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1

ATP-binding cassette transporters in liver.  

PubMed

The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily consists of 48 members with 14 of them identified in normal human liver at the protein level. Most of the ABC members act as ATP dependent efflux transport systems. In the liver, ABC transporters are involved in diverse physiological processes including export of cholesterol, bile salts, and metabolic endproducts. Consequently, impaired ABC transporter function is involved in inherited diseases like sitosterolemia, hyperbilirubinemia, or cholestasis. Furthermore, altered expression of some of the hepatic ABCs have been associated with primary liver tumors. This review gives a short overview about the function of hepatic ABCs. Special focus is addressed on the localization and ontogenesis of ABC transporters in the human liver. In addition, their expression pattern in primary liver tumors is discussed. PMID:24105869

Wlcek, Katrin; Stieger, Bruno

2014-01-01

2

ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes the characteristics of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family), which has five members:\\u000a ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8. The members consist of a single ABC cassette in the amino terminal followed by six\\u000a putative transmembrane domains, and to become functionally active, they form homo- or obligate heterodimers. Except for ABCG2,\\u000a the members of the ABCG

Hiroyuki Kusuhara; Yuichi Sugiyama

2007-01-01

3

Structure and mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporters  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a large superfamily of integral membrane proteins that includes both importers and exporters. In recent years, several structures of complete ABC transporters have been determined by X-ray crystallography. These structures suggest a mechanism by which binding and hydrolysis of ATP by the cytoplasmic, nucleotide-binding domains control the conformation of the transmembrane domains and therefore which side of the membrane the translocation pathway is exposed to. A basic, conserved two-state mechanism can explain active transport of both ABC importers and ABC exporters, but various questions remain unresolved. In this article, I will review some of the crystal structures and the mechanistic insight gained from them. Future challenges for a better understanding of the mechanism of ABC transporters will be outlined.

Locher, Kaspar P.

2008-01-01

4

Evolutionary relationships of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) uptake porters  

PubMed Central

Background The ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) functional superfamily includes integral transmembrane exporters that have evolved three times independently, forming three families termed ABC1, ABC2 and ABC3, upon which monophyletic ATPases have been superimposed for energy-coupling purposes [e.g., J Membr Biol 231(1):1-10, 2009]. The goal of the work reported in this communication was to understand how the integral membrane constituents of ABC uptake transporters with different numbers of predicted or established transmembrane segments (TMSs) evolved. In a few cases, high resolution 3-dimensional structures were available, and in these cases, their structures plus primary sequence analyses allowed us to predict evolutionary pathways of origin. Results All of the 35 currently recognized families of ABC uptake proteins except for one (family 21) were shown to be homologous using quantitative statistical methods. These methods involved using established programs that compare native protein sequences with each other, after having compared each sequence with thousands of its own shuffled sequences, to gain evidence for homology. Topological analyses suggested that these porters contain numbers of TMSs ranging from four or five to twenty. Intragenic duplication events occurred multiple times during the evolution of these porters. They originated from a simple primordial protein containing 3 TMSs which duplicated to 6 TMSs, and then produced porters of the various topologies via insertions, deletions and further duplications. Except for family 21 which proved to be related to ABC1 exporters, they are all related to members of the previously identified ABC2 exporter family. Duplications that occurred in addition to the primordial 3???6 duplication included 5???10, 6???12 and 10???20 TMSs. In one case, protein topologies were uncertain as different programs gave discrepant predictions. It could not be concluded with certainty whether a 4 TMS ancestral protein or a 5 TMS ancestral protein duplicated to give an 8 or a 10 TMS protein. Evidence is presented suggesting but not proving that the 2TMS repeat unit in ABC1 porters derived from the two central TMSs of ABC2 porters. These results provide structural information and plausible evolutionary pathways for the appearance of most integral membrane constituents of ABC uptake transport systems. Conclusions Almost all integral membrane uptake porters of the ABC superfamily belong to the ABC2 family, previously established for exporters. Most of these proteins can have 5, 6, 10, 12 or 20 TMSs per polypeptide chain. Evolutionary pathways for their appearance are proposed.

2013-01-01

5

ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family).  

PubMed

This review summarizes the characteristics of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (ABCG family), which has five members: ABCG1, ABCG2, ABCG4, ABCG5, and ABCG8. The members consist of a single ABC cassette in the amino terminal followed by six putative transmembrane domains, and to become functionally active, they form homo- or obligate heterodimers. Except for ABCG2, the members of the ABCG family play an important role in efflux transport of cholesterol. Mutations causing a loss of function of ABCG5 or ABCG8 are associated with sitosterolemia characterized by accumulation of phyto- and shellfish sterols. Unlike other members, ABCG2 is not involved in cholesterol efflux, but it exhibits broad substrate specificity to xenobiotic compounds. ABCG2 confers cancer cells resistance to anticancer drugs and plays a critical role in the pharmacokinetics of drugs in the clearance organs and tissue barriers. ABCG2 is also associated with a subpopulation phenotype of stem cells. Genetic polymorphisms of ABCG2 have been suggested to account for the interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of drugs. PMID:16983557

Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

2007-02-01

6

ATP-Binding Cassette Efflux Transporters in Human Placenta  

PubMed Central

Pregnant women are often complicated with diseases including viral or bacterial infections, epilepsy, hypertension, or pregnancy-induced conditions such as depression and gestational diabetes that require treatment with medication. In addition, substance abuse during pregnancy remains a major public health problem. Many drugs used by pregnant women are off label without the necessary dose, efficacy, and safety data required for rational dosing regimens of these drugs. Thus, a major concern arising from the widespread use of drugs by pregnant women is the transfer of drugs across the placental barrier, leading to potential toxicity to the developing fetus. Knowledge regarding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters, which play an important role in drug transfer across the placental barrier, is absolutely critical for optimizing the therapeutic strategy to treat the mother while protecting the fetus during pregnancy. Such transporters include P-glycoprotein (P-gp, gene symbol ABCB1), the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2), and the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs, gene symbol ABCCs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge with respect to developmental expression and regulation, membrane localization, functional significance, and genetic polymorphisms of these ABC transporters in the placenta and their relevance to fetal drug exposure and toxicity.

Ni, Zhanglin; Mao, Qingcheng

2010-01-01

7

ATP binding cassette G1-dependent cholesterol efflux during inflammation.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the transport of cellular cholesterol to HDL, and it plays a key role in maintaining macrophage cholesterol homeostasis. During inflammation, HDL undergoes substantial remodeling, acquiring lipid changes and serum amyloid A (SAA) as a major apolipoprotein. In the current study, we investigated whether remodeling of HDL that occurs during acute inflammation impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux. Our data indicate that lipid free SAA acts similarly to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in mediating sequential efflux from ABCA1 and ABCG1. Compared with normal mouse HDL, acute phase (AP) mouse HDL containing SAA exhibited a modest but significant 17% increase in ABCG1-dependent efflux. Interestingly, AP HDL isolated from mice lacking SAA (SAAKO mice) was even more effective in promoting ABCG1 efflux. Hydrolysis with Group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)-IIA) significantly reduced the ability of AP HDL from SAAKO mice to serve as a substrate for ABCG1-mediated cholesterol transfer, indicating that phospholipid (PL) enrichment, and not the presence of SAA, is responsible for alterations in efflux. AP human HDL, which is not PL-enriched, was somewhat less effective in mediating ABCG1-dependent efflux compared with normal human HDL. Our data indicate that inflammatory remodeling of HDL impacts ABCG1-dependent efflux independent of SAA. PMID:21138980

de Beer, Maria C; Ji, Ailing; Jahangiri, Anisa; Vaughan, Ashley M; de Beer, Frederick C; van der Westhuyzen, Deneys R; Webb, Nancy R

2011-02-01

8

ATP-Binding cassette cholesterol transporters and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

A hallmark of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the accumulation of cholesterol in arterial macrophages. Factors that modulate circulating and tissue cholesterol levels have major impacts on initiation, progression, and regression of CVD. Four members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family play important roles in this modulation. ABCA1 and ABCG1 export excess cellular cholesterol into the HDL pathway and reduce cholesterol accumulation in macrophages. ABCG5 and ABCG8 form heterodimers that limit absorption of dietary sterols in the intestine and promote cholesterol elimination from the body through hepatobiliary secretion. All 4 transporters are induced by the same sterol-sensing nuclear receptor system. ABCA1 expression and activity are also highly regulated posttranscriptionally by diverse processes. ABCA1 mutations can cause a severe HDL-deficiency syndrome characterized by cholesterol deposition in tissue macrophages and prevalent atherosclerosis. ABCG5 or ABCG8 mutations can cause sitosterolemia, in which patients accumulate cholesterol and plant sterols in the circulation and develop premature CVD. Disrupting Abca1 or Abcg1 in mice promotes accumulation of excess cholesterol in macrophages, and manipulating mouse macrophage ABCA1 expression affects atherogenesis. Overexpressing ABCG5 and ABCG8 in mice attenuates diet-induced atherosclerosis in association with reduced circulating and liver cholesterol. Metabolites elevated in individuals with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes destabilize ABCA1 protein and inhibit transcription of all 4 transporters. Thus, impaired ABC cholesterol transporters might contribute to the enhanced atherogenesis associated with common inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Their beneficial effects on cholesterol homeostasis have made these transporters important new therapeutic targets for preventing and reversing CVD. PMID:17095732

Oram, John F; Vaughan, Ashley M

2006-11-10

9

Functional analysis of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene family of Tribolium castaneum  

PubMed Central

Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. Most are integral membrane proteins that transport a broad spectrum of substrates across lipid membranes. In insects, ABC transporters are of special interest because of their role in insecticide resistance. Results We have identified 73 ABC transporter genes in the genome of T. castaneum, which group into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H). This coleopteran ABC family is significantly larger than those reported for insects in other taxonomic groups. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this increase is due to gene expansion within a single clade of subfamily ABCC. We performed an RNA interference (RNAi) screen to study the function of ABC transporters during development. In ten cases, injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into larvae caused developmental phenotypes, which included growth arrest and localized melanization, eye pigmentation defects, abnormal cuticle formation, egg-laying and egg-hatching defects, and mortality due to abortive molting and desiccation. Some of the ABC transporters we studied in closer detail to examine their role in lipid, ecdysteroid and eye pigment transport. Conclusions The results from our study provide new insights into the physiological function of ABC transporters in T. castaneum, and may help to establish new target sites for insect control.

2013-01-01

10

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression and localization in sea urchin development  

PubMed Central

Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are membrane proteins that regulate intracellular concentrations of myriad compounds and ions. There are >100 ABC transporter predictions in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, including 40 annotated ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG “multidrug efflux” transporters. Despite the importance of multidrug transporters for protection and signaling, their expression patterns have not been characterized in deuterostome embryos. Results Sea urchin embryos expressed 20 ABCB, ABCC, and ABCG transporter genes in the first 58 hours of development, from unfertilized egg to early prism. We quantified transcripts of ABCB1a, ABCB4a, ABCC1, ABCC5a, ABCC9a, and ABCG2b, and found that ABCB1a mRNA was 10–100 times more abundant than other transporter mRNAs. In situ hybridization showed ABCB1a was expressed ubiquitously in embryos, while ABCC5a was restricted to secondary mesenchyme cells and their precursors. Fluorescent protein fusions showed localization of ABCB1a on apical cell surfaces, and ABCC5a on basolateral surfaces. Conclusions Embryos utilize many ABC transporters with predicted functions in cell signaling, lysosomal and mitochondrial homeostasis, potassium channel regulation, pigmentation, and xenobiotic efflux. Detailed characterization of ABCB1a and ABCC5a revealed that they have different temporal and spatial gene expression profiles and protein localization patterns that correlate to their predicted functions in protection and development, respectively.

Shipp, Lauren E.; Hamdoun, Amro

2012-01-01

11

Characterisation of single domain ATP-binding cassette protien homologues of Theileria parva.  

PubMed

Two distinct genes encoding single domain, ATP-binding cassette transport protein homologues of Theileria parva were cloned and sequenced. Neither of the genes is tandemly duplicated. One gene, TpABC1, encodes a predicted protein of 593 amino acids with an N-terminal hydrophobic domain containing six potential membrane-spanning segments. A single discontinuous ATP-binding element was located in the C-terminal region of TpABC1. The second gene, TpABC2, also contains a single C-terminal ATP-binding motif. Copies of TpABC2 were present at four loci in the T. parva genome on three different chromosomes. TpABC1 exhibited allelic polymorphism between stocks of the parasite. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that TpABC1 contained seven short introns, between 29 and 84 bp in length. The full-length TpABC1 protein was expressed in insect cells using the baculovirus system. Application of antibodies raised against the recombinant antigen to western blots of T. parva piroplasm lysates detected an 85 kDa protein in this life-cycle stage. PMID:11570560

Kibe, M K; Macklin, M; Gobright, E; Bishop, R; Urakawa, T; ole-MoiYoi, O K

2001-09-01

12

Molecular Disruption of the Power Stroke in the ATP-binding Cassette Transport Protein MsbA*  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette transporters affect drug pharmacokinetics and are associated with inherited human diseases and impaired chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers and microbial infections. Current alternating access models for ATP-binding cassette exporter activity suggest that ATP binding at the two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains provides a power stroke for the conformational switch of the two membrane domains from the inward-facing conformation to the outward-facing conformation. In outward-facing crystal structures of the bacterial homodimeric ATP-binding cassette transporters MsbA from Gram-negative bacteria and Sav1866 from Staphylococcus aureus, two transmembrane helices (3 and 4) in the membrane domains have their cytoplasmic extensions in close proximity, forming a tetrahelix bundle interface. In biochemical experiments on MsbA from Escherichia coli, we show for the first time that a robust network of inter-monomer interactions in the tetrahelix bundle is crucial for the transmission of nucleotide-dependent conformational changes to the extracellular side of the membrane domains. Our observations are the first to suggest that modulation of tetrahelix bundle interactions in ATP-binding cassette exporters might offer a potent strategy to alter their transport activity.

Doshi, Rupak; Ali, Anam; Shi, Wilma; Freeman, Elizabeth V.; Fagg, Lisa A.; van Veen, Hendrik W.

2013-01-01

13

Receptor-transporter interactions of canonical ATP-binding cassette import systems in prokaryotes.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport systems mediate the translocation of solutes across biological membranes at the expense of ATP. They share a common modular architecture comprising two pore-forming transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains. In prokaryotes, ABC transporters are involved in the uptake of a large variety of chemicals, including nutrients, osmoprotectants and signal molecules. In pathogenic bacteria, some ABC importers are virulence factors. Canonical ABC import systems require an additional component, a substrate-specific receptor or binding protein for function. Interaction of the liganded receptor with extracytoplasmic loop regions of the transmembrane domains initiate the transport cycle. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on receptor-transporter interplay provided by crystal structures as well as by biochemical and biophysical means. In particular, we focus on the maltose/maltodextrin transporter of enterobacteria and the transporters for positively charged amino acids from the thermophile Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. PMID:21561685

Schneider, Erwin; Eckey, Viola; Weidlich, Daniela; Wiesemann, Nicole; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeshir; Thaben, Paul; Saenger, Wolfram

2012-04-01

14

A functional steroid-binding element in an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter.  

PubMed

The human breast cancer resistance protein is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporter that affects the bioavailability of chemotherapeutic drugs and can confer drug resistance on cancer cells. It is the second member of the ABCG subfamily, other members of which are associated with human steroid disorders such as hypercholesterolemia, sitosterolemia, and atherosclerosis. The molecular bases of protein-steroid interactions in ABC transporters are unknown. Here, we identify a steroid-binding element in the membrane domain of ABCG2 with a similarity to steroid hormone/nuclear receptors. The element facilitates steroid hormone binding and mediates modulation of ABCG2 activity. The identification of this element might provide an opportunity for the development of new therapeutic ligands for ABCG2. PMID:18094074

Velamakanni, Saroj; Janvilisri, Tavan; Shahi, Sanjay; van Veen, Hendrik W

2008-01-01

15

The ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins of the Deep-Branching Protozoan Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

The ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins are a family of membrane transporters and regulatory proteins responsible for diverse and critical cellular process in all organisms. To date, there has been no attempt to investigate this class of proteins in the infectious parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. We have utilized a combination of bioinformatics, gene sequence analysis, gene expression and confocal microscopy to investigate the ABC proteins of T. vaginalis. We demonstrate that, uniquely among eukaryotes, T. vaginalis possesses no intact full-length ABC transporters and has undergone a dramatic expansion of some ABC protein sub-families. Furthermore, we provide preliminary evidence that T. vaginalis is able to read through in-frame stop codons to express ABC transporter components from gene pairs in a head-to-tail orientation. Finally, with confocal microscopy we demonstrate the expression and endoplasmic reticulum localization of a number of T. vaginalis ABC transporters.

Lawler, Karen; Self, Tim J.; Dyall, Sabrina D.; Kerr, Ian D.

2012-01-01

16

Discovery of Regulatory Elements in Human ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters through Expression Quantitative Trait Mapping  

PubMed Central

ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) membrane transporters determine the disposition of many drugs, metabolites and endogenous compounds. Coding region variation in ABC transporters is the cause of many genetic disorders, but much less is known about the genetic basis and functional outcome of ABC transporter expression level variation. We used genotype and mRNA transcript level data from human lymphoblastoid cell lines to assess population and gender differences in ABC transporter expression, and to guide the discovery of genomic regions involved in transcriptional regulation. Nineteen of 49 ABC genes were differentially expressed between individuals of African, Asian and European descent suggesting an important influence of race on expression level of ABC transporters. Twenty-four significant associations were found between transporter transcript levels and proximally located genetic variants. Several of the associations were experimentally validated in reporter assays. Through influencing ABC expression levels, these SNPs may affect disease susceptibility and response to drugs.

Matsson, Par; Yee, Sook Wah; Markova, Svetlana; Morrissey, Kari; Jenkins, Gerard; Xuan, Jiekun; Jorgenson, Eric; Kroetz, Deanna L.; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

2011-01-01

17

The Conformational Transition Pathway of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter MsbA Revealed by Atomistic Simulations*  

PubMed Central

ATP binding cassette transporters are integral membrane proteins that use the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) to translocate a wide variety of substrates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes. MsbA from Gram-negative bacteria is a lipid and multidrug resistance ATP binding cassette exporter that can undergo large scale conformational changes between the outward-facing and the inward-facing conformations revealed by crystal structures in different states. Here, we use targeted molecular dynamics simulation methods to explore the atomic details of the conformational transition from the outward-facing to the inward-facing states of MsbA. The molecular dynamics trajectories revealed a clear spatiotemporal order of the conformational movements. The disruption of the nucleotide binding sites at the NBD dimer interface is the very first event that initiates the following conformational changes, verifying the assumption that the conformational conversion is triggered by ATP hydrolysis. The conserved x-loops of the NBDs were identified to participate in the interaction network that stabilizes the cytoplasmic tetrahelix bundle of the TMDs and play an important role in mediating the cross-talk between the NBD and TMD. The movement of the NBD dimer is transmitted through x-loops to break the tetrahelix bundle, inducing the packing rearrangements of the transmembrane helices at the cytoplasmic side and the periplasmic side sequentially. The packing rearrangement within each periplasmic wing of TMD that results in exposure of the substrate binding sites occurred at the end stage of the trajectory, preventing the wrong timing of the binding site accessibility.

Weng, Jing-Wei; Fan, Kang-Nian; Wang, Wen-Ning

2010-01-01

18

Relation between hepatic expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 and biliary cholesterol secretion in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Mutations in genes encoding the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 underlie sitosterolemia, which is characterized by elevated plasma levels of phytosterols due to increased intestinal absorption and impaired biliary secretion of sterols. The aim of our study was to correlate the expression levels of Abcg5 and Abcg8 to biliary cholesterol secretion in various (genetically-modified) mouse models.Methods: Bile was

Astrid Kosters; Raoul J. J. M. Frijters; Frank G. Schaap; Edwin Vink; Torsten Plösch; Roelof Ottenhoff; Milan Jirsa; Iris M. De Cuyper; Folkert Kuipers; Albert K. Groen

2003-01-01

19

A Tweezers-like Motion of the ATP-Binding Cassette Dimer in an ABC Transport Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ATPase components of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters power the transporters by binding and hydrolyzing ATP. Major conformational changes of an ATPase are revealed by crystal structures of MalK, the ATPase subunit of the maltose transporter from Escherichia coli, in three different dimeric configurations. While other nucleotide binding domains or subunits display low affinity for each other in the

Jue Chen; Gang Lu; Jeffrey Lin; Amy L. Davidson; Florante A. Quiocho

2003-01-01

20

Predicted ATP-binding cassette systems in the phytopathogenic mollicute Spiroplasma kunkelii.  

PubMed

Spiroplasma kunkelii is a cell wall-free, helical, and motile mycoplasma-like organism that causes corn stunt disease in maize. The bacterium has a compact genome with a gene set approaching the minimal complement necessary for cellular life and pathogenesis. A set of 21 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domains was identified during the annotation of a draft S. kunkelii genome sequence. These 21 ABC domains are present in 18 predicted proteins, and are components of 16 functional systems, which account for 5% of the protein coding capacity of the S. kunkelii genome. Of the 16 systems, 11 are membrane-bound transporters, and two are cytosolic systems involved in DNA repair and the oxidative stress response; the genes for the remaining three hypothetical systems harbor nonsense and/or frameshift mutations, so their functional status is doubtful. Assembly of the 11 multicomponent transporters, and comparisons with other known systems permitted functional predictions for the S. kunkelii ABC transporter systems. These transporters convey a wide variety of substrates, and are critical for nutrient uptake, multidrug resistance, and perhaps virulence. Our findings provide a framework for functional characterization of the ABC systems in S. kunkelii. PMID:15024644

Zhao, Y; Wang, H; Hammond, R W; Jomantiene, R; Liu, Q; Lin, S; Roe, B A; Davis, R E

2004-04-01

21

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G1 Negatively Regulates Thymocyte and Peripheral Lymphocyte Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol is a key component of cell membranes and is essential for cell growth and proliferation. How the accumulation of cellular cholesterol affects lymphocyte development and function is not well understood. We demonstrate that ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) regulates cholesterol homeostasis in thymocytes and peripheral CD4 T cells. Our work is the first to describe a cell type in Abcg1-deficient mice with such a robust change in cholesterol content and the expression of cholesterol metabolism genes. Abcg1-deficient mice display increased thymocyte cellularity and enhanced proliferation of thymocytes and peripheral T lymphocytes in vivo. The absence of ABCG1 in CD4 T cells results in hyperproliferation in vitro, but only when cells are stimulated through the TCR. We hypothesize that cholesterol accumulation in Abcg1?/? T cells alters the plasma membrane structure, resulting in enhanced TCR signaling for proliferation. Supporting this idea, we demonstrate that B6 T cells pretreated with soluble cholesterol have a significant increase in proliferation. Cholesterol accumulation in Abcg1?/? CD4 T cells results in enhanced basal phosphorylation levels of ZAP70 and ERK1/2. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in TCR-stimulated Abcg1?/? T cells rescues the hyperproliferative phenotype. We describe a novel mechanism by which cholesterol can alter signaling from the plasma membrane to affect downstream signaling pathways and proliferation. These results implicate ABCG1 as an important negative regulator of lymphocyte proliferation through the maintenance of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

Armstrong, Allison J.; Gebre, Abraham K.; Parks, John S.; Hedrick, Catherine C.

2012-01-01

22

The ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB19 Regulates Postembryonic Organ Separation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in plant development, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tropism, apical dominance and in cell growth, division, and expansion. In these processes, the concentration gradient of auxin, which is established by polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins and several ATP-binding cassette/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) transporters, is a crucial signal. Here, we characterized the function of ABCB19 in the control of Arabidopsis organ boundary development. We identified a new abcb19 allele, abcb19-5, which showed stem-cauline leaf and stem-pedicel fusion defects. By virtue of the DII-VENUS marker, the auxin level was found to be increased at the organ boundary region in the inflorescence apex. The expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2) was decreased, while no obvious change in the expression of CUC3 was observed, in abcb19. In addition, the fusion defects were greatly enhanced in cuc3 abcb19-5, which was reminiscent of cuc2 cuc3. We also found that some other organ boundary genes, such as LOF1/2 were down-regulated in abcb19. Together, these results reveal a new aspect of auxin transporter ABCB19 function, which is largely dependent on the positive regulation of organ boundary genes CUC2 and LOFs at the postembryonic organ boundary.

Mo, Huixian; Qian, Litao; Cao, Ying; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

2013-01-01

23

Characterization of palmitoylation of ATP binding cassette transporter G1: effect on protein trafficking and function.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates cholesterol efflux onto lipidated apolipoprotein A-I and HDL and plays a role in various important physiological functions. However, the mechanism by which ABCG1 mediates cholesterol translocation is unclear. Protein palmitoylation regulates many functions of proteins such as ABCA1. Here we investigated if ABCG1 is palmitoylated and the subsequent effects on ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. We demonstrated that ABCG1 is palmitoylated in both human embryonic kidney 293 cells and in mouse macrophage, J774. Five cysteine residues located at positions 26, 150, 311, 390 and 402 in the NH2-terminal cytoplasmic region of ABCG1 were palmitoylated. Removal of palmitoylation at Cys311 by mutating the residue to Ala (C311A) or Ser significantly decreased ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. On the other hand, removal of palmitoylation at sites 26, 150, 390 and 402 had no significant effect. We further demonstrated that mutations of Cys311 affected ABCG1 trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, our data suggest that palmitoylation plays a critical role in ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux through the regulation of trafficking. PMID:23388354

Gu, Hong-mei; Li, Ge; Gao, Xia; Berthiaume, Luc G; Zhang, Da-wei

2013-06-01

24

A-Subclass ATP-Binding Cassette Proteins in Brain Lipid Homeostasis and Neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

The A-subclass of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters comprises 12 structurally related members of the evolutionarily highly conserved superfamily of ABC transporters. ABCA transporters represent a subgroup of “full-size” multispan transporters of which several members have been shown to mediate the transport of a variety of physiologic lipid compounds across membrane barriers. The importance of ABCA transporters in human disease is documented by the observations that so far four members of this protein family (ABCA1, ABCA3, ABCA4, ABCA12) have been causatively linked to monogenetic disorders including familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency, neonatal surfactant deficiency, degenerative retinopathies, and congenital keratinization disorders. Recent research also point to a significant contribution of several A-subfamily ABC transporters to neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This review will give a summary of our current knowledge of the A-subclass of ABC transporters with a special focus on brain lipid homeostasis and their involvement in AD.

Piehler, Armin P.; Ozcurumez, Mustafa; Kaminski, Wolfgang E.

2012-01-01

25

The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB19 regulates postembryonic organ separation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role in plant development, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tropism, apical dominance and in cell growth, division, and expansion. In these processes, the concentration gradient of auxin, which is established by polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins and several ATP-binding cassette/multi-drug resistance/P-glycoprotein (ABCB/MDR/PGP) transporters, is a crucial signal. Here, we characterized the function of ABCB19 in the control of Arabidopsis organ boundary development. We identified a new abcb19 allele, abcb19-5, which showed stem-cauline leaf and stem-pedicel fusion defects. By virtue of the DII-VENUS marker, the auxin level was found to be increased at the organ boundary region in the inflorescence apex. The expression of CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2) was decreased, while no obvious change in the expression of CUC3 was observed, in abcb19. In addition, the fusion defects were greatly enhanced in cuc3 abcb19-5, which was reminiscent of cuc2 cuc3. We also found that some other organ boundary genes, such as LOF1/2 were down-regulated in abcb19. Together, these results reveal a new aspect of auxin transporter ABCB19 function, which is largely dependent on the positive regulation of organ boundary genes CUC2 and LOFs at the postembryonic organ boundary. PMID:23560110

Zhao, Hongtao; Liu, Lei; Mo, Huixian; Qian, Litao; Cao, Ying; Cui, Sujuan; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

2013-01-01

26

Cloning, sequence and functional analysis of goat ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2).  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) gene encodes a protein that has a wide variety of substrates and is responsible for the active secretion of clinically and toxicologically important molecules into milk. Although known in many species, this marks the first time this gene product has been reported in goats. In this study, we cloned and sequenced goat ABCG2 gene complete coding sequence and predicted its putative translated protein structure with implicative functional domains. One six-transmembrane span on C-terminal region and at least one coiled-coil domain on N-terminal were predicted and compared primarily with those of other closely related species. In addition, three conserved cysteines (in positions 595, 606, and 611) were determined toward the C-terminal of goat's ABCG2. Two known functional motifs were identified in goat's protein through comparative studies with other species. The goat ABCG2 relative expression profile revealed that the gene expression was a function of lactation stage and parallel to goat lactation curve. PMID:18256940

Wu, Hui Juan; Luo, Jun; Wu, Ning; Matand, Kanyand; Zhang, Li Juan; Han, Xue Feng; Yang, Bao Jin

2008-05-01

27

Expression of ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters in a HIV-1 transgenic rat model.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp, product of Mdr1a and Mdr1b genes), multidrug resistance associated proteins (Mrps), and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), all members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug transporters superfamily, can significantly restrict the entry of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into organs which exhibit a barrier function such as the central nervous system (CNS) and the male genital tract (MGT). In vitro, HIV-1 viral proteins such as glycoprotein-120 (gp120) and transcriptional transactivator (tat) have been shown to alter the expression of these transporters and ARVs permeability. The objective of this study was to compare mRNA expression of these transporters, in vivo, in several tissues obtained from HIV-1 transgenic rats (Tg-rat) (8 and 24 weeks) with those of age-matched wild-type rats. At 24 weeks, significant changes in several drug transporter mRNA expressions were observed, in particular, in brain, kidney, liver and testes. These findings suggest that HIV-1 viral proteins can alter the expression of ABC drug transporters, in vivo, in the context of HIV-1 and further regulate ARVs permeability in several organs including the CNS and MGT, two sites which have been reported to display very low ARVs permeability in the clinic. PMID:24472536

Robillard, Kevin R; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Bendayan, Reina

2014-02-21

28

A Plant Plasma Membrane ATP Binding Cassette-Type Transporter Is Involved in Antifungal Terpenoid Secretion  

PubMed Central

ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are found in all species, are known mainly for their ability to confer drug resistance. To date, most of the ABC transporters characterized in plants have been localized in the vacuolar membrane and are considered to be involved in the intracellular sequestration of cytotoxins. Working on the assumption that certain ABC transporters might be involved in defense metabolite secretion and their expression might be regulated by the concentration of these metabolites, we treated a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell culture with sclareolide, a close analog of sclareol, an antifungal diterpene produced at the leaf surface of Nicotiana spp; this resulted in the appearance of a 160-kD plasma membrane protein, which was partially sequenced. The corresponding cDNA (NpABC1) was cloned and shown to encode an ABC transporter. In vitro and in situ immunodetection showed NpABC1 to be localized in the plasma membrane. Under normal conditions, expression was found in the leaf epidermis. In cell culture and in leaf tissues, NpABC1 expression was strongly enhanced by sclareolide and sclareol. In parallel with NpABC1 induction, cells acquired the ability to excrete a labeled synthetic sclareolide derivative. These data suggest that NpABC1 is involved in the secretion of a secondary metabolite that plays a role in plant defense.

Jasinski, Michal; Stukkens, Yvan; Degand, Herve; Purnelle, Benedicte; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Boutry, Marc

2001-01-01

29

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in human metabolism and diseases.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of active transporters involves a large number of functionally diverse transmembrane proteins. They transport a variety of substrates including amino acids, lipids, inorganic ions, peptides, saccharides, metals, drugs, and proteins. The ABC transporters not only move a variety of substrates into and out of the cell, but also are also involved in intracellular compartmental transport. Energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP is used to transport the substrate across the membrane against a concentration gradient. The typical ABC transporter consists of two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains. Defects in 14 of these transporters cause 13 genetic diseases (cystic fibrosis, Stargardt disease, adrenoleukodystrophy, Tangier disease, etc.). Mutations in three genes affect lipid levels expressively. Mutations in ABCA1 cause severe HDL deficiency syndromes called Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency, which are characterized by a severe deficiency or absence of high-density lipoprotein in the plasma. Two other ABCG transporters, ABCG5 and ABCG8, mutations of which cause sitosterolemia, have been identified. The affected individuals absorb and retain plant sterols, as well as shellfish sterols. PMID:15209530

Stefková, J; Poledne, R; Hubácek, J A

2004-01-01

30

Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance  

PubMed Central

In this in vitro study, we determined whether masitinib could reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cells overexpressing the ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) transporter. Masitinib (1.25 and 2.5 ?M) significantly decreases the resistance to mitoxantrone (MX), SN38 and doxorubicin in HEK293 and H460 cells overexpressing the ABCG2 transporter. In addition, masitinib (2.5 ?M) significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of [3H]-MX, a substrate for ABCG2, by inhibiting the function of ABCG2 and significantly decreased the efflux of [3H]-MX. However, masitinib (2.5 ?M) did not significantly alter the expression of the ABCG2 protein. In addition, a docking model suggested that masitinib binds within the transmembrane region of a homology-modeled human ABCG2 transporter. Overall, our in vitro findings suggest that masitinib reverses MDR to various anti-neoplastic drugs in HEK293 and H460 cells overexpressing ABCG2 by inhibiting their transport activity as opposed to altering their levels of expression.

KATHAWALA, RISHIL J.; CHEN, JUN-JIANG; ZHANG, YUN-KAI; WANG, YI-JUN; PATEL, ATISH; WANG, DE-SHEN; TALELE, TANAJI T.; ASHBY, CHARLES R.; CHEN, ZHE-SHENG

2014-01-01

31

Novel roles for ATP-binding cassette G transporters in lipid redistribution in Toxoplasma  

PubMed Central

Summary Toxoplasma is a protozoan parasite proficiently adapted to thrive in a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formed in the cytoplasm of a large variety of mammalian cells. As an actively dividing organism, the parasite must adjust the lipid composition of its membranes to preserve organelle vitality and expand the size of the PV membrane to accommodate growing progeny. We showed that Toxoplasma takes up host lipids and can expel major lipids in an ATP-dependent process. In order to provide detailed mechanistic insights into lipid trafficking phenomena relevant to Toxoplasma biology, we characterized six parasite ATP-binding cassette (ABC) G family transporters and investigated their potential contribution to lipid homeostatic processes. All these transporters are expressed in the parasite and five of them are upregulated upon exposure to sterols. Four ABCG are localized to secretory organelles and the plasma membrane, and promote cholesterol and phospholipid efflux, reflecting the importance in exportation of large amounts of lipids into the PV. Interestingly, one ABCG that is associated with vesicles in the PV and the plasma membrane acts as a cholesterol importer. This last finding expands our current view on the role of some ABCG transporters in eukaryotic sterol influx.

Ehrenman, Karen; Sehgal, Alfica; Lige, Bao; Stedman, Timothy T.; Joiner, Keith A.; Coppens, Isabelle

2014-01-01

32

Characterization of Arabidopsis ABCG11\\/WBC11, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is required for cuticular lipid secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ABCG11\\/WBC11, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana, is a key component of the export pathway for cuticular lipids. Arabidopsis wbc11 T-DNA insertional knock-out mutants exhibited lipidic inclusions inside epidermal cells similar to the previously characterized wax transporter mutant cer5, with a similar strong reduction in the alkanes of surface waxes. Moreover, the wbc11 knock-out mutants also

David Bird; Fred Beisson; Alexandra Brigham; John Shin; Stephen Greer; Reinhard Jetter; Ljerka Kunst; Xuemin Wu; Alexander Yephremov; Lacey Samuels

2007-01-01

33

Oxidized LDL downregulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 in human vascular endothelial cells via inhibiting liver X receptor (LXR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1) mediates the active efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids, playing an important role in cholesterol homeostasis and atherogenesis. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is an atherogenic molecule associated with the vascular endothelial dysfunction and development of atherosclerotic plaque. This report describes the effect of copper-catalyzed oxLDL on the regulation of ABCA1 in human endothelial cells (ECs).

Yi Zhu; Hailing Liao; Xuefen Xie; Yuan Yuan; Tzong-Shyuan Lee; Nanping Wang; Xian Wang; John Y.-J. Shyy; Michael B. Stemerman

2005-01-01

34

High density lipoprotein deficiency and foam cell accumulation in mice with targeted disruption of ATP-binding cassette transporter-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the human ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABC1) gene has been demonstrated to be mutated in patients with Tangier disease. To investigate the role of the ABC1 protein in an experimental in vivo model, we used gene targeting in DBA-1J embryonic stem cells to produce an ABC1-deficient mouse. Expression of the murine Abc1 gene was ablated by using a nonisogenic targeting

John McNeish; Robert J. Aiello; Deborah Guyot; Tom Turi; Christopher Gabel; Charles Aldinger; Kenneth L. Hoppe; Marsha L. Roach; Lori J. Royer; Jeffery de Wet; Cyril Broccardo; Giovanna Chimini; Omar L. Francone

2000-01-01

35

Hepatocellular ATP-binding cassette protein expression enhances ATP release and autocrine regulation of cell volume.  

PubMed

In a model liver cell line, recovery from swelling is mediated by a sensitive autocrine pathway involving conductive release of ATP, P2 receptor stimulation, and opening of membrane Cl- channels (Wang, Y., Roman, R. M., Lidofsky, S. D., and Fitz, J. G. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 93, 12020-12025). However, the mechanisms coupling changes in cell volume to ATP release are not known. Based on evidence that certain ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins may function as ATP channels or channel regulators, we evaluated the potential role of ABC proteins by comparing ATP release and volume regulation in rat HTC and HTC-R hepatoma cells, the latter of which overexpress Mdr proteins. In both cell types, Cl- current activation (ICl-swell) and volume recovery following swelling were dependent on conductive ATP efflux. The rate of volume recovery was approximately 6-fold faster in HTC-R cells compared with HTC cells. This effect is likely due to enhanced ABC protein-dependent ATP release since (i) ICl-swell and cell volume recovery were eliminated by inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport (20 microM verapamil and 15 microM cyclosporin A); (ii) swelling-induced Cl- current density was similar in both cell types (approximately -50 pA/pF; not significant); and (iii) ATP conductance measured by whole-cell techniques was increased approximately 3-fold in HTC-R cells compared with HTC cells. Moreover, HTC-R cells exhibited enhanced survival during hypotonic stress. By modulating ATP release, hepatic ABC proteins may play a key role in the cellular pathways coupling changes in cell volume to ion permeability and secretion. PMID:9268333

Roman, R M; Wang, Y; Lidofsky, S D; Feranchak, A P; Lomri, N; Scharschmidt, B F; Fitz, J G

1997-08-29

36

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in normal and pathological lung  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of transmembrane proteins that can transport a wide variety of substrates across biological membranes in an energy-dependent manner. Many ABC transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are highly expressed in bronchial epithelium. This review aims to give new insights in the possible functions of ABC molecules in the lung in view of their expression in different cell types. Furthermore, their role in protection against noxious compounds, e.g. air pollutants and cigarette smoke components, will be discussed as well as the (mal)function in normal and pathological lung. Several pulmonary drugs are substrates for ABC transporters and therefore, the delivery of these drugs to the site of action may be highly dependent on the presence and activity of many ABC transporters in several cell types. Three ABC transporters are known to play an important role in lung functioning. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene can cause cystic fibrosis, and mutations in ABCA1 and ABCA3 are responsible for respectively Tangier disease and fatal surfactant deficiency. The role of altered function of ABC transporters in highly prevalent pulmonary diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have hardly been investigated so far. We especially focused on polymorphisms, knock-out mice models and in vitro results of pulmonary research. Insight in the function of ABC transporters in the lung may open new ways to facilitate treatment of lung diseases.

van der Deen, Margaretha; de Vries, Elisabeth GE; Timens, Wim; Scheper, Rik J; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Postma, Dirkje S

2005-01-01

37

Contributions of Aspergillus fumigatus ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Proteins to Drug Resistance and Virulence  

PubMed Central

In yeast cells such as those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins has been found to be increased and correlates with a concomitant elevation in azole drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the roles of two Aspergillus fumigatus proteins that share high sequence similarity with S. cerevisiae Pdr5, an ABC transporter protein that is commonly overproduced in azole-resistant isolates in this yeast. The two A. fumigatus genes encoding the ABC transporters sharing the highest sequence similarity to S. cerevisiae Pdr5 are called abcA and abcB here. We constructed deletion alleles of these two different ABC transporter-encoding genes in three different strains of A. fumigatus. Loss of abcB invariably elicited increased azole susceptibility, while abcA disruption alleles had variable phenotypes. Specific antibodies were raised to both AbcA and AbcB proteins. These antisera allowed detection of AbcB in wild-type cells, while AbcA could be visualized only when overproduced from the hspA promoter in A. fumigatus. Overproduction of AbcA also yielded increased azole resistance. Green fluorescent protein fusions were used to provide evidence that both AbcA and AbcB are localized to the plasma membrane in A. fumigatus. Promoter fusions to firefly luciferase suggested that expression of both ABC transporter-encoding genes is inducible by azole challenge. Virulence assays implicated AbcB as a possible factor required for normal pathogenesis. This work provides important new insights into the physiological roles of ABC transporters in this major fungal pathogen.

