. pomifera (SfCinS1, SpP330) in the modified yeast cells identified a range of terpenoids which are also present in the plant essential oils. Co-expression of the putative interacting protein HSP90 with cineole synthase 1 (SfCinS1) also improved production levels, pointing to an additional means to improve production. Conclusions Using the developed molecular tools, new yeast strains were generated with increased capacity to produce plant terpenoids. The approach taken and the durability of the strains allow successive rounds of improvement to maximize yields. PMID:21276210

2011-01-01

282

[Cotransformation of rice by bar and cecropin B gene expression cassettes lacking vector backbone sequences].  

PubMed

Whole plasmids are used in both Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and direct DNA transfer, generally leading to the integration of vector backbone sequences into the host genome along with the transgene(s). The undesirable vector backbone sequences may not only promote transgene rearrangements and affect transgene or endogenous gene expression negatively, but have disadvantage on the safe assessment of the transformants as "desert DNA". The direct DNA transforming systems can transfer minimal gene expression cassettes (promoter, open reading frame, terminator) into plant genome and generate "safer" transformants, also it can delivery multiple genes of agronomic relevance to economically-important crop plants. But there is seldom researching reports on the topic till now. The present paper studied some factors that affecting the transforming efficiency of liner gene expression cassettes to rice varieties by particle bombardment, and the integration patterns of the gene expression cassettes in rice genome were compared with that of the whole plasmids. The results showed: (1) The transforming frequency of gene expression cassettes to rice via particle bombardment is 0.1%-0.5%, the cotransforming frequency of non-selectable gene is about 50%-60% when two separate gene expression cassettes were used for transformation. Increasing the DNA mole content can increase the transforming frequency and the beside sequences of gene constructs may play an important role on the variation of transforming efficiency between different rice varieties. (2) It's reported that the selectable and non-selectable transgene expression cassettes generated low-copy-number transgenic plants with simple integration patterns. While our results showed that the non-selectable cecropin B gene cassette generated simple integration patterns with 1-3 copies in the rice genome, but the selectable bar gene cassette which got 4-14 copies had much more complex integration patterns than that of the whole plasmids which got 1-3 copies only. As the bar gene is promoted by the CaMV35 promoter, in which there is a 19 bp palindromic sequence could act as recombination hot spot and lead to DNA rearrangement, we presumed that the transgene recombination events happened during the integration course have generated the complex Southern patterns of bar gene expression cassette. The recombination character, the heredity behavior and the expression law of gene expression cassettes in the rice genomes will be reported in our future papers. PMID:12776601

Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yan-Chun; Qian, Qian; Yan, Mei-Xian; Huang, Da-Nian

2003-02-01

283

A comparison of the closed-face cassette at different orientations while measuring total particles.  

PubMed

The current method for sampling aerosols using the 37-mm closed-face cassette (CFC) sampler is based on the orientation of the cassette at ?45° from horizontal. There is some concern as to whether this method is appropriate and may be underestimating exposures. An alternative orientation at ?0° (horizontal) has been discussed. This research compared the CFC's orientation at 45° from horizontal to the proposed orientation at horizontal, 0° in a controlled laboratory setting. The particles used in this study were fused alumina oxide in four sizes, approximately 9.5 ?m, 12.8 ?m, 18 ?m, and 44.3 ?m in aerodynamic diameter. For each test, one aerosol was dispersed in a wind tunnel operating at 0.2 m/s with samplers mounted in the breathing zone of a rotating mannequin. A sampling event consisted of four pairs of samplers, placed side by side (one pair at 45° and another at 0° cassette orientation), and exposed for a period of 45 minutes. A total of 12 sampling events, 3 sample events per particle size, were conducted with a total of 94 samples collected. Mass concentration measurements were compared to assess the relationship between the sampler orientations of the cassettes. In addition, the relationship between the mass collected on the cassette filter and on the interior walls of the cassette was also assessed. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the measured concentrations based on the orientation of the CFCs. The amount of mass collected on the interior walls of the cassettes was relatively low (<5%) compared to expected (up to 100%) wall losses for both orientations. PMID:25337937

Cook, David M; Sleeth, Darrah K; Thiese, Matthew S; Larson, Rodney R

2015-03-01

284

Characterization of the phd-doc and ccd Toxin-Antitoxin Cassettes from Vibrio Superintegrons  

PubMed Central

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been reported in the genomes of most bacterial species, and their role when located on the chromosome is still debated. TA systems are particularly abundant in the massive cassette arrays associated with chromosomal superintegrons (SI). Here, we describe the characterization of two superintegron cassettes encoding putative TA systems. The first is the phd-docSI system identified in Vibrio cholerae N16961. We determined its distribution in 36 V. cholerae strains and among five V. metschnikovii strains. We show that this cassette, which is in position 72 of the V. cholerae N16961 cassette array, is functional, carries its own promoter, and is expressed from this location. Interestingly, the phd-docSI system is unable to control its own expression, most likely due to the absence of any DNA-binding domain on the antitoxin. In addition, this SI system is able to cross talk with the canonical P1 phage system. The second cassette that we characterized is the ccdVfi cassette found in the V. fischeri superintegron. We demonstrate that CcdBVfi targets DNA-gyrase, as the canonical CcBF toxin, and that ccdVfi regulates its expression in a fashion similar to the ccdF operon of the conjugative plasmid F. We also establish that this cassette is functional and expressed in its chromosomal context in V. fischeri CIP 103206T. We tested its functional interactions with the ccdABF system and found that CcdAVfi is specific for its associated CcdBVfi and cannot prevent CcdBF toxicity. Based on these results, we discuss the possible biological functions of these TA systems in superintegrons. PMID:23475970

Guérout, Anne-Marie; Iqbal, Naeem; Mine, Natacha; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Van Melderen, Laurence

2013-01-01

285

Storing self-contained gel capillary cassettes for POC medical diagnostics.  

PubMed

For effective clinical uptake of the lab on a chip/point of care technology (LOC-POC), in addition to cost advantages LOC-POC devices should offer multiple patient screening panels for related diseases as well as cold-chain transportation and storage abilities. We recently described a device that performs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously screen raw clinical samples from up to 16 patients for multiple infectious agents (Manage et al., Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2576-2584). This cassette contains glass capillaries with desiccated semi-solid acrylamide gels that include all the reagents except for the sample, with integrated quality control. Here we report the development of protocols to store assembled PCR cassettes at room temperature, 4 °C or -20 °C as well as at +40 °C. We show that our cassettes are stable, with no loss of activity for at least 3 months at RT and at least 7 months at 4 °C and -20 °C. However, the activity of desiccated cassettes degrades when stored for more than 2 weeks at 40 °C, insufficient time for post-manufacture delivery and use of cassette PCR. To address this, we have evaluated two stage storage protocols. PCR cassettes can initially be stored at 4 °C and -20 °C for prolonged periods of time and removed for shorter term storage at RT, retaining activity for at least a month, which would facilitate transport to remote areas for testing. Effective use of cassette PCR in high temperature regions of the world, for experimental purposes defined here as 40 °C, appears to be feasible only after a first stage storage in the cold, followed by no more than 1 week at 40 °C. This should allow sufficient time for delivery by the manufacturer to a central area well served by power and refrigeration, for later ambient temperature transport and use in under-resourced areas that lack refrigeration. PMID:23966212

Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Zahariadis, George; Pilarski, Linda M

2013-10-21

286

A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring plasmids of genetically engineered microorganisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype stable RNA identification cassette for monitoring genetically engineered plasmids carried by strains of Escherichia coli has been developed. The cassette consists of a Vibrio proteolyticus 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene surrounded by promoters and terminators from the rrnB operon of Escherischia coli. The identifier RNA is expressed and successfully processed so that approximately 30% of the 5S rRNA isolated from either whole cells or 70S ribosomes is of the V. proteolyticus type. Cells carrying the identifier are readily detectable by hybridization. Accurate measurements show that the identification cassette has little effect on fitness compared to a strain containing an analogous plasmid carrying wild type E. coli 5S rRNA, and the V. proteolyticus 5S rRNA gene is not inactivated after prolonged growth. These results demonstrate the feasibility of developing small standardized identification cassettes that can utilize already existing highly sensitive rRNA detection methods. Cassettes of this type could in principle be incorporated into either the engineered regions of recombinant plasmids or their hosts.

Hedenstierna, K. O.; Lee, Y. H.; Yang, Y.; Fox, G. E.

1993-01-01

287

Significant Productivity Improvement of the Baculovirus Expression Vector System by Engineering a Novel Expression Cassette  

PubMed Central

Here we describe the development of a baculovirus vector expression cassette containing rearranged baculovirus-derived genetic regulatory elements. This newly designed expression cassette conferred significant production improvements to the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), including prolonged cell integrity after infection, improved protein integrity, and around 4-fold increase in recombinant protein production yields in insect cells with respect to a standard baculovirus vector. The expression cassette consisted of a cDNA encoding for the baculovirus transactivation factors IE1 and IE0, expressed under the control of the polyhedrin promoter, and a homologous repeated transcription enhancer sequence operatively cis-linked to the p10 promoter or to chimeric promoters containing p10. The prolonged cell integrity observed in cells infected by baculoviruses harbouring the novel expression cassette reduced the characteristic proteolysis and aberrant forms frequently found in baculovirus-derived recombinant proteins. The new expression cassette developed here has the potential to significantly improve the productivity of the BEVS. PMID:24824596

Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; López-Vidal, Javier; Escribano, José M.

2014-01-01

288

Diverse Gene Cassettes in Class 1 Integrons of Facultative Oligotrophic Bacteria of River Mahananda, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background In this study a large random collection (n?=?2188) of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007–2009) from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. Methodology/Principal Findings Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19%) were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR) and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR), and 521 (23.81%) were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s) of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (?2) test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6?-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families, Moraxellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions Oligotrophic bacteria are good sources of novel genes as well as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance gene casettes. PMID:23951238

Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Kumar, Arvind; Bhowal, Suparna Saha; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Mukherjee, Shriparna

2013-01-01

289

Assessing ATP binding and hydrolysis by NLR proteins  

PubMed Central

Summary Nucleotide-binding and leucine rich repeat domain-containing proteins (NLR) are central to the formation of many inflammasome complexes. Several inflammasome forming NLR proteins are known to be ATPases, but the nucleotide binding specificity of many remains to be characterized. The oligomerization of NLR proteins and assembly of inflammasomes require the ATP (or other nucleotide) binding activity of the NLR proteins. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the nucleotide binding properties of these proteins are useful tools in studying the regulation of inflammasome activity, and will be outlined in this Chapter. PMID:23852603

Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

290

ATP binding to a multisubunit enzyme: statistical thermodynamics analysis  

E-print Network

Due to inter-subunit communication, multisubunit enzymes usually hydrolyze ATP in a concerted fashion. However, so far the principle of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, from the viewpoint of statistical thermodynamics, a simple model is presented. In this model, we assume that the binding of ATP will change the potential of the corresponding enzyme subunit, and the degree of this change depends on the state of its adjacent subunits. The probability of enzyme in a given state satisfies the Boltzmann's distribution. Although it looks much simple, this model can fit the recent experimental data of chaperonin TRiC/CCT well. From this model, the dominant state of TRiC/CCT can be obtained. This study provided a new way to understand biophysical processes by statistical thermodynamics analysis.

Yunxin Zhang

2012-03-22

291

Statistical Mechanics Analysis of ATP Binding to a Multisubunit Enzyme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to inter-subunit communication, multisubunit enzymes usually hydrolyze ATP in a concerted fashion. However, so far the principle of this process remains poorly understood. In this study, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics, a simple model is presented. In this model, we assume that the binding of ATP will change the potential of the corresponding enzyme subunit, and the degree of this change depends on the state of its adjacent subunits. The probability of enzyme in a given state satisfies the Boltzmann's distribution. Although it looks much simple, this model can fit the recent experimental data of chaperonin TRiC/CCT well. From this model, the dominant state of TRiC/CCT can be obtained. This study provide a new way to understand biophysical processe by statistical mechanics analysis.

Zhang, Yun-Xin

2014-10-01

292

Mass spectrometry imaging of cassette-dosed drugs for higher throughput pharmacokinetic and biodistribution analysis.  

PubMed

Cassette dosing of compounds for preclinical drug plasma pharmacokinetic analysis has been shown to be a powerful strategy within the pharmaceutical industry for increasing throughput while decreasing the number of animals used. Presented here for the first time is data on the application of a cassette dosing strategy for label-free tissue distribution studies. The aim of the study was to image the spatial distribution of eight nonproprietary drugs (haloperidol, bufuralol, midazolam, clozapine, terfenadine, erlotinib, olanzapine, and moxifloxacin) in multiple tissues after oral and intravenous cassette dosing (four compounds per dose route). An array of mass spectrometry imaging technologies, including matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI), liquid extraction surface analysis tandem mass spectrometry (LESA-MS/MS), and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used. Tissue analysis following intravenous and oral administration of discretely and cassette-dosed compounds demonstrated similar relative abundances across a range of tissues indicating that a cassette dosing approach was applicable. MALDI MSI was unsuccessful in detecting all of the target compounds; therefore, DESI MSI, a complementary mass spectrometry imaging technique, was used to detect additional target compounds. In addition, by adapting technology used for tissue profiling (LESA-MS/MS) low spatial resolution mass spectrometry imaging (?1 mm) was possible for all targets across all tissues. This study exemplifies the power of multiplatform MSI analysis within a pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) environment. Furthermore, we have illustrated that the cassette dosing approach can be readily applied to provide combined, label-free pharmacokinetic and drug distribution data at an early stage of the drug discovery/development process while minimizing animal usage. PMID:25084360

Swales, John G; Tucker, James W; Strittmatter, Nicole; Nilsson, Anna; Cobice, Diego; Clench, Malcolm R; Mackay, C Logan; Andren, Per E; Takáts, Zoltán; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

2014-08-19

293

A self-excising beta-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletion and homokaryon purification in Neurospora crassa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a previous study we developed a cassette employing a bacterial beta-recombinase acting on six recognition sequences (beta-rec/six), which allowed repetitive site-specific gene deletion and marker recycling in Neurospora crassa. However, only one positive selection marker was used in the cassette...

