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1

The Human ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Superfamily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily contains membrane proteins that translocate a wide variety of substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes, including metabolic products, lipids and sterols, and drugs. Overexpression of certain ABC transporters occurs in cancer cell lines and tumors that are multidrug resistant. Genetic variation in these genes is the cause or contributor to a wide variety of

Michael Dean; Andrey Rzhetsky; Rando Allikmets

2001-01-01

2

The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transport of specific molecules across lipid membranes is an essential function of all living organisms and a large number of specific transporters have evolved to carry out this function. The largest transporter gene family is the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. These proteins translocate a wide variety of substrates including sugars, amino acids, metal ions, peptides, and proteins, and

Michael Dean; Yannick Hamon; Giovanna Chimini

2001-01-01

3

ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the characteristics of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family), which has five members:\\u000a ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8. The members consist of a single ABC cassette in the amino terminal followed by six\\u000a putative transmembrane domains, and to become functionally active, they form homo- or obligate heterodimers. Except for ABCG2,\\u000a the members of the ABCG

Hiroyuki Kusuhara; Yuichi Sugiyama

2007-01-01

4

The ATP-binding cassette family: a structural perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette family is one of the largest groupings of membrane proteins, moving allocrites across lipid membranes,\\u000a using energy from ATP. In bacteria, they reside in the inner membrane and are involved in both uptake and export. In eukaryotes,\\u000a these transporters reside in the cell’s internal membranes as well as in the plasma membrane and are unidirectional—out of\\u000a the

Veronica Kos; Robert Curtis Ford

2009-01-01

5

ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family).  

PubMed

This review summarizes the characteristics of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family), which has five members: ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8. The members consist of a single ABC cassette in the amino terminal followed by six putative transmembrane domains, and to become functionally active, they form homo- or obligate heterodimers. Except for ABCG2, the members of the ABCG family play an important role in efflux transport of cholesterol. Mutations causing a loss of function of ABCG5 or ABCG8 are associated with sitosterolemia characterized by accumulation of phyto- and shellfish sterols. Unlike other members, ABCG2 is not involved in cholesterol efflux, but it exhibits broad substrate specificity to xenobiotic compounds. ABCG2 confers cancer cells resistance to anticancer drugs and plays a critical role in the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the clearance organs and tissue barriers. ABCG2 is also associated with a subpopulation phenotype of stem cells. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCG2 have been suggested to account for the interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. PMID:16983557

Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

2006-09-16

6

ATP-binding cassette transporters and cholesterol translocation.  

PubMed

Cholesterol, a major component of mammalian cell membranes, plays important structural and functional roles. However, accumulation of excessive cholesterol is toxic to cells. Aberrant cholesterol trafficking and accumulation is the molecular basis for many diseases, such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and Tangier's disease. Accumulation of excessive cholesterol is also believed to contribute to the early onset of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, cellular cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated by uptake, de novo synthesis, and efflux. Any surplus of cholesterol must either be stored in the cytosol in the form of esters or released from the cell. Recently, several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis by mediating cholesterol efflux. Mutations in ABC transporters are associated with several human diseases. In this review, we discuss the physiological roles of ABC transporters and the underlying mechanisms by which they mediate cholesterol translocation. © 2013 IUBMB Life, 2013. PMID:23625363

Li, Ge; Gu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Da-Wei

2013-04-27

7

ATP-binding cassette transporters and cholesterol translocation.  

PubMed

Cholesterol, a major component of mammalian cell membranes, plays important structural and functional roles. However, accumulation of excessive cholesterol is toxic to cells. Aberrant cholesterol trafficking and accumulation is the molecular basis for many diseases, such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and Tangier's disease. Accumulation of excessive cholesterol is also believed to contribute to the early onset of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, cellular cholesterol homeostasis is tightly regulated by uptake, de novo synthesis, and efflux. Any surplus of cholesterol must either be stored in the cytosol in the form of esters or released from the cell. Recently, several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as ABCA1, ABCG1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis by mediating cholesterol efflux. Mutations in ABC transporters are associated with several human diseases. In this review, we discuss the physiological roles of ABC transporters and the underlying mechanisms by which they mediate cholesterol translocation. PMID:23983199

Li, Ge; Gu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Da-Wei

2013-06-01

8

ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity.

Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

2010-01-01

9

Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of the mouse ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned a new mouse ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, Abcg4, from a complementary DNA (cDNA) library of mouse brain. The cloned Abcg4 cDNA encodes a protein consisting of 646 amino acids and including one ATP-binding cassette and six transmembrane domains. The Abcg4 protein exhibits high identity (96%) with human ABCG4 in terms of the amino acid sequence. Fluorescence in

Megumi Yoshikawa; Hikaru Yabuuchi; Asato Kuroiwa; Yoji Ikegami; Yoshimichi Sai; Ikumi Tamai; Akira Tsuji; Yoichi Matsuda; Hisahiro Yoshida; Toshihisa Ishikawa

2002-01-01

10

PREDICTED ATP-BINDING CASSETTE SYSTEMS IN THE PHYTOPATHOGENIC MOLLICUTE SPIROPLASMA KUNKELII  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spiroplasma kunkelii is a cell wall-free, helical, and motile mycoplasma-like organism that causes corn stunt disease in maize. The bacterium has a compact genome with a gene set approaching the minimal complement necessary for cellular life and pathogenesis. A set of 21 ATP-binding cassette (ABC)...

11

Mammalian drug efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) family: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active drug efflux transporters of the ATP binding cassette (ABC)-containing family of proteins have a major impact on the pharmacological behavior of most of the drugs in use today. Pharmacological properties affected by ABC transporters include the oral bioavailability, hepatobiliary, direct intestinal, and urinary excretion of drugs and drug-metabolites and -conjugates. Moreover, the penetration of drugs into a range of

Alfred H Schinkel; Johan W Jonker

2003-01-01

12

PGP4, an ATP Binding Cassette P-Glycoprotein, Catalyzes Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the ABC (for ATP binding cassette) superfamily of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More recently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR\\/PGP) subfamily of ABC transporters have been shown to function in the transport of the phytohormone auxin in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR\\/PGP

Kazuyoshi Terasaka; Joshua J. Blakeslee; Boosaree Titapiwatanakun; Wendy A. Peer; Anindita Bandyopadhyay; Srinivas N. Makam; Ok Ran Lee; Elizabeth L. Richards; Angus S. Murphy; Fumihiko Sato; Kazufumi Yazakic

2005-01-01

13

Lipid efflux by the ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. One major atheroprotective mechanism of HDL and apoA-I is their role in reverse cholesterol transport, i.e., the transport of excess cholesterol from foam cells to the liver for secretion. The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 play a pivotal role in

Clara Cavelier; Iris Lorenzi; Lucia Rohrer; Arnold von Eckardstein

2006-01-01

14

Expression of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene ABCG1 (ABC8) in Tangier Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are involved in cholesterol efflux from cells. A defect in one member, ABCA1, results in Tangier disease, a condition characterized by cholesterol accumulation in macrophages and virtual absence of mature circulating high-density lipoproteins. Expression of a second member, ABCG1, is increased by cholesterol-loading in human macrophages. We now show that ABCG1,

Stefan Lorkowski; Mario Kratz; Claudia Wenner; Roland Schmidt; Benedikt Weitkamp; Manfred Fobker; Jürgen Reinhardt; Jürgen Rauterberg; Erwin Arno Galinski; Paul Cullen

2001-01-01

15

ATP-binding cassette transporter G4 is highly expressed in microglia in Alzheimer's brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipoprotein E ?4 is an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is the main constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as a source of cholesterol in the brain. ATP-binding cassette transporter G4 (ABCG4) is one of the membrane cholesterol transporter which is implicated in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, but its precise localization and function in the brain has been unclear.

Yoshinari Uehara; Tatsuo Yamada; Yasuhiko Baba; Shin-ichiro Miura; Satomi Abe; Ken Kitajima; Masa-aki Higuchi; Takahiro Iwamoto; Keijiro Saku

2008-01-01

16

Human and mouse orthologs of a new ATP-binding cassette gene, ABCG4  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized a new ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene from human and mouse that is highly expressed in the brain. The gene, ABCG4, produces several transcripts that differ at the 5? end and encode proteins of various lengths. The ABCG4 protein is closely related to the Drosophila white and human ABCG1 genes, and belongs to the ABCG subfamily several members

T. Annilo; J. Tammur; A. Hutchinson; A. Rzhetsky; M. Dean; R. Allikmets

2001-01-01

17

ATP binding cassette transporter A1 - key roles in cellular lipid transport and atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) was recently recognized as the mutant molecule responsible for Tangier disease with low HDL levels, accumulation of cholesteryl esters in tissues, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Extensive studies for the past 2 years have recognized the critical role of ABCA1 in cholesterol and phospholipid trafficking. Since the removal of cholesterol from tissues is a

Neelam Srivastava

2002-01-01

18

Identification of a Novel Human Sterol-Sensitive ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA7)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the identification of the full-length cDNA for a novel ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter from human macrophages. The mRNA is of 6.8 kb size and contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2146 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 220 kDa. The predicted protein product is composed of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding

Wolfgang E. Kaminski; Evelyn Orsó; Wendy Diederich; Jochen Klucken; Wolfgang Drobnik; Gerd Schmitz

2000-01-01

19

Keratinocyte ATP binding cassette transporter expression is regulated by ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

Many ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are important regulators of lipid homeostasis and have been implicated in keratinocyte lipid transport. Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure is a known epidermal stressor, which amongst other effects causes lipid alterations and defective lamellar body biogenesis. To elucidate the background of these lipid changes we studied the effect of UVB light on ABC transporter expression. The effect of UVB treatment on the levels of 47 known human ABC transporter mRNAs was analyzed in normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Immunoblots and promoter assays were carried out for ABCA1 and ABCG1. The mRNA levels of cholesterol transport regulators ABCA1 and ABCG1 were markedly downregulated by UVB, parallel to the lamellar ichthyosis related glucosylceramide transporter ABCA12 and the suspected sphingosine-1-phosphate and cholesterol sulfate transporter ABCC1. The long but not the short alternative splice variant of the ABCF2 was found to be markedly upregulated rapidly after UVB irradiation. Immunoblot confirmed ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein downregulation, and luciferase assays showed suppression of their promoters by UVB. These proteins mostly transport lipids, which account for the integrity of the epidermal barrier; therefore our findings on the UVB regulation of ABC transporters may explain the appearance of barrier dysfunction after UVB exposure. PMID:22982209

Markó, Lóránt; Paragh, György; Ugocsai, Péter; Boettcher, Alfred; Vogt, Thomas; Schling, Petra; Balogh, Attila; Tarabin, Victoria; Orsó, Evelyn; Wikonkál, Norbert; Mandl, József; Remenyik, Eva; Schmitz, Gerd

2012-06-25

20

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development  

PubMed Central

Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that regulate intracellular concentrations of myriad compounds and ions. There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG “multidrug efflux” transporters. Despite the importance of multidrug transporters for protection and signaling, their expression patterns have not been characterized in deuterostome embryos. Results Sea urchin embryos expressed 20 ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter genes in the first 58 hours of development, from unfertilized egg to early prism. We quantified transcripts of ABCB1a, ABCB4a, ABCC1, ABCC5a, ABCC9a, and ABCG2b, and found that ABCB1a mRNA was 10–100 times more abundant than other transporter mRNAs. In situ hybridization showed ABCB1a was expressed ubiquitously in embryos, while ABCC5a was restricted to secondary mesenchyme cells and their precursors. Fluorescent protein fusions showed localization of ABCB1a on apical cell surfaces, and ABCC5a on basolateral surfaces. Conclusions Embryos utilize many ABC transporters with predicted functions in cell signaling, lysosomal and mitochondrial homeostasis, potassium channel regulation, pigmentation, and xenobiotic efflux. Detailed characterization of ABCB1a and ABCC5a revealed that they have different temporal and spatial gene expression profiles and protein localization patterns that correlate to their predicted functions in protection and development, respectively.

Shipp, Lauren E.; Hamdoun, Amro

2012-01-01

21

Phylogenetic and functional classification of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the most abundant superfamilies of proteins. They are involved in the transport of a wide variety of substances, but also in many cellular processes and in their regulation. In this paper, we made a comparative analysis of the properties of ABC systems and we provide a phylogenetic and functional classification. This analysis will be helpful to accurately annotate ABC systems discovered during the sequencing of the genome of living organisms and to identify the partners of the ABC ATPases. PMID:12370001

Bouige, Philippe; Laurent, David; Piloyan, Linda; Dassa, Elie

2002-10-01

22

[Research advances in actinomycete ATP-binding cassette transporters--a review].  

PubMed

Actinomycetes can produce numerous secondary metabolites with novel structures and unique bioactivities, which are significant for pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and environmental protection. Whole-genome sequencing data demonstrate that actinomycetes contain plenty genes coding for transporters with ATP-binding cassette (ABC), which play important roles in nutrient uptake, secondary metabolite export, xenogenous toxin detoxification, and so on. In this review, the structures and mechanisms of the ABC transporters were described. We also comprehensively discussed research advances including ours on actinomycete ABC transporters, with emphasis on ABC exporters responsible for the secretion of secondary metabolites. Finally, research hotspots and application prospect of actinomycete ABC transporters were also addressed. PMID:23115963

Qiu, Jingfan; Deng, Zixin; Bai, Linquan

2012-07-01

23

Copy number variations of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC6 gene and its pseudogenes  

PubMed Central

Background The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCC6 gene is located on chromosome 16 between its two pseudogenes (ABCC6P1 and ABCC6P2). Previously, we have shown that ABCC6P1 is transcribed and affects ABCC6 at the transcriptional level. In this study we aimed to determine copy number variations of ABCC6, ABCC6P1 and ABCC6P2 in different populations. Moreover, we sought to study the transcription pattern of ABCC6 and ABCC6 pseudogenes in 39 different human tissues. Findings Genomic DNA from healthy individuals from five populations, Chinese (n?=?24), Middle East (n?=?20), Mexicans (n?=?24), Caucasians (n?=?50) and Africans (n?=?24), were examined for copy number variations of ABCC6 and its pseudogenes by pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. Copy number variation of ABCC6 was very rare (2/142; 1.4%). However, one or three copies of ABCC6P1 were relatively common (3% and 8%, respectively). Only one person had a single copy of ABCC6P2 while none had three copies. In Chinese, deletions or duplications of ABCC6P1 were more frequent than in any other population (9/24; 37.5%). The transcription pattern of ABCC6P2 was highly similar to ABCC6 and ABCC6P1, with highest transcription in liver and kidney. Interestingly, the total transcription level of pseudogenes, ABCC6P1?+?ABCC6P2, was higher than ABCC6 in most tissues, including liver and kidney. Conclusions Copy number variations of the ABCC6 pseudogenes are quite common, especially in populations of Chinese ancestry. The expression pattern of ABCC6P2 in 39 human tissues was highly similar to that of ABCC6 and ABCC6P1 suggesting similar regulatory mechanisms for ABCC6 and its pseudogenes.

2012-01-01

24

Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of the mouse ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg4.  

PubMed

We have cloned a new mouse ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, Abcg4, from a complementary DNA (cDNA) library of mouse brain. The cloned Abcg4 cDNA encodes a protein consisting of 646 amino acids and including one ATP-binding cassette and six transmembrane domains. The Abcg4 protein exhibits high identity (96%) with human ABCG4 in terms of the amino acid sequence. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with mouse and rat chromosomes has revealed that the Abcg4 gene is located on chromosomes 9A5.3 and 8q22 distal in mouse and rat, respectively. In these loci on mouse and rat chromosomes, conserved linkage homologies were hitherto identified with human chromosome 11q23, which involves the human ABCG4 gene. The mouse Abcg4 gene as well as the human ABCG4 gene each has a total of 14 exons to encode its respective protein. High transcript levels of mouse Abcg4 were detected in mouse brain, spleen, eye, and bone marrow. Taken together, our data on the chromosomal location, gene homology, protein structure, and phylogenetic relationships strongly support the idea that mouse Abcg4 is orthologue to the human ABCG4. By functionally analyzing the mouse Abcg4 protein, we may better understand the biological role of the human ABCG4 transporter. PMID:12137944

Yoshikawa, Megumi; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Kuroiwa, Asato; Ikegami, Yoji; Sai, Yoshimichi; Tamai, Ikumi; Tsuji, Akira; Matsuda, Yoichi; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

2002-06-26

25

Human and mouse orthologs of a new ATP-binding cassette gene, ABCG4.  

PubMed

We characterized a new ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene from human and mouse that is highly expressed in the brain. The gene, ABCG4, produces several transcripts that differ at the 5' end and encode proteins of various lengths. The ABCG4 protein is closely related to the Drosophila white and human ABCG1 genes, and belongs to the ABCG subfamily several members of which are involved in cholesterol transport. All representatives of this "reverse transporter" subfamily, including ABCG4, have a single ATP-binding domain at the N-terminus and a single C-terminal set of transmembrane segments. ABCG4 maps to human chromosome 11q23, between the markers D11S939 and D11S924, and Abcg4 to a conserved syntenic region on mouse chromosome 9. The abundant expression of this gene in the brain and close evolutionary relationship to the other members of the subfamily suggests a potential role for ABCG4 in cholesterol transport processes in this tissue. PMID:11856881

Annilo, T; Tammur, J; Hutchinson, A; Rzhetsky, A; Dean, M; Allikmets, R

2001-01-01

26

Identification and Characterization of an ATP Binding Cassette l-Carnitine Transporter in Listeria monocytogenes  

PubMed Central

We identified an operon in Listeria monocytogenes EGD with high levels of sequence similarity to the operons encoding the OpuC and OpuB compatible solute transporters from Bacillus subtilis, which are members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) substrate binding protein-dependent transporter superfamily. The operon, designated opuC, consists of four genes which are predicted to encode an ATP binding protein (OpuCA), an extracellular substrate binding protein (OpuCC), and two membrane-associated proteins presumed to form the permease (OpuCB and OpuCD). The operon is preceded by a potential SigB-dependent promoter. An opuC-defective mutant was generated by the insertional inactivation of the opuCA gene. The mutant was impaired for growth at high osmolarity in brain heart infusion broth and failed to grow in a defined medium. Supplementation of the defined medium with peptone restored the growth of the mutant in this medium. The mutant was found to accumulate the compatible solutes glycine betaine and choline to same extent as the parent strain but was defective in the uptake of l-carnitine. We conclude that the opuC operon in L. monocytogenes encodes an ABC compatible solute transporter which is capable of transporting l-carnitine and which plays an important role in osmoregulation in this pathogen.

Fraser, Katy R.; Harvie, Duncan; Coote, Peter J.; O'Byrne, Conor P.

2000-01-01

27

Receptor-transporter interactions of canonical ATP-binding cassette import systems in prokaryotes.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport systems mediate the translocation of solutes across biological membranes at the expense of ATP. They share a common modular architecture comprising two pore-forming transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains. In prokaryotes, ABC transporters are involved in the uptake of a large variety of chemicals, including nutrients, osmoprotectants and signal molecules. In pathogenic bacteria, some ABC importers are virulence factors. Canonical ABC import systems require an additional component, a substrate-specific receptor or binding protein for function. Interaction of the liganded receptor with extracytoplasmic loop regions of the transmembrane domains initiate the transport cycle. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on receptor-transporter interplay provided by crystal structures as well as by biochemical and biophysical means. In particular, we focus on the maltose/maltodextrin transporter of enterobacteria and the transporters for positively charged amino acids from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:21561685

Schneider, Erwin; Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Wiesemann, Nicole; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeshir; Thaben, Paul; Saenger, Wolfram

2011-05-10

28

Molecular Basis of Multidrug Transport by ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A Proposed Two-Cylinder Engine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporters are probably present in all living cells, and are able to export a variety of structurally unrelated compounds at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. The elevated expression of these proteins in multidrug resistant cells interferes with the drug-based control of cancers and infectious pathogenic microorganisms. Multidrug transporters interact directly with the drug substrates. Insights into the

Hendrik W. van Veen; Christopher F. Higgins

2001-01-01

29

Expression of ATP binding cassette-transporter ABCG1 prevents cell death by transporting cytotoxic 7?-hydroxycholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxysterols result from cholesterol by enzymatic or oxidative processes. Some exert cytotoxic effects leading to necrosis or apoptosis. Detoxification of these compounds mainly occurs in the liver and requires transport from peripheral tissues towards it. Some ATP-binding cassette transporters are involved in export of cytotoxic compounds. In the current study, we investigated whether ABC transporter family member G1 (ABCG1) may

Thomas Engel; Frank Kannenberg; Manfred Fobker; Jerzy-Roch Nofer; Guenther Bode; Aloys Lueken; Gerd Assmann; Udo Seedorf

2007-01-01

30

Formation of cholesterol-enriched structures by aberrant intracellular accumulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a key transporter associated with excess cellular lipid efflux. Here, we report that in HEK293 cells ABCA1 functions in intracellular compartments along the endocytic pathway. Inhibition of ABCA1-GFP degradation with proteasome inhibitors induced the internalization of ABCA1 and the formation of intracellular round-shaped structures, designated \\

Arowu R. Tanaka; Fumi Kano; Akitsugu Yamamoto; Kazumitsu Ueda; Masayuki Murata

2008-01-01

31

Fructose Uptake in Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 Is Mediated by an ATP-binding Cassette Transporter*  

PubMed Central

Recently, a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system was identified in Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 that is highly up-regulated during growth on fructose as the sole carbon source. Cloning and expression of the corresponding ORFs (bl0033–0036) result in efficient fructose uptake by bacteria. Sequence analysis reveals high similarity to typical ABC transport systems and suggests that these genes are organized as an operon. Expression of FruE is induced by fructose, ribose, or xylose and is able to bind these sugars with fructose as the preferred substrate. Our data suggest that BL0033–0036 constitute a high affinity fructose-specific ABC transporter of B. longum NCC2705. We thus suggest to rename the coding genes to fruEKFG and the corresponding proteins to FruE (sugar-binding protein), FruK (ATPase subunit), FruF, and FruG (membrane permeases). Furthermore, protein-protein interactions between the components of the transporter complex were determined by GST pulldown and Western blot analysis. This revealed interactions between the membrane subunits FruF and FruG with FruE, which in vivo is located on the external side of the membrane, and with the cytoplasmatic ATPase FruK. This is in line with the proposed model for bacterial ABC sugar transporters.

Wei, Xiao; Guo, Yanhong; Shao, Changlin; Sun, Zhongke; Zhurina, Daria; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Wei; Zou, Dayang; Jiang, Zheng; Wang, Xuesong; Zhao, Jiangli; Shang, Wei; Li, Xuelian; Liao, Xiangru; Huang, Liuyu; Riedel, Christian U.; Yuan, Jing

2012-01-01

32

Lack of interaction between tauroursodeoxycholate and ATP-binding cassette transporter isoform G2 (ABCG2).  

PubMed

Ursodiol (UDCA) is useful for treating several cholestatic hepatic maladies, including intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Its taurine amidate (TUDC), which accumulates in the bile salt pool, could interact with ABCG2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter isoform G2), which is expressed in various tissues including the canalicular membrane of the hepatocyte and in the apical membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast. The purpose of this study was to determine the interaction between TUDC and ABCG2. ABCG2 was expressed in Sf9 cells, and ABCG2-mediated ATP-dependent transport was determined in sucrose-fractionated Sf9 membrane vesicles. The transport of estrone 3-sulfate (E1S) into ABCG2-expressing membranes was ATP-dependent and was much greater in membrane vesicles expressing ABCG2 versus the negative control (empty virus lacking the ABCG2 coding region). To determine whether TUDC affects ABCG2-mediated ATP-dependent transport of E1S, transport activity in the presence of TUDC (20-500 microM) was measured. No significant changes were observed in the ABCG2-mediated ATP-dependent E1S transport. Furthermore, ABCG2-mediated TUDC transport was undetectable. Thus, TUDC does not affect ABCG2-mediated E1S transport and is not an ABCG2 substrate. PMID:16749862

Vaidya, Soniya S; Gerk, Phillip M

33

The Yeast Plasma Membrane ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Aus1  

PubMed Central

The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter Aus1 is expressed under anaerobic growth conditions at the plasma membrane of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is required for sterol uptake. These observations suggest that Aus1 promotes the translocation of sterols across membranes, but the precise transport mechanism has yet to be identified. In this study, an extraction and purification procedure was developed to characterize the Aus1 transporter. The detergent-solubilized protein was able to bind and hydrolyze ATP. Mutagenesis of the conserved lysine to methionine in the Walker A motif abolished ATP hydrolysis. Likewise, ATP hydrolysis was inhibited by classical inhibitors of ABC transporters. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of Aus1 was specifically stimulated by phosphatidylserine (PS) in a stereoselective manner. We also found that Aus1-dependent sterol uptake, but not Aus1 expression and trafficking to the plasma membrane, was affected by changes in cellular PS levels. These results suggest a direct interaction between Aus1 and PS that is critical for the activity of the transporter.

Marek, Magdalena; Milles, Sigrid; Schreiber, Gabriele; Daleke, David L.; Dittmar, Gunnar; Herrmann, Andreas; Muller, Peter; Pomorski, Thomas Gunther

2011-01-01

34

The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB19 Regulates Postembryonic Organ Separation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in plant development, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tropism, apical dominance and in cell growth, division, and expansion. In these processes, the concentration gradient of auxin, which is established by polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins and several ATP-binding cassette/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) transporters, is a crucial signal. Here, we characterized the function of ABCB19 in the control of Arabidopsis organ boundary development. We identified a new abcb19 allele, abcb19-5, which showed stem-cauline leaf and stem-pedicel fusion defects. By virtue of the DII-VENUS marker, the auxin level was found to be increased at the organ boundary region in the inflorescence apex. The expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2) was decreased, while no obvious change in the expression of CUC3 was observed, in abcb19. In addition, the fusion defects were greatly enhanced in cuc3 abcb19-5, which was reminiscent of cuc2 cuc3. We also found that some other organ boundary genes, such as LOF1/2 were down-regulated in abcb19. Together, these results reveal a new aspect of auxin transporter ABCB19 function, which is largely dependent on the positive regulation of organ boundary genes CUC2 and LOFs at the postembryonic organ boundary.

Mo, Huixian; Qian, Litao; Cao, Ying; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

2013-01-01

35

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 intrinsically regulates invariant NKT cell development.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) plays a role in the intracellular transport of cholesterol. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are a subpopulation of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid Ags. In this study, we demonstrate that ABCG1 regulates iNKT cell development and functions in a cell-intrinsic manner. Abcg1(-/-) mice displayed reduced frequencies of iNKT cells in thymus and periphery. Thymic iNKT cells deficient in ABCG1 had reduced membrane lipid raft content, and showed impaired proliferation and defective maturation during the early stages of development. Moreover, we found that Abcg1(-/-) mice possess a higher frequency of V?7(+) iNKT cells, suggesting alterations in iNKT cell thymic selection. Furthermore, in response to CD3?/CD28 stimulation, Abcg1(-/-) thymic iNKT cells showed reduced production of IL-4 but increased production of IFN-?. Our results demonstrate that changes in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by ABCG1 profoundly impact iNKT cell development and function. PMID:23100511

Sag, Duygu; Wingender, Gerhard; Nowyhed, Heba; Wu, Runpei; Gebre, Abraham K; Parks, John S; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Hedrick, Catherine C

2012-10-24

36

ATP-binding cassette proteins involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis.  

PubMed

Glucose and lipids are essential to the body, but excess glucose or lipids lead to metabolic syndrome. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are involved in the homeostasis of glucose and lipid in that they regulate insulin secretion and remove excess cholesterol from the body. Sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) is a subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels, which regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells by sensing cellular metabolic levels. ABCG1 removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and functions in reverse cholesterol transport to the liver. ABCG5 and ABCG8 suppress the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine and exclude cholesterol from the liver to the bile duct. ABCG1 and ABCG4, expressed in the central nervous system, play roles in lipid metabolism in the brain. These ABC proteins are targets of drugs and functional foods to cure and prevent diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, recent knowledge of the physiological function and regulation of ABC proteins in the homeostasis of glucose and lipids is discussed. PMID:20460728

Matsuo, Michinori

2010-05-07

37

ATP-binding cassette transporter G4 is highly expressed in microglia in Alzheimer's brain.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 is an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is the main constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as a source of cholesterol in the brain. ATP-binding cassette transporter G4 (ABCG4) is one of the membrane cholesterol transporter which is implicated in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, but its precise localization and function in the brain has been unclear. In AD brain, ABCG4 protein was highly expressed in microglial cell that was closely located to senile plaques, whereas in non-neurological cases positive cells were not seen in cortical and nigral tissues. As well as the ABCG4 protein, ABCG4 mRNA signal was detected in microglial cell closely located to senile plaque of AD brain by in situ hybridization histochemistry. These results suggest that upregulated ABCG4 in microglia may accelerate the lipidation of apoE and HDL in the AD brain. This is the first report to show that ABCG4 is highly expressed in microglia on AD brain. PMID:18508037

Uehara, Yoshinari; Yamada, Tatsuo; Baba, Yasuhiko; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Abe, Satomi; Kitajima, Ken; Higuchi, Masa-aki; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Saku, Keijiro

2008-04-27

38

ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation1  

PubMed Central

ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA.

de Beer, Maria C.; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M.; de Beer, Frederick C.; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R.; Webb, Nancy R.

2011-01-01

39

ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCG1 in mouse spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Mammalian spermatozoa lose plasma membrane cholesterol during their maturation in the epididymis and during their capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While acceptors such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and J have been found in male and female reproductive tracts, transporters that mediate cholesterol efflux from plasma membranes of spermatozoa to such acceptors have not yet been defined. Candidate transporters are members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily including ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1 and ABCG4, which have all been implicated in the transport of sterols and phospholipids to apolipoproteins and HDL. Here we show that mouse spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and epididymis express ABCA1, ABCA7 and ABCG1, but not ABCG4. Moreover, we show that ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCG1 antibodies decrease cholesterol efflux from spermatozoa to lipid acceptors apoA-I and albumin and inhibit in vitro fertilization. PMID:18793613

Morales, Carlos R; Marat, Andrea L; Ni, Xiaoyan; Yu, Yang; Oko, Richard; Smith, Brian T; Argraves, W Scott

2008-09-13

40

The Role of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters in Neuro-Inflammation: Relevance for Bioactive Lipids  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are highly expressed by brain endothelial cells that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB). These efflux pumps play an important role in maintaining brain homeostasis as they actively hinder the entry of unwanted blood-derived compounds into the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, their high activity at the BBB has been a major hurdle for the treatment of several brain diseases, as they prevent numerous drugs to reach their site of action within the brain. Importantly, recent data indicate that endogenous substrates for ABC transporters may include inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive lipids, suggesting a potential role for ABC transporters in immunological responses, and more specifically in inflammatory brain disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this review, we will give a comprehensive overview of recent findings that illustrate this novel role for ABC transporters in neuro-inflammatory processes. Moreover, we will provide first insights into underlying mechanisms and focus on the importance for bioactive lipids, in particular platelet-activating factor, herein. A thorough understanding of these events may form the basis for the development for selective treatment modalities to dampen the neuro-inflammatory attack in MS and thereby reducing tissue damage.

Kooij, Gijs; van Horssen, Jack; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Haughey, Norman J.; de Vries, Helga E.

2012-01-01

41

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 regulates processing of amyloid precursor protein in vitro.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) is expressed in the brain and, like its closest homolog ABCA1, belongs to the ABCA subfamily of full-length ABC transporters. ABCA1 promotes cellular cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apolipoprotein acceptors and also inhibits the production of neurotoxic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides in vitro. The potential functions of ABCA7 in the brain are unknown. This study investigated the ability of ABCA7 to regulate cholesterol efflux to extracellular apolipoprotein acceptors and to modulate Abeta production. The transient expression of ABCA7 in human embryonic kidney cells significantly stimulated cholesterol efflux (fourfold) to apolipoprotein E (apoE) discoidal lipid complexes but not to lipid-free apoE or apoA-I. ABCA7 also significantly inhibited Abeta secretion from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) or APP containing the Swedish K670M671-->N670L671 mutations when compared with mock-transfected cells. Studies with fluorogenic substrates indicated that ABCA7 had no impact on alpha-, beta-, or gamma-secretase activities. Live cell imaging of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing APP-GFP indicated an apparent retention of APP in a perinuclear location in ABCA7 co-transfected cells. These studies indicate that ABCA7 has the capacity to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux to apoE discs and regulate APP processing resulting in an inhibition of Abeta production. PMID:18429932

Chan, Sharon L; Kim, Woojin Scott; Kwok, John B; Hill, Andrew F; Cappai, Roberto; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Garner, Brett

2008-04-19

42

Roles of ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 in cholesterol homeostasis and host defense system.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A7 is an ABC family protein that is a so-called full-size ABC transporter, highly homologous to ABCA1, which mediates the biogenesis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with cellular lipid and helical apolipoproteins. ABCA7 mediates the formation of HDL when exogenously transfected and expressed; however, endogenous ABCA7 was shown to have no significant impact on the generation of HDL and was found to be associated with phagocytosis regulated by sterol regulatory element binding protein 2. Since phagocytosis is one of the fundamental functions of animal cells as an important responsive reaction to infection, injury and apoptosis, ABCA7 seems to be one of the key molecules linking sterol homeostasis and the host defense system. In this context, HDL apolipoproteins were shown to enhance phagocytosis by stabilizing ABCA7 against calpain-mediated degradation and increasing its activity, shedding light on a new aspect of the regulation of the host-defense system. PMID:21173549

Tanaka, Nobukiyo; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Shinji

2010-12-14

43

Identification of a novel human sterol-sensitive ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA7).  

PubMed

We report the identification of the full-length cDNA for a novel ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter from human macrophages. The mRNA is of 6.8 kb size and contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 2146 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 220 kDa. The predicted protein product is composed of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding folds indicating that it pertains to the group of full-size ABC transporters. The novel transporter shows highest protein sequence homology with the recently cloned human cholesterol and phospholipid exporter ABCA1 (54%) and the human retinal transporter ABCR (49%), both members of the ABC transporter subfamily A. In accordance with the currently proposed classification, the novel transporter was designated ABCA7. ABCA7 mRNA was detected predominantly in myelo-lymphatic tissues with highest expression in peripheral leukocytes, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. Expression of ABCA7 is induced during in vitro differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages. In macrophages, both the ABCA7 mRNA and protein expression are upregulated in the presence of modified low density lipoprotein and downregulated by HDL(3). Our results suggest a role for ABCA7 in macrophage transmembrane lipid transport. PMID:10873640

Kaminski, W E; Orsó, E; Diederich, W; Klucken, J; Drobnik, W; Schmitz, G

2000-07-01

44

Multidrug efflux pumps: substrate selection in ATP-binding cassette multidrug efflux pumps--first come, first served?  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance is a major challenge in the therapy of cancer and pathogenic fungal infections. More than three decades ago, P-glycoprotein was the first identified multidrug transporter. It has been studied extensively at the genetic and biochemical levels ever since. Pdr5, the most abundant ATP-binding cassette transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is highly homologous to azole-resistance-mediating multidrug transporters in fungal pathogens, and a focus of clinical drug resistance research. Despite functional equivalences, P-glycoprotein and Pdr5 exhibit striking differences in their architecture and mechanisms. In this minireview, we discuss the mechanisms of substrate selection and multidrug transport by comparing the fraternal twins P-glycoprotein and Pdr5. We propose that substrate selection in eukaryotic multidrug ATP-binding cassette transporters is not solely determined by structural features of the transmembrane domains but also by their dynamic behavior. PMID:19961541

Ernst, Robert; Kueppers, Petra; Stindt, Jan; Kuchler, Karl; Schmitt, Lutz

2009-12-03

45

ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cellular cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoproteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms responsible for the inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are poorly understood. The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates efflux of cellular cholesterol to lipid-poor apolipoproteins but not to HDL particles that constitute the bulk of plasma HDL. We show that two ABC transporters of unknown function, ABCG1 and ABCG4, mediate isotopic

Nan Wang; Debin Lan; Wengen Chen; Fumihiko Matsuura; Alan R. Tall

2004-01-01

46

Genetic variation in the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter gene ABCG2 ( BCRP) in a Swedish population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 (also named breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP) functions as a drug efflux transporter and is expressed at high levels in the human small intestine. The aim of this study was to screen the human ABCG2 gene for genetic variation. The regions of the gene most likely to affect function, namely the coding parts, exon\\/intron boundaries,

Gunilla Bäckström; Jan Taipalensuu; Håkan Melhus; Helena Brändström; Ann-Cathrin Svensson; Per Artursson; Andreas Kindmark

2003-01-01

47

High density lipoprotein deficiency and foam cell accumulation in mice with targeted disruption of ATP-binding cassette transporter-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the human ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABC1) gene has been demonstrated to be mutated in patients with Tangier disease. To investigate the role of the ABC1 protein in an experimental in vivo model, we used gene targeting in DBA-1J embryonic stem cells to produce an ABC1-deficient mouse. Expression of the murine Abc1 gene was ablated by using a nonisogenic targeting

John McNeish; Robert J. Aiello; Deborah Guyot; Tom Turi; Christopher Gabel; Charles Aldinger; Kenneth L. Hoppe; Marsha L. Roach; Lori J. Royer; Jeffery de Wet; Cyril Broccardo; Giovanna Chimini; Omar L. Francone

2000-01-01

48

Localization, topology, and substrate specificity of the human ATP-binding cassette half-transporter ABCG2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human ATP-binding cassette half-transporter ABCG2 is a 72 kDa glycoprotein that confers multidrug resistance to cells in culture when overexpressed. Our lab has investigated the localization, topology, and substrate specificity of ABCG2. While in most tumors, ABCG2 is located in the membrane, additional cytoplasmic staining is also observed. To determine the exact subcellular localization of ABCG2, we fused a

Ndeye Khady Diop

2006-01-01

49

Characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profile in Y79: a retinoblastoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy failure was reported in treatment of retinoblastoma suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins.\\u000a Little is known about the expression pattern of ABC proteins in this cancer type. We investigated the gene expression profile\\u000a of 47 ABC proteins in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 by TaqMan low-density array. Analysis revealed 31 ABC transporter\\u000a genes expressed in this

Doris Hendig; Thomas Langmann; Ralf Zarbock; Gerd Schmitz; Knut Kleesiek; Christian Götting

2009-01-01

50

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors enhance phagocytosis by upregulating ATP-binding cassette transporter A7  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that the endogenous ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A7 strongly associates with phagocytosis, being regulated by sterol regulatory element binding protein 2. We therefore examined the effect of statins on phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo through the SREBP–ABCA7. Phagocytosis was found to be enhanced by pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin and cyclodextrin in J774 macrophages, as cellular cholesterol

Nobukiyo Tanaka; Sumiko Abe-Dohmae; Noriyuki Iwamoto; Michael L. Fitzgerald; Shinji Yokoyama

2011-01-01

51

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose.  

PubMed

AIMS: ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), a regulator of cholesterol efflux to HDL, has been shown to decrease in macrophages and smooth muscle cells under high glucose conditions. Endothelial cells have a high capacity to efflux sterols and express ABCG1. In the present study we explored the role of ABCG1 in high glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were cultured under high glucose conditions. ABCG1 mRNA and protein expression in HAECs were measured by real time PCR and Western blot. Cholesterol efflux and NO synthesis (NOS) activity were determined by means of scintillation counting. Total intracellular cholesterol was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The secretion of IL-6 and ICAM-1 was measured using ELISA. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using a fluorescence microscope. RESULTS: We observed that high glucose suppressed ABCG1 expression and intracellular cholesterol efflux to HDL. Furthermore, high glucose increased the secretion of IL-6 and ICAM, as well as decreased phospho-eNOS protein expression and NOS activity. These processes were reversed by the up-regulation of ABCG1 using the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901307 and an ABCG1 expression vector. In addition, high glucose-induced oxidative stress was reduced by the upregulation of ABCG1. In contrast, knock-down of ABCG1 in HAECs significantly increased the secretion of IL-6 and ICAM, as well as decreased phospho-eNOS protein expression and NOS activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that ABCG1 plays an important role in protecting against endothelial dysfunction induced by high glucose. PMID:23693076

Xue, Jiahong; Wang, Congxia; Zhu, Canzhan; Li, Yongqin

2013-05-18

52

ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) is an intracellular sterol transporter  

PubMed Central

Four members of the mammalian ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter G subfamily are thought to be involved in transmembrane (TM) transport of sterols. The residues responsible for this transport are unknown. The mechanism of action of ABCG1 is controversial and it has been proposed to act at the plasma membrane to facilitate the efflux of cellular sterols to exogenous high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Here we show that ABCG1 function is dependent on localization to intracellular endosomes. Importantly, localization to the endosome pathway distinguishes ABCG1 and/or ABCG4 from all other mammalian members of this superfamily, including other sterol transporters. We have identified critical residues within the TM domains of ABCG1 that are both essential for sterol transport and conserved in some other members of the ABCG subfamily and/or the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG-2). Our conclusions are based on studies in which (i) biotinylation of peritoneal macrophages showed that endogenous ABCG1 is intracellular and undetectable at the cell surface, (ii) a chimeric protein containing the TM of ABCG1 and the cytoplasmic domains of the nonsterol transporter ABCG2 is both targeted to endosomes and functional, and (iii) ABCG1 colocalizes with multiple proteins that mark late endosomes and recycling endosomes. Mutagenesis studies identify critical residues in the TM domains that are important for ABCG1 to alter sterol efflux, induce sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) processing, and selectively attenuate the oxysterol-mediated repression of SREBP-2 processing. Our data demonstrate that ABCG1 is an intracellular sterol transporter that localizes to endocytic vesicles to facilitate the redistribution of specific intracellular sterols away from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Edwards, Peter A.

2011-01-01

53

ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) is an intracellular sterol transporter.  

PubMed

Four members of the mammalian ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter G subfamily are thought to be involved in transmembrane (TM) transport of sterols. The residues responsible for this transport are unknown. The mechanism of action of ABCG1 is controversial and it has been proposed to act at the plasma membrane to facilitate the efflux of cellular sterols to exogenous high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Here we show that ABCG1 function is dependent on localization to intracellular endosomes. Importantly, localization to the endosome pathway distinguishes ABCG1 and/or ABCG4 from all other mammalian members of this superfamily, including other sterol transporters. We have identified critical residues within the TM domains of ABCG1 that are both essential for sterol transport and conserved in some other members of the ABCG subfamily and/or the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG-2). Our conclusions are based on studies in which (i) biotinylation of peritoneal macrophages showed that endogenous ABCG1 is intracellular and undetectable at the cell surface, (ii) a chimeric protein containing the TM of ABCG1 and the cytoplasmic domains of the nonsterol transporter ABCG2 is both targeted to endosomes and functional, and (iii) ABCG1 colocalizes with multiple proteins that mark late endosomes and recycling endosomes. Mutagenesis studies identify critical residues in the TM domains that are important for ABCG1 to alter sterol efflux, induce sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) processing, and selectively attenuate the oxysterol-mediated repression of SREBP-2 processing. Our data demonstrate that ABCG1 is an intracellular sterol transporter that localizes to endocytic vesicles to facilitate the redistribution of specific intracellular sterols away from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PMID:22095132

Tarling, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Peter A

2011-11-17

54

Mapping ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profiles in melanocytes and melanoma cells.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters regulate the transport of a variety of physiologic substrates. Moreover, several human ABC proteins are responsible for drug exclusion in compound-treated tumor cells, providing cellular mechanisms for the development of multidrug resistance and, therefore, playing an important role in malignant transformation. As only limited information exists on the role of ABC transporters in melanoma, the aim of the study was to generate a complete expression profile of ABC transporters in this tumor entity. Using a TaqMan low-density array for 47 human ABC transporters, mRNA expression analysis was performed from normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM P2 and NHEM P3), nine different cell lines originating from primary melanoma (Mel Ei, Mel Juso, Mel Ho and Mel Wei), and metastases of malignant melanoma (Mel Im, Mel Ju, SK Mel 28, HTZ 19 and HMB2). Cell line-specific expression levels were compared with gene expression in pooled RNA from a variety of other human tissues. High expression levels were detected in pooled tissue RNA as well as in cells of melanocytic origin for ABCA5, ABCB2, ABCB6, ABCD3, ABCD4, ABCF1, ABCF2 and ABCF3, whereas ABCB5 revealed a melanocyte-specific high transcript level. In relation to normal melanocytes, ABCB3, ABCB6, ABCC2, ABCC4, ABCE1 and ABCF2 were significantly increased in melanoma cell lines, whereas ABCA7, ABCA12, ABCB2, ABCB4, ABCB5 and ABCD1 showed lower expression levels. In summary, we present here for the first time an ABC-transporter mRNA expression profile in melanoma in comparison to normal melanocytes. The differentially regulated ABC transporters detected by our approach may be candidate genes involved in melanoma tumorigenesis, progression and therapy resistance and could therefore be of great importance to identify novel options for melanoma therapy. PMID:17885581

Heimerl, Susanne; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Langmann, Thomas; Ecker, Josef; Schmitz, Gerd

2007-10-01

55

The Structure, Function, and Origin of the Microcin H47 ATP-Binding Cassette Exporter Indicate Its Relatedness to That of Colicin V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microcin H47, a gene-encoded peptide antibiotic produced by a natural Escherichia coli strain, was shown to be secreted by a three-component ATP-binding cassette exporter which was revealed to be strongly related to that of colicin V. The results of sequence and gene fusion analyses, as well as heterologous complementation assays, are presented. For gram-negative bacteria, several three-component ATP- binding cassette

MARIA F. AZPIROZ; ELIANA RODRIGUEZ; MAGELA LAVINA

2001-01-01

56

Structure, function, and evolution of bacterial ATP-binding cassette systems  

SciTech Connect

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems constitute one of the largest superfamilies of paralogous sequences. All ABC systems share a highly conserved ATP-hydrolyzing domain or protein (the ABC; also referred to as a nucleotide-binding domain [NBD]) that is unequivocally characterized by three short sequence motifs (Fig. 1): these are the Walker A and Walker B motifs, indicative of the presence of a nucleotide-binding site, and the signature motif, unique to ABC proteins, located upstream of the Walker B motif (426). Other motifs diagnostic of ABC proteins are also indicated in Fig. 1. The biological significance of these motifs is discussed in Structure, Function, and Dynamics of the ABC. ABC systems are widespread among living organisms and have been detected in all genera of the three kingdoms of life, with remarkable conservation in the primary sequence of the cassette and in the organization of the constitutive domains or subunits (203, 420). ABC systems couple the energy of ATP hydrolysis to an impressively large variety of essential biological phenomena, comprising not only transmembrane (TM) transport, for which they are best known, but also several non-transport-related processes, such as translation elongation (62) and DNA repair (174). Although ABC systems deserve much attention because they are involved in severe human inherited diseases (107), they were first discovered and characterized in detail in prokaryotes, as early as the 1970s (13, 148, 238, 468). The most extensively analyzed systems were the high-affinity histidine and maltose uptake systems of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Over 2 decades ago, after the completion of the nucleotide sequences encoding these transporters in the respective laboratories of Giovanna Ames and Maurice Hofnung, Hiroshi Nikaido and colleagues noticed that the two systems displayed a global similarity in the nature of their components and, moreover, that the primary sequences of MalK and HisP, the proteins suspected to energize these transporters, shared as much as 32% identity in amino acid residues when their sequences were aligned (171). Later, it was found that several bacterial proteins involved in uptake of nutrients, export of toxins, cell division, bacterial nodulation of plants, and DNA repair displayed the same similarity in their sequences (127, 196). This led to the notion that the conserved protein, which had been shown to bind ATP (198, 201), would probably energize the systems mentioned above by coupling the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport. The latter was demonstrated with the maltose and histidine transporters by use of isolated membrane vesicles (105, 379) and purified transporters reconstituted into proteoliposomes (30, 98). The determination of the sequence of the first eukaryotic protein strongly similar to these bacterial transporters (the P-glycoprotein, involved in resistance of cancer cells to multiple drugs) (169, 179) demonstrated that these proteins were not restricted to prokaryotes. Two names, 'traffic ATPases' (15) and the more accepted name 'ABC transporters' (193, 218), were proposed for members of this new superfamily. ABC systems can be divided into three main functional categories, as follows. Importers mediate the uptake of nutrients in prokaryotes. The nature of the substrates that are transported is very wide, including mono- and oligosaccharides, organic and inorganic ions, amino acids, peptides, ironsiderophores, metals, polyamine cations, opines, and vitamins. Exporters are involved in the secretion of various molecules, such as peptides, lipids, hydrophobic drugs, polysaccharides, and proteins, including toxins such as hemolysin. The third category of systems is apparently not involved in transport, with some members being involved in translation of mRNA and in DNA repair. Despite the large, diverse population of substrates handled and the difference in the polarity of transport, importers and exporters share a common organization made of two hydrophobic membrane-spanning or integral membrane (IM)

Davidson, A.L.; Dassa, E.; Orelle, C.; Chen, J. (Purdue)

2010-07-27

57

The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCA4: Structural and Functional Properties and Role in Retinal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate an unusually diverse\\u000a set of substrates across cellular membranes. ABCA4, also known as ABCR, is a ?250 kDa single-chain ABC transporter localized\\u000a to the disk margins of vertebrate photoreceptor outer segments. It is composed of two symmetrically organized halves, each\\u000a comprising six membrane-spanning helices, a large glycosylated

Yaroslav Tsybovsky; Robert S. Molday; Krzysztof Palczewski

58

Serum-dependent export of protoporphyrin IX by ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 in T24 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in cancer cells is a basis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced photodymanic therapy.\\u000a We studied factors that affect PpIX accumulation in human urothelial carcinoma cell line T24, with particular emphasis on\\u000a ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) and serum in the medium. When the medium had no fetal bovine serum (FBS), ALA\\u000a induced PpIX accumulation in a

Tetsuya OginoHirotsugu; Hirotsugu Kobuchi; Kazuaki Munetomo; Hirofumi Fujita; Masanao Yamamoto; Toshihiko Utsumi; Keiji Inoue; Taro Shuin; Junzo Sasaki; Masayasu Inoue; Kozo Utsumi

59

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene polymorphisms and serum lipid levels in young Greek nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is essential protein involved in lipid metabolism. The present study was undertaken\\u000a to detect the possible association of polymorphisms in the ABCA1 gene [rs2230806 (R219K) and rs2230808 (R1587K)] and lipid\\u000a profile in Greek young nurses.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study population consisted of 308 unrelated nurses who were genotyped and the ABCA1 polymorphisms were detected. Additionally,\\u000a lipid

Vana Kolovou; Genovefa Kolovou; Apostolia Marvaki; Agathi Karakosta; Georgios Vasilopoulos; Antonia Kalogiani; Dimitrios Degiannis; Christina Marvaki; Constantinos A Demopoulos

2011-01-01

60

The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 are not regulated by hypoxia in immortalised human brain microvascular endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background ATP-binding cassette transporters at the blood-brain barrier are actively regulated upon ischemic stroke in a way that impedes the access of pharmacological compounds to the brain tissue. The luminal endothelial transporter ABCB1 was recently shown to be increased, whereas the abluminal transporter ABCC1 was decreased on ischemic brain capillaries. In vitro studies using epithelial cells suggested that ABCB1 is regulated during hypoxia in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?-dependent way. Methods In order to investigate whether hypoxia might be responsible for the expression changes of ABCB1 and ABCC1 in the ischemic brain, the immortalised human brain microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 was exposed to hypoxia (1%) or anoxia (0%). Cell lysates were analysed by Western blot to detect the protein expression of ABCB1, ABCC1, HIF-1? and HIF-2?. Results During hypoxia, an accumulation of HIF-1? and HIF-2? was noticed in hCMEC/D3 cells that followed different time kinetics. Both HIF-1? and HIF-2? abundance increased within 4 h of hypoxia. HIF-1? levels decreased to below detection levels within 16 h of hypoxia, whereas HIF-2? remained elevated even after 48 h. No changes of ABCB1 and ABCC1 expression were detected, neither on the mRNA nor protein level. Conclusion Our data suggests that other factors than hypoxia may be responsible for the expression changes of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ischemic brain.