Paul, Sanjoy; Diekema, Daniel

2013-01-01

38

Detergent-free purification of ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters.  

PubMed

ABC (ATP-binding-cassette) transporters carry out many vital functions and are involved in numerous diseases, but study of the structure and function of these proteins is often hampered by their large size and membrane location. Membrane protein purification usually utilizes detergents to solubilize the protein from the membrane, effectively removing it from its native lipid environment. Subsequently, lipids have to be added back and detergent removed to reconstitute the protein into a lipid bilayer. In the present study, we present the application of a new methodology for the extraction and purification of ABC transporters without the use of detergent, instead, using a copolymer, SMA (polystyrene-co-maleic acid). SMA inserts into a bilayer and assembles into discrete particles, essentially solubilizing the membrane into small discs of bilayer encircled by a polymer, termed SMALPs (SMA lipid particles). We show that this polymer can extract several eukaryotic ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), MRP1 (multidrug-resistance protein 1; ABCC1), MRP4 (ABCC4), ABCG2 and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; ABCC7), from a range of different expression systems. The SMALP-encapsulated ABC transporters can be purified by affinity chromatography, and are able to bind ligands comparably with those in native membranes or detergent micelles. A greater degree of purity and enhanced stability is seen compared with detergent solubilization. The present study demonstrates that eukaryotic ABC transporters can be extracted and purified without ever being removed from their lipid bilayer environment, opening up a wide range of possibilities for the future study of their structure and function. PMID:24758594

Gulati, Sonali; Jamshad, Mohammed; Knowles, Timothy J; Morrison, Kerrie A; Downing, Rebecca; Cant, Natasha; Collins, Richard; Koenderink, Jan B; Ford, Robert C; Overduin, Michael; Kerr, Ian D; Dafforn, Timothy R; Rothnie, Alice J

2014-07-15

39

Structure of an antibacterial peptide ATP-binding cassette transporter in a novel outward occluded state.  

PubMed

Enterobacteriaceae produce antimicrobial peptides for survival under nutrient starvation. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide with a unique lasso topology. It is secreted by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter McjD, which ensures self-immunity of the producing strain through efficient export of the toxic mature peptide from the cell. Here we have determined the crystal structure of McjD from Escherichia coli at 2.7-Å resolution, which is to the authors' knowledge the first structure of an antibacterial peptide ABC transporter. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate McjD-dependent immunity to MccJ25 through efflux of the peptide. McjD can directly bind MccJ25 and displays a basal ATPase activity that is stimulated by MccJ25 in both detergent solution and proteoliposomes. McjD adopts a new conformation, termed nucleotide-bound outward occluded. The new conformation defines a clear cavity; mutagenesis and ligand binding studies of the cavity have identified Phe86, Asn134, and Asn302 as important for recognition of MccJ25. Comparisons with the inward-open MsbA and outward-open Sav1866 structures show that McjD has structural similarities with both states without the intertwining of transmembrane (TM) helices. The occluded state is formed by rotation of TMs 1 and 2 toward the equivalent TMs of the opposite monomer, unlike Sav1866 where they intertwine with TMs 3-6 of the opposite monomer. Cysteine cross-linking studies on the McjD dimer in inside-out membrane vesicles of E. coli confirmed the presence of the occluded state. We therefore propose that the outward-occluded state represents a transition intermediate between the outward-open and inward-open conformation of ABC exporters. PMID:24920594

Choudhury, Hassanul G; Tong, Zhen; Mathavan, Indran; Li, Yanyan; Iwata, So; Zirah, Séverine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; van Veen, Hendrik W; Beis, Konstantinos

2014-06-24

40

ATP binding cassette transporter G1 deletion induces IL-17-dependent dysregulation of pulmonary adaptive immunity.  

PubMed

Mice with genetic deletion of the cholesterol transporter ATP binding cassette G1 (ABCG1) have pulmonary lipidosis and enhanced innate immune responses in the airway. Whether ABCG1 regulates adaptive immune responses to the environment is unknown. To this end, Abcg1(+/+) and Abcg1(-/-) mice were sensitized to OVA via the airway using low-dose LPS as an adjuvant, and then challenged with OVA aerosol. Naive Abcg1(-/-) mice displayed increased B cells, CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) in lung and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes, with lung CD11b(+) DCs displaying increased CD80 and CD86. Upon allergen sensitization and challenge, the Abcg1(-/-) airway, compared with Abcg1(+/+), displayed reduced Th2 responses (IL-4, IL-5, eosinophils), increased neutrophils and IL-17, but equivalent airway hyperresponsiveness. Reduced Th2 responses were also found using standard i.p. OVA sensitization with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Mediastinal lymph nodes from airway-sensitized Abcg1(-/-) mice produced reduced IL-5 upon ex vivo OVA challenge. Abcg1(-/-) CD4(+) T cells displayed normal ex vivo differentiation, whereas Abcg1(-/-) DCs were found paradoxically to promote Th2 polarization. Th17 cells, IL-17(+) ??T cells, and IL-17(+) neutrophils were all increased in Abcg1(-/-) lungs, suggesting Th17 and non-Th17 sources of IL-17 excess. Neutralization of IL-17 prior to challenge normalized eosinophils and reduced neutrophilia in the Abcg1(-/-) airway. We conclude that Abcg1(-/-) mice display IL-17-mediated suppression of eosinophilia and enhancement of neutrophilia in the airway following allergen sensitization and challenge. These findings identify ABCG1 as a novel integrator of cholesterol homeostasis and adaptive immune programs. PMID:22539789

Draper, David W; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Madenspacher, Jennifer H; Wilson, Rhonda H; Whitehead, Gregory S; Nakano, Hideki; Pandiri, Arun R; Foley, Julie F; Remaley, Alan T; Cook, Donald N; Fessler, Michael B

2012-06-01

41

Structure of an antibacterial peptide ATP-binding cassette transporter in a novel outward occluded state  

PubMed Central

Enterobacteriaceae produce antimicrobial peptides for survival under nutrient starvation. Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is an antimicrobial peptide with a unique lasso topology. It is secreted by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporter McjD, which ensures self-immunity of the producing strain through efficient export of the toxic mature peptide from the cell. Here we have determined the crystal structure of McjD from Escherichia coli at 2.7-Å resolution, which is to the authors’ knowledge the first structure of an antibacterial peptide ABC transporter. Our functional and biochemical analyses demonstrate McjD-dependent immunity to MccJ25 through efflux of the peptide. McjD can directly bind MccJ25 and displays a basal ATPase activity that is stimulated by MccJ25 in both detergent solution and proteoliposomes. McjD adopts a new conformation, termed nucleotide-bound outward occluded. The new conformation defines a clear cavity; mutagenesis and ligand binding studies of the cavity have identified Phe86, Asn134, and Asn302 as important for recognition of MccJ25. Comparisons with the inward-open MsbA and outward-open Sav1866 structures show that McjD has structural similarities with both states without the intertwining of transmembrane (TM) helices. The occluded state is formed by rotation of TMs 1 and 2 toward the equivalent TMs of the opposite monomer, unlike Sav1866 where they intertwine with TMs 3–6 of the opposite monomer. Cysteine cross-linking studies on the McjD dimer in inside-out membrane vesicles of E. coli confirmed the presence of the occluded state. We therefore propose that the outward-occluded state represents a transition intermediate between the outward-open and inward-open conformation of ABC exporters.

Choudhury, Hassanul G.; Tong, Zhen; Mathavan, Indran; Li, Yanyan; Iwata, So; Zirah, Severine; Rebuffat, Sylvie; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Beis, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

42

ATP binding cassette transporters modulate both coelenterazine- and D-luciferin- based bioluminescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of luciferase reporters provides a cost-effective and sensitive means to image biological processes. However, transport of luciferase substrates across the cell membrane does affect BLI-readout-intensity from intact living cells. To investigate the effect of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters on BLI readout, we generated Click Beetle-(cLuc), Firefly-(fLuc), Renilla-(rLuc), and Gaussia-(gLuc) luciferase HEK-293 reporter cells that overexpressed different ABC-transporters (ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2). In vitro studies showed a significant BLI intensity decrease in intact-cells compared to cell-lysates, when ABCG2 was overexpressed in HEK-293/cLuc, fLuc, and rLuc cells. Selective ABC-transporter inhibitors were also applied. Inhibition of ABCG2 activity increased the BLI intensity >2-fold in HEK-293/cLuc, fLuc and rLuc cells; inhibition of ABCB1 elevated the BLI intensity 2-fold only in HEK-293/rLuc cells. BLI of xenografts derived from HEK-293/ABC-transporter/luciferase-reporter cells confirmed the results of inhibitor treatment in vivo. These findings demonstrate that coelenterazine-based rLuc-BLI intensity can be modulated by ABCB1 and ABCG2. ABCG2 modulates D-luciferin-based BLI in a luciferase-type-independent manner. Little ABC-transporter effect on gLuc-BLI intensity is observed since a large fraction of gLuc is secreted. The expression level of ABC-transporters is one key factor affecting BLI intensity, and this may be particularly important in luciferase-based applications in stem cell research.

Huang, Ruimin; Vider, Jelena; Serganova, Inna; Blasberg, Ronald G.

2014-01-01

43

ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) is an intracellular sterol transporter  

PubMed Central

Four members of the mammalian ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter G subfamily are thought to be involved in transmembrane (TM) transport of sterols. The residues responsible for this transport are unknown. The mechanism of action of ABCG1 is controversial and it has been proposed to act at the plasma membrane to facilitate the efflux of cellular sterols to exogenous high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Here we show that ABCG1 function is dependent on localization to intracellular endosomes. Importantly, localization to the endosome pathway distinguishes ABCG1 and/or ABCG4 from all other mammalian members of this superfamily, including other sterol transporters. We have identified critical residues within the TM domains of ABCG1 that are both essential for sterol transport and conserved in some other members of the ABCG subfamily and/or the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG-2). Our conclusions are based on studies in which (i) biotinylation of peritoneal macrophages showed that endogenous ABCG1 is intracellular and undetectable at the cell surface, (ii) a chimeric protein containing the TM of ABCG1 and the cytoplasmic domains of the nonsterol transporter ABCG2 is both targeted to endosomes and functional, and (iii) ABCG1 colocalizes with multiple proteins that mark late endosomes and recycling endosomes. Mutagenesis studies identify critical residues in the TM domains that are important for ABCG1 to alter sterol efflux, induce sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) processing, and selectively attenuate the oxysterol-mediated repression of SREBP-2 processing. Our data demonstrate that ABCG1 is an intracellular sterol transporter that localizes to endocytic vesicles to facilitate the redistribution of specific intracellular sterols away from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).

Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Edwards, Peter A.

2011-01-01

44

Small Substrate Transport and Mechanism of a Molybdate ATP Binding Cassette Transporter in a Lipid Environment*  

PubMed Central

Embedded in the plasma membrane of all bacteria, ATP binding cassette (ABC) importers facilitate the uptake of several vital nutrients and cofactors. The ABC transporter, MolBC-A, imports molybdate by passing substrate from the binding protein MolA to a membrane-spanning translocation pathway of MolB. To understand the mechanism of transport in the biological membrane as a whole, the effects of the lipid bilayer on transport needed to be addressed. Continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance and in vivo molybdate uptake studies were used to test the impact of the lipid environment on the mechanism and function of MolBC-A. Working with the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, we found that MolBC-A functions as a low affinity molybdate transporter in its native environment. In periods of high extracellular molybdate concentration, H. influenzae makes use of parallel molybdate transport systems (MolBC-A and ModBC-A) to take up a greater amount of molybdate than a strain with ModBC-A alone. In addition, the movement of the translocation pathway in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in a lipid environment is conserved when compared with in-detergent analysis. However, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy indicates that a lipid environment restricts the flexibility of the MolBC translocation pathway. By combining continuous wave-electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and substrate uptake studies, we reveal details of molybdate transport and the logistics of uptake systems that employ multiple transporters for the same substrate, offering insight into the mechanisms of nutrient uptake in bacteria.

Rice, Austin J.; Harrison, Alistair; Alvarez, Frances J. D.; Davidson, Amy L.; Pinkett, Heather W.

2014-01-01

45

Interaction of angiotensin receptor type 1 blockers with ATP-binding cassette transporters.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs/ABCCs) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) transport numerous drugs thus regulating their absorption, distribution and excretion. Angiotensin receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs), used to treat hypertension and heart failure, are commonly administered in combination therapy. However, their interaction potential is not well studied and their effect on ABC-transporters remains elusive. The study therefore aimed to elucidate the effect of various ARBs (telmisartan, candesartan, candesartan-cilexetil, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, olmesartan-medoxomil, eprosartan) on ABC-transporter activity in vitro. P-gp inhibition was assessed by calcein assay, BCRP inhibition by pheophorbide A efflux assay, and MRP2 inhibition by a MRP2 PREDIVEZ Kit. Induction of P-gp, BCRP and MRP2 was assessed by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and for P-gp also in a functional assay. Telmisartan was identified as one of the most potent inhibitors of P-gp currently known (IC(50)=0.38+/-0.2 microM for murine P-gp) and it also inhibited human BCRP (IC(50)=16.9+/-8.1 microM) and human MRP2 (IC(50)=25.4+/-0.6 microM). Moreover, the prodrug candesartan-cilexetil, but not candesartan itself, significantly inhibited P-gp and BCRP activity. None of the compounds tested induced mRNA transcription of P-gp or BCRP but eprosartan and olmesartan induced MRP2 mRNA expression. In conclusion, telmisartan substantially differed from other ARBs with respect to its potential to inhibit ABC-transporters relevant for drug pharmacokinetics and tissue defense. These findings may explain the known interaction of telmisartan with digoxin and suggest that it may modulate the bioavailability of drugs whose absorption is restricted by P-gp and possibly also by BCRP or MRP2. PMID:20222053

Weiss, J; Sauer, A; Divac, N; Herzog, M; Schwedhelm, E; Böger, R H; Haefeli, W E; Benndorf, R A

2010-03-01

46

An ATP-binding cassette gene (ABCG5) from the ABCG (White) gene subfamily maps to human chromosome 2p21 in the region of the Sitosterolemia locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized a new human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene that is highly expressed in the liver. The gene, ABCG5, contains 13 exons and encodes a 651 amino acid protein. The predicted protein is closely related to the Drosophila white gene and a human gene, ABCG1, which is induced by cholesterol. This subfamily of genes all have a single ATP-binding

S. Shulenin; L. M. Schriml; A. T. Remaley; S. Fojo; B. Brewer; R. Allikmets; M. Dean

2001-01-01

47

LjABCB1, an ATP-binding cassette protein specifically induced in uninfected cells of Lotus japonicus nodules.  

PubMed

Legume plants develop root nodules through symbiosis with rhizobia, and fix atmospheric nitrogen in this symbiotic organ. Development of root nodules is regulated by many metabolites including phytohormones. Previously, we reported that auxin is strongly involved in the development of the nodule vascular bundle and lenticel formation on the nodules of Lotus japonicus. Here we show that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, LjABCB1, which is a homologue of Arabidopsis auxin transporter AtABCB4, is specifically expressed during nodulation of L. japonicus. A reporter gene analysis indicated that the expression of LjABCB1 was restricted to uninfected cells adjacent to infected cells in the nodule, while no expression was observed in shoot apical meristems or root tips, in which most auxin transporter genes are expressed. The auxin transport activity of LjABCB1 was confirmed using a heterologous expression system. PMID:22209217

Takanashi, Kojiro; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2012-02-15

48

AST1306, a potent EGFR inhibitor, antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2-mediated multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

AST1306, an inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2, is currently in phase I of clinical trials. We evaluated the effect of AST306 on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) induced by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. We found that AST1306 significantly sensitized the ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2)-overexpressing cells to ABCG2 substrate chemotherapeutics. AST1306 significantly increased intracellular accumulation of [(3)H]-mitoxantrone in ABCG2-overexpressing cells by blocking ABCG2 efflux function. Moreover, AST1306 stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2. Homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of AST1306 to be within the transmembrane region of ABCG2. In conclusion, AST1306 could notably reverse ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:24747122

Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, De-Shen; Kathawala, Rishil J; Patel, Atish; Talele, Tanaji T; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Fu, Li-Wu

2014-08-01

49

Dissociation of ATP-binding Cassette Nucleotide-binding Domain Dimers into Monomers during the Hydrolysis Cycle*  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins have two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that work as dimers to bind and hydrolyze ATP, but the molecular mechanism of nucleotide hydrolysis is controversial. In particular, it is still unresolved whether hydrolysis leads to dissociation of the ATP-induced dimers or opening of the dimers, with the NBDs remaining in contact during the hydrolysis cycle. We studied a prototypical ABC NBD, the Methanococcus jannaschii MJ0796, using spectroscopic techniques. We show that fluorescence from a tryptophan positioned at the dimer interface and luminescence resonance energy transfer between probes reacted with single-cysteine mutants can be used to follow NBD association/dissociation in real time. The intermonomer distances calculated from luminescence resonance energy transfer data indicate that the NBDs separate completely following ATP hydrolysis, instead of opening. The results support ABC protein NBD association/dissociation, as opposed to constant-contact models.

Zoghbi, Maria E.; Krishnan, Srinivasan; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

2012-01-01

50

Localization of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins PfMRP1, PfMRP2, and PfMDR5 at the Plasmodium falciparum plasma membrane  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The spread of drug resistance has been a major obstacle to the control of malaria. The mechanisms underlying drug resistance in malaria seem to be complex and multigenic. The current literature on multiple drug resistance against anti-malarials has documented PfMDR1, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, as an important determinant of resistance. In the Plasmodium falciparum genome, there are several

Reginald A Kavishe; Jeroen MW van den Heuvel; Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer; Adrian JF Luty; Frans GM Russel; Jan B Koenderink

2009-01-01

51

Association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 rs4148217 SNP and serum lipid levels in Mulao and Han nationalities  

PubMed Central

Background The association of ATP binding cassette transporter G8 gene (ABCG8) rs4148217 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid profiles is still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Mulao nationality is an isolated minority in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. Methods A total of 634 subjects of Mulao nationality and 717 participants of Han nationality were randomly selected from our previous samples. Genotyping of the ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The genotypic and allelic frequencies of ABCG8 rs4148217 SNP were different between the two nationalities (P?

2012-01-01

52

A Human Placenta-specific ATP-Binding Cassette Gene (ABCP) on Chromosome 4q22 That Is Involved in Multidrug Resistance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized a new human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) trans porter gene that is highly expressed in the placenta. The gene, ABCP, produces two transcripts that differ at the 5' end and encode the same 655-amino acid protein. The predicted protein is closely related to the Drosophila white and yeast ADP1 genes and is a member of a subfamily that includes

Rando Allikmets; Lynn M. Schriml; Amy Hutchinson; Vincenzo Romano-Spica; Michael Dean

1998-01-01

53

Use of arrays to investigate the contribution of ATP-binding cassette transporters to drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy and prediction of chemosensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in cancer chemotherapy. One of the best known mechanisms of MDR is the elevated expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. While some members of human ABC transporters have been shown to cause drug resistance with elevated expression, it is not yet known whether the over-expression of other members could also contribute to drug

Jian-Ting Zhang

2007-01-01

54

The Structure, Function, and Origin of the Microcin H47 ATP-Binding Cassette Exporter Indicate Its Relatedness to That of Colicin V  

PubMed Central

Microcin H47, a gene-encoded peptide antibiotic produced by a natural Escherichia coli strain, was shown to be secreted by a three-component ATP-binding cassette exporter which was revealed to be strongly related to that of colicin V. The results of sequence and gene fusion analyses, as well as heterologous complementation assays, are presented.

Azpiroz, Maria F.; Rodriguez, Eliana; Lavina, Magela

2001-01-01

55

Cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of the rat ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABC2/ABCA2.  

PubMed Central

The ABC1 (ABCA) subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily has a structural feature that distinguishes it from other ABC transporters. Here we report the cloning, molecular characterization and tissue distribution of ABC2/ABCA2, which belongs to the ABC1 subfamily. Rat ABC2 is a protein of 2434 amino acids that has 44.5%, 40.0% and 40.8% identity with mouse ABC1/ABCA1, human ABC3/ABCA3 and human ABCR/ABCA4 respectively. Immunoblot analysis showed that proteins of 260 and 250 kDa were detected in COS-1 cells transfected with ABC2 having a haemagglutinin tag, while no band was detected in mock-transfected cells. After incubation with N-glycosidase F, the mobilities of the two proteins increased and a single band was detected, suggesting that ABC2 is a glycoprotein. Photoaffinity labelling with 8-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP confirmed that ATP binds to the ABC2 protein in the presence of Mg(2+). RNA blot analysis showed that ABC2 mRNA is most abundant in rat brain. Examination of brain by in situ hybridization determined that ABC2 is expressed at high levels in the white matter, indicating that it is expressed in the oligodendrocytes. ABC2, therefore, is a glycosylated ABC transporter protein, and may play an especially important role in the brain. In addition, the N-terminal 60-amino-acid sequence of the human ABC1, which was missing from previous reports, has been determined.

Zhao, L X; Zhou, C J; Tanaka, A; Nakata, M; Hirabayashi, T; Amachi, T; Shioda, S; Ueda, K; Inagaki, N

2000-01-01

56

The PAL1 gene product is a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The PAL1 gene was isolated using PCR and degenerate oligonucleotide primers corresponding to highly conserved amino acid sequence motifs diagnostic of the ATP-binding cassette domain of the superfamily of membrane-bound transport proteins typified by mammalian multidrug resistance transporter 1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ste6. The deduced PAL1 gene product is similar in length to, has the same predicted topology as, and shares the highest degree of amino acid sequence identity with two human proteins, adrenoleukodystrophy protein and peroxisomal membrane protein (70 kD), which are both presumptive ATP- binding cassette transporters thought to be constituents of the peroxisomal membrane. As judged by hybridization of a PAL1 probe to isolated RNA and by expression of a PAL1-lacZ fusion, a PAL1 transcript was only detectable when cells were grown on oleic acid, a carbon source which requires the biogenesis of functional peroxisomes for its metabolism. A pal1delta mutant grew normally on either glucose- or glycerol-containing media; however, unlike PAL1+ cells (or the pal1delta mutant carrying the PAL1 gene on a plasmid), pal1delta cells were unable to grow on either a solid medium or a liquid medium containing oleic acid as the sole carbon source. Antibodies raised against a chimeric protein in which the COOH-terminal domain of Pal1 was fused to glutathione S-transferase specifically recognized a protein in extracts from wild-type cells only when grown on oleic acid; this species represents the PAL1 gene product because it was missing in pal1delta cells and more abundant in pal1delta cells expressing PAL1 from a multicopy plasmid. The Pal1 polypeptide was highly enriched in the organellar pellet fraction prepared from wild-type cells by differential centrifugation and comigrated upon velocity sedimentation in a Nycodenz gradient with a known component of the peroxisomal matrix, e-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase. As judged by both subcellular fractionation and indirect immunofluorescence, localization of 3- oxoacyl-CoA thiolase to peroxisomes was unchanged whether Pal1 was present, absent, or overexpressed. These findings demonstrate that Pal1 is a peroxisome-specific protein, that it is required for peroxisome function, but that it is not necessary for the biogenesis of peroxisomes or for the import of 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase (and at least two other peroxisomal matrix proteins).

1996-01-01

57

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters and HDL Suppress Hematopoietic Stem Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Elevated leukocyte cell numbers (leukocytosis), and monocytes in particular, promote atherosclerosis; however, how they become increased is poorly understood. Mice deficient in the adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette (ABC) transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, which promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages and suppress atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice, displayed leukocytosis, a transplantable myeloproliferative disorder, and a dramatic expansion of the stem and progenitor cell population containing Lin? Sca-1+Kit+ (LSK) in the bone marrow. Transplantation of Abca1?/? Abcg1?/? bone marrow into apolipoprotein A-1 transgenic mice with elevated levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) suppressed the LSK population, reduced leukocytosis, reversed the myeloproliferative disorder, and accelerated atherosclerosis. The findings indicate that ABCA1, ABCG1, and HDL inhibit the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells and connect expansion of these populations with leukocytosis and accelerated atherosclerosis.

Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Pagler, Tamara; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Avagyan, Serine; Siry, Read L.; Han, Seongah; Welch, Carrie L.; Wang, Nan; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Snoeck, Hans W.; Tall, Alan R.

2011-01-01

58

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G5 and G8 Polymorphisms and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels  

PubMed Central

Background The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors. Conclusions The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and Han populations, or between males and females, suggesting that there may be a racial/ethnic- and/or sex-specific association between ABCG5/G8 SNPs and some serum lipid parameters.

Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Xian-Liang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Pan, Shang-Ling

2012-01-01

59

ABCC1, an ATP Binding Cassette Protein from Grape Berry, Transports Anthocyanidin 3-O-Glucosides[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of anthocyanins in the exocarp of red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivars is one of several events that characterize the onset of grape berry ripening (véraison). Despite our thorough understanding of anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation, little is known about the molecular aspects of their transport. The participation of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins in vacuolar anthocyanin transport has long been a matter of debate. Here, we present biochemical evidence that an ABC protein, ABCC1, localizes to the tonoplast and is involved in the transport of glucosylated anthocyanidins. ABCC1 is expressed in the exocarp throughout berry development and ripening, with a significant increase at véraison (i.e., the onset of ripening). Transport experiments using microsomes isolated from ABCC1-expressing yeast cells showed that ABCC1 transports malvidin 3-O-glucoside. The transport strictly depends on the presence of GSH, which is cotransported with the anthocyanins and is sensitive to inhibitors of ABC proteins. By exposing anthocyanin-producing grapevine root cultures to buthionine sulphoximine, which reduced GSH levels, a decrease in anthocyanin concentration is observed. In conclusion, we provide evidence that ABCC1 acts as an anthocyanin transporter that depends on GSH without the formation of an anthocyanin-GSH conjugate.

Francisco, Rita Maria; Regalado, Ana; Ageorges, Agnes; Burla, Bo J.; Bassin, Barbara; Eisenach, Cornelia; Zarrouk, Olfa; Vialet, Sandrine; Marlin, Therese; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Martinoia, Enrico; Nagy, Reka

2013-01-01

60

Linsitinib (OSI-906) antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 and subfamily C member 10-mediated drug resistance.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated the effect of linsitinib on the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily members ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC1 and ABCC10. Our results indicate for the first time that linsitinib significantly potentiate the effect of anti-neoplastic drugs mitoxantrone (MX) and SN-38 in ABCG2-overexpressing cells; paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. Linsitinib moderately enhanced the cytotoxicity of vincristine in cell lines overexpressing ABCB1, whereas it did not alter the cytotoxicity of substrates of ABCC1. Furthermore, linsitinib significantly increased the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of [(3)H]-MX in ABCG2-overexpressing cells and [(3)H]-paclitaxel in ABCC10-overexpressing cells. However, linsitinib, at a concentration that reversed MDR, did not significantly alter the expression levels of either the ABCG2 or ABCC10 transporter proteins. Furthermore, linsitinib did not significantly alter the intracellular localization of ABCG2 or ABCC10. Moreover, linsitinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCG2 in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our study suggests that linsitinib attenuates ABCG2- and ABCC10-mediated MDR by directly inhibiting their function as opposed to altering ABCG2 or ABCC10 protein expression. PMID:24726739

Zhang, Hui; Kathawala, Rishil J; Wang, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Patel, Atish; Shukla, Suneet; Robey, Robert W; Talele, Tanaji T; Ashby, Charles R; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Bates, Susan E; Fu, Li-Wu; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2014-06-01

61

A selective ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 efflux inhibitor revealed via high-throughput flow cytometry.  

PubMed

Chemotherapeutics tumor resistance is a principal reason for treatment failure, and clinical and experimental data indicate that multidrug transporters such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B1 and ABCG2 play a leading role by preventing cytotoxic intracellular drug concentrations. Functional efflux inhibition of existing chemotherapeutics by these pumps continues to present a promising approach for treatment. A contributing factor to the failure of existing inhibitors in clinical applications is limited understanding of specific substrate/inhibitor/pump interactions. We have identified selective efflux inhibitors by profiling multiple ABC transporters against a library of small molecules to find molecular probes to further explore such interactions. In our primary screening protocol using JC-1 as a dual-pump fluorescent reporter substrate, we identified a piperazine-substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine substructure with promise for selective efflux inhibition. As a result of a focused structure-activity relationship (SAR)-driven chemistry effort, we describe compound 1 (CID44640177), an efflux inhibitor with selectivity toward ABCG2 over ABCB1. Compound 1 is also shown to potentiate the activity of mitoxantrone in vitro as well as preliminarily in vivo in an ABCG2-overexpressing tumor model. At least two analogues significantly reduce tumor size in combination with the chemotherapeutic topotecan. To our knowledge, low nanomolar chemoreversal activity coupled with direct evidence of efflux inhibition for ABCG2 is unprecedented. PMID:22923785

Strouse, J Jacob; Ivnitski-Steele, Irena; Khawaja, Hadya M; Perez, Dominique; Ricci, Jerec; Yao, Tuanli; Weiner, Warren S; Schroeder, Chad E; Simpson, Denise S; Maki, Brooks E; Li, Kelin; Golden, Jennifer E; Foutz, Terry D; Waller, Anna; Evangelisti, Annette M; Young, Susan M; Chavez, Stephanie E; Garcia, Matthew J; Ursu, Oleg; Bologa, Cristian G; Carter, Mark B; Salas, Virginia M; Gouveia, Kristine; Tegos, George P; Oprea, Tudor I; Edwards, Bruce S; Aubé, Jeffrey; Larson, Richard S; Sklar, Larry A

2013-01-01

62

PGP4, an ATP Binding Cassette P-Glycoprotein, Catalyzes Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana RootsW?  

PubMed Central

Members of the ABC (for ATP binding cassette) superfamily of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More recently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR/PGP) subfamily of ABC transporters have been shown to function in the transport of the phytohormone auxin in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR/PGP PGP4 functions in the basipetal redirection of auxin from the root tip. Reporter gene studies showed that PGP4 was strongly expressed in root cap and epidermal cells. PGP4 exhibits apolar plasma membrane localization in the root cap and polar localization in tissues above. Root gravitropic bending and elongation as well as lateral root formation were reduced in pgp4 mutants compared with the wild type. pgp4 exhibited reduced basipetal auxin transport in roots and a small decrease in shoot-to-root transport consistent with a partial loss of the redirective auxin sink in the root. Seedlings overexpressing PGP4 exhibited increased shoot-to-root auxin transport. Heterologous expression of PGP4 in mammalian cells resulted in 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid–reversible net uptake of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid. These results indicate that PGP4 functions primarily in the uptake of redirected or newly synthesized auxin in epidermal root cells.

Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Titapiwatanakun, Boosaree; Peer, Wendy A.; Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Makam, Srinivas N.; Lee, Ok Ran; Richards, Elizabeth L.; Murphy, Angus S.; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2005-01-01

63

The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) regulates esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette transporters are a large family (~48 genes divided into seven families A-G) of proteins that utilize the energy of ATP-hydrolysis to pump substrates across lipid bilayers against a concentration gradient. The ABC "A" subfamily is comprised of 13 members and transport sterols, phospholipids and bile acids. ABCA2 is the most abundant ABC transporter in human and rodent brain with highest expression in oligodendrocytes, although it is also expressed in neurons. Several groups have studied a possible connection between ABCA2 and Alzheimer's disease as well as early atherosclerosis. ABCA2 expression levels have been associated with changes in cholesterol and sphingolipid metabolism. In this paper, we hypothesized that ABCA2 expression level may regulate esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism. ABCA2 overexpression in N2a neuroblastoma cells was associated with an altered bilayer distribution of the sphingolipid ceramide that inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and cholesterol esterification. In contrast, depletion of endogenous ABCA2 in the rat schwannoma cell line D6P2T increased esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol following treatment with exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase. These findings suggest that control of ABCA2 expression level may be a key locus of regulation for esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:24201375

Davis, Warren

2014-01-01

64

An ATP binding cassette transporter is required for cuticular wax deposition and desiccation tolerance in the moss Physcomitrella patens.  

PubMed

The plant cuticle is thought to be a critical evolutionary adaptation that allowed the first plants to colonize land, because of its key roles in regulating plant water status and providing protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Much has been learned about cuticle composition and structure through genetic and biochemical studies of angiosperms, as well as underlying genetic pathways, but little is known about the cuticles of early diverging plant lineages. Here, we demonstrate that the moss Physcomitrella patens, an extant relative of the earliest terrestrial plants, has a cuticle that is analogous in both structure and chemical composition to those of angiosperms. To test whether the underlying cuticle biosynthetic pathways were also shared among distant plant lineages, we generated a genetic knockout of the moss ATP binding cassette subfamily G (ABCG) transporter Pp-ABCG7, a putative ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana ABCG transporters involved in cuticle precursor trafficking. We show that this mutant is severely deficient in cuticular wax accumulation and has a reduced tolerance of desiccation stress compared with the wild type. This work provides evidence that the cuticle was an adaptive feature present in the first terrestrial plants and that the genes involved in their formation have been functionally conserved for over 450 million years. PMID:24163310

Buda, Gregory J; Barnes, William J; Fich, Eric A; Park, Sungjin; Yeats, Trevor H; Zhao, Lingxia; Domozych, David S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

2013-10-01

65

Caveolin-1 interacts with ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and regulates ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) plays an important role in macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo by promoting cholesterol efflux onto lipidated apoA-I. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we found that ABCG1 co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin-1 (CAV1) but not with flotillin-1 and -2. Knockdown of CAV1 expression using siRNAs significantly reduced ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux without detectable effect on ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Disruption of the putative CAV1 binding site in ABCG1, through replacement of tyrosine residues at positions 487 and 489 or at positions 494 and 495 with alanine (Y487AY489A and Y494AY495A), impaired the interaction of ABCG1 with CAV1 and significantly decreased ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. The substitution of Tyr494 and Tyr495 with Phe or Trp that resulted in an intact CAV1 binding site had no effect. Furthermore, Y494AY495A affected trafficking of ABCG1 to the cell surface. The mutant protein is mainly located intracellularly. Finally, we found that CAV1 co-immunoprecipitated with ABCG1 and regulated cholesterol efflux to reconstituted HDL in THP-1-derived macrophages upon the liver X receptor agonist treatment. These findings indicate that CAV1 interacts with ABCG1 and regulates ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. PMID:24576892

Gu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Fa-Qi; Zhang, Da-Wei

2014-06-01

66

ATP-Binding Cassette Genes Genotype and Expression: A Potential Association with Pancreatic Cancer Development and Chemoresistance?  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphisms in ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter genes are associated with differential responses to chemotherapy in various cancers including pancreatic cancer. In this study, four SNPs in the ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2 genes were investigated in normal and pancreatic cancerous specimens. The expression of the three transporters was also analyzed. The TT genotypes of G2677T and C3435T in ABCB1 gene were associated with lower risk of developing pancreatic cancer (P = 0.013, OR = 0.35 and P = 0.015, OR = 0.29, resp.). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the common polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene affecting the genetic risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the expression of ABCB1 in 2677TT and 3435TT carriers was lower compared to the wild-type homozygotes and heterozygotes. A cell viability assay, using standard pancreatic cancer cell lines, revealed that the ABCB1 2677TT-3455TT haplotype was more sensitive than the other haplotypes to gemcitabine. Conclusion. Polymorphisms in ABCB1 G2677T and G3435T were associated with differential susceptibility to pancreatic cancer and may predict responses to chemotherapy.

Word, Beverly; Wang, Honggang; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Lyn-Cook, Beverly

2014-01-01

67

Transmembrane Gate Movements in the Type II ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Importer BtuCD-F during Nucleotide Cycle*  

PubMed Central

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ubiquitous integral membrane proteins that translocate substrates across cell membranes. The alternating access of their transmembrane domains to opposite sides of the membrane powered by the closure and reopening of the nucleotide binding domains is proposed to drive the translocation events. Despite clear structural similarities, evidence for considerable mechanistic diversity starts to accumulate within the importers subfamily. We present here a detailed study of the gating mechanism of a type II ABC importer, the BtuCD-F vitamin B12 importer from Escherichia coli, elucidated by EPR spectroscopy. Distance changes at key positions in the translocation gates in the nucleotide-free, ATP- and ADP-bound conformations of the transporter were measured in detergent micelles and liposomes. The translocation gates of the BtuCD-F complex undergo conformational changes in line with a “two-state” alternating access model. We provide the first direct evidence that binding of ATP drives the gates to an inward-facing conformation, in contrast to type I importers specific for maltose, molybdate, or methionine. Following ATP hydrolysis, the translocation gates restore to an apo-like conformation. In the presence of ATP, an excess of vitamin B12 promotes the reopening of the gates toward the periplasm and the dislodgment of BtuF from the transporter. The EPR data allow a productive translocation cycle of the vitamin B12 transporter to be modeled.

Joseph, Benesh; Jeschke, Gunnar; Goetz, Birke A.; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bordignon, Enrica

2011-01-01

68

Cholesterol and plant sterol efflux from cultured intestinal epithelial cells is mediated by ATP-binding cassette transporters.  

PubMed

In this study we analyzed functions of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters involved in sterol transport from Caco-2 cells. Treatment with a synthetic liver x receptor ligand elevated both mRNA and protein levels of ABCG5, G8, and ABCA1. The ligand stimulated cholesterol efflux, suggesting that ABC transporters are involved in it. To identify the acceptors of cholesterol, potential molecules such as apolipoprotein A-I, glycocholic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and bile acid micelles were added to the medium. Apo A-I, a known acceptor of cholesterol transported by ABCA1, elevated cholesterol efflux on the basal side, whereas the others raised cholesterol efflux on the apical side. Moreover, bile acid micelles preferentially augmented plant sterol efflux rather than cholesterol. Finally, in HEK293 cells stably expressing ABCG5/G8, bile acid micelle-mediated sterol efflux was significantly accelerated. These results indicate that ABCG5/G8, unlike ABCA1, together with bile acids should participate in sterol efflux on the apical surface of Caco-2 cells. PMID:17690481

Tachibana, Shizuko; Hirano, Maki; Hirata, Takashi; Matsuo, Michinori; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Ryuichiro

2007-08-01

69

Exosomal evasion of humoral immunotherapy in aggressive B-cell lymphoma modulated by ATP-binding cassette transporter A3  

PubMed Central

Targeting the surface of malignant cells has evolved into a cornerstone in cancer therapy, paradigmatically introduced by the success of humoral immunotherapy against CD20 in malignant lymphoma. However, tumor cell susceptibility to immunochemotherapy varies, with mostly a fatal outcome in cases of resistant disease. Here, we show that lymphoma exosomes shield target cells from antibody attack and that exosome biogenesis is modulated by the lysosome-related organelle-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A3 (ABCA3). B-cell lymphoma cells released exosomes that carried CD20, bound therapeutic anti-CD20 antibodies, consumed complement, and protected target cells from antibody attack. ABCA3, previously shown to mediate resistance to chemotherapy, was critical for the amounts of exosomes released, and both pharmacological blockade and the silencing of ABCA3 enhanced susceptibility of target cells to antibody-mediated lysis. Mechanisms of cancer cell resistance to drugs and antibodies are linked in an ABCA3-dependent pathway of exosome secretion.

Aung, Thiha; Chapuy, Bjoern; Vogel, Daniel; Wenzel, Dirk; Oppermann, Martin; Lahmann, Marlen; Weinhage, Toni; Menck, Kerstin; Hupfeld, Timo; Koch, Raphael; Trumper, Lorenz; Wulf, Gerald G.

2011-01-01

70

Association/Dissociation of the Nucleotide-binding Domains of the ATP-binding Cassette Protein MsbA Measured during Continuous Hydrolysis*  

PubMed Central

In ATP-binding cassette proteins, the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) work as dimers to bind and hydrolyze ATP, but the molecular mechanism of nucleotide hydrolysis is controversial. It is still unresolved whether hydrolysis leads to dissociation of the ATP-induced dimers or partial opening of the dimers such that the NBDs remain in contact during the hydrolysis cycle. We studied the bacterial lipid flippase MsbA by luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET). The LRET signal between optical probes reacted with single-cysteine mutants was employed to follow NBD association/dissociation in real time. The intermonomer distances calculated from LRET data indicate that the NBDs separate completely following ATP hydrolysis, even in the presence of mm MgATP, and that the dissociation occurs following each hydrolysis cycle. The results support association/dissociation, as opposed to constant contact models, for the mode of operation of ATP-binding cassette proteins.