294

An enclosed in-gel PCR amplification cassette with multi-target, multi-sample detection for platform molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

This work describes a self-contained, simple, disposable, and inexpensive gel capillary cassette for DNA amplification in near point of care settings. The cassette avoids the need for pumps or valves during raw sample delivery or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification steps. The cassette contains capillary reaction units that can be stored at room temperature for up to 3 months. The current cassette configuration format simultaneously tests up to 16 patients for two or more targets, accommodates different sample types on the same cassette, has integrated positive and negative controls and allows flexibility for multiple geometries. PCR reagents in the cassette are desiccated to allow storage at room temperature with rehydration by raw sample at the time of testing. The sample is introduced to the cassette via a transfer pipette simply by capillary force. DNA amplification was carried out in a portable prototype instrument for PCR thermal cycling with fluorescence detection of amplified products by melt curve analysis (MCA). To demonstrate performance, raw genital swabs and urine were introduced to the same cassette to simultaneously detect four sexually transmitted infections. Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) were detected from raw genital swabs. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma homonis (MH) were detected from raw urine. Results for multiple patients were obtained in as little as 50 min. This platform allows multiparameter clinical testing with a pre-assembled cassette that requires only the introduction of raw sample. Modification of the prototype device to accommodate larger cassettes will ultimately provide high throughput simultaneous testing of even larger numbers of samples for many different targets, as is required for some clinical applications. Combinations of wax and/or polymer cassettes holding capillary reaction units are feasible. The components of the cassette are suited to mass production and robotic assembly to produce a readily manufactured disposable reaction cassette that can be configured for disease-specific testing panels. Rapid testing with a disposable reaction cassette on an inexpensive instrument will enable on the spot evaluation of patients in the clinic for faster medical decision-making and more informed therapeutic choices. PMID:23471315

Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Atrazev, Alexey; Chavali, Ravi; Samuel, Roshini A; Chan, Brandon; Morrissey, Y C; Gordy, Walter; Edwards, Ann L; Larison, Kyle; Yanow, Stephanie K; Acker, Jason P; Zahariadis, George; Pilarski, Linda M

2013-07-01

295

Fluorescent Cassettes for Monitoring Three-Component Interactions in Vitro and in Living Cells  

E-print Network

to test cassettes 1 and 2. This was generated via the interaction of biotin-functionalized bovine serum) activated forms of (i) the FRET donor Atto425 (a coumarin derivative; Sigma) and then (ii) biotin; the dye/biotin of BSA-(strept)avidin interactions with no biotin involved. Second, to correct for vari

Burgess, Kevin

296

A Novel Cassette Method for Probe Evaluation in the Designed Biochips  

PubMed Central

A critical step in biochip design is the selection of probes with identical hybridisation characteristics. In this article we describe a novel method for evaluating DNA hybridisation probes, allowing the fine-tuning of biochips, that uses cassettes with multiple probes. Each cassette contains probes in equimolar proportions so that their hybridisation performance can be assessed in a single reaction. The model used to demonstrate this method was a series of probes developed to detect TORCH pathogens. DNA probes were designed for Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes virus and these were used to construct the DNA cassettes. Five cassettes were constructed to detect TORCH pathogens using a variety of genes coding for membrane proteins, viral matrix protein, an early expressed viral protein, viral DNA polymerase and the repetitive gene B1 of Toxoplasma gondii. All of these probes, except that for the B1 gene, exhibited similar profiles under the same hybridisation conditions. The failure of the B1 gene probe to hybridise was not due to a position effect, and this indicated that the probe was unsuitable for inclusion in the biochip. The redesigned probe for the B1 gene exhibited identical hybridisation properties to the other probes, suitable for inclusion in a biochip. PMID:24897111

Zinkevich, Vitaly; Sapojnikova, Nelly; Mitchell, Julian; Kartvelishvili, Tamar; Asatiani, Nino; Alkhalil, Samia; Bogdarina, Irina; Al-Humam, Abdulmohsen A.

2014-01-01

297

STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Cameron juggle cassettes on OV-104's middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron juggle cassette tapes on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Laughing at Cameron's stunt are Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin (foreground), Commander Steven R. Nagel (behind Cameron), and MS Jerry L. Ross (at floor level). Ross snacks on chocolate candy during the performance.

1991-01-01

298

A timer-actuated immunoassay cassette for detecting molecular markers in oral fluids.  

PubMed

An inexpensive, hand-held, point-of-care, disposable, self-contained immunoassay cassette comprised of air pouches for pumping, a metering chamber, reagents storage chambers, a mixer, and a lateral flow strip was designed, constructed, and tested. The assay was carried out in a consecutive flow format. The detection was facilitated with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The automated, timely pumping of the various reagents was driven by a spring-loaded timer. The utility of the cassette was demonstrated by detecting antibodies to HIV in saliva samples and further evaluated with a non-contagious, haptenized DNA assay. The cassette has several advantages over dip sticks such as sample preprocessing, integrated storage of reagents, and automated operation that reduces operator errors and training. The cassette and actuator described herein can readily be extended to detect biomarkers of other diseases in body fluids and other fluids at the point of care. The system is particularly suitable for resource-poor countries, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply. PMID:19255658

Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Ongagna, Serge; Chen, Dafeng; Chen, Zongyuan; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

2009-03-21

299

ATimer-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassette for Detecting Molecular Markers in Oral Fluids  

PubMed Central

An inexpensive, hand-held, point-of-care, disposable, self-contained, immunoassay cassette comprised of air pouches for pumping, a metering chamber, reagents storage chambers, a mixer, and a lateral flow strip was designed, constructed, and tested. The assay was carried out in a consecutive flow format. The detection was facilitated with up-converting, phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The automated, timely pumping of the various reagents was driven by a spring-loaded timer. The utility of the cassette was demonstrated by detecting antibodies to HIV in saliva samples and further evaluated with a non-contagious, haptenized DNA assay. The cassette has several advantages over dip sticks such as sample preprocessing, integrated storage of reagents, and automated operation that reduces operator errors and training. The cassette and actuator described herein can readily be extended to detect biomarkers of other diseases in body fluids and other fluids at the point of care. The system is particularly suitable for resource poor countries, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply. PMID:19255658

Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Ongagna, Serge; Chen, Dafeng; Chen, Zongyuan; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

2009-01-01

300

A test cassette for x-ray-exposure experiments at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and operation of a test cassette for exposure of samples to radiation environments at the National Ignition Facility. The cassette provides options for square and round samples and exposure areas; the cassette provides for multiple levels of filtration on a single sample, which allows dynamic range in experiments. The samples had normal lines of sight to the x-ray source in order to have uniform x-ray illumination. The incident x-radiation onto the samples was determined by the choice of filter thicknesses and materials. The samples were held at precise locations, accurate to within a few hundred microns, in the target chamber in order to have a known fluence incident. In the cassette, the samples were held in place in such a way that a minimal ''line contact'' allows them to have the maximal mechanical response to the x-ray load. We present postshot images of the debris found on films used for filters, and pre- and postexposure specimens.

Fournier, K. B.; Celeste, J.; Rekow, V.; Bopp, D. R.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Horton, R.; Newlander, C. D. [Gray Research, Inc., 655 Discovery Drive, Suite 300, Huntsville, Alabama 35806 (United States); Jenkins, P.; Trautz, K. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2010-07-15

301

Utilizing ARC EMCS Seedling Cassettes as Highly Versatile Miniature Growth Chambers for Model Organism Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of our ground testing was to demonstrate the capability of safely putting specific model organisms into dehydrated stasis, and to later rehydrate and successfully grow them inside flight proven ARC EMCS seedling cassettes. The ARC EMCS seedling cassettes were originally developed to support seedling growth during space flight. The seeds are attached to a solid substrate, launched dry, and then rehydrated in a small volume of media on orbit to initiate the experiment. We hypothesized that the same seedling cassettes should be capable of acting as culture chambers for a wide range of organisms with minimal or no modification. The ability to safely preserve live organisms in a dehydrated state allows for on orbit experiments to be conducted at the best time for crew operations and more importantly provides a tightly controlled physiologically relevant growth experiment with specific environmental parameters. Thus, we performed a series of ground tests that involved growing the organisms, preparing them for dehydration on gridded Polyether Sulfone (PES) membranes, dry storage at ambient temperatures for varying periods of time, followed by rehydration. Inside the culture cassettes, the PES membranes were mounted above blotters containing dehydrated growth media. These were mounted on stainless steel bases and sealed with plastic covers that have permeable membrane covered ports for gas exchange. The results showed we were able to demonstrate acceptable normal growth of C.elegans (nematodes), E.coli (bacteria), S.cerevisiae (yeast), Polytrichum (moss) spores and protonemata, C.thalictroides (fern), D.discoideum (amoeba), and H.dujardini (tardigrades). All organisms showed acceptable growth and rehydration in both petri dishes and culture cassettes initially, and after various time lengths of dehydration. At the end of on orbit ISS European Modular Cultivation System experiments the cassettes could be frozen at ultra-low temperatures, refrigerated, or chemically preserved before being returned to Earth for analyses. Our results suggest that with protocol modifications and future verification testing we can utilize the versatile EMCS to conduct tightly controlled experiments inside our culture cassettes for a wide variety of organisms. These physiological experiments would be designed to answer questions at the molecular level about the specific stress responses of space flight.

Freeman, John L.; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David; Reinsch, S.; DeSimone, Julia C.; Myers, Zachary A.

2014-01-01

302

The plasma-facing components transporter (PFCT): A prototype system for PFC replacement on the new ITER 2001 cassette mock-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to major modifications in the ITER 1998 divertor cassette design, the main focus over the past few years has been focussed on the design and manufacture of the various components, devices and tools needed for refurbishment of the new ITER 2001 divertor cassette. The design of this new cassette differs substantially from the earlier version: shape, weight and attachment

G. Miccichè; M. Irving; L. Lorenzelli; L. Muro

2007-01-01

303

Evaluating the accuracy of technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes.  

PubMed

The accuracy rates of board-registered pharmacy technicians and pharmacists in checking unit dose medication cassettes in the inpatient setting at two separate institutions were examined. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, both in Los Angeles county, petitioned the California State Board of Pharmacy to approve a waiver of the California Code of Regulations to conduct an experimental program to compare the accuracy of unit dose medication cassettes checked by pharmacists with that of cassettes checked by trained, certified pharmacy technicians. The study consisted of three parts: assessing pharmacist baseline checking accuracy (Phase I), developing a technician-training program and certifying technicians who completed the didactic and practical training (Phase II), and evaluating the accuracy of certified technicians checking unit dose medication cassettes as a daily function (Phase III). Twenty-nine pharmacists and 41 technicians (3 of whom were pharmacy interns) participated in the study. Of the technicians, all 41 successfully completed the didactic and practical training, 39 successfully completed the audits and became certified checkers, and 2 (including 1 of the interns) did not complete the certification audits because they were reassigned to another work area or had resigned. In Phase II, the observed accuracy rate and its lower confidence limit exceeded the predetermined minimum requirement of 99.8% for a certified checker. The mean accuracy rates for technicians were identical at the two institutions (p = 1.0). The difference in mean accuracy rates between pharmacists (99.52%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 99.44-99.58%) and technicians, (99.89%; 95% CI 99.87-99.90%) was significant (p < 0.0001). Inpatient technicians who had been trained and certified in a closely supervised program that incorporated quality assurance mechanisms could safely and accurately check unit dose medication cassettes filled by other technicians. PMID:12073859

Ambrose, Peter J; Saya, Frank G; Lovett, Larry T; Tan, Sandy; Adams, Dale W; Shane, Rita

2002-06-15

304

An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids  

PubMed Central

A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids. PMID:20401537

Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.