2011-01-01

61

ATP-binding cassette-like transporters are involved in the transport of lignin precursors across plasma and vacuolar membranes  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a complex biopolymer derived primarily from the condensation of three monomeric precursors, the monolignols. The synthesis of monolignols occurs in the cytoplasm. To reach the cell wall where they are oxidized and polymerized, they must be transported across the cell membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport process are unclear. There are conflicting views about whether the transport of these precursors occurs by passive diffusion or is an energized active process; further, we know little about what chemical forms are required. Using isolated plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from Arabidopsis, together with applying different transporter inhibitors in the assays, we examined the uptake of monolignols and their derivatives by these native membrane vesicles. We demonstrate that the transport of lignin precursors across plasmalemma and their sequestration into vacuoles are ATP-dependent primary-transport processes, involving ATP-binding cassette-like transporters. Moreover, we show that both plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles selectively transport different forms of lignin precursors. In the presence of ATP, the inverted plasma membrane vesicles preferentially take up monolignol aglycones, whereas the vacuolar vesicles are more specific for glucoconjugates, suggesting that the different ATP-binding cassette-like transporters recognize different chemical forms in conveying them to distinct sites, and that glucosylation of monolignols is necessary for their vacuolar storage but not required for direct transport into the cell wall in Arabidopsis.

Miao, Y.C.; Liu, C.

2010-12-28

62

Quantitation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily-A transporter gene expression in primary human brain cells.  

PubMed

Five ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily-A transporters (ABCA1, ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCA7 and ABCA8) are expressed in the brain. These transporters may regulate brain lipid transport; however, their relative expression level in isolated human brain cells is unknown. We developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify the expression of these genes in human neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and cell lines. Neurons expressed predominantly ABCA1 and ABCA3; astrocytes ABCA1, ABCA2 and ABCA3; microglia ABCA1 and oligodendrocytes ABCA2 and ABCA3. Although ABCA7 and ABCA8 expression was relatively low in all cells, the highest expression occurred in microglia and neurons, respectively. ABCA gene expression in the NTERA-2 and MO3.13 cell lines closely resembled the ABCA expression pattern of primary neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively. PMID:16738483

Kim, Woojin S; Guillemin, Gilles J; Glaros, Elias N; Lim, Chai K; Garner, Brett

2006-06-26

63

Association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 rs4148217 SNP and serum lipid levels in Mulao and Han nationalities  

PubMed Central

Background The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8) rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P?

2012-01-01

64

NMR assignments of the periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter.  

PubMed

We have assigned the (1)H, (15)N, (13)C backbone resonances of the second periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter of Escherichia coli/Salmonella which is important for the recognition of the maltose binding protein MalE. PMID:19636938

Jacso, Tomas; Grote, Mathias; Schmieder, Peter; Schneider, Erwin; Reif, Bernd

2008-11-16

65

The structure, function, and origin of the microcin H47 ATP-binding cassette exporter indicate its relatedness to that of colicin V.  

PubMed

Microcin H47, a gene-encoded peptide antibiotic produced by a natural Escherichia coli strain, was shown to be secreted by a three-component ATP-binding cassette exporter which was revealed to be strongly related to that of colicin V. The results of sequence and gene fusion analyses, as well as heterologous complementation assays, are presented. PMID:11181394

Azpiroz, M F; Rodríguez, E; Laviña, M

2001-03-01

66

Nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus gordonii PK488 coaggregation adhesin gene, scaA, and ATP-binding cassette.  

PubMed Central

Human oral viridans group streptococci that coaggregate with Actinomyces naeslundii PK606 express surface proteins related to ScaA, the coaggregation-mediating adhesin of Streptococcus gordonii PK488 (R. N. Andersen, N. Ganeshkumar, and P. E. Kolenbrander, Infect. Immun. 61:981-987, 1993). The nucleotide sequence of the 6,125-bp EcoRI insert of pRA1, containing scaA, the gene encoding ScaA, was determined. Six open reading frames (ORFs) were identified. The orientation of four ORFs, two upstream (ORF 1 and ORF 2) and one downstream (ORF 4) of scaA (ORF 3), indicated transcription in one direction, whereas ORF 5 and ORF 6 were transcribed divergently. Computer analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences identified a consensus binding site for ATP (GxxGxGKS) in the putative 28,054-Da protein encoded by ORF 1. ORF 2 potentially encoded a hydrophobic protein of 29,705 Da with six potential membrane-spanning regions. ScaA was 310 amino acids, 34,787 Da, and contained the lipoprotein consensus sequence LxxC, also reported for the ScaA-related proteins SsaB, FimA, and PsaA from Streptococcus sanguis 12, Streptococcus parasanguis FW213, and Streptococcus pneumoniae R36A, respectively. ORF 4 potentially encoded a 163-amino-acid protein of 17,912 Da, which was nearly identical to the downstream adjacent gene products of ssaB, fimA, and psaA. No significant homology with other proteins was found with the putative ORF 5 gene product, a 229-amino-acid protein of 25,107 Da. ORF 6 was incomplete and encoded a protein larger than 564 amino acids. This putative protein had a consensus Zn2+ binding motif, HExxH, found among bacterial thermolysins and mammalian neutral endopeptidases and was 40% identical to a homologous 210-amino-acid region of human enkephalinase. The genetic organization of ORFs 1, 2, and 3 was similar to those of the bacterial periplasmic-binding protein-dependent transport systems of gram-negative bacteria and binding-lipoprotein-dependent transport systems of gram-positive bacteria, and these genes appeared to encode ABC (ATP-binding cassette) proteins. This report describes a cell-to-cell adherence function associated with an ATP-binding cassette. Images

Kolenbrander, P E; Andersen, R N; Ganeshkumar, N

1994-01-01

67

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters and HDL Suppress Hematopoietic Stem Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Elevated leukocyte cell numbers (leukocytosis), and monocytes in particular, promote atherosclerosis; however, how they become increased is poorly understood. Mice deficient in the adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages and suppress atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice, displayed leukocytosis, a transplantable myeloproliferative disorder, and a dramatic expansion of the stem and progenitor cell population containing Lin? Sca-1+Kit+ (LSK) in the bone marrow. Transplantation of Abca1?/? Abcg1?/? bone marrow into apolipoprotein A-1 transgenic mice with elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) suppressed the LSK population, reduced leukocytosis, reversed the myeloproliferative disorder, and accelerated atherosclerosis. The findings indicate that ABCA1, ABCG1, and HDL inhibit the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells and connect expansion of these populations with leukocytosis and accelerated atherosclerosis.

Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Pagler, Tamara; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Avagyan, Serine; Siry, Read L.; Han, Seongah; Welch, Carrie L.; Wang, Nan; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Snoeck, Hans W.; Tall, Alan R.

2011-01-01

68

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G5 and G8 Polymorphisms and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Background The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors. Conclusions The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between ABCG5/G8 SNPs and some serum lipid parameters.

Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Xian-Liang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Pan, Shang-Ling

2012-01-01

69

ATP hydrolysis is essential for the function of the Uup ATP-binding cassette ATPase in precise excision of transposons.  

PubMed

In Escherichia coli K-12, the RecA- and transposase-independent precise excision of transposons is thought to be mediated by the slippage of the DNA polymerase between the two short direct repeats that flank the transposon. Inactivation of the uup gene, encoding an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase, led to an important increase in the frequency of precise excision of transposons Tn10 and Tn5 and a defective growth of bacteriophage Mu. To provide insight into the mechanism of Uup in transposon excision, we purified this protein, and we demonstrated that it is a cytosolic ABC protein. Purified recombinant Uup binds and hydrolyzes ATP and undergoes a large conformational change in the presence of this nucleotide. This change affects a carboxyl-terminal domain of the protein that displays predicted structural homology with the socalled little finger domain of Y family DNA polymerases. In these enzymes, this domain is involved in DNA binding and in the processivity of replication. We show that Uup binds to DNA and that this binding is in part dependent on its carboxyl-terminal domain. Analysis of Walker motif B mutants suggests that ATP hydrolysis at the two ABC domains is strictly coordinated and is essential for the function of Uup in vivo. PMID:16407313

Murat, Dorothée; Bance, Pierre; Callebaut, Isabelle; Dassa, Elie

2006-01-05

70

Getting in or out: early segregation between importers and exporters in the evolution of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) systems, also called traffic ATPases, are found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and almost all participate in the transport of a wide variety of molecules. ABC systems are characterized by a highly conserved ATPase module called here the ABC module, involved in coupling transport to ATP hydrolysis. We have used the sequence of one of the first representatives of bacterial ABC transporters, the MalK protein, to collect 250 closely related sequences from a nonredundant protein sequence database. The sequences collected by this objective method are all known or putative ABC transporters. After having eliminated short protein sequences and duplicates, the 197 remaining sequences were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis based on a mutational similarity matrix. An unrooted tree for these modules was found to display two major branches, one grouping all collected uptake systems and the other all collected export systems. This remarkable disposition strongly suggests that the divergence between these two functionally different types of ABC systems occurred once in the history of these systems and probably before the differentiation of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We discuss the implications of this finding and we propose a model accounting for the generation and the diversification of ABC systems. PMID:9873074

Saurin, W; Hofnung, M; Dassa, E

1999-01-01

71

Substrate binding stabilizes a pre-translocation intermediate in the ATP-binding cassette transport protein MsbA.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein superfamilies that expands from prokaryotes to man. Recent x-ray crystal structures of bacterial and mammalian ABC exporters suggest a common alternating access mechanism of substrate transport, which has also been biochemically substantiated. However, the current model does not yet explain the coupling between substrate binding and ATP hydrolysis that underlies ATP-dependent substrate transport. In our studies on the homodimeric multidrug/lipid A ABC exporter MsbA from Escherichia coli, we performed cysteine cross-linking, fluorescence energy transfer, and cysteine accessibility studies on two reporter positions, near the nucleotide-binding domains and in the membrane domains, for transporter embedded in a biological membrane. Our results suggest for the first time that substrate binding by MsbA stimulates the maximum rate of ATP hydrolysis by facilitating the dimerization of nucleotide-binding domains in a state, which is markedly distinct from the previously described nucleotide-free, inward-facing and nucleotide-bound, outward-facing conformations of ABC exporters and which binds ATP. PMID:23766512

Doshi, Rupak; van Veen, Hendrik W

2013-06-13

72

Functional Significance of the E Loop, a Novel Motif Conserved in the Lantibiotic Immunity ATP-Binding Cassette Transport Systems? †  

PubMed Central

Lantibiotics are peptide-derived antibacterial substances produced by some Gram-positive bacteria and characterized by the presence of unusual amino acids, like lanthionines and dehydrated amino acids. Because lantibiotic producers may be attacked by self-produced lantibiotics, they express immunity proteins on the cytoplasmic membrane. An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system mediated by the LanFEG protein complex is a major system in lantibiotic immunity. Multiple-sequence alignment analysis revealed that LanF proteins contain the E loop, a variant of the Q loop, which is a well-conserved motif in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of general ABC transporters. To elucidate E loop function, we introduced a mutation in the NukF protein, which is involved in the nukacin-ISK-1 immunity system. Amino acid replacement of glutamic acid in the E loop with glutamine (E85Q) resulted in slight decreases in the immunity level and transport activity. Additionally, the E85A mutation severely impaired the immunity level and transport activity. On the other hand, ATPase activities of purified E85Q and E85A mutants were almost similar to that of the wild type. These results suggested that the E loop found in ABC transporters involved in lantibiotic immunity plays a significant role in the function of these transporters, especially in the structural change of transmembrane domains.

Okuda, Ken-ichi; Yanagihara, Sae; Sugayama, Tomomichi; Zendo, Takeshi; Nakayama, Jiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2010-01-01

73

ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cellular cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoproteins.  

PubMed

The mechanisms responsible for the inverse relationship between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease are poorly understood. The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates efflux of cellular cholesterol to lipid-poor apolipoproteins but not to HDL particles that constitute the bulk of plasma HDL. We show that two ABC transporters of unknown function, ABCG1 and ABCG4, mediate isotopic and net mass efflux of cellular cholesterol to HDL. In transfected 293 cells, ABCG1 and ABCG4 stimulate cholesterol efflux to both smaller (HDL-3) and larger (HDL-2) subclasses but not to lipid-poor apoA-I. Treatment of macrophages with an liver X receptor activator results in up-regulation of ABCG1 and increases cholesterol efflux to HDL. RNA interference reduced the expression of ABCG1 in liver X receptor-activated macrophages and caused a parallel decrease in cholesterol efflux to HDL. These studies indicate that ABCG1 and ABCG4 promote cholesterol efflux from cells to HDL. ABCG1 is highly expressed in macrophages and probably mediates cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells to the major HDL fractions, providing a mechanism to explain the relationship between HDL levels and atherosclerosis risk. PMID:15210959

Wang, Nan; Lan, Debin; Chen, Wengen; Matsuura, Fumihiko; Tall, Alan R

2004-06-21

74

Structures of ABCB10, a human ATP-binding cassette transporter in apo- and nucleotide-bound states.  

PubMed

ABCB10 is one of the three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters found in the inner membrane of mitochondria. In mammals ABCB10 is essential for erythropoiesis, and for protection of mitochondria against oxidative stress. ABCB10 is therefore a potential therapeutic target for diseases in which increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and oxidative stress play a major role. The crystal structure of apo-ABCB10 shows a classic exporter fold ABC transporter structure, in an open-inwards conformation, ready to bind the substrate or nucleotide from the inner mitochondrial matrix or membrane. Unexpectedly, however, ABCB10 adopts an open-inwards conformation when complexed with nonhydrolysable ATP analogs, in contrast to other transporter structures which adopt an open-outwards conformation in complex with ATP. The three complexes of ABCB10/ATP analogs reported here showed varying degrees of opening of the transport substrate binding site, indicating that in this conformation there is some flexibility between the two halves of the protein. These structures suggest that the observed plasticity, together with a portal between two helices in the transmembrane region of ABCB10, assist transport substrate entry into the substrate binding cavity. These structures indicate that ABC transporters may exist in an open-inwards conformation when nucleotide is bound. We discuss ways in which this observation can be aligned with the current views on mechanisms of ABC transporters. PMID:23716676

Shintre, Chitra A; Pike, Ashley C W; Li, Qiuhong; Kim, Jung-In; Barr, Alastair J; Goubin, Solenne; Shrestha, Leela; Yang, Jing; Berridge, Georgina; Ross, Jonathan; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Sansom, Mark S P; Edwards, Aled M; Bountra, Chas; Marsden, Brian D; von Delft, Frank; Bullock, Alex N; Gileadi, Opher; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A; Carpenter, Elisabeth P

2013-05-28

75

PGP4, an ATP Binding Cassette P-Glycoprotein, Catalyzes Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana RootsW?  

PubMed Central

Members of the ABC (for ATP binding cassette) superfamily of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More recently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR/PGP) subfamily of ABC transporters have been shown to function in the transport of the phytohormone auxin in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR/PGP PGP4 functions in the basipetal redirection of auxin from the root tip. Reporter gene studies showed that PGP4 was strongly expressed in root cap and epidermal cells. PGP4 exhibits apolar plasma membrane localization in the root cap and polar localization in tissues above. Root gravitropic bending and elongation as well as lateral root formation were reduced in pgp4 mutants compared with the wild type. pgp4 exhibited reduced basipetal auxin transport in roots and a small decrease in shoot-to-root transport consistent with a partial loss of the redirective auxin sink in the root. Seedlings overexpressing PGP4 exhibited increased shoot-to-root auxin transport. Heterologous expression of PGP4 in mammalian cells resulted in 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid–reversible net uptake of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid. These results indicate that PGP4 functions primarily in the uptake of redirected or newly synthesized auxin in epidermal root cells.

Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Titapiwatanakun, Boosaree; Peer, Wendy A.; Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Makam, Srinivas N.; Lee, Ok Ran; Richards, Elizabeth L.; Murphy, Angus S.; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2005-01-01

76

FoxO regulates expression of ABCA6, an intracellular ATP-binding-cassette transporter responsive to cholesterol.  

PubMed

ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) proteins have been recognized as key players in cellular physiological transport processes. ABC transporter A6 (ABCA6) is a member of the ABC subfamily A. Although it was cloned more than 10 years ago, its expression regulation, subcellular localization, and physiologic function remain largely unknown. We here demonstrated that expression of ABCA6 was Forkhead box O (FoxO)-dependent in human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Two functional FoxO-responsive elements were identified in ABCA6 promoter and characterized in detail. ABCA6 mRNA was suppressed by insulin-like growth factor-1 which stimulates the phosphorylation and inactivation of FoxOs while inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase had the opposite effect. By immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, ABCA6 protein is localized primarily in an intracellular compartment, likely representing the Golgi apparatus. ABCA6 mRNA was demonstrated to be responsive to cholesterol loading as well as 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors in human endothelial cells. Our data provide evidence for an essential role of FoxO proteins in the transcription of ABCA6 in human vascular endothelial cells. Based on its cholesterol responsiveness, a potential involvement of ABCA6 in intracellular lipid transport processes may be anticipated. PMID:24028821

Gai, Junfang; Ji, Meiling; Shi, Chenxi; Li, Wenli; Chen, Simin; Wang, Yeyu; Li, Hao

2013-09-09

77

A Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of the human adrenoleukodystrophy transporter is a heterodimer of two half ATP-binding cassette transporters.  

PubMed Central

The adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) and the 70-kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) are half ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the human peroxisome membrane. ALDP and PMP70 share sequence homology and both are implicated in genetic diseases. PXA1 and YKL741 are Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes that encode homologs of ALDP and PMP70. Pxa1p, a putative ortholog of ALDP, is involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids while YKL741 is an open reading frame found by the yeast genome sequencing project. Here we designate YKL741 as PXA2 and show that its protein product, Pxa2p, like Pxa1p, is associated with peroxisomes but not required for their assembly. Yeast strains carrying gene disruption of PXA1, PXA2, or both have similar and, in the case of the latter, nonadditive phenotypes. We also find that the stability of Pxa1p, but not Pxa2p, is markedly reduced in the absence of the other. Finally, we find that Pxa1p and Pxa2p coimmuno-precipitate. These genetic and physical data suggest that Pxa1p and Pxa2p heterodimerize to form a complete peroxisomal ABC transporter involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation. This result predicts the presence of similar heterodimeric ABC transporters in the mammalian peroxisome membrane. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Shani, N; Valle, D

1996-01-01

78

The Conformational Transition Pathways of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter BtuCD Revealed by Targeted Molecular Dynamics Simulation  

PubMed Central

BtuCD is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporters in Escherichia coli that imports vitamin B12 into the cell by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Crystal structures of BtuCD and its homologous protein HI1470/1 in various conformational states support the “alternating access” mechanism which proposes the conformational transitions of the substrate translocation pathway at transmembrane domain (TMD) between the outward-facing and inward-facing states. The conformational transition at TMD is assumed to couple with the movement of the cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) driven by ATP hydrolysis/binding. In this study, we performed targeted molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to explore the atomic details of the conformational transitions of BtuCD importer. The outward-facing to inward-facing (O?I) transition was found to be initiated by the conformational movement of NBDs. The subsequent reorientation of the substrate translocation pathway at TMD began with the closing of the periplasmic gate, followed by the opening of the cytoplamic gate in the last stage of the conformational transition due to the extensive hydrophobic interactions at this region, consistent with the functional requirement of unidirectional transport of the substrates. The reverse inward-facing to outward-facing (I?O) transition was found to exhibit intrinsic diversity of the conformational transition pathways and significant structural asymmetry, suggesting that the asymmetric crystal structure of BtuCD-F is an intermediate state in this process.

Weng, Jingwei; Fan, Kangnian; Wang, Wenning

2012-01-01

79

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors enhance phagocytosis by upregulating ATP-binding cassette transporter A7.  

PubMed

We recently reported that the endogenous ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A7 strongly associates with phagocytosis, being regulated by sterol regulatory element binding protein 2. We therefore examined the effect of statins on phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo through the SREBP-ABCA7. Phagocytosis was found to be enhanced by pravastatin, rosuvastatin and simvastatin and cyclodextrin in J774 macrophages, as cellular cholesterol was reduced and expressions of the cholesterol-related genes were modulated, including an increase of ABCA7 mRNA and decrease of ABCA1 mRNA. Conversely, knock-down of ABCA7 expression by siRNA ablated enhancement of phagocytosis by statins. In vivo, pravastatin enhanced phagocytosis in wild-type mice, but not in ABCA7-knockout mice. We thus concluded that statins enhance phagocytosis through the SREBP-ABCA7 pathway. These findings provide a molecular basis for enhancement of the host-defense system by statins showing that one of their "pleiotropic" effects is in fact achieved through their reaction to a primary target. PMID:21762915

Tanaka, Nobukiyo; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Yokoyama, Shinji

2011-06-23

80

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 enhances phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and associated ERK signaling in macrophages.  

PubMed

The mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and A7 (ABCA1 and -A7) show sequence similarity to CED-7, a Caenorhabditis elegans gene that mediates the clearance of apoptotic cells. Using RNA interference or gene targeting, we show that knock down of macrophage ABCA7 but not -A1 results in defective engulfment of apoptotic cells. In response to apoptotic cells, ABCA7 moves to the macrophage cell surface and colocalizes with the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) in phagocytic cups. The cell surface localization of ABCA7 and LRP1 is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. C1q is an opsonin of apoptotic cells that acts via phagocyte LRP1 to induce extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. We show that ERK signaling is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and that ERK phosphorylation in response to apoptotic cells or C1q is defective in ABCA7-deficient cells. These studies reveal a major role of ABCA7 and not -A1 in the clearance of apoptotic cells and therefore suggest that ABCA7 is an authentic orthologue of CED-7. PMID:16908670

Jehle, Andreas W; Gardai, Shyra J; Li, Suzhao; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Morimoto, Konosuke; Janssen, William J; Vandivier, R William; Wang, Nan; Greenberg, Steven; Dale, Benjamin M; Qin, Chunbo; Henson, Peter M; Tall, Alan R

2006-08-14

81

Characterization of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene expression profile in Y79: a retinoblastoma cell line.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy failure was reported in treatment of retinoblastoma suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. Little is known about the expression pattern of ABC proteins in this cancer type. We investigated the gene expression profile of 47 ABC proteins in the human retinoblastoma cell line Y79 by TaqMan low-density array. Analysis revealed 31 ABC transporter genes expressed in this tumor cell line. Y79 cells demonstrate high gene expression of ABCA7, ABCA12, ABCB7, ABCB10, ABCC1, ABCC4, ABCD3, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCF2, and ABCF3 (more than twofold compared to pooled RNA from different tissues). Moreover, we show that Y79 cells exhibit an active calcein efflux pointing to multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-like transporter activity. In summary, we present for the first time an ABC transporter gene expression profile in cells derived from retinoblastoma. Most of the highly expressed ABC transporter genes are typical markers of cancer cells and might exhibit potential targets for medical treatment of retinoblastoma. PMID:19266166

Hendig, Doris; Langmann, Thomas; Zarbock, Ralf; Schmitz, Gerd; Kleesiek, Knut; Götting, Christian

2009-03-06

82

Helical apolipoproteins of high-density lipoprotein enhance phagocytosis by stabilizing ATP-binding cassette transporter A7.  

PubMed

We previously reported that the endogenous ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC)A7 strongly associates with phagocytic function rather than biogenesis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), being regulated by sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)2. Phagocytic activity was found enhanced by apolipoprotein (apo)A-I and apoA-II more than twice the maximum in J774 and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Therefore we investigated the molecular basis of this reaction in association with the function of ABCA7. Similar to ABCA1, ABCA7 was degraded, likely by calpain, and apoA-I and apoA-II stabilize ABCA7 against degradation. Cell surface biotinylation experiments demonstrated that endogenous ABCA7 predominantly resides on the cell surface and that the apolipoproteins increase the surface ABCA7. The increase of phagocytosis by apolipoproteins was retained in the J774 cells treated with ABCA1 siRNA and in the peritoneal macrophages from ABCA1-knockout mice, but it was abolished in the J774 cells treated with ABCA7 siRNA and in the peritoneal macrophages from ABCA7-knockout mice. Phagocytosis was decreased in the cells in the peritoneal cavity of the ABCA7-knockout mouse compared with the wild-type control. We thus concluded that extracellular helical apolipoproteins augment ABCA7-associated phagocytosis by stabilizing ABCA7. The results demonstrated direct enhancement of the host defense system by HDL components. PMID:20495215

Tanaka, Nobukiyo; Abe-Dohmae, Sumiko; Iwamoto, Noriyuki; Fitzgerald, Michael L; Yokoyama, Shinji

2010-05-22

83

Fructose Uptake in Sinorhizobium meliloti Is Mediated by a High-Affinity ATP-Binding Cassette Transport System  

PubMed Central

By transposon mutagenesis, we have isolated a mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti which is totally unable to grow on fructose as sole carbon source as a consequence of its inability to transport this sugar. The cloning and sequencing analysis of the chromosomal DNA region flanking the TnphoA insertion revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) organized in two loci, frcRS and frcBCAK, transcribed divergently. The frcBCA genes encode the characteristic components of an ATP-binding cassette transporter (FrcB, a periplasmic substrate binding protein, FrcC, an integral membrane permease, and FrcA, an ATP-binding cytoplasmic protein), which is the unique high-affinity (Km of 6 ?M) fructose uptake system in S. meliloti. The FrcK protein shows homology with some kinases, while FrcR is probably a transcriptional regulator of the repressor-ORF-kinase family. The expression of S. meliloti frcBCAK in Escherichia coli, which transports fructose only via the phosphotransferase system, resulted in the detection of a periplasmic fructose binding activity, demonstrating that FrcB is the binding protein of the Frc transporter. The analysis of substrate specificities revealed that the Frc system is also a high-affinity transporter for ribose and mannose, which are both fructose competitors for the binding to the periplasmic FrcB protein. However, the Frc mutant was still able to grow on these sugars as sole carbon source, demonstrating the presence of at least one other uptake system for mannose and ribose in S. meliloti. The expression of the frcBC genes as determined by measurements of alkaline phosphatase activity was shown to be induced by mannitol and fructose, but not by mannose, ribose, glucose, or succinate, suggesting that the Frc system is primarily targeted towards fructose. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were impared in the TnphoA mutant, demonstrating that fructose uptake is not essential for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, although FrcB protein is expressed in bacteroids isolated from alfalfa nodulated by S. meliloti wild-type strains.

Lambert, Annie; ?steras, Magne; Mandon, Karine; Poggi, Marie-Christine; Le Rudulier, Daniel

2001-01-01

84

New High-Throughput Screening Assay To Reveal Similarities and Differences in Inhibitory Sensitivities of Multidrug ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cdr1p is the major ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter conferring resistance to azoles and other antifungals in Candida albicans. In this study, the identification of new Cdr1p inhibitors by use of a newly developed high-throughput fluorescence-based assay is reported. The assay also allowed monitoring of the activity and inhibition of the related transporters Pdr5p and Snq2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which made

Marcin Kolaczkowski; Anna Kolaczkowska; Noboru Motohashi; Krystyna Michalak

2009-01-01

85

Vanadate and Bafilomycin A 1 Are Potent Inhibitors of the ATPase Activity of the Reconstituted Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter for Maltose (MalFGK 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vanadate and Bafilomycin A(1) were shown to inhibit the ATPase activity of the reconstituted binding protein-dependent ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter for maltose (MalFGK2) of Salmonella typhimurium in the micromolar range. This is in sharp contrast to the recent finding that the isolated ATPase subunit MalK was insensitive to both compounds. Our data provide the first experimental evidence for the view

S. Hunke; S. Drose; E. Schneider

1995-01-01

86

Expression of ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporters in the giant liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and their possible involvement in the transport of bile salts and anthelmintics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families that either import or export a wide\\u000a spectrum of different substrates. Certain members of this superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in various\\u000a types of cancer as well as in pathogenic microorganisms. The role of ABC proteins in parasitic multidrug resistance becomes\\u000a increasingly evident. However, studies on

Supeecha Kumkate; Supatra Chunchob; Tavan Janvilisri

2008-01-01

87

Role of ATP-Binding-Cassette Transporter Genes in High-Frequency Acquisition of Resistance to Azole Antifungals in Candida glabrata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida glabrata has been often isolated from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis treated with azole antifungal agents, especially fluconazole. We recently showed that the ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter gene CgCDR1 was upregulated in C. glabrata clinical isolates resistant to azole antifungal agents (D. Sanglard, F. Ischer, D. Calabrese, P. A. Majcherczyk, and J. Bille, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:2753-2765, 1999). Deletion of

DOMINIQUE SANGLARD; FRANCOISE ISCHER; JACQUES BILLE

2001-01-01

88

Unsaturated fatty acids suppress the expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and ABCA1 genes via an LXR\\/RXR responsive element  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) G1 and ABCA1 are membrane cholesterol transporters and have been implicated to mediate cholesterol efflux from cells in the presence of high density lipoproteins and its major protein constituent apolipoprotein A-I, respectively. We previously demonstrated that unsaturated fatty acids suppress the stimulatory effects of oxysterols and retinoids on ABCA1 gene transcription. We here demonstrate that unsaturated

Yoshinari Uehara; Shin-ichiro Miura; Arnold von Eckardstein; Satomi Abe; Akihiro Fujii; Yoshino Matsuo; Stephan Rust; Stefan Lorkowski; Gerd Assmann; Tatsuo Yamada; Keijiro Saku

2007-01-01

89

High glucose, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differentially regulate expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 are highly expressed in macrophage-derived foam cells and promote reverse cholesterol efflux via biogenesis of high-density lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to analyze the direct effects of bioactive factors related to the metabolic syndrome on macro- phage transcript levels of all 47 human ABC trans- porters. Using in vitro M-CSF predifferentiated

Richard Mauerer; Stefanie Ebert; Thomas Langmann

2009-01-01

90

ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cholesterol and desmosterol efflux to HDL and regulate sterol accumulation in the brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transporters in the ABCG family appear to be involved in the cellular excretion of cholesterol and other sterols in a cell- and tissue-specific fashion. Overex- pression of ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 (Abcg1) and G4 (Abcg4) can promote cellular cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), but the in vivo functions of Abcg4 are poorly understood. We used mice with knockouts of

Nan Wang; Laurent Yvan-Charvet; Dieter Lutjohann; Monique Mulder; Tim Vanmierlo; Tae-Wan Kim; Alan R. Tall

2007-01-01

91

An atomic detail model for the human ATP binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein derived from disulphide cross-linking and homology modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein mediates the extrusion of chemotherapeutic drugs from cancer cells. Characterization of the drug binding and ATPase activities of the protein have made it the paradigm ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. P-glycoprotein has been imaged at low resolution by electron cryo-microscopy and extensively analyzed by disulphide cross-linking, but a high resolution structure solved ab initio remains elusive.

Daniella R. Stenham; Jeff D. Campbell; Mark S. P. Sansom; Christopher F. Higgins; Ian D. Kerr; Kenneth J. Linton

2003-01-01

92

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 locus is not a major determinant of HDLC levels in a population at high risk for coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) transports cellular cholesterol to lipid-poor apolipoproteins. Mutations in the ABCA1 gene are linked to rare phenotypes, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA) and Tangier disease (TD), characterized by markedly decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. The aim was to test if the ABCA1 locus is a major locus regulating HDL-C levels in the homogenous Finnish population with

Sakari Kakko; Jani Kelloniemi; Peter von Rohr; Ina Hoeschele; Minna Tamminen; Margaret E. Brousseau; Y. Antero Kesäniemi; Markku J. Savolainen

2003-01-01

93

The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter ABCG2 (BCRP), a Marker for Side Population Stem Cells, Is Expressed in Human Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to improve severely impaired myocardial function include transplantation of autologous hematopoietic side population (SP) stem cells. The transmembrane ABC-type (ATP binding cassette) half-transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) serves as a marker protein for SP cell selection. We have recently shown that other ABC transport proteins such as ABCB1 and ABCC5 are differentially expressed in normal and diseased human heart. Here we

Konrad Meissner; Björn Heydrich; Gabriele Jedlitschky; Henriette Meyer zu Schwabedissen; Igor Mosyagin; Peter Dazert; Lothar Eckel; Silke Vogelgesang; Rolf W. Warzok; Michael Böhm; Christian Lehmann; Michael Wendt; Ingolf Cascorbi; Heyo K. Kroemer

2006-01-01

94

Molecular Cloning of the Human ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter 1 (hABC1): Evidence for Sterol-Dependent Regulation in Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned the full-length cDNA for the human ATP binding cassette transporter 1 (hABC1). The 6603-bp open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 2201 amino acids resulting in a deduced molecular weight of 220 kDa. The hABC1 cDNA is highly homologous (62%) to the human rim ABC transporter (ABCR). hABC1 is expressed in a variety of human tissues with

Thomas Langmann; Jochen Klucken; Markus Reil; Gerhard Liebisch; Marie-Françoise Luciani; Giovanna Chimini; Wolfgang E. Kaminski; Gerd Schmitz

1999-01-01

95

ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP &lrarr2; 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

Randak, Christoph O; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Elcock, Adrian H; Welsh, Michael J

2013-08-06

96

ATP and AMP Mutually Influence Their Interaction with the ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Adenylate Kinase Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) at Separate Binding Sites*  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP ? 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5?-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5?-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P1,P5-di(adenosine-5?) pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2.

Randak, Christoph O.; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R.; Elcock, Adrian H.; Welsh, Michael J.

2013-01-01

97

Role of the ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg2 in the phenotype and function of cardiac side population cells.  

PubMed

Recently, the side population (SP) phenotype has been introduced as a reliable marker to identify subpopulations of cells with stem/progenitor cell properties in various tissues. We and others have identified SP cells from postmitotic tissues, including adult myocardium, in which they have been suggested to contribute to cellular regeneration following injury. SP cells are identified and characterized by a unique efflux of Hoechst 33342 dye. Abcg2 belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and constitutes the molecular basis for the dye efflux, hence the SP phenotype, in hematopoietic stem cells. Although Abcg2 is also expressed in cardiac SP (cSP) cells, its role in regulating the SP phenotype and function of cSP cells is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that regulation of the SP phenotype in cSP cells occurs in a dynamic, age-dependent fashion, with Abcg2 as the molecular determinant of the cSP phenotype in the neonatal heart and another ABC transporter, Mdr1, as the main contributor to the SP phenotype in the adult heart. Using loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we find that Abcg2 tightly regulates cell fate and function. Adult cSP cells isolated from mice with genetic ablation of Abcg2 exhibit blunted proliferation capacity and augmented cell death. Conversely, overexpression of Abcg2 is sufficient to enhance cell proliferation, although with a limitation of cardiomyogenic differentiation. In summary, for the first time, we reveal a functional role for Abcg2 in modulating the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of adult cSP cells that goes beyond its distinct role in Hoechst dye efflux. PMID:18787193

Pfister, Otmar; Oikonomopoulos, Angelos; Sereti, Konstantina-Ioanna; Sohn, Regina L; Cullen, Darragh; Fine, Gabriel C; Mouquet, Frédéric; Westerman, Karen; Liao, Ronglih

2008-09-11

98

Molecular cloning and characterisation of three new ATP-binding cassette transporter genes from the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.  

PubMed

Three single copy ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter encoding genes, designated MgAtr3, MgAtr4, and MgAtr5, were cloned and sequenced from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola. The encoded ABC proteins all exhibit the [NBD-TMS(6)](2) configuration and can be classified as novel members of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) class of ABC transporters. The three proteins are highly homologous to other fungal and yeast, ABC proteins involved in multidrug resistance or plant pathogenesis. MgAtr4 and MgAtr5 possess a conserved ABC motif at both the N- and C-terminal domain of the protein. In contrast, the Walker A motif in the N-terminal and the ABC signature in the C-terminal domain of MgAtr3, deviate significantly from the consensus sequence found in other members of the PDR class of ABC transporters. Expression of MgAtr3 could not be detected under any of the conditions tested. However, MgAtr4 and MgAtr5 displayed distinct expression profiles when treated with a range of compounds known to be either substrates or inducers of ABC transporters. These included synthetic fungitoxic compounds, such as imazalil and cyproconazole, natural toxic compounds, such as the plant defence compounds eugenol and psoralen, and the antibiotics cycloheximide and neomycin. The expression pattern of the genes was also dependent on the morphological state of the fungus. The findings suggest a role for MgAtr4 and MgAtr5 during plant pathogenesis and in protection against toxic compounds. PMID:12036592

Stergiopoulos, I; Gielkens, M M C; Goodall, S D; Venema, K; De Waard, M A

2002-05-01

99

Localized induction of the ATP-binding cassette B19 auxin transporter enhances adventitious root formation in arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Adventitious roots emerge from aerial plant tissues, and the induction of these roots is essential for clonal propagation of agriculturally important plant species. This process has received extensive study in horticultural species but much less focus in genetically tractable model species. We have explored the role of auxin transport in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in which adventitious root initiation was induced by excising roots from low-light-grown hypocotyls. Inhibition of auxin transport from the shoot apex abolishes adventitious root formation under these conditions. Root excision was accompanied by a rapid increase in radioactive indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport and its accumulation in the hypocotyl above the point of excision where adventitious roots emerge. Local increases in auxin-responsive gene expression were also observed above the site of excision using three auxin-responsive reporters. These changes in auxin accumulation preceded cell division events, monitored by a cyclin B1 reporter (pCYCB1;1:GUS), and adventitious root initiation. We examined excision-induced adventitious root formation in auxin influx and efflux mutants, including auxin insensitive1, pin-formed1 (pin1), pin2, pin3, and pin7, with the most profound reductions observed in ATP-binding cassette B19 (ABCB19). An ABCB19 overexpression line forms more adventitious roots than the wild type in intact seedlings. Examination of transcriptional and translational fusions between ABCB19 and green fluorescent protein indicates that excision locally induced the accumulation of ABCB19 transcript and protein that is temporally and spatially linked to local IAA accumulation leading to adventitious root formation. These experiments are consistent with localized synthesis of ABCB19 protein after hypocotyl excision leads to enhanced IAA transport and local IAA accumulation driving adventitious root formation. PMID:23677937

Sukumar, Poornima; Maloney, Gregory S; Muday, Gloria K

2013-05-15

100

ATP-Binding Membrane Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1): A Possible Link between Inflammation and Reverse Cholesterol Transport  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is characterized by a chronic inflammatory condition that involves numerous cellular and molecular inflammatory components. A wide array of inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and proteins produced by macrophages and other cells, play a critical role in the development and progression of the disease. ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is crucial for cellular cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and is also identified as an important target in antiatherosclerosis treatment. Evidence from several recent studies indicates that inflammation, along with other atherogenic-related mediators, plays distinct regulating roles in ABCA1 expression. Proatherogenic cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? have been shown to inhibit the expression of ABCA1, while antiatherogenic cytokines, including IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, have been shown to promote the expression of ABCA1. Moreover, some cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? seem to regulate ABCA1 expression in species-specific and dose-dependent manners. Inflammatory proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 are likely to inhibit ABCA1 expression during inflammation, and inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was also found to block the expression of ABCA1. Interestingly, recent experiments revealed ABCA1 can function as an antiinflammatory receptor to suppress the expression of inflammatory factors, suggesting that ABCA1 may be the molecular basis for the interaction between inflammation and RCT. This review aims to summarize recent findings on the role of inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory proteins, inflammatory lipids, and the endotoxin-mediated inflammatory process in expression of ABCA1. Also covered is the current understanding of the function of ABCA1 in modulating the immune response and inflammation through its direct and indirect antiinflammatory mechanisms including lipid transport, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) formation and apoptosis.

Yin, Kai; Liao, Duan-fang; Tang, Chao-ke

2010-01-01

101

HER2 as therapeutic target for overcoming ATP-binding cassette transporter-mediated chemoresistance in small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) easily acquires multidrug resistance after successful initial therapy. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is important for the multidrug resistance. Among them, ABCB1 and ABCG2 are known to be upregulated in chemoresistant SCLC cells. We found that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expressions are also upregulated in chemoresistant SBC-3/ETP, SBC-3/SN-38, and SBC-3/CDDP cells, compared with chemosensitive SBC-3 cells. Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2, could not suppress proliferation of these HER2-positive SCLC cells alone but successfully restored chemosensitivity to etoposide and SN-38 with a clinically applicable concentration. The reversal effect of lapatinib was thought to be caused by inhibition of drug efflux pump functions of ABC transporters, although lapatinib itself has been reported to be a substrate for them. Moreover, knocking down of HER2 by an short interfering RNA weakened the effect of lapatinib on ABCB1, indicating the involvement of HER2 in the inhibitory mechanisms. Notably, we showed that caveolin-1 and Src play key roles in modulating ABCB1 function via HER2 inactivation. In SBC-3/ETP cells, dephosphorylation of HER2 by lapatinib activates Src and successively leads to increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Through this process, caveolin-1 dissociates from HER2 and strengthens association with ABCB1, and finally impairs the pump functions. Furthermore, we showed that treatment by lapatinib in combination with etoposide or irinotecan significantly suppresses the growth of subcutaneous SBC-3/ETP and SBC-3/SN-38 tumors in mice, respectively. Collectively, these results indicate that combination therapy with lapatinib and cytotoxic agents could conquer ABC transporter-mediated chemoresistance especially in HER2-positive SCLC. PMID:22389470

Minami, Toshiyuki; Kijima, Takashi; Otani, Yasushi; Kohmo, Satoshi; Takahashi, Ryo; Nagatomo, Izumi; Hirata, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Mayumi; Inoue, Koji; Takeda, Yoshito; Kida, Hiroshi; Tachibana, Isao; Kumanogoh, Atsushi

2012-03-02

102

Ablation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, Abca2 modifies response to estrogen-based therapies  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporter 2 (ABCA2) is an endolysosomal protein expressed in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, prostate, ovary and macrophages. In cell cultures, ABCA2 over-expression has been linked with resistance to the anticancer agent, estramustine phosphate (EMP; a nor-nitrogen mustard conjugate of estradiol). The present study shows that Abca2 knockout (KO) mice have greater sensitivity to a variety of side effects induced by EMP treatment. Chronic EMP (12 × 100 mg/kg body weight) produced mortality in 36% of KO mice, but only 7% of age-matched wild type (WT). Side effects of the drug were also more prevalent in the KO mouse. For example, during the first week of EMP treatments, 67% of KO males (compared to 6% of WT males) responded with episodic erectile events. In WT mice, ABCA2 protein localized within pene corpuscles, (which rely on modified Schwann cells for amplification of tactile signals) suggesting that the transporter may function in the erectile process. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS; a source of nitric oxide during erectile response) levels were similar in WT and KO male penile tissue. Treatment with 100 mg/kg EMP (once daily for four days) elevated serum estradiol and estrone in both WT and KO. However, the circulating levels of these estrogens were higher in KO mice implying a reduced plasma clearance of estrogens as a consequence of ABCA2 ablation. Consistent with the pro-convulsant effects of estrogens, KO mice also displayed an increased incidence of seizures following EMP (14% vs. 0%). Taken together, these data indicate that ABCA2 deficiency renders mice more sensitive to EMP treatment-induced effects implying that the transporter has a role in regulating EMP transport and/or metabolism.

Mack, Jody T.; Brown, Carol B.; Garrett, Tracy E.; Uys, Joachim D.; Townsend, Danyelle M.; Tew, Kenneth D.

2013-01-01

103

Neratinib Reverses ATP-Binding Cassette B1-Mediated Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance In Vitro, In Vivo, and Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

Neratinib, an irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is in phase III clinical trials for patients with human epidermal receptor 2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore the ability of neratinib to reverse tumor multidrug resistance attributable to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our results showed that neratinib remarkably enhanced the sensitivity of ABCB1-overexpressing cells to ABCB1 substrates. It is noteworthy that neratinib augmented the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in inhibiting the growth of ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia blasts and KBv200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, neratinib increased doxorubicin accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and Rhodamine 123 accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and primary leukemia blasts. Neratinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 at low concentrations but inhibited it at high concentrations. Likewise, neratinib inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.24 ?M). Neither the expression of ABCB1 at the mRNA and protein levels nor the phosphorylation of Akt was affected by neratinib at reversal concentrations. Docking simulation results were consistent with the binding conformation of neratinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1, which provides computational support for the cross-reactivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with human ABCB1. In conclusion, neratinib can reverse ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo by inhibiting its transport function.

Zhao, Xiao-qin; Xie, Jing-dun; Chen, Xing-gui; Sim, Hong May; Zhang, Xu; Liang, Yong-ju; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T.; Sun, Yueli; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2012-01-01

104

Lipidation of apolipoprotein AI by ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 generates an interaction partner for ABCG1 but not for scavenger receptor BI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 as well as scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) mediate the efflux of lipids from macrophages to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). We used RNA interference in RAW264.7 macrophages to study the interactions of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI with lipid-free apoA-I, native and reconstituted HDL with apoA-I:phosphatidylcholine ratios of either 1:40 (rHDL1:40)

Iris Lorenzi; Arnold von Eckardstein; Silvija Radosavljevic; Lucia Rohrer

2008-01-01

105

Genetic Separation of FK506 Susceptibility and Drug Transport in the Yeast Pdr5 ATP-binding Cassette Multidrug Resistance Transporter  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the yeast Pdr5 ATP-binding cassette transporter leads to pleiotropic drug resistance to a variety of structurally unrelated cytotoxic compounds. To identify Pdr5 residues involved in substrate recognition and/or drug transport, we used a combination of random in vitro mutagenesis and phenotypic screening to isolate novel mutant Pdr5 transporters with altered substrate specificity. A plasmid library containing randomly mutagenized PDR5 genes was transformed into appropriate drug-sensitive yeast cells followed by phenotypic selection of Pdr5 mutants. Selected mutant Pdr5 transporters were analyzed with respect to their expression levels, subcellular localization, drug resistance profiles to cycloheximide, rhodamines, antifungal azoles, steroids, and sensitivity to the inhibitor FK506. DNA sequencing of six PDR5 mutant genes identified amino acids important for substrate recognition, drug transport, and specific inhibition of the Pdr5 transporter. Mutations were found in each nucleotide-binding domain, the transmembrane domain 10, and, most surprisingly, even in predicted extracellular hydrophilic loops. At least some point mutations identified appear to influence folding of Pdr5, suggesting that the folded structure is a major substrate specificity determinant. Surprisingly, a S1360F exchange in transmembrane domain 10 not only caused limited substrate specificity, but also abolished Pdr5 susceptibility to inhibition by the immunosuppressant FK506. This is the first report of a mutation in a yeast ATP-binding cassette transporter that allows for the functional separation of substrate transport and inhibitor susceptibility.

Egner, Ralf; Rosenthal, Friederike E.; Kralli, Anastasia; Sanglard, Dominique; Kuchler, Karl

1998-01-01

106

MalK forms a dimer independent of its assembly into the MalFGK2 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The maltose transport complex (MTC) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of membrane transport proteins and is a model for understanding the folding and assembly of hetero-oligomeric membrane protein complexes. The MTC is made up of two integral membrane proteins, MalF and MalG, and a peripheral membrane protein, MalK. These proteins associate with a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 to form the complex MalFGK2. In our studies of the oligomerization of this complex, we have shown that the ATP-binding component, MalK, forms a dimer in the absence of MalF and MalG. Epitope-tagged MalK coimmunoprecipitated with wild-type MalK, indicating that the MalK protein forms an oligomer. The relative amounts of tagged and wild-type MalK that were present in the whole cell extracts and in the immunoprecipitated complexes show that the MalK oligomer is a dimer. These hetero-oligomers can also be formed in vitro by mixing two extracts, each containing either tagged or wild-type MalK. The dimerization of MalK was also demonstrated in vivo using the bacteriophage lambda repressor fusion assay. The formation of a MalK dimer in the absence of MalF and MalG may represent an initial step in the assembly pathway of the MTC. PMID:10037713

Kennedy, K A; Traxler, B

1999-03-01

107

ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cholesterol and desmosterol efflux to HDL and regulate sterol accumulation in the brain.  