Cooper, Rebecca S.; Altenberg, Guillermo A.

2013-01-01

71

Fructose uptake in Sinorhizobium meliloti is mediated by a high-affinity ATP-binding cassette transport system.  

PubMed

By transposon mutagenesis, we have isolated a mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti which is totally unable to grow on fructose as sole carbon source as a consequence of its inability to transport this sugar. The cloning and sequencing analysis of the chromosomal DNA region flanking the TnphoA insertion revealed the presence of six open reading frames (ORFs) organized in two loci, frcRS and frcBCAK, transcribed divergently. The frcBCA genes encode the characteristic components of an ATP-binding cassette transporter (FrcB, a periplasmic substrate binding protein, FrcC, an integral membrane permease, and FrcA, an ATP-binding cytoplasmic protein), which is the unique high-affinity (K(m) of 6 microM) fructose uptake system in S. meliloti. The FrcK protein shows homology with some kinases, while FrcR is probably a transcriptional regulator of the repressor-ORF-kinase family. The expression of S. meliloti frcBCAK in Escherichia coli, which transports fructose only via the phosphotransferase system, resulted in the detection of a periplasmic fructose binding activity, demonstrating that FrcB is the binding protein of the Frc transporter. The analysis of substrate specificities revealed that the Frc system is also a high-affinity transporter for ribose and mannose, which are both fructose competitors for the binding to the periplasmic FrcB protein. However, the Frc mutant was still able to grow on these sugars as sole carbon source, demonstrating the presence of at least one other uptake system for mannose and ribose in S. meliloti. The expression of the frcBC genes as determined by measurements of alkaline phosphatase activity was shown to be induced by mannitol and fructose, but not by mannose, ribose, glucose, or succinate, suggesting that the Frc system is primarily targeted towards fructose. Neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were impared in the TnphoA mutant, demonstrating that fructose uptake is not essential for nodulation and nitrogen fixation, although FrcB protein is expressed in bacteroids isolated from alfalfa nodulated by S. meliloti wild-type strains. PMID:11466273

Lambert, A; Østerås, M; Mandon, K; Poggi, M C; Le Rudulier, D

2001-08-01

72

Expression of ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporters in the giant liver fluke Fasciola gigantica and their possible involvement in the transport of bile salts and anthelmintics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to one of the largest protein families that either import or export a wide\\u000a spectrum of different substrates. Certain members of this superfamily have been implicated in multidrug resistance in various\\u000a types of cancer as well as in pathogenic microorganisms. The role of ABC proteins in parasitic multidrug resistance becomes\\u000a increasingly evident. However, studies on

Supeecha Kumkate; Supatra Chunchob; Tavan Janvilisri

2008-01-01

73

Lipase Secretion by Bacterial Hybrid ATP-Binding Cassette Exporters: Molecular Recognition of the LipBCD, PrtDEF, and HasDEF Exporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia marcescens secretes several proteins, such as the lipase LipA, the metalloprotease PrtA, and the heme-binding protein HasA, which is required for heme acquisition, through two N-terminal signal peptide- independent systems that are classified as bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters. One is the ABC exporter for HasA, consisting of the ABC protein HasD, the membrane fusion protein (MFP) HasE, and

HIROYUKI AKATSUKA; RACHEL BINET; ERI KAWAI; CECILE WANDERSMAN

1997-01-01

74

The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter ABCG2 (BCRP), a Marker for Side Population Stem Cells, Is Expressed in Human Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to improve severely impaired myocardial function include transplantation of autologous hematopoietic side population (SP) stem cells. The transmembrane ABC-type (ATP binding cassette) half-transporter ABCG2 (BCRP) serves as a marker protein for SP cell selection. We have recently shown that other ABC transport proteins such as ABCB1 and ABCC5 are differentially expressed in normal and diseased human heart. Here we

Konrad Meissner; Björn Heydrich; Gabriele Jedlitschky; Henriette Meyer zu Schwabedissen; Igor Mosyagin; Peter Dazert; Lothar Eckel; Silke Vogelgesang; Rolf W. Warzok; Michael Böhm; Christian Lehmann; Michael Wendt; Ingolf Cascorbi; Heyo K. Kroemer

2006-01-01

75

Increased plasma plant sterol concentrations and a heterozygous amino acid exchange in ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG5: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whilst conducting a scientific study, an elevated plasma plant sterol concentration of 3.07 mg\\/dL was established in one proband. Similar levels found in his mothers plasma (2.73 mg\\/dL) were suggestive of a heterozygous sitosterolemia. The resulting gene analysis for ATP binding cassette transporter G5\\/G8 (ABCG5\\/G8) revealed a heterozygous polymorphism in ABCG8 (Thr400Lys, rs4148217), which the proband had inherited from his father. However,

Sylvia Keller; Danielle Prechtl; Charalampos Aslanidis; Uta Ceglarek; Joachim Thiery; Gerd Schmitz; Gerhard Jahreis

2011-01-01

76

ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) adenylate kinase cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at separate binding sites.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. In the presence of ATP and physiologically relevant concentrations of AMP, CFTR exhibits adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP &lrarr2; 2 ADP). Previous studies suggested that the interaction of nucleotide triphosphate with CFTR at ATP-binding site 2 is required for this activity. Two other ABC proteins, Rad50 and a structural maintenance of chromosome protein, also have adenylate kinase activity. All three ABC adenylate kinases bind and hydrolyze ATP in the absence of other nucleotides. However, little is known about how an ABC adenylate kinase interacts with ATP and AMP when both are present. Based on data from non-ABC adenylate kinases, we hypothesized that ATP and AMP mutually influence their interaction with CFTR at separate binding sites. We further hypothesized that only one of the two CFTR ATP-binding sites is involved in the adenylate kinase reaction. We found that 8-azidoadenosine 5'-triphosphate (8-N3-ATP) and 8-azidoadenosine 5'-monophosphate (8-N3-AMP) photolabeled separate sites in CFTR. Labeling of the AMP-binding site with 8-N3-AMP required the presence of ATP. Conversely, AMP enhanced photolabeling with 8-N3-ATP at ATP-binding site 2. The adenylate kinase active center probe P(1),P(5)-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate interacted simultaneously with an AMP-binding site and ATP-binding site 2. These results show that ATP and AMP interact with separate binding sites but mutually influence their interaction with the ABC adenylate kinase CFTR. They further indicate that the active center of the adenylate kinase comprises ATP-binding site 2. PMID:23921386

Randak, Christoph O; Dong, Qian; Ver Heul, Amanda R; Elcock, Adrian H; Welsh, Michael J

2013-09-20

77

Interaction of the multikinase inhibitors sorafenib and sunitinib with solute carriers and ATP-binding cassette transporters  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare side-by-side the uptake of sorafenib and sunitinib in vitro by human uptake solute carriers of the SLC22A and SLCO families, transport by and inhibition of efflux ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, and the role of ABCB1 in the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of these agents. Experimental Design Uptake of [3H]sorafenib or [3H]sunitinib was assessed in Xenopus laevis oocytes or mammalian cells transfected with cDNAs coding for human OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OAT2, OAT3, OCTN1 or OCTN2. Efflux and inhibition experiments were conducted in cells transfected with human ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCC2, or ABCC4. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were performed in knockout mice lacking Abcb1-type transporters. Results Intracellular uptake was not appreciably affected by any of the studied solute carriers, and minute relative to the respective prototypical substrates. Sorafenib and sunitinib showed concentration-dependent (1 ?M and 10 ?M) low-to-moderate affinity for ABCB1, but were not affected by the other ABC transporters. Both agents inhibited all tested ABC transporters. The absence of Abcb1 had no affect on plasma pharmacokinetics, but brain penetration was moderately increased by 1.9- and 2.9-fold for sorafenib and sunitinib, respectively, in knockout animals versus controls. Conclusions Unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, sorafenib and sunitinib do not appear to rely on active transport to enter the cell nor are they high affinity substrates for ABC efflux transporters. Based on these characteristics, these two drugs may be less susceptible to transporter-mediated alterations in systemic exposure and transporter-related resistance mechanisms.

Hu, Shuiying; Chen, Zhaoyuan; Franke, Ryan; Orwick, Shelley; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A.; Sparreboom, Alex; Baker, Sharyn D.

2009-01-01

78

Determination of the Quaternary Structure of a Bacterial ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter in Living Cells  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium that affects patients with cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised individuals. This bacterium coexpresses two unique forms of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on its surface, the A- and B-band LPS, which are among the main virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity. The polysaccharides in A-band LPSs are synthesized in the cytoplasm and translocated into the periplasm via an ATP-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter consisting of a transmembrane protein, Wzm, and a cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding protein, Wzt. Most of the biochemical studies of A-band PSs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa are focused on the stages of the synthesis and ligation of PS, leaving the export stage involving the ABC transporter mostly unexplored. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that the subunit composition and structure of this bi-component ABC transporter are still unknown. Here we propose a simple but powerful method, based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and optical micro-spectroscopy technology, to probe the structure of dynamic (as opposed to static) protein complexes in living cells. We use this method to determine the association stoichiometry and quaternary structure of the Wzm-Wzt complex in living cells. It is found that Wzt forms a rhombus-shaped homo-tetramer which becomes a square upon co-expression with Wzm, and that Wzm forms a square-shaped homo-tetramer both in the presence and absence of Wzt. Based on these results, we propose a structural model for the double-tetramer complex formed by the bi-component ABC transporter in living cells. An understanding of the structure and behavior of this ABC transporter will help develop antibiotics targeting the biosynthesis of the A-band LPS endotoxin.

Singh, Deo R.; Mohammad, Mohammad M.; Patowary, Suparna; Stoneman, Michael R.; Oliver, Julie A.; Movileanu, Liviu; Raicu, Valerica

2012-01-01

79

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes arsenic tolerance in human cells by reducing cellular arsenic accumulation.  

PubMed

Arsenic is a toxic element widely distributed in nature, such as water and soil. To survive this metalloid in the environment, nearly all organisms develop strategies to tolerate arsenic toxicity to some degree. Some arsenic-resistance genes have been identified in bacteria and yeast, but for mammals, especially humans, these genes are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to identify these genes and benefit our intervention of arsenic resistance. We first established a human arsenic-resistant ECV-304 (AsRE) cell line and then used suppression subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis to identify arsenic-resistant genes in these cells. Of the significantly upregulated genes, three ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily members, namely ABCA1, ABCE1 and ABCF1, were chosen for further study with RNA interference and overexpression analyses. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay was used to determine the cell survival rate and the IC50 , whereas atomic fluorescence spectrophotometry was used to determine intracellular arsenic levels. We found that among the three ABC genes, only when ABCA1 gene expression was silenced did cells obviously lose their arsenic tolerance. The arsenic accumulation in ABCA1 deficiency AsRE cells was greater than that in wild type AsRE cells. Overexpression of ABCA1 in HeLa cells decreased arsenic accumulation in the cells and the cells were more resistant to As(III) than control cells transfected with empty vector. These results suggest a new functional role for ABCA1 in the development of arsenic resistance in human cells. PMID:24552478

Tan, Xiaohua; Yang, Li; Xian, Lingling; Huang, Jin; Di, Chunhong; Gu, Wenyi; Guo, Shuli; Yang, Lei

2014-04-01

80

Linoleic acid suppresses cholesterol efflux and ATP-binding cassette transporters in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.  

PubMed

Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly associated with elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Paradoxically, evidence suggests that unsaturated, compared to saturated fatty acids, suppress macrophage cholesterol efflux, favoring cholesterol accumulation in the artery wall. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to further explore the relationship between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and cholesterol efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1) through transcription factors liver-x-receptor-alpha (LXR-?) and sterol receptor element binding protein (SREBP)-1. BMDM isolated from C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 100 ?M linoleic acid (18:2) or palmitic acid (16:0) for 16 h, and 25 ?g/mL oxidized low density lipoprotein for an additional 24 h. ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression was suppressed to a greater extent by 18:2 (60 % and 54 %, respectively) than 16:0 (30 % and 29 %, respectively) relative to the control (all p < 0.01). 18:2 decreased ABCA1 protein levels by 94 % and high density lipoprotein (HDL) mediated cholesterol efflux by 53 % (both p < 0.05), and had no significant effect on ABCG1, LXR-? or SREBP-1 protein levels. 16:0 had no effect on ABCA1, ABCG1, LXR-? or SREBP-1 protein expression or HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. These results suggest that 18:2, relative to 16:0, attenuated macrophage HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux through down regulation of ABCA1 mRNA and protein levels but not through changes in LXR-? or SREBP-1 expression. The effect of 18:2 relative to 16:0 on macrophages cholesterol homeostasis may exacerbate the predisposition of individuals with T2DM to increased CVD risk. PMID:24595513

Spartano, Nicole L; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Matthan, Nirupa R; Obin, Martin S; Greenberg, Andrew S; Lichtenstein, Alice H

2014-05-01

81

Biotin uptake in prokaryotes by solute transporters with an optional ATP-binding cassette-containing module  

PubMed Central

BioMNY proteins are considered to constitute tripartite biotin transporters in prokaryotes. Recent comparative genomic and experimental analyses pointed to the similarity of BioMN to homologous modules of prokaryotic transporters mediating uptake of metals, amino acids, and vitamins. These systems resemble ATP-binding cassette-containing transporters and include typical ATPases (e.g., BioM). Absence of extracytoplasmic solute-binding proteins among the members of this group, however, is a distinctive feature. Genome context analyses uncovered that only one-third of the widespread bioY genes are linked to bioMN. Many bioY genes are located at loci encoding biotin biosynthesis, and others are unlinked to biotin metabolic or transport genes. Heterologous expression of the bioMNY operon and of the single bioY of the ?-proteobacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus conferred biotin-transport activity on recombinant Escherichia coli cells. Kinetic analyses identified BioY as a high-capacity transporter that was converted into a high-affinity system in the presence of BioMN. BioMNY-mediated biotin uptake was severely impaired by replacement of the Walker A lysine residue in BioM, demonstrating dependency of high-affinity transport on a functional ATPase. Biochemical assays revealed that BioM, BioN, and BioY proteins form stable complexes in membranes of the heterologous host. Expression of truncated bio transport operons, each with one gene deleted, resulted in stable BioMN complexes but revealed only low amounts of BioMY and BioNY aggregates in the absence of the respective third partner. The results substantiate our earlier suggestion of a mechanistically novel group of membrane transporters.

Hebbeln, Peter; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Alfandega, Anja; Eitinger, Thomas

2007-01-01

82

Molecular cloning and characterisation of three new ATP-binding cassette transporter genes from the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.  

PubMed

Three single copy ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter encoding genes, designated MgAtr3, MgAtr4, and MgAtr5, were cloned and sequenced from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola. The encoded ABC proteins all exhibit the [NBD-TMS(6)](2) configuration and can be classified as novel members of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) class of ABC transporters. The three proteins are highly homologous to other fungal and yeast, ABC proteins involved in multidrug resistance or plant pathogenesis. MgAtr4 and MgAtr5 possess a conserved ABC motif at both the N- and C-terminal domain of the protein. In contrast, the Walker A motif in the N-terminal and the ABC signature in the C-terminal domain of MgAtr3, deviate significantly from the consensus sequence found in other members of the PDR class of ABC transporters. Expression of MgAtr3 could not be detected under any of the conditions tested. However, MgAtr4 and MgAtr5 displayed distinct expression profiles when treated with a range of compounds known to be either substrates or inducers of ABC transporters. These included synthetic fungitoxic compounds, such as imazalil and cyproconazole, natural toxic compounds, such as the plant defence compounds eugenol and psoralen, and the antibiotics cycloheximide and neomycin. The expression pattern of the genes was also dependent on the morphological state of the fungus. The findings suggest a role for MgAtr4 and MgAtr5 during plant pathogenesis and in protection against toxic compounds. PMID:12036592

Stergiopoulos, I; Gielkens, M M C; Goodall, S D; Venema, K; De Waard, M A

2002-05-01

83

Differential sensitivities of the human ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG2 and P-glycoprotein to cyclosporin A.  

PubMed

Several ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters can confer multidrug resistance to cancer cells by functioning as energy-dependent efflux pumps. The half-transporter ABCG2 and the widely studied P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are two ABC transporters that, when overexpressed, are capable of extruding a variety of structurally unrelated chemotherapy agents from cells. In this study, we demonstrate that human ABCG2 and P-glycoprotein, despite overlapping substrate specificities, differ in sensitivity to the immunomodulator cyclosporin A. In this study, we used human ABCG2 and human P-gp, each expressed separately in drug-selected MCF-7 sublines and transiently transfected HeLa cells. By flow cytometric analysis using the fluorescent substrates rhodamine 123 and mitoxantrone, we showed that cyclosporin A inhibits P-gp function at low micromolar concentrations, whereas ABCG2 function was unaffected. Furthermore, P-gp, but not ABCG2, was able to transport [3H]cyclosporin A directly in intact cells. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin, a photoaffinity analog of the substrate prazosin, labels multiple variants of ABCG2 specifically and that this labeling, although competed by some ABCG2 substrates, is unaffected by cyclosporin A. These labeling data also suggest the presence of multiple drug binding sites in ABCG2. In addition, cyclosporin A had no effect on the basal or prazosin-stimulated ATPase activity of ABCG2, whereas both the basal and verapamil-stimulated ATPase activities of P-gp were inhibited markedly. Together, our results suggest that cyclosporin A is neither a substrate nor an inhibitor of the human ABCG2 transporter, under the conditions and concentrations examined. PMID:15598974

Ejendal, Karin F K; Hrycyna, Christine A

2005-03-01

84

ATP Binding Cassette Transporter G1 Deletion Induces IL-17-dependent Dysregulation of Pulmonary Adaptive Immunity1  

PubMed Central

Mice with genetic deletion of the cholesterol transporter ATP Binding Cassette (ABC)G1 have pulmonary lipidosis and enhanced innate immune responses in the airway. Whether ABCG1 regulates adaptive immune responses to the environment is unknown. To this end, Abcg1+/+ and Abcg1?/? mice were sensitized to ovalbumin via the airway using low-dose lipopolysaccharide as an adjuvant, and then challenged with ovalbumin aerosol. Naive Abcg1?/? mice displayed increased B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) in lung and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes, with lung CD11b+ DCs displaying increased CD80 and CD86. Upon allergen sensitization and challenge, the Abcg1?/? airway, compared to Abcg1+/+, displayed reduced Th2 responses (IL-4, IL-5, eosinophils), increased neutrophils and IL-17, but equivalent airway hyperresponsiveness. Reduced Th2 responses were also found using standard intraperitoneal ovalbumin sensitization with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Mediastinal lymph nodes from airway-sensitized Abcg1?/? mice produced reduced IL-5 upon ex vivo ovalbumin challenge. Abcg1?/? CD4+ T cells displayed normal ex vivo differentiation, whereas Abcg1?/? DCs were found paradoxically to promote Th2 polarization. Th17 cells, IL-17+ ??T cells, and IL-17+ neutrophils were all increased in Abcg1?/? lungs, suggesting Th17 and non-Th17 sources of IL-17 excess. Neutralization of IL-17 prior to challenge normalized eosinophils and reduced neutrophilia in the Abcg1?/? airway. We conclude that Abcg1?/? mice display IL-17-mediated suppression of eosinophilia and enhancement of neutrophilia in the airway following allergen sensitization and challenge. These findings identify ABCG1 as a novel integrator of cholesterol homeostasis and adaptive immune programs.

Draper, David W.; Gowdy, Kymberly M.; Madenspacher, Jennifer H.; Wilson, Rhonda H.; Whitehead, Gregory S.; Nakano, Hideki; Pandiri, Arun R.; Foley, Julie F.; Remaley, Alan T.; Cook, Donald N.; Fessler, Michael B.

2012-01-01

85

ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Expression in Human Placenta as a Function of Pregnancy ConditionS?  

PubMed Central

Fetal drug exposure is determined by the type and concentration of placental transporters, and their regulation is central to the development of new treatments and delivery strategies for pregnant women and their fetuses. We tested the expression of several clinically important transporters in the human placenta associated with various pregnancy conditions (i.e., labor, preeclampsia, and preterm labor-inflammation). Placentas were obtained from five groups of women at the time of primary cesarean section: 1) term no labor; 2) term labor; 3) preterm no labor (delivered for severe preeclampsia); 4) preterm labor without inflammation (PTLNI); and 5) preterm labor with inflammation (PTLI). Samples were analyzed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry to identify changes in protein expression. Relative mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A functional genomic approach was used to identify placental gene expression and elucidate molecular events that underlie the given condition. Placental expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters from women in labor and women with preeclampsia was unaltered. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and mRNA expression increased in placentas of women with preterm labor with inflammation. Molecular pathways of genes up-regulated in PTLI samples included cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and inflammatory response compared with those in the PTLNI group. The mRNA expression of MDR1 and BCRP was correlated with that of interleukin-8, which also increased significantly in PTLI samples. These data suggest that the transfer of drugs across the placenta may be altered in preterm pregnancy conditions associated with inflammation through changes in MDR1 and BCRP.

Mason, Cifford W.; Buhimschi, Irina A.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P.

2011-01-01

86

Neratinib Reverses ATP-Binding Cassette B1-Mediated Chemotherapeutic Drug Resistance In Vitro, In Vivo, and Ex Vivo  

PubMed Central

Neratinib, an irreversible inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal receptor 2, is in phase III clinical trials for patients with human epidermal receptor 2-positive, locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore the ability of neratinib to reverse tumor multidrug resistance attributable to overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Our results showed that neratinib remarkably enhanced the sensitivity of ABCB1-overexpressing cells to ABCB1 substrates. It is noteworthy that neratinib augmented the effect of chemotherapeutic agents in inhibiting the growth of ABCB1-overexpressing primary leukemia blasts and KBv200 cell xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, neratinib increased doxorubicin accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and Rhodamine 123 accumulation in ABCB1-overexpressing cell lines and primary leukemia blasts. Neratinib stimulated the ATPase activity of ABCB1 at low concentrations but inhibited it at high concentrations. Likewise, neratinib inhibited the photolabeling of ABCB1 with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.24 ?M). Neither the expression of ABCB1 at the mRNA and protein levels nor the phosphorylation of Akt was affected by neratinib at reversal concentrations. Docking simulation results were consistent with the binding conformation of neratinib within the large cavity of the transmembrane region of ABCB1, which provides computational support for the cross-reactivity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with human ABCB1. In conclusion, neratinib can reverse ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo by inhibiting its transport function.

Zhao, Xiao-qin; Xie, Jing-dun; Chen, Xing-gui; Sim, Hong May; Zhang, Xu; Liang, Yong-ju; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T.; Sun, Yueli; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2012-01-01

87

ATP-Binding Cassette Transport System Involved in Regulation of Morphological Differentiation in Response to Glucose in Streptomyces griseus  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces griseus NP4, which was derived by UV mutagenesis from strain IFO13350, showed a bald and wrinkled colony morphology in response to glucose. Mutant NP4 formed ectopic septa at intervals along substrate hyphae, and each of the compartments developed into a spore which was indistinguishable from an aerial spore in size, shape, and thickness of the spore wall and in susceptibility to lysozyme and heat. The ectopic spores of NP4 formed in liquid medium differed from “submerged spores” in lysozyme sensitivity. Shotgun cloning experiments with a library of the chromosomal DNA of the parental strain and mutant NP4 as the host gave rise to DNA fragments giving two different phenotypes; one complementing the bald phenotype of the host, and the other causing much severe wrinkled morphology in the host. Subcloning identified a gene (dasR) encoding a transcriptional repressor belonging to the GntR family that was responsible for the reversal of the bald phenotype and a gene (dasA) encoding a lipoprotein probably serving as a substrate-binding protein in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport system that was responsible for the severe wrinkled morphology. These genes were adjacent but divergently encoded. Two genes, named dasB and dasC, encoding a membrane-spanning protein were present downstream of dasA, which suggested that dasRABC comprises a gene cluster for an ABC transporter, probably for sugar import. dasR was transcribed actively during vegetative growth, and dasA was transcribed just after commencement of aerial hypha formation and during sporulation, indicating that both were developmentally regulated. Transcriptional analysis and direct sequencing of dasRA in mutant NP4 suggested a defect of this mutant in the regulatory system to control the expression of these genes. Introduction of multicopies of dasA into the wild-type strain caused ectopic septation in very young substrate hyphae after only 1 day of growth and subsequent sporulation in response to glucose. The ectopic spores of the wild type had a thinner wall than those of mutant NP4, in agreement with the observation that the former was sensitive to lysozyme and heat. Disruption of the chromosomal dasA or dasR in the wild-type strain resulted in growth as substrate mycelium, suggesting an additional role of these genes in aerial mycelium formation. The ectopic septation and sporulation in mutant NP4 and the wild-type strain carrying multicopies of dasA were independent of a microbial hormone, A-factor (2-isocapryloyl-3R-hydroxymethyl-?-butyrolactone), that acts as a master switch of aerial mycelium formation and secondary metabolism.

Seo, Jeong-Woo; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirata, Aiko; Horinouchi, Sueharu

2002-01-01

88

Expression of the ATP-binding Cassette Membrane Transporter, ABCG2, in Human and Rodent Brain Microvessel Endothelial and Glial Cell Culture Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The function of ABCG2 (BCRP), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane-associated drug transporters,\\u000a at the blood-brain barrier remains highly controversial. This project investigates the functional expression of endogenous\\u000a ABCG2 in cultures of human and rodent brain cellular compartments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  RT-PCR, western blot and fluorescent immunocytochemical analyses were performed on ABCG2-overexpressing human breast cancer\\u000a (MCF-MX100) cells,

Gloria Lee; Karlo Babakhanian; Manisha Ramaswamy; Alexandre Prat; Karolina Wosik; Reina Bendayan

2007-01-01

89

Overexpression and functional characterization of an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter encoded by the genes drrA and drrB of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters occupy 2.5% of the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, none of these putative ABC transporters has been characterized so far. We describe the development of expression systems for simultaneous expression of the ATP-binding protein DrrA and the membrane integral protein DrrB which together behave as a functional doxorubicin efflux pump. Doxorubicin uptake in Escherichia coli or Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing DrrAB was inhibited by reserpine, an inhibitor of ABC transporters. The localization of DrrA to the membrane depended on the simultaneous expression of DrrB. ATP binding was positively regulated by doxorubicin and daunorubicin. At the same time, DrrB appeared to be sensitive to proteolysis when expressed alone in the absence of DrrA. Simultaneous expression of the two polypeptides was essential to obtain a functional doxorubicin efflux pump. Expression of DrrAB in E. coli conferred 8-fold increased resistance to ethidium bromide, a cationic compound. 2',7'-bis-(2-Carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF), a neutral compound, also behaved as a substrate of the reconstituted efflux pump. When expressed in M. smegmatis, DrrAB conferred resistance to a number of clinically relevant, structurally unrelated antibiotics. The resistant phenotype could be reversed by verapamil and reserpine, two potent inhibitors of ABC transporters.

Choudhuri, Baisakhee Saha; Bhakta, Sanjib; Barik, Rajib; Basu, Joyoti; Kundu, Manikuntala; Chakrabarti, Parul

2002-01-01

90

Pharmacologic Suppression of Hepatic ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter 1 Activity in Mice Reduces High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels but Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport  

PubMed Central

Background The role of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) in maintaining plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels is well established, but its role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is unclear. Probucol is a compound that reduces HDL-C levels but also reduces atherosclerosis in animal models and xanthomas in humans. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that probucol inhibits hepatic ABCA1 activity, thereby reducing HDL-C levels but promoting RCT from macrophages. Methods and Results Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) knockout mice were fed a chow diet containing 0.5% probucol or normal chow for 2 weeks. In WT mice, probucol, despite decreasing HDL-C by >80%, effectively maintained macrophage RCT. In SR-BI knockout mice, probucol also substantially reduced HDL-C but significantly increased macrophage RCT. Furthermore, probucol significantly enhanced the excretion of HDL-derived cholesterol into feces in both WT and SR-BI knockout mice. Probucol inhibited ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux from mouse primary hepatocytes, and this effect was shown to be responsible for the effect of probucol on increasing the fecal excretion of HDL-derived cholesterol in vivo. Conclusions We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of hepatic ABCA1 activity with probucol reduced HDL-C levels but promoted RCT through diversion of HDL-derived cholesterol from efflux back into plasma instead to excretion in the bile. These results explain the beneficial effects of probucol on atherosclerosis and xanthomas despite its HDL-lowering effects and suggest that inactivation of hepatic ABCA1 leads to increased RCT despite reducing plasma HDL-C levels.

Yamamoto, Shigenori; Tanigawa, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiaoyu; Komaru, Yohei; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Rader, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

91

Ped3p is a peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporter that might supply substrates for fatty acid beta-oxidation.  

PubMed

Glyoxysomes, a group of specialized peroxisomes, are organelles that degrade fatty acids by the combination of fatty acid beta-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle. However, the mechanism underlying the transport of the fatty acids across the peroxisomal membrane is still obscure in higher plant cells. We identified and analyzed the PED3 gene and its gene product, Ped3p. The phenotype of the Arabidopsis ped3 mutant indicated that the mutation in the PED3 gene inhibits the activity of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Ped3p is a 149-kDa protein that exists in peroxisomal membranes. The amino acid sequence of Ped3p had a typical characteristic for "full-size" ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter consisting of two transmembrane regions and two ATP-binding regions. This protein was divided into two parts, that had 32% identical amino acid sequences. Each part showed a significant sequence similarity with peroxisomal "half" ABC transporters so far identified in mammals and yeast. Ped3p may contribute to the transport of fatty acids and their derivatives across the peroxisomal membrane. PMID:11828016

Hayashi, Makoto; Nito, Kazumasa; Takei-Hoshi, Rie; Yagi, Mina; Kondo, Maki; Suenaga, Arata; Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Mikio

2002-01-01

92

Endogenous mutagenesis by an insertion sequence element identifies Aeromonas salmonicida AbcA as an ATP-binding cassette transport protein required for biogenesis of smooth lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed Central

Analysis of an Aeromonas salmonicida A layer-deficient/O polysaccharide-deficient mutant carrying a Tn5 insertion in the structural gene for A protein (vapA) showed that the abcA gene immediately downstream of vapA had been interrupted by the endogenous insertion sequence element ISAS1. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that O polysaccharides did not accumulate at the inner membrane-cytoplasm interface of this mutant. abcA encodes an unusual protein; it carries both an amino-terminal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domain showing high sequence similarity to ABC proteins implicated in the transport of certain capsular and O polysaccharides and a carboxyl-terminal potential DNA-binding domain, which distinguishes AbcA from other polysaccharide transport proteins in structural and evolutionary terms. The smooth lipopolysaccharide phenotype was restored by complementation with abcA but not by abcA carrying site-directed mutations in the sequence encoding the ATP-binding site of the protein. The genetic organization of the A. salmonicida ABC polysaccharide system differs from other bacteria. abcA also differs in apparently being required for both O-polysaccharide synthesis and in energizing the transport of O polysaccharides to the cell surface. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Chu, S; Noonan, B; Cavaignac, S; Trust, T J

1995-01-01

93

Increased plasma plant sterol concentrations and a heterozygous amino acid exchange in ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG5: a case report.  

PubMed

Whilst conducting a scientific study, an elevated plasma plant sterol concentration of 3.07 mg/dL was established in one proband. Similar levels found in his mothers plasma (2.73 mg/dL) were suggestive of a heterozygous sitosterolemia. The resulting gene analysis for ATP binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/G8) revealed a heterozygous polymorphism in ABCG8 (Thr400Lys, rs4148217), which the proband had inherited from his father. However, a heterozygous amino acid exchange (Arg406Gln) in exon 9 of ABCG5 was revealed, which was inherited from his mother. Although not sufficient evidence exists to regard this sequence variation as a mutation, this previously unreleased sequence variation occurred in a "hot spot" area for sitosterolemia of the ABCG5 gene (exon 9) and the similar increased plasma plant sterol concentrations of the heterozygous mother contribute to the notion, that this very likely presents an inactivating mutation. PMID:21664501

Keller, Sylvia; Prechtl, Danielle; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Schmitz, Gerd; Jahreis, Gerhard

2011-01-01

94

Factors controlling nascent high-density lipoprotein particle heterogeneity: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 activity and cell lipid and apolipoprotein AI availability  

PubMed Central

Nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles arise in different sizes. We have sought to uncover factors that control this size heterogeneity. Gel filtration, native PAGE, and protein cross-linking were used to analyze the size heterogeneity of nascent HDL produced by BHK-ABCA1, RAW 264.7, J774, and HepG2 cells under different levels of two factors considered as a ratio, the availability of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) -accessible cell lipid, and concentration of extracellular lipid-free apoAI. Increases in the available cell lipid:apoAI ratio due to either elevated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and activity or raised cell density (i.e., increasing numerator) shifted the production of nascent HDL from smaller particles with fewer apoAI molecules per particle and fewer molecules of choline-phospholipid and cholesterol per apoAI molecule to larger particles that contained more apoAI and more lipid per molecule of apoAI. A further shift to larger particles was observed in BHK-ABCA1 cells when the available cell lipid:apoAI ratio was raised still higher by decreasing the apoAI concentration (i.e., the denominator). These changes in nascent HDL biogenesis were reminiscent of the transition that occurs in the size composition of reconstituted HDL in response to an increasing initial lipid:apoAI molar ratio. Thus, the ratio of available cell lipid:apoAI is a fundamental cause of nascent HDL size heterogeneity, and rHDL formation is a good model of nascent HDL biogenesis.—Lyssenko, N. N., Nickel, M., Tang, C., Phillips, M. C. Factors controlling nascent high-density lipoprotein particle heterogeneity: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 activity and cell lipid and apolipoprotein AI availability.

Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Nickel, Margaret; Tang, Chongren; Phillips, Michael C.

2013-01-01

95

Host response transcriptional profiling reveals extracellular components and ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters gene enrichment in typhoid fever-infected Nigerian children  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is a human-specific pathogen that causes typhoid fever, and remains a global health problem especially in developing countries. Its pathogenesis is complex and host response is poorly understood. In Africa, typhoid fever can be a major cause of morbidity in young infected children. The onset of the illness is insidious and clinical diagnosis is often unreliable. Gold standard blood culture diagnostic services are limited, thus rapid, sensitive, and affordable diagnostic test is essential in poor-resourced clinical settings. Routine typhoid fever vaccination is highly recommended but currently licensed vaccines provide only 55-75% protection. Recent epidemiological studies also show the rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant S. Typhi strains. High-throughput molecular technologies, such as microarrays, can dissect the molecular mechanisms of host responses which are S. Typhi-specific to provide a comprehensive genomic component of immunological responses and suggest new insights for diagnosis and treatment. Methods Global transcriptional profiles of S. Typhi-infected young Nigerian children were obtained from their peripheral blood and compared with that of other bacteremic infections using Agilent gene expression microarrays. The host-response profiles of the same patients in acute vs. convalescent phases were also determined. The top 96-100 differentially-expressed genes were identified and four genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Gene clusters were obtained and functional pathways were predicted by DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery). Results Transcriptional profiles from S. Typhi-infected children could be distinguished from those of other bacteremic infections. Enriched gene clusters included genes associated with extracellular peptides/components such as lipocalin (LCN2) and systemic immune response which is atypical in bacterial invasion. Distinct gene expression profiles can also be obtained from acute vs. convalescent phase during typhoid fever infection. We found novel down-regulation of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters genes such as ABCA7, ABCC5, and ABCD4 and ATPase activity as the highest enriched pathway. Conclusions We identified unique extracellular components and ABC transporters gene enrichments in typhoid fever-infected Nigerian children, which have never been reported. These enriched gene clusters may represent novel targeted pathways to improve diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic and next-generation vaccine strategies for typhoid fever in Africa.

2011-01-01

96

Influence of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter 1 R219K and M883I Polymorphisms on Development of Atherosclerosis: A Meta-Analysis of 58 Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) R219K (rs2230806) and M883I (rs4149313) polymorphisms and atherosclerosis (AS), but results remain controversial. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether these two polymorphisms facilitate the susceptibility to AS using a meta-analysis. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane database, Clinicaltrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, CBMdisc, CNKI, Google Scholar and Baidu Library were searched to get the genetic association studies. All statistical analyses were done with Stata 11.0. Results Forty-seven articles involving 58 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. For the ABCA1 R219K polymorphism, 42 studies involving 12,551 AS cases and 19,548 controls were combined showing significant association between this variant and AS risk (for K allele vs. R allele: OR?=?0.77, 95% CI?=?0.71–0.84, P<0.01; for K/K vs. R/R: OR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.51–0.71, P<0.01; for K/K vs. R/K+R/R: OR?=?0.69, 95% CI?=?0.60–0.80, P<0.01; for K/K+R/K vs. R/R: OR?=?0.74, 95% CI?=?0.66–0.83, P<0.01). For the ABCA1 M883I polymorphism, 16 studies involving 4,224 AS cases and 3,462 controls were combined. There was also significant association between the variant and AS risk (for I allele vs. M allele: OR?=?0.85, 95% CI?=?0.77–0.95, P<0.01). Conclusions The present meta-analysis suggested that the ABCA1 R219K and M883I polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to AS. However, due to the high heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the results should be interpreted with caution.

Gao, Dong; Chen, Yan-Xiu; Li, Bing-Hu; Wang, Jing-Zhou; Liu, Yun; Liao, Shao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming-Jie; Gao, Chang-Yue; Zhang, Li-Li

2014-01-01

97

The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exports the ATP-binding cassette protein PFGCN20 to membrane structures in the host red blood cell.  

PubMed

PFGCN20 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of proteins that is closely related to the yeast translational regulator Gcn20p. We have generated a polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal region of PFGCN20 and studied the cellular localization of PFGCN20 throughout the erythrocytic life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum. PFGCN20 was found to be present at all stages and a pronounced export of PFGCN20 into the erythrocyte was observed in the trophozoite and schizont stages. In the indirect immunofluorescence assay, PFGCN20 was found to display significant colocalization with antigens detected by the monoclonal antibody 41E11. In contrast, there was only a minimal overlap of PFGCN20 localization with EMP2 and HRP2. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated a pronounced accumulation of PFGCN20 in the lumen of the parasitophorous vacuole and deconvolution fluorescence microscopy showed membrane association with selective regions of a tubovesicular network in the red cell. We also observed a concentration of PFGCN20 in electron-dense plaques just underneath the parasite's plasma membrane and an association of PFGCN20 with cytoplasmic vesicular structures within the parasite. The observed export of PFGCN20 and its association with the tubovesicular network in host red cells, may be indicative of the fact that PFGCN20 functions as ATP-binding subunit of an unknown multimeric ABC-transporter. The cytoplasmic localization of PFGCN20 in the parasite, however, suggests that the involvement of PFGCN20 in translational regulation or other cytoplasmic biological functions cannot be ruled out. PMID:9879889

Bozdech, Z; VanWye, J; Haldar, K; Schurr, E

1998-11-30

98

Structural and functional characterization of an orphan ATP-binding cassette ATPase involved in manganese utilization and tolerance in Leptospira spp.  

PubMed

Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn(2+), we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn(2+), suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn(2+) toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase. PMID:24123817

Benaroudj, Nadia; Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Hélène; Haouz, Ahmed; Picardeau, Mathieu

2013-12-01

99

Identification of a novel ATP-binding cassette transporter involved in long-chain fatty acid import and its role in triacylglycerol accumulation in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Rhodococcus are specialists in the biosynthesis and accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs). As no transport protein related to TAG metabolism has yet been characterized in these bacteria, we used the available genomic information of Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 to perform a broad survey of genes coding for putative lipid transporter proteins in this oleaginous micro-organism. Among the seven genes encoding putative lipid transporters, ro05645 (now called ltp1: lipid transporter protein) coding for an ATP-binding cassette protein was found clustered with others genes encoding enzymes catalysing the three putative acylation reactions of the Kennedy pathway for TAG synthesis. Overexpression of ltp1 in the RHA1 strain led to an increase of approximately sixfold and threefold in biomass and TAG production, respectively, when cells were cultivated on palmitic acid and oleic acid. Moreover, overexpression of ltp1 also promoted a significant increase in the uptake of a fluorescently labelled long-chain fatty acid (LCFA), as compared with the WT strain RHA1, and its further incorporation into the TAG fraction. Gluconate-grown cells showed increasing amounts of intracellular free fatty acids, but not of TAG, after overexpressing ltp1. Thus, for the first time to our knowledge, a transporter functionally related to TAG metabolism was identified in oleaginous rhodococci. Our results suggested that Ltp1 is an importer of LCFAs that plays a functional role in lipid homeostasis of R. jostii RHA1. PMID:24739215

Villalba, María S; Alvarez, Héctor M

2014-07-01

100

Diet-induced lipid accumulation in liver enhances ATP-binding cassette transporter g5/g8 expression in bile canaliculi.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette half-transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 promote the secretion of neutral sterols into bile. Studies have demonstrated the diet-induced expression of these transporters in liver, but precisely where this occurs remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the changes in the expression of these transporters in bile canaliculi in cholesterol-loaded livers. Mice were fed either a standard (SD) diet or a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 3 weeks. Bile canaliculi proteins and cryosections were prepared from the liver, and the protein levels and distribution of Abcg5/Abcg8 were determined. The high-calorie diet induced a marked accumulation of lipids in mouse liver. Protein levels of Abcg5 and Abcg8 in bile canaliculi were significantly increased by the HF/HS diet compared to the SD diet. No significant differences in Abca1, Abcb4 (Mdr2), Abcb11 (Bsep), or Abcc2 (Mrp2) levels were observed. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that these increases occurred in bile canaliculi. These results suggest that diet-induced lipid loading of the liver causes a significant increase in the expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 in bile canaliculi. PMID:21628838

Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Hashizume, Takahiro; Morioka, Hiroko; Sadamitsu, Satoshi; Ikari, Akira; Miwa, Masao; Sugatani, Junko

2011-01-01

101

Differential phospholipid substrates and directional transport by ATP-binding cassette proteins ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCA4 and disease-causing mutants.  