2010-01-01

305

Ground Testing of the EMCS Seed Cassette for Biocompatibility with the Cellular Slime Mold, Dictyostelium Discoideum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS, was developed by ESA for plant experiments. To expand the use of flight verified hardware for various model organisms, we performed ground experiments to determine whether ARC EMCS Seed Cassettes could be adapted for use with cellular slime mold for future space flight experiments. Dictyostelium is a cellular slime mold that can exist both as a single-celled independent organism and as a part of a multicellular colony which functions as a unit (pseudoplasmodium). Under certain stress conditions, individual amoebae will aggregate to form multicellular structures. Developmental pathways are very similar to those found in Eukaryotic organisms, making this a uniquely interesting organism for use in genetic studies. Dictyostelium has been used as a genetic model organism for prior space flight experiments. Due to the formation of spores that are resistant to unfavorable conditions such as desiccation, Dictyostelium is also a good candidate for use in the EMCS Seed Cassettes. The growth substratum in the cassettes is a gridded polyether sulfone (PES) membrane. A blotter beneath the PES membranes contains dried growth medium. The goals of this study were to (1) verify that Dictyostelium are capable of normal growth and development on PES membranes, (2) develop a method for dehydration of Dictyostelium spores with successful recovery and development after rehydration, and (3) successful mock rehydration experiments in cassettes. Our results show normal developmental progression in two strains of Dictyostelium discoideum on PES membranes with a bacterial food source. We have successfully performed a mock rehydration of spores with developmental progression from aggregation to slug formation, and production of morphologically normal spores within 9 days of rehydration. Our results indicate that experiments on the ISS using the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum could potentially be performed in the flight verified hardware of the EMCS ARC Seed Cassettes.

Hanely, Julia C.; Reinsch, Sigrid; Myers, Zachary A.; Freeman, John; Steele, Marianne K.; Sun, Gwo-Shing; Heathcote, David G.

2014-01-01

306

Insect cell line development using FLP-mediated cassette exchange technology.  

PubMed

Traditional cell line development is quite laborious and time-consuming as it is based on the random integration of the gene of interest which leads to unpredictable expression behavior. In opposition, recombinase-mediated cassette exchange systems represent a powerful genetic engineering approach, allowing site-specific insertion of recombinant genes into pre-tagged genomic loci with superior expression characteristics, thus bypassing the need for extensive clone screening and shortening the development timelines. Such systems have not been widely implemented in insect cell lines used for the production of recombinant proteins most commonly through the baculovirus expression vector system. Herein, it is provided the protocol for the implementation of a FLP-mediated cassette exchange system in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf 9 cells, in order to grant a flexible cell line for the stable production of recombinant proteins. PMID:24297406

Vidigal, João; Fernandes, Fabiana; Coroadinha, Ana S; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M

2014-01-01

307

Light without substrate amendment: the bacterial luciferase gene cassette as a mammalian bioreporter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioluminescent production represents a facile method for bioreporter detection in mammalian tissues. The lack of endogenous bioluminescent reactions in these tissues allows for high signal to noise ratios even at low signal strength compared to fluorescent signal detection. While the luciferase enzymes commonly employed for bioluminescent detection are those from class Insecta (firefly and click beetle luciferases), these are handicapped in that they require concurrent administration of a luciferin compound to elicit a bioluminescent signal. The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette offers the advantages common to other bioluminescent proteins, but is simultaneously capable of synthesizing its own luciferin substrates using endogenously available cellular compounds. The longstanding shortcoming of the lux cassette has been its recalcitrance to function in the mammalian cellular environment. This paper will present an overview of the work completed to date to overcome this limitation and provide examples of mammalian lux-based bioreporter technologies that could provide the framework for advanced, biomedically relevant real-time sensor development.

Close, Dan M.; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby E.; Jegier, Pat; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

2011-06-01

308

Rapid retroviral delivery of tetracycline-inducible genes in a single autoregulatory cassette.  

PubMed Central

We describe a single autoregulatory cassette that allows reversible induction of transgene expression in response to tetracycline (tet). This cassette contains all of the necessary components previously described by others on two separate plasmids that are introduced sequentially over a period of months [Gossen, M. & Bujard, H. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 5547-5551]. The cassette is introduced using a retrovirus, allowing transfer into cell types that are difficult to transfect. Thus, populations of thousands of cells, rather than a few clones, can be isolated and characterized within weeks. To avoid potential interference of the strong retroviral long terminal repeat enhancer and promoter elements with the function of the tet-regulated cytomegalovirus minimal promoter, the vector is self-inactivating, eliminating transcription from the long terminal repeat after infection of target cells. Tandem tet operator sequences and the cytomegalovirus minimal promoter drive expression of a bicistronic mRNA, leading to transcription of the gene of interest (lacZ) and the internal ribosome entry site controlled transactivator (Tet repressor-VP16 fusion protein). In the absence of tet, there is a progressive increase in transactivator by means of an autoregulatory loop, whereas in the presence of tet, gene expression is prevented. Northern blot, biochemical, and single cell analyses have all shown that the construct yields low basal levels of gene expression and induction of one to two orders of magnitude. Thus, the current cassette of the retroviral construct (SIN-RetroTet vector) allows rapid delivery of inducible genes and should have broad applications to cultured cells, transgenic animals, and gene therapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8643550

Hofmann, A; Nolan, G P; Blau, H M

1996-01-01

309

Simple strategy for bone regeneration with a BMP2\\/7 gene expression cassette vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) is one of the most promising candidates for bone regeneration therapy. Heterodimers of BMP family proteins, such as BMP-2\\/4 or BMP-2\\/7, are well known to have stronger osteoinduction activity than BMP homodimers. Here, we constructed a double gene cassette vector encoding BMP-2 and BMP-7, pCAGGS-BMP-2\\/7, and examined its potential for osteoinduction in vitro and in vivo.

Mariko Kawai; Hiroki Maruyama; Kazuhisa Bessho; Hiromitsu Yamamoto; Jun-Ichi Miyazaki; Toshio Yamamoto

2009-01-01

310

Unprecedented enhancement of transient gene expression from minimal cassettes using a double terminator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of using vector-free minimal gene cassettes (MGCs) with a double terminator for the enhancement and stabilization\\u000a of transgene expression was tested in sugarcane biolistic transformation. The MGC system used consisted of the enhanced yellow\\u000a fluorescent protein (EYFP) reporter gene driven by the maize ubiquitin-1 (Ubi) promoter and a single or double terminator from nopaline synthase (Tnos) or\\/and Cauliflower

Getu Beyene; Marco T. Buenrostro-Nava; Mona B. Damaj; San-Ji Gao; Joe Molina; T. Erik Mirkov

2011-01-01

311

Conservation of gene cassettes among diverse viruses of the human gut.  

PubMed

Viruses are a crucial component of the human microbiome, but large population sizes, high sequence diversity, and high frequencies of novel genes have hindered genomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Here we investigate approaches to metagenomic assembly to probe genome structure in a sample of 5.6 Gb of gut viral DNA sequence from six individuals. Tests showed that a new pipeline based on DeBruijn graph assembly yielded longer contigs that were able to recruit more reads than the equivalent non-optimized, single-pass approach. To characterize gene content, the database of viral RefSeq proteins was compared to the assembled viral contigs, generating a bipartite graph with functional cassettes linking together viral contigs, which revealed a high degree of connectivity between diverse genomes involving multiple genes of the same functional class. In a second step, open reading frames were grouped by their co-occurrence on contigs in a database-independent manner, revealing conserved cassettes of co-oriented ORFs. These methods reveal that free-living bacteriophages, while usually dissimilar at the nucleotide level, often have significant similarity at the level of encoded amino acid motifs, gene order, and gene orientation. These findings thus connect contemporary metagenomic analysis with classical studies of bacteriophage genomic cassettes. Software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/optitdba/. PMID:22900013

Minot, Samuel; Wu, Gary D; Lewis, James D; Bushman, Frederic D

2012-01-01

312

Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics  

SciTech Connect

A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics.

Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H. G.

2005-09-26

313

Highly efficient integration and expression of piggyBac-derived cassettes in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Honeybees (Apis mellifera), which are important pollinators of plants, display remarkable individual behaviors that collectively contribute to the organization of a complex society. Advances in dissecting the complex processes of honeybee behavior have been limited in the recent past due to a lack of genetic manipulation tools. These tools are difficult to apply in honeybees because the unit of reproduction is the colony, and many interesting phenotypes are developmentally specified at later stages. Here, we report highly efficient integration and expression of piggyBac-derived cassettes in the honeybee. We demonstrate that 27 and 20% of queens stably transmitted two different expression cassettes to their offspring, which is a 6- to 30-fold increase in efficiency compared with those generally reported in other insect species. This high efficiency implies that an average beekeeping facility with a limited number of colonies can apply this tool. We demonstrated that the cassette stably and efficiently expressed marker genes in progeny under either an artificial or an endogenous promoter. This evidence of efficient expression encourages the use of this system to inhibit gene functions through RNAi in specific tissues and developmental stages by using various promoters. We also showed that the transgenic marker could be used to select transgenic offspring to be employed to facilitate the building of transgenic colonies via the haploid males. We present here the first to our knowledge genetic engineering tool that will efficiently allow for the systematic detection and better understanding of processes underlying the biology of honeybees. PMID:24821811

Schulte, Christina; Theilenberg, Eva; Müller-Borg, Marion; Gempe, Tanja; Beye, Martin

2014-06-17

314

Design, synthesis, and spectroscopic properties of peptide-bridged fluorescence energy-transfer cassettes.  

PubMed

A general partial solid-phase synthetic scheme was developed for the synthesis of energy-transfer cassettes with the donor and acceptor dyes bridged by a peptide. In these cassettes, 6-carboxyfluorescein (Fam) served as a donor. For the second dye, 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (Rox) was used as a fluorescent acceptor or erythrosin B as a quencher. Different peptides bearing Rox at the amino terminus and Fam linked through different diamines to the carboxyl terminus were synthesized to examine the effects of the chain length and rigidity on energy-transfer efficiency. The ratio of emission intensities at 605 nm of the acceptor dye (ROX) in the cassette Rox-GPPPEPPP-p-xylylenediamine-Fam versus free ROX with 488 nm excitation was approximately 14 and is similar to that obtained for optimized oligonucleotide primers bearing the same dyes [Ju, J., Ruan, C., Fuller, C. W., Glazer, A. N., and Mathies, R. A. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 4347-4351]. PMID:10077473

Li, Y; Glazer, A N

1999-01-01

315

Highly efficient integration and expression of piggyBac-derived cassettes in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)  

PubMed Central

Honeybees (Apis mellifera), which are important pollinators of plants, display remarkable individual behaviors that collectively contribute to the organization of a complex society. Advances in dissecting the complex processes of honeybee behavior have been limited in the recent past due to a lack of genetic manipulation tools. These tools are difficult to apply in honeybees because the unit of reproduction is the colony, and many interesting phenotypes are developmentally specified at later stages. Here, we report highly efficient integration and expression of piggyBac-derived cassettes in the honeybee. We demonstrate that 27 and 20% of queens stably transmitted two different expression cassettes to their offspring, which is a 6- to 30-fold increase in efficiency compared with those generally reported in other insect species. This high efficiency implies that an average beekeeping facility with a limited number of colonies can apply this tool. We demonstrated that the cassette stably and efficiently expressed marker genes in progeny under either an artificial or an endogenous promoter. This evidence of efficient expression encourages the use of this system to inhibit gene functions through RNAi in specific tissues and developmental stages by using various promoters. We also showed that the transgenic marker could be used to select transgenic offspring to be employed to facilitate the building of transgenic colonies via the haploid males. We present here the first to our knowledge genetic engineering tool that will efficiently allow for the systematic detection and better understanding of processes underlying the biology of honeybees. PMID:24821811

Schulte, Christina; Theilenberg, Eva; Müller-Borg, Marion; Gempe, Tanja; Beye, Martin

2014-01-01

316

Ubiquitin promoter-terminator cassette promotes genetically stable expression of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic lettuce.  

PubMed

Lettuce is a commercially important leafy vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, and it is also a target crop for plant factories. In this study, lettuce was selected as an alternative platform for recombinant miraculin production because of its fast growth, agronomic value, and wide availability. The taste-modifying protein miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the red berries of the West African native shrub Richadella dulcifica. Because of its limited natural availability, many attempts have been made to produce this protein in suitable alternative hosts. We produced transgenic lettuce with miraculin gene driven either by the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette from lettuce or a 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. Miraculin gene expression and miraculin accumulation in both cassettes were compared by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression level of the miraculin gene and protein in transgenic lettuce was higher and more genetically stable in the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette than in the 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. These results demonstrated that the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette is an efficient platform for the genetically stable expression of the miraculin protein in lettuce and hence this platform is of benefit for recombinant miraculin production on a commercial scale. PMID:21830129

Hirai, Tadayoshi; Shohael, Abdullah Mohammad; Kim, You-Wang; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

2011-12-01

317

Enhanced performance of methamphetamine lateral flow cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader.  

PubMed

Surface contamination from methamphetamine in meth labs continues to be a problem. We had previously developed a lateral flow assay cassette for field detection of methamphetamine contamination that is commercially available and has been used by a number of groups to assess contamination. This cassette uses the complete disappearance of the test line as an end point for detection of 50 ng/100 cm2 of methamphetamine contamination for surface sampling with cotton swabs. In the present study, we further evaluate the response of the cassettes using an electronic lateral flow reader to measure the intensities of the test and control lines. The cassettes were capable of detecting 0.25 ng/ml for calibration solutions. For 100 cm2 ceramic tiles that were spiked with methamphetamine and wiped with cotton-tipped wooden swabs wetted in assay/sampling buffer, 1 ng/tile was detected using the reader. Semi-quantitative results can be produced over the range 0-10 ng/ml for calibration solutions and 0-25 ng/tile for spiked tiles using either a 4-parameter logistic fit of test line intensity versus concentration or spiked mass or the ratio of the control line to the test line intensity fit to concentration or spiked mass. Recovery from the tiles was determined to be about 30% using the fitted curves. Comparison of the control line to the test line was also examined as a possible visual detection end point and it was found that the control line became more intense than the test line at 0.5 to 1 ng/ml for calibration solutions or 1 to 2 ng/tile for spiked tiles. Thus the lateral flow cassettes for methamphetamine have the potential to produce more sensitive semi-quantitative results if an electronic lateral flow reader is used and can be more sensitive for detection if the comparison of the control line to the test line is used as the visual end point. PMID:25379615

Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Snawder, John E

2015-01-01

318

545 J. Gen. Physiol. The Rockefeller University Press 0022-1295/2002/06/545/15 $5.00 Volume 119 June 2002 545559  

E-print Network

and hydrolysis in the complex mechanisms that open and close cys- tic fibrosis transmembrane conductance binding domains · ATP binding · free [Mg2 ] I N T R O D U C T I O N Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)* Cl channels, like other members of the large ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein

Gadsby, David

319

Background ionising radiation: a pictorial perspective.  