PubMed

Transporters in the ABCG family appear to be involved in the cellular excretion of cholesterol and other sterols in a cell- and tissue-specific fashion. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 (Abcg1) and G4 (Abcg4) can promote cellular cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), but the in vivo functions of Abcg4 are poorly understood. We used mice with knockouts of Abcg1 or Abcg4 singly or together to further elucidate the function of these transporters. Abcg1 and Abcg4 are highly expressed in the brain and are found in both astrocytes and neurons. Whereas Abcg1(-/-) or Abcg4(-/-) mice showed essentially normal levels of brain sterols, in Abcg1(-/-)/Abcg4(-/-) mice, levels of several sterol intermediates in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, namely desmosterol, lathosterol, and lanosterol, as well as 27-OH cholesterol, were increased 2- to 3-fold. Overexpression of Abcg1 or Abcg4 promoted efflux of desmosterol and cholesterol from cells to HDL, and combined deficiency of these transporters led to defective efflux and accumulation of these sterols in primary astrocytes. Consistent with defective efflux and sterol accumulation, cholesterol biosynthesis was reduced in Abcg1(-/-)/Abcg4(-/-) astrocytes. The accumulation of desmosterol, a known liver-X receptor (LXR) activator, was associated with increased expression of LXR target genes, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, and increased apolipoprotein E secretion in Abcg1(-/-)/Abcg4(-/-) astrocytes. Our findings provide the first in vivo demonstration of a role for Abcg4 in sterol efflux in the brain and show that Abcg1 and Abcg4 have overlapping functions in astrocytes, promoting efflux of cholesterol, desmosterol, and possibly other sterol biosynthetic intermediates to HDL. PMID:18039927

Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Lütjohann, Dieter; Mulder, Monique; Vanmierlo, Tim; Kim, Tae-Wan; Tall, Alan R

2007-11-26

108

Transgenic hybrid aspen overexpressing the Atwbc19 gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter confers resistance to four aminoglycoside antibiotics.  

PubMed

Antibiotic-resistance genes of bacterial origin are invaluable markers for plant genetic engineering. However, these genes are feared to pose possible risk to human health by horizontal gene transfer from transgenic plants to bacteria, potentially resulting in antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria; this is a considerable regulatory concern in some countries. The Atwbc19 gene, encoding an Arabidopsis thaliana ATP-binding cassette transporter, has been reported to confer resistance to kanamycin specifically as an alternative to bacterial antibiotic-resistance genes. In this report, we transformed hybrid aspen (Populus canescens x P. grandidentata) with the Atwbc19 gene. Unlike Atwbc19-transgenic tobacco that was only resistant to kanamycin, the transgenic Populus plants also showed resistance to three other aminoglycoside antibiotics (neomycin, geneticin, and paromomycin) at comparable levels to plants containing a CaMV35S-nptII cassette. Although it is unknown why the transgenic Populus with the Atwbc19 gene is resistant to all aminoglycoside antibiotics tested, the broad utility of the Atwbc19 gene as a reporter gene is confirmed here in a second dicot species. Because the Atwbc19 gene is plant-ubiquitous, it might serve as an alternative selectable marker to current bacterial antibiotic-resistance marker genes and alleviate the potential risk for horizontal transfer of bacterial-resistance genes in transgenic plants. PMID:20383769

Kang, Byung-Guk; Ye, Xia; Osburn, Lori D; Stewart, C N; Cheng, Zong-Ming

2010-04-11

109

Cooperative transcriptional activation of ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes by nuclear receptors including Liver-X-Receptor.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 form heterodimers that limit absorption of dietary sterols in the intestine and promote cholesterol elimination from the body through hepatobiliary secretion. To identify cis-regulatory elements of the two genes, we have cloned and analyzed twenty-three evolutionary conserved region (ECR) fragments using the CMV-luciferase reporter system in HepG2 cells. Two ECRs were found to be responsive to the Liver-X-Receptor (LXR). Through elaborate deletion studies, regions containing putative LXREs were identified and the binding of LXR? was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assay. When the LXREs were inserted upstream of the intergenic promoter, synergistic activation by LXR?/RXR? in combination with GATA4, HNF4?, and LRH-1, which had been shown to bind to the intergenic region, was observed. In conclusion, we have identified two LXREs in ABCG5/ABCG8 genes for the first time and propose that these LXREs, especially in the ECR20, play major roles in regulating these genes. PMID:23790976

Back, Su Sun; Kim, Jinsu; Choi, Daehyung; Lee, Eui Sup; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

2013-06-01

110

TGD1, -2, and -3 proteins involved in lipid trafficking form ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter with multiple substrate-binding proteins.  

PubMed

Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are essential proteins in species as diverse as archaea and humans. Their domain architecture has remained relatively fixed across these species, with rare exceptions. Here, we show one exception to be the trigalactosyldiacylglycerol 1, 2, and 3 (TGD1, -2, and -3) putative lipid transporter located at the chloroplast inner envelope membrane. TGD2 was previously shown to be in a complex of >500 kDa. We demonstrate that this complex also contains TGD1 and -3 and is very stable because it cannot be broken down by gentle denaturants to form a "core" complex similar in size to standard ABC transporters. The complex was purified from Pisum sativum (pea) chloroplast envelopes by native gel electrophoresis and examined by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins besides TGD1, -2, or -3 included a potassium efflux antiporter and a TIM17/22/23 family protein, but these were shown to be in separate high molecular mass complexes. Quantification of the complex components explained the size of the complex because 8-12 copies of the substrate-binding protein (TGD2) were found per functional transporter. PMID:22544736

Roston, Rebecca L; Gao, Jinpeng; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James; Benning, Christoph

2012-04-27

111

Pathogen-responsive expression of a putative ATP-binding cassette transporter gene conferring resistance to the diterpenoid sclareol is regulated by multiple defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory. PMID:14526118

Campbell, Emma J; Schenk, Peer M; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A M A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Maclean, Don J; Cammue, Bruno P A; Ebert, Paul R; Manners, John M

2003-10-02

112

Control of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat seedlings by medical drugs known to modulate the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters.  

PubMed

Medical drugs known to modulate the activity of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (modulators) were tested for the ability to potentiate the activity of the azole fungicide cyproconazole against in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella graminicola and to control disease development due to this pathogen on wheat seedlings. In vitro modulation of cyproconazole activity could be demonstrated in paper disk bioassays. Some of the active modulators (amitriptyline, flavanone, and phenothiazines) increased the accumulation of cyproconazole in M. graminicola, suggesting that they reversed cyproconazole efflux. However, synergism between cyproconazole and modulators against M. graminicola on wheat seedlings could not be shown. Despite their low in vitro toxicity to M. graminicola, some modulators (amitriptyline, loperamide, and promazine) did show significant intrinsic disease control activity in preventive and curative foliar spray tests with wheat seedlings. The results suggest that these compounds have indirect disease control activity based on modulation of fungal ABC transporters essential for virulence and constitute a new class of disease control agents. PMID:17545327

Roohparvar, Ramin; Huser, Aurelie; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; De Waard, Maarten A

2007-06-01

113

Periplasmic loop P2 of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP binding cassette transporter is sufficient to bind the maltose binding protein MalE.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli maltose transporter belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. Recently, the crystal structure of the full transporter MalFGK2 in complex with the maltose binding protein (MBP) was determined [Oldham, M. L., et al. (2007) Crystal structure of a catalytic intermediate of the maltose transporter. Nature 450, 515-522]. Using liquid-state NMR, we find that the periplasmic loop P2 of MalF (MalF-P2) folds independently in solution and adopts a well-defined tertiary structure which is similar to the one found in the crystal. MalF-P2 interacts with the maltose binding protein, independent of the transmembrane region of MalF and MalG with an affinity of 10-20 microM, in the presence and absence of substrate. Analysis of residual dipolar coupling (RDC) experiments shows that the conformation of the two individual domains of MalF-P2 is preserved in the absence of MalE and resembles the conformation in the X-ray structure. Upon titration of MalE to MalF-P2, the two domains of MalF-P2 change their relative orientation to accommodate the ligand. In particular, a conformational change of domain 2 of MalF-P2 is induced, which is distinct from the conformation found in the X-ray structure. PMID:19159328

Jacso, Tomas; Grote, Mathias; Daus, Martin L; Schmieder, Peter; Keller, Sandro; Schneider, Erwin; Reif, Bernd

2009-03-17

114

Altered Profile of Secondary Metabolites in the Root Exudates of Arabidopsis ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Mutants1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Following recent indirect evidence suggesting a role for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in root exudation of phytochemicals, we identified 25 ABC transporter genes highly expressed in the root cells most likely to be involved in secretion processes. Of these 25 genes, we also selected six full-length ABC transporters and a half-size transporter for in-depth molecular and biochemical analyses. We compared the exuded root phytochemical profiles of these seven ABC transporter mutants to those of the wild type. There were three nonpolar phytochemicals missing in various ABC transporter mutants compared to the wild type when the samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These data suggest that more than one ABC transporter can be involved in the secretion of a given phytochemical and that a transporter can be involved in the secretion of more than one secondary metabolite. The primary and secondary metabolites present in the root exudates of the mutants were also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which allowed for the identification of groups of compounds differentially found in some of the mutants compared to the wild type. For instance, the mutant Atpdr6 secreted a lower level of organic acids and Atmrp2 secreted a higher level of amino acids as compared to the wild type. We conclude that the release of phytochemicals by roots is partially controlled by ABC transporters.

Badri, Dayakar V.; Loyola-Vargas, Victor M.; Broeckling, Corey D.; De-la-Pena, Clelia; Jasinski, Michal; Santelia, Diana; Martinoia, Enrico; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Banta, Lois M.; Stermitz, Frank; Vivanco, Jorge M.

2008-01-01

115

Intrinsic acyl-CoA thioesterase activity of a peroxisomal ATP binding cassette transporter is required for transport and metabolism of fatty acids.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are organelles that perform diverse metabolic functions in different organisms, but a common function is ?-oxidation of a variety of long chain aliphatic, branched, and aromatic carboxylic acids. Import of substrates into peroxisomes for ?-oxidation is mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins of subfamily D, which includes the human adrenoleukodystropy protein (ALDP) defective in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). Whether substrates are transported as CoA esters or free acids has been a matter of debate. Using COMATOSE (CTS), a plant representative of the ABCD family, we demonstrate that there is a functional and physical interaction between the ABC transporter and the peroxisomal long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS)6 and -7. We expressed recombinant CTS in insect cells and showed that membranes from infected cells possess fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase activity, which is stimulated by ATP. A mutant, in which Serine 810 is replaced by asparagine (S810N) is defective in fatty acid degradation in vivo, retains ATPase activity but has strongly reduced thioesterase activity, providing strong evidence for the biological relevance of this activity. Thus, CTS, and most likely the other ABCD family members, represent rare examples of polytopic membrane proteins with an intrinsic additional enzymatic function that may regulate the entry of substrates into the ?-oxidation pathway. The cleavage of CoA raises questions about the side of the membrane where this occurs and this is discussed in the context of the peroxisomal coenzyme A (CoA) budget. PMID:23288899

De Marcos Lousa, Carine; van Roermund, Carlo W T; Postis, Vincent L G; Dietrich, Daniela; Kerr, Ian D; Wanders, Ronald J A; Baldwin, Stephen A; Baker, Alison; Theodoulou, Frederica L

2013-01-03

116

Control of Mycosphaerella graminicola on Wheat Seedlings by Medical Drugs Known To Modulate the Activity of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters?  

PubMed Central

Medical drugs known to modulate the activity of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (modulators) were tested for the ability to potentiate the activity of the azole fungicide cyproconazole against in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella graminicola and to control disease development due to this pathogen on wheat seedlings. In vitro modulation of cyproconazole activity could be demonstrated in paper disk bioassays. Some of the active modulators (amitriptyline, flavanone, and phenothiazines) increased the accumulation of cyproconazole in M. graminicola, suggesting that they reversed cyproconazole efflux. However, synergism between cyproconazole and modulators against M. graminicola on wheat seedlings could not be shown. Despite their low in vitro toxicity to M. graminicola, some modulators (amitriptyline, loperamide, and promazine) did show significant intrinsic disease control activity in preventive and curative foliar spray tests with wheat seedlings. The results suggest that these compounds have indirect disease control activity based on modulation of fungal ABC transporters essential for virulence and constitute a new class of disease control agents.

Roohparvar, Ramin; Huser, Aurelie; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; De Waard, Maarten A.

2007-01-01

117

Vacuolar Transport of Abscisic Acid Glucosyl Ester Is Mediated by ATP-Binding Cassette and Proton-Antiport Mechanisms in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant hormone involved in diverse physiological and developmental processes, including abiotic stress responses and the regulation of stomatal aperture and seed germination. Abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) is a hydrolyzable ABA conjugate that accumulates in the vacuole and presumably also in the endoplasmic reticulum. Deconjugation of ABA-GE by the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar ?-glucosidases allows the rapid formation of free ABA in response to abiotic stress conditions such as dehydration and salt stress. ABA-GE further contributes to the maintenance of ABA homeostasis, as it is the major ABA catabolite exported from the cytosol. In this work, we identified that the import of ABA-GE into vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll cells is mediated by two distinct membrane transport mechanisms: proton gradient-driven and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Both systems have similar Km values of approximately 1 mm. According to our estimations, this low affinity appears nevertheless to be sufficient for the continuous vacuolar sequestration of ABA-GE produced in the cytosol. We further demonstrate that two tested multispecific vacuolar ABCC-type ABC transporters from Arabidopsis exhibit ABA-GE transport activity when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which also supports the involvement of ABC transporters in ABA-GE uptake. Our findings suggest that the vacuolar ABA-GE uptake is not mediated by specific, but rather by several, possibly multispecific, transporters that are involved in the general vacuolar sequestration of conjugated metabolites. PMID:24028845

Burla, Bo; Pfrunder, Stefanie; Nagy, Réka; Francisco, Rita Maria; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

2013-09-12

118

Intracellular ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 is expressed in lung cancer cells and modulates susceptibility to cisplatin and paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Patients with advanced-stage bronchial cancer benefit from systemic cytostatic therapy, in particular from regimens integrating cisplatin and taxanes. However, eventual disease progression leads to a fatal outcome in most cases, originating from tumor cells resisting chemotherapy. We here show that the intracellular ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3), previously recognized as critical for the secretion of surfactant components from type 2 pneumocytes, is expressed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. With some heterogeneity in a given specimen, expression levels detected immunohistochemically in primary cancer tissue were highest in adenocarcinomas and lowest in small cell lung cancers. Genetic silencing of ABCA3 in the NSCLC cell line models A549, NCI-H1650 and NCI-H1975 significantly increased tumor cell susceptibility to the cytostatic effects of both cisplatin (in all cell lines) and paclitaxel (in two of three cell lines). Taken together, ABCA3 emerges as a modulator of NSCLC cell susceptibility to cytostatic therapy. PMID:23689165

Overbeck, Tobias R; Hupfeld, Timo; Krause, Doris; Waldmann-Beushausen, Regina; Chapuy, Bjoern; Güldenzoph, Bjoern; Aung, Thiha; Inagaki, Nobuya; Schöndube, Friedrich A; Danner, Bernhard C; Truemper, Lorenz; Wulf, Gerald G

2013-05-15

119

ATP-binding cassette sub-family F member 1 (ABCF1) is identified as a putative therapeutic target of escitalopram in the inflammatory cytokine pathway.  

PubMed

The inflammatory cytokine pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for major depressive disorder (MDD). Previous reports suggest that antidepressants have anti-inflammatory properties and can cause a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines. Recent evidence suggests this might be mediated at the level of the transcriptome. The current study investigated the transcription of 86 genes in the inflammatory cytokine pathway both at baseline and after eight weeks of escitalopram treatment in MDD patients who were either clinical responders (n=25) or non-responders (n=21), using a subset of samples in the Genome-Based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression project (GENDEP). Changes in expression between baseline and eight weeks of treatment were assessed using two-tailed t-tests. To establish if any significant expression changes related to clinical response, the magnitude of the relative expression change between baseline and eight weeks of treatment was established and binary logistic regressions were used to compare differences between responders and non-responders. ATP-binding cassette sub-family F member 1 (ABCF1), a translational regulator of the inflammatory cytokine pathway showed a significant increase in expression after escitalopram treatment which was significantly greater in responders compared to non-responders, suggesting that ABCF1 may play a role in mediating antidepressant response. PMID:23719290

Powell, Timothy R; Tansey, Katherine E; Breen, Gerome; Farmer, Anne E; Craig, Ian W; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; D'Souza, Ursula M; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

2013-05-29

120

TGD1, -2, and -3 Proteins Involved in Lipid Trafficking Form ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter with Multiple Substrate-binding Proteins*  

PubMed Central

Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family are essential proteins in species as diverse as archaea and humans. Their domain architecture has remained relatively fixed across these species, with rare exceptions. Here, we show one exception to be the TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL 1, 2, and 3 (TGD1, -2, and -3) putative lipid transporter located at the chloroplast inner envelope membrane. TGD2 was previously shown to be in a complex of >500 kDa. We demonstrate that this complex also contains TGD1 and -3 and is very stable because it cannot be broken down by gentle denaturants to form a “core” complex similar in size to standard ABC transporters. The complex was purified from Pisum sativum (pea) chloroplast envelopes by native gel electrophoresis and examined by mass spectrometry. Identified proteins besides TGD1, -2, or -3 included a potassium efflux antiporter and a TIM17/22/23 family protein, but these were shown to be in separate high molecular mass complexes. Quantification of the complex components explained the size of the complex because 8–12 copies of the substrate-binding protein (TGD2) were found per functional transporter.

Roston, Rebecca L.; Gao, Jinpeng; Murcha, Monika W.; Whelan, James; Benning, Christoph

2012-01-01

121

Direct and Coordinate Regulation of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter Genes by Myc Factors Generates Specific Transcription Signatures That Significantly Affect the Chemoresistance Phenotype of Cancer Cells*  

PubMed Central

Increased expression of specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is known to mediate the efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. Therefore, establishing how ABC transporter genes are controlled at their transcription level may help provide insight into the role of these multifaceted transporters in the malignant phenotype. We have investigated ABC transporter gene expression in a large neuroblastoma data set of 251 tumor samples. Clustering analysis demonstrated a strong association between differential ABC gene expression patterns in tumor samples and amplification of the MYCN oncogene, suggesting a correlation with MYCN function. Using expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, we show that MYCN oncoprotein coordinately regulates transcription of specific ABC transporter genes, by acting as either an activator or a repressor. Finally, we extend these notions to c-MYC showing that it can also regulate the same set of ABC transporter genes in other tumor cells through similar dynamics. Overall our findings provide insight into MYC-driven molecular mechanisms that contribute to coordinate transcriptional regulation of a large set of ABC transporter genes, thus affecting global drug efflux.

Porro, Antonio; Haber, Michelle; Diolaiti, Daniel; Iraci, Nunzio; Henderson, Michelle; Gherardi, Samuele; Valli, Emanuele; Munoz, Marcia A.; Xue, Chengyuan; Flemming, Claudia; Schwab, Manfred; Wong, Jason H.; Marshall, Glenn M.; Della Valle, Giuliano; Norris, Murray D.; Perini, Giovanni

2010-01-01

122

An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice  

PubMed Central

Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named “eibi1.c,” along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants.

Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-01-01

123

Molecular cDNA cloning and tissue distribution of mRNA encoding a novel ATP-binding cassette (ABC) half-transporter.  

PubMed

The majority of proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily catalyzes translocation of substrates across biological membranes. Employing a reverse transcription-PCR approach with degenerate primers, we have identified a full-length cDNA from rat hepatocytes encoding a novel ABC transporter termed umat (ubiquitously expressed mammalian ABC half-transporter). The deduced sequence of 836 amino acids comprises an N-terminal membrane anchor domain and a single conserved C-terminal nucleotide binding fold, specifying umat as an ABC half-transporter. While the first 250 amino acid positions are highly divergent from other ABC transporters, clusters of conserved residues are evident along the rest of the protein. The greatest sequence similarity was observed with the fission yeast heavy metal tolerance protein hmt1 (44.5% identity in a 626-amino-acid overlap). Umat mRNA, expressed in all tissues analyzed, was most abundant in testis. Substantial umat mRNA expression in cultured primary rat hepatocytes suggests that hepatocyte cultures should represent an adequate model for investigation of umat function and regulation. PMID:9705847

Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Gaini-Rahimi, S; Ernst, B P; Schmitz-Salue, C; Blume, S; Kahl, G F

1998-08-10

124

The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant is defective in an ATP-binding cassette transporter-like protein required for peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid beta-oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid beta-oxidation. Because IBA is converted to the more abundant auxin, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), in a mechanism that parallels beta-oxidation, the mutant is likely to be IBA resistant because it cannot convert IBA to IAA. Adult pxa1 plants grow slowly compared with wild type, with smaller rosettes, fewer leaves, and shorter inflorescence stems, indicating that PXA1 is important throughout development. We identified the molecular defect in pxa1 using a map-based positional approach. PXA1 encodes a predicted peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that is 42% identical to the human adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) protein, which is defective in patients with the demyelinating disorder X-linked ALD. Homology to ALD protein and other human and yeast peroxisomal transporters suggests that PXA1 imports coenzyme A esters of fatty acids and IBA into the peroxisome for beta-oxidation. The pxa1 mutant makes fewer lateral roots than wild type, both in response to IBA and without exogenous hormones, suggesting that the IAA derived from IBA during seedling development promotes lateral root formation. PMID:11706205

Zolman, B K; Silva, I D; Bartel, B

2001-11-01

125

Endocytosis and vacuolar degradation of the plasma membrane-localized Pdr5 ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to different cytotoxic compounds in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can arise from overexpression of the Pdr5 (Sts1, Ydr1, or Lem1) ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporter. We have raised polyclonal antibodies recognizing the yeast Pdr5 ABC transporter to study its biogenesis and to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying MDR development. Subcellular fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that Pdr5 is localized in the plasma membrane. In addition, pulse-chase radiolabeling of cells and immunoprecipitation indicated that Pdr5 is a short-lived membrane protein with a half-life of about 60 to 90 min. A dramatic metabolic stabilization of Pdr5 was observed in delta pep4 mutant cells defective in vacuolar proteinases, and indirect immunofluorescence showed that Pdr5 accumulates in vacuoles of stationary-phase delta pep4 mutant cells, demonstrating that Pdr5 turnover requires vacuolar proteolysis. However, Pdr5 turnover does not require a functional proteasome, since the half-life of Pdr5 was unaffected in either pre1-1 or pre1-1 pre2-1 mutants defective in the multicatalytic cytoplasmic proteasome that is essential for cytoplasmic protein degradation. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that vacuolar delivery of Pdr5 is blocked in conditional end4 endocytosis mutants at the restrictive temperature, showing that endocytosis delivers Pdr5 from the plasma membrane to the vacuole.

Egner, R; Mahe, Y; Pandjaitan, R; Kuchler, K

1995-01-01

126

The Novel ATP-Binding Cassette Protein ARB1 Is a Shuttling Factor That Stimulates 40S and 60S Ribosome Biogenesis†  

PubMed Central

ARB1 is an essential yeast protein closely related to members of a subclass of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of proteins that are known to interact with ribosomes and function in protein synthesis or ribosome biogenesis. We show that depletion of ARB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells leads to a deficit in 18S rRNA and 40S subunits that can be attributed to slower cleavage at the A0, A1, and A2 processing sites in 35S pre-rRNA, delayed processing of 20S rRNA to mature 18S rRNA, and a possible defect in nuclear export of pre-40S subunits. Depletion of ARB1 also delays rRNA processing events in the 60S biogenesis pathway. We further demonstrate that ARB1 shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm, cosediments with 40S, 60S, and 80S/90S ribosomal species, and is physically associated in vivo with TIF6, LSG1, and other proteins implicated previously in different aspects of 60S or 40S biogenesis. Mutations of conserved ARB1 residues expected to function in ATP hydrolysis were lethal. We propose that ARB1 functions as a mechanochemical ATPase to stimulate multiple steps in the 40S and 60S ribosomal biogenesis pathways.

Dong, Jinsheng; Lai, Ruby; Jennings, Jennifer L.; Link, Andrew J.; Hinnebusch, Alan G.

2005-01-01

127

Expression of reverse cholesterol transport proteins ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium  

PubMed Central

Aims Excessive lipid accumulation in Bruch’s membrane (BrM) is a hallmark of ageing, the major risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells may utilise reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity to move lipid into BrM, mediated through ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI). Methods ABCA1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blotting of human RPE cell extracts. Lipid transport assays were performed using radiolabelled photoreceptor outer segments (POS). ABCA1 and SR-BI expression was examined in normal mouse eyes by immunofluorescence staining. BrMs of ABCA1 and SR-BI heterozygous mice were examined microscopically. Results Human RPE cells expressed ABCA1 mRNA and protein. The ABCA1 and SR-BI inhibitor glyburide (also known as glibenclamide) abolished basal transport of POS-derived lipids in RPE cells in the presence of high-density lipoprotein. Mouse retina and RPE expressed ABCA1 and SR-BI. SR-BI was highly expressed in RPE. BrMs were significantly thickened in SR-BI heterozygous mice, but not in ABCA1 heterozygous mice. Conclusion RPE cells express ABCA1 and SR-BI. This implies a significant role for SR-BI and ABCA1 in lipid transport and RCT in the retina and RPE.

Duncan, K G; Hosseini, K; Bailey, K R; Yang, H; Lowe, R J; Matthes, M T; Kane, J P; LaVail, M M; Schwartz, D M; Duncan, J L

2010-01-01

128

Complete genomic sequence of the human ABCA1 gene: Analysis of the human and mouse ATP-binding cassette A promoter  

PubMed Central

The ABCA1 gene, a member of the ATP-binding cassette A (ABCA1) transporter superfamily, encodes a membrane protein that facilitates the cellular efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids. Mutations in ABCA1 lead to familial high density lipoprotein deficiency and Tangier disease. We report the complete human ABCA1 gene sequence, including 1,453 bp of the promoter, 146,581 bp of introns and exons, and 1 kb of the 3? flanking region. The ABCA1 gene spans 149 kb and comprises 50 exons. Sixty-two repetitive Alu sequences were identified in introns 1–49. The transcription start site is 315 bp upstream of a newly identified initiation methionine codon and encodes an ORF of 6,783 bp. Thus, the ABCA1 protein is comprised of 2,261 aa. Analysis of the 1,453 bp 5? upstream of the transcriptional start site reveals multiple binding sites for transcription factors with roles in lipid metabolism. Comparative analysis of the mouse and human ABCA1 promoter sequences identified specific regulatory elements, which are evolutionarily conserved. The human ABCA1 promoter fragment ?200 to ?80 bp that contains binding motifs for SP1, SP3, E-box, and AP1 modulates cellular cholesterol and cAMP regulation of ABCA1 gene expression. These combined findings provide insights into ABCA1-mediated regulation of cellular cholesterol metabolism and will facilitate the identification of new pharmacologic agents for the treatment of atherosclerosis in humans.

Santamarina-Fojo, Silvia; Peterson, Katherine; Knapper, Catherine; Qiu, Yang; Freeman, Lita; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Osorio, Jose; Remaley, Alan; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Haudenschild, Changting; Prades, Catherine; Chimini, Giovanna; Blackmon, Eunice; Francois, Teena; Duverger, Nicholas; Rubin, Edward M.; Rosier, Marie; Denefle, Patrice; Fredrickson, Donald S.; Brewer, H. Bryan

2000-01-01

129

The yeast ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter Ycf1p enhances the recruitment of the soluble SNARE Vam7p to vacuoles for efficient membrane fusion.  

PubMed

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuole contains five ATP-binding cassette class C (ABCC) transporters, including Ycf1p, a family member that was originally characterized as a Cd(2+) transporter. Ycf1p has also been found to physically interact with a wide array of proteins, including factors that regulate vacuole homeostasis. In this study, we examined the role of Ycf1p and other ABCC transporters in the regulation of vacuole homotypic fusion. We found that deletion of YCF1 attenuated in vitro vacuole fusion by up to 40% relative to wild-type vacuoles. Plasmid-expressed wild-type Ycf1p rescued the deletion phenotype; however, Ycf1p containing a mutation of the conserved Lys-669 to Met in the Walker A box of the first nucleotide-binding domain (Ycf1p(K669M)) was unable to complement the fusion defect of ycf1? vacuoles. This indicates that the ATPase activity of Ycf1p is required for its function in regulating fusion. In addition, we found that deleting YCF1 caused a striking decrease in vacuolar levels of the soluble SNARE Vam7p, whereas total cellular levels were not altered. The attenuated fusion of ycf1? vacuoles was rescued by the addition of recombinant Vam7p to in vitro experiments. Thus, Ycf1p contributes in the recruitment of Vam7p to the vacuole for efficient membrane fusion. PMID:23658021

Sasser, Terry L; Lawrence, Gus; Karunakaran, Surya; Brown, Christopher; Fratti, Rutilio A

2013-05-08

130

ATP-binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) binds apolipoprotein A-I and mediates cellular phospholipid but not cholesterol efflux.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), the defective transporter in Tangier disease, binds and promotes cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux to apolipoprotein I (apoA-I). Based on a high degree of sequence homology between ABCA1 and ABCA7, a transporter of unknown function, we investigated the possibility that ABCA7 might be involved in apolipoprotein binding and lipid efflux. Similarly to cells expressing ABCA1, HEK293 cells overexpressing ABCA7 showed specific binding and cross-linking of lipid-poor apoA-I. ABCA7 expression increased cellular phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin efflux to apoA-I in a manner similar to ABCA1 but had no effect on cholesterol efflux. Western analysis showed a high protein level of ABCA7 in mouse spleen, lung, adrenal, and brain but low expression in liver. In contrast to ABCA1, ABCA7 showed moderate basal mRNA and protein levels in macrophages and lymphocytes but no induction by liver X receptor activation. These studies show that ABCA7 has the ability to bind apolipoproteins and promote efflux of cellular phospholipids without cholesterol, and they suggest a possible role of ABCA7 in cellular phospholipid metabolism in peripheral tissues. PMID:12917409

Wang, Nan; Lan, Debin; Gerbod-Giannone, Marie; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Jehle, Andreas Werner; Chen, Wengen; Martinez, Laurent O; Tall, Alan R

2003-08-12

131

Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica  

PubMed Central

Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome.

Shitan, Nobukazu; Bazin, Ingrid; Dan, Kazuyuki; Obata, Kazuaki; Kigawa, Koji; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Fumihiko; Forestier, Cyrille; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2003-01-01

132

Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical to that of LmrA, an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter in Lactococcus lactis. To study the role of HorA in hop resistance, HorA was functionally expressed in L. lactis as a hexa-histidine-tagged protein using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. HorA expression increased the resistance of L. lactis to hop compounds and cytotoxic drugs. Drug transport studies with L. lactis cells and membrane vesicles and with proteoliposomes containing purified HorA protein identified HorA as a new member of the ABC family of multidrug transporters. PMID:11514522

Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, H W; Konings, W N

2001-09-01

133

Pathogen-Responsive Expression of a Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene Conferring Resistance to the Diterpenoid Sclareol Is Regulated by Multiple Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a

Emma J. Campbell; Peer M. Schenk; Kemal Kazan; Iris A. M. A. Penninckx; Jonathan P. Anderson; Don J. Maclean; Bruno P. A. Cammue; Paul R. Ebert; John M. Manners

134

Identification of Nile red as a fluorescent substrate of the Candida albicans ATP-binding cassette transporters Cdr1p and Cdr2p and the major facilitator superfamily transporter Mdr1p  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically relevant azole resistance in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is most often associated with the increased expression of plasma membrane efflux pumps, specifically the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters CaCdr1p and CaCdr2p and the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter CaMdr1p. Development of potent pump inhibitors that chemosensitize cells to azoles is a promising approach to overcome antifungal resistance. Here we

Irena Ivnitski-Steele; Ann R. Holmes; Erwin Lamping; Brian C. Monk; Richard D. Cannon; Larry A. Sklar

2009-01-01

135

Hepatic cell-specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter profiling identifies putative novel candidates for lipid homeostasis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: ABC-transporters play an important role in lipid trafficking. Therefore, hepatic expression patterns of ABC-transporters involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism were evaluated. Methods and results: RT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA expression of 38 ABC-transporters detected in livers of C57Bl\\/6 mice varied greatly. Although most ABC-transporters were ubiquitously expressed, some members displayed very restricted expression patterns, e.g. ABCA6,

Menno Hoekstra; Illiana Meurs; J. Kar Kruijt; Reeni B. Hildebrand; Theo J. C. Van Berkel; Miranda Van Eck

2008-01-01

136

Conformational Analysis of Human ATP-binding Cassette Transporter ABCB1 in Lipid Nanodiscs and Inhibition by the Antibodies MRK16 and UIC2*  

PubMed Central

The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), mediates the ATP-dependent efflux of a variety of drugs. As a result, P-gp plays a critical role in tumor cell drug resistance and the pharmacokinetic properties of most drugs. P-gp exhibits extraordinary substrate and inhibitor promiscuity, resulting in a wide range of possible drug-drug interactions. Inhibitory antibodies have long been considered as a possible strategy to modulate P-gp-dependent cancer cell drug resistance, and it is widely suggested that the antibodies MRK16 and UIC2 inhibit P-gp by capturing a single isoform and preventing flux through the catalytic cycle. Although the crystal structures of many bacterial whole transporters, as well as isolated nucleotide-binding domains, have been solved, high resolution structural data for mammalian ABC transporters are currently lacking. It has been extremely difficult to determine the detailed mechanism of transport of P-gp, in part because it is difficult to obtain purified protein in well defined lipid systems. Here we exploit surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to probe conformational changes associated with these intermediate states for P-gp in lipid bilayer nanodiscs. The results indicate that P-gp in nanodiscs undergoes functionally relevant ligand-dependent conformational changes and that previously described inhibitory antibodies bind to multiple nucleotide-bound states but not the ADP-VO4-trapped state, which mimics the post-hydrolysis state. The results also suggest that the substrate drug vinblastine is released at stages that precede or follow the post-hydrolysis ADP-PO4·P-gp complex.

Ritchie, Tasha K.; Kwon, Hyewon; Atkins, William M.

2011-01-01

137

The ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C member 2 in Bombyx mori larvae is a functional receptor for Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biopesticide, and its Cry toxin genes are essential transgenes for the generation of insect-resistant transgenic crops. Recent reports have suggested that ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2 (ABCC2) proteins are implicated in Cry intoxication, and that a single amino acid insertion results in high levels of resistance to Cry1 toxins. However, there is currently no available direct evidence of functional interactions between ABCC2 and Cry toxins. To address this important knowledge gap, we investigated the role of Bombyx mori ABCC2 (BmABCC2) or its mutant from a Cry1Ab-resistant B. mori strain on Cry1A toxin action. When we expressed BmABCC2 ectopically on Sf9 cells, it served as a functional receptor, and the single amino acid insertion found in BmABCC2 from Cry1Ab-resistant larvae resulted in lack of susceptibility to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Using the same expression system, we found that Bo. mori cadherin-like receptor (BtR175) conferred susceptibility to Cry1A toxins, albeit to a lower degree than BmABCC2. Coexpression of BtR175 and BmABCC2 resulted in the highest cell susceptibility to Cry1A, Cry1F, and even the phylogenetically distant Cry8Ca toxin, when compared with expression of either receptor alone. The susceptibility observed in the coexpressing cells and that in Bo. mori larvae are likely to be correlated, suggesting that BtR175 and BmABCC2 are important factors determining larval susceptibility. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, Cry toxin receptor functionality for ABCC2, and highlights the crucial role of this protein and cadherin in the mechanism of action of Cry toxin. PMID:23432933

Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Endo, Haruka; Sato, Ryoichi

2013-03-14

138

ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 activity in the bovine spermatozoa is modulated along the epididymal duct and at ejaculation.  

PubMed

During their epididymal maturation, stabilizing factors such as cholesterol sulfate are associated with the sperm plasma membrane. Cholesterol is sulfated in epididymal spermatozoa by the enzyme estrogen sulfotransferase. Because of its role in the efflux of sulfate conjugates formed intracellularly by sulfotransferases, the ATP-binding cassette membrane transporter G2 (ABCG2) might have a role in the translocation of this compound across the plasma membrane. In the present study we showed that ABCG2 is present in the plasma membrane overlaying the acrosomal region of spermatozoa recovered from testis, epididymis, and after ejaculation. Although ABCG2 is also present in epididymosomes, the transporter is not transferred to spermatozoa via this mechanism. Furthermore, although epididymal sperm ABCG2 was shown to be functional, as determined by its ability to extrude Hoechst 33342 in the presence of the specific inhibitor Fumitremorgin C, ABCG2 present in ejaculated sperm was found to be nonfunctional. Additional experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation of ABCG2 tyrosyl residues, but not its localization in lipid rafts, is the mechanism responsible for its functionality. Dephosphorylation of ABCG2 in ejaculated spermatozoa is proposed to cause a partial protein relocalization to other intracellular compartments. Prostasomes are proposed to have a role in this process because incubation with this fraction of seminal plasma induces a decrease in the amount of ABCG2 in the associated sperm membrane fraction. These results demonstrate that ABCG2 plays a role in epididymal sperm maturation, but not after ejaculation. The loss of ABCG2 function after ejaculation is proposed to be regulated by prostasomes. PMID:22441796

Caballero, Julieta; Frenette, Gilles; D'Amours, Olivier; Dufour, Maurice; Oko, Richard; Sullivan, Robert

2012-06-14

139

Functional roles of YPT31 and YPT32 in clotrimazole resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through effects on vacuoles and ATP-binding cassette transporter(s).  

PubMed

We identified YPT31, which is involved in Golgi traffic, as a clotrimazole (CTZ)-resistance gene in a multicopy library screen. Multicopies of the YPT31 homolog YPT32 also conferred resistance to CTZ, and single disruption of YPT31 or YPT32 resulted in sensitivity to CTZ. Pdr5p, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter at the plasma membrane, was the most important factor for mediating basal resistance to CTZ, suggesting that Ypt31p and Ypt32p might be involved in the trafficking of Pdr5p to the plasma membrane. However, the activity of Pdr5p was independent of YPT31 or YPT32, and multicopies of YPT31 or YPT32 still conferred resistance to CTZ in pdr5 cells. To elucidate the roles of YPT31 and YPT32 in CTZ resistance, we analyzed mutants of 11 genes that are involved in the following vesicular trafficking: Golgi traffic (kes1, trs33, trs65, gyp1, trs85, and gyp2), vacuole inheritance (ypt7), endocytosis (rcy1 and ypt51) and exocytosis (msb3 and msb4). All of the mutant cells except ypt51, msb3 and msb4 were sensitive to CTZ, indicating that vacuoles were involved in CTZ resistance, since vacuole formation requires proper Golgi-trafficking and endocytosis. Microscopic analysis showed abnormal vacuoles in ypt31 cells. Multicopies of YPT31 or YPT32 conferred resistance to CTZ in AD1-8 cells, which are defective in seven major drug transporters, and in pdr5 ypt7 cells, but not in ypt7 or AD1-8-7 (AD1-8/ypt7) cells. These results indicated that Ypt31p and Ypt32p played minor but compensatory roles in cellular resistance to CTZ through vacuoles and specific ABC transporter(s) other than Pdr5p. PMID:22999853

Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Takase, Daisuke; Okano, Hajime; Tomari, Naohiro; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Matsui, Hiroshi

2012-09-21

140

Functional and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide Co-polymerase Proteins Required for Polymer Export in ATP-binding Cassette Transporter-dependent Capsule Biosynthesis Pathways*  

PubMed Central

Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and Escherichia coli K1 bacteria produce a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that is composed of ?2,8-linked polysialic acid (PSA). Biosynthesis of PSA in these bacteria occurs via an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter-dependent pathway. In N. meningitidis, export of PSA to the surface of the bacterium requires two proteins that form an ABC transporter (CtrC and CtrD) and two additional proteins, CtrA and CtrB, that are proposed to form a cell envelope-spanning export complex. CtrA is a member of the outer membrane polysaccharide export (OPX) family of proteins, which are proposed to form a pore to mediate export of CPSs across the outer membrane. CtrB is an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide co-polymerase (PCP) family. PCP proteins involved in other bacterial polysaccharide assembly systems form structures that extend into the periplasm from the inner membrane. There is currently no structural information available for PCP or OPX proteins involved in an ABC transporter-dependent CPS biosynthesis pathway to support their proposed roles in polysaccharide export. Here, we report cryo-EM images of purified CtrB reconstituted into lipid bilayers. These images contained molecular top and side views of CtrB and showed that it formed a conical oligomer that extended ?125 Å from the membrane. This structure is consistent with CtrB functioning as a component of an envelope-spanning complex. Cross-complementation of CtrA and CtrB in E. coli mutants with defects in genes encoding the corresponding PCP and OPX proteins show that PCP-OPX pairs require interactions with their cognate partners to export polysaccharide. These experiments add further support for the model of an ABC transporter-PCP-OPX multiprotein complex that functions to export CPS across the cell envelope.

Larue, Kane; Ford, Robert C.; Willis, Lisa M.; Whitfield, Chris

2011-01-01

141

Remote Communication through Solute Carriers and ATP Binding Cassette Drug Transporter Pathways: An Update on the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Recent data from knockouts, human disease, and transport studies suggest that solute carrier (SLC) and ATP binding cassette (ABC) multispecific “drug” transporters maintain effective organ and body fluid concentrations of key nutrients, signaling molecules, and antioxidants. These processes involve transcellular movement of solutes across epithelial barriers and fluid compartments (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, bile) via “matching” or homologous sets of SLC (e.g., SLC21, SLC22, SLC47) and ABC transporters. As described in the “Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis” (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:429–436, 2004; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351:872–876, 2006; J Biol Chem 282:23841–23853, 2007; Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 3:443–448, 2007; Mol Pharmacol 76:481–490, 2009), highly regulated transporter networks with overlapping substrate preferences are involved in sensing and signaling to maintain homeostasis in response to environmental changes (e.g., substrate imbalance and injury). They function in parallel with (and interact with) the endocrine and autonomic systems. Uric acid (urate), carnitine, prostaglandins, conjugated sex steroids, cGMP, odorants, and enterobiome metabolites are discussed here as examples. Xenobiotics hitchhike on endogenous carrier systems, sometimes leading to toxicity and side effects. By regulation of the expression and/or function of various remote organ multispecific transporters after injury, the overall transport capacity of the remote organ to handle endogenous toxins, metabolites, and signaling molecules may change, aiding in recovery. Moreover, these transporters may play a role in communication between organisms. The specific cellular components involved in sensing and altering transporter abundance or functionality depend upon the metabolite in question and probably involve different types of sensors as well as epigenetic regulation.

Wu, Wei; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.

2011-01-01

142

Up-regulation of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Expression by Very Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor and Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2*  

PubMed Central

Activation of very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) results in either pro- or anti-atherogenic effects depending on the ligand. Using reelin and apoE as ligands, we studied the impact of VLDLR- and apoER2-mediated signaling on the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and cholesterol efflux using RAW264.7 cells. Treatment of these mouse macrophages with reelin or human apoE3 significantly increased ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels, and apoAI-mediated cholesterol efflux. In addition, both reelin and apoE3 significantly increased phosphorylated disabled-1 (Dab1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C? (PKC?), and specificity protein 1 (Sp1). This reelin- or apoER2-mediated up-regulation of ABCA1 expression was suppressed by 1) knockdown of Dab1, VLDLR, and apoER2 with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 2) inhibition of PI3K and PKC with kinase inhibitors, 3) overexpression of kinase-dead PKC?, and 4) inhibition of Sp1 DNA binding with mithramycin A. Activation of the Dab1-PI3K signaling pathway has been implicated in VLDLR- and apoER2-mediated cellular functions, whereas the PI3K-PKC?-Sp1 signaling cascade has been implicated in the regulation of ABCA1 expression induced by apoE/apoB-carrying lipoproteins. Taken together, these data support a model in which activation of VLDLR and apoER2 by reelin and apoE induces ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux via a Dab1-PI3K-PKC?-Sp1 signaling cascade.

Chen, Xinping; Guo, Zhongmao; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Lin, Xinhua; Rollins, Allman T.; Yang, Hong

2012-01-01

143

Time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nucleotide-binding Domain from the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter MsbA  

PubMed Central

MsbA is an essential Escherichia coli ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter involved in the flipping of lipid A across the cytoplasmic membrane. It is a close homologue of human P-glycoprotein involved in multidrug resistance, and it similarly accepts a variety of small hydrophobic xenobiotics as transport substrates. X-ray structures of three full-length ABC multidrug exporters (including MsbA) have been published recently and reveal large conformational changes during the transport cycle. However, how ATP hydrolysis couples to these conformational changes and finally the transport is still an open question. We employed time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy, a powerful method to elucidate molecular reaction mechanisms of soluble and membrane proteins, to address this question with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we monitored the hydrolysis reaction in the nucleotide-binding domain of MsbA at the atomic level. The isolated MsbA nucleotide-binding domain hydrolyzed ATP with Vmax = 45 nmol mg?1 min?1, similar to the full-length transporter. A Hill coefficient of 1.49 demonstrates positive cooperativity between the two catalytic sites formed upon dimerization. Global fit analysis of time-resolved FTIR data revealed two apparent rate constants of ?1 and 0.01 s?1, which were assigned to formation of the catalytic site and hydrolysis, respectively. Using isotopically labeled ATP, we identified specific marker bands for protein-bound ATP (1245 cm?1), ADP (1101 and 1205 cm?1), and free phosphate (1078 cm?1). Cleavage of the ?-phosphate–?-phosphate bond was found to be the rate-limiting step; no protein-bound phosphate intermediate was resolved.

Syberg, Falk; Suveyzdis, Yan; Kotting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus; Hofmann, Eckhard

2012-01-01

144

Localized Induction of the ATP-Binding Cassette B19 Auxin Transporter Enhances Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Adventitious roots emerge from aerial plant tissues, and the induction of these roots is essential for clonal propagation of agriculturally important plant species. This process has received extensive study in horticultural species but much less focus in genetically tractable model species. We have explored the role of auxin transport in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in which adventitious root initiation was induced by excising roots from low-light-grown hypocotyls. Inhibition of auxin transport from the shoot apex abolishes adventitious root formation under these conditions. Root excision was accompanied by a rapid increase in radioactive indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport and its accumulation in the hypocotyl above the point of excision where adventitious roots emerge. Local increases in auxin-responsive gene expression were also observed above the site of excision using three auxin-responsive reporters. These changes in auxin accumulation preceded cell division events, monitored by a cyclin B1 reporter (pCYCB1;1:GUS), and adventitious root initiation. We examined excision-induced adventitious root formation in auxin influx and efflux mutants, including auxin insensitive1, pin-formed1 (pin1), pin2, pin3, and pin7, with the most profound reductions observed in ATP-binding cassette B19 (ABCB19). An ABCB19 overexpression line forms more adventitious roots than the wild type in intact seedlings. Examination of transcriptional and translational fusions between ABCB19 and green fluorescent protein indicates that excision locally induced the accumulation of ABCB19 transcript and protein that is temporally and spatially linked to local IAA accumulation leading to adventitious root formation. These experiments are consistent with localized synthesis of ABCB19 protein after hypocotyl excision leads to enhanced IAA transport and local IAA accumulation driving adventitious root formation.

Sukumar, Poornima; Maloney, Gregory S.; Muday, Gloria K.

2013-01-01

145

The novel BCR-ABL and FLT3 inhibitor ponatinib is a potent inhibitor of the multidrug resistance-associated ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2  

PubMed Central

Ponatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against BCR-ABL with mutations including T315I, and also against fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3). We tested interactions between ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 50 to 200 nM and the multidrug resistance-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Ponatinib enhanced uptake of substrates of ABCG2 and ABCB1, but not ABCC1, in cells overexpressing these proteins, with a greater effect on ABCG2 than on ABCB1. Ponatinib potently inhibited [125I]-IAAP binding to ABCG2 and ABCB1, indicating binding to their drug substrate sites, with IC50s of 0.04 ?M and 0.63 ?M, respectively. Ponatinib stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity at low concentrations, consistent with it being a substrate of both proteins at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The ponatinib IC50s of BCR-ABL-expressing K562 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCG2 were approximately the same as and 2-fold higher than that of K562, respectively, consistent with ponatinib being a substrate of both proteins, but inhibiting its own transport, and resistance was also attenuated to a small degree by ponatinib-induced downregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression on resistant K562 cells. Ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations produced synergistic cytotoxicity with ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs and enhanced apoptosis induced by these drugs, including daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, topotecan and flavopiridol, in cells overexpressing these transport proteins. Combinations of ponatinib and chemotherapy drugs warrant further testing.

Sen, Rupashree; Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Fang, Hong-Bin; Cai, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Baer, Maria R.

2012-01-01

146

Development of polyclonal antibodies specific to ATP-binding cassette transporters human ABCG4 and mouse Abcg4: site-specific expression of mouse Abcg4 in brain.  