PubMed

ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCA4 are members of the ABCA subfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters that share extensive sequence and structural similarity. Mutations in ABCA1 cause Tangier disease characterized by defective cholesterol homeostasis and high density lipoprotein (HDL) deficiency. Mutations in ABCA4 are responsible for Stargardt disease, a degenerative disorder associated with severe loss in central vision. Although cell-based studies have implicated ABCA proteins in lipid transport, the substrates and direction of transport have not been firmly established. We have purified and reconstituted ABCA1, ABCA7, and ABCA4 into liposomes for fluorescent-lipid transport studies. ABCA1 actively exported or flipped phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin from the cytoplasmic to the exocytoplasmic leaflet of membranes, whereas ABCA7 preferentially exported phosphatidylserine. In contrast, ABCA4 transported phosphatidylethanolamine in the reverse direction. The same phospholipids stimulated the ATPase activity of these ABCA transporters. The transport and ATPase activities of ABCA1 and ABCA4 were reduced by 25% in the presence of 20% cholesterol. Nine ABCA1 Tangier mutants and the corresponding ABCA4 Stargardt mutants showed significantly reduced phospholipid transport activity and subcellular mislocalization. These studies provide the first direct evidence for ABCA1 and ABCA7 functioning as phospholipid transporters and suggest that this activity is an essential step in the loading of apoA-1 with phospholipids for HDL formation. PMID:24097981

Quazi, Faraz; Molday, Robert S

2013-11-29

102

Vacuolar Transport of Abscisic Acid Glucosyl Ester Is Mediated by ATP-Binding Cassette and Proton-Antiport Mechanisms in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key plant hormone involved in diverse physiological and developmental processes, including abiotic stress responses and the regulation of stomatal aperture and seed germination. Abscisic acid glucosyl ester (ABA-GE) is a hydrolyzable ABA conjugate that accumulates in the vacuole and presumably also in the endoplasmic reticulum. Deconjugation of ABA-GE by the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolar ?-glucosidases allows the rapid formation of free ABA in response to abiotic stress conditions such as dehydration and salt stress. ABA-GE further contributes to the maintenance of ABA homeostasis, as it is the major ABA catabolite exported from the cytosol. In this work, we identified that the import of ABA-GE into vacuoles isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mesophyll cells is mediated by two distinct membrane transport mechanisms: proton gradient-driven and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Both systems have similar Km values of approximately 1 mm. According to our estimations, this low affinity appears nevertheless to be sufficient for the continuous vacuolar sequestration of ABA-GE produced in the cytosol. We further demonstrate that two tested multispecific vacuolar ABCC-type ABC transporters from Arabidopsis exhibit ABA-GE transport activity when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which also supports the involvement of ABC transporters in ABA-GE uptake. Our findings suggest that the vacuolar ABA-GE uptake is not mediated by specific, but rather by several, possibly multispecific, transporters that are involved in the general vacuolar sequestration of conjugated metabolites.

Burla, Bo; Pfrunder, Stefanie; Nagy, Reka; Francisco, Rita Maria; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

2013-01-01

103

Flavone Glucoside Uptake into Barley Mesophyll and Arabidopsis Cell Culture Vacuoles. Energization Occurs by H+-Antiport and ATP-Binding Cassette-Type Mechanisms1  

PubMed Central

In many cases, secondary plant products accumulate in the large central vacuole of plant cells. However, the mechanisms involved in the transport of secondary compounds are only poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the transport mechanisms for the major barley (Hordeum vulgare) flavonoid saponarin (apigenin 6-C-glucosyl-7-O-glucoside) are different in various plant species: Uptake into barley vacuoles occurs via a proton antiport and is competitively inhibited by isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucoside), suggesting that both flavone glucosides are recognized by the same transporter. In contrast, the transport into vacuoles from Arabidopsis, which does not synthesize flavone glucosides, displays typical characteristics of ATP-binding cassette transporters. Transport of saponarin into vacuoles of both the species is saturable with a Km of 50 to 100 ?m. Furthermore, the uptake of saponarin into vacuoles from a barley mutant exhibiting a strongly reduced flavone glucoside biosynthesis is drastically decreased when compared with the parent variety. Thus, the barley vacuolar flavone glucoside/H+ antiporter could be modulated by the availability of the substrate. We propose that different vacuolar transporters may be responsible for the sequestration of species-specific/endogenous and nonspecific/xenobiotic secondary compounds in planta.

Frangne, Nathalie; Eggmann, Thomas; Koblischke, Carsten; Weissenbock, Gottfried; Martinoia, Enrico; Klein, Markus

2002-01-01

104

Control of Mycosphaerella graminicola on wheat seedlings by medical drugs known to modulate the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters.  

PubMed

Medical drugs known to modulate the activity of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (modulators) were tested for the ability to potentiate the activity of the azole fungicide cyproconazole against in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella graminicola and to control disease development due to this pathogen on wheat seedlings. In vitro modulation of cyproconazole activity could be demonstrated in paper disk bioassays. Some of the active modulators (amitriptyline, flavanone, and phenothiazines) increased the accumulation of cyproconazole in M. graminicola, suggesting that they reversed cyproconazole efflux. However, synergism between cyproconazole and modulators against M. graminicola on wheat seedlings could not be shown. Despite their low in vitro toxicity to M. graminicola, some modulators (amitriptyline, loperamide, and promazine) did show significant intrinsic disease control activity in preventive and curative foliar spray tests with wheat seedlings. The results suggest that these compounds have indirect disease control activity based on modulation of fungal ABC transporters essential for virulence and constitute a new class of disease control agents. PMID:17545327

Roohparvar, Ramin; Huser, Aurelie; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; De Waard, Maarten A

2007-08-01

105

Control of Mycosphaerella graminicola on Wheat Seedlings by Medical Drugs Known To Modulate the Activity of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters?  

PubMed Central

Medical drugs known to modulate the activity of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins (modulators) were tested for the ability to potentiate the activity of the azole fungicide cyproconazole against in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella graminicola and to control disease development due to this pathogen on wheat seedlings. In vitro modulation of cyproconazole activity could be demonstrated in paper disk bioassays. Some of the active modulators (amitriptyline, flavanone, and phenothiazines) increased the accumulation of cyproconazole in M. graminicola, suggesting that they reversed cyproconazole efflux. However, synergism between cyproconazole and modulators against M. graminicola on wheat seedlings could not be shown. Despite their low in vitro toxicity to M. graminicola, some modulators (amitriptyline, loperamide, and promazine) did show significant intrinsic disease control activity in preventive and curative foliar spray tests with wheat seedlings. The results suggest that these compounds have indirect disease control activity based on modulation of fungal ABC transporters essential for virulence and constitute a new class of disease control agents.

Roohparvar, Ramin; Huser, Aurelie; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; De Waard, Maarten A.

2007-01-01

106

Intracellular ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 is expressed in lung cancer cells and modulates susceptibility to cisplatin and paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Patients with advanced-stage bronchial cancer benefit from systemic cytostatic therapy, in particular from regimens integrating cisplatin and taxanes. However, eventual disease progression leads to a fatal outcome in most cases, originating from tumor cells resisting chemotherapy. We here show that the intracellular ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3), previously recognized as critical for the secretion of surfactant components from type 2 pneumocytes, is expressed in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. With some heterogeneity in a given specimen, expression levels detected immunohistochemically in primary cancer tissue were highest in adenocarcinomas and lowest in small cell lung cancers. Genetic silencing of ABCA3 in the NSCLC cell line models A549, NCI-H1650 and NCI-H1975 significantly increased tumor cell susceptibility to the cytostatic effects of both cisplatin (in all cell lines) and paclitaxel (in two of three cell lines). Taken together, ABCA3 emerges as a modulator of NSCLC cell susceptibility to cytostatic therapy. PMID:23689165

Overbeck, Tobias R; Hupfeld, Timo; Krause, Doris; Waldmann-Beushausen, Regina; Chapuy, Bjoern; Güldenzoph, Bjoern; Aung, Thiha; Inagaki, Nobuya; Schöndube, Friedrich A; Danner, Bernhard C; Truemper, Lorenz; Wulf, Gerald G

2013-01-01

107

Improvement of the cellular quality of cryopreserved bovine blastocysts accompanied by enhancement of the ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 expression.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) plays a critical role in maintaining the metabolic capability of cells as an efflux transporter that pumps xenobiotics out of cells. We investigated the effects of highly expressed ABCB1 on the development and viability of cryopreserved bovine embryos. The ABCB1 level in cultured bovine embryos was decreased during development to blastocyst-stage compared to germinal vesicle- and second metaphase-stage oocytes. When bovine embryos were cultured with forskolin and/or rifampicin, the ABCB1 level was significantly increased in blastocysts but embryo development was not significantly improved. After embryo cryopreservation, highly ABCB1-expressed blastocysts exhibited significant increases in viability and hatching rates. The high viability of the cryopreserved blastocysts was accompanied by a significant increase in cell proliferation during culture for 48 h. Thus, ABCB1 is expressed in bovine oocytes and embryos, and the cellular quality of bovine blastocysts is improved by the enhancement of ABCB1 expression. PMID:23164983

Mori, Miyuki; Kasa, Shojiro; Isozaki, Yoshihiro; Kamori, Tsugumitsu; Yamaguchi, Shoichiro; Ueda, Shuji; Kuwano, Toshio; Eguchi, Minako; Isayama, Keishiro; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Hattori, Masa-aki

2013-01-01

108

Structural and Functional Characterization of an Orphan ATP-Binding Cassette ATPase Involved in Manganese Utilization and Tolerance in Leptospira spp.  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Leptospira species are the etiological agents of the widespread zoonotic disease leptospirosis. Most organisms, including Leptospira, require divalent cations for proper growth, but because of their high reactivity, these metals are toxic at high concentrations. Therefore, bacteria have acquired strategies to maintain metal homeostasis, such as metal import and efflux. By screening Leptospira biflexa transposon mutants for their ability to use Mn2+, we have identified a gene encoding a putative orphan ATP-binding cassette (ABC) ATPase of unknown function. Inactivation of this gene in both L. biflexa and L. interrogans strains led to mutants unable to grow in medium in which iron was replaced by Mn2+, suggesting an involvement of this ABC ATPase in divalent cation uptake. A mutation in this ATPase-coding gene increased susceptibility to Mn2+ toxicity. Recombinant ABC ATPase of the pathogen L. interrogans exhibited Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity involving a P-loop motif. The structure of this ATPase was solved from a crystal containing two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Each monomer adopted a canonical two-subdomain organization of the ABC ATPase fold with an ?/? subdomain containing the Walker motifs and an ? subdomain containing the ABC signature motif (LSSGE). The two monomers were arranged in a head-to-tail orientation, forming a V-shaped particle with all the conserved ABC motifs at the dimer interface, similar to functional ABC ATPases. These results provide the first structural and functional characterization of a leptospiral ABC ATPase.

Saul, Frederick; Bellalou, Jacques; Miras, Isabelle; Weber, Patrick; Bondet, Vincent; Murray, Gerald L.; Adler, Ben; Ristow, Paula; Louvel, Helene; Haouz, Ahmed

2013-01-01

109

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5?-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPAR? response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPAR? to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPAR? to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease.

Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

2014-01-01

110

Hepatic clearance of reactive glucuronide metabolites of diclofenac in the mouse is dependent on multiple ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters.  

PubMed

Diclofenac is an important analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug that is widely used for the treatment of postoperative pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic pain associated with cancer. Diclofenac is extensively metabolized in the liver, and the main metabolites are hydroxylated and/or glucuronidated conjugates. We show here that loss of multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2/ABCC2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in mice results in highly increased plasma levels of diclofenac acyl glucuronide, after both oral and intravenous administration. The absence of Mrp2 and Bcrp1, localized at the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, leads to impaired biliary excretion of acyl glucuronides and consequently to elevated liver and plasma levels. Mrp2 also mediates the biliary excretion of two hydroxylated diclofenac metabolites, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac. We further show that the sinusoidal efflux of diclofenac acyl glucuronide, from liver to blood, is largely dependent on multidrug resistance protein 3 (MRP3/ABCC3). Diclofenac acyl glucuronides are chemically instable and reactive, and in patients, these metabolites are associated with rare but serious idiosyncratic liver toxicity. This might explain why Mrp2/Mrp3/Bcrp1(-/-) mice, which have markedly elevated levels of diclofenac acyl glucuronides in their liver, display acute, albeit very mild, hepatotoxicity. We believe that the handling of diclofenac acyl glucuronides by ATP binding cassette transporters may be representative for the handling of acyl glucuronide metabolites of many other clinically relevant drugs. PMID:20086033

Lagas, Jurjen S; Sparidans, Rolf W; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

2010-04-01

111

Cooperative transcriptional activation of ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 genes by nuclear receptors including Liver-X-Receptor.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 form heterodimers that limit absorption of dietary sterols in the intestine and promote cholesterol elimination from the body through hepatobiliary secretion. To identify cis-regulatory elements of the two genes, we have cloned and analyzed twenty-three evolutionary conserved region (ECR) fragments using the CMV-luciferase reporter system in HepG2 cells. Two ECRs were found to be responsive to the Liver-X-Receptor (LXR). Through elaborate deletion studies, regions containing putative LXREs were identified and the binding of LXR? was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assay. When the LXREs were inserted upstream of the intergenic promoter, synergistic activation by LXR?/RXR? in combination with GATA4, HNF4?, and LRH-1, which had been shown to bind to the intergenic region, was observed. In conclusion, we have identified two LXREs in ABCG5/ABCG8 genes for the first time and propose that these LXREs, especially in the ECR20, play major roles in regulating these genes. PMID:23790976

Back, Su Sun; Kim, Jinsu; Choi, Daehyung; Lee, Eui Sup; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

2013-06-01

112

The Arabidopsis PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8/ABCG36 ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Modulates Sensitivity to the Auxin Precursor Indole-3-Butyric Acid[C][W  

PubMed Central

Plants have developed numerous mechanisms to store hormones in inactive but readily available states, enabling rapid responses to environmental changes. The phytohormone auxin has a number of storage precursors, including indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which is apparently shortened to active indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in peroxisomes by a process similar to fatty acid ?-oxidation. Whereas metabolism of auxin precursors is beginning to be understood, the biological significance of the various precursors is virtually unknown. We identified an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant that specifically restores IBA, but not IAA, responsiveness to auxin signaling mutants. This mutant is defective in PLEIOTROPIC DRUG RESISTANCE8 (PDR8)/PENETRATION3/ABCG36, a plasma membrane–localized ATP binding cassette transporter that has established roles in pathogen responses and cadmium transport. We found that pdr8 mutants display defects in efflux of the auxin precursor IBA and developmental defects in root hair and cotyledon expansion that reveal previously unknown roles for IBA-derived IAA in plant growth and development. Our results are consistent with the possibility that limiting accumulation of the IAA precursor IBA via PDR8-promoted efflux contributes to auxin homeostasis.

Strader, Lucia C.; Bartel, Bonnie

2009-01-01

113

Normal Formation of a Subset of Intestinal Granules in Caenorhabditis elegans Requires ATP-binding Cassette Transporters HAF-4 and HAF-9, Which Are Highly Homologous to Human Lysosomal Peptide Transporter TAP-Like  

Microsoft Academic Search

TAP-like (TAPL; ABCB9) is a half-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that localizes in lysosome and putatively conveys peptides from cytosol to lysosome. However, the physiological role of this transporter remains to be elucidated. Comparison of genome databases reveals that TAPL is conserved in various species from a simple model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, to mammals. C. elegans possesses homologous TAPL genes:

Hiromi Kawai; Takahiro Tanji; Hirohisa Shiraishi; Mitsuo Yamada; Ryoko Iijima; Takao Inoue; Yasuko Kezuka; Kazuaki Ohashi; Yasuo Yoshida; Koujiro Tohyama; Keiko Gengyo-Ando; Shohei Mitani; Hiroyuki Arai; Ayako Ohashi-Kobayashi; Masatomo Maeda

2009-01-01

114

Cholesterol efflux via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and cholesterol uptake via the LDL receptor influences cholesterol-induced impairment of beta cell function in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims\\/hypothesis  Cellular cholesterol accumulation is an emerging mechanism for beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Absence of the cholesterol\\u000a transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) results in increased islet cholesterol and impaired insulin secretion,\\u000a indicating that impaired cholesterol efflux leads to beta cell dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to determine the role\\u000a of the LDL receptor (LDLr) in islet

J. K. Kruit; P. H. C. Kremer; L. Dai; R. Tang; P. Ruddle; W. de Haan; L. R. Brunham; C. B. Verchere; M. R. Hayden

2010-01-01

115

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors Interact with ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 4/Multidrug Resistance Protein 4: A Basis for Unanticipated Enhanced Cytotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV–associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics.

Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B.; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2013-01-01

116

Murine 12/15-Lipoxygenase Regulates ATP-binding Cassette Transporter G1 Protein Degradation through p38- and JNK2-dependent Pathways*  

PubMed Central

12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15LO) plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetes and has been implicated in low density lipoprotein oxidation. Murine macrophages express high levels of 12/15LO and are key cells involved in the accumulation and efflux of oxidized low density lipoprotein in the arterial wall. During this process, macrophages up-regulate scavenger receptors that regulate lipid uptake, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, that regulate lipid efflux. We have previously demonstrated that 12/15LO enhances the turnover and serine phosphorylation of ABCG1. In the current study, we further elucidate the mechanisms by which 12/15LO regulates ABCG1. Proteasomal inhibitors blocked the down-regulation of ABCG1 expression and resulted in accumulation of phosphorylated ABCG1. Macrophages that lack 12/15LO have enhanced transporter expression, reduced ABCG1 phosphorylation, and increased cholesterol efflux. Conversely, macrophages that overexpress 12/15LO have reduced ABCG1 expression, increased transporter phosphorylation, and reduced cholesterol efflux. 12/15LO plays a key role in activating the MAPK pathway. Inhibition of the p38 or JNK pathways with pharmacological inhibitors or dominant negative constructs blocked 12S-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid-mediated degradation of ABCG1. Moreover, we isolated macrophages from JNK1-, JNK2-, and MKK3-deficient mice to analyze the involvement of specific MAPK pathways. JNK2- and MKK3-, but not JNK1-deficient macrophages were resistant to the down-regulation of ABCG1 protein, reduction in efflux, and increase in serine phosphorylation by 12S-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid. These findings provide evidence that 12/15LO regulates ABCG1 expression and function through p38- and JNK2-dependent mechanisms, and that targeting these pathways may provide novel approaches for regulating cholesterol homeostasis.

Nagelin, Melissa H.; Srinivasan, Suseela; Nadler, Jerry L.; Hedrick, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

117

Effects of cellular, chemical, and pharmacological chaperones on the rescue of a trafficking-defective mutant of the ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins ABCB1/ABCB4.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCB4 is a phosphatidylcholine translocator specifically expressed at the bile canalicular membrane in hepatocytes, highly homologous to the multidrug transporter ABCB1. Variations in the ABCB4 gene sequence cause progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3. We have shown previously that the I541F mutation, when reproduced either in ABCB1 or in ABCB4, led to retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi. Here, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells expressing ABCB1-GFP were used as a model to investigate this mutant. We show that ABCB1-I541F is not properly folded and is more susceptible to in situ protease degradation. It colocalizes and coprecipitates with the ER chaperone calnexin and coprecipitates with the cytosolic chaperone Hsc/Hsp70. Silencing of calnexin or overexpression of Hsp70 have no effect on maturation of the mutant. We also tested potential rescue by chemical and pharmacological chaperones. Thapsigargin and sodium 4-phenyl butyrate were inefficient. Glycerol improved maturation and exit of the mutant from the ER. Cyclosporin A, a competitive substrate for ABCB1, restored maturation, plasma membrane expression, and activity of ABCB1-I541F. Cyclosporin A also improved maturation of ABCB4-I541F in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. In HepG(2) cells transfected with ABCB4-I541F cDNA, cyclosporin A allowed a significant amount of the mutant protein to reach the membrane of bile canaliculi. These results show that the best strategy to rescue conformation-defective ABCB4 mutants is provided by pharmacological chaperones that specifically target the protein. They identify cyclosporin A as a potential novel therapeutic tool for progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 patients. PMID:22184139

Gautherot, Julien; Durand-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Delautier, Danièle; Delaunay, Jean-Louis; Rada, Alegna; Gabillet, Julie; Housset, Chantal; Maurice, Michèle; Aït-Slimane, Tounsia

2012-02-10

118

Remote Communication through Solute Carriers and ATP Binding Cassette Drug Transporter Pathways: An Update on the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Recent data from knockouts, human disease, and transport studies suggest that solute carrier (SLC) and ATP binding cassette (ABC) multispecific “drug” transporters maintain effective organ and body fluid concentrations of key nutrients, signaling molecules, and antioxidants. These processes involve transcellular movement of solutes across epithelial barriers and fluid compartments (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, bile) via “matching” or homologous sets of SLC (e.g., SLC21, SLC22, SLC47) and ABC transporters. As described in the “Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis” (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323:429–436, 2004; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351:872–876, 2006; J Biol Chem 282:23841–23853, 2007; Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 3:443–448, 2007; Mol Pharmacol 76:481–490, 2009), highly regulated transporter networks with overlapping substrate preferences are involved in sensing and signaling to maintain homeostasis in response to environmental changes (e.g., substrate imbalance and injury). They function in parallel with (and interact with) the endocrine and autonomic systems. Uric acid (urate), carnitine, prostaglandins, conjugated sex steroids, cGMP, odorants, and enterobiome metabolites are discussed here as examples. Xenobiotics hitchhike on endogenous carrier systems, sometimes leading to toxicity and side effects. By regulation of the expression and/or function of various remote organ multispecific transporters after injury, the overall transport capacity of the remote organ to handle endogenous toxins, metabolites, and signaling molecules may change, aiding in recovery. Moreover, these transporters may play a role in communication between organisms. The specific cellular components involved in sensing and altering transporter abundance or functionality depend upon the metabolite in question and probably involve different types of sensors as well as epigenetic regulation.

Wu, Wei; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.

2011-01-01

119

Exploring the Role of Integral Membrane Proteins in ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: Analysis of a Collection of MalG Insertion Mutants  

PubMed Central

The maltose transport complex of Escherichia coli is a well-studied example of an ATP-binding cassette transporter. The complex, containing one copy each of the integral membrane proteins MalG and MalF and two copies of the peripheral cytoplasmic membrane protein MalK, interacts with the periplasmic maltose-binding protein to efficiently translocate maltose and maltodextrins across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. To investigate the role of MalG both in MalFGK2 assembly interactions and in subsequent transport interactions, we isolated and characterized 18 different MalG mutants, each containing a 31-residue insertion in the protein. Eight insertions mapping to distinct hydrophilic regions of MalG permitted either assembly or both assembly and transport interactions to occur. In particular, we isolated two insertions mapping to extracytoplasmic (periplasmic) regions of MalG which preserved both assembly and transport abilities, suggesting that these are permissive sites in the protein. Another periplasmic insertion seems to affect only transport-specific interactions between MalG and maltose-binding protein, defining a novel class of MalG mutants. Finally, four MalG mutant proteins, although stably expressed, are unable to assemble into the MalFGK2 complex. These mutants contain insertions in only two different hydrophilic regions of MalG, consistent with the notion that a restricted number of domains in this protein are critical complex assembly determinants. These MalG mutants will allow us to further explore the intermolecular interactions of this model transporter.

Nelson, Bryn D.; Traxler, Beth

1998-01-01

120

Nrf2 upregulates ATP binding cassette transporter expression and activity at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.  

PubMed

Activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a sensor of oxidative stress, is neuroprotective in animal models of cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and spinal cord injury. We show here that Nrf2 activation with sulforaphane (SFN) in vivo or in vitro increases expression and transport activity of three ATP-driven drug efflux pumps at the blood-brain barrier [P-glycoprotein, ATP binding cassette b1 (Abcb1); multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2), Abcc2; and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), Abcg2]. Dosing rats with SFN increased protein expression of all three transporters in brain capillaries and decreased by 50% brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil. Exposing rat or mouse brain capillaries to SFN increased P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 transport activity and protein expression; SFN increased P-glycoprotein activity in mouse spinal cord capillaries. Inhibiting transcription or translation abolished upregulation of P-glycoprotein activity. No such effects were seen in brain capillaries from Nrf2-null mice, indicating Nrf2 dependence. Nrf2 signaled indirectly to increase transporter activity/expression. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin abolished the SFN-induced increase in transporter activity/expression, and the p53-activator nutlin-3 increased P-glycoprotein activity. SFN did not alter P-glycoprotein transport activity in brain and spinal cord capillaries from p53-null mice. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) blocked the effects of SFN and nutlin-3 on P-glycoprotein activity. These results implicate Nrf2, p53, and NF-?B in the upregulation of P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 at blood-CNS barriers. They imply that the barriers are tightened selectively (efflux transporter upregulation) by oxidative stress, providing increased neuroprotection, but also reduced penetration of many therapeutic drugs. PMID:24948812

Wang, Xueqian; Campos, Christopher R; Peart, John C; Smith, Lindsay K; Boni, Jessica L; Cannon, Ronald E; Miller, David S

2014-06-18

121

Acyl-CoA synthetase 1 is required for oleate and linoleate mediated inhibition of cholesterol efflux through ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in macrophages  

PubMed Central

Diabetes and insulin resistance increase the risk of cardiovascular disease caused by atherosclerosis through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Lipid-loaded macrophages are key contributors to all stages of atherosclerosis. We have recently shown that diabetes associated with increased plasma lipids reduces cholesterol efflux and levels of the reverse cholesterol exporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in mouse macrophages, which likely contributes to macrophage lipid accumulation in diabetes. Furthermore, we and others have shown that unsaturated fatty acids reduce ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, and that this effect is mediated by the acyl-CoA derivatives of the fatty acids. We therefore investigated whether acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key enzyme mediating acyl-CoA synthesis in macrophages, could directly influence ABCA1 levels and cholesterol efflux in these cells. Mouse macrophages deficient in ACSL1 exhibited reduced sensitivity to oleate- and linoleate-mediated ABCA1 degradation, which resulted in increased ABCA1 levels and increased apolipoprotein A-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in the presence of these fatty acids, as compared with wildtype mouse macrophages. Conversely, overexpression of ACSL1 resulted in reduced ABCA1 levels and reduced cholesterol efflux in the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the reduced ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux in macrophages subjected to conditions of diabetes and elevated fatty load may, at least in part, be mediated by ACSL1. These observations raise the possibility that ABCA1 levels could be increased by inhibition of acyl-CoA synthetase activity in vivo.

Kanter, Jenny E.; Tang, Chongren; Oram, John F.; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

2011-01-01

122

Determinants of substrate specificity and biochemical properties of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate ATP binding cassette transporter (UgpB-AEC2 ) of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Under phosphate starvation conditions, Escherichia coli can utilize sn-glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and G3P diesters as phosphate source when transported by an ATP binding cassette importer composed of the periplasmic binding protein, UgpB, the transmembrane subunits, UgpA and UgpE, and a homodimer of the nucleotide binding subunit, UgpC. The current knowledge on the Ugp transporter is solely based on genetic evidence and transport assays using intact cells. Thus, we set out to characterize its properties at the level of purified protein components. UgpB was demonstrated to bind G3P and glycerophosphocholine with dissociation constants of 0.68?±?0.02??M and 5.1?±?0.3??M, respectively, while glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) is not a substrate. The crystal structure of UgpB in complex with G3P was solved at 1.8?Å resolution and revealed the interaction with two tryptophan residues as key to the preferential binding of linear G3P in contrast to the branched G2P. Mutational analysis validated the crucial role of Trp-169 for G3P binding. The purified UgpAEC2 complex displayed UgpB/G3P-stimulated ATPase activity in proteoliposomes that was neither inhibited by phosphate nor by the signal transducing protein PhoU or the phosphodiesterase UgpQ. Furthermore, a hybrid transporter composed of MalFG-UgpC could be functionally reconstituted while a UgpAE-MalK complex was unstable. PMID:23013274

Wuttge, Steven; Bommer, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Martins, Berta M; Jacob, Sophie; Licht, Anke; Scheffel, Frank; Dobbek, Holger; Schneider, Erwin

2012-11-01

123

Localized Induction of the ATP-Binding Cassette B19 Auxin Transporter Enhances Adventitious Root Formation in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

Adventitious roots emerge from aerial plant tissues, and the induction of these roots is essential for clonal propagation of agriculturally important plant species. This process has received extensive study in horticultural species but much less focus in genetically tractable model species. We have explored the role of auxin transport in this process in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in which adventitious root initiation was induced by excising roots from low-light-grown hypocotyls. Inhibition of auxin transport from the shoot apex abolishes adventitious root formation under these conditions. Root excision was accompanied by a rapid increase in radioactive indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport and its accumulation in the hypocotyl above the point of excision where adventitious roots emerge. Local increases in auxin-responsive gene expression were also observed above the site of excision using three auxin-responsive reporters. These changes in auxin accumulation preceded cell division events, monitored by a cyclin B1 reporter (pCYCB1;1:GUS), and adventitious root initiation. We examined excision-induced adventitious root formation in auxin influx and efflux mutants, including auxin insensitive1, pin-formed1 (pin1), pin2, pin3, and pin7, with the most profound reductions observed in ATP-binding cassette B19 (ABCB19). An ABCB19 overexpression line forms more adventitious roots than the wild type in intact seedlings. Examination of transcriptional and translational fusions between ABCB19 and green fluorescent protein indicates that excision locally induced the accumulation of ABCB19 transcript and protein that is temporally and spatially linked to local IAA accumulation leading to adventitious root formation. These experiments are consistent with localized synthesis of ABCB19 protein after hypocotyl excision leads to enhanced IAA transport and local IAA accumulation driving adventitious root formation.

Sukumar, Poornima; Maloney, Gregory S.; Muday, Gloria K.

2013-01-01

124

Human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors interact with ATP binding cassette transporter 4/multidrug resistance protein 4: a basis for unanticipated enhanced cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pharmacotherapy, by combining different drug classes such as nucleoside analogs and HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), has increased HIV-patient life expectancy. Consequently, among these patients, an increase in non-HIV-associated cancers has produced a patient cohort requiring both HIV and cancer chemotherapy. We hypothesized that multidrug resistance protein 4/ATP binding cassette transporter 4 (MRP4/ABCC4), a widely expressed transporter of nucleoside-based antiviral medications as well as cancer therapeutics might interact with PIs. Among the PIs evaluated (nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and indinavir), only nelfinavir both effectively stimulated MRP4 ATPase activity and inhibited substrate-stimulated ATPase activity. Saos2 and human embryonic kidney 293 cells engineered to overexpress MRP4 were then used to assess transport and cytotoxicity. MRP4 expression reduced intracellular accumulation of nelfinavir and consequently conferred survival advantage to nelfinavir cytotoxicity. Nelfinavir blocked Mrp4-mediated export, which is consistent with its ability to increase the sensitivity of MRP4-expressing cells to methotrexate. In contrast, targeted inactivation of Abcc4/Mrp4 in mouse cells specifically enhanced nelfinavir and 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl) adenine cytotoxicity. These results suggest that nelfinavir is both an inhibitor and substrate of MRP4. Because nelfinavir is a new MRP4/ABCC4 substrate, we developed a MRP4/ABCC4 pharmacophore model, which showed that the nelfinavir binding site is shared with chemotherapeutic substrates such as adefovir and methotrexate. Our studies reveal, for the first time, that nelfinavir, a potent and cytotoxic PI, is both a substrate and inhibitor of MRP4. These findings suggest that HIV-infected cancer patients receiving nelfinavir might experience both enhanced antitumor efficacy and unexpected adverse toxicity given the role of MRP4/ABCC4 in exporting nucleoside-based antiretroviral medications and cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:23775562

Fukuda, Yu; Takenaka, Kazumasa; Sparreboom, Alex; Cheepala, Satish B; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ekins, Sean; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Schuetz, John D

2013-09-01

125

Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants silenced for the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NpPDR1 show increased susceptibility to a group of fungal and oomycete pathogens.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The behaviour of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants silenced for the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene NpPDR1 was investigated in response to fungal and oomycete infections. The importance of NpPDR1 in plant defence was demonstrated for two organs in which NpPDR1 is constitutively expressed: the roots and the petal epidermis. The roots of the plantlets of two lines silenced for NpPDR1 expression were clearly more sensitive than those of controls to the fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum sp., F. oxysporum f. sp. nicotianae, F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis and Rhizoctonia solani, as well as to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae race 0. The Ph gene-linked resistance of N. plumbaginifolia to P. nicotianae race 0 was totally ineffective in NpPDR1-silenced lines. In addition, the petals of the NpPDR1-silenced lines were spotted 15%-20% more rapidly by B. cinerea than were the controls. The rapid induction (after 2-4 days) of NpPDR1 expression in N. plumbaginifolia and N. tabacum mature leaves in response to pathogen presence was demonstrated for the first time with fungi and one oomycete: R. solani, F. oxysporum and P. nicotianae. With B. cinerea, such rapid expression was not observed in healthy mature leaves. NpPDR1 expression was not observed during latent infections of B. cinerea in N. plumbaginifolia and N. tabacum, but was induced when conditions facilitated B. cinerea development in leaves, such as leaf ageing or an initial root infection. This work demonstrates the increased sensitivity of NpPDR1-silenced N. plumbaginifolia plants to all of the fungal and oomycete pathogens investigated. PMID:19694955

Bultreys, Alain; Trombik, Tomasz; Drozak, Anna; Boutry, Marc

2009-09-01

126

Overexpression of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter ABCG2 as a Potential Mechanism of Acquired Resistance to Vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) Mutant Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer with a high potential for metastasis and very low survival rates. The discovery of constitutive activation of the BRAF kinase caused by activating BRAF(V600E) kinase mutation in most melanoma patients led to the discovery of the first potent BRAF(V600E) signaling inhibitor, vemurafenib. Vemurafenib was effective in treating advanced melanoma patients and was proposed for the treatment of other BRAF(V600E) mutant cancers as well. Unfortunately, the success of vemurafenib was hampered by the rapid development of acquired resistance in different types of BRAF(V600E) mutant cancer cells. It becomes important to identify and evaluate all of the potential mechanisms of cellular resistance to vemurafenib. In this study, we characterized the interactions of vemurafenib with three major ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. We found that vemurafenib stimulated the ATPase activity and potently inhibited drug efflux mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2. Vemurafenib also restored drug sensitivity in ABCG2-overexpressing cells. Moreover, we revealed that in the presence of functional ABCG2, BRAF kinase inhibition by vemurafenib is reduced in BRAF(V600E) mutant A375 cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that ABCG2 confers resistance to vemurafenib in A375 cells, suggesting involvement of this transporter in acquired resistance to vemurafenib. Thus, combination chemotherapy targeting multiple pathways could be an effective therapeutic strategy to overcome acquired resistance to vemurafenib for cancers harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.

Wu, Chung-Pu; Sim, Hong-May; Huang, Yang-Hui; Liu, Yen-Chen; Hsiao, Sung-Han; Cheng, Hsing-Wen; Li, Yan-Qing; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Hsu, Sheng-Chieh

2012-01-01

127

The novel BCR-ABL and FLT3 inhibitor ponatinib is a potent inhibitor of the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG2.  

PubMed

Ponatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent activity against BCR-ABL with mutations, including T315I, and also against fms-like tyrosine kinase 3. We tested interactions between ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 50 to 200 nmol/L and the MDR-associated ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCG2. Ponatinib enhanced uptake of substrates of ABCG2 and ABCB1, but not ABCC1, in cells overexpressing these proteins, with a greater effect on ABCG2 than on ABCB1. Ponatinib potently inhibited [(125)I]-IAAP binding to ABCG2 and ABCB1, indicating binding to their drug substrate sites, with IC(50) values of 0.04 and 0.63 ?mol/L, respectively. Ponatinib stimulated ABCG2 ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner and stimulated ABCB1 ATPase activity at low concentrations, consistent with it being a substrate of both proteins at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. The ponatinib IC(50) values of BCR-ABL-expressing K562 cells transfected with ABCB1 and ABCG2 were approximately the same as and 2-fold higher than that of K562, respectively, consistent with ponatinib being a substrate of both proteins, but inhibiting its own transport, and resistance was also attenuated to a small degree by ponatinib-induced downregulation of ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell-surface expression on resistant K562 cells. Ponatinib at pharmacologically relevant concentrations produced synergistic cytotoxicity with ABCB1 and ABCG2 substrate chemotherapy drugs and enhanced apoptosis induced by these drugs, including daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, topotecan, and flavopiridol, in cells overexpressing these transport proteins. Combinations of ponatinib and chemotherapy drugs warrant further testing. PMID:22778153

Sen, Rupashree; Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Fang, Hong-Bin; Cai, Ling; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Baer, Maria R

2012-09-01

128

Enhanced secretion of glycocholic acid in a specially adapted cell line is associated with overexpression of apparently novel ATP-binding cassette proteins.  

PubMed Central

Secretion of anionic endo- and xenobiotics is essential for the survival of animal and plant cells; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. To better understand one such model system--i.e., secretion of bile acids by the liver--we utilized a strategy analogous to that employed to identify the multidrug resistance (mdr) genes. We synthesized the methyl ester of glycocholic acid (GCE), which readily enters cells, where it is hydrolyzed to yield glycocholic acid, a naturally occurring bile acid. The rat hepatoma-derived HTC cell line gradually acquired resistance to GCE concentrations 20-fold higher than those which inhibited growth of naive cells, yet intracellular accumulation of radiolabel in resistant cells exposed to [14C]GCE averaged approximately 25% of that in nonresistant cells. As compared with nonresistant cells, resistant cells also exhibited (i) cross-resistance to colchicine, a known mdr substrate, but not to other noxious substances transported by hepatocytes; (ii) increased abundance on Northern blot of mRNA species up to 7-10 kb recognized by a probe for highly conserved nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) sequences of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins; (iii) increased abundance, as measured by RNase protection assay, of mRNA fragments homologous to a NBD cRNA probe; and (iv) dramatic overexpression, as measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, of a group of 150- to 200-kDa plasma membrane proteins recognized by a monoclonal antibody against a region flanking the highly conserved NBD of mdr/P-glycoproteins. Finally, Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with mRNA from resistant cells and incubated with [14C]GCE secreted radiolabel more rapidly than did control oocytes. Enhanced secretion of glycocholic acid in this cell line is associated with overexpression of ABC/mdr-related proteins, some of which are apparently novel and are likely to include a bile acid transport protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Brown, R S; Lomri, N; De Voss, J; Rahmaoui, C M; Xie, M H; Hua, T; Lidofsky, S D; Scharschmidt, B F

1995-01-01

129

Stage Specific Expression of ATP-Binding Cassette and Solute Carrier Superfamily of Transporter Genes in Mammary Gland of Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).  