PubMed

Ionising radiation from natural sources, known as background radiation, has existed on earth since the earth's formation. The exposure of humans and other living creatures to this radiation is a feature of the earth's environment which is continuing and inescapable. The word "radiation" brings fear to many people: a fear of the unknown, as human's senses cannot detect the presence of ionising radiation. In this study, a catalogue of images of the distribution of radioactivity in every day objects and foods has been produced using an imaging plate from a computed radiography cassette. The aim of the study is that by visually demonstrating that every day objects and foods are radioactive would alleviate the fear of "radiation" by becoming aware that we live in a radioactive environment and even our body is radioactive. PMID:24972814

Bibbo, Giovanni; Piotto, Lino

2014-09-01

320

A versatile mini-mazF-cassette for marker-free targeted genetic modification in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

There are some drawbacks for MazF-cassette constructed in previous reports for marker-free genetic manipulation in Bacillus subtilis, including cloning-dependent methodology and non-strictly controlled expression system. In our study, the modifications on mazF-cassette are carried out, such as using mini Zeocin resistance gene as positive-selectable marker and strictly controlled xyl promoter from the B. subtilis to replace non-strictly controlled IPTG-inducible Pspac or xyl promoter from Bacillus megaterium. Then the mini-mazF-cassette was successfully applied to knock-out the amyE gene, to delete a 90-kb gene cluster, and to knock-in a green fluorescent protein expression cassette employing a cloning-independent methodology, without introducing undesirable redundant sequences at the modified locus in the B. subtilis 1A751. Besides, the mini-mazF-cassette could be used repeatedly to delete multiple genes or gene clusters with only a 2- to 2.5-kb PCR-fused fragment, which largely reduced the frequency of nucleic acid mutations generated by PCR compared to previous reports. We further demonstrated that the frequency of spontaneous mazF-resistant mutants was lower, and the frequency of generating desired clones was nearly 100%. The entire procedure for marker-free genetic manipulation using the mini-mazF-cassette can be finished in about 3days. This modified cassette has remarkable improvement compared to existing approaches and is applicable for available manipulating Bacillus species chromosomes. PMID:23911571

Lin, Zhiwei; Deng, Bin; Jiao, Zhihua; Wu, Bingbing; Xu, Xin; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

2013-11-01

321

Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

2011-01-01

322

Hygromycin B and apramycin antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium. PMID:24751825

Cameron, Andrew; Gaynor, Erin C

2014-01-01

323

Natural Transformation Facilitates Transfer of Transposons, Integrons and Gene Cassettes between Bacterial Species  

PubMed Central

We have investigated to what extent natural transformation acting on free DNA substrates can facilitate transfer of mobile elements including transposons, integrons and/or gene cassettes between bacterial species. Naturally transformable cells of Acinetobacter baylyi were exposed to DNA from integron-carrying strains of the genera Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella to determine the nature and frequency of transfer. Exposure to the various DNA sources resulted in acquisition of antibiotic resistance traits as well as entire integrons and transposons, over a 24 h exposure period. DNA incorporation was not solely dependent on integrase functions or the genetic relatedness between species. DNA sequence analyses revealed that several mechanisms facilitated stable integration in the recipient genome depending on the nature of the donor DNA; homologous or heterologous recombination and various types of transposition (Tn21-like and IS26-like). Both donor strains and transformed isolates were extensively characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, integron- and cassette-specific PCRs, DNA sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoreses (PFGE), Southern blot hybridizations, and by re-transformation assays. Two transformant strains were also genome-sequenced. Our data demonstrate that natural transformation facilitates interspecies transfer of genetic elements, suggesting that the transient presence of DNA in the cytoplasm may be sufficient for genomic integration to occur. Our study provides a plausible explanation for why sequence-conserved transposons, IS elements and integrons can be found disseminated among bacterial species. Moreover, natural transformation of integron harboring populations of competent bacteria revealed that interspecies exchange of gene cassettes can be highly efficient, and independent on genetic relatedness between donor and recipient. In conclusion, natural transformation provides a much broader capacity for horizontal acquisitions of genetic elements and hence, resistance traits from divergent species than previously assumed. PMID:22876180

Domingues, Sara; Harms, Klaus; Fricke, W. Florian; Johnsen, Pål J.; da Silva, Gabriela J.; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

2012-01-01

324

Identification of a novel streptococcal gene cassette mediating SOS mutagenesis in Streptococcus uberis.  

PubMed

Streptococci have been considered to lack the classical SOS response, defined by increased mutation after UV exposure and regulation by LexA. Here we report the identification of a potential self-regulated SOS mutagenesis gene cassette in the Streptococcaceae family. Exposure to UV light was found to increase mutations to antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus uberis cultures. The mutational spectra revealed mainly G:C-->A:T transitions, and Northern analyses demonstrated increased expression of a Y-family DNA polymerase resembling UmuC under DNA-damaging conditions. In the absence of the Y-family polymerase, S. uberis cells were sensitive to UV light and to mitomycin C. Furthermore, the UV-induced mutagenesis was almost completely abolished in cells deficient in the Y-family polymerase. The gene encoding the Y-family polymerase was localized in a four-gene operon including two hypothetical genes and a gene encoding a HdiR homolog. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that S. uberis HdiR binds specifically to an inverted repeat sequence in the promoter region of the four-gene operon. Database searches revealed conservation of the gene cassette in several Streptococcus species, including at least one genome each of Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. In addition, the umuC operon was localized in several mobile DNA elements of Streptococcus and Lactococcus species. We conclude that the hdiR-umuC-ORF3-ORF4 operon represents a novel gene cassette capable of mediating SOS mutagenesis among members of the Streptococcaceae. PMID:17513475

Varhimo, Emilia; Savijoki, Kirsi; Jalava, Jari; Kuipers, Oscar P; Varmanen, Pekka

2007-07-01

325

Cassette Series Designed for Live-Cell Imaging of Proteins and High Resolution Techniques in Yeast  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, it has become clear that protein function and regulation are highly dependent upon intracellular localization. Although fluorescent protein variants are ubiquitously used to monitor protein dynamics, localization, and abundance; fluorescent light microscopy techniques often lack the resolution to explore protein heterogeneity and cellular ultrastructure. Several approaches have been developed to identify, characterize, and monitor the spatial localization of proteins and complexes at the sub-organelle level; yet, many of these techniques have not been applied to yeast. Thus, we have constructed a series of cassettes containing codon-optimized epitope tags, fluorescent protein variants that cover the full spectrum of visible light, a TetCys motif used for FlAsH-based localization, and the first evaluation in yeast of a photoswitchable variant – mEos2 – to monitor discrete subpopulations of proteins via confocal microscopy. This series of modules, complete with six different selection markers, provides the optimal flexibility during live-cell imaging and multicolor labeling in vivo. Furthermore, high-resolution imaging techniques include the yeast-enhanced TetCys motif that is compatible with diaminobenzidine photooxidation used for protein localization by electron microscopy and mEos2 that is ideal for super-resolution microscopy. We have examined the utility of our cassettes by analyzing all probes fused to the C-terminus of Sec61, a polytopic membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum of moderate protein concentration, in order to directly compare fluorescent probes, their utility and technical applications. Our series of cassettes expand the repertoire of molecular tools available to advance targeted spatiotemporal investigations using multiple live-cell, super-resolution or electron microscopy imaging techniques. PMID:22473760

Young, Carissa L.; Raden, David L.; Caplan, Jeffrey; Czymmek, Kirk; Robinson, Anne S.

2012-01-01

326

NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL PMEL-11 CONVERSION FROM FILM TO MAGNETIC CASSETTE RECORDING  

E-print Network

FOR THE GEODYNE 102 CURRENT METER Alex I. Nakamura Robert R. Harvey Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. · · · · · · ·· . · · · ·· · · · . · · · ·· · · · . ·· · · · ·· · · · · · · · · · · · · 15 iii #12;#12;JIMAR 78-0002 CONVERSION FROM FILM TO MAGNETIC CASSETTE RECORDING FOR THE GEODYNE 102) PMEL 356* This report describes a conversion of the Geodyne 102 aurTent meter~ which recorded its data

327

Characterization of a complex context containing mecA but lacking genes encoding cassette chromosome recombinases in Staphylococcus haemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Methicillin resistance determinant mecA is generally transferred by SCCmec elements. However, the mecA gene might not be carried by a SCCmec in a Staphylococcus haemolyticus clinical isolate, WCH1, as no cassette chromosome recombinase genes were detected. Therefore, the genetic context of mecA in WCH1 was investigated. Results A 40-kb region containing mecA was obtained from WCH1, bounded by orfX at one end and several orfs of S. haemolyticus core chromosome at the other. This 40-kb region was very complex in structure with multiple genetic components that appeared to have different origins. For instance, the 3.7-kb structure adjacent to orfX was almost identical to that on the chromosome of Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62a but was absent from S. haemolyticus JCSC1435. Terminal inverted repeats of SCC were found but no ccr genes could be detected. mecA was bracketed by two copies of IS431, which was flanked by 8-bp direct target repeat sequence (DR). Conclusions The presence of 8-bp DR suggests that the two copies of IS431 might have formed a composite transposon for mobilizing mecA. This finding is of significance as multiple copies of IS431 are commonly present in the contexts of mecA, which might have the potential to form various composite transposons that could mediate the mobilization of mecA. This study also provides an explanation for the absence of ccr in some staphylococci isolates carrying mecA. PMID:23521926

2013-01-01

328

Recombination-Induced Tag Exchange (RITE) Cassette Series to Monitor Protein Dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Proteins are not static entities. They are highly mobile, and their steady-state levels are achieved by a balance between ongoing synthesis and degradation. The dynamic properties of a protein can have important consequences for its function. For example, when a protein is degraded and replaced by a newly synthesized one, posttranslational modifications are lost and need to be reincorporated in the new molecules. Protein stability and mobility are also relevant for the duplication of macromolecular structures or organelles, which involves coordination of protein inheritance with the synthesis and assembly of newly synthesized proteins. To measure protein dynamics, we recently developed a genetic pulse-chase assay called recombination-induced tag exchange (RITE). RITE has been successfully used in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to measure turnover and inheritance of histone proteins, to study changes in posttranslational modifications on aging proteins, and to visualize the spatiotemporal inheritance of protein complexes and organelles in dividing cells. Here we describe a series of successful RITE cassettes that are designed for biochemical analyses, genomics studies, as well as single cell fluorescence applications. Importantly, the genetic nature and the stability of the tag switch offer the unique possibility to combine RITE with high-throughput screening for protein dynamics mutants and mechanisms. The RITE cassettes are widely applicable, modular by design, and can therefore be easily adapted for use in other cell types or organisms. PMID:23708297

Terweij, Marit; van Welsem, Tibor; van Deventer, Sjoerd; Verzijlbergen, Kitty F.; Menendez-Benito, Victoria; Ontoso, David; San-Segundo, Pedro; Neefjes, Jacques; van Leeuwen, Fred

2013-01-01

329

Recent advances on host plants and expression cassettes' structure and function in plant molecular pharming.  

PubMed

Plant molecular pharming is a promising system to produce important recombinant proteins such as therapeutic antibodies, pharmaceuticals, enzymes, growth factors, and vaccines. The system provides an interesting alternative method to the direct extraction of proteins from inappropriate source material while offering the possibility to overcome problems related to product safety and source availability. Multiple factors including plant hosts, genes of interest, expression vector cassettes, and extraction and purification techniques play important roles in the plant molecular pharming. Plant species, as a biosynthesis platform, are a crucial factor in achieving high yields of recombinant protein in plant. The choice of recombinant gene and its expression strategy is also of great importance in ensuring a high amount of the recombinant proteins. Many studies have been conducted to improve expression, accumulation, and purification of the recombinant protein from molecular pharming systems. Re-engineered vectors and expression cassettes are also pivotal tools in enhancing gene expression at the transcription and translation level, and increasing protein accumulation, stability, retention and targeting of specific organelles. In this review, we report recent advances and strategies of plant molecular pharming while focusing on the choice of plant hosts and the role of some molecular pharming elements and approaches: promoters, codon optimization, signal sequences, and peptides used for upstream design, purification and downstream processing. PMID:23959796

Makhzoum, Abdullah; Benyammi, Roukia; Moustafa, Khaled; Trémouillaux-Guiller, Jocelyne

2014-04-01

330

Electricity generation from cattle manure slurry by cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells.  