PubMed

In our recent study on seeking new mouse ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters of the G subfamily, we succeeded in cloning mouse Abcg4 from a cDNA library of mouse brain, and we characterized the tissue-specific expression and chromosomal localization of the mouse Abcg4 gene. To further characterize the physiological function of mouse Abcg4 protein and to compare its function with that of ABCG2, in the present study, we developed polyclonal antibodies against mouse Abcg4 and established the Abcg4-expression system. To raise antibodies, we selected three different epitope peptides that correspond to the amino acid residues of 46-60, 465-479, and 600-613 in mouse Abcg4 protein. The antibody raised against the epitope encoding the amino acids 46-60 was found to be specific to mouse Abcg4, exhibiting a band with molecular weight of 63,000 on immunoblotting, whereas this band was dose-dependently diminished by adding the corresponding epitope peptide into the immunoblot medium. Use of the antibody for immunoblot detection in mouse normal tissues revealed that the Abcg4 protein is expressed in brain, spleen, and testis. Immunohistochemical studies showed that mouse Abcg4 is site-specifically expressed in the cerebral cortex and medulla of mouse brain. These results suggest that mouse Abcg4 plays a certain physiological role in the brain. It is of importance to note that the sequence of amino acids 46-60 is completely identical between mouse Abcg4 and human ABCG4. Thus, this antibody is applicable to the detection of human ABCG4 as well as mouse Abcg4. PMID:18038765

Koshiba, Shoko; Ito, Takehito; Shiota, Akira; Wakabayashi, Kanako; Ueda, Masatsugu; Ichinose, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Toshihisa

2007-01-01

147

The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter-2 (ABCA2) Regulates Cholesterol Homeostasis and Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor Metabolism in N2a Neuroblastoma Cells  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) has been identified as a possible regulator of lipid metabolism. ABCA2 is most highly expressed in the brain but its effects on cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal-type cells have not been characterized. It is important to study the role of ABCA2 in regulating cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal-type cells because ABCA2 has been identified as a possible genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, the effects of ABCA2 expression on cholesterol homeostasis were examined in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. ABCA2 reduced total, free- and esterified cholesterol levels as well as membrane cholesterol but did not perturb cholesterol distribution in organelle or lipid raft compartments. ABCA2 did not modulate de novo cholesterol biosynthesis from acetate. Cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane was not affected by ABCA2 but efflux to the physiological acceptor ApoE3 and mobilization of plasma membrane cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum for esterification were reduced by ABCA2. ABCA2 reduced esterification of serum and low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol but not 25-hydroxycholesterol. ABCA2 decreased low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mRNA and protein levels and increased its turnover rate. The surface expression of LDLR as well as the uptake of fluroresecent DiI-LDL was also reduced by ABCA2. Reduction of endogenous ABCA2 expression by RNAi treatment of N2a cells and rat primary cortical neurons produced the opposite effects of over-expression of ABCA2, increasing LDLR protein levels. This report identifies ABCA2 as a key regulator of cholesterol homeostasis and LDLR metabolism in neuronal cells.

Davis, Warren

2011-01-01

148

N-desmethyl-Loperamide Is Selective for P-Glycoprotein among Three ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters at the Blood-Brain Barrier  

PubMed Central

[11C]N-desmethyl-Loperamide ([11C]dLop) is used in positron emission tomography (PET) to measure the in vivo activity of efflux transporters that block the passage of drugs across the blood-brain barrier. The three most prevalent ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier are P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). We sought to measure the selectivity of dLop among these three transporters. The selectivity of dLop at low concentrations (?1 nM) was measured both as the accumulation of [3H]dLop in human cells that overexpress each transporter and as the uptake of [11C]dLop in brains of mice that lack genes encoding P-gp, Mrp1, or BCRP. The selectivity of dLop at high concentrations (?20 ?M) was measured as the inhibition of uptake of a fluorescent substrate and the change in cytotoxicity of drugs effluxed at each transporter. Accumulation of [3H]dLop was lowest in cells overexpressing P-gp, and the uptake of [11C]dLop was highest in brains of mice lacking P-gp. At high concentrations, dLop selectively inhibited P-gp function and also decreased the resistance of only the P-gp-expressing cells to cytotoxic agents. dLop is selective for P-gp among these three transporters, but its activity is dependent on concentration. At low concentrations (?1 nM), dLop acts only as a substrate; at high concentrations (?20 ?M), it acts as both a substrate and an inhibitor (i.e., a competitive substrate). Because low concentrations of radiotracer are used for PET imaging, [11C]dLop acts selectively and only as a substrate for P-gp.

Kannan, Pavitra; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Liow, Jeih-San; Morse, Cheryl; Taku, Andrew K.; Pike, Victor W.; Halldin, Christer; Gottesman, Michael M.; Hall, Matthew D.

2010-01-01

149

c-Kit mediates chemoresistance and tumor-initiating capacity of ovarian cancer cells through activation of Wnt/?-catenin-ATP-binding cassette G2 signaling.  

PubMed

Cisplatin and paclitaxel are standard chemotherapy for metastatic ovarian cancer, but with limited efficacy. Cancer stem/progenitor cells (or tumor-initiating cells, TICs) are hypothesized to be chemoresistant, and the existence of TICs in ovarian cancer has been previously demonstrated. However, the key signals and molecular events regulating the formation and expansion of ovarian tumor-initiating cells (OTICs) remain elusive. Here, we show that c-Kit is not just a marker of OTICs, but also a critical mediator of the phenotype that can be a viable target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In contrast to non-OICs, c-Kit was overexpressed in OTICs. Moreover, the use of small interfering RNA to inhibit c-Kit expression markedly attenuated the number and size of OTIC subpopulations, inhibited the expression of stem cell markers and decreased the tumorigenic capabilities of OTICs. Imatinib (Gleevec), a clinical drug that blocks c-Kit kinase activity, also demonstrated its inhibition potency on OTICs. In addition, cisplatin/paclitaxel, which killed non-OTICs, with c-Kit knockdown or imatinib revealed that this was critically required for intervening ovarian cancer progression and recurrence in vitro and in xenograft tumors in vivo. Similar results were obtained with OTICs derived from ovarian carcinoma patients. Studies into the mechanisms suggest an important role for the activation of Wnt/?-catenin and ATP-binding cassette G2 downstream of c-Kit. The tumor-promoting microenvironment, such as hypoxia, could promote OTICs via upregulation of c-Kit expression. These results unravel an integral role for c-Kit in ovarian neoplastic processes and shed light on its mechanisms of action. PMID:22797058

Chau, W K; Ip, C K; Mak, A S C; Lai, H-C; Wong, A S T

2012-07-16

150

Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants silenced for the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NpPDR1 show increased susceptibility to a group of fungal and oomycete pathogens.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The behaviour of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants silenced for the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NpPDR1 was investigated in response to fungal and oomycete infections. The importance of NpPDR1 in plant defence was demonstrated for two organs in which NpPDR1 is constitutively expressed: the roots and the petal epidermis. The roots of the plantlets of two lines silenced for NpPDR1 expression were clearly more sensitive than those of controls to the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum sp., F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae, F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis and Rhizoctonia solani, as well as to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae race 0. The Ph gene-linked resistance of N. plumbaginifolia to P. nicotianae race 0 was totally ineffective in NpPDR1-silenced lines. In addition, the petals of the NpPDR1-silenced lines were spotted 15%-20% more rapidly by B. cinerea than were the controls. The rapid induction (after 2-4 days) of NpPDR1 expression in N. plumbaginifolia and N. tabacum mature leaves in response to pathogen presence was demonstrated for the first time with fungi and one oomycete: R. solani, F. oxysporum and P. nicotianae. With B. cinerea, such rapid expression was not observed in healthy mature leaves. NpPDR1 expression was not observed during latent infections of B. cinerea in N. plumbaginifolia and N. tabacum, but was induced when conditions facilitated B. cinerea development in leaves, such as leaf ageing or an initial root infection. This work demonstrates the increased sensitivity of NpPDR1-silenced N. plumbaginifolia plants to all of the fungal and oomycete pathogens investigated. PMID:19694955

Bultreys, Alain; Trombik, Tomasz; Drozak, Anna; Boutry, Marc

2009-09-01

151

The novel BCR-ABL and FLT3 inhibitor ponatinib is a potent inhibitor of the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2.  

PubMed

Ponatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against BCR-ABL with mutations, including T315I, and also against fms-like tyrosine kinase 3. We tested interactions between ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 50 to 200 nmol/L and the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2. Ponatinib enhanced uptake of substrates of ABCG2 and ABCB1, but not ABCC1, in cells overexpressing these proteins, with a greater effect on ABCG2 than on ABCB1. Ponatinib potently inhibited [(125)I]-IAAP binding to ABCG2 and ABCB1, indicating binding to their drug substrate sites, with IC(50) values of 0.04 and 0.63 ?mol/L, respectively. Ponatinib stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity at low concentrations, consistent with it being a substrate of both proteins at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The ponatinib IC(50) values of BCR-ABL-expressing K562 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCG2 were approximately the same as and 2-fold higher than that of K562, respectively, consistent with ponatinib being a substrate of both proteins, but inhibiting its own transport, and resistance was also attenuated to a small degree by ponatinib-induced downregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell-surface expression on resistant K562 cells. Ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations produced synergistic cytotoxicity with ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs and enhanced apoptosis induced by these drugs, including daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and flavopiridol, in cells overexpressing these transport proteins. Combinations of ponatinib and chemotherapy drugs warrant further testing. PMID:22778153

Sen, Rupashree; Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Fang, Hong-Bin; Cai, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Baer, Maria R

2012-07-09

152

Functional interplay between the ATP binding cassette Msr(D) protein and the membrane facilitator superfamily Mef(E) transporter for macrolide resistance in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Macrolides have wide clinical applications in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections, among which streptococci are the most frequent causative agents. An active efflux-based mechanism of macrolide resistance, referred to as the M phenotype in streptococcal isolates, has been associated with the presence of mef genes that encode a subset of major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters like Mef(E). An msr(D) gene, adjacent to and co-transcribed with mef in the presence of erythromycin, has also been implicated in drug efflux, but its role remains elusive. Msr(D) belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins and harbors two fused nucleotide-binding domains with no membrane-spanning domains. The present work indicates that the major resistance traits of the M phenotype in Escherichia coli may be due to Msr(D) and not to Mef(E). Fluorescence microscopy using Mef(E) tagged with GFP linked low efficacy of the chimera in conferring macrolide resistance with improper subcellular localization. The active role of Msr(D) in directing Mef(E)-GFP to the cell poles was demonstrated, as was synergistic effect in terms of levels of resistance when both proteins were expressed. A trans-dominant negative mutation within ABC Msr(D) affecting MFS Mef(E) strongly suggests that both proteins can interact in vivo, and such a physical interaction was supported in vitro. This is the first reported example of a functional interplay between an ABC component and an MFS transporter. The direct involvement of Msr(D) in the efflux of macrolides remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23261969

Nunez-Samudio, Virginia; Chesneau, Olivier

2012-12-20

153

Correlation of induction of ATP binding cassette transporter A5 (ABCA5) and ABCB1 mRNAs with differentiation state of human colon tumor.  

PubMed

The ATP binding cassette transporter subtype A5 (ABCA5)-like transporters ABCA5, ABCA6, ABCA8, ABCA9 and ABCA10 form a unique gene cluster within the ABC transporter superfamily, though their function is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether ABCA5-like transporters may play a role in tumor development by measuring their mRNA levels in human tissues and tumors. Intense mRNA expression of human ABCA5-like transporters was detected in the brain. ABCA5 and ABCA8 mRNAs were detected in spleen, testis and ovary. ABCA5 mRNA was also detected in liver and pancreas. ABCA6 mRNA was detected in lung and liver, and ABCA8 was detected in lung. ABCA6, ABCA7 and ABCA8 mRNAs were not detected in any tumors, but weak mRNA expression of ABCA10 was detected in all tumors examined. ABCA5 mRNA was detected in poorly differentiated colon adenocarcinoma (GI-112) and undifferentiated ovarian carcinoma (GI-102), but not in normal colon. ABCB1 mRNA was also detected in GI-112, while ABCC1 and ABCA2 mRNAs were not. In contrast, ABCC1 and ABCA2 mRNAs, but not ABCA5 or ABCB1 mRNA, were detected in well differentiated colon adenocarcinoma (CX-1). Thus, induction of ABCA5, together with ABCB1, appears to be correlated with the differentiation state of human colon tumors, and may have a role in tumor development. PMID:17541169

Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kamoi, Mayu; Watanabe, Yuki; Suzuki, Hiroya; Hori, Satoko; Terasaki, Tetsuya

2007-06-01

154

AtNAP7 is a plastidic SufC-like ATP-binding cassette/ATPase essential for Arabidopsis embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, yeast, and mammals, iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster-containing proteins are involved in numerous processes including electron transfer, metabolic reactions, sensing, signaling, and regulation of gene expression. In humans, iron-storage diseases such as X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia are caused by defects in Fe-S cluster availability. The biogenesis of Fe-S clusters involves several pathways, and in bacteria, the SufABCDSE operon has been shown to play a vital role in Fe-S biogenesis and repair during oxidative stress. Although Fe-S proteins play vital roles in plants, Fe-S cluster biogenesis and maintenance and physiological consequences of dysfunctional Fe-S cluster assembly remains obscure. Here we report that Arabidopsis plants deficient for the SufC homolog AtNAP7 show lethality at the globular stage of embryogenesis. AtNAP7 is expressed in developing embryos and in apical, root, and floral meristems and encodes an ATP-binding cassette/ATPase that can partially rescue growth defects in an Escherichia coli SufC mutant during oxidative stress. AtNAP7 is plastid-localized, and mutant embryos contain abnormal developing plastids with disorganized thylakoid structures. We found that AtNAP7 can interact with AtNAP6, a plastidic Arabidopsis SufD homolog, and because Arabidopsis plastids also harbor SufA, SufB, SufS, and SufE homologs, plastids probably contain a complete SUF system. Our results imply that AtNAP7 represents a conserved SufC protein involved in the biogenesis and/or repair of oxidatively damaged Fe-S clusters and suggest an important role for plastidic Fe-S cluster maintenance and repair during Arabidopsis embryogenesis.

Xu, Xiang Ming; M?ller, Simon Geir

2004-01-01

155

Versatile inhibitory effects of the flavonoid-derived PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, on ATP-binding cassette transporters that characterize stem cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of proliferation, self-renewal, and production of a large number of differentiated progeny. Stem cells exist even in malignancies. They are called cancer stem cells, which may represent the origin of these tumors and may be one of the reasons of chemoresistance. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is important for the maintenance of pluripotency in stem cells. Flow cytometry assay for identifying stem cells defines a side population of cells that displays low fluorescent dye and is highly enriched for stem cells. The dye efflux is attributed to expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters such as P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2, which also transport a variety of anticancer drugs. The PI3K/Akt pathway can modulate functions of ABC transporters through various mechanisms. Reportedly, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway caused BCRP translocation in hematopoietic stem cells and glioma stem-like cells. On the other hand, a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, reversed multidrug resistance in cancer cells that overexpress BCRP not by affecting BCRP translocation but putatively as a competitive inhibitor. Other PI3K inhibitors, wortmannin and PI-103, did not reverse BCRP-mediated drug resistance. Since LY294002 is a derivative of quercetin that is a naturally occurring flavonoid, its chemical structure is similar to those of a group of flavonoids but those of wortmannin and PI-103 are quite different. It is known that many flavonoids are inhibitors of BCRP and PI3K. LY294002 has also been reported to exert inhibitory effects on multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) function via dual mechanisms, competitive block of substrate transport and modulation of expression. Furthermore, LY294002 has been found to antagonize transport activity of P-glycoprotein without influencing its expression. Taken together, LY294002 can inhibit all BCRP, P-glycoprotein, and MRP1, which are three major ABC transporters that are highly expressed in stem cells and cause multidrug resistance. Due to its versatile effects, LY294002 could be a lead compound for developing more effective and tolerable reagents for cancer treatment.

2012-01-01

156

A Unified View of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Gating: Combining the Allosterism of a Ligand-gated Channel with the Enzymatic Activity of an ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter*  

PubMed Central

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a unique ion channel in that its gating is coupled to an intrinsic enzymatic activity (ATP hydrolysis). This enzymatic activity derives from the evolutionary origin of CFTR as an ATP-binding cassette transporter. CFTR gating is distinct from that of a typical ligand-gated channel because its ligand (ATP) is usually consumed during the gating cycle. However, recent findings indicate that CFTR gating exhibits allosteric properties that are common to conventional ligand-gated channels (e.g. unliganded openings and constitutive mutations). Here, we provide a unified view of CFTR gating that combines the allosterism of a ligand-gated channel with its unique enzymatic activity.

Kirk, Kevin L.; Wang, Wei

2011-01-01

157

The hypocholesterolemic activity of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) is mediated by the enhanced expression of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters 5 and 8 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes in the rat.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of açaí pulp can improve serum lipid profile in various animal models; therefore, we hypothesized that açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) may modulate the expression of the genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and increase fecal excretion, thus reducing serum cholesterol. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of 7?-hydroxylase and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters (ABCG5 and ABCG8), which are genes involved with the secretion of cholesterol in the rat. We also evaluated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), and apolipoprotein B100, which are involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Female Fischer rats were divided into 4 groups: the C group, which was fed a standard AIN-93 M diet; the CA group, which was fed a standard diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp; the H group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol); and the HA group, which was fed a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 2% açaí pulp. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were euthanized, and their blood and livers were collected. The HA group exhibited a significant decrease in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index and also had increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cholesterol excretion in feces compared with the H group. In addition, the expression of the LDL-R, ABCG5, and ABCG8 genes was significantly increased by the presence of açaí pulp. These results suggest that açaí pulp promotes a hypocholesterolemic effect in a rat model of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia through an increase in the expression of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G transporters, and LDL-R genes. PMID:23244543

de Souza, Melina Oliveira; Souza E Silva, Lorena; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; de Figueiredo, Bianca Barros; Costa, Daniela Caldeira; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

2012-11-01

158

A Member of the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE Family of ATP Binding Cassette Transporters Is Required for the Formation of a Functional Cuticle in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Although the multilayered structure of the plant cuticle was discovered many years ago, the molecular basis of its formation and the functional relevance of the layers are not understood. Here, we present the permeable cuticle1 (pec1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which displays features associated with a highly permeable cuticle in several organs. In pec1 flowers, typical cutin monomers, such as ?-hydroxylated fatty acids and 10,16-dihydroxypalmitate, are reduced to 40% of wild-type levels and are accompanied by the appearance of lipidic inclusions within the epidermal cell. The cuticular layer of the cell wall, rather than the cuticle proper, is structurally altered in pec1 petals. Therefore, a significant role for the formation of the diffusion barrier in petals can be attributed to this layer. Thus, pec1 defines a new class of mutants. The phenotypes of the pec1 mutant are caused by the knockout of ATP BINDING CASSETTEG32 (ABCG32), an ABC transporter from the PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE family that is localized at the plasma membrane of epidermal cells in a polar manner toward the surface of the organs. Our results suggest that ABCG32 is involved in the formation of the cuticular layer of the cell wall, most likely by exporting particular cutin precursors from the epidermal cell.

Bessire, Michael; Borel, Sandra; Fabre, Guillaume; Carraca, Luis; Efremova, Nadia; Yephremov, Alexander; Cao, Yan; Jetter, Reinhard; Jacquat, Anne-Claude; Metraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

2011-01-01

159

GCN20, a novel ATP binding cassette protein, and GCN1 reside in a complex that mediates activation of the eIF-2 alpha kinase GCN2 in amino acid-starved cells.  

PubMed Central

GCN2 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF-2) and thereby stimulates translation of GCN4 mRNA in amino acid-starved cells. We isolated a null mutation in a previously unidentified gene, GCN20, that suppresses the growth-inhibitory effect of eIF-2 alpha hyperphosphorylation catalyzed by mutationally activated forms of GCN2. The deletion of GCN20 in otherwise wild-type strains impairs derepression of GCN4 translation and reduces the level of eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation in vivo, showing that GCN20 is a positive effector of GCN2 kinase function. In accordance with this conclusion, GCN20 was co-immunoprecipitated from cell extracts with GCN1, another factor required to activate GCN2, and the two proteins interacted in the yeast two-hybrid system. We conclude that GCN1 and GCN20 are components of a protein complex that couples the kinase activity of GCN2 to the availability of amino acids. GCN20 is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins and is closely related to ABC proteins identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, rice and humans, suggesting that the function of GCN20 may be conserved among diverse eukaryotic organisms. Images

Vazquez de Aldana, C R; Marton, M J; Hinnebusch, A G

1995-01-01

160

ATP-Binding Cassette B4, an Auxin-Efflux Transporter, Stably Associates with the Plasma Membrane and Shows Distinctive Intracellular Trafficking from That of PIN-FORMED Proteins1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Intracellular trafficking of auxin transporters has been implicated in diverse developmental processes in plants. Although the dynamic trafficking pathways of PIN-FORMED auxin efflux proteins have been studied intensively, the trafficking of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B proteins (ABCBs; another group of auxin efflux carriers) still remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we address the intracellular trafficking of ABCB4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermal cells. Pharmacological analysis showed that ABCB4 barely recycled between the plasma membrane and endosomes, although it slowly endocytosed via the lytic vacuolar pathway. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed that ABCB4 is strongly retained in the plasma membrane, further supporting ABCB4’s nonrecycling property. The endocytosis of ABCB4 was not dependent on the GNOM-LIKE1 function, and the sensitivity of ABCB4 to brefeldin A required guanine nucleotide exchange factors for adenosyl ribosylation factor other than GNOM. These characteristics of intracellular trafficking of ABCB4 are well contrasted with those of PIN-FORMED proteins, suggesting that ABCB4 may be a basic and constitutive auxin efflux transporter for cellular auxin homeostasis.

Cho, Misuk; Lee, Zee-Won; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

2012-01-01

161

Pathogen-Responsive Expression of a Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene Conferring Resistance to the Diterpenoid Sclareol Is Regulated by Multiple Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are encoded by large gene families in plants. Although these proteins are potentially involved in a number of diverse plant processes, currently, very little is known about their actual functions. In this paper, through a cDNA microarray screening of anonymous cDNA clones from a subtractive library, we identified an Arabidopsis gene (AtPDR12) putatively encoding a member of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamily of ABC transporters. AtPDR12 displayed distinct induction profiles after inoculation of plants with compatible and incompatible fungal pathogens and treatments with salicylic acid, ethylene, or methyl jasmonate. Analysis of AtPDR12 expression in a number of Arabidopsis defense signaling mutants further revealed that salicylic acid accumulation, NPR1 function, and sensitivity to jasmonates and ethylene were all required for pathogen-responsive expression of AtPDR12. Germination assays using seeds from an AtPDR12 insertion line in the presence of sclareol resulted in lower germination rates and much stronger inhibition of root elongation in the AtPDR12 insertion line than in wild-type plants. These results suggest that AtPDR12 may be functionally related to the previously identified ABC transporters SpTUR2 and NpABC1, which transport sclareol. Our data also point to a potential role for terpenoids in the Arabidopsis defensive armory.

Campbell, Emma J.; Schenk, Peer M.; Kazan, Kemal; Penninckx, Iris A.M.A.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Maclean, Don J.; Cammue, Bruno P.A.; Ebert, Paul R.; Manners, John M.

2003-01-01

162

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 genotype alter the atorvastatin and simvastatin efficacy: time for genotype-guided therapy?  

PubMed

We compared the efficacy of atorvastatin with simvastatin according to cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) genes. Patients treated with atorvastatin (n = 254) or simvastatin (n = 332) were genotyped for CETP (TaqIB and I405V) and ABCA1 (R219K) genetic variants. For genotype B1B2, atorvastatin compared with simvastatin treatment resulted in a greater decrease in total cholesterol (35.4% vs 31.6%, P = .035) and a lower increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2% vs 8%, P = .05). For genotype B2B2, atorvastatin compared with simvastatin treatment resulted in a lower decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (31.85 vs 42%, P = .029). For genotypes RR and KK, atorvastatin compared with simvastatin treatment resulted in a greater decrease of triglycerides (27% vs 17% and 35% vs 15%, respectively; P = .02 for all comparisons). The TaqIB and R219K (opposite to I405V) gene polymorphisms seem to modify the response to lipid-lowering therapy with simvastatin or atorvastatin treatment. PMID:22584245

Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mihas, Constantinos; Giannakopoulou, Vasiliki; Vasiliadis, Iannis; Boussoula, Elena; Kollia, Aikaterini; Boutsikou, Maria; Katsiki, Niki; Mavrogeni, Sophie

2012-05-13

163

The bovine ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 Tyr581Ser single-nucleotide polymorphism increases milk secretion of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin.  

PubMed

The bovine adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2/breast cancer resistance protein) polymorphism Tyr581Ser (Y581S) has recently been shown to increase in vitro transepithelial transport of antibiotics. Since this transporter has been extensively related to the active secretion of drugs into milk, the potential in vivo effect of this polymorphism on secretion of xenobiotics in livestock could have striking consequences for milk production, the dairy industry, and public health. Our purpose was to study the in vivo effect of this polymorphism on the secretion of danofloxacin, a widely used veterinary antibiotic, into milk. Danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) was administered to six Y/Y 581 homozygous and six Y/S 581 heterozygous lactating cows, and plasma and milk samples were collected and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No differences were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of danofloxacin in plasma between the two groups of animals. In contrast, Y/S heterozygous cows showed a 2-fold increase in danofloxacin levels in milk. In addition, the pharmacokinetic elimination parameters, mean residence time and elimination half-life, were significantly lower in the milk of the animals carrying the Y/S polymorphism. These in vivo results are in agreement with our previously published in vitro data, which showed a greater capacity of the S581 variant in accumulation assays, and demonstrate, for the first time, an important effect of the Y581S single-nucleotide polymorphism on antibiotic secretion into cow milk. These findings could be extended to other ABCG2 substrates, and may be relevant for the treatment of mastitis and for the design of accurate and novel strategies to handle milk residues. PMID:23230133

Otero, Jon A; Real, Rebeca; de la Fuente, Álvaro; Prieto, Julio G; Marqués, Margarita; Álvarez, Ana I; Merino, Gracia

2012-12-10

164

Genomic organization and characterization of the promoter of the human ATP-binding cassette transporter-G1 (ABCG1) gene 1 1 Sequence data from this article have been submitted to the EMBL\\/GenBank Data libraries under accession numbers AJ289137–AJ289151  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) was recently identified as a regulator of macrophage cholesterol and phospholipid transport. This transporter together with ABCA1 belongs to a group of sterol-sensitive ABC proteins which are induced by lipid loading or specific oxysterols. We report here the genomic structure of ABCG1 along with the 5? flanking sequence using library screening and BLAST search

Thomas Langmann; Mustafa Porsch-Özcürümez; Uwe Unkelbach; Jochen Klucken; Gerd Schmitz

2000-01-01

165

Hospicells promote upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette genes by insulin-like growth factor-I via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in an ovarian cancer cell line  

PubMed Central

Interaction between tumor cells and their microenvironment has a crucial role in the development, progression and drug resistance of cancer. Our objective was to confirm the role of Hospicells, which are stromal cells from the cancer microenvironment, in drug resistance and tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that soluble factors secreted by Hospicells activate several genes and upregulate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in ovarian cancer cell lines. Hospicells express all insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family as detected by gene array, RT-PCR, protein array and immunocytochemistry. While focusing attention on the microenvironment, we considered the role of IGF-I in proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, IGF-I is a major regulator of different stages of cancer development. We studied the effect of exogenously added IGF-I on the regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP5 and BCRP) in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 and validated the results obtained using the IGF-IR antagonist picropodophyllin. IGF-I regulates the expression of ABC genes in OVCAR3 cells via the PI3-kinase, MEK and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. The OVCAR3 cell line when co-cultured with Hospicells showed a marked degree of drug resistance. The drug resistance observed could be amplified with exogenous IGF-I. Addition of IGF-IR inhibitor, however, reduced the degree of resistance in these exposed cells. Cells that were treated with anticancer drugs and then exposed to IGF-I showed an increase in drug resistance and, thereby, an increase in cell survival. This observation indicates that drug resistance of OVCAR3 cells increases when there is synergy between OVCAR3 cells and Hospicells and it is amplified when IGF-I was exogenously added. In conclusion, inhibition of IGF-IR and targeting of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway can be a target for ovarian cancer therapy.

BENABBOU, NADIA; MIRSHAHI, PEZHMAN; CADILLON, MELODIE; SORIA, JEANNETTE; THERWATH, AMU; MIRSHAHI, MASSOUD

2013-01-01

166

Natural allelic variants of bovine ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2: increased activity of the Ser581 variant and development of tools for the discovery of new ABCG2 inhibitors.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 [breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)] is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily that actively extrudes xenotoxins from cells and is a major determinant of the bioavailability of many compounds. ABCG2 expression is strongly induced during lactation in the mammary gland and is related to the active secretion of drugs into the milk. The presence of drug residues and environmental pollutants in milk is an outstanding problem for human milk consumption and milk industrial processes, involving important risks to public health and the dairy industry. In cows, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in this protein has been described previously (Tyr581) and is associated with higher fat and protein percentages and lower milk yield. However, whether this amino acid substitution affects ABCG2-mediated drug transport in cows, including milk secretion, required further exploration. We cloned the two variants of bovine ABCG2 and evaluated the effect of this SNP on mitoxantrone accumulation assays performed in ovine primary fibroblasts transiently expressing either of the variants. It is interesting to note that statistically significant differences in activity between both variants were observed, and the Ser581 variant was related with an increased efflux activity. In addition, we demonstrated that genistein is a very good inhibitor of bovine ABCG2 and identified new inhibitors of the transporter, such as the macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin, and selamectin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of these compounds on human and murine ABCG2 homologs was confirmed using transduced Marbin-Dabin canine kidney II cells. These findings may have important implications regarding the presence of drug residues in milk and drug interactions affecting the pharmacological behavior of ABCG2 substrates. PMID:18824523

Merino, Gracia; Real, Rebeca; Baro, Marta F; Gonzalez-Lobato, Lucia; Prieto, Julio G; Alvarez, Ana I; Marques, Margarita M

2008-09-29

167

The Arabidopsis ATP-binding Cassette Protein AtMRP5/AtABCC5 Is a High Affinity Inositol Hexakisphosphate Transporter Involved in Guard Cell Signaling and Phytate Storage*  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis possesses a superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Among these, the multidrug resistance-associated protein AtMRP5/AtABCC5 regulates stomatal aperture and controls plasma membrane anion channels of guard cells. Remarkably, despite the prominent role of AtMRP5 in conferring partial drought insensitivity upon Arabidopsis, we know little of the biochemical function of AtMRP5. Our phylogenetic analysis showed that AtMRP5 is closely related to maize MRP4, mutation of which confers a low inositol hexakisphosphate kernel phenotype. We now show that insertion mutants of AtMRP5 display a low inositol hexakisphosphate phenotype in seed tissue and that this phenotype is associated with alterations of mineral cation and phosphate status. By heterologous expression in yeast, we demonstrate that AtMRP5 encodes a specific and high affinity ATP-dependent inositol hexakisphosphate transporter that is sensitive to inhibitors of ABC transporters. Moreover, complementation of the mrp5-1 insertion mutants of Arabidopsis with the AtMRP5 cDNA driven from a guard cell-specific promoter restores the sensitivity of the mutant to abscisic acid-mediated inhibition of stomatal opening. Additionally, we show that mutation of residues of the Walker B motif prevents restoring the multiple phenotypes associated with mrp5-1. Our findings highlight a novel function of plant ABC transporters that may be relevant to other kingdoms. They also extend the signaling repertoire of this ubiquitous inositol polyphosphate signaling molecule.

Nagy, Reka; Grob, Hanne; Weder, Barbara; Green, Porntip; Klein, Markus; Frelet-Barrand, Annie; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Brearley, Charles; Martinoia, Enrico

2009-01-01

168

Principal expression of two mRNA isoforms (ABCB 5alpha and ABCB 5beta ) of the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene ABCB 5 in melanoma cells and melanocytes.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a pivotal role in physiology and pathology. We identified and cloned two novel mRNA isoforms (ABCB 5alpha and ABCB 5beta) of the ABC transporter ABCB 5 in human melanoma cells. The deduced ABCB 5alpha protein appears to be an altered splice variant containing only a putative ABC, whereas the ABCB 5beta isoform shares approximately 70% similarity with ABCB1 (MDR1) and has a deduced topological arrangement similar to that of the whole carboxyl terminal half of the ABCB1 gene product, P-glycoprotein, including an intact ABC. Northern blot, real-time PCR, and conventional RT-PCR were used to verify the expression profiles of ABCB 5alpha/beta. We found that the melanomas included among the NCI-60 panel of cell lines preferentially expressed both ABCB 5alpha and ABCB 5beta. However, ABCB 5alpha/beta expression was undetectable in two amelanotic melanomas (M14 and LOX-IMVI). The expression profile of ABCB 5alpha/beta in all of the other melanomas of the panel was confirmed both by RT-PCR and by sequencing. Neither ABCB 5alpha nor ABCB 5beta expression was found in normal tissues such as liver, spleen, thymus, kidney, lung, colon, small intestines or placenta. ABCB 5alpha/beta mRNAs were also expressed in normal melanocytes and in retinal pigment epithelial cells, suggesting that ABCB 5alpha/beta expression is pigment cell-specific and might be involved in melanogenesis. Our findings indicate that expression of ABCB 5alpha/beta might possibly provide two novel molecular markers for differential diagnosis of melanomas and constitute potential molecular targets for therapy of melanomas. PMID:15760339

Chen, Kevin G; Szakács, Gergely; Annereau, Jean-Philippe; Rouzaud, Francois; Liang, Xing-Jie; Valencia, Julio C; Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; Hooks, John J; Hearing, Vincent J; Gottesman, Michael M

2005-04-01

169

Functional characterization of AtATM1, AtATM2, and AtATM3, a subfamily of Arabidopsis half-molecule ATP-binding cassette transporters implicated in iron homeostasis.  

PubMed

The functional capabilities of one of the smallest subfamilies of ATP-binding cassette transporters from Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtATMs, are described. Designated AtATM1, AtAATM2, and AtATM3, these half-molecule ABC proteins are homologous to the yeast mitochondrial membrane protein ATM1 (ScATM1), which is clearly implicated in the export of mitochondrially synthesized iron/sulfur clusters. Yeast ATM1-deficient (atm1) mutants grow very slowly (have a petite phenotype), are respiration-deficient, accumulate toxic levels of iron in their mitochondria, and show enhanced compensatory high affinity iron uptake. Of the three Arabidopsis ATMs, AtATM3 bears the closest functional resemblance to ScATM1. Heterologously expressed AtATM3 is not only able to complement the yeast atm1 petite phenotype but is also able to suppress the constitutively high capacity for high affinity iron uptake associated with loss of the chromosomal copy of ScATM1, abrogate intra-mitochondrial iron hyperaccumulation, and restore mitochondrial respiratory function and cytochrome c levels. By comparison, AtATM1 only weakly suppresses the atm1 phenotype, and AtATM2 exerts little or no suppressive action but instead is toxic when expressed in this system. The differences between AtATM3 and AtATM1 are maintained after exchanging their target peptides, and these proteins as well as AtATM2 colocalize with the mitochondrial fluor MitoTracker Red when expressed in yeast as GFP fusions. Although its toxicity when heterologously expressed in yeast, except when fused with GFP, precludes the functional analysis of native AtATM2, a common function, mitochondrial export of Fe/S clusters or their precursors for the assembly of cytosolic Fe/S proteins, is inferred for AtATM3 and AtATM1. PMID:17517886

Chen, Sixue; Sánchez-Fernández, Rocío; Lyver, Elise R; Dancis, Andrew; Rea, Philip A

2007-05-21

170

ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 Mediates the Beneficial Effects of the Liver X Receptor Agonist GW3965 on Object Recognition Memory and Amyloid Burden in Amyloid Precursor Protein/Presenilin 1 Mice*  

PubMed Central

The cholesterol transpoter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) moves lipids onto apolipoproteins including apolipoprotein E (apoE), which is the major cholesterol carrier in the brain and an established genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). In amyloid mouse models of AD, ABCA1 deficiency exacerbates amyloidogenesis, whereas ABCA1 overexpression ameliorates amyloid load, suggesting a role for ABCA1 in A? metabolism. Agonists of liver X receptors (LXR), including GW3965, induce transcription of several genes including ABCA1 and apoE, and reduce A? levels and improve cognition in AD mice. However, the specific role of ABCA1 in mediating beneficial responses to LXR agonists in AD mice is unknown. We evaluated behavioral and neuropathogical outcomes in GW3965-treated female APP/PS1 mice with and without ABCA1. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with GW3965 increased ABCA1 and apoE protein levels. ABCA1 was required to observe significantly elevated apoE levels in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid upon therapeutic (33 mg/kg/day) GW3965 treatment. At 33 mg/kg/day, GW3965 was also associated with a trend toward redistribution of A? to the carbonate-soluble pool independent of ABCA1. APP/PS1 mice treated with either 2.5 or 33 mg/kg/day of GW3965 showed a clear trend toward reduced amyloid burden in hippocampus and whole brain, whereas APP/PS1-treated mice lacking ABCA1 failed to display reduced amyloid load in the whole brain and showed trends toward increased hippocampal amyloid. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with either dose of GW3965 completely restored novel object recognition memory to wild-type levels, which required ABCA1. These results suggest that ABCA1 contributes to several beneficial effects of the LXR agonist GW3965 in APP/PS1 mice.

Donkin, James J.; Stukas, Sophie; Hirsch-Reinshagen, Veronica; Namjoshi, Dhananjay; Wilkinson, Anna; May, Sharon; Chan, Jeniffer; Fan, Jianjia; Collins, Jon; Wellington, Cheryl L.

2010-01-01

171

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 contains a novel C-terminal VFVNFA motif that is required for its cholesterol efflux and ApoA-I binding activities.  

PubMed

The stimulation of cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux by apolipoprotein A-I is mediated by the activity of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Individuals with Tangier disease harbor loss-of-function mutations in this transporter that have proven useful in illuminating its activity. Here, we analyze a mutation that deletes the last 46 residues of the 2261 amino acid transporter (Delta46) and eliminates its lipid efflux. As the final four amino acids of the C terminus represent a putative PDZ-binding motif, we initially characterized deletion mutants lacking only these residues. Although a moderate decline in lipid efflux was detected, this decline was not as profound as that seen in the Delta46 mutant. Subsequent systematic analysis of the ABCA1 C terminus revealed a novel, highly conserved motif (VFVNFA) that was required for lipid efflux. Alteration of this motif, which is present in some but not all members of the ABCA family, did not prevent trafficking of the transporter to the plasma membrane but did eliminate its binding of apoA-I. Chimeric transporters, generated by substituting the C termini of either ABCA4 or ABCA7 for the endogenous terminus, demonstrated that ABCA1 could stimulate cholesterol efflux without its PDZ-binding motif but not without the VFVNFA motif. When a peptide containing the VFVNFA sequence was introduced into ABCA1-expressing cells, ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux was also markedly inhibited. These results indicate that the C-terminal VFVNFA motif of ABCA1 is essential for its lipid efflux activity. The data also suggest that this motif participates in novel protein-protein interactions that may be shared among members of the ABCA family. PMID:15347662

Fitzgerald, Michael L; Okuhira, Kei-Ichiro; Short, Glenn F; Manning, Jennifer J; Bell, Susan A; Freeman, Mason W

2004-09-03

172

Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of expression likely plays a role in the adaptation of Tetrahymen a to its environment.

2010-01-01

173

ATP-Binding Cassette Systems of Brucella  

PubMed Central

Brucellosis is a prevalent zoonotic disease and is endemic in the Middle East, South America, and other areas of the world. In this study, complete inventories of putative functional ABC systems of five Brucella species have been compiled and compared. ABC systems of Brucella melitensis 16M, Brucella abortus 9-941, Brucella canis RM6/66, Brucella suis 1330, and Brucella ovis 63/290 were identified and aligned. High numbers of ABC systems, particularly nutrient importers, were found in all Brucella species. However, differences in the total numbers of ABC systems were identified (B. melitensis, 79; B. suis, 72; B. abortus 64; B. canis, 74; B. ovis, 59) as well as specific differences in the functional ABC systems of the Brucella species. Since B. ovis is not known to cause human brucellosis, functional ABC systems absent in the B. ovis genome may represent virulence factors in human brucellosis.

Jenner, Dominic C.; Dassa, Elie; Whatmore, Adrian M.; Atkins, Helen S.

2009-01-01

174

Kaempferol suppresses lipid accumulation in macrophages through the downregulation of cluster of differentiation 36 and the upregulation of scavenger receptor class B type I and ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1.  

PubMed

The accumulation of foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions is a hallmark of early-stage atherosclerosis. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake by macrophages; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully investigated. In this study, we shown that treatment with kaempferol markedly suppresses oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation, which occurs due to a decrease in lipid accumulation and an increase in cholesterol efflux from THP-1-derived macrophages. Additionally, the kaempferol treatment of macrophages led to the downregulation of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) protein levels, the upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 (ABCA1), scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and ABCG1 protein levels, while no effects on scavenger receptor A (SR-A) expression were observed. Kaempferol had similar effects on the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1, SR-BI, SR-A, CD36 and ABCG1. The reduced CD36 expression following kaempferol treatment involved the inhibition of c-Jun-activator protein-1 (AP-1) nuclear translocation. The inhibition of AP-1 using the inhibitor, SP600125, confirmed this involvement, as the AP-1 inhibition significantly augmented the kaempferol-induced reduction in CD36 expression. Accordingly, the kaempferol-mediated suppression of lipid accumulation in macrophages was also augmented by SP600125. The increased expression of ABCA1, SR-BI and ABCG1 following kaempferol treatment was accompanied by the enhanced protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This increase was reversed following the knockdown of the HO-1 gene using small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Moreover, the kaempferol-mediated attenuation of lipid accumulation and the promotion of cholesterol efflux was also inhibited by HO-1 shRNA. In conclusion, the c-Jun-AP?1-dependent downregulation of CD36 and the HO-1-dependent upregulation of ABCG1, SR-BI and ABCA1 may mediate the beneficial effects of kaempferol on foam cell formation. PMID:23232972

Li, Xiu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Xi; Li, Juan; He, Hai-Xia; Zhou, Yuan-Da

2012-12-05

175

Two Homologous ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Proteins, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, Regulate Arabidopsis Photomorphogenesis and Root Development by Mediating Polar Auxin Transport1  

PubMed Central

Light and auxin control many aspects of plant growth and development in an overlapping manner. We report here functional characterization of two closely related ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter genes, AtMDR1 and AtPGP1, in light and auxin responses. We showed that loss-of-function atmdr1 and atpgp1 mutants display hypersensitivity to far-red, red, and blue-light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, reduced chlorophyll and anthocyanin accumulation, and abnormal expression of several light-responsive genes, including CAB3, RBCS, CHS, and PORA, under both darkness and far-red light conditions. In addition, we showed that the atmdr1-100 and atmdr1-100/atpgp1-100 mutants are defective in multiple aspects of root development, including increased root-growth sensitivity to 1-naphthalene acetic acid (1-NAA), and decreased sensitivity to naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA)-mediated inhibition of root elongation. Consistent with the proposed role of AtMDR1 in basipetal auxin transport, we found that expression of the auxin responsive DR5::GUS reporter gene in the central elongation zone is significantly reduced in the atmdr1-100 mutant roots treated with 1-NAA at the root tips, compared to similarly treated wild-type plants. Moreover, atmdr1-100, atpgp1-100, and their double mutants produced fewer lateral roots, in the presence or absence of 1-NAA or NPA. The atmdr1-100 and atmdr1-100/atpgp1-100 mutants also displayed enhanced root gravitropism. Genetic-epistasis analysis revealed that mutations in phyA largely suppress the randomized-hypocotyl growth and the short-hypocotyl phenotype of the atmdr1-100 mutants under far-red light, suggesting that phyA acts downstream of AtMDR1. Together, our results suggest that AtMDR1 and AtPGP1 regulate Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) photomorphogenesis and multiple aspects of root development by mediating polar auxin transport.

Lin, Rongcheng; Wang, Haiyang

2005-01-01

176

Catalog of 605 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 13 genes encoding human ATP-binding cassette transporters: ABCA4, ABCA7, ABCA8, ABCD1, ABCD3, ABCD4, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8.  

PubMed

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at some gene loci are useful as markers of individual risk for adverse drug reactions or susceptibility to complex diseases. We have been focusing on identifying SNPs in and around genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, and have constructed several high-density SNP maps of such regions. Here we report SNPs at additional loci, specifically 13 genes belonging to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters ( ABCA4, ABCA7, ABCA8, ABCD1, ABCD3, ABCD4, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8). Sequencing a total of 416 kb of genomic DNA from 48 Japanese volunteers identified 605 SNPs among these 13 loci: 14 in 5' flanking regions, 5 in 5' untranslated regions, 37 within coding elements, 529 in introns, 8 in 3' untranslated regions, and 12 in 3' flanking regions. By comparing our data with SNPs deposited in the dbSNP database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (US) and with published reports, we determined that 491 (81%) of the SNPs reported here were novel. We also detected 107 genetic variations of other types among the loci examined (insertion-deletions or mono- di-, or trinucleotide polymorphisms). The high-density SNP maps we constructed on the basis of these data should provide useful information for investigating associations between genetic variations and common diseases or responsiveness to drug therapy. PMID:12111378

Iida, Aritoshi; Saito, Susumu; Sekine, Akihiro; Mishima, Chihiro; Kitamura, Yuri; Kondo, Kimei; Harigae, Satoko; Osawa, Saori; Nakamura, Yusuke

2002-01-01

177

AtMRP6/AtABCC6, an ATP-Binding Cassette transporter gene expressed during early steps of seedling development and up-regulated by cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of transporters found in all living organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 120 genes encoding ABC transporters have been identified. Here, the characterization of one member of the MRP subclass, AtMRP6, is described. Results This gene, located on chromosome 3, is bordered by AtMRP3 and AtMRP7. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and the GUS reporter gene, we found that this gene is essentially expressed during early seedling development, in the apical meristem and at initiation point of secondary roots, especially in xylem-opposite pericycle cells where lateral roots initiate. The level of expression of AtMRP6 in response to various stresses was explored and a significant up-regulation after cadmium (Cd) treatment was detected. Among the three T-DNA insertion lines available from the Salk Institute library, two knock-out mutants, Atmrp6.1 and Atmrp6.2 were invalidated for the AtMRP6 gene. In the presence of Cd, development of leaves was more affected in the mutants than wild-type plants, whereas root elongation and ramification was comparable. Conclusion The position of AtMRP6 on chromosome 3, flanked by two other MRP genes, (all of which being induced by Cd) suggests that AtMRP6 is part of a cluster involved in metal tolerance, although additional functions in planta cannot be discarded.

Gaillard, Stephane; Jacquet, Helene; Vavasseur, Alain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Forestier, Cyrille

2008-01-01

178

Structural model of ATP-binding proteing associated with cystic fibrosis, multidrug resistance and bacterial transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems now includes over thirty proteins that share extensive sequence similarity and domain organization (reviewed in refs 1-3). This superfamily includes the well characterized periplasmic binding protein-dependent uptake systems of prokaryotes, bacterial exporters, and eukaryotic proteins including the P-glycoprotein associated with multidrug resistance in tumours (MDR), the STE6 gene product that mediates export

Stephen C. Hyde; Paul Emsley; Michael J. Hartshorn; Michael M. Mimmack; Uzi Gileadi; Stephen R. Pearce; Maurice P. Gallagher; Deborah R. Gill; Roderick E. Hubbard; Christopher F. Higgins

1990-01-01

179

Mutant cycles at CFTR's non-canonical ATP-binding site support little interface separation during gating  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel belonging to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. ABC proteins share a common molecular mechanism that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to diverse functions. This involves formation of NBD dimers, with ATP bound at two composite interfacial sites. In CFTR, intramolecular NBD dimerization is coupled to channel opening. Channel closing is triggered by hydrolysis of the ATP molecule bound at composite site 2. Site 1, which is non-canonical, binds nucleotide tightly but is not hydrolytic. Recently, based on kinetic arguments, it was suggested that this site remains closed for several gating cycles. To investigate movements at site 1 by an independent technique, we studied changes in thermodynamic coupling between pairs of residues on opposite sides of this site. The chosen targets are likely to interact based on both phylogenetic analysis and closeness on structural models. First, we mutated T460 in NBD1 and L1353 in NBD2 (the corresponding site-2 residues become energetically coupled as channels open). Mutation T460S accelerated closure in hydrolytic conditions and in the nonhydrolytic K1250R background; mutation L1353M did not affect these rates. Analysis of the double mutant showed additive effects of mutations, suggesting that energetic coupling between the two residues remains unchanged during the gating cycle. We next investigated pairs 460–1348 and 460–1375. Although both mutations H1348A and H1375A produced dramatic changes in hydrolytic and nonhydrolytic channel closing rates, in the corresponding double mutants these changes proved mostly additive with those caused by mutation T460S, suggesting little change in energetic coupling between either positions 460–1348 or positions 460–1375 during gating. These results provide independent support for a gating model in which ATP-bound composite site 1 remains closed throughout the gating cycle.

Szollosi, Andras; Muallem, Daniella R.; Csanady, Laszlo

2011-01-01

180

An ABC transporter complex containing S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced ATP-binding protein is involved in antibiotics production and SAM signaling in Streptomyces coelicolor M145.  

PubMed

A sco3956-deletion mutant (?SCO3956) of Streptomyces coelicolor was generated to characterize the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced, ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter) ATP-binding protein, SCO3956. It produced actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodigiosin (RED) decreased by approx. 82 and 64 %, respectively. In addition, the effect of exogenous SAM was lost in the ?SCO3956. Plasmid-based complementation of sco3956 in ?SCO3956 restored ACT and RED levels of ?SCO3956 to wild-type levels (ACT: 20 ± 1.4 mg g(-1) DCW and RED: 5.3 ± 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW) and the exogenous effect significantly increased ACT and RED by approx. 129 and 135 %, respectively, when compared to the exogenous SAM non-treated sco3956 complementation strain. Thus, the ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, SCO3956, plays a critical role in ACT and RED production serving as a transducer of SAM signaling. PMID:22911564

Lee, Sung-Kwon; Mo, Sangjoon; Suh, Joo-Won

2012-08-22

181

Asymmetric Conformational Flexibility in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter HI1470/1  

PubMed Central

Putative metal-chelate-type ABC transporter HI1470/1 is homologous with vitamin B12 importer BtuCD but exhibits a distinct inward-facing conformation in contrast to the outward-facing conformation of BtuCD. Normal-mode analysis of HI1470/1 reveals the intrinsic asymmetric conformational flexibility in this transporter and demonstrates that the transition from the inward-facing to the outward-facing conformation is realized through the asymmetric motion of individual subunits of the transporter. This analysis suggests that the asymmetric arrangement of the BtuC dimer in the crystal structure of the BtuCD-F complex represents an intermediate state relating HI1470/1 and BtuCD. Furthermore, a twisting motion between transmembrane domains and nucleotide-binding domains encoded in the lowest-frequency normal mode of this type of importer is found to contribute to the conformational transitions during the whole cycle of substrate transportation. A more complete translocation mechanism of the BtuCD type importer is proposed.