PubMed

In the present study, expression level of various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) viz., ABCA1, ABCA7, ABCG1, ABCG2, and ABCG5; associated transcription factors viz., SREBF1, LXR? (NR1H3), PPARA, and Solute Carriers (SLC); or Glucose transporters (GLUT) viz., SLC2A1(GLUT1), SLC2A4 (GLUT4), SLC2A8 (GLUT8), and SLC2A12 (GLUT12) superfamily of transporters were compared across physiological stages of buffalo mammary gland. The relative expression of ABCA1, and ABCG1 was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in mammary gland of heifer followed by involution and lactation stages. Similarly, ABCA7 gene expression was highest in heifer mammary gland followed by lactation and involution stages. ABCG2 gene expression was significantly (p < 0.05) high in lactating mammary gland in comparison to involution and heifer stages. On the other hand, ABCG5 gene expression was highest in involuting mammary gland followed by lactation and involution stages. Additionally, the expression of LXR? SREBF1, and PPARA which are known to regulate some of the ABC tranporters were also analyzed. The expression of LXR? gene was high in involuting as compared to lactating mammary gland. In contrast, SREBF1 and PPARA expression was significantly (p < 0.05) high in lactating mammary gland. Among the several SLC transporters studied, SLC2A1, SLC2A4, and SLC2A8 showed significant (p < 0.05) higher expression during lactation stage, whereas SLC2A12 expression was greater during heifer stage suggesting SLC2A1, SLC2A4, and SLC2A8 to be the major transporters associated with glucose uptake in buffalo mammary gland. The expression profile of (lactoferrin) LTF, known to be expressed at high level in mammary gland during involution was also studied. As expected, its expression was significantly (p < 0.05) higher during involution in comparison to lactating mammary gland.in buffaloes as well. The inclusion of LTF as a control gene further provided the confidence in the buffalo mammary gland expression data generated in the present study. This study thus helped to provide information about the distinct expression pattern of various transporters and their regulators in buffalo mammary gland during different physiological states. PMID:24669870

Sharma, Ankita; Aggarwal, Jigyasa; Sodhi, Monika; Kishore, Amit; Mishra, B P; Mohanty, A K; Kataria, R S; Kaushik, Jai K; Mukesh, Manishi

2014-07-01

130

Formation and efflux of ATP-binding cassette transporter substrate 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione from cultured human term placental villous tissue fragments.  

PubMed

Upon exposure to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), the human placental tissue forms its glutathione conjugate 2,4-dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione (DNP-SG). The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of human placental ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in the efflux of DNP-SG. Placental tissue samples were obtained from pregnant patients undergoing C-section deliveries following normal pregnancies; villous tissue was cultured in suspension, and DNP-SG formation and efflux upon exposure to 100 microM CDNB were measured by HPLC. DNP-SG efflux decreased by 69.1 (+/-11.3)%, 51.1 (+/-5.4)%, 56.7 (+/-8.3)% and 53.6 (+/-10.8)% (p < 0.05) in the presence of 5 mM sodium orthovanadate (ATPase inhibitor), 100 microM MK571 (MRP-inhibitor), 1 mM dipyridamole (BCRP/P-gp/MRP1-inhibitor) and 100 microM verapamil (P-gp/MRP1 inhibitor) respectively, without any change in DNP-SG formation, total tissue glutathione, GSH/GSSG ratio, tissue integrity or tissue viability. These data clearly established the role of ABC transporters in the human placental efflux of DNP-SG. To investigate the contribution of various ABC transporters toward DNP-SG transport, ATP-dependent transport of 3H-DNP-SG was determined in Sf9 membrane vesicles overexpressing P-gp, BCRP and the MRP proteins. MRP1-mediated DNP-SG transport was inhibited in the presence of sodium orthovanadate, MK571, dipyridamole and verapamil in the presence of glutathione. Furthermore, MRP1-mediated transport [K(t) = 11.3 +/- 1.3 microM and v(max) = 86.7 +/- 1.9 pmol/mg/min] was a high-affinity process compared to MRP2-mediated transport [K(t) = 168 +/- 7 microM and v(max) = 1367 +/- 18 pmol/mg/min]. The inhibition pattern and the kinetics of DNP-SG efflux in the placental villous tissue were consistent with MRP1-mediated DNP-SG efflux, suggesting a functional role and an apical localization for an MRP1-like transporter in the human placental syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:19397308

Vaidya, Soniya S; Walsh, Scott W; Gerk, Phillip M

2009-01-01

131

Mycophenolic acid induces ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression through the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line, we found that MPA upregulated ABCA1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPA induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of MPA upregulating ABCA1 was due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 pathway. -- Abstract: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) promotes cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from cells to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I and plays an important role in atherosclerosis. In a previous study, we developed a high-throughput screening method using an ABCA1p-LUC HepG2 cell line to find upregulators of ABCA1. Using this method in the present study, we found that mycophenolic acid (MPA) upregulated ABCA1 expression (EC50 = 0.09 {mu}M). MPA upregulation of ABCA1 expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis in HepG2 cells. Previous work has indicated that MPA is a potent agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}; EC50 = 5.2-9.3 {mu}M). Liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}) is a target gene of PPAR{gamma} and may directly regulate ABCA1 expression. Western blot analysis showed that MPA induced LXR{alpha} protein expression in HepG2 cells. Addition of PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 markedly inhibited MPA-induced ABCA1 and LXR{alpha} protein expression. These data suggest that MPA increased ABCA1 expression mainly through activation of PPAR{gamma}. Thus, the effects of MPA on upregulation of ABCA1 expression were due mainly to activation of the PPAR{gamma}-LXR{alpha}-ABCA1 signaling pathway. This is the first report that the antiatherosclerosis activity of MPA is due to this mechanism.

Xu, Yanni; Lai, Fangfang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Yexiang; Liu, Qi; Li, Ni; Wei, Yuzhen; Feng, Tingting; Zheng, Zhihui; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Liyan; Hong, Bin [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)] [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China); Si, Shuyi, E-mail: sisyimb@hotmail.com [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)] [Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050 (China)

2011-11-04

132

Lipase secretion by bacterial hybrid ATP-binding cassette exporters: molecular recognition of the LipBCD, PrtDEF, and HasDEF exporters.  

PubMed Central

Serratia marcescens secretes several proteins, such as the lipase LipA, the metalloprotease PrtA, and the heme-binding protein HasA, which is required for heme acquisition, through two N-terminal signal peptide-independent systems that are classified as bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters. One is the ABC exporter for HasA, consisting of the ABC protein HasD, the membrane fusion protein (MFP) HasE, and the outer membrane protein (OMP) HasF. The second, composed of LipB (an ABC protein), LipC (an MFP), and LipD (an OMP), promotes secretion of LipA and PrtA in Escherichia coli recombinant clones. PrtA, which shows homology to the Erwinia chrysanthemi metalloproteases, is efficiently secreted by E. coli cells carrying the E. chrysanthemi ABC exporter PrtD (ABC protein)-PrtE (MFP)-PrtF (OMP). The existence of distinct systems in this bacterium and of various substrates for these systems allowed the study of protein secretion by heterologous Has, Lip, and Prt systems and by Has-Lip and Lip-Prt hybrid exporters in the genuine host as well as in E. coli. For that purpose, lipB-, lipC-, and lipD-deficient mutants were isolated from S. marcescens 8000 and their secretion of LipA and PrtA was analyzed. This demonstrated that a unique exporter, the Lip apparatus, in S. marcescens secretes both LipA and PrtA. Hybrid exporters were tested for secretion of HasA and LipA. The LipB-HasE-HasF exporter allowed secretion of LipA but not HasA, showing that the ABC protein LipB is responsible for the substrate specificity. LipA, HasA, and E. chrysanthemi PrtC were secreted via heterologous exporters and via some hybrid exporters. Analysis of secretion via hybrid exporters showed that specific interactions occur between MFPs and OMPs in these systems. These genetic experiments demonstrated that specific interactions between the ABC protein and the MFP are required for the formation of active exporters.

Akatsuka, H; Binet, R; Kawai, E; Wandersman, C; Omori, K

1997-01-01

133

Genetic variant of V825I in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations  

PubMed Central

Background Several genetic variants in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene have associated with modifications of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the susceptibility for coronary heart disease, but the findings are still controversial in diverse racial/ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is an isolated subgroup of the Yao minority in southern China. The present study was undertaken to detect the possible association of V825I (rs2066715) polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 677 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 646 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism assay combined with gel electrophoresis were performed for the genotyping of V825I variant, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P < 0.01 for all). The frequency of G and A alleles was 57.4% and 42.6% in Bai Ku Yao, and 57.7% and 42.3% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes was 33.7%, 47.4% and 18.9% in Bai Ku Yao, and 33.4%, 48.6% and 18.0% in Han (P > 0.05); respectively. There was no difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between males and females in the both ethnic groups. The subjects with AA genotype in Bai Ku Yao had higher serum TC levels than the subjects with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05). The participants with AA genotype in Han had lower serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the participants with GG and GA genotypes (P < 0.05 for each), but these results were found in males but not in females. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the levels of TC in Bai Ku Yao and HDL-C and ApoAI in male Han were correlated with genotypes (P < 0.05 for all). Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and blood pressure in both ethnic groups (P < 0.05-0.001). Conclusion The present study suggests that the V825I polymorphism in the ABCA1 gene is associated with male serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the Han, and serum TC levels in the Bai Ku Yao populations. The difference in the association of V825I polymorphism and serum lipid levels between the two ethnic groups might partly result from different ABCA1 gene-enviromental interactions.

2011-01-01

134

ATP-binding cassette B4, an auxin-efflux transporter, stably associates with the plasma membrane and shows distinctive intracellular trafficking from that of PIN-FORMED proteins.  

PubMed

Intracellular trafficking of auxin transporters has been implicated in diverse developmental processes in plants. Although the dynamic trafficking pathways of PIN-FORMED auxin efflux proteins have been studied intensively, the trafficking of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B proteins (ABCBs; another group of auxin efflux carriers) still remains largely uncharacterized. In this study, we address the intracellular trafficking of ABCB4 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root epidermal cells. Pharmacological analysis showed that ABCB4 barely recycled between the plasma membrane and endosomes, although it slowly endocytosed via the lytic vacuolar pathway. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed that ABCB4 is strongly retained in the plasma membrane, further supporting ABCB4's nonrecycling property. The endocytosis of ABCB4 was not dependent on the GNOM-LIKE1 function, and the sensitivity of ABCB4 to brefeldin A required guanine nucleotide exchange factors for adenosyl ribosylation factor other than GNOM. These characteristics of intracellular trafficking of ABCB4 are well contrasted with those of PIN-FORMED proteins, suggesting that ABCB4 may be a basic and constitutive auxin efflux transporter for cellular auxin homeostasis. PMID:22492845

Cho, Misuk; Lee, Zee-Won; Cho, Hyung-Taeg

2012-06-01

135

An attenuated mutant of the Rv1747 ATP-binding cassette transporter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a mutant of its cognate kinase, PknF, show increased expression of the efflux pump-related iniBAC operon  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporter Rv1747 is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice and in macrophages. Its structure suggests it is an exporter. Rv1747 forms a two-gene operon with pknF coding for the serine/threonine protein kinase PknF, which positively modulates the function of the transporter. We show that deletion of Rv1747 or pknF results in a number of transcriptional changes which could be complemented by the wild type allele, most significantly up-regulation of the iniBAC genes. This operon is inducible by isoniazid and ethambutol and by a broad range of inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis and is required for efflux pump functioning. However, neither the Rv1747 or pknF mutant showed increased susceptibility to a range of drugs and cell wall stress reagents including isoniazid and ethambutol, cell wall structure and cell division appear normal by electron microscopy, and no differences in lipoarabinomannan were found. Transcription from the pknF promoter was not induced by a range of stress reagents. We conclude that the loss of Rv1747 affects cell wall biosynthesis leading to the production of intermediates that cause induction of iniBAC transcription and implicates it in exporting a component of the cell wall, which is necessary for virulence.

Spivey, Vicky L; Whalan, Rachael H; Hirst, Elizabeth M A; Smerdon, Stephen J; Buxton, Roger S

2013-01-01

136

Opposing Gatekeepers of Apical Sterol Transport: Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5/ABCG8)  

PubMed Central

Cholesterol is essential for the growth and function of all mammalian cells, but abnormally elevated levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are a major risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). For many years, statin drugs have been used to effectively lower LDL-C, but ASCVD still persists in most of the world. Hence, additional LDL-C lowering is now recommended, and the search for therapeutic strategies that work in synergy with statins has now begun. Intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of cholesterol represent two major pathways and continue to show promise as druggable processes. Importantly, both of these complex physiological pathways are tightly regulated by key proteins located at the apical surface of the small intestine and the liver. One of these proteins, the target of ezetimibe Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), was recently identified to be essential for intestinal cholesterol absorption and protect against excessive biliary sterol loss. In direct opposition of NPC1L1, the heterodimer of ATP-binding cassette transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5/ABCG8) has been shown to be critical for promoting biliary cholesterol secretion in the liver, and has also been proposed to play a direct role in intestinal disposal of sterols. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the function of these opposing apical cholesterol transporters, and provide a framework for future studies examining these proteins.

Brown, J. Mark; Yu, Liqing

2010-01-01

137

Imbalanced response of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and CD36 expression to increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein loading contributes to the development of THP-1 derived foam cells.  

PubMed

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and CD36, type B scavenger receptor, function as the key mediators of macrophages cholesterol efflux and intake, respectively. However, their contribution to development of foam cells still remains uncertain. We here examined the effects of increased oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) loading on the ABCA1 and CD36 expression, and lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. The cultured THP-1 macrophages were treated with different copper-oxLDL concentrations. The intracellular lipid contents and cholesterol efflux were measured, and the ABCA1 and CD36 expression were assessed. We found that expression of ABCA1 and CD36 were coordinately induced upon low to moderate doses of oxLDL loading. However, higher doses of oxLDL stimulation resulted in the imbalanced expression of ABCA1 and CD36 proteins with more preferentially suppressed ABCA1 protein, attenuated cholesterol efflux and development of THP-1 derived foam cells. The PPAR-? expression was remarkably induced, and PPAR-? agonist, pioglitazone, significantly promoted the ABCA1 and CD36 expression. Additionally, ABCA1 and CD36 proteins were strong colocalized in THP-1 macrophages membrane. In conclusion, the more preferentially suppressed ABCA1 expression as compared with CD36 at higher doses of oxLDL stimulation may be the initiator for the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. PMID:24394674

Liu, Hong-Yan; Cui, Han-Bin; Chen, Xiao-Min; Chen, Xin-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Huang; Du, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Lin; Zhao, Ruo-Chi; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Ya-Hui; Cui, Chang-Cong; Huang, Chen

2014-01-01

138

An Aeromonas salmonicida gene which influences a-protein expression in Escherichia coli encodes a protein containing an ATP-binding cassette and maps beside the surface array protein gene.  

PubMed Central

A conserved Aeromonas salmonicida gene (abcA) affecting expression of the surface array protein gene (vapA) in Escherichia coli was identified. The 924-bp gene starts 205 bp after vapA and codes for a protein with a deduced molecular weight (M(r)) of 34,015 containing an N-terminal P-loop and significant homology to the ATP-binding cassette transport protein superfamily. AbcA was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) by using T7 polymerase expression and DNA-directed translation and was copurified with the sarkosyl-soluble cytoplasmic membrane fraction. The protein displayed aberrant migration during SDS-PAGE. A lacZ fusion containing 128 bp of upstream sequence and 387 bases in the 5' end of abcA was constructed, and the beta-galactosidase activity of the abcA-lacZ fusion gene was shown to be similar in E. coli and A. salmonicida. The 130,000-M(r) AbcA-LacZ fusion protein was purified, and by using an ATP affinity column, the 129 AbcA N-terminal P-loop-containing residues were shown to bind ATP. Images

Chu, S; Trust, T J

1993-01-01

139

Novel mechanism of transcriptional repression of the human ATP binding cassette transporter A1 gene in hepatic cells by the winged helix/forkhead box transcription factor A2.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) plays a key role in the biogenesis of HDL by promoting the efflux of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid free apoA-I. Mutations in the ABCA1 gene cause Tangier disease which is characterized by near or complete absence of circulating plasma HDL. In the present study we show that the winged helix/forkhead box containing transcription factor A2 (FOXA2) shown previously to play a role in glucose and bile acid homeostasis in the liver and in energy utilization in adipose tissue is a negative modulator of ABCA1 gene expression in hepatic cells. We show that the ABCA1 promoter contains three FOXA2 binding elements in the proximal region. Two of the sites are localized in a region of the ABCA1 promoter enriched in binding elements for transcriptional repressor proteins whereas the third site is the core of the TATA element of the ABCA1 promoter. Inhibition of FOXA2 binding to the ABCA1 promoter by site-directed mutagenesis or FOXA2 gene expression by siRNA was associated with increased ABCA1 promoter activity and protein levels. Overexpression of FOXA2 inhibited both the constitutive ABCA1 gene expression as well as ABCA1 gene induction by oxysterols and retinoids via nuclear receptors LXR?/RXR?. In summary, the present study identifies transcription factor FOXA2 as a negative modulator of ABCA1 gene expression in hepatic cells and reveals a novel mechanism of transcriptional repression by FOXA2 which involves the TATA element of the ABCA1 gene. PMID:24807696

Thymiakou, Efstathia; Kardassis, Dimitris

2014-06-01

140

Expression of the 49 human ATP binding cassette (ABC) genes in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and in early- and late-stage multipotent mesenchymal stem cells: possible role of ABC plasma membrane transporters in maintaining human stem cell pluripotency.  

PubMed

The 49-member human ATP binding cassette (ABC) gene family encodes 44 membrane transporters for lipids, ions, peptides or xenobiotics, four translation factors without transport activity, as they lack transmembrane domains, and one pseudogene. To understand the roles of ABC genes in pluripotency and multipotency, we performed a sensitive qRT-PCR analysis of their expression in embryonic stem cells (hESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hESC-derived hMSCs (hES-MSCs). We confirm that hES-MSCs represent an intermediate developmental stage between hESCs and hMSCs. We observed that 44 ABCs were significantly expressed in hESCs, 37 in hES-MSCs and 35 in hMSCs. These variations are mainly due to plasma membrane transporters with low but significant gene expression: 18 are expressed in hESCs compared with 16 in hES-MSCs and 8 in hMSCs, suggesting important roles in pluripotency. Several of these ABCs shared similar substrates but differ regarding gene regulation. ABCA13 and ABCB4, similarly to ABCB1, could be new markers to select primitive hMSCs with specific plasma membrane transporter (low) phenotypes. ABC proteins performing basal intracellular functions, including translation factors and mitochondrial heme transporters, showed the highest constant gene expression among the three populations. Peptide transporters in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and lysosome were well expressed in hESCs and slightly upregulated in hMSCs, which play important roles during the development of stem cell niches in bone marrow or meningeal tissue. These results will be useful to study specific cell cycle regulation of pluripotent stem cells or ABC dysregulation in complex pathologies, such as cancers or neurological disorders. PMID:22456339

Barbet, Romain; Peiffer, Isabelle; Hutchins, James R A; Hatzfeld, Antoinette; Garrido, Edith; Hatzfeld, Jacques A

2012-04-15

141

The MalF P2 Loop of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter MalFGK2 from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Interacts with Maltose Binding Protein (MalE) throughout the Catalytic Cycle ?  

PubMed Central

We have investigated the interaction of the uncommonly large periplasmic P2 loop of the MalF subunit of the maltose ATP-binding cassette transporter (MalFGK2) from Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with maltose binding protein (MalE) by site-specific chemical cross-linking in the assembled transport complex. We focused on possible distance changes between two pairs of residues of the P2 loop and MalE during the transport cycle. The distance between MalF(S205C) and MalE(T80C) (?5 Å) remained unchanged under all conditions tested. Cross-linking did not affect the ATPase activity of the complex. The distance between MalF(T177C) and MalE(T31C) changed from ?10 Å to ?5 Å upon binding of ATP (or maltose, with a less pronounced result) and was reset to ?10 Å after hydrolysis of one ATP. A cross-link (?25 Å) between MalF(S205C) and MalE(T31C) was observed only when the transporter resided in a transition state-like conformation, as was the case after vanadate trapping or in a binding protein-independent mutant, both of which are characterized by tight binding of unliganded MalE to the transporter. Thus, we propose that the observed cross-link is indicative of catalytic intermediates of the transporter. Together, our results strengthen the notion that the MalF P2 loop plays an important role in intersubunit communication. In particular, this loop is involved in keeping MalE in close contact with the transporter. The data are discussed with respect to a crystal structure and current transport models.

Daus, Martin L.; Grote, Mathias; Schneider, Erwin

2009-01-01

142

Genome-wide identification and evolution of ATP-binding cassette transporters in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila: A case of functional divergence in a multigene family  

PubMed Central

Background In eukaryotes, ABC transporters that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to expel cellular substrates into the environment are responsible for most of the efflux from cells. Many members of the superfamily of ABC transporters have been linked with resistance to multiple drugs or toxins. Owing to their medical and toxicological importance, members of the ABC superfamily have been studied in several model organisms and warrant examination in newly sequenced genomes. Results A total of 165 ABC transporter genes, constituting a highly expanded superfamily relative to its size in other eukaryotes, were identified in the macronuclear genome of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Based on ortholog comparisons, phylogenetic topologies and intron characterizations, each highly expanded ABC transporter family of T. thermophila was classified into several distinct groups, and hypotheses about their evolutionary relationships are presented. A comprehensive microarray analysis revealed divergent expression patterns among the members of the ABC transporter superfamily during different states of physiology and development. Many of the relatively recently formed duplicate pairs within individual ABC transporter families exhibit significantly different expression patterns. Further analysis showed that multiple mechanisms have led to functional divergence that is responsible for the preservation of duplicated genes. Conclusion Gene duplications have resulted in an extensive expansion of the superfamily of ABC transporters in the Tetrahymena genome, making it the largest example of its kind reported in any organism to date. Multiple independent duplications and subsequent divergence contributed to the formation of different families of ABC transporter genes. Many of the members within a gene family exhibit different expression patterns. The combination of gene duplication followed by both sequence divergence and acquisition of new patterns of expression likely plays a role in the adaptation of Tetrahymen a to its environment.

2010-01-01

143

Pharmacophore Modeling of Nilotinib as an Inhibitor of ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transporters and BCR-ABL Kinase Using a Three-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Approach.  

PubMed

Nilotinib (Tasigna) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients. It is also a transport substrate of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux transporters ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and ABCG2 (BCRP), which may have an effect on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this drug. The goal of this study was to identify pharmacophoric features of nilotinib in order to potentially develop specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase with minimal interactions with ABC drug transporters. Three-dimensional pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were carried out on a series of nilotinib analogues to identify chemical features that contribute to inhibitory activity of nilotinib against BCR-ABL kinase activity, P-gp, and ABCG2. Twenty-five derivatives of nilotinib were synthesized and were then tested to measure their activity to inhibit BCR-ABL kinase and to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters. A set of in vitro experiments including kinase activity and cell-based transport assays and photolabeling of P-gp and ABCG2 with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-iodoarylazido-prazosin (IAAP), were carried out in isolated membranes to evaluate the potency of the derivatives to inhibit the function of ABC drug transporters and BCR-ABL kinase. Sixteen, fourteen, and ten compounds were selected as QSAR data sets, respectively, to generate PHASE v3.1 pharmacophore models for BCR-ABL kinase, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. The IC50 values of these derivatives against P-gp, ABCG2, or BCR-ABL kinase were used to generate pharmacophore features required for optimal interactions with these targets. A seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for BCR-ABL kinase inhibitory activity, a six-point pharmacophore (ADHRRR) for ABCG2 inhibitory activity, and a seven-point pharmacophore (AADDRRR) for P-gp inhibitory activity were generated. The derived models clearly demonstrate high predictive power for test sets of BCR-ABL, ABCG2, and P-gp inhibitors. In aggregate, these results should aid in the development of specific inhibitors of BCR-ABL kinase that exhibit no or minimal interaction with ABC drug transporters. PMID:24865254

Shukla, Suneet; Kouanda, Abdul; Silverton, Latoya; Talele, Tanaji T; Ambudkar, Suresh V

2014-07-01

144

Cyclosporin A Decreases Apolipoprotein E Secretion from Human Macrophages via a Protein Phosphatase 2B-dependent and ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1)-independent Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant that inhibits protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B/calcineurin) and is associated with hyperlipidemia, decreased cholesterol efflux via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), and increased risk of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is an important regulator of lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, the secretion of which from human macrophages is regulated by the serine/threonine protein kinase A (PKA) and intracellular calcium (Ca2+) (Kockx, M., Guo, D. L., Huby, T., Lesnik, P., Kay, J., Sabaretnam, T., Jary, E., Hill, M., Gaus, K., Chapman, J., Stow, J. L., Jessup, W., and Kritharides, L. (2007) Circ. Res. 101, 607–616). As PP2B is Ca2+-dependent and has been linked to PKA-dependent processes, we investigated whether CsA modulated apoE secretion. CsA dose- and time-dependently inhibited secretion of apoE from primary human macrophages and from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with human apoE and increased cellular apoE levels without affecting apoE mRNA. [35S]Met kinetic modeling studies showed that CsA inhibited both secretion and degradation of apoE, increasing the half-life of cellular apoE 2-fold. CsA also inhibited secretion from primary human Tangier disease macrophages and from mouse macrophages deficient in ABCA1, indicating that the effect is independent of the known inhibition of ABCA1 by CsA. The role of PP2B in mediating apoE secretion was confirmed using additional peptide and chemical inhibitors of PP2B. Importantly, kinetic modeling, live-cell imaging, and confocal microscopy all indicated that CsA inhibited apoE secretion by mechanisms quite distinct from those of PKA inhibition, most likely inducing accumulation of apoE in the endoplasmic reticulum compartment. Taken together, these results establish a novel mechanism for the pro-atherosclerotic effects of CsA, and establish for the first time a role for PP2B in regulating the intracellular transport and secretion of apoE.

Kockx, Maaike; Guo, Dongni Lily; Traini, Mathew; Gaus, Katharina; Kay, Jason; Wimmer-Kleikamp, Sabine; Rentero, Carles; Burnett, John R.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Van Eck, Miranda; Stow, Jennifer L.; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

2009-01-01

145

The multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux activity in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis is mediated by an ATP binding cassette transporter of class C (ABCC) principally inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes.  

PubMed

In marine and estuarine species, immunotoxic and/or immunomodulatory mechanisms are the crossroad of interactions between xenobiotics, microorganisms and physicochemical variations of the environment. In mussels, immunity relies exclusively on innate responses carried out by cells collectively called hemocytes and found in the open hemolymphatic circulatory system of these organisms. However, hemocytes do not form a homogenous population of immune cells since distinct subtypes of mussel blood cells can be distinguished by cytochemistry, flow cytometry or cell motility analysis. Previous studies have also shown that these cells are able to efflux xenobiotics by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter activities conferring a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype. ABC transporters corresponding to vertebrate class B/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to class C/multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) are characterized in Mytilidae. Herein, we have investigated the relative contributions of ABCB- and ABCC-mediated efflux within the different hemocyte subpopulations of Mytilus edulis mussels, collected from areas differentially impacted by chemical contaminants in Normandy (France). RT-PCR analyses provide evidence for the presence of ABCB and ABCC transporters transcripts in hemocytes. Immunodetection of ABCB/P-gp with the monoclonal antibody UIC2 in living hemocytes revealed that expression was restricted to granular structures of spread cells. Efflux transporter activities, with calcein-AM as fluorescent probe, were measured by combining flow cytometry to accurate Coulter cell size measurements in order to get a cell-volume normalized fluorescence concentration. In these conditions, basal fluorescence levels were higher in hemocytes originating from Yport (control site) than in cells collected from the harbor of Le Havre, where mussels are more exposed to with persistent pollutants. By using specific ABCB/P-gp (verapamil, PSC833, zosuquidar) and ABCC/MRP (MK571) blockers, we show that MXR activity is only carried out by MRP-type transporters in M. edulis hemocytes. In addition, cell-type-gated flow cytometry and calculation of the MXR activity factor indicate that ABCC-efflux activity is higher and more inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes than in other hemocyte subtypes. We conclude that, in the hemocytes of M. edulis, MXR phenotype is mediated by an ABCC/MRP-type transporter activity principally supported by eosinophilic granulocytes. A role for ABC transporters in hemocyte migration is discussed. PMID:24345773

Rioult, Damien; Pasquier, Jennifer; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Poret, Agnès; Abbas, Imane; Marin, Matthieu; Minier, Christophe; Le Foll, Frank

2014-08-01

146

Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk1/2 promotes protein degradation of ATP binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in CHO and HuH7 cells.  

PubMed

Signal transduction modulates expression and activity of cholesterol transporters. We recently demonstrated that the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade regulates protein stability of Scavenger Receptor BI (SR-BI) through Proliferator Activator Receptor (PPAR?) -dependent degradation pathways. In addition, MAPK (Mek/Erk 1/2) inhibition has been shown to influence liver X receptor (LXR) -inducible ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter ABCA1 expression in macrophages. Here we investigated if Ras/MAPK signaling could alter expression and activity of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in steroidogenic and hepatic cell lines. We demonstrate that in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells and human hepatic HuH7 cells, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) inhibition reduces PPAR?-inducible ABCA1 protein levels, while ectopic expression of constitutively active H-Ras, K-Ras and MAPK/Erk kinase 1 (Mek1) increases ABCA1 protein expression, respectively. Furthermore, Mek1/2 inhibitors reduce ABCG1 protein levels in ABCG1 overexpressing CHO cells (CHO-ABCG1) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells treated with LXR agonist. This correlates with Mek1/2 inhibition reducing ABCG1 cell surface expression and decreasing cholesterol efflux onto High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). Real Time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and protein turnover studies reveal that Mek1/2 inhibitors do not target transcriptional regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1, but promote ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein degradation in HuH7 and CHO cells, respectively. In line with published data from mouse macrophages, blocking Mek1/2 activity upregulates ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels in human THP1 macrophages, indicating opposite roles for the Ras/MAPK pathway in the regulation of ABC transporter activity in macrophages compared to steroidogenic and hepatic cell types. In summary, this study suggests that Ras/MAPK signaling modulates PPAR?- and LXR-dependent protein degradation pathways in a cell-specific manner to regulate the expression levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transporters. PMID:23634230

Mulay, Vishwaroop; Wood, Peta; Manetsch, Melanie; Darabi, Masoud; Cairns, Rose; Hoque, Monira; Chan, Karen Cecilia; Reverter, Meritxell; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Rentero, Carles; Heeren, Joerg; Enrich, Carlos; Grewal, Thomas

2013-01-01

147

Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption by inhibition of 27-hydroxycholesterol generation, liver X receptor ? activation, and expression of the basolateral sterol exporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in Caco-2 enterocytes.  

PubMed

Phytosterol-enriched foods are increasingly marketed to lower cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in the general population. Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption, but the molecular mechanism is controversial. We therefore investigated the phytosterol effects on cholesterol metabolism in human enterocyte, hepatocyte, and macrophage models relevant for sterol absorption, reverse transport, and excretion. Isomolar sitosterol (50 ?mol/L) was less effectively taken up by enterocytes than cholesterol but suppressed apical cholesterol uptake by 50% (P < 0.01) and basolateral secretion by two-thirds (P < 0.01) whether added in micelles or ethanol or complexed to cyclodextrin. In contrast, enterocytes handled nanomolar (3)H-sitosterol similarly to cholesterol. Enterocytes selectively oxidized all sterols to 27-hydroxy- and 27-carboxy-sterols. Conversion rates were much lower for sitosterol (0.05 ± 0.02 nmol/mg protein) and campesterol (0.48 ± 0.10) compared with cholesterol (3.73 ± 0.60) (P < 0.001). 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH-C) activated liver-X-receptor alpha (LXR?) (P < 0.01) and stimulated ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 expression (P < 0.001) and basolateral systemic cholesterol secretion from enterocytes (P < 0.05). In co-incubations, phytosterols inhibited 27OH-C generation by sterol 27-hydroxylase (P < 0.001) and reduced LXR?-mediated ABCA1 expression (P < 0.01) and basolateral systemic cholesterol secretion. In contrast, ABCG8 transcription and apical sterol resecretion was unchanged by LXR? activation in human enterocytes. Exogenous LXR? agonists reverted sterol selectivity and phytosterol cholesterol interaction. Due to constitutive apical expression of ABCG5/G8 and LXR?-enhanced basolateral expression of ABCA1 in enterocytes, interference of phytosterols with the generation of the dominating LXR?-agonist 27OH-C blocks the self-priming component of cholesterol absorption. This local LXR? antagonism of dietary phytosterols contributes to sterol selectivity and reduces fractional cholesterol absorption and preloading of nascent HDL with dietary cholesterol. PMID:22535758

Brauner, Reinhard; Johannes, Christian; Ploessl, Florian; Bracher, Franz; Lorenz, Reinhard L

2012-06-01

148

Hospicells promote upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette genes by insulin-like growth factor-I via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in an ovarian cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Interaction between tumor cells and their micro-environment has a crucial role in the development, progression and drug resistance of cancer. Our objective was to confirm the role of Hospicells, which are stromal cells from the cancer microenvironment, in drug resistance and tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that soluble factors secreted by Hospicells activate several genes and upregulate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in ovarian cancer cell lines. Hospicells express all insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family as detected by gene array, RT-PCR, protein array and immunocytochemistry. While focusing attention on the microenvironment, we considered the role of IGF-I in proliferation and survival of ovarian cancer cells. Indeed, IGF-I is a major regulator of different stages of cancer development. We studied the effect of exogenously added IGF-I on the regulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) genes (MDR1, MRP1, MRP2, MRP3, MRP5 and BCRP) in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3 and validated the results obtained using the IGF-IR antagonist picropodophyllin. IGF-I regulates the expression of ABC genes in OVCAR3 cells via the PI3-kinase, MEK and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. The OVCAR3 cell line when co-cultured with Hospicells showed a marked degree of drug resistance. The drug resistance observed could be amplified with exogenous IGF-I. Addition of IGF-IR inhibitor, however, reduced the degree of resistance in these exposed cells. Cells that were treated with anticancer drugs and then exposed to IGF-I showed an increase in drug resistance and, thereby, an increase in cell survival. This observation indicates that drug resistance of OVCAR3 cells increases when there is synergy between OVCAR3 cells and Hospicells and it is amplified when IGF-I was exogenously added. In conclusion, inhibition of IGF-IR and targeting of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway can be a target for ovarian cancer therapy. PMID:23857432

Benabbou, Nadia; Mirshahi, Pezhman; Cadillon, Mélodie; Soria, Jeannette; Therwath, Amu; Mirshahi, Massoud

2013-09-01

149

AtMRP6/AtABCC6, an ATP-Binding Cassette transporter gene expressed during early steps of seedling development and up-regulated by cadmium in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background ABC proteins constitute one of the largest families of transporters found in all living organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, 120 genes encoding ABC transporters have been identified. Here, the characterization of one member of the MRP subclass, AtMRP6, is described. Results This gene, located on chromosome 3, is bordered by AtMRP3 and AtMRP7. Using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and the GUS reporter gene, we found that this gene is essentially expressed during early seedling development, in the apical meristem and at initiation point of secondary roots, especially in xylem-opposite pericycle cells where lateral roots initiate. The level of expression of AtMRP6 in response to various stresses was explored and a significant up-regulation after cadmium (Cd) treatment was detected. Among the three T-DNA insertion lines available from the Salk Institute library, two knock-out mutants, Atmrp6.1 and Atmrp6.2 were invalidated for the AtMRP6 gene. In the presence of Cd, development of leaves was more affected in the mutants than wild-type plants, whereas root elongation and ramification was comparable. Conclusion The position of AtMRP6 on chromosome 3, flanked by two other MRP genes, (all of which being induced by Cd) suggests that AtMRP6 is part of a cluster involved in metal tolerance, although additional functions in planta cannot be discarded.

Gaillard, Stephane; Jacquet, Helene; Vavasseur, Alain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Forestier, Cyrille

2008-01-01

150

The ATP binding cassette (ABC) transport systems of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

We have undertaken the inventory and assembly of the typical subunits of the ABC transporters encoded by the complete genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These subunits, i.e. the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), the membrane-spanning domains (MSDs) and the substrate binding proteins (SBPs), were identified on the basis of their characteristic stretches of amino acids and/or conserved structure. A total of 45 NBDs present in 38 proteins, of 47 MSDs present in 44 proteins and of 15 SBPs were found to be encoded by M. tuberculosis. Analysis of transcriptional clusters and searches of homology between the identified subunits of the transporters and proteins characterized in other organisms allowed the reconstitution of at least 26 complete (including at least one NBD and one MSD) and 11 incomplete ABC transporters. Sixteen of them were unambiguously classified as importers whereas 21 were presumed to be exporters. By searches of homology with already known transporters from other organisms, potential substrates (peptides, macrolides, carbohydrates, multidrugs, antibiotics, iron, anions) could be attributed to 30 of the ABC transporters identified in M. tuberculosis. The ABC transporters have been further classified in nine different sub-families according to a tree obtained from the clustering of their NBDs. Contrary to Escherichia coli and similarly to Bacillus subtilis, there is an equal representation of extruders and importers. Many exporters were found to be potentially implicated in the transport of drugs, probably contributing to the resistance of M. tuberculosis to many antibiotics. Interestingly, a transporter (absent in E. coli and in B. subtilis) potentially implicated in the export of a factor required for the bacterial attachment to the eukaryotic host cells was also identified. In comparison to E. coli and B. subtilis, there is an under-representation of the importers (with the exception of the phosphate importers) in M. tuberculosis. This may reflect the capacity of this bacterium to synthesize many essential compounds and to grow in the presence of few external nutrients. The genes encoding the ABC transporters occupy about 2.5% of the genome of M. tuberculosis. PMID:10978546

Braibant, M; Gilot, P; Content, J

2000-10-01

151

Structural model of ATP-binding proteing associated with cystic fibrosis, multidrug resistance and bacterial transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transport systems now includes over thirty proteins that share extensive sequence similarity and domain organization (reviewed in refs 1-3). This superfamily includes the well characterized periplasmic binding protein-dependent uptake systems of prokaryotes, bacterial exporters, and eukaryotic proteins including the P-glycoprotein associated with multidrug resistance in tumours (MDR), the STE6 gene product that mediates export

Stephen C. Hyde; Paul Emsley; Michael J. Hartshorn; Michael M. Mimmack; Uzi Gileadi; Stephen R. Pearce; Maurice P. Gallagher; Deborah R. Gill; Roderick E. Hubbard; Christopher F. Higgins

1990-01-01

152

The power stroke driven by ATP binding in CFTR as studied by molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel belonging to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily. Currently, it remains unclear how ATP binding causes the opening of the channel gate at the molecular level. To clarify this mechanism, we first constructed an atomic model of the inward-facing CFTR using the X-ray structures of other ABC proteins. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were then performed to explore the structure and dynamics of the inward-facing CFTR in a membrane environment. In the MgATP-bound state, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) formed a head-to-tail type of dimer, in which the ATP molecules were sandwiched between the Walker A and signature motifs. Alternatively, one of the final MD structures in the apo state was similar to that of a "closed-apo" conformation found in the X-ray analysis of ATP-free MsbA. Principal component analysis for the MD trajectory indicated that NBD dimerization causes significant structural and dynamical changes in the transmembrane domains (TMDs), which is likely indicative of the formation of a chloride ion access path. This study suggests that the free energy gain from ATP binding acts as a driving force not only for NBD dimerization but also for NBD-TMD concerted motions. PMID:23214920

Furukawa-Hagiya, Tomoka; Furuta, Tadaomi; Chiba, Shuntaro; Sohma, Yoshiro; Sakurai, Minoru

2013-01-10

153

An ABC transporter complex containing S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced ATP-binding protein is involved in antibiotics production and SAM signaling in Streptomyces coelicolor M145.  