PubMed

Cassette-electrode microbial fuel cells (CE-MFCs) are efficient and scalable devices for electricity production from organic waste. Previous studies have demonstrated that CE-MFCs are capable of generating electricity from artificial wastewater at relatively high efficiencies. In this study, a single-cassette CE-MFC was constructed, and its capacity for electricity generation from cattle manure suspended in water (solid to water ratio of 1:50) was examined. The CE-MFC reactor was operated in batch mode for 49 days; electricity generation became stable 2 weeks after initiating the operation. The maximum power density was measured at 16.3 W m?³ on day 26. Sequencing analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments obtained from the original manure and from anode biofilms suggested that Chloroflexi and Geobacteraceae were abundant in the anode biofilm (29% and 18%, respectively), whereas no Geobacteraceae sequences were detected in the original manure sample. The results of this study suggest that CE-MFCs can be used to generate electricity from water-suspended cattle manure in a scalable MFC system. PMID:23764017

Inoue, Kengo; Ito, Toshihiro; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Atsushi; Miyahara, Morio; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuya

2013-11-01

331

Plug-and-Play Genetic Access to Drosophila Cell Types using Exchangeable Exon Cassettes.  

PubMed

Genetically encoded effectors are important tools for probing cellular function in living animals, but improved methods for directing their expression to specific cell types are required. Here, we introduce a simple, versatile method for achieving cell-type-specific expression of transgenes that leverages the untapped potential of "coding introns" (i.e., introns between coding exons). Our method couples the expression of a transgene to that of a native gene expressed in the cells of interest using intronically inserted "plug-and-play" cassettes (called "Trojan exons") that carry a splice acceptor site followed by the coding sequences of T2A peptide and an effector transgene. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach in Drosophila using lines containing suitable MiMIC (Minos-mediated integration cassette) transposons and a palette of Trojan exons capable of expressing a range of commonly used transcription factors. We also introduce an exchangeable, MiMIC-like Trojan exon construct that can be targeted to coding introns using the Crispr/Cas system. PMID:25732830

Diao, Fengqiu; Ironfield, Holly; Luan, Haojiang; Diao, Feici; Shropshire, William C; Ewer, John; Marr, Elizabeth; Potter, Christopher J; Landgraf, Matthias; White, Benjamin H

2015-03-01

332

Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

2010-06-01

333

Cassette-based in-situ TEM sample inspection in the dual-beam FIB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method is presented, combining site-specific TEM sample preparation and in-situ STEM analysis in a dual-beam microscope (FIB/SEM) fitted with a chamber mounted nano-manipulator. TEM samples are prepared using a modified in-situ, lift-out method, whereby the samples are thinned and oriented for immediate in-situ STEM analysis using the tilt, translation, and rotation capabilities of a FIB/SEM sample stage, a nano-manipulator, and a novel cassette. This cassette can provide a second tilt axis, orthogonal to the stage tilt axis, so that the STEM image contrast can be optimized to reveal the structural features of the sample (true STEM imaging in the FIB/SEM). The angles necessary for stage rotation and probe shaft rotation are calculated based on the position of the nano-manipulator relative to the stage and door and the stage tilt angle. A FIB/SEM instrument, equipped with a high resolution scanning electron column, can provide sufficiently high image resolution to enable many failure analysis and process control applications to be successfully carried out without requiring the use of a separate dedicated TEM/STEM instrument. The benefits of this novel approach are increased throughput and reduced cost per sample. Comparative analysis of different sample preparation methods is provided, and the STEM images obtained are shown.

Kendrick, A. B.; Moore, T. M.; Zaykova-Feldman, L.; Amador, G.; Hammer, M.

2008-08-01

334

United States Geological Survey (USGS) FM cassette seismic-refraction recording system  

SciTech Connect

In this two chapter report, instrumentation used to collect seismic data is described. This data acquisition system has two parts: (1) portable anolog seismic recorders and related ``hand-held-testers`` (HHT) and (2) portable digitizing units. During the anolog recording process, ground motion is sensed by a 2-Hz vertical-component seismometer. The voltage output from the seismometer is split without amplification and sent to three parallel amplifier circuit boards. Each circuit board amplifiers the seismic signal in three stages and then frequency modulates the signal. Amplification at the last two stages can be set by the user. An internal precision clock signal is also frequency modulated. The three data carrier frequencies, the clock carrier frequency, and a tape-speed compensation carrier frequency are summed and recorded on a recorded on a cassette tape. During the digitizing process, the cassette tapes are played back and the signals are demultiplexed and demodulated. An anolog-to-digital converter converts the signals to digital data which are stored on 8-inch floppy disks. 7 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Murphy, J.M.

1988-12-31

335

Evaluation of D-1 tape and cassette characteristics: Moisture content of Sony and Ampex D-1 tapes when delivered  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercial D-1 cassette tapes and their associated recorders were designed to operate in broadcast studios and record in accordance with the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) 607 digital video standards. The D-1 recorder resulted in the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standards 224 to 228 and is the first digital video recorder to be standardized for the broadcast industry. The D-1 cassette and associated media are currently marketed for broadcast use. The recorder was redesigned for data applications and is in the early stages of being evaluated. The digital data formats used are specified in MIL-STD-2179 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.175-190 standard. In early 1990, the National Media Laboratory (NML) was asked to study the effects of time, temperature, and relative humidity on commercial D-1 cassettes. The environmental range to be studied was the one selected for the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) program. Several discussions between NML personnel, ATARS representatives, recorder contractors, and other interested parties were held to decide upon the experimental plan to be implemented. Review meetings were held periodically during the course of the experiment. The experiments were designed to determine the dimensional stability of the media and cassette since this is one of the major limiting factors of helical recorders when the media or recorders are subjected to non-broadcasting environments. Measurements were also made to characterize each sample of cassettes to give preliminary information on which purchase specifications could be developed. The actual tests performed on the cassettes and media before and after aging fall into the general categories listed.

Ashton, Gary

1993-01-01

336

Evaluation of D-1 tape and cassette characteristics: Moisture content of Sony and Ampex D-1 tapes when delivered  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial D-1 cassette tapes and their associated recorders were designed to operate in broadcast studios and record in accordance with the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) 607 digital video standards. The D-1 recorder resulted in the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standards 224 to 228 and is the first digital video recorder to be standardized for the broadcast industry. The D-1 cassette and associated media are currently marketed for broadcast use. The recorder was redesigned for data applications and is in the early stages of being evaluated. The digital data formats used are specified in MIL-STD-2179 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.175-190 standard. In early 1990, the National Media Laboratory (NML) was asked to study the effects of time, temperature, and relative humidity on commercial D-1 cassettes. The environmental range to be studied was the one selected for the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) program. Several discussions between NML personnel, ATARS representatives, recorder contractors, and other interested parties were held to decide upon the experimental plan to be implemented. Review meetings were held periodically during the course of the experiment. The experiments were designed to determine the dimensional stability of the media and cassette since this is one of the major limiting factors of helical recorders when the media or recorders are subjected to non-broadcasting environments. Measurements were also made to characterize each sample of cassettes to give preliminary information on which purchase specifications could be developed. The actual tests performed on the cassettes and media before and after aging fall into the general categories listed.

Ashton, Gary

337

The 4?-O-benzylated doxorubicin analog WP744 overcomes resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein and breast cancer resistance protein in cell lines and acute myeloid leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background: The synthetic 4’-O-benzylated doxorubicin analog WP744 was designed to abrogate transport by the multidrug resistance (MDR)-associated\\u000a ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1). We compared its uptake\\u000a and cytotoxicity with those of doxorubicin and daunorubicin in cell lines overexpressing Pgp, MRP-1 or breast cancer resistance\\u000a protein (BCRP) and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells.

Tracy A. Brooks; Kieran L. O’Loughlin; Hans Minderman; Brian N. Bundy; Laurie A. Ford; Michael R. Vredenburg; Ralph J. Bernacki; Waldemar Priebe; Maria R. Baer

2007-01-01

338

Synthetic microRNAs Cassette Dosing: Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Bioactivity  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRs) are deregulated in cancer and leukemia. Restoring aberrantly downregulated tumor suppressor miRs or antagonizing overexpressed oncogenic miRs in malignant cells by synthetic RNA oligonucleotides represents a potentially novel therapeutic approach in cancer and leukemia. However, given the complex networking and concurrent deregulation of miRs in malignant cells, an effective approach may require concurrent targeting of multiple miRs. Cassette dosing involves simultaneous administration of a mixture of oligonucleotides from same or different structural classes. However, information on cassette dosing pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioactivity of synthetic miRs is lacking. In this study, three synthetic 2’-methoxyphosphorothioate-miRs (2’-MeOPSmiR16-1, 2’-MeOPSmiR29b and 2’-MeOPSantagomiR155) were administered i.v. to C57BL/6 mice as a mixture, each at 7.5mg/kg. Analysis of concentrations of individual miR in plasma and major organ tissues (bone marrow, spleen, liver, brain, heart, kidney and lung) was performed. The mRNA and protein levels of miR’s bio-targets were monitored sequentially after dosing up to 24 hours. Our results demonstrated that these synthetic miRs retain their different individual pharmacokinetic properties and all display three-compartmental pharmacokinetics. 2’-MeOPSmiR16-1 has the longest plasma gamma half-life of 2508 minutes and lowest total body clearance of 0.0054 L/min*kg, whereas 2’-MeOPSmiR29b has the shortest gamma half-life of 510.6 minutes and highest total body clearance of 0.042 L/min*kg. The tissue concentrations of all three 2’-MeOPS-modified miR(s)/antagomiR were measurable from 5 minutes to at least 24 hours after dosing, indicating that these concurrently delivered oligonucleotides can reach organ tissues. Importantly, there were biological activities of the concurrently administered miRs which persisted, as shown by the downregulation of specific targets in tested tissues, albeit with variations. Brain was one of the most sensitive tissues with respect to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of four measured bio-targets (e.g. Bcl-2, Mcl-1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b) despite its relatively low miR/antagomiRs levels. We conclude that cassette dosing is applicable to 2’-MeOPS-modified synthetic miRs that are tissue-deliverable and biofunctional without any additional formulation requirement. This study supports future exploration of miR-involved combination therapies. PMID:22574727

Wang, Hongyan; Chiu, Ming; Xie, Zhiliang; Chiu, Michael; Liu, Zhongfa; Chen, Ping; Liu, Shujun; Byrd, John C.; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Garzon, Ramiro; Croce, Carlo M.; Marcucci, Guido; Chan, Kenneth K.

2014-01-01

339

A new variant of self-excising ?-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletion and homokaryon purification in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we developed a cassette employing a bacterial ?-recombinase acting on six recognition sequences (?-rec/six), which allowed repetitive site-specific gene deletion and marker recycling in Neurospora crassa. However, only one positive selection marker was used in the cassette. A tedious subsequent procedure was needed to purify homokaryons due to the lack of a negative selection after cassette eviction. Additionally, the endoxylanase xylP promoter from Penicillium chrysogenum used in the construct was not strongly regulated in N. crassa, which led to low efficiency in cassette eviction. Herein we report an improved variant of the self-excising ?-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletions in N. crassa using a native endoxylanase gh10-2 promoter from N. crassa, plus the introduction of a bidirectional selection marker to facilitate homokaryon selection using a thymidine kinase (tk) gene (negative selection) in addition to the phosphinothricin resistance gene (bar(r)) (positive selection). PMID:24556286

Szewczyk, Edyta; Kasuga, Takao; Fan, Zhiliang

2014-05-01

340

Lactobacillus hilgardii plasmid pLAB1000 consists of two functional cassettes commonly found in other gram-positive organisms.  

PubMed Central

A Lactobacillus hilgardii plasmid, pLAB1000, was studied to understand the organization of autonomous replicons from lactobacilli. Two cassettes could be identified. First, the replication region consisted of a sequence coding for a replication protein (Rep) and its corresponding target site, similar to those from plasmids pUB110, pC194 (Staphylococcus aureus), pFTB14, pBAA1 (Bacillus sp.), and pLP1 (Lactobacillus sp.). Sequence analysis indicated the possible synthesis of an antisense RNA that might regulate Rep production. The results also suggested that pLAB1000 replicates via a single-stranded DNA intermediate, and a putative lagging-strand initiation site was found that had similarities to those of alpha 3, St-1, and G4 isometric bacteriophages. The second cassette of pLAB1000 consisted of a sequence coding for a putative mobilization protein (Mob) and its corresponding RSA site. This cassette was similar to those found in pT181, pUB110, pE194 (S. aureus), and pG12 (Bacillus sp.), and it was found to be conserved among different Lactobacillus plasmid replicons. The origin and evolution of these functional cassettes are also discussed. Images PMID:2188951

Josson, K; Soetaert, P; Michiels, F; Joos, H; Mahillon, J

1990-01-01

341

Synthesis of Through-bond Energy Transfer Cassettes and Their Encapsulation in Silica and Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

have synthesized a set of six through-bond energy transfer cassettes which emit in the 600-800 nm region with Fluorescein or BODIPY as donor and benzophenoxazine dye Nile Red or cyanine dye Cy5 as acceptor. Their photophysical properties in organic...