Weng, Jingwei; Ma, Jianpeng; Fan, Kangnian; Wang, Wenning

2009-01-01

182

ATP-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine-vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface. PMID:24019465

Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

2013-09-09

183

The ABCC6 transporter: what lessons can be learnt from other ATP-binding cassette transporters?  

PubMed Central

ABC transporters represent a large family of ATP-driven transmembrane transporters involved in uni- or bidirectional transfer of a large variety of substrates. Divided in seven families, they represent 48 transporter proteins, several of which have been associated with human disease. Among the latter is ABCC6, a unidirectional exporter protein primarily expressed in liver and kidney. ABCC6 deficiency has been shown to cause the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers, resulting in oculocutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms. Unique in the group of connective tissue disorders, the pathophysiological relation between the ABCC6 transporter and ectopic mineralization in PXE remains enigmatic, not in the least because of lack of knowledge on the substrate(s) of ABCC6 and its unusual expression pattern. Because many features, including structure and transport mechanism, are shared by many ABC transporters, it is worthwhile to evaluate if and to what extent the knowledge on the physiology and pathophysiology of these other transporters may provide useful clues toward understanding the (patho)physiological role of ABCC6 and how its deficiency may be dealt with.

Vanakker, Olivier M.; Hosen, Mohammad J.; Paepe, Anne De

2013-01-01

184

ATP-binding cassette transporter controls leaf surface secretion of anticancer drug components in Catharanthus roseus  

PubMed Central

The Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is highly specialized for the biosynthesis of many different monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs), many of which have powerful biological activities. Such MIAs include the commercially important chemotherapy drugs vinblastine, vincristine, and other synthetic derivatives that are derived from the coupling of catharanthine and vindoline. However, previous studies have shown that biosynthesis of these MIAs involves extensive movement of metabolites between specialized internal leaf cells and the leaf epidermis that require the involvement of unknown secretory processes for mobilizing catharanthine to the leaf surface and vindoline to internal leaf cells. Spatial separation of vindoline and catharanthine provides a clear explanation for the low levels of dimers that accumulate in intact plants. The present work describes the molecular cloning and functional identification of a unique catharanthine transporter (CrTPT2) that is expressed predominantly in the epidermis of young leaves. CrTPT2 gene expression is activated by treatment with catharanthine, and its in planta silencing redistributes catharanthine to increase the levels of catharanthine–vindoline drug dimers in the leaves. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CrTPT2 is closely related to a key transporter involved in cuticle assembly in plants and that may be unique to MIA-producing plant species, where it mediates secretion of alkaloids to the plant surface.

Yu, Fang; De Luca, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

185

ROLE OF PLACENTAL ATP-BINDING CASSETTE (ABC) TRANSPORTERS IN ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY DURING PREGNANCY  

PubMed Central

Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) is used to treat HIV-infected patients and involves administration of multiple antiretroviral drugs acting at different steps of the HIV life cycle. In treating HIV-infected pregnant patients, the aim of therapy is not only to treat the mother but also to prevent the transmission of the virus to the fetus. Among the antiretroviral drugs used, there are differences in the extent of transfer of these drugs across the placenta; HIV protease inhibitors are particularly poorly transferred. Activities of ABC transporters expressed in the human placenta as well as differences in plasma protein binding may account for the poor transplacental transfer of certain drugs. This review discusses factors affecting the extent of placental transfer of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy. These issues may also apply to drugs in other therapeutic categories.

Gulati, Abhishek; Gerk, Phillip M.

2010-01-01

186

ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCG1 in mouse spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian spermatozoa lose plasma membrane cholesterol during their maturation in the epididymis and during their capacitation in the female reproductive tract. While acceptors such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and J have been found in male and female reproductive tracts, transporters that mediate cholesterol efflux from plasma membranes of spermatozoa to such acceptors have not yet been

Carlos R. Morales; Andrea L. Marat; Xiaoyan Ni; Yang Yu; Richard Oko; Brian T. Smith; W. Scott Argraves

2008-01-01

187

Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Is Essential for Brucella ovis Pathogenesis in Mice?  

PubMed Central

Brucella ovis is a major cause of reproductive failure in sheep, which is associated with epididymitis and infertility in rams. Importantly, B. ovis is one of the few Brucella species that is not zoonotic. Due to the scarcity of studies on B. ovis infection, a murine model of infection was developed. The roles of B. ovis genes encoding a putative hemagglutinin and an ABC transporter were investigated in the mouse model. The kinetics of B. ovis infection were similar in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and both strains of mice developed multifocal microgranulomas in the liver and spleen, but only minimal colonization and histopathological changes were observed in the genital tract. Therefore, the mouse was considered a suitable infection model for B. ovis but not for B. ovis-induced genital disease. Two mutant strains were generated in this study (the ?abcAB and ?hmg strains). The B. ovis ?abcAB strain was attenuated in the spleens and livers of BALB/c mice compared to the wild-type (WT) strain (P < 0.001). Conversely, the ?hmg strain infected mice at the same level as WT B. ovis, suggesting that a putative hemagglutinin is not required for B. ovis pathogenesis. Additionally, the ?abcAB strain did not survive in peritoneal macrophages, extracellularly in the peritoneal cavity, or in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, infection with the ?abcAB strain was not lethal for male regulatory factor 1-knockout mice, whereas infection with the B. ovis WT strain was 100% lethal within 14 days postinfection. These results confirm that the predicted ABC transporter is required for the full virulence and survival of B. ovis in vivo.

Silva, Teane M. A.; Paixao, Tatiane A.; Costa, Erica A.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Sa, Joicy Cortez; Moustacas, Valeria S.; den Hartigh, Andreas B.; Carvalho Neta, Alcina V.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Tsolis, Renee; Santos, Renato L.

2011-01-01

188

The ABCC6 transporter: what lessons can be learnt from other ATP-binding cassette transporters?  

PubMed

ABC transporters represent a large family of ATP-driven transmembrane transporters involved in uni- or bidirectional transfer of a large variety of substrates. Divided in seven families, they represent 48 transporter proteins, several of which have been associated with human disease. Among the latter is ABCC6, a unidirectional exporter protein primarily expressed in liver and kidney. ABCC6 deficiency has been shown to cause the ectopic mineralization disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers, resulting in oculocutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms. Unique in the group of connective tissue disorders, the pathophysiological relation between the ABCC6 transporter and ectopic mineralization in PXE remains enigmatic, not in the least because of lack of knowledge on the substrate(s) of ABCC6 and its unusual expression pattern. Because many features, including structure and transport mechanism, are shared by many ABC transporters, it is worthwhile to evaluate if and to what extent the knowledge on the physiology and pathophysiology of these other transporters may provide useful clues toward understanding the (patho)physiological role of ABCC6 and how its deficiency may be dealt with. PMID:24137173

Vanakker, Olivier M; Hosen, Mohammad J; Paepe, Anne De

2013-10-16

189

Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein from Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are ATP hydrolysis-dependent transmembrane transporters. Here, the overproduction, purification and crystallization of the putative ABC transporter ATP-binding protein TM0222 from Thermotoga maritima are reported. The protein was crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.49, c = 106.96?Å, ? = 120.0°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the calculated V M is 2.84?Å3?Da?1, which corresponds to a solvent content of 56.6%. A three-wavelength MAD data set was collected to 2.3?Å resolution from SeMet-substituted TM0222 crystals. Data sets were collected on the BL38B1 beamline at SPring-8, Japan.

Ethayathulla, Abdul S.; Bessho, Yoshitaka; Shinkai, Akeo; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Singh, Tej P.; Kaur, Punit; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

2008-01-01

190

ATP Binding to the Motor Domain from an ABC Transporter Drives Formation of a Nucleotide Sandwich Dimer  

PubMed Central

Summary It has been proposed that the reaction cycle of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters is driven by dimerization of their ABC motor domains upon binding ATP at their mutual interface. However, no such ATP sandwich complex has been observed for an ABC from an ABC transporter. In this paper, we report the crystal structure of a stable dimer formed by the E171Q mutant of the MJ0796 ABC, which is hydrolytically inactive due to mutation of the catalytic base. The structure shows a symmetrical dimer in which two ATP molecules are each sandwiched between the Walker A motif in one subunit and the LSGGQ signature motif in the other subunit. These results establish the stereochemical basis of the power stroke of ABC transporter pumps.

Smith, Paul C.; Karpowich, Nathan; Millen, Linda; Moody, Jonathan E.; Rosen, Jane; Thomas, Philip J.; Hunt, John F.

2012-01-01

191

A fluorescent reporter of ATP binding-competent receptor kinases.  

PubMed

ERBB receptor kinases play a crucial role in normal development and cancer malignancies. A broad range of modifications creates receptor subpopulations with distinct functional properties in live cells. Their apparent activation state, typically assayed by tyrosine phosphorylation of substrates, reflects a complex equilibrium of competing reactions. With the aim of developing optical tools to investigate ERBB populations and their state of activation, we have synthesized a fluorescent 'turn-on' probe, DMAQ, targeting the ERBB ATP binding pocket. Upon binding, probe emission increases due to the hydrophobic environment and restricted geometry of the ERBB2 kinase domain, facilitating the analysis of receptor states at low occupancy and without the removal of unbound probes. Cellular ERBB2 autophosphorylation is inhibited with saturation kinetics that correlate with the increase in probe fluorescence. Thus, DMAQ is an example of a new generation of 'turn-on' probes with potential applications in querying receptor kinase populations both in vitro and in live cells. PMID:22868229

Sicard, Renaud; Dhuguru, Jyothi; Liu, Wenjun; Patel, Nirav; Landgraf, Ralf; Wilson, James N

2012-07-20

192

Glutamine residues in Q-loops of multidrug resistance protein MRP1 contribute to ATP binding via interaction with metal cofactor  

PubMed Central

Structural analyses of bacterial ATP-binding-cassette transporters revealed that the glutamine residue in Q-loop plays roles in interacting with: 1) a metal cofactor to participate in ATP binding; 2) a putative catalytic water molecule to participate in ATP hydrolysis; 3) other residues to transmit the conformational changes between nucleotide-binding-domains and transmembrane-domains, in ATP-dependent solute transport. We have mutated the glutamines at 713 and 1375 to asparagine, methionine or leucine to determine the functional roles of these residues in Q-loops of MRP1. All these single mutants significantly decreased Mg·ATP binding and increased the Km (Mg·ATP) and Vmax values in Mg·ATP-dependent leukotriene-C4 transport. However, the Vmax values of the double mutants Q713N/Q1375N, Q713M/Q1375M and Q713L/Q1375L were lower than that of wtMRP1, implying that the double mutants cannot efficiently bind Mg·ATP. Interestingly, MRP1 has higher affinity for Mn·ATP than for Mg·ATP and the Mn·ATP-dependent leukotriene-C4 transport activities of Q713N/Q1375N and Q713M/Q1375M are significantly higher than that of wtMRP1. All these results suggest that: 1) the glutamine residues in Q-loops contribute to ATP-binding via interaction with a metal cofactor; 2) it is most unlikely that these glutamine residues would play crucial roles in ATP hydrolysis and in transmitting the conformational changes between nucleotide-binding-domains and transmembrane-domains.

Yang, Runying; Hou, Yue-xian; Campbell, Chase A.; Palaniyandi, Kanagaraj; Zhao, Qing; Bordner, Andrew J.; Chang, Xiu-bao

2011-01-01

193

Cassette Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This catalog lists cassette books produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped during 1989. Books are listed alphabetically within subject categories under nonfiction and fiction headings. Nonfiction categories include: animals and wildlife, the arts, bestsellers, biography, blindness and physical handicaps,…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

194

Affinity-based fluorogenic labeling of ATP-binding proteins with sequential photoactivatable cross-linkers.  

PubMed

A specific illumination approach has been developed for identification of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding proteins. This strategy utilizes a tandem photoactivatable unit that consists of a diazirine group as a carbene precursor and an o-hydroxycinnamate moiety as a coumarin precursor. The photolysis of diazirine induces a specific cross-link on target proteins and is followed by photoactivation of coumarin generation with a concomitant release of the pre-installed affinity ligand. The ATP, installed with this cross-linker at the ?-position, successfully transferred a coumarin onto ATP-binding proteins using only UV-irradiation. PMID:23999042

Tomohiro, Takenori; Inoguchi, Hirotsugu; Masuda, Souta; Hatanaka, Yasumaru

2013-08-16

195

Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors  

PubMed Central

P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na+, K+ and Ca+2. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide binding pocket, flexing of the lower body ?-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric

2012-01-01

196

Elucidating the site of protein-ATP binding by top-down mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) top-down mass spectrometry strategy for determining the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding site on chicken adenylate kinase is described. Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), but the ability to detect protein-ligand complexes depends on their stability in the gas phase. Previously, we showed that collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of protein-nucleotide triphosphate complexes yield products from the dissociation of a covalent phosphate bond of the nucleotide with subsequent release of the nucleotide monophosphate (Yin, S. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2008, 19, 1199-1208). The intrinsic stability of electrostatic interactions in the gas phase allows the diphosphate group to remain noncovalently bound to the protein. This feature is exploited to yield positional information on the site of ATP-binding on adenylate kinase. CAD and electron capture dissociation (ECD) of the adenylate kinase-ATP complex generate product ions bearing mono- and diphosphate groups from regions previously suggested as the ATP-binding pocket by NMR and crystallographic techniques. Top-down MS may be a viable tool to determine the ATP-binding sites on protein kinases and identify previously unknown protein kinases in a functional proteomics study. PMID:20163968

Yin, Sheng; Loo, Joseph A

2010-01-18

197

Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors  

SciTech Connect

P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)

2012-10-24

198

CpABC, a Cryptosporidium parvum ATP-Binding Cassette Protein at the Host-Parasite Boundary in Intracellular Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium parvum develops inside a vacuole at the apex of its epithelial host cell. The developing parasite is separated from the host cell cytoplasm by a zone of attachment that consists of an extensively folded membranous structure known as the feeder organelle. It has been proposed that the feeder organelle is the site of regulation of transport

Margaret E. Perkins; Ynolde A. Riojas; Teresa W. Wu; Sylvie M. Le Blancq

1999-01-01

199

Regulation and Expression of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter ABCG2 in Human Embryonic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The expression and function of several multidrug transporters (including ABCB1 and ABCG2) have been studied in human cancer cells and in mouse and human adult stem cells. However, the expression of ABCG2 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) remains unclear. Limited and contradictory results in the literature from two research groups have raised questions regarding its expression and function. In this study, we used quantitative real-time PCR, Northern blots, whole genome RNA sequencing, Western blots, and immunofluorescence microscopy to study ABCG2 expression in hESCs. We found that full-length ABCG2 mRNA transcripts are expressed in undifferentiated hESC lines. However, ABCG2 protein was undetectable even under embryoid body differentiation or cytotoxic drug induction. Moreover, surface ABCG2 protein was coexpressed with the differentiation marker SSEA-1 of hESCs, following constant BMP-4 signaling at days 4 and 6. This expression was tightly correlated with the down-regulation of two microRNAs (i.e., hsa-miR-519c and hsa-miR-520h). Transfection of microRNA mimics and inhibitors of these two microRNAs confirmed their direct involvement in the regulation ABCG2 translation. Our findings clarify the controversy regarding the expression of the ABCG2 gene and also provide new insights into translational control of the expression of membrane transporter mRNAs by microRNAs in hESCs.

Padmanabhan, Raji; Chen, Kevin G.; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Handley, Misty; Mallon, Barbara S.; Hamilton, Rebecca S.; Park, Kyeyoon; Varma, Sudhir; Mehaffey, Michele G.; Robey, Pamela G.; McKay, Ronald D.G.; Gottesman, Michael M.

2012-01-01

200

Evaluation of the contribution of the ATP binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein, to in vivo cholesterol homeostasis.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (Pgp, encoded by ABCB1, commonly known as MDR1), an ATP-dependent transporter with a broad range of hydrophobic drug substrates, has been associated with the in vitro intracellular transport of cholesterol; however, these findings have not been confirmed in vivo. In this manuscript we tested the contributions of Pgp to in vivo cholesterol homeostasis by comparing the cholesterol phenotype of wild type mice with mice lacking both murine isoforms of Pgp (Abcb1a(-/-)/1b(-/-)) by measuring cholesterol absorption, circulating cholesterol, and lipoprotein cholesterol profiles. The mice were fed diets containing normal or high levels of dietary fat (25% vs 45% kcal from fat) and cholesterol (0.02% vs 0.20% w/w) for 8 weeks to challenge their capacity to maintain homeostasis. There were no significant differences in cholesterol absorption, circulating cholesterol levels, and lipoprotein profiles between Pgp knockout and wild type mice fed matching diets. Compensatory shifts were observed in the activation of two key transcription factors involved in maintaining cholesterol balance, the Liver X Receptor and SREBP-2, which may have maintained the wild type phenotype in the knockout mice. Deletion of Pgp affected the molar composition of gallbladder bile, when the mice were fed diets containing high levels of dietary fat, cholesterol, or both. The mole fraction of bile salts was reduced in the gallbladder bile of Pgp knockout mice, while the mole fraction of cholesterol was increased. In this paper, we provide evidence that Pgp knockout mice maintain cholesterol homeostasis, even when challenged with high cholesterol diets. We suggest that the specific shifts in cholesterol regulatory networks identified in the jejunum and liver of the knockout mice may have compensated for the lack of Pgp. Our finding that Pgp knockout mice were unable to maintain gallbladder bile composition when challenged with high dietary fat and/or cholesterol compliments recent reports that Pgp may be a secondary bile salt export pump. PMID:23750858

Lee, Stephen D; Thornton, Sheila J; Sachs-Barrable, Kristina; Kim, Jenny H; Wasan, Kishor M

2013-06-24

201

Characterization of an ATP-binding cassette from Clostridium perfringens with homology to an ABC transporter from Clostridium hathewayi  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant of Clostridium perfringens, strain VPI-C, which had stable mutations in the topoisomerase genes, accumulated less norfloxacin and ethidium bromide than the wild type, strain VPI. Efflux pump inhibitors both increased the accumulation of ethidium bromide by cells of the mutant and enhanced their sensitivity to this toxic dye. Cloning a gene, which codes for a putative ABC

Fatemeh Rafii; Robert J. Carman

2009-01-01

202

Structure of MsbA from E. coli: A Homolog of the Multidrug Resistance ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious medical problem and presents a major challenge to the treatment of disease and the development of novel therapeutics. ABC transporters that are associated with multidrug resistance (MDR-ABC transporters) translocate hydrophobic drugs and lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. To better elucidate the structural basis for the ``flip-flop'' mechanism

Geoffrey Chang; Christopher B. Roth

2001-01-01

203

Regulation and expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2 in human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

The expression and function of several multidrug transporters (including ABCB1 and ABCG2) have been studied in human cancer cells and in mouse and human adult stem cells. However, the expression of ABCG2 in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) remains unclear. Limited and contradictory results in the literature from two research groups have raised questions regarding its expression and function. In this study, we used quantitative real-time PCR, Northern blots, whole genome RNA sequencing, Western blots, and immunofluorescence microscopy to study ABCG2 expression in hESCs. We found that full-length ABCG2 mRNA transcripts are expressed in undifferentiated hESC lines. However, ABCG2 protein was undetectable even under embryoid body differentiation or cytotoxic drug induction. Moreover, surface ABCG2 protein was coexpressed with the differentiation marker stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 of hESCs, following constant BMP-4 signaling at days 4 and 6. This expression was tightly correlated with the downregulation of two microRNAs (miRNAs) (i.e., hsa-miR-519c and hsa-miR-520h). Transfection of miRNA mimics and inhibitors of these two miRNAs confirmed their direct involvement in the regulation ABCG2 translation. Our findings clarify the controversy regarding the expression of the ABCG2 gene and also provide new insights into translational control of the expression of membrane transporter mRNAs by miRNAs in hESCs. PMID:22887864

Padmanabhan, Raji; Chen, Kevin G; Gillet, Jean-Pierre; Handley, Misty; Mallon, Barbara S; Hamilton, Rebecca S; Park, Kyeyoon; Varma, Sudhir; Mehaffey, Michele G; Robey, Pamela G; McKay, Ronald D G; Gottesman, Michael M

2012-10-01

204

Probabilistic Orthology Analysis of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: Implications for the Development of Multiple Drug Resistance Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Drug transporters are rapidly becoming recognized as central to determining a chemical's fate within the body. This action is a double-edged sword, protecting the body from toxicants, but also potentially leading to reduced clinical efficacy of drugs through multiple drug resistance phenotype. To examine the interrelationship of this superfamily, we have constructed phylogenetic trees over an extended evolutionary distance representing each of the seven subfamilies. In addition, using protein sequences from species important in the design and evaluation of novel chemicals, namely human, macaque, rat, mouse, and dog, we have undertaken probabilistic orthology analysis to examine speciation probabilities within this phylogeny. These data allow us to accurately predict orthologous sequences across these species, an important confirmatory step with implications for cross-species extrapolation of data during drug safety testing. Finally, we present the first complete phylogeny for subfamilies within humans constructed using the entire coding sequences, at both the DNA and protein levels. We demonstrate for the first time that genes associated with the multiple drug resistance phenotype cluster separately from other genes within the same subfamily, suggestive of a conserved, fundamental, difference in these proteins. Such work may help guide future studies on the mechanisms underlying multiple drug resistance as well as the development of novel therapeutic approaches to mitigate against its development.

Fisher, Ciaran; Coleman, Tanya

2012-01-01

205

Predicting protein-ATP binding sites from primary sequence through fusing bi-profile sampling of multi-view features  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine-5?-triphosphate (ATP) is one of multifunctional nucleotides and plays an important role in cell biology as a coenzyme interacting with proteins. Revealing the binding sites between protein and ATP is significantly important to understand the functionality of the proteins and the mechanisms of protein-ATP complex. Results In this paper, we propose a novel framework for predicting the proteins’ functional residues, through which they can bind with ATP molecules. The new prediction protocol is achieved by combination of sequence evolutional information and bi-profile sampling of multi-view sequential features and the sequence derived structural features. The hypothesis for this strategy is single-view feature can only represent partial target’s knowledge and multiple sources of descriptors can be complementary. Conclusions Prediction performances evaluated by both 5-fold and leave-one-out jackknife cross-validation tests on two benchmark datasets consisting of 168 and 227 non-homologous ATP binding proteins respectively demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed protocol. Our experimental results also reveal that the residue structural characteristics of real protein-ATP binding sites are significant different from those normal ones, for example the binding residues do not show high solvent accessibility propensities, and the bindings prefer to occur at the conjoint points between different secondary structure segments. Furthermore, results also show that performance is affected by the imbalanced training datasets by testing multiple ratios between positive and negative samples in the experiments. Increasing the dataset scale is also demonstrated useful for improving the prediction performances.

2012-01-01

206

Evidence that Na+/H+ exchanger 1 is an ATP-binding protein.  

PubMed

Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) 1 is a member of the solute carrier superfamily, which regulates intracellular ionic homeostasis. NHE1 is known to require cellular ATP for its activity, despite there being no requirement for energy input from ATP hydrolysis. In this study, we investigated whether NHE1 is an ATP-binding protein. We designed a baculovirus vector carrying both epitope-tagged NHE1 and its cytosolic subunit CHP1, and expressed the functional NHE1-CHP1 complex on the surface of Sf9 insect cells. Using the purified complex protein consisting of NHE1 and CHP1 from Sf9 cells, we examined a photoaffinity labeling reaction with 8-azido-ATP-biotin. UV irradiation promoted the incorporation of 8-azido-ATP into NHE1, but not into CHP1, with an apparent Kd of 29.1 µM in the presence of Mg(2+). The nonlabeled nucleotides ATP, GTP, TTP and CTP all inhibited this crosslinking. However, ATP had the strongest inhibitory effect, with an apparent inhibition constant (IC50) for ATP of 2.2 mM, close to the ATP concentration giving the half-maximal activation of NHE1 activity. Importantly, crosslinking was more strongly inhibited by ATP than by ADP, suggesting that ATP is dissociated from NHE1 upon ATP hydrolysis. Limited proteolysis with thrombin and deletion mutant analysis revealed that the 8-azido-ATP-binding site is within the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of NHE1. Equilibrium dialysis with NHE1-derived peptides provided evidence that ATP directly binds to the proximal cytoplasmic region (Gly542-Pro598), which is critical for ATP-dependent regulation of NHE1. These findings suggest that NHE1 is an ATP-binding transporter. Thus, ATP may serve as a direct activator of NHE1. PMID:23331996

Shimada-Shimizu, Naoko; Hisamitsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

2013-02-15

207

Elucidating the site of protein-ATP binding by top-down mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) top-down mass spectrometry strategy for determining the adenosine triphosphate\\u000a (ATP)-binding site on chicken adenylate kinase is described. Noncovalent protein-ligand complexes are readily detected by\\u000a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), but the ability to detect protein-ligand complexes depends on their stability\\u000a in the gas phase. Previously, we showed that collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) of protein-nucleotide

Sheng Yin; Joseph A. Loo

2010-01-01

208

A High-Throughput TNP-ATP Displacement Assay for Screening Inhibitors of ATP-Binding in Bacterial Histidine Kinases  

PubMed Central

Abstract Bacterial histidine kinases (HK) are members of the GHKL superfamily, which share a unique adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding Bergerat fold. Our previous studies have shown that Gyrase, Hsp90, MutL (GHL) inhibitors bind to the ATP-binding pocket of HK and may provide lead compounds for the design of novel antibiotics targeting these kinases. In this article, we developed a competition assay using the fluorescent ATP analog, 2?,3?-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5?-triphosphate. The method can be used for high-throughput screening of compound libraries targeting HKs or other ATP-binding proteins. We utilized the assay to screen a library of GHL inhibitors targeting the bacterial HK PhoQ, and discuss the applications of the 2?,3?-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) adenosine 5?-triphosphate competition assay beyond GHKL inhibitor screening.

Guarnieri, Michael T.; Blagg, Brian S. J.

2011-01-01

209

Conformation of the ATP binding peptide in actin revealed by proton NMR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The actin peptide 106-124 exists in a completely conserved region of the sequence and binds strongly to both ATP and tripolyphosphate. Binding particularly affects residues 116 and 118 and generally affects the two segments 115-118 and 121-124. One-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement difference spectroscopy was used to detect molecular interactions between both adjacent and nonadjacent residues. The N-terminal segment 106-112 was found to be largely extended. A sharp bend was detected between Pro-112 and Lys-113. The triphosphate moiety binds to the strongly hydrophilic central segment of the peptide. Evidence was obtained for a reverse turn involving residues 121-124. Amide proton temperature coefficients and coupling constants provide evidence for a type I ..beta..-turn. A model of the ATP binding site is proposed together with its relationship to other parts of the actin structure and to the phalloidin binding site.

Barden, J.A.

1987-09-22

210

Complexed Structures of Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima Describe a Novel ATP Binding Protein Superfamily  

SciTech Connect

Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. SmPurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the unliganded form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analogue, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. The availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site, thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. Surprising discoveries, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculation about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in formation of the PurLSQ complex as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurLs from different organisms.

Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E. (MIT); (Cornell)

2008-09-11

211

Identification of Mutations in Regions Corresponding to the Two Putative Nucleotide (ATP)Binding Folds of the Cystic Fibrosis Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene were identified in the regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds (NBFs) of the predicted polypeptide. The patient cohort included 46 Canadian CF families with well-characterized DNA marker haplotypes spanning the disease locus and several other families from Israel. Eleven mutations were found in the first NBF, 2 were found

Bat-Sheva Kerem; Julian Zielenski; Danuta Markiewicz; Dominique Bozon; Ephraim Gazit; Jacob Yahav; Dara Kennedy; John R. Riordan; Francis S. Collins; Johanna M. Rommens; Lap-Chee Tsui

1990-01-01

212

Ablation of the Cholesterol Transporter Adenosine Triphosphate-Binding Cassette Transporter G1 Reduces Adipose Cell Size and Protects against Diet-Induced Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) catalyzes export of cellular cholesterol from macrophages and hepato- cytes. Here we identify an additional function of ABCG1 in the regulation of adiposity in screens of the Drosophila melano- gaster and the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse genomes. In- sertion of modified transposable elements of the P-family up- stream of CG17646, the Drosophila ortholog

Jana Buchmann; Christoph Meyer; Susanne Neschen; Robert Augustin; Katja Schmolz; Reinhart Kluge; Hadi Al-Hasani; Hella Jurgens; Karsten Eulenberg; Roland Wehr; Cord Dohrmann; Hans-Georg Joost; Annette Schurmann

2006-01-01

213

Conformational changes produced by ATP binding to the plasma membrane calcium pump.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) reaction cycle by characterizing conformational changes associated with calcium, ATP, and vanadate binding to purified PMCA. This was accomplished by studying the exposure of PMCA to surrounding phospholipids by measuring the incorporation of the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog 1-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[(125)I]iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine to the protein. ATP could bind to the different vanadate-bound states of the enzyme either in the presence or in the absence of Ca(2+) with high apparent affinity. Conformational movements of the ATP binding domain were determined using the fluorescent analog 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate. To assess the conformational behavior of the Ca(2+) binding domain, we also studied the occlusion of Ca(2+), both in the presence and in the absence of ATP and with or without vanadate. Results show the existence of occluded species in the presence of vanadate and/or ATP. This allowed the development of a model that describes the transport of Ca(2+) and its relation with ATP hydrolysis. This is the first approach that uses a conformational study to describe the PMCA P-type ATPase reaction cycle, adding important features to the classical E1-E2 model devised using kinetics methodology only. PMID:24025327

Mangialavori, Irene C; Ferreira-Gomes, Mariela S; Saffioti, Nicolás A; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M; Rossi, Rolando C; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C

2013-09-11

214

Identification of a MAP 2-like ATP-binding protein associated with axoplasmic vesicles that translocate on isolated microtubules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Axoplasmic vesicles were purified and ob- served to translocate on isolated microtubules in an ATP-dependent, trypsin-sensitive manner, implying that ATP-binding polypeptides essential for force generation were present on the vesicle surface. To identify these proteins (a32p)8-azidoadenosine 5'- triphosphate ((ct32p)8-N3ATP), a photoaflinity analogue of ATE was used. The results presented here identify and characterize a vesicle-associated polypeptide hav- ing a relative

Susan P. Gilbert; Roger D. Sloboda

1986-01-01

215

FVABC1, A FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES GENE ENCODING AN ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEIN, MAY BE REQUIRED FOR TOLERANCE OF PHYTOANTICIPINS PRODUCED BY CORN (ZEA MAYS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides, a common pathogen of corn (Zea mays) throughout the world, often causes significant concern due to production of mycotoxins such as fumonisins. Corn produces the phytoanticipins 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) and 2-benzoxazolinone (BOA) as a general chemi...

216

Conserved glycolipid termini in capsular polysaccharides synthesized by ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathways in Gram-negative pathogens.  

PubMed

Bacterial capsules are surface layers made of long-chain polysaccharides. They are anchored to the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pasteurella multocida. Capsules protect pathogens from host defenses including complement-mediated killing and phagocytosis and therefore represent a major virulence factor. Capsular polysaccharides are synthesized by enzymes located in the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and are then translocated to the cell surface. Whereas the enzymes that synthesize the polysaccharides have been studied in detail, the structure and biosynthesis of the anchoring elements have not been definitively resolved. Here we determine the structure of the glycolipid attached to the reducing terminus of the polysialic acid capsular polysaccharides from E. coli K1 and N. meningitidis group B and the heparosan-like capsular polysaccharide from E. coli K5. All possess the same unique glycolipid terminus consisting of a lyso-phosphatidylglycerol moiety with a ?-linked poly-(3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) (poly-Kdo) linker attached to the reducing terminus of the capsular polysaccharide. PMID:23610430

Willis, Lisa M; Stupak, Jacek; Richards, Michele R; Lowary, Todd L; Li, Jianjun; Whitfield, Chris

2013-04-22

217

Promoter Polymorphisms in the ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Gene Influence Production of Cell-Derived Microparticles and Are Highly Associated with Susceptibility to Severe Malaria in Humans  

PubMed Central

Microparticle (MP) efflux is known to be mediated by the ABCA1 protein, and the plasma level of these cell-derived MPs is elevated considerably during human malarial infection. Therefore, two polymorphisms at positions ?477 and ?320 in the promoter of the ABCA1 gene were genotyped and tested for association with the plasma MP level in four groups of malaria patients segregated according to the clinical severity, i.e., cerebral malaria (CM), multiorgan dysfunction (MOD), noncerebral severe malaria, and uncomplicated malaria (UM). The TruCount tube-based flow cytometric method was used for the exact quantification of different cell-derived MPs in patients. Polymorphisms in the ABCA1 gene promoter were analyzed by use of the PCR/two-primer-pair method, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in 428 malaria patients. The level of circulating plasma MPs was significantly higher in febrile patients with Plasmodium falciparum infection, especially in CM patients compared to healthy individuals. The homozygous wild-type ?477 and ?320 genotype was observed to be significantly higher in patients with severe malaria. These patients also showed marked increases in the plasma MP numbers compared to UM patients. We report here for the first time an association of ABCA1 promoter polymorphisms with susceptibility to severe malaria, especially to CM and MOD, indicating the protective effect of the mutant variant of the polymorphism. We hypothesize that the ?477T and ?320G polymorphisms affect the downregulation of MP efflux and may be a predictor of organ complication during P. falciparum malarial infections.

Sahu, Upasana; Mohapatra, Biranchi N.; Kar, Shantanu K.

2013-01-01

218

Polymorphisms of ATP binding cassette G5 and G8 transporters: their effect on cholesterol metabolism after moderate weight loss in overweight and obese hyperlipidemic women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effect of polymorphisms ABCG5 and ABCG8 transporters on changes in lipid levels, cholesterol absorption rate (ABS), fractional synthesis rate (FSR), and turnover (TO) after moderate weight loss (WtL) in women. Cholesterol metabolism was measured pre and post WtL in 35 hyperlipidemic...

219

Molecular cDNA Cloning and Tissue Distribution of mRNA Encoding a Novel ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Half-Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of proteins belonging to theATP-bindingcassette (ABC) superfamily catalyzes translocation of substrates across biological membranes. Employing a reverse transcription–PCR approach with degenerate primers, we have identified a full-length cDNA from rat hepatocytes encoding a novel ABC transporter termed umat (ubiquitously expressedmammalianABC half-transporter). The deduced sequence of 836 amino acids comprises an N-terminal membrane anchor domain and a single conserved

K. I. Hirsch-Ernst; S. Gaini-Rahimi; B.-P. Ernst; C. Schmitz-Salue; S. Blume; G. F. Kahl

1998-01-01

220

Characterization of DalS, an ATP-binding Cassette Transporter for d-Alanine, and Its Role in Pathogenesis in Salmonella enterica*  

PubMed Central

Expansion into new host niches requires bacterial pathogens to adapt to changes in nutrient availability and to evade an arsenal of host defenses. Horizontal acquisition of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI)-2 permitted the expansion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium into the intracellular environment of host cells by allowing it to deliver bacterial effector proteins across the phagosome membrane. This is facilitated by the SsrA-SsrB two-component regulatory system and a type III secretion system encoded within SPI-2. SPI-2 acquisition was followed by evolution of existing regulatory DNA, creating an expanded SsrB regulon involved in intracellular fitness and host infection. Here, we identified an SsrB-regulated operon comprising an ABC transporter in Salmonella. Biochemical and structural studies determined that the periplasmic solute-binding component, STM1633/DalS, transports d-alanine and that DalS is required for intracellular survival of the bacteria and for fitness in an animal host. This work exemplifies the role of nutrient exchange at the host-pathogen interface as a critical determinant of disease outcome.

Osborne, Suzanne E.; Tuinema, Brian R.; Mok, Mac C. Y.; Lau, Pui Sai; Bui, Nhat Khai; Tomljenovic-Berube, Ana M.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Zhang, Kun; Junop, Murray; Coombes, Brian K.

2012-01-01

221

The Arabidopsis pxa1 Mutant Is Defective in an ATP Binding Cassette Transporter-Like Protein Required for Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisomes are important organelles in plant metabolism, containing all the enzymes required for fatty acid -oxidation. More than 20 proteins are required for peroxisomal biogenesis and maintenance. The Arabidopsis pxa1 mutant, originally isolated because it is resistant to the auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), developmentally arrests when germinated without supplemental sucrose, suggesting defects in fatty acid -oxidation. Because IBA is converted

Bethany K. Zolman; Illeana D. Silva; Bonnie Bartel

222

Hop Resistance in the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus brevis Is Mediated by the ATP-Binding Cassette Multidrug Transporter HorA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical

KANTA SAKAMOTO; ABELARDO MARGOLLES; HENDRIK W. VAN VEEN; W. N. Konings

2001-01-01

223

Identification of Novel Specific and General Inhibitors of the Three Major Human ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 Among Registered Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To study the inhibition patterns of the three major human ABC transporters P-gp (ABCB1), BCRP (ABCG2) and MRP2 (ABCC2), using\\u000a a dataset of 122 structurally diverse drugs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Inhibition was investigated in cellular and vesicular systems over-expressing single transporters. Computational models discriminating\\u000a either single or general inhibitors from non-inhibitors were developed using multivariate statistics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Specific (n?=?23) and overlapping (n?=?19) inhibitors of

Pär Matsson; Jenny M. Pedersen; Ulf Norinder; Christel A. S. Bergström; Per Artursson

2009-01-01

224

Uptake of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Ste6 into the Yeast Vacuole Is Blocked in the doa4 Mutant  

PubMed Central

Previous experiments suggested that trafficking of the a-factor transporter Ste6 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the yeast vacuole is regulated by ubiquitination. To define the ubiquitination-dependent step in the trafficking pathway, we examined the intracellular localization of Ste6 in the ubiquitination-deficient doa4 mutant by immunofluorescence experiments, with a Ste6-green fluorescent protein fusion protein and by sucrose density gradient fractionation. We found that Ste6 accumulated at the vacuolar membrane in the doa4 mutant and not at the cell surface. Experiments with a doa4 pep4 double mutant showed that Ste6 uptake into the lumen of the vacuole is inhibited in the doa4 mutant. The uptake defect could be suppressed by expression of additional ubiquitin, indicating that it is primarily the result of a lowered ubiquitin level (and thus of reduced ubiquitination) and not the result of a deubiquitination defect. Based on our findings, we propose that ubiquitination of Ste6 or of a trafficking factor is required for Ste6 sorting into the multivesicular bodies pathway. In addition, we obtained evidence suggesting that Ste6 recycles between an internal compartment and the plasma membrane.

Losko, Sascha; Kopp, Frank; Kranz, Andreas; Kolling, Ralf

2001-01-01

225

Identification and Characterization of a Brucella abortus ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Homolog to Rhizobium meliloti ExsA and Its Role in Virulence and Protection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes abortion in domestic animals and undulant fever in humans. The mechanism of virulence of Brucella spp. is not fully understood yet. Furthermore, genes that allow Brucella to reach the intracellular niche and to interact with host cells need to be identified. Using the genomic survey sequence (GSS) approach, we identified

G. M. S. Rosinha; Daniela A. Freitas; Anderson Miyoshi; Vasco Azevedo; Eleonora Campos; Silvio L. Cravero; Osvaldo Rossetti; Gary Splitter; S. C. Oliveira

2002-01-01

226

The ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Gene CgCDR1 from Candida glabrata Is Involved in the Resistance of Clinical Isolates to Azole Antifungal Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance mechanisms to azole antifungal agents were investigated in this study with two pairs of Candida glabrata clinical isolates recovered from two separate AIDS patients. The two pairs each contained a fluconazole-susceptible isolate and a fluconazole-resistant isolate, the latter with cross-resistance to itracon- azole and ketoconazole. Since the accumulation of fluconazole and of another unrelated substance, rhodamine 6G, was

DOMINIQUE SANGLARD; FRANCOISE ISCHER; DAVID CALABRESE; PAUL A. MAJCHERCZYK; JACQUES BILLE

1999-01-01

227

ATP Binding and Hydrolysis-Driven Rate-Determining Events in the RFC-Catalyzed PCNA Clamp Loading Reaction  

PubMed Central

The multi-subunit replication factor C (RFC) complex loads circular proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamps onto DNA where they serve as mobile tethers for polymerases and coordinate the functions of many other DNA metabolic proteins. The clamp loading reaction is complex, involving multiple components (RFC, PCNA, DNA, and ATP) and events (minimally: PCNA opening/closing, DNA binding/release, and ATP binding/hydrolysis) that yield a topologically linked clamp·DNA product in less than a second. Here, we report pre-steady-state measurements of several steps in the reaction catalyzed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae RFC and present a comprehensive kinetic model based on global analysis of the data. Highlights of the reaction mechanism are that ATP binding to RFC initiates slow activation of the clamp loader, enabling it to open PCNA (at ~2 s?1) and bind primer–template DNA (ptDNA). Rapid binding of ptDNA leads to formation of the RFC·ATP·PCNAopen·ptDNA complex, which catalyzes a burst of ATP hydrolysis. Another slow step in the reaction follows ATP hydrolysis and is associated with PCNA closure around ptDNA (8 s?1). Dissociation of PCNA·ptDNA from RFC leads to catalytic turnover. We propose that these early and late rate-determining events are intramolecular conformational changes in RFC and PCNA that control clamp opening and closure, and that ATP binding and hydrolysis switch RFC between conformations with high and low affinities, respectively, for open PCNA and ptDNA, and thus bookend the clamp loading reaction.

Sakato, Miho; Zhou, Yayan; Hingorani, Manju M.

2011-01-01

228

Targeting the hydrophobic region of Hsp90's ATP binding pocket with novel 1,3,5-triazines.  

PubMed

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that plays an important role in regulating the maturation and stabilization of many oncogenic proteins. In an attempt to discover a new class of Hsp90 inhibitors, a series of 1,3,5-triazine compounds were rationally designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. Compound 3b was found to degrade Hsp90's client proteins of Her2, Met and Akt and to induce the expression level of Hsp70. The binding mode of 3b in the ATP-binding site of Hsp90 was predicted by the molecular docking. PMID:24125885

Lee, Taeho; Seo, Young Ho

2013-09-25

229

Activation of ATP binding for the autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis histidine kinase lacking an ATP lid motif.  

PubMed

The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg(440) in the DHp domain and Glu(537) in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg(440) and Glu(537) reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity. PMID:23486471

Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

2013-03-13

230

ATP binding is critical for the conformational change from an open to closed state in archaeal group II chaperonin.  

PubMed

Group II chaperonins, found in archaea and in eukaryotic cytosol, do not have a co-chaperonin corresponding to GroES. Instead, it is suggested that the helical protrusion extending from the apical domain acts as a built-in lid for the central cavity and that the opening and closing of the lid is regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. However, details of this conformational change remain unclear. To investigate the conformational change associated with the ATP-driven cycle, we conducted protease sensitivity analyses and tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy of alpha-chaperonin from a hyperthermophilic archaeum, Thermococcus strain KS-1. In the nucleotide-free or ADP-bound state, the chaperonin, especially in the helical protrusion region, was highly sensitive to proteases. Addition of ATP and ammonium sulfate induced the transition to the relatively protease-resistant form. The fluorescence intensity of the tryptophan residue introduced at the tip of the helical protrusion was enhanced by the presence of ATP or ammonium sulfate. We conclude that ATP binding induces the conformational change from the lid-open to lid-closed form in archaeal group II chaperonin. PMID:12920124

Iizuka, Ryo; Yoshida, Takao; Shomura, Yasuhito; Miki, Kunio; Maruyama, Tadashi; Odaka, Masafumi; Yohda, Masafumi

2003-08-14

231

Exploiting the Unique ATP-Binding Pocket of Toxoplasma Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 To Identify Its Substrates  

PubMed Central

Apicomplexan parasites rely on calcium as a second messenger to regulate a variety of essential cellular processes. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPK), which transduce these signals, are conserved among apicomplexans but absent from mammalian hosts, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Despite their importance, the signaling pathways CDPK regulate remain poorly characterized, and their protein substrates are completely unknown. In Toxoplasma gondii, CDPK1 is required for calcium-regulated secretion from micronemes, thereby controlling motility, invasion, and egress from host cells. CDPK1 is unique among parasite and mammalian kinases in containing glycine at the key “gatekeeper” residue, which results in an expanded ATP-binding pocket. In the present study, we use a synthetic ATP?S analogue that displays steric complementarity to the ATP-binding pocket and hence allows identification of protein substrates based on selective thiophosphorylation. The specificity of this approach was validated by the concordance between the identified phosphorylation sites and the in vitro substrate preference of CDPK1. We further demonstrate that the phosphorylation of predicted substrates is dependent on CDPK1 both in vivo and in vitro. This combined strategy for identifying the targets of specific protein kinases provides a platform for defining the roles of CDPKs in apicomplexans.

2013-01-01

232

A small molecule inhibitor selective for a variant ATP-binding site of the chaperonin GroEL  

PubMed Central

The chaperonin GroEL is a megadalton-sized molecular machine that plays an essential role in the bacterial cell assisting protein folding to the native state through actions requiring ATP binding and hydrolysis. A combination of medicinal chemistry and genetics has been employed to generate an orthogonal pair, a small molecule that selectively inhibits ATPase activity of a GroEL ATP-binding pocket variant. An initial screen of kinase-directed inhibitors identified an active pyrazolo-pyrimidine scaffold that was iteratively modified and screened against a collective of GroEL nucleotide pocket variants to identify a cyclopentyl carboxamide derivative, EC3016, that specifically inhibits ATPase activity and protein folding by the GroEL mutant, I493C, involving a side chain positioned near the base of ATP. This orthogonal pair will enable in vitro studies of the action of ATP in triggering activation of GroEL-mediated protein folding and might enable further studies of GroEL action in vivo. The approach originated for studying kinases by Shokat and his colleagues may thus also be used to study large macromolecular machines.

Chapman, Eli; Farr, George W.; Furtak, Krystyna; Horwich, Arthur L.

2008-01-01

233

A new DEAD-box helicase ATP-binding protein (OsABP) from rice is responsive to abiotic stress  

PubMed Central

The DEAD-box RNA helicase family comprise enzymes that participate in every aspect of RNA metabolism, associated with a diverse range of cellular functions including response to abiotic stress. In the present study, we report on the identification of a new DEAD-box helicase ATP-binding protein (OsABP) from rice which is upregulated in response e to multiple abiotic stress treatments  including NaCl, dehydration, ABA, blue and red light. It possesses an ORF of 2772 nt, encoding a protein of 923 aa, which contains the DEAD and helicase C-terminal domains, along with the nine conserved motifs specific to DEAD-box helicases. The in silico putative interaction with other proteins showed that OsABP interacts with proteins involved in RNA metabolism, signal transduction or stress response. These results imply that OsABP might perform important functions in the cellular response to specific abiotic stress.

Macovei, Anca; Vaid, Neha; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Narendra

2012-01-01

234

Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein Rv2623 regulates bacillary growth by ATP-Binding: requirement for establishing chronic persistent infection.  

PubMed

Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosisuniversal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-A-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i) M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii) Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii) Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv) the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection. PMID:19478878

Drumm, Joshua E; Mi, Kaixia; Bilder, Patrick; Sun, Meihao; Lim, Jihyeon; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Basaraba, Randall; So, Melvin; Zhu, Guofeng; Tufariello, Joann M; Izzo, Angelo A; Orme, Ian M; Almo, Steve C; Leyh, Thomas S; Chan, John

2009-05-29

235

Complexed Structures of Formylglycinamide Ribonucleotide Amidotransferase from Thermotoga maritima Describe a Novel ATP-binding Protein Superfamily†,‡  

PubMed Central

Formylglycinamide ribonucleotide amidotransferase (FGAR-AT) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide (FGAM) from formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR) and glutamine in the fourth step of the purine biosynthetic pathway. FGAR-AT is encoded by the purL gene. Two types of PurL have been detected. The first type, found in eukaryotes and Gram-negative bacteria, consists of a single 140 kDa polypeptide chain and is designated large PurL (lgPurL). The second type, small PurL (smPurL), is found in archaea and Gram-positive bacteria and consists of an 80 kDa polypeptide chain. Small PurL requires two additional gene products, PurQ and PurS, for activity. PurL is a member of a protein superfamily that contains a novel ATP-binding domain. Structures of several members of this superfamily are available in the apo form. We determined five different structures of FGAR-AT from Thermotoga maritima in the presence of substrates, a substrate analog, and a product. These complexes have allowed a detailed description of the novel ATP-binding motif. Availability of a ternary complex enabled mapping of the active site thus identifying potential residues involved in catalysis. The complexes show a conformational change in the active site compared to the unliganded structure. A surprising discovery, an ATP molecule in an auxiliary site of the protein and the conformational changes associated with its binding, provoke speculations about the regulatory role of the auxiliary site in PurLSQ complex formation as well as the evolutionary relationship of PurL's from different organisms.

Morar, Mariya; Anand, Ruchi; Hoskins, Aaron A.; Stubbe, JoAnne; Ealick, Steven E.

2008-01-01

236

Modulatory ATP binding affinity in intermediate states of E2P dephosphorylation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase.  