PubMed

A sco3956-deletion mutant (?SCO3956) of Streptomyces coelicolor was generated to characterize the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-induced, ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC transporter) ATP-binding protein, SCO3956. It produced actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodigiosin (RED) decreased by approx. 82 and 64 %, respectively. In addition, the effect of exogenous SAM was lost in the ?SCO3956. Plasmid-based complementation of sco3956 in ?SCO3956 restored ACT and RED levels of ?SCO3956 to wild-type levels (ACT: 20 ± 1.4 mg g(-1) DCW and RED: 5.3 ± 0.6 mg g(-1) DCW) and the exogenous effect significantly increased ACT and RED by approx. 129 and 135 %, respectively, when compared to the exogenous SAM non-treated sco3956 complementation strain. Thus, the ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, SCO3956, plays a critical role in ACT and RED production serving as a transducer of SAM signaling. PMID:22911564

Lee, Sung-Kwon; Mo, Sangjoon; Suh, Joo-Won

2012-10-01

154

Masitinib antagonizes ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 10-mediated paclitaxel resistance: a preclinical study.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel displays clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. In this study, we show that masitinib, a small molecule stem-cell growth factor receptor (c-Kit) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, at nontoxic concentrations, significantly attenuates paclitaxel resistance in HEK293 cells transfected with ABCC10. Our in vitro studies indicated that masitinib (2.5 ?mol/L) enhanced the intracellular accumulation and decreased the efflux of paclitaxel by inhibiting the ABCC10 transport activity without altering the expression level of ABCC10 protein. Furthermore, masitinib, in combination with paclitaxel, significantly inhibited the growth of ABCC10-expressing tumors in nude athymic mice in vivo. Masitinib administration also resulted in a significant increase in the levels of paclitaxel in the plasma, tumors, and lungs compared with paclitaxel alone. In conclusion, the combination of paclitaxel and masitinib could serve as a novel and useful therapeutic strategy to reverse paclitaxel resistance mediated by ABCC10. PMID:24431074

Kathawala, Rishil J; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Kang; Patel, Atish; Abuznait, Alaa H; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Sun, Yue-Li; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ashby, Charles R; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2014-03-01

155

ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 deficiency causes hypertriglyceridemia by affecting multiple metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Mutations in ABCG5 or ABCG8 transporters are responsible for sitosterolemia, an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the accumulation of plant sterols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ABCG5 and ABCG8 deficiency on TG metabolism in mice. Experiments were carried out in wild-type (G5/G8+/+) mice, mice heterozygous for ABCG5 and ABCG8 deficiency (G5/G8+/-) and ABCG5/G8-deficient (G5/G8-/-) mice fed a chow diet. Plasma TG were 2.6 and 4.3-fold higher in fasted G5/G8+/- and G5/G8-/- mice, respectively, than in G5/G8+/+ mice. Postprandial TG were 5-fold higher in G5/G8-/- mice. TG metabolism studies indicate that: first, the fractional catabolic rate was significantly lower in G5/G8+/- (1.3-fold) and G5/G8-/- mice (1.5-fold) compared to G5/G8+/+ and postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase activities were significantly lower in G5/G8+/- (1.8-fold) and G5/G8-/- mice (5.4-fold) than in G5/G8+/+. Second, liver TG secretion was 1.3-fold higher in G5/G8+/- and G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice and this was associated with an increase in liver LXR, FAS, ACAC and CD36 gene expression. Third, TG intestinal secretion, determined after an oral fat gavage of glycerol tri[9,10(n)-(3)H] oleate, was 5.8-fold higher in G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice. Also, the HOMA index was 2.6-fold higher in G5/G8-/- than in G5/G8+/+ mice, reflecting a degree of insulin resistance. In conclusion, ABCG5/G8 deficiency in mice fed a chow diet markedly raises TG levels by impairing TG catabolism and by increasing liver and intestinal TG secretion. PMID:21855652

Méndez-González, Jesús; Julve, Josep; Rotllan, Noemí; Llaverias, Gemma; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles

2011-12-01

156

ATP binding to two sites is necessary for dimerization of nucleotide-binding domains of ABC proteins.  

PubMed

ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters have a functional unit formed by two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). ATP-bound NBDs dimerize in a head-to-tail arrangement, with two nucleotides sandwiched at the dimer interface. Both NBDs contribute residues to each of the two nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) in the dimer. In previous studies, we showed that the prototypical NBD MJ0796 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii forms ATP-bound dimers that dissociate completely following hydrolysis of one of the two bound ATP molecules. Since hydrolysis of ATP at one NBS is sufficient to drive dimer dissociation, it is unclear why all ABC proteins contain two NBSs. Here, we used luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) to study ATP-induced formation of NBD homodimers containing two NBSs competent for ATP binding, and NBD heterodimers with one active NBS and one binding-defective NBS. The results showed that binding of two ATP molecules is necessary for NBD dimerization. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis at one nucleotide-binding site drives NBD dissociation, but two binding sites are required to form the ATP-sandwich NBD dimer necessary for hydrolysis. PMID:24269240

Zoghbi, Maria E; Altenberg, Guillermo A

2014-01-01

157

Kinetics of signaling-DNA-aptamer-ATP binding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA aptamers are molecular biosensors consisting of single functionalized DNA molecules, which can bind to specific targets or complementary DNA sequences. The binding kinetics of DNA aptamers is studied by fluorescence quenching at 23°C . A kinetic model for the binding reaction of DNA aptamer, antisense DNA, and ATP target is developed to describe experimental observations. The approach leads to a simple procedure to deduce relevant kinetic reactions and their rate constants. A comparison between theory and experiments indicates that the previously established bimolecular DNA-ATP binding does not provide a complete description of the experimental data. Side reactions such as trimolecular complexation are proposed. Rate constants of the model are determined by comparing the model predictions and experiments. Good agreements between the model and experiments have been obtained. Possible blocking reactions by the misfolded DNA aptamer are also discussed.

Nakamura, Issei; Shi, An-Chang; Nutiu, Razvan; Yu, Jasmine M. Y.; Li, Yingfu

2009-03-01

158

ATP binding turns plant cryptochrome into an efficient natural photoswitch.  

PubMed

Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH(·) radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD·(-), from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396(-). Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction. PMID:24898692

Müller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Véronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

2014-01-01

159

ATP Binding Turns Plant Cryptochrome Into an Efficient Natural Photoswitch  

PubMed Central

Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that drive diverse developmental light-responses in plants and participate in the circadian clock in animals. Plant cryptochromes have found application as photoswitches in optogenetics. We have studied effects of pH and ATP on the functionally relevant photoreduction of the oxidized FAD cofactor to the semi-reduced FADH· radical in isolated Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 by transient absorption spectroscopy on nanosecond to millisecond timescales. In the absence of ATP, the yield of light-induced radicals strongly decreased with increasing pH from 6.5 to 8.5. With ATP present, these yields were significantly higher and virtually pH-independent up to pH 9. Analysis of our data in light of the crystallographic structure suggests that ATP-binding shifts the pKa of aspartic acid D396, the putative proton donor to FAD·?, from ~7.4 to >9, and favours a reaction pathway yielding long-lived aspartate D396?. Its negative charge could trigger conformational changes necessary for signal transduction.

Muller, Pavel; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Hitomi, Kenichi; Balland, Veronique; Getzoff, Elizabeth D.; Ritz, Thorsten; Brettel, Klaus

2014-01-01

160

A computational analysis of ATP binding of SV40 large tumor antigen helicase motor.  

PubMed

Simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (LTag) is an efficient helicase motor that unwinds and translocates DNA. The DNA unwinding and translocation of LTag is powered by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide pocket between two adjacent subunits of an LTag hexamer. Based on the set of high-resolution hexameric structures of LTag helicase in different nucleotide binding states, we simulated a conformational transition pathway of the ATP binding process using the targeted molecular dynamics method and calculated the corresponding energy profile using the linear response approximation (LRA) version of the semi-macroscopic Protein Dipoles Langevin Dipoles method (PDLD/S). The simulation results suggest a three-step process for the ATP binding from the initial interaction to the final tight binding at the nucleotide pocket, in which ATP is eventually "locked" by three pairs of charge-charge interactions across the pocket. Such a "cross-locking" ATP binding process is similar to the binding zipper model reported for the F1-ATPase hexameric motor. The simulation also shows a transition mechanism of Mg2+ coordination to form the Mg-ATP complex during ATP binding, which is accompanied by the large conformational changes of LTag. This simulation study of the ATP binding process to an LTag and the accompanying conformational changes in the context of a hexamer leads to a refined cooperative iris model that has been proposed previously. PMID:19779548

Shi, Yemin; Liu, Hanbin; Gai, Dahai; Ma, Jianpeng; Chen, Xiaojiang S

2009-09-01

161

Affinity-based fluorogenic labeling of ATP-binding proteins with sequential photoactivatable cross-linkers.  

PubMed

A specific illumination approach has been developed for identification of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding proteins. This strategy utilizes a tandem photoactivatable unit that consists of a diazirine group as a carbene precursor and an o-hydroxycinnamate moiety as a coumarin precursor. The photolysis of diazirine induces a specific cross-link on target proteins and is followed by photoactivation of coumarin generation with a concomitant release of the pre-installed affinity ligand. The ATP, installed with this cross-linker at the ?-position, successfully transferred a coumarin onto ATP-binding proteins using only UV-irradiation. PMID:23999042

Tomohiro, Takenori; Inoguchi, Hirotsugu; Masuda, Souta; Hatanaka, Yasumaru

2013-10-15

162

Exploring the ATP-binding site of P2X receptors.  

PubMed

P2X receptors are ATP-gated non-selective cation channels involved in many different physiological processes, such as synaptic transmission, inflammation, and neuropathic pain. They form homo- or heterotrimeric complexes and contain three ATP-binding sites in their extracellular domain. The recent determination of X-ray structures of a P2X receptor solved in two states, a resting closed state and an ATP-bound, open-channel state, has provided unprecedented information not only regarding the three-dimensional shape of the receptor, but also on putative conformational changes that couple ATP binding to channel opening. These data provide a structural template for interpreting the huge amount of functional, mutagenesis, and biochemical data collected during more than fifteen years. In particular, the interfacial location of the ATP binding site and ATP orientation have been successfully confirmed by these structural studies. It appears that ATP binds to inter-subunit cavities shaped like open jaws, whose tightening induces the opening of the ion channel. These structural data thus represent a firm basis for understanding the activation mechanism of P2X receptors. PMID:24415999

Chataigneau, Thierry; Lemoine, Damien; Grutter, Thomas

2013-01-01

163

A Computational Analysis of ATP Binding of SV40 Large Tumor Antigen Helicase Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen (LTag) is an efficient helicase motor that unwinds and translocates DNA. The DNA unwinding and translocation of LTag is powered by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide pocket between two adjacent subunits of an LTag hexamer. Based on the set of high-resolution hexameric structures of LTag helicase in different nucleotide binding states, we

Yemin Shi; Hanbin Liu; Dahai Gai; Jianpeng Ma; Xiaojiang S. Chen

2009-01-01

164

Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors  

SciTech Connect

P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)

2012-10-24

165

Identification of ATP-Binding Regions in the RyR1 Ca2+ Release Channel  

PubMed Central

ATP is an important modulator of gating in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), also known as a Ca2+ release channel in skeletal muscle cells. The activating effect of ATP on this channel is achieved by directly binding to one or more sites on the RyR1 protein. However, the number and location of these sites have yet to be determined. To identify the ATP-binding regions within RyR1 we used 2N3ATP-2?,3?-Biotin-LC-Hydrazone (BioATP-HDZ), a photo-reactive ATP analog to covalently label the channel. We found that BioATP-HDZ binds RyR1 specifically with an IC50?=?0.6±0.2 mM, comparable with the reported EC50 for activation of RyR1 with ATP. Controlled proteolysis of labeled RyR1 followed by sequence analysis revealed three fragments with apparent molecular masses of 95, 45 and 70 kDa that were crosslinked by BioATP-HDZ and identified as RyR1 sequences. Our analysis identified four glycine-rich consensus motifs that can potentially constitute ATP-binding sites and are located within the N-terminal 95-kDa fragment. These putative nucleotide-binding sequences include amino acids 699–704, 701–706, 1081–1084 and 1195–1200, which are conserved among the three RyR isoforms. Located next to the N-terminal disease hotspot region in RyR1, these sequences may communicate the effects of ATP-binding to channel function by tuning conformational motions within the neighboring cytoplasmic regulatory domains. Two other labeled fragments lack ATP-binding consensus motifs and may form non-canonical ATP-binding sites. Based on domain topology in the 3D structure of RyR1 it is also conceivable that the identified ATP-binding regions, despite their wide separation in the primary sequence, may actually constitute the same non-contiguous ATP-binding pocket within the channel tetramer.

Popova, Olga B.; Baker, Mariah R.; Tran, Tina P.; Le, Tri; Serysheva, Irina I.

2012-01-01

166

Cassette Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This catalog lists cassette books produced by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped during 1989. Books are listed alphabetically within subject categories under nonfiction and fiction headings. Nonfiction categories include: animals and wildlife, the arts, bestsellers, biography, blindness and physical handicaps,…

Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

167

The carboxyterminus of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 interacts with a ? 2 -syntrophin\\/utrophin complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work identified ABCA1 as the major regulator of plasma HDL-cholesterol responsible for the removal of excess choline-phospholipids and cholesterol from peripheral cells and tissues. ABCA1 function may depend on the association with heteromeric proteins and to identify these candidates a human liver yeast two-hybrid library was screened with the carboxyterminal 144 amino acids of ABCA1. ?2-Syntrophin was found to

Christa Buechler; Alfred Boettcher; Salim Maa Bared; Mario C. O Probst; Gerd Schmitz

2002-01-01

168

12/15-LIPOXYGENASE ACTIVITY INCREASES THE DEGRADATION OF MACROPHAGE ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER G1  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15LO) in macrophage ABCG1 expression and function associated with cholesterol efflux. Methods and Results 12/15LO was stably overexpressed in J774 macrophages. 12/15LO-overexpressing macrophages had a 30% reduction in HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux, corresponding with significantly reduced ABCG1 protein expression. Treatment of 12/15LO-overexpressing macrophages with a 12/15LO ribozyme to reduce 12/15LO restored HDL-mediated efflux and ABCG1 protein expression. Treating macrophages with 12/15LO unsaturated fatty acid substrates or eicosanoid products also reduced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux. Additionally, both 12/15LO overexpression in macrophages and incubation of macrophages with eicosanoids reduced ABCG1 protein, but not mRNA, expression. However, incubation of macrophages with linoleic or arachidonic acids significantly reduced both ABCG1 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that 12/15LO substrates and eicosanoid products differentially regulate ABCG1 expression. 12/15LO fatty acids did not decrease ABCG1 translation; however, 12/15LO fatty acids increased ABCG1 degradation when blocked by cyclohexidmide. ABCG1 degradation may be regulated through post-translational modifications. Treatment with the 12/15LO eicosanoid product 12SHETE increased serine phosphorylation of ABCG1. Conclusions We conclude that serine phosphorylation may increase the degradation rate of ABCG1, and as a result cause macrophage cholesterol accumulation. These findings provide evidence that 12/15LO activity in the vessel wall contributes to atherogenesis by impairing the macrophage ABCG1 cholesterol efflux pathway.

Nagelin, Melissa H.; Srinivasan, Suseela; Lee, Jianyi; Nadler, Jerry L.; Hedrick, Catherine C.

2009-01-01

169

The ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 mediates lipid efflux from Sertoli cells and influences male fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liver X receptor\\/retinoid X receptor (LXR\\/ RXR)-regulated gene ABCA1 effluxes cellular cholesterol and phospholipid to apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), which is the rate-limiting step in high-density lipoprotein synthesis. The RXR pathway plays a critical role in testicular lipid traf- ficking, and RXR ? -deficient male mice are sterile and accu- mulate lipids in Sertoli cells. Here, we demonstrate that ABCA1

David M. Selva; Veronica Hirsch-Reinshagen; Braydon Burgess; Steven Zhou; Jeniffer Chan; Sean McIsaac; Michael R. Hayden; Geoffrey L. Hammond; A. Wayne Vogl; Cheryl L. Wellington

2004-01-01

170

ARRY-334543 Reverses Multidrug Resistance by Antagonizing the Activity of ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily G Member 2.  

PubMed

ARRY-334543 is a small molecule inhibitor of ErbB1 and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases. We conducted this study to determine whether ARRY-334543 can enhance the efficacy of conventional anticancer drugs through interaction with ABC transporters. Lung cancer cell line NCI-H460 and its ABCG2-overexpressing NCI-H460/MX20, as well as the ABCG2-, ABCB1-, and ABCC10-overexpressing transfected cell lines were used for the reversal study. Our results demonstrated that ARRY-334543 (1.0??M) significantly reversed ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) by directly inhibiting the drug efflux function of ABCG2, resulting in the elevated intracellular accumulation of chemotherapeutic drugs in the ABCG2-overexpressing cell lines. In addition, in isolated membranes, ARRY-334543 stimulated ATPase activity and inhibited photolabeling of ABCG2 with [(125) I]-iodoarylazidoprazosin in a concentration-dependent manner indicating that this drug directly interacts at the drug-binding pocket of this transporter. ARRY-334543 (1.0??M) only slightly reversed ABCB1- and partially reversed ABCC10-mediated MDR suggesting that it exhibits high affinity toward ABCG2. Moreover, homology modeling predicted the binding conformation of ARRY-334543 at Arg482 centroid-based grid of ABCG2. However, ARRY-334543 at reversal concentrations did not affect the expression level of ABCG2, AKT and ERK1/2 and regulate the re-localization of ABCG2. We conclude that ARRY-334543 significantly reverses drug resistance mediated by ABCG2. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 1381-1391, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24939447

Wang, De-Shen; Patel, Atish; Sim, Hong-May; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Kathawala, Rishil J; Zhang, Hui; Talele, Tanaji T; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Xu, Rui-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2014-08-01

171

Structural analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ATP-binding cassette transporter subunit UgpB reveals specificity for glycerophosphocholine.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the most devastating human diseases, and is responsible for ~ 2 million deaths worldwide each year. The nutritional requirements for the growth of mycobacteria have been extensively studied since the discovery of M. tuberculosis, but the essential nutrients for M. tuberculosis inside the human host and the identity of the corresponding transporters remain unknown. The UgpABCE transporter of M. tuberculosis is one of five putative permeases for carbohydrate uptake, and is genetically predicted to be an sn-glycerol 3-phosphate importer. We have determined the 1.5-Å crystal structure of M. tuberculosis UgpB, which has been reported to be a promising vaccine candidate against TB. M. tuberculosis UgpB showed no detectable binding activity for sn-glycerol 3-phosphate by isothermal titration calorimetry, but instead showed a preference for glycerophosphocholine (GPC). M. tuberculosis UgpB largely resembles its Escherichia coli homolog, but with the critical Trp169 in the substrate-binding site of E. coli UgpB replaced by Leu205. Mutation of Leu205 abolishes GPC binding, suggesting that Leu205 is a determinant of GPC binding. The work reported here not only contributes to our understanding of the carbon and phosphate sources utilized by M. tuberculosis inside the human host, but will also promote improvements in TB chemotherapy. Database: Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank database under the accession number PDB 4MFI. PMID:24299297

Jiang, Dunquan; Zhang, Qingqing; Zheng, Qianqian; Zhou, Hao; Jin, Jin; Zhou, Weihong; Bartlam, Mark; Rao, Zihe

2014-01-01

172

Conformational changes of the histidine ATP-binding cassette transporter studied by double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The conformational dynamics of the histidine ABC transporter HisQMP2 from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, reconstituted into liposomes, is studied by site-directed spin labeling and double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy in the absence of nucleotides, in the ATP-bound, and in the post-hydrolysis state. The results show that the inter-dimer distances as measured between the Q-loops of HisP2 in the intact transporter resemble those determined for the maltose transporter in all three states of the hydrolysis cycle. Only in the presence of liganded HisJ the closed conformation of the nucleotide binding sites is achieved revealing the transmembrane communication of the presence of substrate. Two conformational states can be distinguished for the periplasmic moiety of HisQMP2 as detected by differences in distributions of interspin distances between positions 86 and 96 or 104 and 197. The observed conformational changes are correlated to proposed open, semi-open and closed conformations of the nucleotide binding domains HisP2. Our results are in line with a rearrangement of transmembrane helices 4 and 4' of HisQM during the closed to the semi-open transition of HisP2 driven by the reorientation of the coupled helices 3a and 3b to occur upon hydrolysis. PMID:24583084

Sippach, Michael; Weidlich, Daniela; Klose, Daniel; Abé, Christoph; Klare, Johann; Schneider, Erwin; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen

2014-07-01

173

Role of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Abcg2 in the Phenotype and Function of Cardiac Side Population Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the side population (SP) phenotype has been introduced as a reliable marker to identify subpopulations of cells with stem\\/progenitor cell properties in various tissues. We and others have identified SP cells from postmitotic tissues, including adult myocardium, in which they have been suggested to contribute to cellular regeneration following injury. SP cells are identified and characterized by a unique

Otmar Pfister; Angelos Oikonomopoulos; Konstantina-Ioanna Sereti; Regina L. Sohn; Darragh Cullen; Gabriel C. Fine; Frederic Mouquet; Karen Westerman; Ronglih Liao

2010-01-01

174

Tightening of the ATP-binding sites induces the opening of P2X receptor channels  

PubMed Central

The opening of ligand-gated ion channels in response to agonist binding is a fundamental process in biology. In ATP-gated P2X receptors, little is known about the molecular events that couple ATP binding to channel opening. In this paper, we identify structural changes of the ATP site accompanying the P2X2 receptor activation by engineering extracellular zinc bridges at putative mobile regions as revealed by normal mode analysis. We provide evidence that tightening of the ATP sites shaped like open ‘jaws' induces opening of the P2X ion channel. We show that ATP binding favours jaw tightening, whereas binding of a competitive antagonist prevents gating induced by this movement. Our data reveal the inherent dynamic of the binding jaw, and provide new structural insights into the mechanism of P2X receptor activation.

Jiang, Ruotian; Taly, Antoine; Lemoine, Damien; Martz, Adeline; Cunrath, Olivier; Grutter, Thomas

2012-01-01

175

ATP binding to cytochrome c diminishes electron flow in the mitochondrial respiratory pathway.  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cytochrome c possesses an ATP-binding site of substantial specificity and high affinity that is conserved between highly divergent species and which includes the invariant residue arginine91. Such evolutionary conservatism strongly suggests a physiological role for ATP binding that demands further investigation. We report the preparation of adducts of the protein and the affinity labels 8-azido adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde, and 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine. The two former reagents were seen to react at the arginine91-containing site, yet the reaction of the latter, although specific, occurred elsewhere, suggesting caution is necessary in its use. None of the adducts displayed significant modification of global structure, stability, or physicochemical properties, leading us to believe that the 8-N3-ATP and oATP adducts are good stabilized models of the noncovalent interaction; yet modification led to significant, and sometimes pronounced, effects on biological activity. We therefore propose that the role of ATP binding to this site, which we have shown to occur when the phosphorylation potential of the system is high under the equivalent of physiological conditions, is to cause a decrease in electron flow through the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Differences in the degree of inhibition produced by differences in adduct chemistry suggest that this putative regulatory role is mediated primarily by electrostatic effects.

Craig, D. B.; Wallace, C. J.

1993-01-01

176

Structure of the ATP binding domain from the Archaeoglobus fulgidus Cu+-ATPase.  

PubMed

The P-type ATPases translocate cations across membranes using the energy provided by ATP hydrolysis. CopA from Archaeoglobus fulgidus is a hyperthermophilic ATPase responsible for the cellular export of Cu+ and is a member of the heavy metal P1B-type ATPase subfamily, which includes the related Wilson and Menkes diseases proteins. The Cu+-ATPases are distinct from their P-type counter-parts in ion binding sequences, membrane topology, and the presence of cytoplasmic metal binding domains, suggesting that they employ alternate forms of regulation and novel mechanisms of ion transport. To gain insight into Cu+-ATPase function, the structure of the CopA ATP binding domain (ATPBD) was determined to 2.3 A resolution. Similar to other P-type ATPases, the ATPBD includes nucleotide binding (N-domain) and phosphorylation (P-domain) domains. The ATPBD adopts a closed conformation similar to the nucleotide-bound forms of the Ca2+-ATPase. The CopA ATPBD is much smaller and more compact, however, revealing the minimal elements required for ATP binding, hydrolysis, and enzyme phosphorylation. Structural comparisons to the AMP-PMP-bound form of the Escherichia coli K+-transporting Kdp-ATPase and to the Wilson disease protein N-domain indicate that the five conserved N-domain residues found in P1B-type ATPases, but not in the other families, most likely participate in ATP binding. By contrast, the P-domain includes several residues conserved among all P-type ATPases. Finally, the CopA ATPBD structure provides a basis for understanding the likely structural and functional effects of various mutations that lead to Wilson and Menkes diseases. PMID:16495228

Sazinsky, Matthew H; Mandal, Atin K; Argüello, José M; Rosenzweig, Amy C

2006-04-21

177

Agonist trapped in ATP-binding sites of the P2X2 receptor  

PubMed Central

ATP-gated P2X receptors are trimeric ion channels, as recently confirmed by X-ray crystallography. However, the structure was solved without ATP and even though extracellular intersubunit cavities surrounded by conserved amino acid residues previously shown to be important for ATP function were proposed to house ATP, the localization of the ATP sites remains elusive. Here we localize the ATP-binding sites by creating, through a proximity-dependent “tethering” reaction, covalent bonds between a synthesized ATP-derived thiol-reactive P2X2 agonist (NCS-ATP) and single cysteine mutants engineered in the putative binding cavities of the P2X2 receptor. By combining whole-cell and single-channel recordings, we report that NCS-ATP covalently and specifically labels two previously unidentified positions N140 and L186 from two adjacent subunits separated by about 18 ? in a P2X2 closed state homology model, suggesting the existence of at least two binding modes. Tethering reaction at both positions primes subsequent agonist binding, yet with distinct functional consequences. Labeling of one position impedes subsequent ATP function, which results in inefficient gating, whereas tethering of the other position, although failing to produce gating by itself, enhances subsequent ATP function. Our results thus define a large and dynamic intersubunit ATP-binding pocket and suggest that receptors trapped in covalently agonist-bound states differ in their ability to gate the ion channel.

Jiang, Ruotian; Lemoine, Damien; Martz, Adeline; Taly, Antoine; Gonin, Sophie; Prado de Carvalho, Lia; Specht, Alexandre; Grutter, Thomas

2011-01-01

178

Critical role of ?-phosphate in structural transition of Na,K-ATPase upon ATP binding.  

PubMed

Active transport of sodium and potassium ions by Na,K-ATPase is accompanied by the enzyme conformational transition between E1 and E2 states. ATP and ADP bind to Na,K-ATPase in the E1 conformation with similar affinity but the properties of enzyme in complexes with these nucleotides are different. We have studied thermodynamics of Na,K-ATPase binding with adenine nucleotides at different temperatures using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our data indicate that ?-phosphate is involved in complex formation by increasing the affinity of adenine nucleotides to Na,K-ATPase by an order of magnitude, while ?-phosphate does not affect it. ATP binding to Na,K-ATPase in contrast to ADP binding generates a structural transition in the enzyme, which is consistent with the movement of a significant portion of the surface area to a solvent-protected state. We propose that ATP binding leads to convergence of the nucleotide-binding and phosphorylation domains transferring the enzyme from the "E1-open" to "E1-closed" conformation ready for phosphorylation. PMID:24893715

Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Klimanova, Elizaveta A; Dergousova, Elena A; Lopina, Olga D; Makarov, Alexander A

2014-01-01

179

Intracellular ATP binding is required to activate the slowly activating K+ channel IKs  

PubMed Central

Gating of ion channels by ligands is fundamental to cellular function, and ATP serves as both an energy source and a signaling molecule that modulates ion channel and transporter functions. The slowly activating K+ channel IKs in cardiac myocytes is formed by KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits that conduct K+ to repolarize the action potential. Here we show that intracellular ATP activates heterologously coexpressed KCNQ1 and KCNE1 as well as IKs in cardiac myocytes by directly binding to the C terminus of KCNQ1 to allow the pore to open. The channel is most sensitive to ATP near its physiological concentration, and lowering ATP concentration in cardiac myocytes results in IKs reduction and action potential prolongation. Multiple mutations that suppress IKs by decreasing the ATP sensitivity of the channel are associated with the long QT (interval between the Q and T waves in electrocardiogram) syndrome that predisposes afflicted individuals to cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death. A cluster of basic and aromatic residues that may form a unique ATP binding site are identified; ATP activation of the wild-type channel and the effects of the mutations on ATP sensitivity are consistent with an allosteric mechanism. These results demonstrate the activation of an ion channel by intracellular ATP binding, and ATP-dependent gating allows IKs to couple myocyte energy state to its electrophysiology in physiologic and pathologic conditions.

Li, Yang; Gao, Junyuan; Lu, Zhongju; McFarland, Kelli; Shi, Jingyi; Bock, Kevin; Cohen, Ira S.; Cui, Jianmin

2013-01-01

180

The human cytomegalovirus gene product US6 inhibits ATP binding by TAP  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes several genes that disrupt the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway. We recently described the HCMV-encoded US6 gene product, a 23 kDa endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident type I integral membrane protein that binds to the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP), inhibits peptide translocation and prevents MHC class I assembly. The functional consequence of this inhibition is to prevent the cell surface expression of class I bound viral peptides and their recognition by HCMV-specific cytotoxic T cells. Here we describe a novel mechanism of action for US6. We demonstrate that US6 inhibits the binding of ATP by TAP1. This is a conformational effect, as the ER lumenal domain of US6 is sufficient to inhibit ATP binding by the cytosolic nucleotide binding domain of TAP1. US6 also stabilizes TAP at 37°C and prevents conformational rearrangements induced by peptide binding. Our findings suggest that the association of US6 with TAP stabilizes a conformation in TAP1 that prevents ATP binding and subsequent peptide translocation.

Hewitt, Eric W.; Gupta, Soma Sen; Lehner, Paul J.

2001-01-01

181

Identification of residues contributing to the ATP binding site of Kir6.2  

PubMed Central

The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel links cell metabolism to membrane excitability. Intracellular ATP inhibits channel activity by binding to the Kir6.2 subunit of the channel, but the ATP binding site is unknown. Using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and charged thiol-modifying reagents, we identified two amino acids in Kir6.2 that appear to interact directly with ATP: R50 in the N-terminus, and K185 in the C-terminus. The ATP sensitivity of the R50C and K185C mutant channels was increased by a positively charged thiol reagent (MTSEA), and was reduced by the negatively charged reagent MTSES. Comparison of the inhibitory effects of ATP, ADP and AMP after thiol modification suggests that K185 interacts primarily with the ?-phosphate, and R50 with the ?-phosphate, of ATP. A molecular model of the C-terminus of Kir6.2 (based on the crystal structure of Kir3.1) was constructed and automated docking was used to identify residues interacting with ATP. These results support the idea that K185 interacts with the ?-phosphate of ATP. Thus both N- and C-termini may contribute to the ATP binding site.

Trapp, Stefan; Haider, Shozeb; Jones, Phillippa; Sansom, Mark S.P.; Ashcroft, Frances M.

2003-01-01

182

Critical role of ?-phosphate in structural transition of Na,K-ATPase upon ATP binding  

PubMed Central

Active transport of sodium and potassium ions by Na,K-ATPase is accompanied by the enzyme conformational transition between E1 and E2 states. ATP and ADP bind to Na,K-ATPase in the E1 conformation with similar affinity but the properties of enzyme in complexes with these nucleotides are different. We have studied thermodynamics of Na,K-ATPase binding with adenine nucleotides at different temperatures using isothermal titration calorimetry. Our data indicate that ?-phosphate is involved in complex formation by increasing the affinity of adenine nucleotides to Na,K-ATPase by an order of magnitude, while ?-phosphate does not affect it. ATP binding to Na,K-ATPase in contrast to ADP binding generates a structural transition in the enzyme, which is consistent with the movement of a significant portion of the surface area to a solvent-protected state. We propose that ATP binding leads to convergence of the nucleotide-binding and phosphorylation domains transferring the enzyme from the “E1-open” to “E1-closed” conformation ready for phosphorylation.

Petrushanko, Irina Yu.; Mitkevich, Vladimir A.; Anashkina, Anastasia A.; Klimanova, Elizaveta A.; Dergousova, Elena A.; Lopina, Olga D.; Makarov, Alexander A.

2014-01-01

183

The nodulin vfENOD18 is an ATP-binding protein in infected cells of Vicia faba L. nodules.  

PubMed

Recently we described the novel nodulin gene VfENOD18, whose corresponding transcripts were restricted to the nitrogen-fixing zone III of broad bean root nodules. To characterize VfENOD18 on the protein level, polyclonal antibodies were generated using the purified recombinant VfENOD18 protein produced in Escherichia coli by employing the pMAL-c expression system. These antibodies recognized immunoreactive proteins isolated from indeterminate nodules of different leguminous plants, but also from non-symbiotic tissues of Glycine max and from tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. Using immunogold labelling the nodulin VfENOD18 was localized to the cytoplasm of infected cells in the nitrogen-fixing zone of broad bean nodules. Due to the homology of the VfENOD18 sequence to that of the ATP-binding protein MJ0577 from the hyperthermophile Methanococcus jannaschii the recombinant VfENOD18 protein was tested for ATP-binding. Using the biotin photoaffinity ATP analogue 8N3ATP[gamma]biotin it could be demonstrated that VfENOD18 is an ATP-binding protein. PCR experiments revealed that the amino acid sequences of the putative C-terminal ATP-binding sites of the VfENOD 18 homologues from Lens culinaris, Vicia hirsuta, Vicia sativa and Vicia villosa were conserved. We propose that VfENOD18 is a member of a novel family of ATP-binding proteins in plants. PMID:11785936

Becker, J D; Moreira, L M; Kapp, D; Frosch, S C; Pühler, A; Perlic, A M

2001-12-01

184

Mapping the architecture of the ATP-binding site of the KATP channel subunit Kir6.2.  

PubMed

ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels comprise Kir6.2 and SUR subunits. The site at which ATP binds to mediate K(ATP) channel inhibition lies on Kir6.2, but the potency of block is enhanced by coexpression with SUR1. To assess the structure of the ATP-binding site on Kir6.2, we used a range of adenine nucleotides as molecular measuring sticks to map the internal dimensions of the binding site. We compared their efficacy on Kir6.2-SUR1, and on a truncated Kir6.2 (Kir6.2DeltaC) that expresses in the absence of SUR. We show here that SUR1 modifies the ATP-binding pocket of Kir6.2, by increasing the width of the groove that binds the phosphate tail of ATP, without changing the length of the groove, and by enhancing interaction with the adenine ring. PMID:15004210

Dabrowski, Michael; Tarasov, Andrei; Ashcroft, Frances M

2004-06-01

185

Green tea catechins inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase by interaction with its ATP binding site.  

PubMed

Catechins are the main ingredients of green tea extracts and have been shown to possess versatile biological activities, including antimicrobial. We determined that the catechins inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase by binding to the ATP binding site of the gyrase B subunit. In the group of four tested catechins, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) had the highest activity, followed by epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin (EGC). Specific binding to the N-terminal 24 kDa fragment of gyrase B was determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and confirmed using heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy of the EGCG-15N-labeled gyrase B fragment complex. Protein residues affected by binding to EGCG were identified through chemical shift perturbation. Molecular docking calculations suggest that the benzopyran ring of EGCG penetrates deeply into the active site while the galloyl moiety anchors it to the cleft through interactions with its hydroxyl groups, which explains the higher activity of EGCG and ECG. PMID:17228868

Gradisar, Helena; Pristovsek, Primoz; Plaper, Andreja; Jerala, Roman

2007-01-25

186

A Chemical Proteomics Approach to Profiling the ATP-binding Proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis *  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite extensive research, directly observed therapy using multidrug regimens, and the widespread use of a vaccine. The majority of patients harbor the bacterium in a state of metabolic dormancy. New drugs with novel modes of action are needed to target essential metabolic pathways in M. tuberculosis; ATP-competitive enzyme inhibitors are one such class. Previous screening efforts for ATP-competitive enzyme inhibitors identified several classes of lead compounds that demonstrated potent anti-mycobacterial efficacy as well as tolerable levels of toxicity in cell culture. In this report, a probe-based chemoproteomic approach was used to selectively profile the M. tuberculosis ATP-binding proteome in normally growing and hypoxic M. tuberculosis. From these studies, 122 ATP-binding proteins were identified in either metabolic state, and roughly 60% of these are reported to be essential for survival in vitro. These data are available through ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000141. Protein families vital to the survival of the tubercle bacillus during hypoxia emerged from our studies. Specifically, along with members of the DosR regulon, several proteins involved in energy metabolism (Icl/Rv0468 and Mdh/Rv1240) and lipid biosynthesis (UmaA/Rv0469, DesA1/Rv0824c, and DesA2/Rv1094) were found to be differentially abundant in hypoxic versus normal growing cultures. These pathways represent a subset of proteins that may be relevant therapeutic targets for development of novel ATP-competitive antibiotics.

Wolfe, Lisa M.; Veeraraghavan, Usha; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Schurer, Stephan; Wennerberg, Krister; Reynolds, Robert; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Dobos, Karen M.

2013-01-01

187

A chemical proteomics approach to profiling the ATP-binding proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite extensive research, directly observed therapy using multidrug regimens, and the widespread use of a vaccine. The majority of patients harbor the bacterium in a state of metabolic dormancy. New drugs with novel modes of action are needed to target essential metabolic pathways in M. tuberculosis; ATP-competitive enzyme inhibitors are one such class. Previous screening efforts for ATP-competitive enzyme inhibitors identified several classes of lead compounds that demonstrated potent anti-mycobacterial efficacy as well as tolerable levels of toxicity in cell culture. In this report, a probe-based chemoproteomic approach was used to selectively profile the M. tuberculosis ATP-binding proteome in normally growing and hypoxic M. tuberculosis. From these studies, 122 ATP-binding proteins were identified in either metabolic state, and roughly 60% of these are reported to be essential for survival in vitro. These data are available through ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000141. Protein families vital to the survival of the tubercle bacillus during hypoxia emerged from our studies. Specifically, along with members of the DosR regulon, several proteins involved in energy metabolism (Icl/Rv0468 and Mdh/Rv1240) and lipid biosynthesis (UmaA/Rv0469, DesA1/Rv0824c, and DesA2/Rv1094) were found to be differentially abundant in hypoxic versus normal growing cultures. These pathways represent a subset of proteins that may be relevant therapeutic targets for development of novel ATP-competitive antibiotics. PMID:23462205

Wolfe, Lisa M; Veeraraghavan, Usha; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Schürer, Stephan; Wennerberg, Krister; Reynolds, Robert; Besra, Gurdyal S; Dobos, Karen M

2013-06-01

188

Evaluation of Cassette Braille.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted to determine user acceptability of cassette braille systems addressed three concerns: (1) user reaction to the basic concept of cassette braille, (2) the determination of the strong and weak features of the cassette braille machines currently available, and (3) the determination of those features of braille machines which would…

VSE Corp., Alexandria, VA.

189

Normal gating of CFTR requires ATP binding to both nucleotide-binding domains and hydrolysis at the second nucleotide-binding domain  

PubMed Central

ATP interacts with the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of CFTR to control gating. However, it is unclear whether gating involves ATP binding alone, or also involves hydrolysis at each NBD. We introduced phenylalanine residues into nonconserved positions of each NBD Walker A motif to sterically prevent ATP binding. These mutations blocked [?-32P]8-N3-ATP labeling of the mutated NBD and reduced channel opening rate without changing burst duration. Introducing cysteine residues at these positions and modifying with N-ethylmaleimide produced the same gating behavior. These results indicate that normal gating requires ATP binding to both NBDs, but ATP interaction with one NBD is sufficient to support some activity. We also studied mutations of the conserved Walker A lysine residues (K464A and K1250A) that prevent hydrolysis. By combining substitutions that block ATP binding with Walker A lysine mutations, we could differentiate the role of ATP binding vs. hydrolysis at each NBD. The K1250A mutation prolonged burst duration; however, blocking ATP binding prevented the long bursts. These data indicate that ATP binding to NBD2 allowed channel opening and that closing was delayed in the absence of hydrolysis. The corresponding NBD1 mutations showed relatively little effect of preventing ATP hydrolysis but a large inhibition of blocking ATP binding. These data suggest that ATP binding to NBD1 is required for normal activity but that hydrolysis has little effect. Our results suggest that both NBDs contribute to channel gating, NBD1 binds ATP but supports little hydrolysis, and ATP binding and hydrolysis at NBD2 are key for normal gating.

Berger, Allan L.; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Welsh, Michael J.

2005-01-01

190

Elevated rates of force development and MgATP binding in F764L and S532P myosin mutations causing dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease characterized by dilation of the ventricular chambers and reduced contractile function. We examined the contractile performance of chemically-skinned ventricular strips from two heterozygous murine models of DCM-causing missense mutations of myosin, F764L/+ and S532P/+, in an ?-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) background. In Ca2+-activated skinned myocardial strips, the maximum developed tension in F764L/+ was only ~50% that of litter-mate controls (+/+). The F764L/+ also exhibited significantly reduced rigor stiffness, loaded shortening velocity and power output. Corresponding indices for S532P/+ strips were not different from controls. Manipulation of MgATP concentration in conjunction with measures of viscoelasticity, which provides estimates of myosin detachment rate 2?c, allowed us to probe the molecular basis of changes in crossbridge kinetics that occur with the myosin mutations. By examining the response of detachment rate to varying MgATP we found the rate of MgADP release was unaffected by the myosin mutations. However, MgATP binding rate was higher in the DCM groups compared to controls (422±109 mM?1.s?1 in F764L/+, 483±74 mM?1.s?1 in S532P/+ and 303± 18 mM?1.s?1 in +/+). In addition, the rate constant of force development, 2?b, was significantly higher in DCM groups compared to controls (at 5 mM MgATP: 36.9±4.9 s?1 in F764L/+, 32.9±4.5 s?1 in S532P/+ and 18.2±1.7 s?1 in +/+). These results suggest that elevated rates of force development and MgATP binding are features of cardiac myofilament function that underlie the development of DCM.