Jose, Jiney

2011-02-22

342

Detection of E. coli O157:H7 with a reporter phage containing the luxCDABE cassette  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteriophage and reporter phage are used for typing and/or detection of pathogens. The temperate tailed phage fV10 has been utilized for phage-typing E. coli O157:H7. By modifying fV10 to transduce kanamycin resistance and the a luxCDABE cassette, we developed a reporter bacteriophage (fV10-lux) p...

343

Integron Gene Cassettes and Degradation of Compounds Associated with Industrial Waste: The Case of the Sydney Tar Ponds  

PubMed Central

Integrons are genetic platforms that accelerate lateral gene transfer (LGT) among bacteria. They were first detected on plasmids bearing single and multiple drug resistance determinants in human pathogens, and it is abundantly clear that integrons have played a major role in the evolution of this public health menace. Similar genetic elements can be found in nonpathogenic environmental bacteria and in metagenomic environmental DNA samples, and it is reasonable to suppose that integrons have facilitated microbial adaptation through LGT in niches outside infectious disease wards. Here we show that a heavily impacted estuary, exposed for almost a century to products of coal and steel industries, has developed a rich and unique cassette metagenome, containing genes likely to aid in the catabolism of compounds associated with industrial waste found there. In addition, we report that the most abundant cassette recovered in this study is one that encodes a putative LysR protein. This autoregulatory transcriptional regulator is known to activate transcription of linked target genes or unlinked regulons encoding diverse functions including chlorocatechol and dichlorophenol catabolism. Finally, only class 1 integrase genes were amplified in this study despite using different primer sets, and it may be that the cassettes present in the Tar Ponds will prove to be associated with class 1 integrase genes. Nevertheless, our cassette library provides a snapshot of a complex evolutionary process involving integron-meditated LGT likely to be important in natural bioremediation. PMID:19390587

Koenig, Jeremy E.; Sharp, Christine; Dlutek, Marlena; Curtis, Bruce; Joss, Michael; Boucher, Yan; Doolittle, W. Ford

2009-01-01

344

Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth  

PubMed Central

Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ?C31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ?C31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

2015-01-01

345

Site-Specific Cassette Exchange Systems in the Aedes aegypti Mosquito and the Plutella xylostella Moth.  

PubMed

Genetically engineered insects are being evaluated as potential tools to decrease the economic and public health burden of mosquitoes and agricultural pest insects. Here we describe a new tool for the reliable and targeted genome manipulation of pest insects for research and field release using recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) mechanisms. We successfully demonstrated the established ?C31-RMCE method in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, which is the first report of RMCE in mosquitoes. A new variant of this RMCE system, called iRMCE, combines the ?C31-att integration system and Cre or FLP-mediated excision to remove extraneous sequences introduced as part of the site-specific integration process. Complete iRMCE was achieved in two important insect pests, Aedes aegypti and the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, demonstrating the transferability of the system across a wide phylogenetic range of insect pests. PMID:25830287

Haghighat-Khah, Roya Elaine; Scaife, Sarah; Martins, Sara; St John, Oliver; Matzen, Kelly Jean; Morrison, Neil; Alphey, Luke

2015-01-01

346

Targeting Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase by a Simple siRNA Expression Cassette in HepG2 Cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has become an ideal target for development of anticancer therapy. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are very powerful reagents for gene silencing and show promise for cancer gene therapy. However, only a small number of siRNAs have been demonstrated to be effective. For gene therapy targeting hTERT, it is essential to develop a robust system to fully explore the power of siRNAs. Objectives: We explored a siRNA expression cassette (SEC) to screen highly effective RNAi-targeted sequences for gene therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and Methods: An SEC was developed by flanking H1 and U6 promoters in opposite directions at the siRNA-encoding sequence. Eight SECs specific to hTERT were designed by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and transfected into HepG2 cells with calcium phosphate. The telomerase activity was determined by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) silver staining and TRAP real-time PCR analysis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hTERT were determined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blot, respectively. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell apoptosis was measured by the annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) assay coupled with flow cytometry. Results: Eight hTERT-specific SECs (SEC-1-8) were successfully constructed. In comparison to that of the negative control SEC, the hTERT-specific SECs, especially, SEC-4, SEC-5, SEC-7 and SEC-8 significantly reduced the activity of hTERT in HepG2 cells at 48 hours after transfection. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of hTERT as well as the cell viability were significantly reduced by SECs. Knockdown of hTERT by SECs in HepG2 cells led to cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Our developed simple SEC was a powerful strategy for screening highly effective RNAi-targeted sequences and showed promise for gene therapy of HCC.

Xu, Hui; Gong, Xia; Zhang, Hui Hui; Zhang, Qin; Zhao, Dandan; Peng, Jian Xiong

2015-01-01

347

Microwave Background, Backgrounds Hierarchy - Polyphony of Universe  

E-print Network

We discuss the structure, physical nature, dynamic genesis of clearly detected diffuse backgrounds (radiations) in the Universe. From the point of view of Wave Universe concept it is shown, that observed Backgrounds Hierarchy (Polyphony of Universe) is close connected and causely determined by the sound velocity Hierarchy of the physical medium, cosmic (polycomponent) plasma. The well-known Microwave Background (Cosmic Background Radiation - CBR) corresponds to the F[3] Background, that is characterized by the calculated sound velocity C*[3]=11.483 km/s, by the calculated temperature T*[3]=2.9 grad.K and by wavelength of the radiation intensity maximum lambda*[3]=1 mm.

A. M. Chechelnitsky

2001-05-18

348

The DCR-II event recorder: A portable high-speed digital cassette system with direct computer access  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DCR-II is a portable digital cassette system for recording single or simultaneous events. Information is entered via keyboards\\u000a which are internally scanned every 10 msec for switch state changes (events). The device can accommodate up to 64 event channels\\u000a and record 100 events per second without data loss. Complete data integrity is preserved by encoding each event as two

Lynne Celhoffer; Charles Boukydis; Klaus Minde; Evan Muir

1977-01-01

349

Rapid Assessment of Anti-HIV siRNA Efficacy Using PCR-Derived Pol III shRNA Cassettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of sequences within a target mRNA that are susceptible to potent siRNA knockdown often requires testing several independent siRNAs or shRNA expression cassettes. Using RNAi against HIV RNAs is further complicated by the length of the viral genome, the complexity of splicing patterns, and the propensity for genetic heterogeneity; consequently, it is most important to identify a number of

Lisa J. Scherer; Yuksel Yildiz; James Kim; Laurence Cagnon; Bret Heale; John J. Rossi

2004-01-01

350

Structural Comparison of Three Types of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Integrated in the Chromosome in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The b-lactam resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus is carried by a novel mobile genetic element, designated staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), identified in the chromosome of a Japanese methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain. We now report identification of two additional types of mecA- carrying genetic elements found in the MRSA strains isolated in other countries of the world. There

TERUYO ITO; YUKI KATAYAMA; KAZUMI ASADA; NAMIKO MORI; KANAE TSUTSUMIMOTO; CHUNTIMA TIENSASITORN; KEIICHI HIRAMATSU

2001-01-01

351

Engineering of Promoter Replacement Cassettes for Fine-Tuning of Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The strong overexpression or complete deletion of a gene gives only limited information about its control over a certain phenotype or pathway. Gene function studies based on these methods are therefore incomplete. To effect facile manipulation of gene expression across a full continuum of possible expression levels, we recently created a library of mutant promoters. Here, we provide the detailed characterization of our yeast promoter collection comprising 11 mutants of the strong constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae TEF1 promoter. The activities of the mutant promoters range between about 8% and 120% of the activity of the unmutated TEF1 promoter. The differences in reporter gene expression in the 11 mutants were independent of the carbon source used, and real-time PCR confirmed that these differences were due to varying levels of transcription (i.e., caused by varying promoter strengths). In addition to a CEN/ARS plasmid-based promoter collection, we also created promoter replacement cassettes. They enable genomic integration of our mutant promoter collection upstream of any given yeast gene, allowing detailed genotype-phenotype characterizations. To illustrate the utility of the method, the GPD1 promoter of S. cerevisiae was replaced by five TEF1 promoter mutants of different strengths, which allowed analysis of the impact of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity on the glycerol yield. PMID:16885275

Nevoigt, Elke; Kohnke, Jessica; Fischer, Curt R.; Alper, Hal; Stahl, Ulf; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

2006-01-01

352

Excision of a viral reprogramming cassette by delivery of synthetic Cre mRNA.  

PubMed

The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provides an invaluable resource for cell therapy, in vitro modeling of human disease, and drug screening. To date, most human iPS cells have been generated with integrating retro- and lenti-viruses and are limited in their potential utility because residual transgene expression may alter their differentiation potential or induce malignant transformation. Alternatively, transgene-free methods using adenovirus and protein transduction are limited by low efficiency. This unit describes a protocol for the generation of transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells using retroviral transfection of a single vector, which includes the coding sequences of human OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC linked with picornaviral 2A plasmids. Moreover, after reprogramming has been achieved, this cassette can be removed using mRNA transfection of Cre recombinase. The method described herein to excise reprogramming factors with ease and efficiency facilitates the experimental generation and use of transgene-free human iPS cells. PMID:22605648

Loh, Yuin-Han; Yang, Jimmy Chen; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Guo, Chunguang; Cherry, Anne; Rossi, Derrick J; Park, In-Hyun; Daley, George Q

2012-01-01

353

Altered binding site selection of p53 transcription cassettes by hepatitis B virus X protein.  

PubMed

The key cellular regulator p53 is a common target of viral oncoproteins. However, the mechanism by which p53 transcription regulation is modulated by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), a transcription cofactor implicated in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is poorly understood. By integrating p53 chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip and expression profiling of an HBx-expressing cell culture system, we report that HBx alters p53 binding site selectivity in the regulatory regions of genes, and this is associated with their aberrant expression. Using an HBx-deregulated gene, p53AIP1, as a model, we show that HBx aberrantly increases p53AIP1 expression by conferring p53 selectivity for a more conserved binding site in its regulatory region. We further demonstrate that HBx-deregulated increased p53AIP1 expression is relevant in HCC livers and define a functional role for p53AIP1 in mediating HBx-induced apoptosis in vitro. Significantly, we provide evidence that specific p53-associated transcription cofactors and coregulators are differentially recruited in the presence of HBx, effecting a PCAF-mediated "p53 Lys320 acetylation switch" that results in altered binding site selection of distinct p53 transcription cassettes. The findings here clarify the role of HBx in modulating p53 transcription regulation and provide a novel mechanistic insight into this deregulation. PMID:23149944

Chan, Cheryl; Wang, Yu; Chow, Pierce K H; Chung, Alexander Y F; Ooi, London L P J; Lee, Caroline G

2013-02-01

354

Energy use of televisions and video cassette recorders in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to more accurately determine nationwide energy consumption, the U.S. Department of Energy has recently commissioned studies with the goal of improving its understanding of the energy use of appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category. This study presents an estimate of the residential energy consumption of two of the most common domestic appliances in the miscellaneous end-use category: color televisions (TVs) and video cassette recorders (VCRs). The authors used a bottom-up approach in estimating national TV and VCR energy consumption. First, they obtained estimates of stock and usage from national surveys, while TV and VCR power measurements and other data were recorded at repair and retail shops. Industry-supplied shipment and sales distributions were then used to minimize bias in the power measurement samples. To estimate national TV and VCR energy consumption values, ranges of power draw and mode usage were created to represent situations in homes with more than one unit. Average energy use values for homes with one unit, two units, etc. were calculated and summed to provide estimates of total national TV and VCR energy consumption.

Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

1999-03-01

355

Different roles of C-terminal cassettes in the trafficking of full-length NR1 subunits to the cell surface.  

PubMed

N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are glutamate-gated ion channels composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits. When expressed alone, the most prevalent NR1 splice variant and all NR2 subunits are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas other NR1 splice variants reach the cell surface to varying degrees. Because similar trafficking patterns have been seen for single transmembrane domain chimeric proteins with appended C termini of NMDA receptor subunits, these chimeric proteins have been used as a model for studying the mechanisms underlying the ER retention and surface trafficking of NMDA receptors. Using this approach, an RRR motif in the C1 cassette has been identified as a major ER retention signal present in NR1 subunits, and the surface localization of other NR1 splice variants has been explained by the absence of the C1 cassette or by the presence of a PDZ/coatomer protein complex II-binding domain in the C2' cassette. However, when we tested these conclusions using full-length NR1 constructs, a more complex role of the C-terminal cassettes in the trafficking of NR1 subunits emerged. Our experiments showed that two independent ER retention motifs in the C1 cassette, KKK and RRR, are the signals mediating ER retention of the full-length NR1 subunits and that the C2 cassette has an additional inhibitory effect on the forward trafficking of NR1 subunits. On the other hand, C0 and C2' cassettes had an enhancing effect on the trafficking of NR1 subunits to the cell surface. Our observations identify the unique roles of C-terminal cassettes in the trafficking of full-length NR1 subunits. PMID:19188369

Horak, Martin; Wenthold, Robert J

2009-04-10

356

Gene disruption in Escherichia coli: Tc R and Km R cassettes with the option of Flp-catalyzed excision of the antibiotic-resistance determinant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cassettes with tetracycline-resistance (TcR) and kanamycin-resistance (KmR) determinants have been developed for the construction of insertion and deletion mutants of cloned genes in Escherichia coli. In both cassettes, the resistance determinants are flanked by the short direct repeats (FRT sites) required for site-specific recombination mediated by the yeast Flp recombinase. In addition, a plasmid with temperature-sensitive replication for temporal

Peter P. Cherepanov; Wilfried Wackernagel

1995-01-01

357

Creating transgenic shRNA mice by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange.  