PubMed

The mechanism of ATP modulation of E2P dephosphorylation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase wild type and mutant forms was examined in nucleotide binding studies of states analogous to the various intermediates of the dephosphorylation reaction, obtained by binding of metal fluorides, vanadate, or thapsigargin. Wild type Ca(2+)-ATPase displays an ATP affinity of 4 ?M for the E2P ground state analog, 1 ?M for the E2P transition state and product state analogs, and 11 ?M for the E2 dephosphoenzyme. Hence, ATP binding stabilizes the transition and product states relative to the ground state, thereby explaining the accelerating effect of ATP on dephosphorylation. Replacement of Phe(487) (N-domain) with serine, Arg(560) (N-domain) with leucine, or Arg(174) (A-domain) with alanine or glutamate reduces ATP affinity in all E2/E2P intermediate states. Alanine substitution of Ile(188) (A-domain) increases the ATP affinity, although ATP acceleration of dephosphorylation is disrupted, thus indicating that the critical role of Ile(188) in ATP modulation is mechanistically based rather than being associated with the binding of nucleotide. Mutants with alanine replacement of Lys(205) (A-domain) or Glu(439) (N-domain) exhibit an anomalous inhibition by ATP of E2P dephosphorylation, due to ATP binding increasing the stability of the E2P ground state relative to the transition state. The ATP affinity of Ca(2)E2P, stabilized by inserting four glycines in the A-M1 linker, is similar to that of the E2P ground state, but the Ca(2+)-free E1 state of this mutant exhibits 3 orders of magnitude reduction of ATP affinity. PMID:21288896

Clausen, Johannes D; McIntosh, David B; Woolley, David G; Andersen, Jens Peter

2011-02-02

237

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP-Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection  

PubMed Central

Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-Å-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i) M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii) Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii) Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv) the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

Bilder, Patrick; Sun, Meihao; Lim, Jihyeon; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Basaraba, Randall; So, Melvin; Zhu, Guofeng; Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Izzo, Angelo A.; Orme, Ian M.; Almo, Steve C.; Leyh, Thomas S.; Chan, John

2009-01-01

238

Integrity of ATP binding site is essential for effective inhibition of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by NAIP.  

PubMed

The importance of the ATP binding site of human Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein (NAIP) on its ability in prevention of intrinsic apoptotic pathway was investigated. Thus, ATP binding lysine 476 of NAIP, which is located at the Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain (NOD) was mutated to threonine and the effect of this mutation on autoproteolysis of procaspase-9 and the cleavage of procaspase-3 by apoptosome was investigated. Formation of apoptosome was induced by the addition of cytochrome c and dATP to lysates of HeLa cells transfected with pcDNA-NAIP or pcDNA-NAIP (K476T). Full length wild type NAIP prevented the cleavage of both procaspase-9 to caspase-9 and procaspase-3 to caspase-3. However, K476T variant of NAIP did not block autocleavage of procaspase-9 efficiently. Furthermore, cleavage pattern of procaspase-9 was altered in the presence of mutant NAIP. Interestingly no effect on the procaspase-3 cleavage by apoptosome was observed. The presence of NOD domain by itself had no effect on autocleavage of procaspase-9 yet slightly reduced the cleavage of procaspase-3 by apoptosome. Pull down experiment showed direct interaction of the NOD domain of NAIP with the CARD-NOD domain of Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor 1 (APAF-1). The physical association of these domains was confirmed by pull-down assays. These observations taken with previous findings indicate that the integrity of the NOD domain is essential for effective inhibition of procaspase-9 and procaspase-3 cleavage by the NAIP protein. PMID:21371431

Karimpour, Sarvenaz; Davoodi, Jamshid; Ghahremani, Mohammad-Hossein

2011-03-01

239

Germline and somatic cancer-associated mutations in the ATP-binding motifs of PTEN influence its subcellular localization and tumor suppressive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germline and somatic PTEN mutations are found in Cowden syndrome (CS) and multiple sporadic malignan- cies, respectively. PTEN function appears to be modulated by subcellular compartmentalization, and mislo- calization may affect function. We have shown that cellular ATP levels affect nuclear PTEN levels. Here, we examined the ATP-binding capabilities of PTEN and functional consequences, relevant to cancer-associated mutations. PTEN mutation

Glenn P. Lobo; Kristin A. Waite; Sarah M Planchon; Todd Romigh; Najah T. Nassif; Charis Eng

2009-01-01

240

Identification of the Magnesium-binding Domain of the High-affinity ATP-binding Site of the Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli SecA Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The homodimeric SecA protein is the peripheral subunit of the translocase, and couples the hydrolysis of ATP to the translocation of precursor proteins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The high affinity ATP binding activity of SecA resides in the amino-terminal domain of SecA. This domain contains a tandem repeat of the \\

Michael Klose; Janny G. de Wit; Tanneke den Blaauwen; Roland Freudl; Arnold J. M. Driessen

1995-01-01

241

Roles of the two ClpC ATP binding sites in the regulation of competence and the stress response.  

PubMed

MecA targets the competence transcription factor ComK to ClpC. As a consequence, this factor is degraded by the ClpC/ClpP protease. ClpC is a member of the Clp/HSP100 family of ATPases and possesses two ATP binding sites. We have individually modified the Walker A motifs of these two sites and have also deleted a putative substrate recognition domain of ClpC at the C-terminus. The effects of these mutations were studied in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of the C-terminal domain resulted in a decreased binding affinity for MecA, a decreased ATPase activity in response to MecA addition and decreased degradative activity in vitro. In vivo, this deletion resulted in a failure to degrade ComK and in a decrease in thermal resistance for growth. Mutation of the N-terminal Walker A box (K214Q) caused a drastically decreased ATPase activity in vitro, but did not interfere with MecA binding. In vivo, this mutation had no effect on thermal resistance, but had a clpC null phenotype with respect to competence. Mutation of the C-terminal Walker A motif (K551Q) caused essentially the reverse phenotype both in vivo and in vitro. Although binding to MecA was only moderately impaired with 2 mM ATP, this mutant protein displayed no response to 0.2 mM ATP, unlike the wild-type ClpC and the K214Q mutant protein. The ATPase activity of the K551Q mutant protein, induced by the addition of MecA plus ComS, was decreased about 10-fold but was not eliminated. In vivo, the K551Q mutation showed a partial defect with respect to competence and a profound loss of thermal resistance. Sporulation was reduced drastically by the K551Q and less so by the K214Q mutation, but remained unaffected by deletion of the C-terminal domain. Although the evidence suggests that the functions of the two ATP-binding domains overlap, it appears that the N-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of ClpC is particularly concerned with MecA-related functions, whereas the C-terminal domain plays a more general role in the activities of ClpC. PMID:11722737

Turgay, K; Persuh, M; Hahn, J; Dubnau, D

2001-11-01

242

Biochemical and structural aspects of the ATP-binding domain in inflammasome-forming human NLRP proteins.  

PubMed

Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptors (NLRs) regulate innate immunity by activating inflammatory responses in a variety of biological systems following the recognition of pathogen- or disease-associated molecular patterns. NLRs are characterized by a central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization (NACHT) domain found in P-loop NTPases. In this review, we detail the functional and structural properties of the NACHT domain of a subfamily of NLRs, the NLRPs (NLR containing a pyrin domain), based on previous studies, sequence analysis, homology modeling, and structure predictions. Several NLRPs have been found to regulate inflammatory responses through the assembly of oligomeric caspase 1-activating platforms known as inflammasomes, the 3-dimensional structure of the NLRP NACHT domain has still not been solved. Homology modeling suggests that sequence variability within the NACHT domains of different NLRP family members may alter the topology of the ATP-binding pocket. Based on this finding, we discuss the potential therapeutic prospects aligned with the NACHT domain and the development of selective inhibitors of inflammasome activity. © 2013 IUBMB Life, 65(10):851-862, 2013. PMID:24078393

Macdonald, Justin A; Wijekoon, Champa P; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Muruve, Daniel A

2013-10-01

243

ATP protects against FITC labeling of Solanum lycopersicon and Arabidopsis thaliana Ca(2+)-ATPase ATP binding domains.  

PubMed

Ca(2+)-ATPases are integral membrane proteins that actively transport Ca(2+) against substantial concentration gradients in eukaryotic cells. This active transport is energized by coupling ion translocation with ATP hydrolysis. In order to better understand this coupling mechanism, we studied the nucleotide specificities of isolated ATP binding domains (ABDs) of Solanum lycopersicon Ca(2+)-ATPase (LCA), a type IIA non-calmodulin regulated P-type pump found in tomato plants that is very similar to mammalian sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), and Arabidopsis Ca(2+)-ATPase, isoform 2 (ACA2), a type IIB calmodulin regulated P-type ATPase found in the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis cells. We used nucleotide protection against FITC labeling as a measure of binding since both LCA and ACA contained the KGAP(S,V,F)E motif, which has been shown to be modified by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in P-type pumps from animal cells. We demonstrated that the heterologously expressed GST-tagged ABDs from both LCA and ACA2 were modified by FITC and that ATP protects against this modification. Moreover, GTP was able to reduce, but not eliminate, the level of FITC labeling in both ABD constructs, suggesting that these plant pumps may also bind GTP with low affinity, which is in contrast to mammalian SERCA and PMCA type pumps which do not bind GTP. PMID:23974359

Galva, Charitha; Virgin, Gail K; Helms, Jeff B; Gatto, Craig

2013-08-06

244

Identification of mutations in regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds of the cystic fibrosis gene  

SciTech Connect

Additional mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene were identified in the regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds (NBFs) of the predicted polypeptide. The patient cohort included 46 Canadian CF families with well-characterized DNA marker haplotypes spanning the disease locus and several other families from Israel. Eleven mutations were found in the first NBF, 2 were found in the second NBF, but none was found in the R-domain. Seven of the mutations were of the missense type affecting some of the highly conserved amino acid residues in the first NBF; 3 were nonsense mutations; 2 would probably affect mRNA splicing; 2 corresponded to small deletions, including another 3-base-pair deletion different from the major mutation ({delta}F508), which could account for 70% of the CF chromosomes in the population. Nine of these mutations accounted for 12 of the 31 non-{delta}F508 CF chromosomes in the Canadian families. The highly heterogeneous nature of the remaining CF mutations provides important insights into the structure and function of the protein, but it also suggests that DNA-based genetic screening for CF carrier status will not be straightforward.

Kerem, B.; Zielenski, J.; Markiewicz, D.; Bozon, D.; Kennedy, D.; Rommens, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Gazit, E. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Yahav, J. (Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)); Riordan, J.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Collins, F.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Tsui, Lapchee (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1990-11-01

245

Iron(III)hydroxamate transport of Escherichia coli K12: Single amino acid replacements at potential ATP-binding sites inactivate the FhuC protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of iron(III)hydroxamate transport appears to be of the periplasmic binding protein dependent transport (PBT) kind which is energized by ATP hydrolysis. The FhuC protein contains two domains typical of ATP-binding proteins. Lysine in domain I was replaced by glutamine and glutamate, and aspartate in domain II by asparagine and glutamate, resulting in FhuC derivatives which no longer transported

Karin Becker; Wolfgang Köster; Volkmar Braun

1990-01-01

246

SecA Proteins ofBacillus subtilisandEscherichia coliPossess Homologous Amino-Terminal ATP-Binding Domains Regulating Integration into the Plasma Membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheBacillus subtilis secAhomolog,div, was cloned and expressed at a variety of different levels in wild-type andsecAmutantstrainsofEscherichiacoli.AnalysisofDivfunctionshowedthatitcouldnotsubstituteforSecA despite being present at a wide range of concentrations at or above the physiological level. Location of regions offunctionalsimilaritybetweenthetwoproteinsusingdiv-secAchimerasrevealedthatonlytheamino-terminal ATP-binding domain of Div could functionally substitute for the corresponding region of SecA. The role of this domain was revealed by subcellular localization experiments that

PAUL MCNICHOLAS; THAVAMANI RAJAPANDI; ANDDONALD OLIVER

1995-01-01

247

The crustacean gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase: allosteric modulation of high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites by sodium and potassium.  

PubMed

The blue crab, Callinectes danae, tolerates exposure to a wide salinity range employing mechanisms of compensatory ion uptake when in dilute media. Although the gill (Na+,K+)-ATPase is vital to hyperosmoregulatory ability, the interactions occurring at the sites of ATP binding on the molecule itself are unknown. Here, we investigate the modulation by Na+ and K+ of homotropic interactions between the ATP-binding sites, and of phosphoenzyme formation of the (Na+,K+)-ATPase from the posterior gills of this euryhaline crab. The contribution of the high- and low-affinity ATP-binding sites to maximum velocity was similar for both Na+ and K+. However, in contrast to Na+, a threshold K+ concentration triggers the appearance of the high-affinity binding sites, displacing the saturation curve to lower ATP concentrations.Further, a low-affinity site for phosphorylation is present on the enzyme. These findings reveal notable differences in the catalytic mechanism of the crustacean (Na+,K+)-ATPase compared to the vertebrate enzyme. PMID:18796291

Masui, D C; Silva, E C C; Mantelatto, F L M; McNamara, J C; Barrabin, H; Scofano, H M; Fontes, C F L; Furriel, R P M; Leone, F A

2008-09-05

248

Mapping of the ATP-binding sites on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 and type 3 homotetramers by controlled proteolysis and photoaffinity labeling.  

PubMed

Submillimolar ATP concentrations strongly enhance the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-induced Ca(2+) release, by binding specifically to ATP-binding sites on the IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R). To locate those ATP-binding sites on IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R3, both proteins were expressed in Sf9 insect cells and covalently labeled with 8-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP. IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R3 were then purified and subjected to a controlled proteolysis, and the labeled proteolytic fragments were identified by site-specific antibodies. Two fragments of IP(3)R1 were labeled, each containing one of the previously proposed ATP-binding sites with amino acid sequence GXGXXG (amino acids 1773-1780 and 2016-2021, respectively). In IP(3)R3, only one fragment was labeled. This fragment contained the GXGXXG sequence (amino acids 1920-1925), which is conserved in the three IP(3)R isoforms. The presence of multiple interaction sites for ATP was also evident from the IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release in permeabilized A7r5 cells, which depended on ATP over a very broad concentration range from micromolar to millimolar. PMID:11035010

Maes, K; Missiaen, L; Parys, J B; De Smet, P; Sienaert, I; Waelkens, E; Callewaert, G; De Smedt, H

2000-10-16

249

The roles of noncatalytic ATP binding and ADP binding in the regulation of dynein motile activity in flagella.  

PubMed

The regulation of dynein activity to produce microtubule sliding in flagella has not been well understood. To gain more insight into the roles of ATP and ADP in the regulation, we examined the effects of fluorescent ATP analogues and fluorescent ADP analogues on the ATPase activity and motile activity of dynein. 21S dynein purified from the outer arms of sea urchin sperm flagella hydrolyzed BODIPY(R) FL ATP (FL-ATP) at 78% of the rate for ATP hydrolysis. FL-ATP at 0.1-1 mM, however, induced neither microtubule translocation on a dynein-coated glass surface nor sliding disintegration of elastase-treated axonemes. Direct observation of single molecules of the fluorescent analogues showed that both the ATP and ADP analogues were stably bound to dynein over several minutes (dissociation rates = 0.0038-0.0082/s). When microtubule translocation on 21S dynein was induced by ATP, the initial increase of the mean velocity was accelerated by preincubation of the dynein with ADP. Similar increase was also induced by the preincubation with the ADP analogues. Even after preincubation with ADP, FL-ATP did not induce sliding disintegration of elastase-treated axonemes. After preincubation with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, AMPPNP (adenosine 5'-(beta:gamma-imido)triphosphate), however, FL-ATP induced sliding disintegration in approximately 10% of the axonemes. These results indicate that both noncatalytic ATP binding and stable ADP binding, in addition to ATP hydrolysis, are involved in the regulation of the chemo-mechanical transduction in axonemal dynein. PMID:17630661

Inoue, Yuichi; Shingyoji, Chikako

2007-09-01

250

Context-driven discovery of gene cassettes in mobile integrons using a computational grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gene discovery algorithms typically examine sequence data for low level patterns. A novel method to computationally discover higher order DNA structures is presented, using a context sensitive grammar. The algorithm was applied to the discovery of gene cassettes associated with integrons. The discovery and annotation of antibiotic resistance genes in such cassettes is essential for effective monitoring of antibiotic

Guy Tsafnat; Enrico W. Coiera; Sally R. Partridge; Jaron Schaeffer; Jon R. Iredell

2009-01-01

251

Dust Sampler Tamper-Proof Filter Cassette.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new filter cassette is described that can be used with coal mine dust personal sampler units (CFR, Title 30, Part 74). The sealed cassette design reduces the chances of sample loss due to reverse flushing, impact, or cassette opening. The filter capsule...

C. H. Etheridge

1978-01-01

252

Mutational analysis of the ATP-binding site in HslU, the ATPase component of HslVU protease in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

HslU is the ATPase component of the ATP-dependent HslVU protease in Escherichia coli. To gain an insight into the structure and function of HslU, site-directed mutagenesis was performed to generate a mutation in the ATP-binding site of the ATPase (i.e., to replace the Lys63 with Thr). Unlike the wild-type HslU, the mutant form (referred to as HslU\\/K63T) could not hydrolyze

Dong Hun Shin; Soon Ji Yoo; Yoon Kyung Shim; Jae Hong Seol; Man-Sik Kang; Chin Ha Chung

1996-01-01

253

Conservation of an ATP-binding domain among recA proteins from Proteus vulgaris, erwinia carotovora, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli K-12 and B/r  

SciTech Connect

The purified RecA proteins encoded by the cloned genes from Proteus vulgaris, Erwinia carotovora, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli B/r were compared with the RecA protein from E. coli K-12. Each of the proteins hydrolyzed ATP in the presence of single-stranded DNA, and each was covalently modified with the photoaffinity ATP analog 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8N/sub 3/ATP). Two-dimensional tryptic maps of the four heterologous RecA proteins demonstrated considerable structural conservation among these bacterial genera. Moreover, when the (..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P)8N/sub 3/ATP-modified proteins were digested with trypsin and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, a single peak of radioactivity was detected in each of the digests and these peptides eluted identically with the tryptic peptide T/sub 31/ of the E. coli K-12 RecA protein, which was the unique site of 8N/sub 3/ATP photolabeling. Each of the heterologous recA genes hybridized to oligonucleotide probes derived from the ATP-binding domain sequence of the E. coli K-12 gene. These last results demonstrate that the ATP-binding domain of the RecA protein has been strongly conserved for greater than 10/sup 7/ years.

Knight, K.L.; Hess, R.M.; McEntee, K.

1988-06-01

254

Phosphorylation at Ser26 in the ATP-binding site of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II as a mechanism for switching off the kinase activity  

PubMed Central

CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II) is a serine/threonine phosphotransferase that is capable of long-term retention of activity due to autophosphorylation at a specific threonine residue within each subunit of its oligomeric structure. The ? isoform of CaMKII is a significant regulator of vascular contractility. Here, we show that phosphorylation of CaMKII ? at Ser26, a residue located within the ATP-binding site, terminates the sustained activity of the enzyme. To test the physiological importance of phosphorylation at Ser26, we generated a phosphospecific Ser26 antibody and demonstrated an increase in Ser26 phosphorylation upon depolarization and contraction of blood vessels. To determine if the phosphorylation of Ser26 affects the kinase activity, we mutated Ser26 to alanine or aspartic acid. The S26D mutation mimicking the phosphorylated state of CaMKII causes a dramatic decrease in Thr287 autophosphorylation levels and greatly reduces the catalytic activity towards an exogenous substrate (autocamtide-3), whereas the S26A mutation has no effect. These data combined with molecular modelling indicate that a negative charge at Ser26 of CaMKII ? inhibits the catalytic activity of the enzyme towards its autophosphorylation site at Thr287 most probably by blocking ATP binding. We propose that Ser26 phosphorylation constitutes an important mechanism for switching off CaMKII activity.

Yilmaz, Mehtap; Gangopadhyay, Samudra S.; Leavis, Paul; Grabarek, Zenon; Morgan, Kathleen G.

2013-01-01

255

Selective inhibition of DNA replicase assembly by a non-natural nucleotide: exploiting the structural diversity of ATP-binding sites.  

PubMed

DNA synthesis is catalyzed by an ensemble of proteins designated the replicase. The efficient assembly of this multiprotein complex is essential for the continuity of DNA replication and is mediated by clamp-loading accessory proteins that use ATP binding and hydrolysis to coordinate these events. As a consequence, the ability to selectively inhibit the activity of these accessory proteins provides a rational approach to regulate DNA synthesis. Toward this goal, we tested the ability of several non-natural nucleotides to inhibit ATP-dependent enzymes associated with DNA replicase assembly. Kinetic and biophysical studies identified 5-nitro-indolyl-2'-deoxyribose-5'-triphosphate as a unique non-natural nucleotide capable of selectively inhibiting the bacteriophage T4 clamp loader versus the homologous enzyme from Escherichia coli. Modeling studies highlight the structural diversity between the ATP-binding site of each enzyme and provide a mechanism accounting for the differences in potencies for various substituted indolyl-2'-deoxyribose-5'-triphosphates. An in vivo assay measuring plaque formation demonstrates the efficacy and selectivity of 5-nitro-indolyl-2'-deoxyribose as a cytostatic agent against T4 bacteriophage while leaving viability of the E. coli host unaffected. This strategy provides a novel approach to develop agents that selectively inhibit ATP-dependent enzymes that are required for efficient DNA replication. PMID:19994907

Eng, Kevin; Scouten-Ponticelli, Sarah K; Sutton, Mark; Berdis, Anthony

2010-02-19

256

Mutations in the consensus ATP-binding sites of XcpR and PilB eliminate extracellular protein secretion and pilus biogenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

The process of extracellular secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires specialized machinery which is widely distributed among bacteria that actively secrete proteins to the extracellular medium. One of the components of this machinery is the product of the xcpR gene, which is homologous to pilB, a gene encoding a protein essential for the biogenesis of type IV pili. Both XcpR and PilB are characterized by the presence of a conserved ATP-binding motif (Walker sequence). The codons of highly conserved glycine residues within the Walker sequences of xcpR and pilB were altered to encode a serine, and the effects of these substitutions were examined. Bacteria expressing mutant XcpR or PilB were unable to secrete exotoxin A or assemble pili, respectively. In addition, high-level expression of mutant XcpR in wild-type P. aeruginosa led to a pleiotropic extracellular secretion defect, resulting in the periplasmic accumulation of enzymes that are normally secreted from the cell. These studies show that the putative ATP-binding sites of XcpR and PilB are essential for their functions in protein secretion and assembly of pili, respectively. Moreover, the observed dominant negative phenotype of mutant XcpR suggests that this protein functions as a multimer or, alternatively, interacts with another essential component of the extracellular protein secretion machinery. Images

Turner, L R; Lara, J C; Nunn, D N; Lory, S

1993-01-01

257

Acetylation of a Conserved Lysine Residue in the ATP Binding Pocket of p38 Augments Its Kinase Activity during Hypertrophy of Cardiomyocytes ?  

PubMed Central

Like phosphorylation, acetylation of lysine residues within a protein is considered a biologically relevant modification that controls the activity of target proteins. During stress of cells, massive protein acetylation takes place. Here, we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which controls many biological functions during stress, is reversibly acetylated by PCAF/p300 and HDAC3. We identified two acetylated lysine residues, K152 and K53, located in the substrate binding domain and in the ATP-binding pocket of p38, respectively. Acetylation of lysine 53 enhanced the activity of p38 by increasing its affinity for ATP binding. The enhanced acetylation and activation of p38 were found to be in parallel with reduced intracellular ATP levels in cardiomyocytes under stress, as well as in vivo models of cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, our data show, for the first time, that p38 activity is critically regulated by, in addition to phosphorylation, reversible acetylation of a lysine residue, which is conserved in other kinases, implying the possibility of a similar mechanism regulating their activity.

Pillai, Vinodkumar B.; Sundaresan, Nagalingam R.; Samant, Sadhana A.; Wolfgeher, Don; Trivedi, Chinmay M.; Gupta, Mahesh P.

2011-01-01

258

Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron\\/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe report the 1.8 Å crystal structure

Chandrika N. Deshpande; Stephen J. Harrop; Yan Boucher; Karl A. Hassan; Rosa Di Leo; Xiaohui Xu; Hong Cui; Alexei Savchenko; Changsoo Chang; Maurizio Labbate; Ian T. Paulsen; H. W. Stokes; Paul M. G. Curmi; Bridget C. Mabbutt; Hendrik W. van Veen

2011-01-01

259

Temperature Variations around Medication Cassette and Carry Bag in Routine Use of Epoprostenol Administration in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background According to several treatment guidelines, epoprostenol is an important treatment option for pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics and poor stability of epoprostenol at room temperature make its administration challenging. We therefore studied temperature fluctuations between the drug administration cassette and atmosphere to promote the safe use of epoprostenol. Methods and Findings Five healthy volunteers carried a portable intravenous infusion pump attached to a medication cassette containing saline in a bag during their ordinary activities over 16 days during which the mean atmospheric temperature was 29.6±1.5°C. The temperature around the medication cassette was not less than 25°C on any occasion, and the mean period over 24 h during which the temperature around the cassette exceeded 35°C and 40°C was 96.9±156.4 min and 24.4±77.3 min, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the temperatures outside the bag and around the cassette, as well as between temperatures around the cassette and of the saline solution in the cassette (r?=?0.9258 and 0.8276, respectively). There were no differences in the temperatures outside the bag or around the cassette with respect to the bag material. Conclusions Temperatures around a medication cassette and outside the bag containing the medication increase with sunlight exposure. The temperature around cassettes used for administering epoprostenol must therefore be kept low for as long as possible during hot summer conditions to maintain the drug stability.

Tamura, Yuichi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Ozeki, Yasushi; Ono, Tomohiko; Takei, Makoto; Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Fukuda, Keiichi

2012-01-01

260

ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. IV. RFC ATP-binding mutants show defects in DNA replication, DNA repair, and checkpoint regulation.  

PubMed

Replication factor C is required to load proliferating cell nuclear antigen onto primer-template junctions, using the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Four of the five RFC genes have consensus ATP-binding motifs. To determine the relative importance of these sites for proper DNA metabolism in the cell, the conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, or RFC4 was mutated to either arginine or glutamic acid. Arginine mutations in all RFC genes tested permitted cell growth, although poor growth was observed for rfc2-K71R. A glutamic acid substitution resulted in lethality in RFC2 and RFC3 but not in RFC1 or RFC4. Most double mutants combining mutations in two RFC genes were inviable. Except for the rfc1-K359R and rfc4-K55E mutants, which were phenotypically similar to wild type in every assay, the mutants were sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. The rfc2-K71R and rfc4-K55R mutants show checkpoint defects, most likely in the intra-S phase checkpoint. Regulation of the damage-inducible RNR3 promoter was impaired in these mutants, and phosphorylation of Rad53p in response to DNA damage was specifically defective when cells were in S phase. No dramatic defects in telomere length regulation were detected in the mutants. These data demonstrate that the ATP binding function of RFC2 is important for both DNA replication and checkpoint function and, for the first time, that RFC4 also plays a role in checkpoint regulation. PMID:11549622

Schmidt, S L; Pautz, A L; Burgers, P M

2001-09-14

261

Audio Bombing: Magnetic Cassette Tape Graffiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio Bombing is an alternative form of graffiti that uses magnetic audiotape as its medium. Drawing from hip hop and graffiti culture Audio Bombing starts with a basic cassette tape. Using a tape recorder you can record any information you want on to a cassette (music, poems, philosophy, subversive literature, etc.). After recording you remove the tape and cut out

Mike Fleming; Kang Chang; Kyle Millns

2007-01-01

262

Testing of a Personal Filter Cassette with a Circumferential Orifice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new personal filter cassette with circumferential orifices for personal inhalable dust concentration measurements was tested using coal dust, and compared to standard closed face and open face cassettes. The new cassette has four orifices separated by s...

M. McCawley J. Burkhart P. Baron D. Dollberg

1983-01-01

263

Identification of the ATP binding sites of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase domain of the Syrian hamster multifunctional protein CAD by affinity labeling with 5 prime -(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine  

SciTech Connect

The ATP analogue 5{prime}-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine (FSBA) was used to chemically modify the ATP binding sites of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase domain of CAD, the multifunctional protein that catalyzes the first steps in mammalian pyrimidine biosynthesis. Reaction of CAD with FSBA resulted in the inactivation of the ammonia- and glutamine-dependent CPSase activities but had no effect on its glutaminase, aspartate transcarbamylase, or dihydroortase activities. ATP protected CAD against inactivation by FSBA whereas the presence of the allosteric effectors UTP and PRPP afforded little protection, which suggests that the ATP binding sites were specifically labeled. The inactivation exhibited saturation behavior with respect to FSBA with a K{sub I} of 0.93 mM. The stoichiometry of ({sup 14}C)FSBA labeling showed that only 0.4-0.5 mol of FSBA/mol of protein was required for complete inactivation. Incorporation of radiolabeled FSBA into CAD and subsequent proteolysis, gel electrophoresis, and fluorography demonstrated that only the carbamyl phosphate synthetase domain of CAD is labeled. Amino acid sequencing of the principal peaks resulting from tryptic digests of FSBA-modified CAD located the sites of FSBA modification in regions that exhibit high homology to ATP binding sites of other known proteins. Thus CAD has two ATP binding sites, one in each of the two highly homologous halves of the carbamyl phosphate domain which catalyze distinct ATP-dependent partial reactions in carbamyl phosphate synthesis.

Hyesook Kim; Evans, D.R. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)); Lee, L. (Univ. of Windsor, Ontario (Canada))

1991-10-22

264

The Second Extracellular Loop of Pore-Forming Subunits of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters for Basic Amino Acids Plays a Crucial Role in Interaction with the Cognate Solute Binding Protein(s)?  

PubMed Central

In the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus, the uptake of basic amino acids is mediated by an ABC transporter composed of the substrate binding protein (receptor) ArtJ and a homodimer each of the pore-forming subunit, ArtM, and the nucleotide-binding subunit, ArtP. We recently identified two putative binding sites in ArtJ that might interact with the Art(MP)2 complex, thereby initiating the transport cycle (A. Vahedi-Faridi et al., J. Mol. Biol. 375:448-459, 2008). Here we investigated the contribution of charged amino acid residues in the second extracellular loop of ArtM to contact with ArtJ. Our results demonstrate a crucial role for residues K177, R185, and E188, since mutations to oppositely charged amino acids or glutamine led to a complete loss of ArtJ-stimulated ATPase activity of the complex variants in proteoliposomes. The defects could not be suppressed by ArtJ variants carrying mutations in site I (K39E and K152E) or II (E163K and D170K), suggesting a more complex interplay than that by a single salt bridge. These findings were supported by cross-linking assays demonstrating physical proximity between ArtJ(N166C) and ArtM(E182C). The importance of positively charged residues for receptor-transporter interaction was underscored by mutational analysis of the closely related transporter HisJ/LAO-HisQMP2 of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. While transporter variants with mutated positively charged residues in HisQ displayed residual ATPase activities, corresponding mutants of HisM could no longer be stimulated by HisJ/LAO. Interestingly, the ATPase activity of the HisQM(K187E)P2 variant was inhibited by l- and d-histidine in detergent, suggesting a role of the residue in preventing free histidine from gaining access to the substrate binding site within HisQM.

Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Landmesser, Heidi; Bergmann, Ulf; Schneider, Erwin

2010-01-01

265

Cassette-based digital mammography.  

PubMed

Over the past several years, digital mammography systems have been installed clinically across North America in small but growing numbers. A photostimulable phosphor-based full-field digital mammography image was evaluated in this investigation. Commonly known as computed radiography (CR), its use closely mimics the screen-film mammography paradigm. System performance using modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) metrics show MTF(2.5 mm(-1)) = 0.5, DQE(2.5 mm(-1)) = 0.3, and MTF(5.0 mm(-1)) = 0.2, DQE(5.0 mm(-1)) = 0.05, for a 26 kVp beam, 0.03 mm molybdenum tube filtration, 4.5 cm tissue attenuation, and 15 mR incident exposure to the detector. Slightly higher DQE values were measured at 32 kVp with 0.025 mm rhodium tube filtration. CR mammography advantages include the ability to use existing mammography machines, where multiple rooms can be converted to "digital" operation, which allows overall cost savings compared to integrated digital mammography systems. Chief disadvantages include the labor-intensive handling of the cassettes prior to and after the imaging exam, lack of a direct interface to the x-ray system for recording technique parameters, and relatively slow processing time. Clinical experience in an IRB-approved research trial has suggested that digital mammography with photostimulable storage phosphors and a dedicated CR reader is a viable alternative to conventional screen-film mammography. PMID:15453806

Seibert, J A; Boone, J M; Cooper, V N; Lindfors, K K

2004-10-01

266

Associations between dru Types and SCCmec Cassettes  

PubMed Central

Molecular typing is an important tool in the investigation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks and in following the evolution of MRSA. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) contains a hypervariable region with a variable number of 40 bp repeats named direct repeat units (dru). The dru region has been suggested as a supplementary typing method for MRSA and an international nomenclature exists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diversity and variability of the dru region in a diverse collection of MRSA. We studied 302 MRSA isolates harbouring SCCmec types I to VI. The isolates represented a broad genetic background based on Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and included 68 isolates (68 patients) from an outbreak with t024-ST8-IVa and 26 isolates from the same patient. Sequencing identified 53 dru types (dt) in 283 isolates, while eighteen isolates contained no dru repeats and one isolate resisted sequencing. The most common dru type, dt10a, was present in 53% of the sequenced isolates and was found in all SCCmec types, except type II. Seven (10%) of the 68 epidemiologically related patients had isolates with dru type variants indicating that dru typing is not useful as a first line epidemiological typing tool. However, MRSA isolates cultured from a single patient over a three year period exhibited a single dru type. The finding of dt10a in most SCCmec types suggests that dru and mecA originate from the same Staphylococcus species.

Bartels, Mette D.; Boye, Kit; Oliveira, Duarte C.; Worning, Peder; Goering, Richard; Westh, Henrik

2013-01-01

267

Deletion of Integron-Associated Gene Cassettes Impact on the Surface Properties of Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722  

PubMed Central

Background The integron is a genetic recombination system that catalyses the acquisition of genes on mobilisable elements called gene cassettes. In Vibrio species, multiple acquired gene cassettes form a cassette array that can comprise 1–3% of the bacterial genome. Since 75% of these gene cassettes contain genes encoding proteins of uncharacterised function, how the integron has driven adaptation and evolution in Vibrio species remains largely unknown. A feature of cassette arrays is the presence of large indels. Using Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722 as a model organism, the aim of this study was to determine how large cassette deletions affect vibrio physiology with a view to improving understanding into how cassette arrays influence bacterial host adaptation and evolution. Methodology/Principal Findings Biological assays and proteomic techniques were utilised to determine how artificially engineered deletions in the cassette array of V. rotiferianus DAT722 affected cell physiology. Multiple phenotypes were identified including changes to growth and expression of outer membrane porins/proteins and metabolic proteins. Furthermore, the deletions altered cell surface polysaccharide with Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance on whole cell polysaccharide identifying changes in the carbohydrate ring proton region indicating that gene cassette products may decorate host cell polysaccharide via the addition or removal of functional groups. Conclusions/Significance From this study, it was concluded that deletion of gene cassettes had a subtle effect on bacterial metabolism but altered host surface polysaccharide. Deletion (and most likely rearrangement and acquisition) of gene cassettes may provide the bacterium with a mechanism to alter its surface properties, thus impacting on phenotypes such as biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was shown to be altered in one of the deletion mutants used in this study. Reworking surface properties may provide an advantage to the bacterium’s interactions with organisms such as bacteriophage, protozoan grazers or crustaceans.

Rapa, Rita A.; Shimmon, Ronald; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Stokes, H. W.; Labbate, Maurizio

2013-01-01

268

ATP Binding to the C Terminus of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nitrate/Proton Antiporter, AtCLCa, Regulates Nitrate Transport into Plant Vacuoles*  

PubMed Central

Nitrate, one of the major nitrogen sources for plants, is stored in the vacuole. Nitrate accumulation within the vacuole is primarily mediated by the NO3?/H+ exchanger AtCLCa, which belongs to the chloride channel (CLC) family. Crystallography analysis of hCLC5 suggested that the C-terminal domain, composed by two cystathionine ?-synthetase motifs in all eukaryotic members of the CLC family is able to interact with ATP. However, interaction of nucleotides with a functional CLC protein has not been unambiguously demonstrated. Here we show that ATP reversibly inhibits AtCLCa by interacting with the C-terminal domain. Applying the patch clamp technique to isolated Arabidopsis thaliana vacuoles, we demonstrate that ATP reduces AtCLCa activity with a maximum inhibition of 60%. ATP inhibition of nitrate influx into the vacuole at cytosolic physiological nitrate concentrations suggests that ATP modulation is physiologically relevant. ADP and AMP do not decrease the AtCLCa transport activity; nonetheless, AMP (but not ADP) competes with ATP, preventing inhibition. A molecular model of the C terminus of AtCLCa was built by homology to hCLC5 C terminus. The model predicted the effects of mutations of the ATP binding site on the interaction energy between ATP and AtCLCa that were further confirmed by functional expression of site-directed mutated AtCLCa.

De Angeli, Alexis; Moran, Oscar; Wege, Stefanie; Filleur, Sophie; Ephritikhine, Genevieve; Thomine, Sebastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Helene; Gambale, Franco

2009-01-01

269

Identification of the ATP binding sites of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase domain of the Syrian hamster multifunctional protein CAD by affinity labeling with 5 prime -(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATP analogue 5â²-(p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl)adenosine (FSBA) was used to chemically modify the ATP binding sites of the carbamyl phosphate synthetase domain of CAD, the multifunctional protein that catalyzes the first steps in mammalian pyrimidine biosynthesis. Reaction of CAD with FSBA resulted in the inactivation of the ammonia- and glutamine-dependent CPSase activities but had no effect on its glutaminase, aspartate transcarbamylase, or

Hyesook Kim; D. R. Evans; L. Lee

1991-01-01

270

The interaction of Pcf11 and Clp1 is needed for mRNA 3?-end formation and is modulated by amino acids in the ATP-binding site  

PubMed Central

Polyadenylation of eukaryotic mRNAs contributes to stability, transport and translation, and is catalyzed by a large complex of conserved proteins. The Pcf11 subunit of the yeast CF IA factor functions as a scaffold for the processing machinery during the termination and polyadenylation of transcripts. Its partner, Clp1, is needed for mRNA processing, but its precise molecular role has remained enigmatic. We show that Clp1 interacts with the Cleavage–Polyadenylation Factor (CPF) through its N-terminal and central domains, and thus provides cross-factor connections within the processing complex. Clp1 is known to bind ATP, consistent with the reported RNA kinase activity of human Clp1. However, substitution of conserved amino acids in the ATP-binding site did not affect cell growth, suggesting that the essential function of yeast Clp1 does not involve ATP hydrolysis. Surprisingly, non-viable mutations predicted to displace ATP did not affect ATP binding but disturbed the Clp1–Pcf11 interaction. In support of the importance of this interaction, a mutation in Pcf11 that disrupts the Clp1 contact caused defects in growth, 3?-end processing and transcription termination. These results define Clp1 as a bridge between CF IA and CPF and indicate that the Clp1–Pcf11 interaction is modulated by amino acids in the conserved ATP-binding site of Clp1.

Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Gordon, James M. B.; Lee, Susan D.; Singh, Badri Nath; Bohm, Andrew; Hampsey, Michael; Moore, Claire

2012-01-01

271

Metal Switch-controlled Myosin II from Dictyostelium discoideum Supports Closure of Nucleotide Pocket during ATP Binding Coupled to Detachment from Actin Filaments.  

PubMed

G-proteins, kinesins, and myosins are hydrolases that utilize a common protein fold and divalent metal cofactor (typically Mg(2+)) to coordinate purine nucleotide hydrolysis. The nucleoside triphosphorylase activities of these enzymes are activated through allosteric communication between the nucleotide-binding site and the activator/effector/polymer interface to convert the free energy of nucleotide hydrolysis into molecular switching (G-proteins) or force generation (kinesins and myosin). We have investigated the ATPase mechanisms of wild-type and the S237C mutant of non-muscle myosin II motor from Dictyostelium discoideum. The S237C substitution occurs in the conserved metal-interacting switch-1, and we show that this substitution modulates the actomyosin interaction based on the divalent metal present in solution. Surprisingly, S237C shows rapid basal steady-state Mg(2+)- or Mn(2+)-ATPase kinetics, but upon binding actin, its MgATPase is inhibited. This actin inhibition is relieved by Mn(2+), providing a direct and experimentally reversible linkage of switch-1 and the actin-binding cleft through the swapping of divalent metals in the reaction. Using pyrenyl-labeled F-actin, we demonstrate that acto·S237C undergoes slow and weak MgATP binding, which limits the rate of steady-state catalysis. Mn(2+) rescues this effect to near wild-type activity. 2'(3')-O-(N-Methylanthraniloyl)-ADP release experiments show the need for switch-1 interaction with the metal cofactor for tight ADP binding. Our results are consistent with strong reciprocal coupling of nucleoside triphosphate and F-actin binding and provide additional evidence for the allosteric communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding site and the filament-binding region. PMID:23960071

Cochran, Jared C; Thompson, Morgan E; Kull, F Jon

2013-08-19

272

Modulatory ATP binding to the E2 state of maize plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase indicated by the kinetics of vanadate inhibition.  

PubMed

P-type ATPases, as major consumers of cellular ATP in eukaryotic cells, are characterized by the formation of a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate (E2P), a process that is allosterically coupled to translocation of cations against an electrochemical gradient. The catalytic cycle comprises binding of Mg-ATP at the nucleotide-binding domain, phosphorylation of the E1 state (E1), conformational transition to the E2P state, and dephosphorylation through the actuator domain and re-establishment of the E1 state. Recently, it has been suggested that, for several P-type ATPases, Mg-ATP binds to the phosphorylated enzyme, thereby accelerating the transition to the E1 state, before then becoming the enzyme's catalytic substrate. Here, we provide evidence supporting this viewpoint. We employed kinetic models based on steady-state kinetics in the presence and absence of the reversible inhibitor orthovanadate. Vanadate is generally considered to be a conformational probe that specifically binds to the E2 state, arresting the enzyme in a state analogous to the E2P state. Hydrolytic H(+) -ATPase activities were measured in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles isolated from roots and shoots of maize plants. For root enzymes, kinetic models of vanadate inhibition that allow simultaneous binding of Mg-ATP and vanadate to the same enzyme state were most plausible. For shoot enzymes, application of the competitive inhibitor Mg-free ATP attenuated vanadate inhibition, which is consistent with a model in which either Mg-free ATP or Mg-ATP is bound to the enzyme when vanadate binds. Therefore, data from roots and shoots indicate that binding of ATP species before transition to the E1 state plays an important role in the catalytic cycle of plant plasma membrane H(+) -ATPase. PMID:23879673

Wang, Xiaozhi; Qian, Xiaoqing; Stumpf, Beate; Fatima, Ammara; Feng, Ke; Schubert, Sven; Hanstein, Stefan

2013-08-23

273

The three-dimensional structure of MAP kinase p38[beta]: different features of the ATP-binding site in p38[beta] compared with p38[alpha  

SciTech Connect

The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in response to environmental stress and cytokines and play a significant role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. Of the four p38 isoforms known to date, two (p38{alpha} and p38{beta}) have been identified as targets for cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, it was reported that specific inhibition of the p38{alpha} isoform is necessary and sufficient for anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo, while further inhibition of p38{beta} may not provide any additional benefit. In order to aid the development of p38{alpha}-selective compounds, the three-dimensional structure of p38{beta} was determined. To do so, the C162S and C119S,C162S mutants of human MAP kinase p38{beta} were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening hits in crystallization trials in the presence of an inhibitor led upon optimization to crystals that diffracted to 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and allowed structure determination (PDB codes 3gc8 and 3gc9 for the single and double mutant, respectively). The structure of the p38{alpha} C162S mutant in complex with the same inhibitor is also reported (PDB code 3gc7). A comparison between the structures of the two kinases showed that they are highly similar overall but that there are differences in the relative orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains that causes a reduction in the size of the ATP-binding pocket in p38{beta}. This difference in size between the two pockets could be exploited in order to achieve selectivity.

Patel, Sangita B.; Cameron, Patricia M.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy; Thompson, Jed; O'Neill, Edward A.; Tennis, Trevor; Liu, Luping; Becker, Joseph W.; Scapin, Giovanna; Merck

2010-10-18

274

Films, screens and cassettes for mammography.  

PubMed

Various film-screen combinations intended for mammography have been compared for image quality and for dose. Image quality was assessed as in an earlier paper, using a test object having details which are both realistic and quantitative. Relative doses required to give film densities of 1.0 were measured. The Kodak MinR-MinR combination was taken as a standard against which others were compared, and in general a lower dose was accompanied by poorer image quality. The Fuji NH film with Fuji Hi-Mammo screen was the sole exception, giving slightly better image quality at about half the dose required by the MinR combination. A number of cassettes were also compared with each other and with evacuated envelopes. The Dupont Cronex cassette and three carbon-fibre fronted cassettes all performed well in image quality. PMID:2924096

Law, J; Kirkpatrick, A E

1989-02-01

275

Acceptance Inspection for Audio Cassette Recorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of inspections for cassette recorders that can be performed to assure that the devices are acceptable is described. The inspections can be completed in 20 minutes and can be performed by instructional personnel. The series of inspection procedures includes tests of the intelligibility of audio, physical condition, tape speed, impulse…

Smith, Edgar A.

276

Class 1 Integrons, Gene Cassettes, Mobility, and Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrons are genetic elements that, although unable to move themselves, contain gene cassettes that can be mobilized to\\u000a other integrons or to secondary sites in the bacterial genome. The majority of approximately 60 known gene cassettes encode\\u000a resistance to antibiotics. Recently, a number of gene cassettes encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases\\u000a have been described. Up to at least five cassettes

A. C. Fluit; F. J. Schmitz

1999-01-01

277

ATP binding and cross-bridge detachment steps during full Ca2+ activation: comparison of myofibril and muscle fibre mechanics by sinusoidal analysis  

PubMed Central

Single myofibrils 50–60 ?m in length and 2–3 ?m in diameter were isolated from rabbit psoas muscle fibres, and cross-bridge kinetics were studied by small perturbations of the length (?0.2%) over a range of 15 frequencies (1–250 Hz). The experiments were performed at 15°C in the presence of 0.05–10 mm MgATP, 8 mm phosphate (Pi), 200 mm ionic strength with KAc (acetate), pCa 4.35–4.65, and pH 7.0. Two exponential processes, B and C, were resolved in tension transients. Their apparent rate constants (2?b and 2?c) increased as the [MgATP] was raised from 0.05 mm to 1 mm, and then reached saturation at [MgATP] ? 1. Given that these rate constants were similar (c/b?1.7) at [Pi]? 4 mm, they were combined to achieve an accurate estimate of the kinetic constants: their sum and product were analysed as functions of [MgATP]. These analyses yielded K1= 2.91 ± 0.31 mm?1, k2= 288 ± 36 s?1, and k?2= 10 ± 21 s?1 (±95% confidence limit, n= 13 preparations), based on the cross-bridge model: AM+ATP ? (step 1) AM.ATP ? (step 2) A+M.ATP, where K1 is the ATP association constant (step 1), k2 is the rate constant of the cross-bridge detachment (step 2), and k?2 is the rate constant of its reversal step. These kinetic constants are respectively comparable to those observed in single fibres from rabbit psoas (K1= 2.35 ± 0.31 mm?1, k2= 243 ± 22 s?1, and k?2= 6 ± 14 s?1; n= 8 preparations) when analysed by the same methods and under the same experimental conditions. These values are respectively not significantly different from those obtained in myofibrils, indicating that the same kinetic constants can be deduced from myofibril and muscle fibre studies, in terms of ATP binding and cross-bridge detachments steps. The fact that K1 in myofibrils is 1.2 times that in fibres (P? 0.05) may be explained by a small concentration gradient of ATP, ADP and/or Pi in single fibres.

Iorga, Bogdan; Wang, Li; Stehle, Robert; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Kawai, Masataka

2012-01-01

278

Identification of differentially expressed proteins by treatment with PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through analysis of ATP-binding proteome.  

PubMed

O-GlcNAc (2-acetamino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranose), an important modification for cellular processes, is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) is a nonselective inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, which increases the level of protein O-GlcNAcylation and is known to induce insulin-resistance in adipose cells due to uncharacterized targets of this inhibitor. In this study, using ATP affinity chromatography, we applied a targeted proteomic approach for identification of proteins induced by treatment with PUGNAc. For optimization of proteomic methods using ATP affinity chromatography, comparison of two cell lines (3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes) and two different digestion steps was performed using four different structures of immobilized ATP-bound resins. Using this approach, based on DNA sequence homologies, we found that the identified proteins covered almost half of ATP-binding protein families classified by PROSITE. The optimized ATP affinity chromatography approach was applied for identification of proteins that were differentially expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes following treatment with PUGNAc. For label-free quantitation, a gel-assisted method was used for digestion of the eluted proteins, and analysis was performed using two different MS modes, data-independent (671 proteins identified) and data-dependent (533 proteins identified) analyses. Among identified proteins, 261 proteins belong to nucleotide-binding proteins and we focused on some nucleotide-binding proteins, ubiquitin-activation enzyme 1 (E1), Hsp70, vasolin-containing protein (Vcp), and Hsp90, involved in ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and insulin signaling pathways. In addition, we found that treatment with PUGNAc resulted in increased ubiquitination of proteins in a time-dependent manner, and a decrease in both the amount of Akt and the level of phosphorylation of Akt, a key component in insulin signaling, through downregulation of Hsp90. In this study, based on a targeted proteomic approach using ATP affinity chromatography, we found four proteins related to ubiquitination and insulin signaling pathways that were induced by treatment with PUGNAc. This result would provide insight into understanding functions of PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23946262

Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Ja-Hye; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Baek, Moon-Chang

2013-10-01

279

Reducing the weight of the ECL cassette  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To model the EC-L portal film cassette to understand how its weight could be reduced without compromising image quality.Methods and Materials: The BEAM99 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate a 6-MV X-ray beam impinging on a water phantom 15 or 40 cm thick and subsequently reaching image receptors of different designs. The image receptor model included the front

Peter Munro; Matt Mulligan

2002-01-01

280

Conformations of the apo-, substrate-bound and phosphate-bound ATP-binding domain of the Cu(II) ATPase CopB illustrate coupling of domain movement to the catalytic cycle  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal P1B-type ATPases play a critical role in cell survival by maintaining appropriate intracellular metal concentrations. Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopB is a member of this family that transports Cu(II) from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell using ATP as energy source. CopB has a 264 amino acid ATPBD (ATP-binding domain) that is essential for ATP binding and hydrolysis as well as ultimately transducing the energy to the transmembrane metal-binding site for metal occlusion and export. The relevant conformations of this domain during the different steps of the catalytic cycle are still under discussion. Through crystal structures of the apo- and phosphate-bound ATPBDs, with limited proteolysis and fluorescence studies of the apo- and substrate-bound states, we show that the isolated ATPBD of CopB cycles from an open conformation in the apo-state to a closed conformation in the substrate-bound state, then returns to an open conformation suitable for product release. The present work is the first structural report of an ATPBD with its physiologically relevant product (phosphate) bound. The solution studies we have performed help resolve questions on the potential influence of crystal packing on domain conformation. These results explain how phosphate is co-ordinated in ATPase transporters and give an insight into the physiologically relevant conformation of the ATPBD at different steps of the catalytic cycle.