Palmer, Bradley M.; Schmitt, Joachim P.; Seidman, Christine E.; Seidman, J. G.; Wang, Yuan; Bell, Stephen P.; LeWinter, Martin M.; Maughan, David W.

2013-01-01

191

A microsomal ATP-binding protein involved in efficient protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed Central

Protein transport into the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum depends on nucleoside triphosphates. Photoaffinity labelling of microsomes with azido-ATP prevents protein transport at the level of association of precursor proteins with the components of the transport machinery, Sec61alpha and TRAM proteins. The same phenotype of inactivation was observed after depleting a microsomal detergent extract of ATP-binding proteins by passage through ATP-agarose and subsequent reconstitution of the pass-through into proteoliposomes. Transport was restored by co-reconstitution of the ATP eluate. This eluate showed eight distinct bands in SDS gels. We identified five lumenal proteins (Grp170, Grp94, BiP/Grp78, calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase), one membrane protein (ribophorin I) and two ribosomal proteins (L4 and L5). In addition to BiP (Grp78), Grp170 was most efficiently retained on ATP-agarose. Purified BiP did not stimulate transport activity. Sequence analysis revealed a striking similarity of Grp170 and the yeast microsomal protein Lhs1p which was recently shown to be involved in protein transport into yeast microsomes. We suggest that Grp170 mediates efficient insertion of polypeptides into the microsomal membrane at the expense of nucleoside triphosphates. Images

Dierks, T; Volkmer, J; Schlenstedt, G; Jung, C; Sandholzer, U; Zachmann, K; Schlotterhose, P; Neifer, K; Schmidt, B; Zimmermann, R

1996-01-01

192

Effects of bicyclomycin on RNA- and ATP-binding activities of transcription termination factor Rho.  

PubMed

Bicyclomycin is a commercially important antibiotic that has been shown to be effective against many gram-negative bacteria. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that the antibiotic interferes with RNA metabolism in Escherichia coli by inhibiting the activity of transcription termination factor Rho. However, the precise mechanism of inhibition is not completely known. In this study we have used in vitro transcription assays to analyze the effects of bicyclomycin on the termination step of transcription. The Rho-dependent transcription termination region located within the hisG cistron of Salmonella typhimurium has been used as an experimental system. The possible interference of the antibiotic with the various functions of factor Rho, such as RNA binding at the primary site, ATP binding, and hexamer formation, has been investigated by RNA gel mobility shift, photochemical cross-linking, and gel filtration experiments. The results of these studies demonstrate that bicyclomycin does not interfere with the binding of Rho to the loading site on nascent RNA. Binding of the factor to ATP is not impeded, on the contrary, the antibiotic appears to decrease the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant for ATP in photochemical cross-linking experiments. The available evidence suggests that this decrease might be due to an interference with the correct positioning of ATP within the nucleotide-binding pocket leading b an inherent block of ATP hydrolysis. Possibly, as a consequence of this interference, the antibiotic also prevents ATP-dependent stabilization of Rho hexamers. PMID:9517934

Carrano, L; Bucci, C; De Pascalis, R; Lavitola, A; Manna, F; Corti, E; Bruni, C B; Alifano, P

1998-03-01

193

Structure-guided development of specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitors targeting the ATP-binding pocket.  

PubMed

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDKs 1-4) negatively regulate activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation. PDK isoforms are up-regulated in obesity, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer and are potential therapeutic targets for these important human diseases. Here, we employed a structure-guided design to convert a known Hsp90 inhibitor to a series of highly specific PDK inhibitors, based on structural conservation in the ATP-binding pocket. The key step involved the substitution of a carbonyl group in the parent compound with a sulfonyl in the PDK inhibitors. The final compound of this series, 2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]isoindoline-4,6-diol, designated PS10, inhibits all four PDK isoforms with IC50 = 0.8 ?M for PDK2. The administration of PS10 (70 mg/kg) to diet-induced obese mice significantly augments pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity with reduced phosphorylation in different tissues. Prolonged PS10 treatments result in improved glucose tolerance and notably lessened hepatic steatosis in the mouse model. The results support the pharmacological approach of targeting PDK to control both glucose and fat levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24356970

Tso, Shih-Chia; Qi, Xiangbing; Gui, Wen-Jun; Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chuang, Jacinta L; Wernstedt-Asterholm, Ingrid; Morlock, Lorraine K; Owens, Kyle R; Scherer, Philipp E; Williams, Noelle S; Tambar, Uttam K; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T

2014-02-14

194

Modulatory and catalytic modes of ATP binding by the calcium pump  

PubMed Central

We present crystal structures of the calcium-free E2 state of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, stabilized by the inhibitor thapsigargin and the ATP analog AMPPCP. The structures allow us to describe the ATP binding site in a modulatory mode uncoupled from the Asp351 phosphorylation site. The Glu439 side chain interacts with AMPPCP via an Mg2+ ion in accordance with previous Fe2+-cleavage studies implicating this residue in the ATPase cycle and in magnesium binding. Functional data on Ca2+ mediated activation indicate that the crystallized state represents an initial stage of ATP modulated deprotonation of E2, preceding the binding of Ca2+ ions in the membrane from the cytoplasmic side. We propose a mechanism of Ca2+ activation of phosphorylation leading directly from the compact E2-ATP form to the Ca2E1-ATP state. In addition, a role of Glu439 in ATP modulation of other steps of the functional cycle is suggested.

Jensen, Anne-Marie Lund; S?rensen, Thomas Lykke-M?ller; Olesen, Claus; M?ller, Jesper Vuust; Nissen, Poul

2006-01-01

195

Three-Dimensional Structures Reveal Multiple ADP/ATP Binding Modes  

SciTech Connect

The creation of synthetic enzymes with predefined functions represents a major challenge in future synthetic biology applications. Here, we describe six structures of de novo proteins that have been determined using protein crystallography to address how simple enzymes perform catalysis. Three structures are of a protein, DX, selected for its stability and ability to tightly bind ATP. Despite the addition of ATP to the crystallization conditions, the presence of a bound but distorted ATP was found only under excess ATP conditions, with ADP being present under equimolar conditions or when crystallized for a prolonged period of time. A bound ADP cofactor was evident when Asp was substituted for Val at residue 65, but ATP in a linear configuration is present when Phe was substituted for Tyr at residue 43. These new structures complement previously determined structures of DX and the protein with the Phe 43 to Tyr substitution [Simmons, C. R., et al. (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 649-658] and together demonstrate the multiple ADP/ATP binding modes from which a model emerges in which the DX protein binds ATP in a configuration that represents a transitional state for the catalysis of ATP to ADP through a slow, metal-free reaction capable of multiple turnovers. This unusual observation suggests that design-free methods can be used to generate novel protein scaffolds that are tailor-made for catalysis.

C Simmons; C Magee; D Smith; L Lauman; J Chaput; J Allen

2011-12-31

196

Contribution of the ATP Binding Site of ParE to Susceptibility to Novobiocin and Quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Streptococcus pneumoniae, an H103Y substitution in the ATP binding site of the ParE subunit of topo- isomerase IV was shown to confer quinolone resistance and hypersensitivity to novobiocin when associated with an S84F change in the A subunit of DNA gyrase. We reconstituted in vitro the wild-type topoisomerase IV and its ParE mutant. The ParE mutant enzyme showed a

Philippe Dupont; Alexandra Aubry; Emmanuelle Cambau; Laurent Gutmann

2005-01-01

197

ATP binding to human serine racemase is cooperative and modulated by glycine.  

PubMed

The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a key role in excitatory neurotransmission, and control learning, memory and synaptic plasticity. Their activity is modulated by the agonist glutamate and by the co-agonists d-serine and glycine. In the human brain, d-serine is synthesized from l-serine by the dimeric pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme serine racemase, which also degrades l- and d-serine to pyruvate and ammonia. The dependence of l- and d-serine ?-elimination and l-serine racemization activities on ATP concentration was characterized, and was found to be strongly cooperative, with Hill coefficients close to 2 and apparent ATP dissociation constants ranging from 0.22 to 0.41 mm. ATP binding to the holo-enzyme, monitored by the fluorescence changes of the coenzyme, was also determined to be cooperative, with an apparent dissociation constant of 0.24 mm. Glycine, an active-site ligand, increased the serine racemase affinity for ATP by ~ 22-fold, abolishing cooperativity. Conversely, ATP increased the non-cooperative glycine binding 15-fold. These results indicate cross-talk between allosteric and active sites, leading to the stabilization of two alternative protein conformations with ATP affinities of ~ 10 ?M and 1.8 mm, as evaluated within the Monod, Wyman and Changeux model. Therefore, intracellular ATP and glycine control d-serine homeostasis, and, indirectly, NMDA receptor activity. Because hyper- and hypo-activation of NMDA receptors are associated with neuropathologies, the development of allosteric drugs modulating serine racemase activity is a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:23992455

Marchetti, Marialaura; Bruno, Stefano; Campanini, Barbara; Peracchi, Alessio; Mai, Nicole; Mozzarelli, Andrea

2013-11-01

198

Involvement of ectodomain Leu 214 in ATP binding and channel desensitization of the P2X4 receptor.  

PubMed

P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-gated cation permeable ion channels. When ATP binds, the extracellular head and dorsal fin domains are predicted to move closer to each other. However, there are scant functional data corroborating the role of the dorsal fin in ligand binding. Here using site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology, we show that a dorsal fin leucine, L214, contributes to ATP binding. Mutant receptors containing a single substitution of alanine, serine, glutamic acid, or phenylalanine at L214 of the rat P2X4 receptor exhibited markedly reduced sensitivities to ATP. Mutation of other dorsal fin side chains, S216, T223, and D224, did not significantly alter ATP sensitivity. Exposure of L214C to sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl) methanethiosulfonate (MTSES(-)) or (2-aminoethyl) methanethiosulfonate hydrobromide in the absence of ATP blocked responses evoked by subsequent ATP application. In contrast, when MTSES(-) was applied in the presence of ATP, no current inhibition was observed. Furthermore, L214A also slightly reduced the inhibitory effect of the antagonist 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP, and the blockade was more rapidly reversible after washout. Certain L214 mutants also showed effects on current desensitization in the continued presence of ATP. L214I exhibited an accelerated current decline, whereas L214M exhibited a slower rate. Taken together, these data reveal that position L214 participates in both ATP binding and conformational changes accompanying channel opening and desensitization, providing compelling evidence that the dorsal fin domain indeed has functional properties that are similar to those previously reported for the body domains. PMID:24762105

Zhang, Longmei; Xu, Huijuan; Jie, Yanling; Gao, Chao; Chen, Wanjuan; Yin, Shikui; Samways, Damien S K; Li, Zhiyuan

2014-05-13

199

Cardiac myosin isoforms exhibit differential rates of MgADP release and MgATP binding detected by myocardial viscoelasticity  

PubMed Central

We measured myosin crossbridge detachment rate and the rates of MgADP release and MgATP binding in mouse and rat myocardial strips bearing one of the two cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. Mice and rats were fed an iodine-deficient, propylthiouracil diet resulting in ~100% expression of ?-MyHC in the ventricles. Ventricles of control animals expressed ~100% ?-MyHC. Chemically-skinned myocardial strips prepared from papillary muscle were subjected to sinusoidal length perturbation analysis at maximum calcium activation pCa 4.8 and 17°C. Frequency characteristics of myocardial viscoelasticity were used to calculate crossbridge detachment rate over 0.01 to 5 mM [MgATP]. The rate of MgADP release, equivalent to the asymptotic value of crossbridge detachment rate at high MgATP, was highest in mouse ?-MyHC (111.4±6.2 s?1) followed by rat ?-MyHC (65.0±7.3 s?1), mouse ?-MyHC (24.3±1.8 s?1) and rat ?-MyHC (15.5±0.8 s?1). The rate of MgATP binding was highest in mouse ?-MyHC (325±32 mM?1.s?1) then mouse ?-MyHC (152±23 mM?1.s?1), rat ?-MyHC (108±10 mM?1.s?1) and rat ?-MyHC (55±6 mM?1.s?1). Because the events of MgADP release and MgATP binding occur in a post power-stroke state of the myosin crossbridge, we infer that MgATP release and MgATP binding must be regulated by isoform- and species-specific structural differences located outside the nucleotide binding pocket, which is identical in sequence for these four myosins. We postulate that differences in the stiffness profile of the entire myosin molecule, including the thick filament and the myosin-actin interface, are primarily responsible for determining the strain on the nucleotide binding pocket and the subsequent differences in the rates of nucleotide release and binding observed among the four myosins examined here.

Wang, Yuan; Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Lombardo, Andrew T.; Tremble, Sarah M.; Maughan, David W.; VanBuren, Peter; LeWinter, Martin M.; Robbins, Jeffrey; Palmer, Bradley M.

2012-01-01

200

An Inhibitor's-Eye View of the ATP-Binding Site of CDKs in Different Regulatory States  

PubMed Central

We have used a chemically diverse panel of kinase inhibitors to assess the chemical similarity of the ATP-binding sites of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) subfamily members in a range of activation states. Using this approach, we find that different activation states of a particular CDK may differ from each other as much as different CDKs in the same activation state. We also find that inhibitors discriminate more effectively among CDK family members in their monomeric state than in their cyclin-bound state, providing direct evidence for the belief that selective binding to inactive kinase states might be more readily achieved than selective binding to active states.

2014-01-01

201

Activation of ATP Binding for the Autophosphorylation of DosS, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Histidine Kinase Lacking an ATP Lid Motif*  

PubMed Central

The sensor histidine kinases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, DosS and DosT, are responsible for sensing hypoxic conditions and consist of sensor and kinase cores responsible for accepting signals and phosphorylation activity, respectively. The kinase core contains a dimerization and histidine phosphate-accepting (DHp) domain and an ATP binding domain (ABD). The 13 histidine kinase genes of M. tuberculosis can be grouped based on the presence or absence of the ATP lid motif and F box (elements known to play roles in ATP binding) in their ABDs; DosS and DosT have ABDs lacking both these elements, and the crystal structures of their ABDs indicated that they were unsuitable for ATP binding, as a short loop covers the putative ATP binding site. Although the ABD alone cannot bind ATP, the kinase core is functional in autophosphorylation. Appropriate spatial arrangement of the ABD and DHp domain within the kinase core is required for both autophosphorylation and ATP binding. An ionic interaction between Arg440 in the DHp domain and Glu537 in the short loop of the ABD is available and may open the ATP binding site, by repositioning the short loop away from the site. Mutations at Arg440 and Glu537 reduce autophosphorylation activity. Unlike other histidine kinases containing an ATP lid, which protects bound ATP, DosS is unable to accept ATP until the ABD is properly positioned relative to the histidine; this may prevent unexpected ATP reactions. ATP binding can, therefore, function as a control mechanism for histidine kinase activity.

Cho, Ha Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Bae, Young-Seuk; Kim, Eungbin; Kang, Beom Sik

2013-01-01

202

Conserved glycolipid termini in capsular polysaccharides synthesized by ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathways in Gram-negative pathogens  

PubMed Central

Bacterial capsules are surface layers made of long-chain polysaccharides. They are anchored to the outer membrane of many Gram-negative bacteria, including pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Pasteurella multocida. Capsules protect pathogens from host defenses including complement-mediated killing and phagocytosis and therefore represent a major virulence factor. Capsular polysaccharides are synthesized by enzymes located in the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane and are then translocated to the cell surface. Whereas the enzymes that synthesize the polysaccharides have been studied in detail, the structure and biosynthesis of the anchoring elements have not been definitively resolved. Here we determine the structure of the glycolipid attached to the reducing terminus of the polysialic acid capsular polysaccharides from E. coli K1 and N. meningitidis group B and the heparosan-like capsular polysaccharide from E. coli K5. All possess the same unique glycolipid terminus consisting of a lyso-phosphatidylglycerol moiety with a ?-linked poly-(3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) (poly-Kdo) linker attached to the reducing terminus of the capsular polysaccharide.

Willis, Lisa M.; Stupak, Jacek; Richards, Michele R.; Lowary, Todd L.; Li, Jianjun; Whitfield, Chris

2013-01-01

203

Characterisation of human steroid hormone transport mediated by Cdr1p, a multidrug transporter of Candida albicans, belonging to the ATP binding cassette super family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cdr1p, a multidrug transporter from a pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, confers resistance to several unrelated drugs including anti-Candida drugs. We demonstrate that Cdr1p can specifically transport human steroid hormones namely ?-estradiol and corticosterone. Saccharomyces cerevisiae transformant S-12, harbouring the CDR1 gene, accumulated about 3-fold less [3H]?-estradiol and about 2-fold less [3H]corticosterone than the non-transformed strain. When CDR1 was expressed in

S Krishnamurthy; V Gupta; P Snehlata; R Prasad

1998-01-01

204

Involvement of a Soybean ATP-Binding Cassette-Type Transporter in the Secretion of Genistein, a Signal Flavonoid in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legume plants have an ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into nutrients via symbiosis with soil microbes. As the initial event of the symbiosis, legume plants secrete flavonoids into the rhizosphere to attract rhizobia. Secretion of flavonoids is indispens- able for the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, but almost nothing is known about the membrane transport mech- anism of flavonoid secretion

Akifumi Sugiyama; Nobukazu Shitan; Kazufumi Yazaki

2008-01-01

205

Variants in the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter (ABCA7), Apolipoprotein E ?4, and the Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Importance Genetic variants associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer disease are known for individuals of European ancestry, but whether the same or different variants account for the genetic risk of Alzheimer disease in African American individuals is unknown. Identification of disease-associated variants helps identify targets for genetic testing, prevention, and treatment. Objective To identify genetic loci associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease in African Americans. Design, Setting, and Participants The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) assembled multiple data sets representing a total of 5896 African Americans (1968 case participants, 3928 control participants) 60 years or older that were collected between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites. The association of Alzheimer disease with genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was assessed in case-control and in family-based data sets. Results from individual data sets were combined to perform an inverse variance–weighted meta-analysis, first with genome-wide analyses and subsequently with gene-based tests for previously reported loci. Main Outcomes and Measures Presence of Alzheimer disease according to standardized criteria. Results Genome-wide significance in fully adjusted models (sex, age, APOE genotype, population stratification) was observed for a SNP in ABCA7 (rs115550680, allele = G; frequency, 0.09 cases and 0.06 controls; odds ratio [OR], 1.79 [95% CI, 1.47-2.12]; P = 2.2 × 10–9), which is in linkage disequilibrium with SNPs previously associated with Alzheimer disease in Europeans (0.8

Reitz, Christiane; Jun, Gyungah; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Mayeux, Richard

2013-01-01

206

Hop Resistance in the Beer Spoilage Bacterium Lactobacillus brevis Is Mediated by the ATP-Binding Cassette Multidrug Transporter HorA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of HorA is 53% identical

KANTA SAKAMOTO; ABELARDO MARGOLLES; HENDRIK W. VAN VEEN; W. N. Konings

2001-01-01

207

Thiorhodamines Containing Amide and Thioamide Functionality as Inhibitors of the ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)  

PubMed Central

Twelve thiorhodamine derivatives have been examined for their ability to stimulate the ATPase activity of purified human P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-His10, to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine into multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for their rates of transport in monolayers of multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The thiorhodamine derivatives have structural diversity from amide and thioamide functionality (N,N-diethyl and N-piperidyl) at the 5-position of a 2-thienyl substituent on the thiorhodamine core and from diversity at the 3-amino substituent with N,N-dimethylamino, fused azadecalin (julolidyl), and fused N-methylcyclohexylamine (half-julolidyl) substituents. The julolidyl and half-julolidyl derivatives were more effective inhibitors of P-gp than the dimethylamino analogues. Amide-containing derivatives were transported much more rapidly than thioamide-containing derivatives.

Orchard, Alexandra; Schamerhorn, Gregory A.; Calitree, Brandon D.; Sawada, Geri A.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Dettya, Michael R.

2012-01-01

208

Genetic association analysis of ATP binding cassette protein family reveals a novel association of ABCB1 genetic variants with epilepsy risk, but not with drug-resistance.  

PubMed

Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value = 0.0002; allelic p-value = 0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value = 0.0008; allelic p-value = 0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value = 0.01; allelic p-value = 0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with greater tendency for MTLE-HS in south Indian ancestry from Kerala. PMID:24586633

Balan, Shabeesh; Bharathan, Sumitha Prameela; Vellichiramal, Neetha Nanoth; Sathyan, Sanish; Joseph, Vijai; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Banerjee, Moinak

2014-01-01

209

The ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) modulates the development of aortic atherosclerosis in C57BL\\/6 and apoE-knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of mutations in the ABCA1 transporter (ABCA1) as the genetic defect in Tangier disease has generated interest in modulating atherogenic risk by enhancing ABCA1 gene expression. To investigate the role of ABCA1 in atherogenesis, we analyzed diet-induced atherosclerosis in transgenic mice overexpressing human ABCA1 (hABCA1-Tg) and spontaneous lesion formation in hABCA1-Tg x apoE-knockout (KO) mice. Overexpression of hABCA1 in

C. W. Joyce; M J Amar; G Lambert; B L Vaisman; B Paigen; Fruchart J Najib; R F Hoyt; E D Neufeld; A T Remaley; D S Fredrickson; H B Brewer; Fojo S Santamarina

2002-01-01

210

Stimulation of CD36 and the key effector of reverse cholesterol transport ATP-binding cassette A1 in monocytoid cells by niacin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Niacin, the first lipid lowering drug shown to improve survival after myocardial infarction, decreases LDL and increases HDL cholesterol levels. These effects cannot fully be explained by its suspected mechanism of action, inhibition of lipolysis and hepatic VLDL synthesis. Niacin has also been shown to interfere with the cyclic AMP (cAMP)\\/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and massively stimulate prostaglandin D2

Tina Rubic; Matthias Trottmann; Reinhard L Lorenz

2004-01-01

211

AtMRP1 Gene of Arabidopsis Encodes a Glutathione S-Conjugate Pump: Isolation and Functional Definition of a Plant ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because plants produce cytotoxic compounds to which they, themselves, are susceptible and are exposed to exogenous toxins (microbial products, allelochemicals, and agrochemicals), cell survival is contingent on mechanisms for detoxifying these agents. One detoxification mechanism is the glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed glutathionation of the toxin, or an activated derivative, and transport of the conjugate out of the cytosol. We show here that

Yu-Ping Lu; Ze-Sheng Li; Philip A. Rea

1997-01-01

212

AtMRP2, an Arabidopsis ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Able to Transport Glutathione S-Conjugates and Chlorophyll Catabolites: Functional Comparisons with AtMRP1  

Microsoft Academic Search

tively. Although each of these activities previously had been assigned to distinct pumps in native plant membranes, we describe here the molecular cloning, physical mapping, and heterologous expression of a gene, AtMRP2 , from Arabi- dopsis thaliana that encodes a multispecific ABC transporter competent in the transport of both GS conjugates and chlorophyll catabolites. Unlike its isoform, AtMRP1, which transports

Yu-Ping Lu; Ze-Sheng Li; Yolanda M. Drozdowicz; Stefan Hörtensteiner; Enrico Martinoia; Philip A. Rea

1998-01-01

213

Enhanced production of ATP-binding cassette protein exporter-dependent lipase by modifying the growth medium components of Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

The industrially-important thermostable lipase, TliA, was extracellularly produced in the recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens by the homologous expression of TliA and its cognate ABC protein exporter, TliDEF. To increase the secretory production of TliA, we optimized the growth temperature and the culture medium of P. fluorescens. The total amount and the specific productivity of lipase was highest at 25 °C of cell growth temperature, although maximal cell growth was observed at 30 °C. Using the culture medium composed of 20 g dextrin l(-1), 40 g Tween 80 l(-1) and 30 g peptone l(-1), TliA was produced at a level of 2,200 U ml(-1) in a flask culture. The TliA production increased about 3.8-fold (8,450 U ml(-1)) in batch fermentation using a 2.5 l fermentor, which was about 7.7-fold higher than that of previously reported TliA production. PMID:24737082

Eom, Gyeong Tae; Song, Jae Kwang

2014-08-01

214

Becatecarin (rebeccamycin analog, NSC 655649) is a transport substrate and induces expression of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, ABCG2, in lung carcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  ABCG2 overexpression has been linked to resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors, leading us to examine the potential interaction\\u000a between ABCG2 and becatecarin.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Interaction with ABCG2 was determined by ATPase assay, competition of [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) photolabeling and flow cytometry. Cellular resistance was measured in 4-day cytotoxicity assays.\\u000a ABCG2 expression was measured by fluorescent-substrate transport assays and immunoblot.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Becatecarin competed [125I]-IAAP labeling of

Robert W. Robey; Tomasz Obrzut; Suneet Shukla; Orsolya Polgar; Sira Macalou; Julian C. Bahr; Attilio Di Pietro; Suresh V. Ambudkar; Susan E. Bates

2009-01-01

215

Effect of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide nanoparticles on hepatic cells of mouse: Low cytotoxicity, but efflux of the nanoparticles by ATP-binding cassette transporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the effects of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide (PLA–PEG) nanoparticles on hepatic cells of mouse. Blank PLA–PEG nanoparticles have been successfully prepared and MTT assay suggested that the nanoparticles with HepG2 cell co-culture model did not cause significant changes in membrane integrity in controlled concentration range (0.001–0.1mg\\/ml). Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that large dose of PLA–PEG

Yangde Zhang; Zhiyuan Hu; Maoying Ye; Yifeng Pan; Jiji Chen; Yulin Luo; Yanqiong Zhang; Lianxiang He; Jiwei Wang

2007-01-01

216

The tomato R gene products I-2 and MI-1 are functional ATP binding proteins with ATPase activity.  

PubMed

Most plant disease resistance (R) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a C-terminal Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. The NBS contains three ATP/GTP binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or P-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. In this article, we show that the NBS of R proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. The N-terminal halves of two tomato R proteins, I-2 conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Mi-1 conferring resistance to root-knot nematodes and potato aphids, were produced as glutathione S-transferase fusions in Escherichia coli. In a filter binding assay, purified I-2 was found to bind ATP rather than other nucleoside triphosphates. ATP binding appeared to be fully dependent on the presence of a divalent cation. A mutant I-2 protein containing a mutation in the P-loop showed a strongly reduced ATP binding capacity. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both I-2 and Mi-1 exerted ATPase activity. Based on the strong conservation of NBS domains in R proteins of the NBS-LRR class, we propose that they all are capable of binding and hydrolyzing ATP. PMID:12417711

Tameling, Wladimir I L; Elzinga, Sandra D J; Darmin, Patricia S; Vossen, Jack H; Takken, Frank L W; Haring, Michel A; Cornelissen, Ben J C

2002-11-01

217

The Tomato R Gene Products I-2 and Mi-1 Are Functional ATP Binding Proteins with ATPase Activity  

PubMed Central

Most plant disease resistance (R) genes known today encode proteins with a central nucleotide binding site (NBS) and a C-terminal Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. The NBS contains three ATP/GTP binding motifs known as the kinase-1a or P-loop, kinase-2, and kinase-3a motifs. In this article, we show that the NBS of R proteins forms a functional nucleotide binding pocket. The N-terminal halves of two tomato R proteins, I-2 conferring resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Mi-1 conferring resistance to root-knot nematodes and potato aphids, were produced as glutathione S-transferase fusions in Escherichia coli. In a filter binding assay, purified I-2 was found to bind ATP rather than other nucleoside triphosphates. ATP binding appeared to be fully dependent on the presence of a divalent cation. A mutant I-2 protein containing a mutation in the P-loop showed a strongly reduced ATP binding capacity. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both I-2 and Mi-1 exerted ATPase activity. Based on the strong conservation of NBS domains in R proteins of the NBS-LRR class, we propose that they all are capable of binding and hydrolyzing ATP.

Tameling, Wladimir I. L.; Elzinga, Sandra D. J.; Darmin, Patricia S.; Vossen, Jack H.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Haring, Michel A.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

2002-01-01

218

Photoaffinity labelling of the ATP-binding sites of two Ca2+,Mg-ATPase isoforms in pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed

Pancreatic rough ER ATP-binding proteins, including two isoforms of SERCA-2b Ca2+,Mg-ATPase, were identified using specific photoaffinity labelling with 8-azido-ATP. 8-Azido-ATP irreversibly inhibited Ca2+,Mg-ATPase activity only after UV irradiation and the inhibition was prevented by inclusion of 5 mM ATP in the labelling reaction. Rough ER proteins of apparent molecular masses 141, 111, 100, 84, 69, 55 and 47 kDa were detected following photoaffinity-labelling with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP. The two bands at 111 kDa and 100 kDa corresponded in molecular mass to the two SERCA-2b Ca2+,Mg-ATPase isoforms previously demonstrated immunologically [1]. Immunoprecipitation of rough ER proteins by a SERCA-2b-specific antibody showed that the two ATPase bands were photoaffinity-labelled. Photoaffinity labelling of the 111 and 100 kDa proteins was: (a) abolished when Ca2+,Mg-ATPase activity was inactivated by EDTA-treatment of rough ER membranes; (b) inhibited by the Ca2+,Mg-ATPase inhibitor vanadate; (c) not affected by thapsigargin. The data demonstrate that pancreatic rough ER contains two isoforms of the SERCA-2b Ca2+,Mg-ATPase whose ATP-binding properties are susceptible to inhibition by vanadate but not thapsigargin. PMID:7833344

Webb, R; Dormer, R L

1995-01-26

219

XpsE oligomerization triggered by ATP binding, not hydrolysis, leads to its association with XpsL  

PubMed Central

GspE belongs to a secretion NTPase superfamily, members of which are involved in type II/IV secretion, type IV pilus biogenesis and DNA transport in conjugation or natural transformation. Predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, GspE has nonetheless been shown to be membrane-associated by interacting with the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of GspL. By taking biochemical and genetic approaches, we observed that ATP binding triggers oligomerization of Xanthomonas campestris XpsE (a GspE homolog) as well as its association with the N-terminal domain of XpsL (a GspL homolog). While isolated XpsE exhibits very low intrinsic ATPase activity, association with XpsL appears to stimulate ATP hydrolysis. Mutation at a conserved lysine residue in the XpsE Walker A motif causes reduction in its ATPase activity without significantly influencing its interaction with XpsL, congruent with the notion that XpsE–XpsL association precedes ATP hydrolysis. For the first time, functional significance of ATP binding to GspE in type II secretion system is clearly demonstrated. The implications may also be applicable to type IV pilus biogenesis.

Shiue, Sheng-Jie; Kao, Ko-Min; Leu, Wei-Ming; Chen, Ling-Yun; Chan, Nei-Li; Hu, Nien-Tai

2006-01-01

220

Novel mutation (Gly280Ala) in the ATP-binding domain of glycerol kinase causes severe hyperglycerolemia.  

PubMed

Glycerol kinase deficiency is a rarely diagnosed X-linked recessive disorder which occurs as a complex form together with the adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) or with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) or as an isolated form either symptomatic or asymptomatic. We report the case of a male adult who had pseudo-hypertriglyceridemia (falsely elevated triglycerides of 552 mg/dl) refractory to lipid-lowering therapy for more than 15 years. Further investigations revealed an isolated, asymptomatic glycerol kinase deficiency. Using polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing, a novel missense mutation Gly280Ala in the Xp21.3 glycerol kinase gene was found. Comparison between human and E.coli glycerol kinase showed that the mutation affects a highly conserved amino acid in an ATP-binding domain in the active centre. This mutation is assumed to destabilize a hydrogen bond between ligand and enzyme resulting in a reduced activity of glycerol kinase and therefore in hyperglycerolemia. PMID:16025401

Wibmer, T; Otto, J; Parhofer, K G; Otto, C

2005-07-01

221

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Universal Stress Protein Rv2623 Regulates Bacillary Growth by ATP-Binding: Requirement for Establishing Chronic Persistent Infection  

PubMed Central

Tuberculous latency and reactivation play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis, yet the mechanisms that regulate these processes remain unclear. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis universal stress protein (USP) homolog, rv2623, is among the most highly induced genes when the tubercle bacillus is subjected to hypoxia and nitrosative stress, conditions thought to promote latency. Induction of rv2623 also occurs when M. tuberculosis encounters conditions associated with growth arrest, such as the intracellular milieu of macrophages and in the lungs of mice with chronic tuberculosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Rv2623 regulates tuberculosis latency. We observed that an Rv2623-deficient mutant fails to establish chronic tuberculous infection in guinea pigs and mice, exhibiting a hypervirulence phenotype associated with increased bacterial burden and mortality. Consistent with this in vivo growth-regulatory role, constitutive overexpression of rv2623 attenuates mycobacterial growth in vitro. Biochemical analysis of purified Rv2623 suggested that this mycobacterial USP binds ATP, and the 2.9-Å-resolution crystal structure revealed that Rv2623 engages ATP in a novel nucleotide-binding pocket. Structure-guided mutagenesis yielded Rv2623 mutants with reduced ATP-binding capacity. Analysis of mycobacteria overexpressing these mutants revealed that the in vitro growth-inhibitory property of Rv2623 correlates with its ability to bind ATP. Together, the results indicate that i) M. tuberculosis Rv2623 regulates mycobacterial growth in vitro and in vivo, and ii) Rv2623 is required for the entry of the tubercle bacillus into the chronic phase of infection in the host; in addition, iii) Rv2623 binds ATP; and iv) the growth-regulatory attribute of this USP is dependent on its ATP-binding activity. We propose that Rv2623 may function as an ATP-dependent signaling intermediate in a pathway that promotes persistent infection.

Bilder, Patrick; Sun, Meihao; Lim, Jihyeon; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Basaraba, Randall; So, Melvin; Zhu, Guofeng; Tufariello, JoAnn M.; Izzo, Angelo A.; Orme, Ian M.; Almo, Steve C.; Leyh, Thomas S.; Chan, John

2009-01-01

222

Novel ATP-binding heat-inducible protein of Mr = 37,000 that is sensitive to transformation in BALB/3T3 cells  

SciTech Connect

Using affinity chromatography on ATP-agarose, we have identified a major ATP-binding protein in Nonidet P-40 extracts of avian and mammalian cells labeled with (35S)methionine. After washing ATP-agarose beads with high-ionic-strength buffer (0.4 M NaCl), the 37-kD protein was shown to be one of the major ATP-binding proteins while p72 and grp78, which are members of the hsp70 family, also bound to ATP-agarose. This protein consisted of several spots on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The isoelectric point of the most basic spot was approximately 9.2 in chick embryo fibroblasts, whereas it was about 8.8 in mouse 3T3 cells. The identities of these proteins in mouse and chick cells were confirmed by peptide mapping. After heat-shock treatment of BALB/3T3 cells, the major heat-shock protein, hsp70, was shown to be induced very rapidly after heat shock and was recovered in the ATP-binding fraction. Besides hsp70, a 37-kD protein was also found to be induced by heat shock. This protein was drastically induced by treating the cells with alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl, an iron chelating reagent, but not with sodium arsenite, calcium ionophore, or tunicamycin. The synthesis and the total amount of this ATP-binding protein increased in mouse 3T3 cells transformed by simian virus 40, methylcholanthrene, or activated c-Ha-ras oncogene compared to their normal counterparts. The incorporation of (32P)orthophosphate was not detected in either normal or transformed cells. These studies established that a major ATP-binding protein of Mr = 37,000 is a heat-inducible protein and that the synthesis of this protein is regulated by malignant transformation.

Nakai, A.; Hirayama, C.; Ohtsuka, K.; Hirayoshi, K.; Nagata, K. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

1990-06-01

223

Phosphorylation of the TOR ATP binding domain by AGC kinase constitutes a novel mode of TOR inhibition  

PubMed Central

TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling coordinates cell growth, metabolism, and cell division through tight control of signaling via two complexes, TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that fission yeast TOR kinases and mTOR are phosphorylated on an evolutionarily conserved residue of their ATP-binding domain. The Gad8 kinase (AKT homologue) phosphorylates fission yeast Tor1 at this threonine (T1972) to reduce activity. A T1972A mutation that blocked phosphorylation increased Tor1 activity and stress resistance. Nitrogen starvation of fission yeast inhibited TOR signaling to arrest cell cycle progression in G1 phase and promoted sexual differentiation. Starvation and a Gad8/T1972-dependent decrease in Tor1 (TORC2) activity was essential for efficient cell cycle arrest and differentiation. Experiments in human cell lines recapitulated these yeast observations, as mTOR was phosphorylated on T2173 in an AKT-dependent manner. In addition, a T2173A mutation increased mTOR activity. Thus, TOR kinase activity can be reduced through AGC kinase–controlled phosphorylation to generate physiologically significant changes in TOR signaling.

Halova, Lenka; Du, Wei; Kirkham, Sara; Smith, Duncan L.

2013-01-01

224

Identification of mutations in regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds of the cystic fibrosis gene  

SciTech Connect

Additional mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene were identified in the regions corresponding to the two putative nucleotide (ATP)-binding folds (NBFs) of the predicted polypeptide. The patient cohort included 46 Canadian CF families with well-characterized DNA marker haplotypes spanning the disease locus and several other families from Israel. Eleven mutations were found in the first NBF, 2 were found in the second NBF, but none was found in the R-domain. Seven of the mutations were of the missense type affecting some of the highly conserved amino acid residues in the first NBF; 3 were nonsense mutations; 2 would probably affect mRNA splicing; 2 corresponded to small deletions, including another 3-base-pair deletion different from the major mutation ({delta}F508), which could account for 70% of the CF chromosomes in the population. Nine of these mutations accounted for 12 of the 31 non-{delta}F508 CF chromosomes in the Canadian families. The highly heterogeneous nature of the remaining CF mutations provides important insights into the structure and function of the protein, but it also suggests that DNA-based genetic screening for CF carrier status will not be straightforward.

Kerem, B.; Zielenski, J.; Markiewicz, D.; Bozon, D.; Kennedy, D.; Rommens, J.M. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Gazit, E. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)); Yahav, J. (Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel)); Riordan, J.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Collins, F.S. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Tsui, Lapchee (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1990-11-01

225

ATP Binding to Hemoglobin Response Gene 1 Protein Is Necessary for Regulation of the Mating Type Locus in Candida albicans*  

PubMed Central

HBR1 (hemoglobin response gene 1) is an essential gene in Candida albicans that positively regulates mating type locus MTL? gene expression and thereby regulates cell type-specific developmental genes. Hbr1p contains a phosphate-binding loop (P-loop), a highly conserved motif characteristic of ATP- and GTP-binding proteins. Recombinant Hbr1p was isolated in an oligomeric state that specifically bound ATP with Kd ?2 ?m. ATP but not ADP, AMP, GTP, or dATP specifically protected Hbr1p from proteolysis by trypsin. Site-directed mutagenesis of the highly conserved P-loop lysine (K22Q) and the less conserved glycine (G19S) decreased the binding affinity for soluble ATP and ATP immobilized through its ?-phosphate. ATP bound somewhat more avidly than ATP?S to wild type and mutant Hbr1p. Although Hbr1p exhibits sequence motifs characteristic of adenylate kinases, and adenylate kinase and ATPase activities have been reported for the apparent human ortholog of Hbr1p, assays for adenylate kinase activity, autophosphorylation, and ATPase activity proved negative. Overexpression of wild type but not the mutant forms of Hbr1p restored MTl?2 expression in an HBR1/hbr1 mutant, indicating that ATP binding to the P-loop is necessary for this function of Hbr1p.

Peterson, Alexander W.; Pendrak, Michael L.; Roberts, David D.

2011-01-01

226

Replacement of Lysine Residue 1030 in the Putative ATP-Binding Region of the Insulin Receptor Abolishes Insulin and Antibody-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Receptor Kinase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether the tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor is crucial for insulin action, we have constructed mutations of the human insulin receptor at Lys-1030, which is in the presumed ATP-binding region. By using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, this lysine residue was replaced with either methionine, arginine, or alanine. Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by mutant cDNAs and the

Yousuke Ebina; Eiichi Araki; Masato Taira; Fumio Shimada; Masataka Mori; Charles S. Craik; Kenneth Siddle; Sarah B. Pierce; Richard A. Roth; William J. Rutter

1987-01-01

227

ATP binding and hydrolysis by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh3 are differentially modulated by mismatch and double-strand break repair DNA substrates.  