PubMed

RNA interference (RNAi) enables sequence-specific, experimentally induced silencing of virtually any gene by tapping into innate regulatory mechanisms that are conserved among most eukaryotes. The principles that enable transgenic RNAi in cell lines can also be used to create transgenic animals, which express short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in a regulated or tissue-specific fashion. However, RNAi in transgenic animals is somewhat more challenging than RNAi in cultured cells. The activities of promoters that are commonly used for shRNA expression in cell culture can vary enormously in different tissues, and founder lines also typically vary in transgene expression due to the effects of their single integration sites. There are many ways to produce mice carrying shRNA transgenes and the method described here uses recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). RMCE permits insertion of the shRNA transgene into a well-characterized locus that gives reproducible and predictable expression in each founder and enhances the probability of potent expression in many cell types. This procedure is more involved and complex than simple pronuclear injection, but if even a few shRNA mice are envisioned, for example, to probe the functions of several genes, the effort of setting up the processes outlined below are well worthwhile. Note that when creating a transgenic mouse, one should take care to use the most potent shRNA possible. As a rule of thumb, the sequence chosen should provide >90% knockdown when introduced into cultured cells at single copy (e.g., on retroviral infection at a multiplicity of ?0.3). PMID:24003198

Premsrirut, Prem K; Dow, Lukas E; Park, Youngkyu; Hannon, Gregory J; Lowe, Scott W

2013-09-01

358

Structure of In31, a blaIMP-Containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Integron Phyletically Related to In5, Which Carries an Unusual Array of Gene Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The location and environment of the acquired blaIMP gene, which encodes the IMP-1 metallo-?-lactamase, were investigated in a Japanese Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (isolate 101/1477) that produced the enzyme. In this isolate, blaIMP was carried on a 36-kb plasmid, and similar to the identical alleles found in Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, it was located on a mobile gene cassette inserted into an integron. The entire structure of this integron, named In31, was determined. In31 is a class 1 element belonging to the same group of defective transposon derivatives that originated from Tn402-like ancestors such as In0, In2, and In5. The general structure of In31 appeared to be most closely related to that of In5 from pSCH884, suggesting a recent common phylogeny for these two elements. In In31, the blaIMP cassette is the first of an array of five gene cassettes that also includes an aacA4 cassette and three original cassettes that have never been described in other integrons. The novel cassettes carry, respectively, (i) a new chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-encoding allele of the catB family, (ii) a qac allele encoding a new member of the small multidrug resistance family of proteins, and (iii) an open reading frame encoding a protein of unknown function. All the resistance genes carried on cassettes inserted in In31 were found to be functional in decreasing the in vitro susceptibilities of host strains to the corresponding antimicrobial agents. PMID:10103196

Laraki, Nezha; Galleni, Moreno; Thamm, Iris; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Frère, Jean-Marie; Rossolini, Gian Maria

1999-01-01

359

Background sources at PEP  

SciTech Connect

Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

1988-01-01

360

Building Background Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

2014-01-01

361

Shielding and background reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background spectrum in a Low Background intrinsic germanium detector was analysed. Different possible sources of background and the influence of the materials used as well as the thickness of shielding was studied. Lead, copper, nylon, delrin and teflon of different thicknessewere used. Too much shielding material could induce some gamma rays from neutron production in the shielding due to

R. Núñez-Lagos; A. Virto

1996-01-01

362

Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module  

SciTech Connect

The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. We report the 1.8 {angstrom} crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Di Leo, Rosa; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H.W.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C. (MIT); (UT-Australia); (Macquarie); (Toronto); (New South)

2012-02-15

363

Cosmological String Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Talk given at the ``4th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics", Corfu, 2-20 September 1992: The propagation of strings in cosmological space-time backgrounds is reviewed. We show the relation of a special class of cosmological backgrounds to exact conformal field theory. Particular emphasis is put on the singularity structure of the cosmological space-time and on the discrete duality symmetries of the string background.

Dieter Luest

1993-03-31

364

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

365

Positive and negative selection using the tetA-sacB cassette: recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The two-step process of selection and counter-selection is a standard way to enable genetic modification and engineering of bacterial genomes using homologous recombination methods. The tetA and sacB genes are contained in a DNA cassette and confer a novel dual counter-selection system. Expression of tetA confers bacterial resistance to tetracycline (Tc(R)) and also causes sensitivity to the lipophillic chelator fusaric acid; sacB causes sensitivity to sucrose. These two genes are introduced as a joint DNA cassette into Escherichia coli by selection for Tc(R). A medium containing both fusaric acid and sucrose has been developed, in which, coexpression of tetA-sacB is orders of magnitude more sensitive as a counter-selection agent than either gene alone. In conjunction with the homologous recombination methods of recombineering and P1 transduction, this powerful system has been used to select changes in the bacterial genome that cannot be directly detected by other counter-selection systems. PMID:24203710

Li, Xin-Tian; Thomason, Lynn C; Sawitzke, James A; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L

2013-12-01

366

Broad 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase Inhibitor Herbicide Tolerance in Soybean with an Optimized Enzyme and Expression Cassette[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

With an optimized expression cassette consisting of the soybean (Glycine max) native promoter modified for enhanced expression driving a chimeric gene coding for the soybean native amino-terminal 86 amino acids fused to an insensitive shuffled variant of maize (Zea mays) 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD), we achieved field tolerance in transgenic soybean plants to the HPPD-inhibiting herbicides mesotrione, isoxaflutole, and tembotrione. Directed evolution of maize HPPD was accomplished by progressively incorporating amino acids from naturally occurring diversity and novel substitutions identified by saturation mutagenesis, combined at random through shuffling. Localization of heterologously expressed HPPD mimicked that of the native enzyme, which was shown to be dually targeted to chloroplasts and the cytosol. Analysis of the native soybean HPPD gene revealed two transcription start sites, leading to transcripts encoding two HPPD polypeptides. The N-terminal region of the longer encoded peptide directs proteins to the chloroplast, while the short form remains in the cytosol. In contrast, maize HPPD was found almost exclusively in chloroplasts. Evolved HPPD enzymes showed insensitivity to five inhibitor herbicides. In 2013 field trials, transgenic soybean events made with optimized promoter and HPPD variant expression cassettes were tested with three herbicides and showed tolerance to four times the labeled rates of mesotrione and isoxaflutole and two times the labeled rates of tembotrione. PMID:25192697

Siehl, Daniel L.; Tao, Yumin; Albert, Henrik; Dong, Yuxia; Heckert, Matthew; Madrigal, Alfredo; Lincoln-Cabatu, Brishette; Lu, Jian; Fenwick, Tamara; Bermudez, Ericka; Sandoval, Marian; Horn, Caroline; Green, Jerry M.; Hale, Theresa; Pagano, Peggy; Clark, Jenna; Udranszky, Ingrid A.; Rizzo, Nancy; Bourett, Timothy; Howard, Richard J.; Johnson, David H.; Vogt, Mark; Akinsola, Goke; Castle, Linda A.

2014-01-01

367

Positive and negative selection using the tetA-sacB cassette: recombineering and P1 transduction in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The two-step process of selection and counter-selection is a standard way to enable genetic modification and engineering of bacterial genomes using homologous recombination methods. The tetA and sacB genes are contained in a DNA cassette and confer a novel dual counter-selection system. Expression of tetA confers bacterial resistance to tetracycline (TcR) and also causes sensitivity to the lipophillic chelator fusaric acid; sacB causes sensitivity to sucrose. These two genes are introduced as a joint DNA cassette into Escherichia coli by selection for TcR. A medium containing both fusaric acid and sucrose has been developed, in which, coexpression of tetA-sacB is orders of magnitude more sensitive as a counter-selection agent than either gene alone. In conjunction with the homologous recombination methods of recombineering and P1 transduction, this powerful system has been used to select changes in the bacterial genome that cannot be directly detected by other counter-selection systems. PMID:24203710

Li, Xin-tian; Thomason, Lynn C.; Sawitzke, James A.; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L.

2013-01-01

368

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

Arthur Kosowsky

2001-02-23

369

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

370

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

SciTech Connect

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of volcanic aerosol is over 30% faster than one would obtain without this correction. At background, the aerosol size distribution is found to remain remarkably constant between the tropopause and an altitude of approx.25 km, with a sudden transition to a distribution dominated by smaller particles above this altitude. The observations, in some respects, compare favorably with equilibrium one-dimensional stratospheric aerosol models and thus to some extent support the concept of relatively inert tropospheric sulfurous gases, such as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide, as the main background stratospheric aerosol sulfur source. Models which incorporate sulfur chemistry are apparently not able to predict the observed variation of particle size with altitude. The 2-year background period is not long enough in itself to establish long-term trends. The eruption of Mt. St. Helens in May 1980 has considerably disrupted the background stratospheric aerosol which will probably not recover for several years. A comparison of the 1978--79 observations with Junge's original measurements made some 20 years earlier, also during a period void of volcanic perturbations, does not preclude a long-term increase in the background stratospheric aerosol level.

Hofmann, D.J.; Rosen, J.M.

1981-01-01

371

The Cosmic Background Radiation  

E-print Network

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

1997-11-08

372

Building Background Knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on

Donna Ross

2010-01-01

373

Introduction Biological Background  

E-print Network

@mail.sdsu.eduUBC Biomath Seminar -- (1/39) #12;Introduction Biological Background Mathematical Models Conclusions Tunicate ­ Ciona intestinalis Ciona intestinalis ­ Tunicate ­ Sea Squirt Joseph M. Mahaffy, jmahaffy

Mahaffy, Joseph M.

374

Introduction 1 Background 1  

E-print Network

squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel was introduced to Britain in the late 19 th century populations in Northern Ireland. Background The red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) was once ubiquitous

375

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

376

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

377

The Cosmic Microwave Background  

E-print Network

I review the discovery of the temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The underlying theory and the implications for cosmology are reviewed, and I describe the prospects for future progress.

Joseph Silk

2002-12-12

378

Arbitrary background picture segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method for real time arbitrary background picture segmentation. We consider the following picture conditions: color picture, noisy picture, scene light changes, and still image arbitrary background. They are typical for many applications, e.g. for video security system, videophone, videoconference, V-commerce, etc. A set-theoretic approach has been used for picture model creation, adaptive picture

S. Itzikowitz; S. Sheraizin

2002-01-01

379

Generation of Cell Lines to Complement Adenovirus Vectors using Recombination-Mediated Cassette Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has many favourable characteristics for development as a gene therapy vector. However, the utility of current Ad5 vectors is limited by transient transgene expression, toxicity and immunogenicity. The most promising form of vector is the high capacity type, which is deleted for all viral genes. However, these vectors can only be produced to relatively low

Susan J Morris; Daniel C Farley; Keith N Leppard

2010-01-01

380

Isolated Cerebellar Variant of Adrenoleukodystrophy with a de novo Adenosine Triphosphate-Binding Cassette D1 (ABCD1) Gene Mutation  

PubMed Central

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) shows a wide range of phenotypic expression, but clinical presentation as an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei has not been reported. We report an unusual presentation of X-ALD only with an isolated lesion of the cerebellar white matter and dentate nuclei. The proband, a 37-year-old man presented with bladder incontinence, slurred speech, dysmetria in all limbs, difficulties in balancing, and gait ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an isolated signal change of white matter around the dentate nucleus in cerebellum. With high level of very long chain fatty acid, gene study showed a de novo mutation in exon 1 at nucleotide position c.277_296dup20 (p.Ala100Cysfs*10) of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette D1 gene. It is advised to consider X-ALD as a differential diagnosis in patients with isolated cerebellar degeneration symptoms. PMID:24954351

Kang, Joon Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Koo, Kyo Yeon; Lee, Young-Mock; Nam, Hyo Suk; Quan, Zhejiu

2014-01-01

381

Remote detection of human toxicants in real time using a human-optimized, bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette bioreporter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, human toxicant bioavailability screening has been forced to proceed in either a high throughput fashion using prokaryotic or lower eukaryotic targets with minimal applicability to humans, or in a more expensive, lower throughput manner that uses fluorescent or bioluminescent human cells to directly provide human bioavailability data. While these efforts are often sufficient for basic scientific research, they prevent the rapid and remote identification of potentially toxic chemicals required for modern biosecurity applications. To merge the advantages of high throughput, low cost screening regimens with the direct bioavailability assessment of human cell line use, we re-engineered the bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette to function autonomously (without exogenous stimulation) within human cells. Optimized cassette expression provides for fully endogenous bioluminescent production, allowing continuous, real time monitoring of the bioavailability and toxicology of various compounds in an automated fashion. To access the functionality of this system, two sets of bioluminescent human cells were developed. The first was programed to suspend bioluminescent production upon toxicological challenge to mimic the non-specific detection of a toxicant. The second induced bioluminescence upon detection of a specific compound to demonstrate autonomous remote target identification. These cells were capable of responding to ?M concentrations of the toxicant n-decanal, and allowed for continuous monitoring of cellular health throughout the treatment process. Induced bioluminescence was generated through treatment with doxycycline and was detectable upon dosage at a 100 ng/ml concentration. These results demonstrate that leveraging autonomous bioluminescence allows for low-cost, high throughput direct assessment of toxicant bioavailability.