Jayakanthan, Samuel; Roberts, Sue A.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Arguello, Jose M.; McEvoy, Megan M.

2012-01-01

281

A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

Britton Wayne E.

2006-11-29

282

A portable analyzer for pouch-actuated, immunoassay cassettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress

Xianbo Qiu; Changchun Liu; Michael G. Mauk; Robert W. Hart; Dafeng Chen; Jing Qiu; Terry Kientz; Jonathan Fiene; Haim H. Bau

283

Captioned Video Cassettes: A Source of Reading Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reflecting the popularity of television viewing, the use of captioned video cassettes bridges the gap between "televiewing" and reading, and can be used to improve the reading skills of college students, who see these materials as helpful in improving concentration, mental imagery, speed, and comprehension. Cassettes, either of captioned foreign…

Maginnis, George H.

284

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a catalytic and ATP-binding domain of a putative PhoR histidine kinase from the ?-radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans  

PubMed Central

The gene product of histidine kinase DR2244 (putative phoR) encoded by Deinococcus radiodurans has been suggested to be involved in the PhoR–PhoB two-component regulatory system. This two-component signalling system is activated upon phosphate starvation in several bacteria, including D. radiodurans. Single crystals were obtained from a recombinant preparation of the catalytic/ATP-binding (CA) domain of D. radiodurans PhoR (79–224) overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 46.9, b = 81.8, c = 204.6?Å. The crystals contained six molecules in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to 2.4?Å resolution on beamline ID23-2 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility.

Caria, S.; de Sanctis, D.; Enguita, F. J.; McSweeney, S.

2010-01-01

285

Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression of the Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (lux) in a Mammalian Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette consists of five genes (luxCDABE) whose protein products synergistically generate bioluminescent light signals exclusive of supplementary substrate additions or exogenous manipulations. Historically expressible only in prokaryotes, the lux operon was re-synthesized through a process of multi-bicistronic, codon-optimization to demonstrate for the first time self-directed bioluminescence emission in a mammalian HEK293 cell line in vitro

Dan M. Close; Stacey S. Patterson; Steven Ripp; Seung J. Baek; John Sanseverino; Gary S. Sayler

2010-01-01

286

Apparatus and method for loading and unloading multiple digital tape cassettes utilizing a removable magazine  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method to automate the handling of multiple digital tape cassettes for processing by commercially available cassette tape readers and recorders. A removable magazine rack stores a plurality of tape cassettes, and cooperates with a shuttle device that automatically inserts and removes cassettes from the magazine to the reader and vice-versa. Photocells are used to identify and index to the desired tape cassette. The apparatus allows digital information stored on multiple cassettes to be processed without significant operator intervention.

Lindenmeyer, C.W.

1993-01-26

287

Structural Diversity of Class 1 Integrons and Their Associated Gene Cassettes in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from a Hospital in China  

PubMed Central

Background Klebsiella pneumoniae strains carrying class 1 integrons are becoming more common worldwide, and their role in the dissemination of drug resistance is significant. The aim of this study was to characterize the structural diversity of class 1 integrons and their associated gene cassettes in K. pneumoniae isolates from hospital settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a total of 176 K. pneumoniae isolates in a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing, China for the period of November 1, 2010-October 31, 2011. The presence of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes was analyzed by PCR and sequencing. The prevalence of class 1 integrons was 51.1% (90/176). Fourteen different gene cassettes and 10 different gene cassette arrays were detected. dfrA and aadA cassettes were predominant and cassette combination dfrA1-orfC was most frequently found (13.6%, 24/176). Strong association between resistance to a variety of drugs (both phenotypes and the associated genes) and the presence of class 1 integrons was observed. In addition, we also identified an association between some previously identified prevalent sequence types (such as ST11, ST15, ST147, ST562, and ST716) and the presence of class 1 integrons. Conclusions/Significance Data from this study demonstrated that class 1 integrons are highly diverse and are associated with a variety of drug resistance phenotypes, drug resistance genes, as well as genotypes among K. pneumoniae isolates. Continuous monitoring of gene cassettes in class 1 integrons is warranted to improve the understanding and control of drug resistance among hospital settings.

Yi, Yong; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Jing, Hua; Zhu, Baoli; Liu, Cui Hua

2013-01-01

288

Replicative resolution of integron cassette insertion  

PubMed Central

Site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases follows a common pathway consisting of two consecutive strand exchanges. The first strand exchange generates a Holliday junction (HJ), which is resolved by a second strand exchange. In integrons, attC sites recombine as folded single-stranded substrates. Only one of the two attC site strands, the bottom one, is efficiently bound and cleaved by the integrase during the insertion of gene cassettes at the double-stranded attI site. Due to the asymmetry of this complex, a second strand exchange on the attC bottom strand (bs) would form linearized abortive recombination products. We had proposed that HJ resolution would rely on an uncharacterized mechanism, probably replication. Using an attC site carried on a plasmid with each strand specifically tagged, we followed the destiny of each strand after recombination. We demonstrated that only one strand, the one carrying the attC bs, is exchanged. Furthermore, we show that the recombination products contain the attC site bs and its entire de novo synthesized complementary strand. Therefore, we demonstrate the replicative resolution of single-strand recombination in integrons and rule out the involvement of a second strand exchange of any kind in the attC?×?attI reaction.

Loot, Celine; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Escudero, Jose Antonio; Bouvier, Marie; Mazel, Didier

2012-01-01

289

The Ohio Cassette Book Project; An Investigation of User Satisfaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine the effectiveness and acceptability of cassette books for blind and physically handicapped readers. Commissioned by the Ohio State Library, an interview survey was conducted to 300 diversified users from the Cleveland and Cin...

G. M. Casey

1973-01-01

290

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

291

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

292

The local shear buckling of thin-walled cassettes infilled by rigid insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research described in this paper has direct practical application to cassette wall construction. A series of tests on cold-formed steel cassettes (sometimes also known as structural liner trays) loaded in shear are described. Both empty cassettes and also cassettes infilled by lightweight insulation were tested. There are a number of suitable rigid insulants used in practice, such as polyurethane,

J. Michael Davies; Athanasios S. Fragos

2004-01-01

293

Replacement of lys 622 in the ATP binding domain of P100gag-mil abolishes the in vitro autophosphorylation of the protein and the biological properties of the v-mil oncogene of MH2 virus.  

PubMed Central

Lysine 622 in the ATP-binding domain of P100gag-mil, the translation product of the v-mil oncogene of MH2, has been replaced with methionine using oligonucleotide site-directed mutagenesis. This substitution results in the inactivation of the serine/threonine-specific autophosphorylation of P100gag-mil in vitro, indicating that this activity is an intrinsic property of the viral protein. This substitution also suppresses two of the biological properties of MH2 which have previously been shown to be dependant upon the expression of v-mil, namely, the production of chicken myelomonocytic growth factor (cMGF) by v-myc-transformed chicken macrophages and the sustained proliferation of chicken neuroretina cells. These data strongly suggest that the biological properties of v-mil are mediated by the phosphorylation at serine/threonine residues of key cellular substrates. In contrast to the in vitro situation, both the mutant and wild-type proteins appear to be phosphorylated at the same sites and to the same extent in either transformed fibroblasts or macrophages. This, together with the fact that the sites phosphorylated in vivo and in vitro are essentially different indicate that most of the phosphate associated with P100gag-mil in transformed cells does not result from an obligate autophosphorylation event but from the phosphorylation by as yet uncharacterized cellular kinase(s). Images

Denhez, F; Heimann, B; d'Auriol, L; Graf, T; Coquillaud, M; Coll, J; Galibert, F; Moelling, K; Stehelin, D; Ghysdael, J

1988-01-01

294

ATP utilization by yeast replication factor C. III. The ATP-binding domains of Rfc2, Rfc3, and Rfc4 are essential for DNA recognition and clamp loading.  

PubMed

The conserved lysine in the Walker A motif of the ATP-binding domain encoded by the yeast RFC1, RFC2, RFC3, and RFC4 genes was mutated to glutamic acid. Complexes of replication factor C with a N-terminal truncation (Delta2-273) of the Rfc1 subunit (RFC) containing a single mutant subunit were overproduced in Escherichia coli for biochemical analysis. All of the mutant RFC complexes were capable of interacting with PCNA. Complexes containing a rfc1-K359E mutation were similar to wild type in replication activity and ATPase activity; however, the mutant complex showed increased susceptibility to proteolysis. In contrast, complexes containing either a rfc2-K71E mutation or a rfc3-K59E mutation were severely impaired in ATPase and clamp loading activity. In addition to their defects in ATP hydrolysis, these complexes were defective for DNA binding. A mutant complex containing the rfc4-K55E mutation performed as well as a wild type complex in clamp loading, but only at very high ATP concentrations. Mutant RFC complexes containing rfc2-K71R or rfc3-K59R, carrying a conservative lysine --> arginine mutation, had much milder clamp loading defects that could be partially (rfc2-K71R) or completely (rfc3-K59R) suppressed at high ATP concentrations. PMID:11432854

Schmidt, S L; Gomes, X V; Burgers, P M

2001-06-29

295

Transcription, Processing, and Function of CRISPR Cassettes in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

CRISPR/Cas, bacterial and archaeal systems of interference with foreign genetic elements such as viruses or plasmids, consist of DNA loci called CRISPR cassettes (a set of variable spacers regularly separated by palindromic repeats) and associated cas genes. When a CRISPR spacer sequence exactly matches a sequence in a viral genome, the cell can become resistant to the virus. The CRISPR/Cas systems function through small RNAs originating from longer CRISPR cassette transcripts. While laboratory strains of Escherichia coli contain a functional CRISPR/Cas system (as judged by appearance of phage resistance at conditions of artificial co-overexpression of Cas genes and a CRISPR cassette engineered to target a ? phage), no natural phage resistance due to CRISPR system function was observed in this best-studied organism and no E. coli CRISPR spacer matches sequences of well-studied E. coli phages. To better understand the apparently “silent” E. coli CRISPR/Cas system, we systematically characterized processed transcripts from CRISPR cassettes. Using an engineered strain with genomically located spacer matching phage ? we show that endogenous levels of CRISPR cassette and cas genes expression allow only weak protection against infection with the phage. However, derepression of the CRISPR/Cas system by disruption of the hns gene leads to high level of protection.

Pougach, Ksenia; Semenova, Ekaterina; Bogdanova, Ekaterina; Datsenko, Kirill A.; Djordjevic, Marko; Wanner, Barry L.; Severinov, Konstantin

2010-01-01

296

Rapid hierarchical assembly of medium-size DNA cassettes  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology applications call for efficient methods to generate large gene cassettes that encode complex gene circuits in order to avoid simultaneous delivery of multiple plasmids encoding individual genes. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this goal. Here, we describe a novel protocol that allows one-step cloning of up to four gene-size DNA fragments, followed by a second assembly of these concatenated sequences into large circular DNA. The protocols described here comprise a simple, cheap and fast solution for routine construction of cassettes with up to 10 gene-size components.

Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan Leo; Xie, Zhen; Frank, Stefan; Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Mitschka, Sibylle; Kolanus, Waldemar; Murray, Andrew; Benenson, Yaakov

2012-01-01

297

DIY series of genetic cassettes useful in construction of versatile vectors specific for Alphaproteobacteria.  

PubMed

We have developed a DIY (Do It Yourself) series of genetic cassettes, which facilitate construction of novel versatile vectors for Alphaproteobacteria. All the cassettes are based on defined genetic modules derived from three natural plasmids of Paracoccus aminophilus JCM 7686. We have constructed over 50 DIY cassettes, which differ in structure and specific features. All of them are functional in eight strains representing three orders of Alphaproteobacteria: Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales and Caulobacterales. Besides various replication and stabilization systems, many of the cassettes also contain selective markers appropriate for Alphaproteobacteria (40 cassettes) and genetic modules responsible for mobilization for conjugal transfer (24 cassettes). All the DIY cassettes are bordered by different types of polylinkers, which facilitate vector construction. Using these DIY cassettes, we have created a set of compatible Escherichia coli-Alphaproteobacteria mobilizable shuttle vectors (high or low copy number in E. coli), which will greatly assist the genetic manipulation of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:21569803

Dziewit, Lukasz; Adamczuk, Marcin; Szuplewska, Magdalena; Bartosik, Dariusz

2011-05-03

298

Directory of Spoken-Voice Audio-Cassettes, 1972.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most listings in this catalog, which draws on many sources of production and is not a guide to one company's output, are for programs of college or adult level interest, with the exception of the "Careers" listings, geared toward high school students. The catalog also has lists of producers of children's cassettes and those designed for school…

McKee, Gerald, Ed.

299

Library Voices; Cassette Conversations in a Tape Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposal is made for an exchange of cassette tapes from librarians, teachers, and students between Palo Alto, California, and Queensland, Australia. The objectives of the project are to help children and adults from both countries to form a closer understanding, and to stimulate and share thoughts and ideas. Suggested activities include singing,…

Christine, Emma Ruth

300

Investigation of human sexual response using a cassette recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cassette recorder (Medilog miniature analogue tape recorder) initially developed for prolonged recording of ECG and EEG has been adapted for monitoring physiological change during sexual response. The recorder is small, portable, and reliable. Recording can be done by the subject in private. By avoiding the problem of invasion of privacy, it may prove practical to obtain data from patients

P. M. Sarrel; J. Foddy; J. B. McKinnon

1977-01-01

301

Reaching Out: The Role of Audio Cassette Communication in Rural Development. Occasional Paper 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the state-of-the-art of audio cassette technology (ACT) and reports findings from field tests, case studies, and pilot projects in several countries which demonstrate the potential of audio cassettes as a medium for communicating with rural people. Specific guidance is also offered on how a project can use cassettes as a…

Adhikarya, Ronny; Colle, Royal D.

302

Regulation of transcription in expressed and unexpressed mating type cassettes of yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes that control the a, alpha and a\\/alpha cell types in Saccharomyces are carried on transposable elements known as a and alpha cassettes which reside at three different chromosomal loci. Examination of the transcripts by R-looping and filter hybridization indicates that each cassette is capable of producing two divergent transcripts. Cassettes at the MAT locus are transcribed constitutively. Transcription

Amar J. S. Klar; Jeffrey N. Strathern; James R. Broach; James B. Hicks

1981-01-01

303

A chloride-inducible gene expression cassette and its use in induced lysis of Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

A chloride-inducible promoter previously isolated from the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis (J. W. Sanders, G. Venema, J. Kok, and K. Leenhouts, Mol. Gen. Genet., in press) was exploited for the inducible expression of homologous and heterologous genes. An expression cassette consisting of the positive-regulator gene gadR, the chloride-inducible promoter Pgad, and the translation initiation signals of gadC was amplified by PCR. The cassette was cloned upstream of Escherichia coli lacZ, the holin-lysin cassette (lytPR) of the lactococcal bacteriophage r1t, and the autolysin gene of L. lactis, acmA. Basal activity of Pgad resulted in a low level of expression of all three proteins. Growth in the presence of 0.5 M NaCl of a strain containing the gadC::lacZ fusion resulted in a 1,500-fold increase of beta-galactosidase activity. The background activity levels of LytPR and AcmA had no deleterious effects on cell growth, but induction of lysin expression by addition of 0.5 M NaCl resulted in inhibition of growth. Lysis was monitored by following the release of the cytoplasmic marker enzyme PepX. Released PepX activity was maximal at 1 day after induction of lytPR expression with 0.1 M NaCl. Induction of acmA expression resulted in slower release of PepX from the cells. The presence of the inducing agent NaCl resulted in the stabilization of osmotically fragile cells. PMID:9406408

Sanders, J W; Venema, G; Kok, J

1997-12-01

304

Catalog of 605 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 13 genes encoding human ATP-binding cassette transporters: ABCA4, ABCA7, ABCA8, ABCD1, ABCD3, ABCD4, ABCE1, ABCF1, ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at some gene loci are useful as markers of individual risk for adverse drug reactions or susceptibility to complex diseases. We have been focusing on identifying SNPs in and around genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, and have constructed several high-density SNP maps of such regions. Here we report SNPs at additional loci, specifically 13 genes belonging

Aritoshi Iida; Susumu Saito; Akihiro Sekine; Chihiro Mishima; Yuri Kitamura; Kimie Kondo; Satoko Harigae; Saori Osawa; Yusuke Nakamura

2002-01-01

305

Molecular models of human P-glycoprotein in two different catalytic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette proteins which hydrolyze ATP to catalyse the translocation of their substrates through membranes. This protein extrudes a large range of components out of cells, especially therapeutic agents causing a phenomenon known as multidrug resistance. Because of its clinical interest, its activity and transport function have been largely characterized by various biochemical

Jean-Paul Becker; Grégoire Depret; Françoise Van Bambeke; Paul M Tulkens; Martine Prévost

2009-01-01

306

Hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a specific ABC transporter gene expression profile clearly distinct from other stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect cells against unrelated (toxic) substances by pumping them across cell membranes. Earlier we showed that many ABC transporters are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compared to more committed progenitor cells. The ABC transporter expression signature may guarantee lifelong protection of HSCs but may also preserve stem cell integrity by extrusion of agents

Leilei Tang; Saskia M Bergevoet; Christian Gilissen; Theo de Witte; Joop H Jansen; Bert A van der Reijden; Reinier AP Raymakers

2010-01-01

307

Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. RESULTS: Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes

Pauli V Luoma

2010-01-01

308

THE REAL ISSUE WITH WALL DEPOSITS IN CLOSED FILTER CASSETTES - WHAT'S THE SAMPLE?  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of aerosol dusts has long been utilized to assess the exposure of workers to metals. Tools used to sample and measure aerosol dusts have gone through many transitions over the past century. In particular, there have been several different techniques used to sample for beryllium, not all of which might be expected to produce the same result. Today, beryllium samples are generally collected using filters housed in holders of several different designs, some of which are expected to produce a sample that mimics the human capacity for dust inhalation. The presence of dust on the interior walls of cassettes used to hold filters during metals sampling has been discussed in the literature for a number of metals, including beryllium, with widely varying data. It appears that even in the best designs, particulates can enter the sampling cassette and deposit on the interior walls rather than on the sampling medium. The causes are not well understood but are believed to include particle bounce, electrostatic forces, particle size, particle density, and airflow turbulence. Historically, the filter catch has been considered to be the sample, but the presence of wall deposits, and the potential that the filter catch is not representative of the exposure to the worker, puts that historical position into question. This leads to a fundamental question: What is the sample? This article reviews the background behind the issue, poses the above-mentioned question, and discusses options and a possible path forward for addressing that question.

Brisson, M.

2009-09-12

309

Pouring and running a protein gel by reusing commercial cassettes.  

PubMed

The evaluation of proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis is a common technique used by biochemistry and molecular biology researchers. For laboratories that perform daily analyses of proteins, the cost of commercially available polyacrylamide gels (~$10/gel) can be considerable over time. To mitigate this cost, some researchers prepare their own polyacrylamide gels. Traditional methods of pouring these gels typically utilize specialized equipment and glass gel plates that can be expensive and preclude pouring many gels and storing them for future use. Furthermore, handling of glass plates during cleaning or gel pouring can result in accidental breakage creating a safety hazard, which may preclude their use in undergraduate laboratory classes. Our protocol demonstrates how to pour multiple protein gels simultaneously by recycling Invitrogen Nupage Novex minigel cassettes, and inexpensive materials purchased at a home improvement store. This economical and streamlined method includes a way to store the gels at 4°C for a few weeks. By re-using the plastic gel cassettes from commercially available gels, labs that run frequent protein gels can save significant costs and help the environment. In addition, plastic gel cassettes are extremely resistant to breakage, which makes them ideal for undergraduate laboratory classrooms. PMID:22349047

Hwang, Alexander C; Grey, Paris H; Cuddy, Katrina; Oppenheimer, David G

2012-02-12

310

Background Information  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Background Information ... These have been labeled to remove fluid from patients suffering from volume overload. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

311

[The determination of suitable film-screen cassette combinations for orthodontic x-ray technics].  

PubMed

16 film-screen cassette combinations (FSCC) were compared with regard to their detail sharpness and the radiation dose required. After standard adjustment to a uniform average optical density, the contrast and detail were analysed using a self-constructed microdensitometer. The following results were found; on average there is a 14.5% dose reduction using carbon fiber cassettes compared with aluminium cassettes. FSCC with especially low exposure time are: Cronex 2, fast detail, Du Pont (0.4 sec); Cronex 2, NPU, carbon fiber cassettes (0.5 sec); Curix RP1, NPU, carbon fiber cassettes (0.64 sec). The loss of quality associated with this and measured with the microdensitometer is insignificant for clinical orthodontic purposes. This study concludes that differences in contrast and detail do not justify the use of cassette combinations which require a high dose of radiation. PMID:2373449

Fischer-Brandies, H; Lindner, K

1990-06-01

312

Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same  

SciTech Connect

Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

2012-10-23

313

The cost-effectiveness of carbon-fibre cassettes in mobile chest radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Employment of carbon fibre materials is an effective method of reducing radiation dose, yet the increased associated costs\\u000a have led to a reluctance in implementation. This study investigates the level of dose reduction achievable, while maintaining\\u000a image quality, in mobile chest radiography using carbon-fibre cassettes, compared with plastic cassettes, and balances this\\u000a against increased expense of the cassettes. Dose

P. C. Brennan; S. P. Hourihan

1998-01-01

314

A New Class of Genetic Element, Staphylococcus Cassette Chromosome mec, Encodes Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown that the methicillin-resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus strain N315 is localized within a large (52-kb) DNA cassette (designated the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)) inserted in the chromosome. By sequence determination of the entire DNA, we identified two novel genes (designated cassette chromosome recombinase genes (ccrA and ccrB)) encoding polypeptides having a partial homology to

Y. Katayama; T. Ito; K. Hiramatsu

2000-01-01

315

Versatile co-expression of graft-protective proteins using 2A-linked cassettes  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of multiple graft-protective proteins targeted to different locations (i.e., intracellular, cell surface, and secreted) has become an increasingly important goal in xenotransplantation. The 2A “ribosome skip” signal is used as a linker to enable transgene co-expression, but some studies have shown that post-translational modification and trafficking of 2A-linked proteins may be adversely affected depending on their position relative to 2A. We tested whether several relevant proteins, subject to a range of processing and localization mechanisms, could be efficiently co-expressed using the 2A system. Methods Six expression cassettes were constructed, each containing up to four 2A-linked open reading frames, encoding combinations of human CD55, thrombomodulin (TBM), CD39, CTLA4-Ig and hygromycin resistance. Each linker incorporated a furin cleavage site to remove the carboxy-terminal extension that remains on upstream proteins after 2A processing. The cassettes were used to produce vectors for transfection, adenoviral transduction and transgenesis. Expression was detected by flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. Results All proteins were expressed in the appropriate location following transient transfection of COS-7 cells, irrespective of the number of linked genes. The percentage of stable transfectants expressing a linked gene was increased 10-fold (from 4–5% to 58–67%) by incorporating the hygromycin resistance gene into the cassette. Stable transfection of transgenic GalT KO pig fibroblasts with a hygromycin- TBM-CD39 construct resulted in surface expression of both TBM and CD39 by the majority of hygromycin-resistant cells. Expression was maintained after flow cytometric sorting and expansion. Adenoviral transduction of NIT-1 mouse insulinoma cells with a TBM-CD39 construct resulted in strong expression of both genes on the cell surface. Mice transgenic for 3-gene (CD55- TBM-CD39) or 4-gene (CD55- TBM-CTLA4Ig-CD39) constructs expressed all genes except CD55. Conclusions These results confirm the versatility of the 2A system, and demonstrate that careful construct design can minimize potential problems with post-translational modification and trafficking. In addition, incorporation of a selection marker into the 2A-linked chain can dramatically increase the proportion of stable transfectants expressing proteins of interest. This provides a powerful method for the rapid modification of existing genetically modified pigs.

Fisicaro, Nella; Londrigan, Sarah L.; Brady, Jamie L.; Salvaris, Evelyn; Nottle, Mark B.; O'Connell, Philip J.; Robson, Simon C.; d'Apice, Anthony J. F.; Lew, Andrew M.; Cowan, Peter J.

2013-01-01

316

An AC electrokinetics facilitated biosensor cassette for rapid pathogen identification.  

PubMed

To develop a portable point-of-care system based on biosensors for common infectious diseases such as urinary tract infection, the sensing process needs to be implemented within an enclosed fluidic system. On chip sample preparation of clinical samples remains a significant obstacle to achieving robust sensor performance. Herein AC electrokinetics is applied in an electrochemical biosensor cassette to enhance molecular convection and hybridization efficiency through electrokinetics induced fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation. Using E. coli as an exemplary pathogen, we determined the optimal electrokinetic parameters for detecting bacterial 16S rRNA in the biosensor cassette based on the current output, signal-to-noise ratio, and limit of detection. In addition, a panel of six probe sets targeting common uropathogenic bacteria was demonstrated. The optimized parameters were also validated using patient-derived clinical urine samples. The effectiveness of electrokinetics for on chip sample preparation will facilitate the implementation of point-of-care diagnosis of urinary tract infection in the future. PMID:23626988

Ouyang, Mengxing; Mohan, Ruchika; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Mach, Kathleen E; Sin, Mandy L Y; McComb, Mason; Joshi, Janhvi; Gau, Vincent; Wong, Pak Kin; Liao, Joseph C

2013-07-01

317

Cassette Sound Filmstrip Viewers -- Evaluations of Nine Machines. An In Depth Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In evaluating cassette sound filmstrip viewers, many criteria are the same as those applied to cassette recorders in Educational Product Report; v7 n5 Nov '73 and silent filmstrip viewers in Educational Product Report; v6 n5 Feb '73. These criteria cover output power; frequency response; tape speed accuracy including drift, wow, and flutter; and…

Educational Product Report, 1974

1974-01-01

318

Diversity of Gene Cassette Promoter Variants of Class 1 Integrons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Class 1 integrons play important roles in the emergence and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. The gene cassette promoter variants Pc or Pc-P2 of class 1 integrons not only drive the transcription of downstream gene cassettes, they also correlate with the excision and integration efficiency of the capture exogenous gene cassettes. In this study, the diversity of Pc or Pc-P2 variants of class 1 integrons and their association with antibiotic resistance phenotypes were analyzed in 132 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Class 1 integrons were detected in 95 (72 %) strains. Sixteen different gene cassettes, 11 different gene cassette arrays and six different Pc or Pc-P2 variants were detected. The most prevalent gene cassettes were those that conferred resistance to trimethoprim, aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol. The most prevalent promoter was PcH1, a relatively weak promoter. Certain gene cassette arrays or gene cassettes were mainly associated with the same Pc or Pc-P2 in different strains. Strains harboring class 1 integrons with relatively strong promoters had higher resistance rates to, or higher MIC50 for, amikacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin than those with relatively weak promoters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the diversity of class 1 integron Pc or Pc-P2 variants in uropathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:23743598

Wei, Quhao; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Min; Li, Gang; Hu, Qingfeng; Lu, Huoxiang; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yonglie; Lu, Yuan

2013-06-07

319

Motion Pictures and Video Cassettes 1971. AV-USA Supplement 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The financial status of the motion picture and of the video cassette industry in 1970 are reviewed. Based on production rates and income of these industries, trends are discovered. Figures on local origination of television programing and commercials are also included. The section on video cassettes includes the following information: the current…

Hope, Thomas W.

320

Increased Maintenance and Persistence of Transgenes by Excision of Expression Cassettes from Plasmid Sequences In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistence of transgene expression is a major limitation for nonvirus-mediated gene therapy approaches. We have suggested that covalent linkage of bacterial DNA to the expression cassette plays a critical role in tran- scriptional silencing of transgenes in vivo. To gain insight into the role of the covalent linkage of plasmid DNA to the expression cassette and transcriptional repression, and whether

Efren Riu; Dirk Grimm; Zan Huang; Mark A. Kay

2005-01-01

321

Molecular characterization of class 1 integrons and gene cassettes in multidrug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. isolated from hospitalized and outpatients in Iran, 2009  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Klebsiella species are of the most common bacteria involved in nosocomial and urinary tract infections. Genetic elements such as class 1 integrons have an important role in the resistance development. In this study, the share of class 1 integrons, the genetic characterization of the integron cassettes and PFGE profiles of the clinical Klebsiella isolates are evaluated in Besat University hospital of Sanandaj, Iran. Methods Isolates from 17890 clinical specimens were identified by API20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and MIC were done for MDR isolates. For investigating class 1 integrons and gene cassettes, PCR by intI1 integrase and 5’-CS/3’-CS were performed. Integrated gene cassettes were analyzed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis was carried out for studying of clonality outbreak of isolates. Results Thirty five Klebsiella spp. were isolated and included 29 K. pneumoniae and 6 K. oxytoca. All the isolates were susceptible to carbapenems while other antibiotics showed high resistant profile. In all Klebsiella spp. PCR for intI1 integrase and 5’-CS/3’-CS were positive (100%). Sequencing for prevalent bands of internal variable regions between 5’-CS/3’-CS showed arr-5, orfD-aacA4 and aad5- dfrA17. PFGE Analysis showed 18 clusters in K. pneumoniae with clonality relatedness in some cases but no relatedness among K. oxytoca isolates. Conclusion High prevalence of class 1 integron carrying gene cassettes confirms that integron-mediated antimicrobial gene cassettes are important in Klebsiella spp. resistance profile. Clone diffusions of MDR Klebsiella spp. which harbor class 1 integrons have threaten the potential in the resistance development in our clinical settings.

Salimizand, Himen; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Kalantar, Enayatollah; Badmasti, Farzad

2013-01-01

322

Class 1 integron gene cassettes in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in southern China.  

PubMed

Non-duplicate multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (n=1447) isolated from January 2008 to December 2009 were investigated for the presence of integrons as well as characterisation of gene cassettes. Among 825 strains carrying the class 1 integrase gene intI1, 461 gene cassette-positive isolates were found. Thirty-eight distinct gene cassette arrays were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing analyses. In addition, several novel gene cassette arrays detected in this study were reported for the first time in some species: one in Escherichia coli, six in Klebsiella pneumoniae, six in Enterobacter cloacae, three in Enterobacter aerogenes, one in Proteus mirabilis, one in Acinetobacter spp., one in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and one in Pseudomonas putida. Among them, three cassettes, including HAD-like, ?MFS-1 and qnrVC-like genes, were originally detected in integrons. PMID:22817917

Wu, Kuihai; Wang, Fengping; Sun, Jingjing; Wang, Qian; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Rui, Yongyu

2012-07-19

323

Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module  

PubMed Central

Background The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Conclusions/Significance Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Leo, Rosa Di; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H. W.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

2011-01-01

324

A novel dihydrofolate reductase cassette inserted in an integron borne on a Tn21-like element.  

PubMed Central

In this study, a 498-bp dhfrXII gene coding for trimethoprim resistance was found inserted in a cassette-like manner in the recombinationally active locus, the integron, borne on a transposon Tn21-like element. The dhfrXII cassette is distinct from those cassettes earlier observed in integrons and was found here upstream of two similarly inserted cassettes. The second one carried the new unidentified orfF, which is 85% identical to the orfD cassette in R46. The third cassette contained the aadA2 gene mediating spectinomycin resistance. The plasmid carrying this Tn21-like element was originally isolated from a trimethoprim-resistant urinary tract pathogen, Escherichia coli, from Turku City Hospital, Turku, Finland. By colony hybridization and polymerase chain reaction, this group of three cassettes, including dhfrXII, was detected in four additional E. coli strains of similar origin and in four Shigella strains isolated in Finland but originating from Asia. The dihydrofolate reductase produced from dhfrXII showed an unusual drug resistance in that 50% of the enzymatic activity remained at a trimethoprim concentration of 1 mM.

Heikkila, E; Skurnik, M; Sundstrom, L; Huovinen, P

1993-01-01

325

The use of carbon fibre material in radiographic cassettes: estimation of the dose and contrast advantages.  

PubMed

A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to estimate the dose and contrast advantages of replacing radiographic cassette fronts fabricated from aluminium with cassette fronts fabricated from low atomic number material (carbon fibre). The simulation used a realistic imaging geometry and calculations were made both with and without an anti-scatter grid. Account was taken of the scatter generated in the cassette front and the effect of beam hardening on primary contrast. Dose and contrast were evaluated for a range of cassette front thicknesses and tube potentials (60-150 kV) as well as for four examinations representative of situations with varying amounts of scatter. The results with an anti-scatter grid show a clear dose and contrast advantage in all cases when an aluminium cassette front is replaced with a low attenuation cassette front. The contrast advantage is dependent upon the examination and is generally greater for imaging bony structures than for imaging soft tissue. If a 1.74 mm aluminium cassette front is compared with a 1.1 mm carbon fibre cassette front, then the dose advantages are 16%, 9%, 8% and 6% and the contrast advantages are 10%, 7%, 4% and 5% for the AP paediatric pelvis examination at 60 kV, the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine examination at 80 kV, the lateral lumbar spine examination at 100 kV and the posteroanterior (PA) chest examination at 150 kV, respectively. The results without an anti-scatter grid show an increased dose advantage when a low attenuation cassette front is used, but the contrast advantage is small and in some situations negative. PMID:9166075

Dance, D R; Lester, S A; Carlsson, G A; Sandborg, M; Persliden, J

1997-04-01

326

Improved antibiotic resistance gene cassette for marker exchange mutagenesis in Ralstonia solanacearum and Burkholderia species.  

PubMed

Marker exchange mutagenesis is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function at a molecular level in bacteria. New plasmids carrying a kanamycin resistance gene or a trimethoprim resistance gene were constructed to provide antibiotic resistance cassettes for marker exchange mutagenesis in Ralstonia solanacearum and many antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia spp. Insertion sequences present in the flanking sequences of the antibiotic resistance cassette were removed to prevent aberrant gene replacement and polar mutation during mutagenesis in wild-type bacteria. Plasmids provided in this study would be convenient for use in gene cassettes for gene replacement in other Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21538255

Um, Hae Young; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Lee, Seon-Woo

2011-05-03

327

Radiation exposure reduction by use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal nursery  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine whether the use of Kevlar cassettes in the neonatal intensive care nursery would reduce radiation exposure to patients. The radiation dose to the neonates was measured by using thermoluminescent dosimeters. In addition, the attenuation of the Kevlar cassettes and the sensitivity of the film-screen combination were compared with the previously used system. The greatest radiation reduction using a mobile X-ray unit was 27%; based on sensitivity measurements, the theoretical reduction averaged 38%. The reduction in radiation exposure resulted from reduced attenuation by the Kevlar cassette.

Herman, M.W.; Mak, H.K.; Lachman, R.S.

1987-05-01

328

Identification of tumor-associated cassette exons in human cancer through EST-based computational prediction and experimental validation  

PubMed Central

Background Many evidences report that alternative splicing, the mechanism which produces mRNAs and proteins with different structures and functions from the same gene, is altered in cancer cells. Thus, the identification and characterization of cancer-specific splice variants may give large impulse to the discovery of novel diagnostic and prognostic tumour biomarkers, as well as of new targets for more selective and effective therapies. Results We present here a genome-wide analysis of the alternative splicing pattern of human genes through a computational analysis of normal and cancer-specific ESTs from seventeen anatomical groups, using data available in AspicDB, a database resource for the analysis of alternative splicing in human. By using a statistical methodology, normal and cancer-specific genes, splice sites and cassette exons were predicted in silico. The condition association of some of the novel normal/tumoral cassette exons was experimentally verified by RT-qPCR assays in the same anatomical system where they were predicted. Remarkably, the presence in vivo of the predicted alternative transcripts, specific for the nervous system, was confirmed in patients affected by glioblastoma. Conclusion This study presents a novel computational methodology for the identification of tumor-associated transcript variants to be used as cancer molecular biomarkers, provides its experimental validation, and reports specific biomarkers for glioblastoma.

2010-01-01

329

Delineating a Conserved Genetic Cassette Promoting Outgrowth of Body Appendages  

PubMed Central

The acquisition of the external genitalia allowed mammals to cope with terrestrial-specific reproductive needs for internal fertilization, and thus it represents one of the most fundamental steps in evolution towards a life on land. How genitalia evolved remains obscure, and the key to understanding this process may lie in the developmental genetics that underpins the early establishment of the genital primordium, the genital tubercle (GT). Development of the GT is similar to that of the limb, which requires precise regulation from a distal signaling epithelium. However, whether outgrowth of the GT and limbs is mediated by common instructive signals remains unknown. In this study, we used comprehensive genetic approaches to interrogate the signaling cascade involved in GT formation in comparison with limb formation. We demonstrate that the FGF ligand responsible for GT development is FGF8 expressed in the cloacal endoderm. We further showed that forced Fgf8 expression can rescue limb and GT reduction in embryos deficient in WNT signaling activity. Our studies show that the regulation of Fgf8 by the canonical WNT signaling pathway is mediated in part by the transcription factor SP8. Sp8 mutants elicit appendage defects mirroring WNT and FGF mutants, and abolishing Sp8 attenuates ectopic appendage development caused by a gain-of-function ?-catenin mutation. These observations indicate that a conserved WNT-SP8-FGF8 genetic cassette is employed by both appendages for promoting outgrowth, and suggest a deep homology shared by the limb and external genitalia.

Lin, Congxing; Yin, Yan; Bell, Sheila M.; Veith, G. Michael; Chen, Hong; Huh, Sung-Ho; Ornitz, David M.; Ma, Liang

2013-01-01

330

Production of viral vectors using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange  

PubMed Central

DNA viruses are often used as vectors for foreign gene expression, but large DNA region from cloned or authentic viral genomes must usually be handled to generate viral vectors. Here, we present a unique system for generating adenoviral vectors by directly substituting a gene of interest in a small transfected plasmid with a replaced gene in a replicating viral genome in Cre-expressing 293 cells using the recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) reaction. In combination with a positive selection of the viral cis-acting packaging signal connected with the gene of interest, the purpose vector was enriched to 97.5 and 99.8% after three and four cycles of infection, respectively. Our results also showed that the mutant loxP V (previously called loxP 2272), a variant target of Cre used in the RMCE reaction, was useful as a non-compatible mutant to wild-type loxP. This method could be useful for generating not only a large number of adenovirus vectors simultaneously, but also other DNA virus vectors including helper-dependent adenovirus vector.

Nakano, Masakazu; Odaka, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yuzuka; Ishimura, Masakazu; Saito, Izumu; Kanegae, Yumi

2005-01-01

331

Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Analysis of MRSA.  

PubMed

Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) changes to methicillin-resistant S. aureus upon the acquisition of Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec), a genomic island that encodes methicillin resistance. All SCCmec elements reported to date share four common characteristics: (1) carrying the mec gene complex (mec); (2) carrying the ccr gene complex (ccr); (3) being flanked by characteristic nucleotide sequences, inverted repeats, and direct repeats, at both ends; and (4) being integrated at the integration site sequence (ISS) for SCC, which is located at the 3'-end of orfX or at the extremity of the SCC element. SCCmec elements in S. aureus are classified into different types based on the combination of mec and ccr, which share variations, five classes in mec and eight in ccr. To date, at least 11 types of SCCmec elements have been identified. Regions other than mec and ccr within the SCCmec element are designated as "joining regions" (J-regions), which are classified into three subgroups, J1-3. Many J-region variants have been identified among the SCCmec elements of types I-V. We herein describe PCR methods to type SCCmec elements by first identifying the mec and ccr type, and then identifying genes in the J-regions. PMID:24085694

Ito, Teruyo; Kuwahara-Arai, Kyoko; Katayama, Yuki; Uehara, Yuki; Han, Xiao; Kondo, Yoko; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

2014-01-01

332

Novel method for genomic promoter shuffling by using recyclable cassettes.  

PubMed

Genetic elements of interest can be introduced into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome via homologous recombination. The current method is to link such an element to a selectable marker gene to be integrated into the target locus. However, the marker gene in this method cannot be reused, which limits repeated manipulation of the yeast genome. An alternative method is to utilize a counterselectable gene, such as URA3, with flanking tandem repeats. After integration, URA3 along with one copy of the repeat can be popped out via internal recombination, leaving behind one copy of the unwanted repeat. Here we describe a novel concept of genetic element shuffling in which the tandem repeats are made of the desired genetic element, so that after integration and popping out, only one copy of the element remains at the desired locus to function. As a proof of principle, we constructed three recyclable cassettes (PPGK1-URA3-PPGK1, PGAL1-URA3-PGAL1, and PtetO7-URA3-PtetO7) and integrated them upstream of an engineered chromosomal PHIS3-mCherry-Myc locus. After promoter shuffling, the mCherry-Myc gene was regulated precisely as anticipated. PMID:24014535

Tian, Xuelei; Xu, Xin; Xiao, Wei

2013-09-06

333

Dispersal and regulation of an adaptive mutagenesis cassette in the bacteria domain  

PubMed Central

Recently, a multiple gene cassette with mutagenic translation synthesis activity was identified and shown to be under LexA regulation in several proteobacteria species. In this work, we have traced down instances of this multiple gene cassette across the bacteria domain. Phylogenetic analyses show that this cassette has undergone several reorganizations since its inception in the actinobacteria, and that it has dispersed across the bacterial domain through a combination of vertical inheritance, lateral gene transfer and duplication. In addition, our analyses show that LexA regulation of this multiple gene cassette is persistent in all the phyla in which it has been detected, and suggest that this regulation is prompted by the combined activity of two of its constituent genes: a polymerase V homolog and an alpha subunit of the DNA polymerase III.

Erill, Ivan; Campoy, Susana; Mazon, Gerard; Barbe, Jordi

2006-01-01

334

COLLECTION EFFICIENCY OF FIELD SAMPLING CASSETTES: INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Industrial hygiene particulate samples are often collected under anisokinetic sampling conditions and in crosswinds. Experiments were conducted to quantitate errors associated with sampling under these non-ideal conditions. Three types of field sampling cassetts were tested to de...

335

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a)...

2013-04-01

336

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2013-04-01

337

Improved antibiotic resistance gene cassette for marker exchange mutagenesis in Ralstonia solanacearum and Burkholderia species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marker exchange mutagenesis is a fundamental approach to understanding gene function at a molecular level in bacteria. New\\u000a plasmids carrying a kanamycin resistance gene or a trimethoprim resistance gene were constructed to provide antibiotic resistance\\u000a cassettes for marker exchange mutagenesis in Ralstonia solanacearum and many antibiotic-resistant Burkholderia spp. Insertion sequences present in the flanking sequences of the antibiotic resistance cassette

Hae Young Um; Eunsook Chung; Jai-Heon Lee; Seon-Woo Lee

2011-01-01

338

Efficient Construction of an Inverted Minimal H1 Promoter Driven siRNA Expression Cassette: Facilitation of Promoter and siRNA Sequence Exchange  

PubMed Central

Background RNA interference (RNAi), mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA), is an effective method used to silence gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Upon introduction into target cells, siRNAs incorporate into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). The antisense strand of the siRNA duplex then “guides” the RISC to the homologous mRNA, leading to target degradation and gene silencing. In recent years, various vector-based siRNA expression systems have been developed which utilize opposing polymerase III promoters to independently drive expression of the sense and antisense strands of the siRNA duplex from the same template. Principal Findings We show here the use of a ligase chain reaction (LCR) to develop a new vector system called pInv-H1 in which a DNA sequence encoding a specific siRNA is placed between two inverted minimal human H1 promoters (?100 bp each). Expression of functional siRNAs from this construct has led to efficient silencing of both reporter and endogenous genes. Furthermore, the inverted H1 promoter-siRNA expression cassette was used to generate a retrovirus vector capable of transducing and silencing expression of the targeted protein by>80% in target cells. Conclusions The unique design of this construct allows for the efficient exchange of siRNA sequences by the directional cloning of short oligonucleotides via asymmetric restriction sites. This provides a convenient way to test the functionality of different siRNA sequences. Delivery of the siRNA cassette by retroviral transduction suggests that a single copy of the siRNA expression cassette efficiently knocks down gene expression at the protein level. We note that this vector system can potentially be used to generate a random siRNA library. The flexibility of the ligase chain reaction suggests that additional control elements can easily be introduced into this siRNA expression cassette.

Nassanian, Hoorig; Sanchez, Ana M.; Lo, Alice; Bradley, Kenneth A.; Lee, Benhur

2007-01-01

339

Characterization of the phd-doc and ccd Toxin-Antitoxin Cassettes from Vibrio Superintegrons  

PubMed Central

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been reported in the genomes of most bacterial species, and their role when located on the chromosome is still debated. TA systems are particularly abundant in the massive cassette arrays associated with chromosomal superintegrons (SI). Here, we describe the characterization of two superintegron cassettes encoding putative TA systems. The first is the phd-docSI system identified in Vibrio cholerae N16961. We determined its distribution in 36 V. cholerae strains and among five V. metschnikovii strains. We show that this cassette, which is in position 72 of the V. cholerae N16961 cassette array, is functional, carries its own promoter, and is expressed from this location. Interestingly, the phd-docSI system is unable to control its own expression, most likely due to the absence of any DNA-binding domain on the antitoxin. In addition, this SI system is able to cross talk with the canonical P1 phage system. The second cassette that we characterized is the ccdVfi cassette found in the V. fischeri superintegron. We demonstrate that CcdBVfi targets DNA-gyrase, as the canonical CcBF toxin, and that ccdVfi regulates its expression in a fashion similar to the ccdF operon of the conjugative plasmid F. We also establish that this cassette is functional and expressed in its chromosomal context in V. fischeri CIP 103206T. We tested its functional interactions with the ccdABF system and found that CcdAVfi is specific for its associated CcdBVfi and cannot prevent CcdBF toxicity. Based on these results, we discuss the possible biological functions of these TA systems in superintegrons.

Guerout, Anne-Marie; Iqbal, Naeem; Mine, Natacha; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Van Melderen, Laurence

2013-01-01

340

Erythromycin esterase gene ere(A) is located in a functional gene cassette in an unusual class 2 integron.  

PubMed

The gene ere(A) of the plasmid pIP1100 is larger than originally reported and is organized as an integron gene cassette. The ere(A) gene cassette carries its own promoter and is propagated by a class 2 integron with an insertion sequence element, IS1, inserted upstream of the intI2 gene. The mobility of the ere(A) cassette has been demonstrated. PMID:14506050

Biskri, Latefa; Mazel, Didier

2003-10-01

341

Erythromycin Esterase Gene ere(A) Is Located in a Functional Gene Cassette in an Unusual Class 2 Integron  

PubMed Central

The gene ere(A) of the plasmid pIP1100 is larger than originally reported and is organized as an integron gene cassette. The ere(A) gene cassette carries its own promoter and is propagated by a class 2 integron with an insertion sequence element, IS1, inserted upstream of the intI2 gene. The mobility of the ere(A) cassette has been demonstrated.

Biskri, Latefa; Mazel, Didier

2003-01-01

342

Development of a full-size divertor cassette prototype for ITER  

SciTech Connect

Production of a full-size divertor cassette involves eight major components. All of the components are mounted on the cassette body. Inner divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the Japan Home Team. Outer divertor channel components for the vertical target design are being provided by the European and United States Home Teams. Gas box liners are being provided by the Russian Home Team. The full-size components manufactured by the four parties will be shipped to the US Home Team for assembly into a full size divertor cassette. The techniques for assembly and maintenance of the cassette will be demonstrated during this process. The assembled cassette will be tested for proper flow distribution and proof of the filling and draining procedures. The testing will include vacuum leak tightness at full temperature and pressure, cyclic heating to 150 {degrees}C, verification of dimensional accuracy of the assembled components, and application of thermal gradients to measure dimensional stability. The development of the divertor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) depends on successful R&D efforts on materials, joining, and plasma materials interactions. Results of the development program are presented. The scale-up of the processes developed in the basic research and development tasks is accomplished by producing and high-heat-flux testing medium and full-scale mock- ups. The design of the mock-ups is discussed.

Ulrickson, M.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vieider, G.; Pacher, H.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). NET Design Team] [and others

1996-10-01

343

Discovery and characterization of gene cassettes-containing integrons in clinical strains of Riemerella anatipestifer.  

PubMed

Forty-eight prevalent strains of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) isolated in China were tested for susceptibility to eighteen antibiotics and investigated for the frequencies and characteristics of integrons and gene cassettes. All isolates were resistant to between three and ten antimicrobial drugs. Forty-seven isolates contained class 1 integron (97.92%), and 15 of the 47 isolates contained class 2 integron (31.25%). Class 3 integron was not detected in the strains analysed. Three different cassette arrays (aadA1, aadA5 and aacA4-aadA1) of class 1 integron and one gene cassette (sat2-aadA1) of class 2 integron were discovered. Three out of the four cassette arrays were novel, with the exception of aadA5. The location of integrons was confirmed by transforming extracted plasmids into an integron-negative strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). Class 1 integrons were always discovered in plasmids, while class 2 integrons could be located on plasmids or in the chromosome. This is the first description of class 2 integrons, three novel cassette arrays and the location of integrons in RA species. PMID:22112855

Zheng, Fuying; Lin, Guozhen; Zhou, Jizhang; Cao, Xiaoan; Gong, Xiaowei; Wang, Guanghua; Qiu, Changqing

2011-11-06

344

A mouse model of sitosterolemia: absence of Abcg8\\/sterolin-2 results in failure to secrete biliary cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in either of two genes comprising the STSL locus, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 (encoding sterolin-1) and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-2), result in sitosterolemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder of sterol trafficking characterized by increased plasma plant sterol levels. Based upon the genetics of sitosterolemia, ABCG5\\/sterolin-1 and ABCG8\\/sterolin-2 are hypothesized to function as obligate heterodimers. No phenotypic difference has yet

Eric L Klett; Kangmo Lu; Astrid Kosters; Edwin Vink; Mi-Hye Lee; Michael Altenburg; Sarah Shefer; Ashok K Batta; Hongwei Yu; Jianliang Chen; Richard Klein; Norbert Looije; Ronald Oude-Elferink; Albert K Groen; Nobuyo Maeda; Gerald Salen; Shailendra B Patel

2004-01-01

345

The spectrum of retinal phenotypes caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The majority of studies on the retina-specific ATP-binding cassette transporter ( ABCA4) gene have focussed on molecular genetic analysis; comparatively few studies have described the clinical aspects of ABCA4-associated retinal disorders. In this study, we demonstrate the spectrum of retinal dystrophies associated with ABCA4 gene mutations. Methods Nine well-documented patients representing distinct phenotypes in the continuum of ABCA4-related disorders

B. Jeroen Klevering; Alessandra Maugeri; Frans P. M. Cremers; Carel B. Hoyng

2005-01-01

346

In Silico Quantitative StructureActivity Relationship Studies on P-gp Modulators of Tetrahydroisoquinoline-Ethyl-Phenylamine Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The drug efflux by a transport protein is the main reason for MDR. In humans, MDR mainly occurs when the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of proteins is overexpressed simultaneously. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is most commonly associated with human MDR; it utilizes energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to transport a number

Changdev G Gadhe; Thirumurthy Madhavan; Gugan Kothandan; Seung Joo Cho

2011-01-01

347

Export of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli using ABC transporter with an attached lipase ABC transporter recognition domain (LARD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter secretes the protein through inner and outer membranes simultaneously in gram negative bacteria. Thermostable lipase (TliA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens SIK W1 is secreted through the ABC transporter. TliA has four glycine-rich repeats (GGXGXD) in its C-terminus, which appear in many ABC transporter-secreted proteins. From a homology model of TliA derived from the structure of

Chan Woo Chung; Jinsun You; Kyeongyeon Kim; Yuseok Moon; Hoeon Kim; Jung Hoon Ahn

2009-01-01

348

Inactivation of the Ecs ABC Transporter of Staphylococcus aureus Attenuates Virulence by Altering Composition and Function of Bacterial Wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEcs is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter present in aerobic and facultative anaerobic Gram-positive Firmicutes. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis Ecs causes pleiotropic changes in the bacterial phenotype including inhibition of intramembrane proteolysis. The molecule(s) transported by Ecs is (are) still unknown.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study we mutated the ecsAB operon in two Staphylococcus aureus strains, Newman and LS-1. Phenotypic and functional

Ing-Marie Jonsson; Jarmo T. Juuti; Patrice François; Rana Almajidi; Milla Pietiäinen; Myriam Girard; Catharina Lindholm; Manfred J. Saller; Arnold J. M. Driessen; Pentti Kuusela; Maria Bokarewa; Jacques Schrenzel; Vesa P. Kontinen; Olivier Neyrolles

2010-01-01

349

The crystal structure of pneumococcal surface antigen PsaA reveals a metal-binding site and a novel structure for a putative ABC-type binding protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The surface protein PsaA of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae plays an essential role in its virulence. PsaA is a putative ATP-binding cassette-type (ABC-type) binding protein involved in the uptake of Mn2+ and possibly Zn2+ and is considered to be both a potential drug target and and a candidate vaccine component.Results: The structure of PsaA has been determined to

Michael C Lawrence; Patricia A Pilling; V Chandana Epa; Anne M Berry; A David Ogunniyi; James C Paton

1998-01-01

350

Common Genetic Variation in ABCA1 Is Associated With Altered Lipoprotein Levels and a Modified Risk for Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Low plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently identified the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) as the major gene underlying the HDL deficiency associated with reduced cholesterol efflux. Mutations within the ABCA1 gene are associated with decreased HDL-C, increased triglycerides, and an increased risk of CAD. However, the extent to

Susanne M. Clee; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; James C. Engert; Karin Y. Zwarts; Henri O. F. Molhuizen; Kirsten Roomp; J. Wouter Jukema; Michel van Wijland; Marjel van Dam; Thomas J. Hudson; Angela Brooks-Wilson; John J. P. Kastelein; Michael R. Hayden

2010-01-01

351

The evolution of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) as a real-time bioreporter.  

PubMed

The bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) is unique among bioluminescent bioreporter systems due to its ability to synthesize and/or scavenge all of the substrate compounds required for its production of light. As a result, the lux system has the unique ability to autonomously produce a luminescent signal, either continuously or in response to the presence of a specific trigger, across a wide array of organismal hosts. While originally employed extensively as a bacterial bioreporter system for the detection of specific chemical signals in environmental samples, the use of lux as a bioreporter technology has continuously expanded over the last 30 years to include expression in eukaryotic cells such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even human cell lines as well. Under these conditions, the lux system has been developed for use as a biomedical detection tool for toxicity screening and visualization of tumors in small animal models. As the technologies for lux signal detection continue to improve, it is poised to become one of the first fully implantable detection systems for intra-organismal optical detection through direct marriage to an implantable photon-detecting digital chip. This review presents the basic biochemical background that allows the lux system to continuously autobioluminesce and highlights the important milestones in the use of lux-based bioreporters as they have evolved from chemical detection platforms in prokaryotic bacteria to rodent-based tumorigenesis study targets. In addition, the future of lux imaging using integrated circuit microluminometry to image directly within a living host in real-time will be introduced and its role in the development of dose/response therapeutic systems will be highlighted. PMID:22368493

Close, Dan; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby; Rogers, Alexandra; Crossley, Robert; Price, Sarah; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary

2012-01-11

352

CMOS cassette for digital upgrade of film-based mammography systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While full-field digital mammography (FFDM) technology is gaining clinical acceptance, the overwhelming majority (96%) of the installed base of mammography systems are conventional film-screen (FSM) systems. A high performance, and economical digital cassette based product to conveniently upgrade FSM systems to FFDM would accelerate the adoption of FFDM, and make the clinical and technical advantages of FFDM available to a larger population of women. The planned FFDM cassette is based on our commercial Digital Radiography (DR) cassette for 10 cm x 10 cm field-of-view spot imaging and specimen radiography, utilizing a 150 micron columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator and 48 micron active-pixel CMOS sensor modules. Unlike a Computer Radiography (CR) cassette, which requires an external digitizer, our DR cassette transfers acquired images to a display workstation within approximately 5 seconds of exposure, greatly enhancing patient flow. We will present the physical performance of our prototype system against other FFDM systems in clinical use today, using established objective criteria such as the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), and subjective criteria, such as a contrast-detail (CD-MAM) observer performance study. Driven by the strong demand from the computer industry, CMOS technology is one of the lowest cost, and the most readily accessible technologies available for FFDM today. Recent popular use of CMOS imagers in high-end consumer cameras have also resulted in significant advances in the imaging performance of CMOS sensors against rivaling CCD sensors. This study promises to take advantage of these unique features to develop the first CMOS based FFDM upgrade cassette.

Baysal, Mehmet A.; Toker, Emre

2006-03-01

353

Genetic analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis Macromolecular Synthesis Operon: Serp1129 is an ATP binding protein and sigA transcription is regulated by both ?A- and ?B-dependent promoters  

PubMed Central

Background The highly conserved macromolecular synthesis operon (MMSO) contains both dnaG (primase) and sigA (primary sigma factor). However, in previously evaluated gram-positive species, the MMSO is divergent upstream of dnaG. The MMSO of Bacillus subtilis contains three open reading frames (ORFs) that are differentially regulated by multiple promoters. In conjunction with studies to determine the expression profile of dnaG, the MMSO of Staphylococus epidermidis was characterized. Results The ORFs of S. epidermidis were compared to the previously described MMSO of B. subtilis and two additional ORFs in S. epidermidis, serp1129 and serp1130, were identified. The largest transcript, 4.8 kb in length, was expressed only in exponential growth and encompassed all four ORFs (serp1130, serp1129, dnaG, and sigA). A separate transcript (1.5 kb) comprising serp1130 and serp1129 was expressed in early exponential growth. Two smaller transcripts 1.3 and 1.2 kb in size were detected with a sigA probe in both exponential and post-exponential phases of growth. Western blot analysis correlated with the transcriptional profile and demonstrated that Serp1129 was detected only in the exponential phase of growth. Computational analysis identified that Serp1130 contained a CBS motif whereas Serp1129 contained an ATP/GTP binding motif. Functional studies of Serp1129 demonstrated that it was capable of binding both ATP and GTP. Comparisons with a sigB:dhfr mutant revealed that the 1.3 kb sigA transcript was regulated by a ?B-dependent promoter. Conclusions These studies demonstrated that the S. epidermidis 1457 MMSO contains two ORFs (serp1129 and serp1130) not described within the B. subtilis MMSO and at least three promoters, one of which is ??-dependent. The transcriptional regulation of sigA by ?B provides evidence that the staphylococcal ?B-dependent response is controlled at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. The conservation of serp1129 across multiple gram-positive organisms and its capability to bind ATP and GTP support the need for further investigation of its role in bacterial growth.

2010-01-01

354

Analysis of the effect of the bovine adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G2 single nucleotide polymorphism Y581S on transcellular transport of veterinary drugs using new cell culture models.  

PubMed

In commercial dairy production, the risk of drug residues and environmental pollutants in milk from ruminants has become an outstanding problem. One of the main determinants of active drug secretion into milk is the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP). It is located in several organs associated with drug absorption, metabolism, and excretion, and its expression is highly induced during lactation in the mammary gland of ruminants, mice, and humans. As a consequence, potential contamination of milk could expose suckling infants to xenotoxins. In cows, a SNP for this protein affecting quality and quantity of milk production has been described previously (Y581S). In this study, our main purpose was to determine whether this polymorphism has an effect on transcellular transport of veterinary drugs because this could alter substrate pharmacokinetics and milk residues. We stably expressed the wild-type bovine ABCG2 and the Y581S variant in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells (MDCKII) and MEF3.8 cell lines generating cell models in which the functionality of the bovine transporter could be addressed. Functional studies confirmed the greater functional activity in mitoxantrone accumulation assays for the Y581S variant with a greater relative V(MAX) value (P = 0.040) and showed for the first time that the Y581S variant presents greater transcellular transport of the model ABCG2 substrate nitrofurantoin (P = 0.024) and of 3 veterinary antibiotics, the fluoroquinolone agents enrofloxacin (P = 0.035), danofloxacin (P = 0.001), and difloxacin (P = 0.008), identified as new substrates of the bovine ABCG2. In addition, the inhibitory effect of the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin on the activity of wild-type bovine ABCG2 and the Y581S variant was also confirmed, showing a greater inhibitory potency on the wild-type protein at all the concentrations tested (5 ?M, P = 0.017; 10 ?M, P = 0.001; 25 ?M, P = 0.008; and 50 ?M, P = 0.003). Differential transport activity depending on the genotype together with the differential inhibition pattern might have clinical consequences, including changes in substrate pharmacokinetics (and subsequently pharmacodynamics) and more specifically, changes in secretion of ABCG2 substrates into milk, potentially implying important consequences to veterinary therapeutics. PMID:21821808

Real, R; González-Lobato, L; Baro, M F; Valbuena, S; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I; Marques, M M; Merino, G

2011-08-05

355

An enclosed in-gel PCR amplification cassette with multi-target, multi-sample detection for platform molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

This work describes a self-contained, simple, disposable, and inexpensive gel capillary cassette for DNA amplification in near point of care settings. The cassette avoids the need for pumps or valves during raw sample delivery or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification steps. The cassette contains capillary reaction units that can be stored at room temperature for up to 3 months. The current cassette configuration format simultaneously tests up to 16 patients for two or more targets, accommodates different sample types on the same cassette, has integrated positive and negative controls and allows flexibility for multiple geometries. PCR reagents in the cassette are desiccated to allow storage at room temperature with rehydration by raw sample at the time of testing. The sample is introduced to the cassette via a transfer pipette simply by capillary force. DNA amplification was carried out in a portable prototype instrument for PCR thermal cycling with fluorescence detection of amplified products by melt curve analysis (MCA). To demonstrate performance, raw genital swabs and urine were introduced to the same cassette to simultaneously detect four sexually transmitted infections. Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) were detected from raw genital swabs. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma homonis (MH) were detected from raw urine. Results for multiple patients were obtained in as little as 50 min. This platform allows multiparameter clinical testing with a pre-assembled cassette that requires only the introduction of raw sample. Modification of the prototype device to accommodate larger cassettes will ultimately provide high throughput simultaneous testing of even larger numbers of samples for many different targets, as is required for some clinical applications. Combinations of wax and/or polymer cassettes holding capillary reaction units are feasible. The components of the cassette are suited to mass production and robotic assembly to produce a readily manufactured disposable reaction cassette that can be configured for disease-specific testing panels. Rapid testing with a disposable reaction cassette on an inexpensive instrument will enable on the spot evaluation of patients in the clinic for faster medical decision-making and more informed therapeutic choices. PMID:23471315

Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Atrazev, Alexey; Chavali, Ravi; Samuel, Roshini A; Chan, Brandon; Morrissey, Y C; Gordy, Walter; Edwards, Ann L; Larison, Kyle; Yanow, Stephanie K; Acker, Jason P; Zahariadis, George; Pilarski, Linda M

2013-03-07

356

Development of a Modified Gentamicin Resistance Cassette for Genetic Manipulation of the Oral Spirochete Treponema denticola  

PubMed Central

Herein, we report that a modified gentamicin cassette and a PCR-based method can be used for targeted mutagenesis of the oral spirochete Treponema denticola. This approach minimizes polar effects and spontaneous antibiotic resistance. Therefore, it can serve as a reliable tool for genetic manipulation of T. denticola.

Bian, Jiang; Fenno, J. Christopher

2012-01-01

357

Conceptual Design of Divertor Cassette Handling by Remote Handling System of JT-60SA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JT-60SA aims to contribute and supplement ITER toward demonstration fusion reactor based on tokamak concept. One of the features of JT-60SA is its high power long pulse heating, causing the large annual neutron fluence. Because the expected dose rate at the vacuum vessel (VV) may exceed 1 mSv/hr after 10 years operation and three month cooling, the human access inside the VV is restricted. Therefore a remote handling (RH) system is necessary for the maintenance and repair of in-vessel components. This paper described the RH system of JT-60SA, especially the expansion of the RH rail and exchange of the divertor cassettes. The RH rail is divided into nine and three-point mounting. The nine sections can cover 225 degrees in toroidal direction. A divertor cassette, which is 10 degrees wide in toroidal direction and weighs 500kg itself due to the limitations of port width and handling weight, can be exchanged by heavy weight manipulator (HWM). The HWM brings the divertor cassette to the front of the other RH port, which is used for supporting the rail and/or carrying in and out equipments. Then another RH device receives and brings out the cassette by a pallet installed from outside the VV.

Hayashi, Takao; Sakurai, Shinji; Masaki, Kei; Tamai, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Matsukawa, Makoto

358

Developmental Impact of the Home Video Cassette Recorder on Third World Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores impact of the popularity of video cassette recorders (VCRs) on development communication in nonindustrialized Third World countries; discusses conditions that have brought about the widespread purchase and use of home VCRs; and examines cultural and political effects, ownership and viewing patterns, and industry and government reactions.…

Boyd, Douglas A.; Straubhaar, Joseph D.

1985-01-01

359

Modifying lysine biosynthesis and catabolism in corn with a single bifunctional expression/silencing transgene cassette.  

PubMed

Although it is one of the major crops in the world, corn has poor nutritional quality for human and animal consumption due to its low lysine content. Here, we report a method of simultaneous expression of a deregulated lysine biosynthetic enzyme, CordapA, and reduction of a bifunctional lysine degradation enzyme, lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharophine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH), in transgenic corn plants by a single transgene cassette. This is accomplished by inserting an inverted-repeat sequence targeting the maize LKR/SDH gene into an intron of a transgene cassette that expresses CordapA. This combination of LKR/SDH silencing and CordapA expression led to the accumulation of free lysine to over 4000 p.p.m. in transgenic corn grain, compared to less than 100 p.p.m. in wild-type controls. This intron-embedded silencing cassette design reduces the number of transgene cassettes needed in transgenic approaches for manipulating metabolic pathways that sometimes require expression of one gene and silencing of another. PMID:17725550

Frizzi, Alessandra; Huang, Shihshieh; Gilbertson, Larry A; Armstrong, Toni A; Luethy, Michael H; Malvar, Thomas M

2007-08-28

360

A novel thin NIPAM gel cassette dosimeter for photon-beam radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The response of thin polymer gel cassettes (called NIPAM gels) to ionizing radiation was investigated in this study. The NIPAM gels were prepared from gelatin, N-isopropyl acrylamide, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphoniumchloride, and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide. Gel cassettes were irradiated in a phantom using a linear accelerator, and the polymerization morphology of irradiated NIPAM gel was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The dose-response sensitivity of the NIPAM gels was evaluated using the differences in optical densities. The optical densities were obtained using a computer-controlled CCD camera that was connected to a planar illumination source for acquisition of optical transmission images. The central axis depth dose profiles of the phantom were extracted, and a comparison with ionization chamber measurements demonstrated similarities in profiles. The sensitivity, linearity of the response, accuracy, and reproducibility of the polymer gel cassettes were acceptable. However, the profiles of the half-blocked field irradiation showed no significant dispersion in the visible region. This study also extensively investigated the spatial stability of the NIPAM gel. The results showed that the gel cassette response remains stable for up to three months after irradiation. PMID:22427810

Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

2012-03-12

361

Integrase-Mediated Recombination of the veb1 Gene Cassette Encoding an Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase  

PubMed Central

The veb1 gene cassette encodes the extended spectrum ?-lactamase, VEB-1 that is increasingly isolated from worldwide Gram-negative rods. Veb1 is commonly inserted into the variable region of different class 1 integrons in which it is always associated with a downstream-located aadB gene cassette encoding an aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the majority of veb1-containing integrons also carry an insertion sequence, IS1999 that is inserted upstream of the veb1 gene cassette and disrupts the integron specific recombination site, attI1. Investigation of the recombination properties of the sites surrounding veb1 revealed that insertion of IS1999 reduces significantly the recombination frequency of attI1 and that veb1 attC is not efficient for recombination in contrast to aadB attC. Subsequent sequence optimisation of veb1 attC by mutagenesis, into a more consensual attC site resembling aadB attC, successfully improved recombination efficiency. Overall, this work gives some insights into the organisation of veb1-containing integrons. We propose that IS1999 and the nature of veb1 attC stabilize the veb1 gene cassette environment likely by impairing recombination events upstream or downstream of veb1, respectively.

Aubert, Daniel; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

2012-01-01

362

New Antibiotic Resistance Cassettes Suitable for Genetic Studies in Borrelia burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe two distinct approaches to develop new antibiotic resistance cassettes that allow for efficient selection of Borrelia burgdorferi transformants. The first approach utilizes fusions of borrelial flagellar promoters to antibiotic resistance markers from other bacteria. The aacC1 gene, which encodes a gentamicin acetyltransferase, conferred a high level of gentamicin resistance in B. burgdorferi when expressed from

Abdallah F. Elias; James L. Bono; John J. Kupko III; Philip E. Stewart; Jonathan G. Krum; Patricia A. Rosa

2003-01-01

363

Stacking multiple transgenes at a selected genomic site via repeated recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchanges.  

PubMed

Recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchange (RMCE) has been successfully used to insert transgenes at previously characterized genomic sites in plants. Following the same strategy, groups of transgenes can be stacked to the same site through multiple rounds of RMCE. A gene-silencing cassette, designed to simultaneously silence soybean (Glycine max) genes fatty acid ?-6 desaturase 2 (FAD2) and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase 2 (FATB) to improve oleic acid content, was first inserted by RMCE at a precharacterized genomic site in soybean. Selected transgenic events were subsequently retransformed with the second DNA construct containing a Yarrowia lipolytica diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGAT1) to increase oil content by the enhancement of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and three other genes, a Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthetase gene (DHPS), a barley (Hordeum vulgare) high-lysine protein gene (BHL8), and a truncated soybean cysteine synthase gene (CGS), to improve the contents of the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. Molecular characterization confirmed that the second RMCE successfully stacked the four overexpression cassettes to the previously integrated FAD2-FATB gene-silencing cassette. Phenotypic analyses indicated that all the transgenes expressed expected phenotypes. PMID:20720171

Li, Zhongsen; Moon, Bryan P; Xing, Aiqiu; Liu, Zhan-Bin; McCardell, Richard P; Damude, Howard G; Falco, S Carl

2010-08-18

364

A test cassette for x-ray-exposure experiments at the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and operation of a test cassette for exposure of samples to radiation environments at the National Ignition Facility. The cassette provides options for square and round samples and exposure areas; the cassette provides for multiple levels of filtration on a single sample, which allows dynamic range in experiments. The samples had normal lines of sight to the x-ray source in order to have uniform x-ray illumination. The incident x-radiation onto the samples was determined by the choice of filter thicknesses and materials. The samples were held at precise locations, accurate to within a few hundred microns, in the target chamber in order to have a known fluence incident. In the cassette, the samples were held in place in such a way that a minimal ''line contact'' allows them to have the maximal mechanical response to the x-ray load. We present postshot images of the debris found on films used for filters, and pre- and postexposure specimens.

Fournier, K. B.; Celeste, J.; Rekow, V.; Bopp, D. R.; May, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Horton, R.; Newlander, C. D. [Gray Research, Inc., 655 Discovery Drive, Suite 300, Huntsville, Alabama 35806 (United States); Jenkins, P.; Trautz, K. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2010-07-15

365

Generic control system design for the Cassette Multifunctional Mover and other ITER remote handling equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new suite of Remote Handling (RH) equipment, addressing the latest design of the divertor region, is currently being specified for ITER, with procurement of the Cassette Multifunctional Mover (CMM) scheduled for 2005–2006. This presents a unique opportunity to address a vital component of the RH system – the control system – and this paper introduces a number of concepts

M. Irving; J. Palmer; M. Siuko

2005-01-01

366

Aspiration Efficiency and Inlet Wall Deposition in the Fiber Sampling Cassette  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 25-mm diameter sampling cassette with a 50-mm long conductive inlet (cowl) is widely used for sampling fibers. Comprehensive testing of the sampling accuracy of this device has not been carried out. Several researchers have found significant fiber deposits in the inlet rather than on the collection filter. The sampler approaches the dimensions of a thin-walled tubular inlet, which has

Chih-Chieh Chen; Paul A. Baron

1996-01-01

367

ATimer-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassette for Detecting Molecular Markers in Oral Fluids  

PubMed Central

An inexpensive, hand-held, point-of-care, disposable, self-contained, immunoassay cassette comprised of air pouches for pumping, a metering chamber, reagents storage chambers, a mixer, and a lateral flow strip was designed, constructed, and tested. The assay was carried out in a consecutive flow format. The detection was facilitated with up-converting, phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The automated, timely pumping of the various reagents was driven by a spring-loaded timer. The utility of the cassette was demonstrated by detecting antibodies to HIV in saliva samples and further evaluated with a non-contagious, haptenized DNA assay. The cassette has several advantages over dip sticks such as sample preprocessing, integrated storage of reagents, and automated operation that reduces operator errors and training. The cassette and actuator described herein can readily be extended to detect biomarkers of other diseases in body fluids and other fluids at the point of care. The system is particularly suitable for resource poor countries, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply.

Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Ongagna, Serge; Chen, Dafeng; Chen, Zongyuan; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

2009-01-01

368

Enhanced functionally of T cell receptor-redirected T cells is defined by the transgene cassette  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes allows to endow T cells with a new antigen specificity. For clinical applications of TCR-redirected T cells, efficient functional expression of the transgenic TCR is a key prerequisite. Here, we compared the influence of the transgene cassette on the expression and function of the murine TCR P14 (recognizing a LCMV gp33 epitope)

Matthias Leisegang; Boris Engels; Peter Meyerhuber; Elisa Kieback; Daniel Sommermeyer; Shao-An Xue; Hans Stauss; Wolfgang Uckert

369

Persian. Reader 1: Area Background.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven chapters in this reader include articles on Iranian history, geography, educational system, government, poets and poetry, and anecdotes. Accompanying cassettes are readings of the articles and vocabulary pronunciation practice. The reader includes an English-Persian word list. (DLI/JB)

Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

370

Video Cassettes: The Systems, the Market, the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In its survey of the videocassette field, this book details the background, current status, problems, and potentials of the various systems designed to record and reproduce films and other audiovisual material through a conventional television set. The systems used by CBS (a miniaturized film format), Avco, Sony, Ampex (all magnetic tape…

Roberts, Martin

371

Novel integron gene cassette arrays identified in a global collection of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica.  

PubMed

Investigation of integron carriage in a global collection of multi-drug resistant Salmonella enterica identified 3 unique class 1 integron gene cassette arrays not previously reported in this species. The present study used PCR and DNA sequence analysis to characterize the structure of these gene cassette arrays. A approximately 4.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette array arr2/cmlA5/bla (OXA10) /aadA1 was found in isolates belonging to serovars Isangi and Typhimurium from South Africa. A approximately 6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassettes aac(6')IIc/ereA2/IS1247/aac/arr/ereA2 was found in isolates belonging to serovar Heidelberg from the Philippines. In this gene cassette array, the insertion sequence, IS1247, and two putative resistance genes, disrupt the erythromycin resistance gene cassette. Finally, a approximately 6.0 kb integron containing the gene cassette qacH/dfrA32/ereA1/aadA2/cmlA/aadA1 was found in serovar Stanley isolates from Taiwan. This integron, which has not been previously reported in any bacterial species, contains a new dihydrofolate reductase gene cassette sequence designated dfrA32, with only 90% sequence similarity to previously reported dfrA cassettes. The S. enterica integrons described in the present study represent novel collections of resistance genes which confer multi-drug resistance and have the potential to be widely disseminated among S. enterica as well as other bacterial species. PMID:19921331

Krauland, Mary; Harrison, Lee; Paterson, David; Marsh, Jane

2010-03-01

372

A high capacity data recording device based on a digital audio processor and a video cassette recorder.  

PubMed Central

A modified digital audio processor, a video cassette recorder, and some simple added circuitry are assembled into a recording device of high capacity. The unit converts two analog channels into digital form at 44-kHz sampling rate and stores the information in digital form in a common video cassette. Bandwidth of each channel is from direct current to approximately 20 kHz and the dynamic range is close to 90 dB. The total storage capacity in a 3-h video cassette is 2 Gbytes. The information can be retrieved in analog or digital form.

Bezanilla, F

1985-01-01

373

Extragalactic Background Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents; Preface; List of participants; 1. Introduction P. J. E. Peebles; 2. Extragalactic gamma-ray background N. Gehrels and C. Cheung; 3. The X-ray background (observations) G. Zamorani; 4. Extragalactic ultraviolet background radiation R. C. Henry and J. Murthy; 5. Ultraviolet background (theory) P. Jakobsen; 6. The optical extragalactic background radiation J. A. Tyson; 7. Infrared background (observations) M. G. Hauser; 8. The infrared background (theory) C. J. Lonsdale; 9. Microwave background radiation (observations) J. C. Mather; 10. Detection of degree scale anisotropy P. M. Lubin; 11. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies and structure formation in the universe N. Vittorio; The radio background emission - the long and short of it M. S. Longair; 13. The radio background: radio-loud galaxies at high and low redshifts J. A. Peacock; 14. Conference summary M. J. Rees.

Calzetti, Daniela; Livio, Mario; Madau, Piero

1995-01-01

374

Ambient Influenza and Avian Influenza Virus during Dust Storm Days and Background Days  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) presents a significant threat to human health. Avian influenza outbreaks in downwind areas of Asian dust storms (ADS) suggest that viruses might be transported by dust storms. Objectives We developed a technique to measure ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses. We then used this technique to measure concentrations of these viruses on ADS days and background days, and to assess the relationships between ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses, and air pollutants. Methods A high-volume air sampler was used in parallel with a filter cassette to evaluate spiked samples and unspiked samples. Then, air samples were monitored during ADS seasons using a filter cassette coupled with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Air samples were monitored during ADS season (1 January to 31 May 2006). Results We successfully quantified ambient influenza virus using the filtration/real-time qPCR method during ADS days and background days. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the concentration of influenza virus in ambient air. In both the spiked and unspiked samples, the concentration of influenza virus sampled using the filter cassette was higher than that using the high-volume sampler. The concentration of ambient influenza A virus was significantly higher during the ADS days than during the background days. Conclusions Our data imply the possibility of long-range transport of influenza virus.

Chen, Pei-Shih; Tsai, Feng Ta; Lin, Chien Kun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

2010-01-01

375

Cassette mutagenesis of the reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed Central

We constructed a series of BspMI cassettes that simplify the introduction of specific point mutations in the polymerase domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. A series of point mutants were constructed by using these cassette vectors. The RNA-dependent DNA polymerase and RNase H activities of 20 point mutations in the conserved portion of the polymerase domain were assayed. All the mutations analyzed are conservative substitutions of evolutionarily conserved amino acids. The mutations were divided into four classes. The first class has little effect on either polymerase or RNase H activity. The second class affects RNase H but not polymerase activity, while the third class has a normal RNase H activity with diminished polymerase activity. The fourth class affects both activities. Images

Boyer, P L; Ferris, A L; Hughes, S H

1992-01-01

376

A new efficient gene disruption cassette for repeated use in budding yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant kanr marker gene plays an important role in gene disruption experiments in budding yeast, as this marker can be used in a variety of yeast strains lacking the conventional yeast markers. We have developed a loxP-kanMX-loxP gene disruption cassette, which combines the advantages of the heterologous kanr marker with those from the Cre-lox P recombination system. This disruption

Ulrich Güldener; Susanne Heck; Thomas Fiedler; Jens Beinhauer; Johannes H. Hegemann

1996-01-01

377

A new integron carrying VIM2 metallo-?-lactamase gene cassette in a Serratia marcescens isolate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia marcescens is an important nosocomial pathogen which is often resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. An imipenem-resistant S. marcescens isolate from a urine specimen was found to carry a blaVIM-2 gene cassette on a class 1 integron. This finding indicates that blaVIM-2 is presently spreading even to Serratia spp. in Korea, which could compromise the usefulness of carbapenem in the

Jong Hwa Yum; Dongeun Yong; Kyungwon Lee; Hyon-Suk Kim; Yunsop Chong

2002-01-01

378

A disposable, integrated loop-mediated isothermal amplification cassette with thermally actuated valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive, disposable, integrated, polymer-based cassette for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of target\\u000a nucleic acids was designed, fabricated, and tested. The LAMP chamber was equipped with single-use, thermally actuated valves\\u000a made with a composite consisting of a mixture of PDMS and expandable microspheres. The effect of the composite composition\\u000a on its expansion was investigated, and the valve’s performance was evaluated.

Changchun Liu; Michael G. Mauk; Haim H. Bau

2011-01-01

379

Enhanced functionality of T cell receptor-redirected T cells is defined by the transgene cassette  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) genes allows to endow T cells with a new antigen specificity. For clinical applications\\u000a of TCR-redirected T cells, efficient functional expression of the transgenic TCR is a key prerequisite. Here, we compared\\u000a the influence of the transgene cassette on the expression and function of the murine TCR P14 (recognizing a LCMV gp33 epitope)

Matthias Leisegang; Boris Engels; Peter Meyerhuber; Elisa Kieback; Daniel Sommermeyer; Shao-An Xue; Simone Reuß; Hans Stauss; Wolfgang Uckert

2008-01-01

380

Optimizing aptamer activity for gene therapy applications using expression cassette SELEX.  

PubMed

RNA aptamers against a variety of clinically relevant target proteins have been generated. For example, we previously isolated an RNA aptamer that inhibits the function of the E2F family of transcription factors that play a critical role in the control of cell proliferation. However, the development of this and other aptamers for gene therapy applications has been complicated by the fact that expression of RNA aptamers in the context of flanking sequences can inhibit the ability of an aptamer to fold into its functional conformation. Insertion of the E2F aptamer into a tRNA expression cassette resulted in the production of high levels of chimeric tRNA that contains a misfolded and inactive aptamer in transfected mammalian cells. To overcome this problem, we randomized the sequence flanking the aptamer and selected for chimeric tRNAs that retained high affinity binding to E2F1. This expression cassette SELEX strategy yielded RNAs that bind E2F with high affinity (IC50 of 15 nM) and which can be expressed at high levels in mammalian cells. Moreover, these chimeric tRNA-E2F aptamers are functional and can inhibit E2F-mediated transactivation by up to 80% in human 293 cells. Expression cassette SELEX should greatly facilitate the use of aptamers for a variety of gene therapy applications. PMID:12095300

Martell, Robert E; Nevins, Joseph R; Sullenger, Bruce A

2002-07-01

381

Optimized invertase expression and secretion cassette for improving Yarrowia lipolytica growth on sucrose for industrial applications.  

PubMed

Yarrowia lipolytica requires the expression of a heterologous invertase to grow on a sucrose-based substrate. This work reports the construction of an optimized invertase expression cassette composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2p secretion signal sequence followed by the SUC2 sequence and under the control of the strong Y. lipolytica pTEF promoter. This new construction allows a fast and optimal cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose and allows cells to reach the maximum growth rate. Contrary to pre-existing constructions, the expression of SUC2 is not sensitive to medium composition in this context. The strain JMY2593, expressing this new cassette with an optimized secretion signal sequence and a strong promoter, produces 4,519 U/l of extracellular invertase in bioreactor experiments compared to 597 U/l in a strain expressing the former invertase construction. The expression of this cassette strongly improved production of invertase and is suitable for simultaneously high production level of citric acid from sucrose-based media. PMID:24061566

Lazar, Zbigniew; Rossignol, Tristan; Verbeke, Jonathan; Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Robak, Ma?gorzata

2013-09-06

382

Conservation of Gene Cassettes among Diverse Viruses of the Human Gut  

PubMed Central

Viruses are a crucial component of the human microbiome, but large population sizes, high sequence diversity, and high frequencies of novel genes have hindered genomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Here we investigate approaches to metagenomic assembly to probe genome structure in a sample of 5.6 Gb of gut viral DNA sequence from six individuals. Tests showed that a new pipeline based on DeBruijn graph assembly yielded longer contigs that were able to recruit more reads than the equivalent non-optimized, single-pass approach. To characterize gene content, the database of viral RefSeq proteins was compared to the assembled viral contigs, generating a bipartite graph with functional cassettes linking together viral contigs, which revealed a high degree of connectivity between diverse genomes involving multiple genes of the same functional class. In a second step, open reading frames were grouped by their co-occurrence on contigs in a database-independent manner, revealing conserved cassettes of co-oriented ORFs. These methods reveal that free-living bacteriophages, while usually dissimilar at the nucleotide level, often have significant similarity at the level of encoded amino acid motifs, gene order, and gene orientation. These findings thus connect contemporary metagenomic analysis with classical studies of bacteriophage genomic cassettes. Software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/optitdba/.

Minot, Samuel; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Bushman, Frederic D.

2012-01-01

383

Novel Streptomycin and Spectinomycin Resistance Gene as a Gene Cassette within a Class 1 Integron Isolated from Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim resistance gene dfr7 in a class 1 integron. The integron was located on a plasmid and was

DORTHE SANDVANG

1999-01-01

384

Novel Streptomycin and Spectinomycin Resistance Gene as a Gene Cassette within a Class 1 Integron Isolated from Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

The aadA genes, encoding resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin, have been found as gene cassettes in different gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species. The present study has revealed the sequence of a new gene, aadA5, integrated as a gene cassette together with the trimethoprim resistance gene dfr7 in a class 1 integron. The integron was located on a plasmid and was identified in a pathogenic porcine Escherichia coli isolate.

Sandvang, Dorthe

1999-01-01

385

Transgene Organisation in Potato After Particle Bombardment-mediated (co-)Transformation Using Plasmids and Gene Cassettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocols for efficient co-transformation of potato internodes with genes contained in separate plasmids or gene cassettes (i.e., linear PCR fragments comprising a promoter-gene-terminator) using particle bombardment were established. Twenty-eight out of 62 (45%) and 11 out of 65 (17%) plants transformed with a plasmid containing the selectable marker contained one and two additional non-selected genes, respectively. When gene cassettes were

Andrea Romano; Krit Raemakers; Jamila Bernardi; Richard Visser; Hans Mooibroek

2003-01-01

386

Acetaminophen: Background and Overview  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version1 Acetaminophen: Background and Overview Gerald J. Dal Pan, MD, MHS ... Page 86. 86 Background 1953 NDA 08-717 (acetaminophen tablet) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

387

IR Background Suppression Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of the background suppression scheme is described, and results obtained using the defocussing technique are presented. It has been demonstrated that a background suppression ratio of two orders of magnitudes can be obtained.

O. Shepherd W. P. Reidy T. F. Zehnpfennig G. A. Vanasse A. T. Stair

1977-01-01

388

Characterization of integrons and their cassettes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from poultry in Korea.  

PubMed

Ninety-nine Escherichia coli and 33 Salmonella isolates were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility (disc diffusion test). Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes were identified through PCR, and class 1 and class 2 integrons with resistance gene cassettes were identified with PCR followed by sequencing. Salmonella (63.6%) and E. coli (85.8%) isolates were multidrug resistant (resistance to 3 or more antimicrobials), and the highest incidences of resistance were observed for tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and sulfamethoxazole. The sul1, sul2, tetA, and tetB resistance determinant genes were predominant in E. coli, whereas only sul2 and tetA were identified in Salmonella isolates. In the E. coli isolates, 54 (54.5%) class 1 integrons, 6 (6.1%) class 2 integrons, and 5 (5.1%) class 1 and class 2 integrons together were detected, whereas only 3 (9.1%) integrons were found in the Salmonella serovars. Around 87% of the integrons in E. coli harbored resistance gene cassettes conferring resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA, aminoglycoside resistance gene), trimethoprim (dfrA, dihydrofolate reductase gene), streptothricin [sat1 and sat2 (streptothricin acetyltransferase), and estX (putative esterases)]. The most common gene cassettes were aadA1+dfrA1 and dfrA1+sat2+aadA1 in class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Other cassettes including aadA5+dfrA7, dfrA12+aadA2, aadA2+aadA1+dfrA12, and aadA5+aadA2/dfrA7 were also identified. Among the Salmonella serovars, Salmonella Malmoe harbored aadA1+dfrA1 and dfrA12+sat2+aadA1 genes. The aadA1, aadA2, sat2, and dfrA1 had wide variation in similarity among themselves and from previously reported genes worldwide. The diverse gene cassettes could be responsible for the prominent resistance profiles observed and a potential source for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants to other bacteria. PMID:24135609

Dessie, Hirut Kidie; Bae, Dong Hwa; Lee, Young Ju

2013-11-01

389

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)|

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

390

The Cosmic Background Explorer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission to measure celestial radiation. Describes the instruments used and experiments involving differential microwave radiometers, and a far infrared absolute spectrophotometer. (YP)

Gulkis, Samuel; And Others

1990-01-01

391

Background stratospheric aerosol layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balloonborne aerosol particle counter measurements are used in studying the stratospheric sulfate layer at Laramie, Wyoming, during 1978 and 1979, a 2-year volcanically quiescent period in which the layer appears to have been in a near equilibrium background state. Subtracting the background aerosol concentration from data obtained during an earlier volcanically active period indicates that the actual decay rate of

D. J. Hofmann; J. M. Rosen

1981-01-01

392

GLAST Background Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles tha...

E. Grove F. Longo J. F. Ormes T. Burnett W. Atwood

2007-01-01

393

Correlators in nontrivial backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

Operators in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an R-charge of O(N{sup 2}) are dual to backgrounds which are asymtotically AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. In this article we develop efficient techniques that allow the computation of correlation functions in these backgrounds. We find that (i) contractions between fields in the string words and fields in the operator creating the background are the field theory accounting of the new geometry, (ii) correlation functions of probes in these backgrounds are given by the free field theory contractions but with rescaled propagators and (iii) in these backgrounds there are no open string excitations with their special end point interactions; we have only closed string excitations.

Mello Koch, Robert de [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa); Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Studies, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Ives, Norman; Stephanou, Michael [National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, 2050 (South Africa)

2009-01-15

394

Cassette Series Designed for Live-Cell Imaging of Proteins and High Resolution Techniques in Yeast  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, it has become clear that protein function and regulation are highly dependent upon intracellular localization. Although fluorescent protein variants are ubiquitously used to monitor protein dynamics, localization, and abundance; fluorescent light microscopy techniques often lack the resolution to explore protein heterogeneity and cellular ultrastructure. Several approaches have been developed to identify, characterize, and monitor the spatial localization of proteins and complexes at the sub-organelle level; yet, many of these techniques have not been applied to yeast. Thus, we have constructed a series of cassettes containing codon-optimized epitope tags, fluorescent protein variants that cover the full spectrum of visible light, a TetCys motif used for FlAsH-based localization, and the first evaluation in yeast of a photoswitchable variant – mEos2 – to monitor discrete subpopulations of proteins via confocal microscopy. This series of modules, complete with six different selection markers, provides the optimal flexibility during live-cell imaging and multicolor labeling in vivo. Furthermore, high-resolution imaging techniques include the yeast-enhanced TetCys motif that is compatible with diaminobenzidine photooxidation used for protein localization by electron microscopy and mEos2 that is ideal for super-resolution microscopy. We have examined the utility of our cassettes by analyzing all probes fused to the C-terminus of Sec61, a polytopic membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum of moderate protein concentration, in order to directly compare fluorescent probes, their utility and technical applications. Our series of cassettes expand the repertoire of molecular tools available to advance targeted spatiotemporal investigations using multiple live-cell, super-resolution or electron microscopy imaging techniques.

Young, Carissa L.; Raden, David L.; Caplan, Jeffrey; Czymmek, Kirk; Robinson, Anne S.

2012-01-01

395

Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays.  

PubMed

In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome. PMID:21248857

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

2011-01-20

396

Marine integrons containing novel integrase genes, attachment sites, attI, and associated gene cassettes in polluted sediments from Suez and Tokyo Bays  

PubMed Central

In order to understand the structure and biological significance of integrons and associated gene cassettes in marine polluted sediments, metagenomic DNAs were extracted from sites at Suez and Tokyo Bays. PCR amplicons containing new integrase genes, intI, linked with novel gene cassettes, were recovered and had sizes from 1.8 to 2.5?kb. This approach uncovered, for the first time, the structure and diversity of both marine integron attachment site, attI, and the first gene cassette, the most efficiently expressed integron-associated gene cassette. The recovered 13 and 20 intI phylotypes, from Suez and Tokyo Bay samples, respectively, showed a highly divergence, suggesting a difference in integron composition between the sampling sites. Some intI phylotypes showed similarity with that from Geobacter metallireducens, belonging to Deltaproteobacteria, the dominant class in both sampling sites, as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Thirty distinct families of putative attI site, as determined by the presence of an attI-like simple site, were recovered. A total of 146 and 68 gene cassettes represented Suez and Tokyo Bay unsaturated cassette pools, respectively. Gene cassettes, including a first cassette, from both sampling sites encoded two novel families of glyoxalase/bleomycin antibiotic-resistance protein. Gene cassettes from Suez Bay encoded proteins similar to haloacid dehalogenases, protein disulfide isomerases and death-on-curing and plasmid maintenance system killer proteins. First gene cassettes from Tokyo Bay encoded a xenobiotic-degrading protein, cardiolipin synthetase, esterase and WD40-like ? propeller protein. Many of the first gene cassettes encoded proteins with no ascribable function but some of them were duplicated and possessed signal functional sites, suggesting efficient adaptive functions to their bacterial sources. Thus, each sampling site had a specific profile of integrons and cassette types consistent with the hypothesis that the environment shapes the genome.

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Kitamura, Keiko; Kurusu, Yasurou; Kamagata, Yoichi; Maruyama, Akihiko

2011-01-01

397

Spontaneous staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element excision in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers.  

PubMed

Among 23 patients carrying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in their anterior nares, 6 (26%) also carried methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) as less prevalent flora. In 4 of the 6 patients, the MSSA was unrelated to prevalent MRSA, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing. However, in two patients, the strains were identical except for the absence of spontaneous staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). We consider this evidence of spontaneous SCCmec excision in vivo. PMID:22116150

Boundy, Sam; Zhao, Qixun; Fairbanks, Carly; Folgosa, Lauren; Climo, Michael; Archer, Gordon L

2011-11-23

398

Oral Spirochetes Implicated in Dental Diseases Are Widespread in Normal Human Subjects and Carry Extremely Diverse Integron Gene Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has produced several hundred metagenomic data sets, allowing studies of the many functional elements in human-associated microbial communities. Here, we survey the distribution of oral spirochetes implicated in dental diseases in normal human individuals, using recombination sites associated with the chromosomal integron in Treponema genomes, taking advantage of the multiple copies of the integron recombination sites (repeats) in the genomes, and using a targeted assembly approach that we have developed. We find that integron-containing Treponema species are present in ?80% of the normal human subjects included in the HMP. Further, we are able to de novo assemble the integron gene cassettes using our constrained assembly approach, which employs a unique application of the de Bruijn graph assembly information; most of these cassette genes were not assembled in whole-metagenome assemblies and could not be identified by mapping sequencing reads onto the known reference Treponema genomes due to the dynamic nature of integron gene cassettes. Our study significantly enriches the gene pool known to be carried by Treponema chromosomal integrons, totaling 826 (598 97% nonredundant) genes. We characterize the functions of these gene cassettes: many of these genes have unknown functions. The integron gene cassette arrays found in the human microbiome are extraordinarily dynamic, with different microbial communities sharing only a small number of common genes.

Wu, Yu-Wei; Rho, Mina; Doak, Thomas G.

2012-01-01

399

Efficient silencing of gene expression with modular trimeric Pol II expression cassettes comprising microRNA shuttles  

PubMed Central

Expressed polycistronic microRNA (miR) cassettes have useful properties that can be utilized for RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene silencing. To advance their application we generated modular trimeric anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) Pol II cassettes encoding primary (pri)-miR-31-derived shuttles that target three different viral genome sites. A panel of six expression cassettes, comprising each of the possible ordering combinations of the pri-miR-31 shuttles, was initially tested. Effective silencing of individual target sequences was achieved in transfected cells and transcribed pri-miR trimers generated intended guide strands. There was, however, variation in processing and silencing by each of the shuttles. In some cases the monomers’ position within the trimers influenced processing and this correlated with target silencing. Compromised efficacy could be compensated by substituting the pri-miR-31 backbone with a pri-miR-30a scaffold. Inhibition of HBV replication was achieved in vivo, and in cell culture without disruption of endogenous miR function or induction of the interferon response. A mutant HBV target sequence, with changes in one of the guide cognates, was also silenced by the trimeric cassettes. The modular nature of the cassettes together with compatibility with expression from Pol II promoters should be advantageous for gene silencing applications requiring simultaneous targeting of different sites.

Ely, Abdullah; Naidoo, Tanusha; Arbuthnot, Patrick

2009-01-01

400

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J.F.; /Denver U.; Atwood, W.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Burnett, T.; /Washington U., Seattle; Grove, E.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Longo, F.; /INFN, Pisa; McEnery, J.; /NASA, Goddard; Mizuno, T.; /Hiroshima U.; Ritz, S.; /NASA, Goddard

2007-10-17

401

The GLAST Background Model  

SciTech Connect

In order to estimate the ability of the GLAST/LAT to reject unwanted background of charged particles, optimize the on-board processing, size the required telemetry and optimize the GLAST orbit, we developed a detailed model of the background particles that would affect the LAT. In addition to the well-known components of the cosmic radiation, we included splash and reentrant components of protons, electrons (e+ and e-) from 10 MeV and beyond as well as the albedo gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with the atmosphere. We made estimates of the irreducible background components produced by positrons and hadrons interacting in the multilayered micrometeorite shield and spacecraft surrounding the LAT and note that because the orbital debris has increased, the shielding required and hence the background are larger than were present in EGRET. Improvements to the model are currently being made to include the east-west effect.

Ormes, J. F. [University of Denver (United States); Atwood, W. [University of California at Santa Cruz (United States); Burnett, T. [University of Washington (United States); Grove, E. [Naval Research Laboratory (United States); Longo, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)-Pisa (Italy); McEnery, J.; Ritz, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (United States); Mizuno, T. [Hiroshima University (Japan)

2007-07-12

402

Enhancing desulphurization by engineering a flavin reductase-encoding gene cassette in recombinant biocatalysts.  

PubMed

Biological desulphurization of petroleum feedstocks and products may offer an attractive alternative to reduce sulphur oxide emissions that cause serious environmental pollution. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) desulphurization via the Dsz pathway of Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 is an energetically expensive process that consumes reducing equivalents. We have shown in this work that the HpaC oxidoreductase from Escherichia coli W is able to supply the required FMNH2 to the Dsz monooxygenases. The cloning and expression of the hpaC gene in Pseudomonas strains bearing the dszABC gene cluster significantly enhanced DBT desulphurization efficacy of the recombinant biocatalysts in a resting-cell process, thus indicating that overexpression of a heterologous flavin reductase