Close, Dan; Webb, James; Ripp, Steven; Patterson, Stacey; Sayler, Gary

2012-06-01

382

Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

E-print Network

Polarization of the cosmic microwave background, though not yet detected, provides a source of information about cosmological parameters complementary to temperature fluctuations. This paper provides a complete theoretical treatment of polarization fluctuations. After a discussion of the physics of polarization, the Boltzmann equation governing the evolution of the photon density matrix is derived from quantum theory and applied to microwave background fluctuations, resulting in a complete set of transport equations for the Stokes parameters from both scalar and tensor metric perturbations. This approach is equivalent at lowest order in scattering kinematics to classical radiative transfer, and provides a general framework for treating the cosmological evolution of density matrices. The metric perturbations are treated in the physically appealing longitudinal gauge. Expressions for various temperature and polarization correlation functions are derived. Detection prospects and theoretical utility of microwave background polarization are briefly discussed.

Arthur Kosowsky

1995-02-03

383

Matching Background Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter introduces an especially important subject in the concealment of animals--countershading. One observes many animals with colors that match the general color of their usual backgrounds. Many leaf-eating insects appear green, for example, making them relatively inconspicuous against their normal background of leaves. The manner of coloration that will provide such a color match is not as obvious as one might imagine. It depends significantly on the nature of the lighting. The inquiry-based activities included in this section effectively illustrate this concept.

David Ipsen

2008-04-01

384

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theorists expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theories.

Silk, Joseph

1991-01-01

385

The Cosmic Background Explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

1990-01-01

386

Cosmic Microwave Background  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the cosmic microwave background to understand why it permeates the universe and why it peaks as microwave radiation. Students should be able to explain that the origin of the background radiation is the uniform thermal radiation of the big bang and that the radiation produced was evenly distributed around the small early universe, causing it to permeate today's universe. This activity is part of the Cosmic Times teachers guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 1965 Cosmic Times Poster.

387

Trinucleotide cassettes increase diversity of T7 phage-displayed peptide library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amino acid sequence diversity is introduced into a phage-displayed peptide library by randomizing library oligonucleotide DNA. We recently evaluated the diversity of peptide libraries displayed on T7 lytic phage and M13 filamentous phage and showed that T7 phage can display a more diverse amino acid sequence repertoire due to differing processes of viral morphogenesis. METHODS: In this study, we

Lauren RH Krumpe; Kathryn M Schumacher; James B McMahon; Lee Makowski; Toshiyuki Mori

2007-01-01

388

Cosmic background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and\\u000aanisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the\\u000aupdate of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle\\u000aProperties.

George Smoot; Douglas Scott

2000-01-01

389

Local microwave background radiation  

E-print Network

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13

390

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing  

E-print Network

PANDEMIC INFLUENZA background briefing Biomedicine Forum 5 November 2008 compiled by David Evans, Dave Carr, David Lynn and Phil Green Transmission electron micrograph of Influenza A virus (Wellcome influenza!' Page 2 #12;Consequences of an influenza pandemic THE PANDEMIC THREAT DEATH If the next pandemic

Rambaut, Andrew

391

EBSD Images Theoretical Background  

E-print Network

function during a welding procedure. Consistent grain growth curves were obtained with this techniqueMotivation EBSD Images Theoretical Background Defects in the Weld Grain Growth Low Speed Welding High Speed Welding Conclusion Heat-Affected Zone Observations Welding Experiments The low density

Candea, George

392

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder  

E-print Network

Microsoft External Research Backgrounder has been a part of a number of highly successful, cutting-edge collaborative projects over the years. In fact, in fiscal year 2008, Microsoft External Research supported External Research supports long-term initiatives to enhance teaching and learning through the creative use

Narasayya, Vivek

393

David Smith Academic background  

E-print Network

David Smith Academic background Ph.D. in Mathematics (Algebra), Université de Sherbrooke, Canada project program (I. Assem, F. Bergeron, C. Reutenauer, D. Smith) $132,000 ($44,000 per year for 3 years. Schiffler and D. Smith, Friezes, strings and cluster variables, to appear in Glasgow Mathematcal Journal. 2

394

Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies have and will continue to revolutionize our understanding of cosmology. The recent discovery of the previously predicted acoustic peaks in the power spectrum has established a working cosmological model: a critical density universe consisting of mainly dark matter and dark energy, which formed its structure through gravitational instability from quantum fluctuations during an inflationary

Wayne Hu; Scott Dodelson

2002-01-01

395

Cosmic microwave background radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) is widely interpreted as the thermal afterglow of a hot big bang. Measurements of the CMBR intensity as a function of frequency constrain the history of cosmic energetics. Measurements of the anisotropy in the CMBR temperature provide a snapshot of the distribution of fluctuations in the gravitational potential at the earliest stages of cosmic

Lyman Page; David Wilkinson

1999-01-01

396

Radioactive Decay 1. Background  

E-print Network

Radioactive Decay 1. Background It is well known that many nuclei are unstable and are transformed into other nuclear species by means of either alpha decay or beta decay. The rate at which those radioactive on the number N of radioactive nuclei in the sample and also on the probability for each nucleus to decay

Elster, Charlotte

397

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer  

E-print Network

Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu B.A. (Princeton Spinrad 1995 #12;1 Wandering in the Background: A Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer by Wayne T. Hu and geometry. Stressing model independent results, we show how the microwave background can be used to extract

Hu, Wayne

398

The cosmic microwave background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) are reviewed. Particular attention is given to spectral distortions and CMBR temperature anisotropies at large, intermediate, and small angular scales. The implications of the observations for inflationary cosmological models with curvature fluctuation are explored, and it is shown that the limits determined for intermediate-scale CMBR anisotropy almost rule out a baryon-dominated cosmology.

Silk, Joseph

1989-01-01

399

Giants On Deformed Backgrounds  

E-print Network

We study giant graviton probes in the framework of the three--parameter deformation of the AdS_5 x S^5 background. We examine both the case when the brane expands in the deformed part of the geometry and the case when it blows up into AdS. Performing a detailed analysis of small fluctuations around the giants, the configurations turn out to be stable. Our results hold even for the supersymmetric Lunin-Maldacena deformation.

Marco Pirrone

2006-12-07

400

Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds New physics is often discovered by pushing;Chapter 3: Internal and External Radioactive Backgrounds 104 the rate of background. High-energy neutrino to find suitable construction materials. 3.1 External Backgrounds External backgrounds are those in which

401

Ovary-drip transformation: a simple method for directly generating vector- and marker-free transgenic maize ( Zea mays L.) with a linear GFP cassette transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of selectable marker genes and vector backbone sequences has affected the safe assessment of transgenic plants.\\u000a In this study, the ovary-drip method for directly generating vector- and selectable marker-free transgenic plants was described,\\u000a by which maize was transformed with a linear GFP cassette (Ubi-GFP-nos). The key features of this method center on the complete removal of the styles

Aifu Yang; Qiao Su; Lijia An

2009-01-01

402

ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member 16 increases plant tolerance to abscisic acid and assists in basal resistance against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000.  

PubMed

Plants have been shown previously to perceive bacteria on the leaf surface and respond by closing their stomata. The virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000) responds by secreting a virulence factor, coronatine, which blocks the functioning of guard cells and forces stomata to reopen. After it is inside the leaf, PstDC3000 has been shown to up-regulate abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and thereby suppress salicylic acid-dependent resistance. Some wild plants exhibit resistance to PstDC3000, but the mechanisms by which they achieve this resistance remain unknown. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify an ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter gene (ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that contributes to wild plant resistance to PstDC3000. Through microarray analysis and ?-glucuronidase reporter lines, we showed that the gene is up-regulated by ABA, bacterial infection, and coronatine. We also used a green fluorescent protein fusion protein and found that transporter is more likely to localize on plasma membranes than in cell walls. Transferred DNA insertion lines exhibited consistent defective tolerance of exogenous ABA and reduced resistance to infection by PstDC3000. Our conclusion is that ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter G family member16 is involved in ABA tolerance and contributes to plant resistance against PstDC3000. This is one of the first examples, to our knowledge, of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporter involvement in plant resistance to infection by a bacterial pathogen. It also suggests a possible mechanism by which plants reduce the deleterious effects of ABA hijacking during pathogen attack. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of basal resistance in Arabidopsis and offer unique ABA-related targets for improving the innate resistance of plants to bacterial infection. PMID:25146567

Ji, Hao; Peng, Yanhui; Meckes, Nicole; Allen, Sara; Stewart, C Neal; Traw, M Brian

2014-10-01

403

Vibrational spectroscopy to study degradation of natural dyes. Assessment of oxygen-free cassette for safe exposition of artefacts.  

PubMed

An important issue connected with conservation chemistry is how to improve the storage and exposure conditions in order to suppress the fading and degradation of dyes and other components of paintings. Although the oxygen-free exposure cassettes are commonly known in museums, there is still lack of information in the literature about the effect of anoxic conditions on the degradation of dyes. This study is an attempt to start a database formation on the dyes degradation. Five commercial dyes (indigo, dragon's blood, curcumin, madder, carminic acid) were submitted to accelerated ageing by exposure to intensive light in the visible range in both oxygen-free (anoxia) and -rich conditions. Degradation of the samples was investigated by several analytical techniques (attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and optical microscopy). The conclusions are based on the estimators (derived from the determination of colour differences from Vis spectra and from the changes in FTIR and Raman vibrational bands intensity). According to them, only indigo, dragon's blood and curcumin show greater stability in anoxic conditions in comparison with oxygen-rich ones while madder, carminic acid undergo greater degradation. PMID:21165610

Koperska, Monika; ?ojewski, Tomasz; ?ojewska, Joanna

2011-03-01

404

Subtyping of Chilean Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type I.  

PubMed

The cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has two essential components, the ccr gene complex and the mec gene complex. Additionally, SCCmec has non-essential components called J regions which are used for MRSA subtyping. This study was performed to determine subtypes MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type I based on polymorphism of regions located downstream of the mecA gene. A total of 98 MRSA strains carrying SCCmec type I isolated from patients hospitalized at the County Hospital of Valdivia (Chile) between May 2007 and May 2008, were analyzed by multiplex PCR designed to amplify the mecA gene and 7 DNA hypervariable regions located around the mecA gene. MRSA strains were classified into seventeen genotypes accordingly to amplification patterns of DNA hypervariable regions. Five genotypes showed amplification patterns previously described. The remaining twelve genotypes showed new amplification patterns. Genotypes 18 and Genotype 19 were the most frequently detected. Regions HVR, Ins117 and pI258 stand out as being present in more than 60% of tested isolates. The acquisition of hypervariable regions by MRSA is a continuous horizontal transfer process through which the SCCmec have been preserved intact, or even may give rise to new types and subtypes of SCCmec. Therefore it is possible to infer that most MRSA strains isolated at the County Hospital of Valdivia (Chile) were originated from two local clones which correspond to Genotype 18 and Genotype 19. PMID:24031903

Medina, Gustavo; Otth, Carola; Otth, Laura; Fernández, Heriberto; Muñoz, Celeste; Cruz, Maria; Zaror, Angela; Henriquez, Ruby; Arce, Maria; Wilson, Myra

2012-07-01

405

Development of a novel high-contrast cassette/film/screen system for radiation therapy portal localization imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation therapy portal images have traditionally exhibited poor discrimination of areas of interest, due to low subject contrast of anatomical parts being imaged at megavoltage energies, and the contrast capabilities of the image receptors. As a result of this low contrast, positioning of the radiation beam and placement of shielding blocks can be difficult. A novel, high-contrast cassette/film/screen system has ben developed and clinically evaluated for portal imaging. This system features a copper front screen, a gadolinium oxysulfide, terbium activated intensifying screens and a slow speed film with inherently high contrast. Very high film contrast is achieved by narrow grain size distribution and metal ion doping of the silver halide microcrystals. This high-contrast film is exposed by light from the intensifying screen, further increasing contrast. Sensitometric data indicates this new system to have 3.5X greater contrast than conventional portal localization imaging systems at comparable monitor units. Initial clinical evaluation indicates this new system to yield significantly superior images showing clearer definition of structures and was much easier to read and interpret.

Dickerson, Robert E.; Haus, Arthur G.; Huff, Kenneth E.

1997-05-01

406

Evaluation of various staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) types in Staphylococcus epidermidis invasive strains from hospitalised patients in Iran.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is known to be a major cause of nosocomial infections particularly in catheter-associated bacteraemia, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) and immunocompromised patients in different health care units. The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, especially to beta-lactam antibiotics such as methicillin, has increased the mortality due to S. epidermidis. A kind of low affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP2alfa), which is encoded by the mecA gene that is located in the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), mediates the resistance to methicillin. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of SCCmec types and evaluate the antibiotic profile assay in invasive strains isolated from clinical samples. The study focused on invasive strains, determining the antimicrobial resistance profile, designing new primers for detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec typing with the multiplex PCR method. By using the PCR molecular test, 87.1% of all isolates were found to be positive for the mecA gene. In SCCmec typing, different types (I-V) were identified, in which SCCmec type I was detected in 3 isolates, SCCmec type II in 5 isolates, SCCmec type III in 22 isolates, SCCmec type IV in 27 isolates and SCCmec type V