PubMed

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Msh2-Msh3-mediated mismatch repair (MMR) recognizes and targets insertion/deletion loops for repair. Msh2-Msh3 is also required for 3' non-homologous tail removal (3'NHTR) in double-strand break repair. In both pathways, Msh2-Msh3 binds double-strand/single-strand junctions and initiates repair in an ATP-dependent manner. However, we recently demonstrated that the two pathways have distinct requirements with respect to Msh2-Msh3 activities. We identified a set of aromatic residues in the nucleotide binding pocket (FLY motif) of Msh3 that, when mutated, disrupted MMR, but left 3'NHTR largely intact. One of these mutations, msh3Y942A, was predicted to disrupt the nucleotide sandwich and allow altered positioning of ATP within the pocket. To develop a mechanistic understanding of the differential requirements for ATP binding and/or hydrolysis in the two pathways, we characterized Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-msh3Y942A ATP binding and hydrolysis activities in the presence of MMR and 3'NHTR DNA substrates. We observed distinct, substrate-dependent ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover by Msh2-Msh3, indicating that the MMR and 3'NHTR DNA substrates differentially modify the ATP binding/hydrolysis activities of Msh2-Msh3. Msh2-msh3Y942A retained the ability to bind DNA and ATP but exhibited altered ATP hydrolysis and nucleotide turnover. We propose that both ATP and structure-specific repair substrates cooperate to direct Msh2-Msh3-mediated repair and suggest an explanation for the msh3Y942A separation-of-function phenotype. PMID:24746922

Kumar, Charanya; Eichmiller, Robin; Wang, Bangchen; Williams, Gregory M; Bianco, Piero R; Surtees, Jennifer A

2014-06-01

228

Selective inhibition of DNA replicase assembly by a non-natural nucleotide: Exploiting the structural diversity of ATP-binding sites  

PubMed Central

DNA synthesis is catalyzed by an ensemble of proteins designated the replicase. The efficient assembly of this multi-protein complex is essential for the continuity of DNA replication and is mediated by clamp-loading accessory proteins that use ATP binding and hydrolysis to coordinate these events. As a consequence, the ability to selectively inhibit the activity of these accessory proteins provides a rational approach to regulate DNA synthesis. Toward this goal, we tested the ability of several non-natural nucleotides to inhibit ATP-dependent enzymes associated with DNA replicase assembly. Kinetic and biophysical studies identified 5-nitro-indolyl-2'-deoxyribose-5'-triphosphate as a unique non-natural nucleotide capable of selectively inhibiting the bacteriophage T4 clamp loader versus the homologous enzyme from Escherichia coli. Modeling studies highlight the structural diversity between the ATP-binding site of each enzyme and provide a mechanism accounting for the differences in potencies for various substituted indolyl-2'-deoxyribose-5'-triphosphates. An in vivo assay measuring plaque formation demonstrates the efficacy and selectivity of 5-nitro-indolyl-2'-deoxyribose as a cytostatic agent against T4 bacteriophage while leaving viability of the E. coli host unaffected. This strategy provides a novel approach to develop agents that selectively inhibit ATP-dependent enzymes that are required for efficient DNA replication.

Eng, Kevin; Scouten-Ponticelli, Sarah K; Sutton, Mark; Berdis, Anthony

2011-01-01

229

The Histone H4 Tail Regulates the Conformation of the ATP-Binding Pocket in the SNF2h Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme.  

PubMed

The chromatin remodeling complex ACF helps establish the appropriate nucleosome spacing for generating repressed chromatin states. ACF activity is stimulated by two defining features of the nucleosomal substrate: a basic patch on the histone H4 N-terminal tail and the specific length of flanking DNA. However, the mechanisms by which these two substrate cues function in the ACF remodeling reaction is not well understood. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with spin-labeled ATP analogs to probe the structure of the ATP active site under physiological solution conditions, we identify a closed state of the ATP-binding pocket that correlates with ATPase activity. We find that the H4 tail promotes pocket closure. We further show that ATPase stimulation by the H4 tail does not require a specific structure connecting the H4 tail and the globular domain. In the case of many DNA helicases, closure of the ATP-binding pocket is regulated by specific DNA substrates. Pocket closure by the H4 tail may analogously provide a mechanism to directly couple substrate recognition to activity. Surprisingly, the flanking DNA, which also stimulates ATP hydrolysis, does not promote pocket closure, suggesting that the H4 tail and flanking DNA may be recognized in different reaction steps. PMID:24607692

Racki, Lisa R; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Ed; Leonard, John D; Cooke, Roger; Narlikar, Geeta J

2014-05-15

230

The amino acid sequence 442GDASE446 in Na/K-ATPase is an important motif in forming the high and low affinity ATP binding pockets.  

PubMed

A highly conserved amino acid sequence 442GDASE446 in the ATP binding pocket of rat Na/K-ATPase was mutated, and the resulting proteins, G442A, G442P, D443A, S445A, and E446A, were expressed in HeLa cells to investigate the effect of individual ligands on Na/K-ATPase. The apparent Km for the high and low affinity ATP effects was estimated by ATP concentration dependence for the formation of the Na-dependent phosphoenzyme (Kmh) and Na/K-ATPase activity (Kml). The apparent Km for p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP) for K-dependent-pNPPase (KmP) and its inhibition by ATP (Ki,0.5) and the apparent Km for Mg2+, Na+, K+, and vanadate in Na/K-ATPase were also estimated. For all the mutants, the value for ATP was approximately 2-10-fold larger than that of the wild type. While the turnover number for Na/K-ATPase activity were unaffected or reduced by 20 approximately 50% in mutants G442(A/P) and D443A. Although both affinities for ATP effects were reduced as a result of the mutations, the ratio, Kml Kmh, for each mutant was 1.3 approximately 3.7, indicating that these mutations had a greater impact on the low affinity ATP effect than on the high affinity effect. Each KmP value with the turnover number suggests that these mutations favor the binding of pNPP over that of ATP. These data and others indicate that the sequence 442GDASE446 in the ATP binding pocket is an important motif that it is involved in both the high and low affinity ATP effects rather than in free Mg2+, Na+, and K+ effects. PMID:14522987

Imagawa, Toshiaki; Kaya, Shunji; Taniguchi, Kazuya

2003-12-12

231

Temperature Variations around Medication Cassette and Carry Bag in Routine Use of Epoprostenol Administration in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background According to several treatment guidelines, epoprostenol is an important treatment option for pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics and poor stability of epoprostenol at room temperature make its administration challenging. We therefore studied temperature fluctuations between the drug administration cassette and atmosphere to promote the safe use of epoprostenol. Methods and Findings Five healthy volunteers carried a portable intravenous infusion pump attached to a medication cassette containing saline in a bag during their ordinary activities over 16 days during which the mean atmospheric temperature was 29.6±1.5°C. The temperature around the medication cassette was not less than 25°C on any occasion, and the mean period over 24 h during which the temperature around the cassette exceeded 35°C and 40°C was 96.9±156.4 min and 24.4±77.3 min, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the temperatures outside the bag and around the cassette, as well as between temperatures around the cassette and of the saline solution in the cassette (r?=?0.9258 and 0.8276, respectively). There were no differences in the temperatures outside the bag or around the cassette with respect to the bag material. Conclusions Temperatures around a medication cassette and outside the bag containing the medication increase with sunlight exposure. The temperature around cassettes used for administering epoprostenol must therefore be kept low for as long as possible during hot summer conditions to maintain the drug stability.

Tamura, Yuichi; Nakajima, Yasuo; Ozeki, Yasushi; Ono, Tomohiko; Takei, Makoto; Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Fukuda, Keiichi

2012-01-01

232

Automatic loading of composite tape using cassettes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This patent application relates generally to laminating and tape-laying systems, and more specifically to a system of automatically loading composite tape onto tape-laying machine using cassettes. Automated composite laminating work centers reduce manufacturing costs and provide for high rates of production. A system for the automatic and continuous loading of composite tape into a tape-laying machine is disclosed. The system provides composite tape from a plurality of cassettes which are held in the magazine of a tape loading system. The tape loading system has a tape drive which feeds tape from a cassette in an active position to the tape-laying system in controlled amounts. The tape loading system also has a cassette transfer system which pushes a full cassette from a standby position into the active position when the cassette in the active position exhausts its supply of tape.

Hailey, S. I.

1986-02-01

233

Sensitivity of a renal K+ channel (ROMK2) to the inhibitory sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide is enhanced by coexpression with the ATP-binding cassette transporter cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate here that coexpression of ROMK2, an inwardly rectifying ATP-sensitive renal K+ channel (IKATP) with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) significantly enhances the sensitivity of ROMK2 to the sulfonylurea compound glibenclamide. When expressed alone, ROMK2 is relatively insensitive to glibenclamide. The interaction between ROMK2, CFTR, and glibenclamide is modulated by altering the phosphorylation state of either ROMK2, CFTR, or an associated protein, as exogenous MgATP and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A significantly attenuate the inhibitory effect of glibenclamide on ROMK2. Thus CFTR, which has been demonstrated to interact with both Na+ and Cl- channels in airway epithelium, modulates the function of renal ROMK2 K+ channels.

McNicholas, C M; Guggino, W B; Schwiebert, E M; Hebert, S C; Giebisch, G; Egan, M E

1996-01-01

234

A conserved mechanism of autoinhibition for the AMPK kinase domain: ATP-binding site and catalytic loop refolding as a means of regulation  

PubMed Central

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved trimeric protein complex that is responsible for energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Here, a 1.9?Å resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the ?2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. This human form adopts a catalytically inactive state with distorted ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites. The ATP site is affected by changes in the base of the activation loop, which has moved into an inhibited DFG-out conformation. The substrate-binding site is disturbed by changes within the AMPK?2 catalytic loop that further distort the enzyme from a catalytically active form. Similar structural rearrangements have been observed in a yeast AMPK homologue in response to the binding of its auto-inhibitory domain; restructuring of the kinase catalytic loop is therefore a conserved feature of the AMPK protein family and is likely to represent an inhibitory mechanism that is utilized during function.

Littler, Dene R.; Walker, John R.; Davis, Tara; Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E.; Finerty, Patrick J.; Newman, Elena; Mackenzie, Farell; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano

2010-01-01

235

Testing of a Personal Filter Cassette with a Circumferential Orifice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new personal filter cassette with circumferential orifices for personal inhalable dust concentration measurements was tested using coal dust, and compared to standard closed face and open face cassettes. The new cassette has four orifices separated by s...

M. McCawley J. Burkhart P. Baron D. Dollberg

1983-01-01

236

Audio Bombing: Magnetic Cassette Tape Graffiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audio Bombing is an alternative form of graffiti that uses magnetic audiotape as its medium. Drawing from hip hop and graffiti culture Audio Bombing starts with a basic cassette tape. Using a tape recorder you can record any information you want on to a cassette (music, poems, philosophy, subversive literature, etc.). After recording you remove the tape and cut out

Mike Fleming; Kang Chang; Kyle Millns

2007-01-01

237

Shear strength of empty and infilled cassettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the shear buckling of light gauge steel cassette sections both with and without an infilling of relatively rigid thermal insulation. In cassette construction, in-plane shear stresses usually arise as a consequence of stressed skin (diaphragm) action and, in this context, it is local buckling of the wide flange that usually governs the design. Although there are some

J. M. Davies; A. S. Fragos

2003-01-01

238

Replacement of the positively charged Walker A lysine residue with a hydrophobic leucine residue and conformational alterations caused by this mutation in MRP1 impair ATP binding and hydrolysis  

PubMed Central

MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) couples ATP binding/hydrolysis at its two non-equivalent NBDs (nucleotide-binding domains) with solute transport. Some of the NBD1 mutants, such as W653C, decreased affinity for ATP at the mutated site, but increased the rate of ATP-dependent solute transport. In contrast, other NBD1 mutants, such as K684L, had decreased ATP binding and rate of solute transport. We now report that mutations of the Walker A lysine residue, K684L and K1333L, significantly alter the tertiary structure of the protein. Due to elimination of the positively charged group and conformational alterations, the K684L mutation greatly decreases the affinity for ATP at the mutated NBD1 and affects ATP binding at the unmutated NBD2. Although K684L-mutated NBD1 can bind ATP at higher concentrations, the bound nucleotide at that site is not efficiently hydrolysed. All these alterations result in decreased ATP-dependent solute transport to approx. 40% of the wild-type. In contrast, the K1333L mutation affects ATP binding and hydrolysis at the mutated NBD2 only, leading to decreased ATP-dependent solute transport to approx. 11% of the wild-type. Consistent with their relative transport activities, the amount of vincristine accumulated in cells is in the order of K1333L?CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator)>K684L?wild-type MRP1. Although these mutants retain partial solute transport activities, the cells expressing them are not multidrug-resistant owing to inefficient export of the anticancer drugs by these mutants. This indicates that even partial inhibition of transport activity of MRP1 can reverse the multidrug resistance caused by this drug transporter.

Buyse, Frederic; Hou, Yue-xian; Vigano, Catherine; Zhao, Qing; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Chang, Xiu-bao

2006-01-01

239

Influence of a mutation in the ATP-binding region of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II on its interaction with peptide substrates.  

PubMed Central

CaMKII (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is expressed in high concentrations in the brain and is found enriched in the postsynaptic densities. The enzyme is activated by the binding of calmodulin to the autoregulatory domain in the presence of high levels of intracellular Ca2+, which causes removal of auto-inhibition from the N-terminal catalytic domain. Knowledge of the 3D (three-dimensional) structure of this enzyme at atomic resolution is restricted to the association domain, a region at the extreme C-terminus. The catalytic domain of CaMKII shares high sequence similarity with CaMKI. The 3D structure of the catalytic core of CaMKI comprises ATP- and substrate-binding regions in a cleft between two distinct lobes, similar to the structures of all protein kinases solved to date. Mutation of Glu-60, a residue in the ATP-binding region of CaMKII, to glycine exerts different effects on phosphorylation of two peptide substrates, syntide and NR2B ( N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B) 17-mer. Although the mutation caused increases in the Km values for phosphorylation for both the peptide substrates, the effect on the kcat values for each was different. The kcat value decreased in the case of syntide, whereas it increased in the case of the NR2B peptide as a result of the mutation. This resulted in a significant decrease in the apparent kcat/Km value for syntide, but the change was minimal for the NR2B peptide. These results indicate that different catalytic mechanisms are employed by the kinase for the two peptides. Molecular modelling suggests structural changes are likely to occur at the peptide-binding pocket in the active state of the enzyme as a consequence of the Glu-60-->Gly mutation.

Praseeda, Mullasseril; Pradeep, Kurup K; Krupa, Ananth; Krishna, S Sri; Leena, Suseela; Kumar, R Rajeev; Cheriyan, John; Mayadevi, Madhavan; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Omkumar, Ramakrishnapillai V

2004-01-01

240

The three-dimensional structure of MAP kinase p38[beta]: different features of the ATP-binding site in p38[beta] compared with p38[alpha  

SciTech Connect

The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in response to environmental stress and cytokines and play a significant role in transcriptional regulation and inflammatory responses. Of the four p38 isoforms known to date, two (p38{alpha} and p38{beta}) have been identified as targets for cytokine-suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs. Recently, it was reported that specific inhibition of the p38{alpha} isoform is necessary and sufficient for anti-inflammatory efficacy in vivo, while further inhibition of p38{beta} may not provide any additional benefit. In order to aid the development of p38{alpha}-selective compounds, the three-dimensional structure of p38{beta} was determined. To do so, the C162S and C119S,C162S mutants of human MAP kinase p38{beta} were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Initial screening hits in crystallization trials in the presence of an inhibitor led upon optimization to crystals that diffracted to 2.05 {angstrom} resolution and allowed structure determination (PDB codes 3gc8 and 3gc9 for the single and double mutant, respectively). The structure of the p38{alpha} C162S mutant in complex with the same inhibitor is also reported (PDB code 3gc7). A comparison between the structures of the two kinases showed that they are highly similar overall but that there are differences in the relative orientation of the N- and C-terminal domains that causes a reduction in the size of the ATP-binding pocket in p38{beta}. This difference in size between the two pockets could be exploited in order to achieve selectivity.

Patel, Sangita B.; Cameron, Patricia M.; O'Keefe, Stephen J.; Frantz-Wattley, Betsy; Thompson, Jed; O'Neill, Edward A.; Tennis, Trevor; Liu, Luping; Becker, Joseph W.; Scapin, Giovanna; Merck

2010-10-18

241

Automatic Loading of Composite Tape Using Cassettes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application relates generally to laminating and tape-laying systems, and more specifically to a system of automatically loading composite tape onto tape-laying machine using cassettes. Automated composite laminating work centers reduce manufac...

S. I. Hailey

1986-01-01

242

Identification of differentially expressed proteins by treatment with PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through analysis of ATP-binding proteome.  

PubMed

O-GlcNAc (2-acetamino-2-deoxy-?-D-glucopyranose), an important modification for cellular processes, is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase. O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate (PUGNAc) is a nonselective inhibitor of O-GlcNAcase, which increases the level of protein O-GlcNAcylation and is known to induce insulin-resistance in adipose cells due to uncharacterized targets of this inhibitor. In this study, using ATP affinity chromatography, we applied a targeted proteomic approach for identification of proteins induced by treatment with PUGNAc. For optimization of proteomic methods using ATP affinity chromatography, comparison of two cell lines (3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes) and two different digestion steps was performed using four different structures of immobilized ATP-bound resins. Using this approach, based on DNA sequence homologies, we found that the identified proteins covered almost half of ATP-binding protein families classified by PROSITE. The optimized ATP affinity chromatography approach was applied for identification of proteins that were differentially expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes following treatment with PUGNAc. For label-free quantitation, a gel-assisted method was used for digestion of the eluted proteins, and analysis was performed using two different MS modes, data-independent (671 proteins identified) and data-dependent (533 proteins identified) analyses. Among identified proteins, 261 proteins belong to nucleotide-binding proteins and we focused on some nucleotide-binding proteins, ubiquitin-activation enzyme 1 (E1), Hsp70, vasolin-containing protein (Vcp), and Hsp90, involved in ubiquitin-proteasome degradation and insulin signaling pathways. In addition, we found that treatment with PUGNAc resulted in increased ubiquitination of proteins in a time-dependent manner, and a decrease in both the amount of Akt and the level of phosphorylation of Akt, a key component in insulin signaling, through downregulation of Hsp90. In this study, based on a targeted proteomic approach using ATP affinity chromatography, we found four proteins related to ubiquitination and insulin signaling pathways that were induced by treatment with PUGNAc. This result would provide insight into understanding functions of PUGNAc in 3T3-L1 cells. PMID:23946262

Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Ja-Hye; Moon, Pyong-Gon; Baek, Moon-Chang

2013-10-01

243

A mutation in the ATP-binding site of the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channel alters coupling with the SUR2A subunit.  

PubMed

Mutations in the pore-forming subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel Kir6.2 cause neonatal diabetes. Understanding the molecular mechanism of action of these mutations has provided valuable insight into the relationship between the structure and function of the K(ATP) channel. When Kir6.2 containing a mutation (F333I) in the putative ATP-binding site is coexpressed with the cardiac type of regulatory K(ATP) channel subunit, SUR2A, the channel sensitivity to ATP inhibition is reduced and the intrinsic open probability (P(o)) is increased. However, the extent of macroscopic current activation by MgADP was unaffected. Here we examine rundown and MgADP activation of wild-type and Kir6.2-F333I/SUR2A channels using single-channel recording, noise analysis and spectral analysis. We also compare the effect of mutating the adjacent residue, G334, on rundown and MgADP activation. All three approaches indicated that rundown of Kir6.2-F333I/SUR2A channels is due to a reduction in the number of active channels in the patch and that MgADP reactivation involves recruitment of inactive channels. In contrast, rundown and MgADP reactivation of wild-type and Kir6.2-G334D/SUR2A channels, and of Kir6.2-F333I/SUR1 channels, involve a gradual change in P(o). Our results suggest that F333 in Kir6.2 interacts functionally with SUR2A to modulate channel rundown and MgADP activation. This interaction is fairly specific as it is not disturbed when the adjacent residue (G334) is mutated. It is also not a consequence of the enhanced P(o) of Kir6.2-F333I/SUR2A channels, as it is not found for other mutant channels with high P(o) (Kir6.2-I296L/SUR2A). PMID:17855752

Tammaro, Paolo; Ashcroft, Frances M

2007-11-01

244

Conformations of the apo-, substrate-bound and phosphate-bound ATP-binding domain of the Cu(II) ATPase CopB illustrate coupling of domain movement to the catalytic cycle.  

PubMed

Heavy metal P1B-type ATPases play a critical role in cell survival by maintaining appropriate intracellular metal concentrations. Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopB is a member of this family that transports Cu(II) from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell using ATP as energy source. CopB has a 264 amino acid ATPBD (ATP-binding domain) that is essential for ATP binding and hydrolysis as well as ultimately transducing the energy to the transmembrane metal-binding site for metal occlusion and export. The relevant conformations of this domain during the different steps of the catalytic cycle are still under discussion. Through crystal structures of the apo- and phosphate-bound ATPBDs, with limited proteolysis and fluorescence studies of the apo- and substrate-bound states, we show that the isolated ATPBD of CopB cycles from an open conformation in the apo-state to a closed conformation in the substrate-bound state, then returns to an open conformation suitable for product release. The present work is the first structural report of an ATPBD with its physiologically relevant product (phosphate) bound. The solution studies we have performed help resolve questions on the potential influence of crystal packing on domain conformation. These results explain how phosphate is co-ordinated in ATPase transporters and give an insight into the physiologically relevant conformation of the ATPBD at different steps of the catalytic cycle. PMID:22663904

Jayakanthan, Samuel; Roberts, Sue A; Weichsel, Andrzej; Argüello, José M; McEvoy, Megan M

2012-10-01

245

Class 1 Integrons, Gene Cassettes, Mobility, and Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrons are genetic elements that, although unable to move themselves, contain gene cassettes that can be mobilized to\\u000a other integrons or to secondary sites in the bacterial genome. The majority of approximately 60 known gene cassettes encode\\u000a resistance to antibiotics. Recently, a number of gene cassettes encoding extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases\\u000a have been described. Up to at least five cassettes

A. C. Fluit; F. J. Schmitz

1999-01-01

246

Status Panel For Video Cassette Recorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Central array of light-emitting diodes displays status of 30 video cassette recorders (VCR's) monitoring integrated testing of Space Shuttle. Remote status panel linked to VCR's by one 37-conductor cable. Transistor/ transistor logic chips in interface circuit allow LED array to function without drawing power from VCR control circuits.

Talley, G. L., Jr.; Herbison, D. R.

1984-01-01

247

Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec in MRSA, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the predominant staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) mec element in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, we typed 190 isolates from a hos- pital in Taiwan. We found a shift from type IV to type III SCCmec element during 1992-2003, perhaps caused by selective pressure from indiscriminate use of antimicrobial drugs.

Jann-Tay Wang; Chi-Tai Fang; Yee-Chun Chen; Chia-Ling Wu; Mei-Ling Chen; Shan-Chwen Chang

2007-01-01

248

Effect of attC structure on cassette excision by integron integrases  

PubMed Central

Background Integrons are genetic elements able to integrate and disseminate genes as cassettes by a site-specific recombination mechanism. These elements contain a gene coding for an integrase that carries out recombination by interacting with two different target sites; the attI site in cis with the integrase and the palindromic attC site of a gene cassette. Integron integrases (IntIs) bind specifically to the bottom strand of attC sites. The extrahelical bases resulting from folding of attC bottom strands are important for the recognition by integrases. These enzymes are directly involved in the accumulation and formation of new cassette arrangements in the variable region of integrons. Thus, it is important to better understand interactions between IntIs and their substrates. Results We compared the ability of five IntIs to carry out excision of several cassettes flanked by different attC sites. The results showed that for most cassettes, IntI1 was the most active integrase. However, IntI2*179E and SonIntIA could easily excise cassettes containing the attCdfrA1 site located upstream, whereas IntI1 and IntI3 had only a weak excision activity for these cassettes. Analysis of the secondary structure adopted by the bottom strand of attCdfrA1 has shown that the identity of the extrahelical bases and the distance between them (A-N7-8-C) differ from those of attCs contained in the cassettes most easily excisable by IntI1 (T-N6-G). We used the attCdfrA1 site upstream of the sat2 gene cassette as a template and varied the identity and spacing between the extrahelical bases in order to determine how these modifications influence the ability of IntI1, IntI2*179E, IntI3 and SonIntIA to excise cassettes. Our results show that IntI1 is more efficient in cassette excision using T-N6-G or T-N6-C attCs while IntI3 recognizes only a limited range of attCs. IntI2*179E and SonIntIA are more tolerant of changes to the identity and spacing of extrahelical bases. Conclusions This study provides new insights into the factors that influence the efficiency of cassette excision by integron integrases. It also suggests that IntI2 and SonIntIA have an evolutionary path that is different from IntI1 and IntI3, in their ability to recognize and excise cassettes.

2011-01-01

249

Automatic loading of composite tape using cassettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent application relates generally to laminating and tape-laying systems, and more specifically to a system of automatically loading composite tape onto tape-laying machine using cassettes. Automated composite laminating work centers reduce manufacturing costs and provide for high rates of production. A system for the automatic and continuous loading of composite tape into a tape-laying machine is disclosed. The system

S. I. Hailey

1986-01-01

250

Codon cassette mutagenesis: a general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes.  

PubMed Central

We describe codon cassette mutagenesis, a simple method of mutagenesis that uses universal mutagenic cassettes to deposit single codons at specific sites in double-stranded DNA. A target molecule is first constructed that contains a blunt, double-strand break at the site targeted for mutagenesis. A double-stranded mutagenic codon cassette is then inserted at the target site. Each mutagenic codon cassette contains a three base pair direct terminal repeat and two head-to-head recognition sequences for the restriction endonuclease Sapl, an enzyme that cleaves outside of its recognition sequence. The intermediate molecule containing the mutagenic cassette is then digested with Sapl, thereby removing most of the mutagenic cassette, leaving only a three base cohesive overhang that is ligated to generate the final insertion or substitution mutation. A general method for constructing blunt-end target molecules suitable for this approach is also described. Because the mutagenic cassette is excised during this procedure and alters the target only by introducing the desired mutation, the same cassette can be used to introduce a particular codon at all target sites. Each cassette can deposit two different codons, depending on the orientation in which it is inserted into the target molecule. Therefore, a series of eleven cassettes is sufficient to insert all possible amino acids at any constructed target site. Thus codon cassettes are 'off-the-shelf' reagents, and this methodology should be a particularly useful and inexpensive approach for subjecting multiple different positions in a protein sequence to saturation mutagenesis. Images

Kegler-Ebo, D M; Docktor, C M; DiMaio, D

1994-01-01

251

Comparative analysis of CRISPR cassettes from the human gut metagenomic contigs  

PubMed Central

Background CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a prokaryotic adaptive defence system that provides resistance against alien replicons such as viruses and plasmids. Spacers in a CRISPR cassette confer immunity against viruses and plasmids containing regions complementary to the spacers and hence they retain a footprint of interactions between prokaryotes and their viruses in individual strains and ecosystems. The human gut is a rich habitat populated by numerous microorganisms, but a large fraction of these are unculturable and little is known about them in general and their CRISPR systems in particular. Results We used human gut metagenomic data from three open projects in order to characterize the composition and dynamics of CRISPR cassettes in the human-associated microbiota. Applying available CRISPR-identification algorithms and a previously designed filtering procedure to the assembled human gut metagenomic contigs, we found 388 CRISPR cassettes, 373 of which had repeats not observed previously in complete genomes or other datasets. Only 171 of 3,545 identified spacers were coupled with protospacers from the human gut metagenomic contigs. The number of matches to GenBank sequences was negligible, providing protospacers for 26 spacers. Reconstruction of CRISPR cassettes allowed us to track the dynamics of spacer content. In agreement with other published observations we show that spacers shared by different cassettes (and hence likely older ones) tend to the trailer ends, whereas spacers with matches in the metagenomes are distributed unevenly across cassettes, demonstrating a preference to form clusters closer to the active end of a CRISPR cassette, adjacent to the leader, and hence suggesting dynamical interactions between prokaryotes and viruses in the human gut. Remarkably, spacers match protospacers in the metagenome of the same individual with frequency comparable to a random control, but may match protospacers from metagenomes of other individuals. Conclusions The analysis of assembled contigs is complementary to the approach based on the analysis of original reads and hence provides additional data about composition and evolution of CRISPR cassettes, revealing the dynamics of CRISPR-phage interactions in metagenomes.

2014-01-01

252

Finger-Actuated, Self-Contained Immunoassay Cassettes  

PubMed Central

The building blocks for an inexpensive, disposable, luminescence-based microfluidic immunoassay cassette are described, and their integration in a point-of-care diagnostic system is demonstrated. Fluid motion in the cassette is driven by depressing finger-actuated pouches. All reagents needed for the immunoassay can be stored in the cassette in liquid form. Prior to use, the cassette consists of two separate parts. A top storage component contains pouches, sealed storage chambers, a metering chamber, and needle seats. The bottom processing component contains connection needles, a mixing chamber, and a detection chamber with immobilized proteins. Subsequent to sample introduction, the storage and processing components are mated. The needles form hydraulic connections between the two parts and, in some cases, close valves. The pouches are then actuated sequentially to induce flow of various reagents and facilitate process operations. The cassette is compatible with different detection modalities. Both a cassette with immunochromatographic-based detection and a cassette with microbead-based detection were constructed and evaluated. The immunochromatographic cassette was used to detect antibodies to HIV in saliva samples. The bead-based cassette was used to detect the proinflammatory chemokine IL-8. The experimental data demonstrates good repeatability and reasonable sensitivity.

Qiu, Xianbo; Thompson, Jason A.; Chen, Zongyuan; Liu, Changchun; Chen, Dafeng; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Mauk, Michael G.; Ongagna, Serge; Barber, Cheryl; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

2010-01-01

253

A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

Britton Wayne E.

2006-11-29

254

Characterization of a multiple endogenously expressed adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporters using nuclear and cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive form of human astrocytoma, with poor prognosis due to multi-drug resistance to a number of anticancer drugs. The observed multi-drug resistance is primarily due to the efflux activity of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) efflux transporters such as Pgp, MRP1 and BCRP. The expression of these transporters has been demonstrated in nuclear and cellular membranes of the LN-229 human glioblastoma cell line. Nuclear membrane and cellular membrane fragments from LN-229 cells were immobilized on the IAM stationary phase to create nuclear and cellular membrane affinity chromatography columns, (NMAC(LN-229)) and (CMAC(LN-229)), respectively. Pgp, MRP1 and BCRP transporters co-immobilized on both columns were characterized and compared by establishing the binding affinities for estrone-3-sulfate (3.8 vs. 3.7?M), verapamil (0.6 vs. 0.7?M) and prazosin (0.099 vs. 0.033?M) on each column and no significant differences were observed. Since the marker ligands had overlapping selectivities, the selective characterization of each transporter was carried out by saturation of the binding sites of the non-targeted transporters. The addition of verapamil (Pgp and MRP1 substrate) to the mobile phase allowed the comparative screening of eight compounds at the nuclear and cellular BCRP using etoposide as the marker ligand. AZT increased the retention of etoposide (+15%), a positive allosteric interaction, on the CMAC(LN-229) column and decreased it (-5%) on the NMAC(LN-229), while the opposite effect was produced by rhodamine. The results indicate that there are differences between the cellular and nuclear membrane expressed BCRP and that NMAC and CMAC columns can be used to probe these differences. PMID:24642394

Habicht, K-L; Singh, N S; Khadeer, M A; Shimmo, R; Wainer, I W; Moaddel, R

2014-04-25

255

An investigation of the shielding characteristics of computed radiography cassettes.  

PubMed

Computed radiography (CR) systems are rapidly replacing film screen techniques. Previous estimates have been made of the degree of attenuation that occurs as a primary diagnostic X-ray beam passes through a film-screen cassette at different tube potentials. Cassette attenuation is commonly stated in terms of equivalent thickness of lead, which can be calculated using lead attenuation curves. These values can then be subtracted from the shielding requirements calculated for diagnostic X-ray rooms. Since the introduction of CR, no comparison has been made between the attenuation of the old film-screen and the new CR cassettes. In order to perform such a comparison, transmission factors for two CR cassettes and one film-screen cassette were measured, in addition to experimental lead attenuation curves. Lead equivalent thickness values were calculated for all three cassettes using both a semi-theoretical model and measured data. Although there was some discrepancy between the two methods, both found that the new cassettes provided a similar or greater degree of attenuation as the film screen cassette. PMID:18238923

Potts, R; Baker, K; Bridge, L

2008-02-01

256

A portable analyzer for pouch-actuated, immunoassay cassettes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress

Xianbo Qiu; Changchun Liu; Michael G. Mauk; Robert W. Hart; Dafeng Chen; Jing Qiu; Terry Kientz; Jonathan Fiene; Haim H. Bau

257

Captioned Video Cassettes: A Source of Reading Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting the popularity of television viewing, the use of captioned video cassettes bridges the gap between "televiewing" and reading, and can be used to improve the reading skills of college students, who see these materials as helpful in improving concentration, mental imagery, speed, and comprehension. Cassettes, either of captioned foreign…

Maginnis, George H.

258

The cardiac myosin heavy chain Arg-403-->Gln mutation that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy does not affect the actin- or ATP-binding capacities of two size-limited recombinant myosin heavy chain fragments.  

PubMed Central

Our aim was to investigate the potential functional consequences of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mutations identified in patients with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We observed the presence of a mutated beta-MHC mRNA in a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded myocardial tissue of a proband from family A, which Geisterfer-Lowrance et al. [Geisterfer-Lowrance, Kass, Tanigawa, Vosberg, McKenna, Seidman and Seidman (1990) Cell 62, 999-1006] identified as carrying the Arg-403 to Gln mutation. Recombinant DNA methods were then used to obtain size-limited, soluble and undenatured fragments of mutated myosin subfragment 1 focused around the 403 mutation. The present analysis indicated that the 403 mutation did not quantitatively alter the actin- or ATP-binding capacities of two 246-residue or 524-residue-long recombinant MHC fragments containing this mutation. The absence of any apparent impact of the 403 mutation in the recombinant MHC fragments on interactions between actin and ATP is discussed in relation to numerous biochemical and structural reports which demonstrate the crucial role of the central MHC segment, where the 403 mutation occurs, in myosin functions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Eldin, P; Le Cunff, M; Mornet, D; Leger, J J

1995-01-01

259

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

260

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

261

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

262

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

263

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

265

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

266

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

267

21 CFR 892.1850 - Radiographic film cassette.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1850 Radiographic film cassette. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

268

21 CFR 892.1860 - Radiographic film/cassette changer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1860 Radiographic film/cassette changer. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

269

An improved GFP cloning cassette designed for prokaryotic transcriptional fusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new gfp cloning cassette designed for prokaryotic transcriptional fusions has been constructed. This cassette consists of gfp (containing the S65T `red-shift' [Heim et al. (1995) Nature 373, 663–664] and F64L `protein solubility' [Cormack et al. (1996) Gene 173, 33–38] mutations) flanked by convenient restriction sites, a translational enhancer, and a consensus ribosome binding site with an optimized spacer region.

William G Miller; Steven E Lindow

1997-01-01

270

A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes.  

PubMed

A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer's design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G; Hart, Robert W; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H

2011-12-15

271

A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes  

PubMed Central

A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum.

Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

2011-01-01

272

Mitoxantrone Targets the ATP-binding Site of FAK, Binds the FAK Kinase Domain and Decreases FAK, Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R, In Vitro Kinase Activities  

PubMed Central

Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor kinase that is overexpressed in many types of tumors and plays a key role in cell adhesion, spreading, motility, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and survival. Recently, FAK has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy, and we performed computer modeling and screening of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) small molecule compounds database to target the ATP-binding site of FAK, K454. More than 140,000 small molecule compounds were docked into the crystal structure of the kinase domain of FAK in 100 different orientations using DOCK5.1 that identified small molecule compounds, targeting the K454 site, called A-compounds. To find the therapeutic efficacy of these compounds, we examined the effect of twenty small molecule compounds on cell viability by MTT assays in different cancer cell lines. One compound, A18 (1,4-bis(diethylamino)-5,8-dihydroxy anthraquinon) was a mitoxantrone derivative and significantly decreased viability in most of the cells comparable to the to the level of FAK kinase inhibitors TAE-226 (Novartis, Inc) and PF-573,228 (Pfizer). The A18 compound specifically blocked autophosphorylation of FAK like TAE-226 and PF-228. ForteBio Octet Binding assay demonstrated that mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino) ethylamino] anthracene-9,10-dione directly binds the FAK-kinase domain. In addition, mitoxantrone significantly decreased the viability of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the kinase activity of FAK and Y56/577 FAK phosphorylation at 10-20 ?M. Mitoxantrone did not affect phosphorylation of EGFR, but decreased Pyk-2, c-Src, and IGF-1R kinase activities. The data demonstrate that mitotraxone decreases cancer viability, binds FAK-Kinase domain, inhibits its kinase activity, and also inhibits in vitro kinase activities of Pyk-2 and IGF-1R. Thus, this novel function of the mitoxantrone drug can be critical for future development of anti-cancer agents and FAK-targeted therapy research.

Golubovskaya, Vita; Ho, Baotran; Zheng, Min; Magis, Andrew; Ostrov, David; Cance, William

2013-01-01

273

Rapid hierarchical assembly of medium-size DNA cassettes  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology applications call for efficient methods to generate large gene cassettes that encode complex gene circuits in order to avoid simultaneous delivery of multiple plasmids encoding individual genes. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this goal. Here, we describe a novel protocol that allows one-step cloning of up to four gene-size DNA fragments, followed by a second assembly of these concatenated sequences into large circular DNA. The protocols described here comprise a simple, cheap and fast solution for routine construction of cassettes with up to 10 gene-size components.

Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan Leo; Xie, Zhen; Frank, Stefan; Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Mitschka, Sibylle; Kolanus, Waldemar; Murray, Andrew; Benenson, Yaakov

2012-01-01

274

Identification and bioinformatic characterization of a multidrug resistance associated protein (ABCC) gene in Plasmodium berghei  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily is one of the largest evolutionarily conserved families of proteins. ABC proteins play key roles in cellular detoxification of endobiotics and xenobiotics. Overexpression of certain ABC proteins, among them the multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), contributes to drug resistance in organisms ranging from human neoplastic cells to parasitic protozoa. In the present study, the

María González-Pons; Ada C Szeto; Ricardo González-Méndez; Adelfa E Serrano

2009-01-01

275

Gene activation regresses atherosclerosis, promotes health, and enhances longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors and pharmacological compounds activate genetic mechanisms that influence the development of atherosclerotic and other diseases. This article reviews studies on natural and pharmacological gene activation that promotes health and enhances longevity. RESULTS: Living habits including healthy diet and regular physical activity, and pharmacotherapy, upregulate genes encoding enzymes and apolipoprotein and ATP-binding cassette transporters, acting in metabolic processes

Pauli V Luoma

2010-01-01

276

Business Information Audio Cassettes: Their Care and Feeding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Audio cassettes raise new types of problems for special librarians. Confronted with sparse information about the media, the author, through trial and error, eventually produced basic guidelines and criteria for bibliographic control, storage, circulation, and material sources. These are described and workable solutions are presented. (5…

Noble, Valerie

1973-01-01

277

The Real World Spanish Cassette Program. Script Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dual cassette program, accompanied by a script book, is designed to give students listening practice in Spanish, particularly for regional differences of pronunciation and for variety in idiomatic construction. The program may be integrated with texts used in intermediate and advanced levels of instruction. The announcements, jingles, and…

Sternburg, Sheldon G.

278

The Real World French Cassette Program. Script Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dual cassette package, accompanied by a script book, is designed to give students listening practice in French, particularly for regional differences of pronunciation and for variety in idiomatic constructions. The program may be integrated with texts used in intermediate and advanced levels of instruction. The announcements, jingles, and…

Sternburg, Sheldon G.; Sammarco, Anthony M., Jr.

279

Evaluation of an Audio Cassette Tape Lecture Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An audio-cassette continuing education course (Selected Topics in Pharmacology) from Extension Services in Pharmacy at the University of Wisconsin was offered to a selected test market of pharmacists and evaluated using a pre-, post-test design. Results showed significant increase in cognitive knowledge and strong approval of students. (JT)

Blank, Jerome W.

1975-01-01

280

Light gauge steel cassette wall construction — theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light gauge steel cassette wall construction is an interesting alternative to the conventional method of constructing light steel framing for low-rise buildings using wall studs. This paper demonstrates that this method of construction is shown to particular advantage when wall panels are subject to in-plane shear forces, which generally arise from wind loading but can also arise from seismic loading

J. Michael Davies

2006-01-01

281

Library Voices; Cassette Conversations in a Tape Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposal is made for an exchange of cassette tapes from librarians, teachers, and students between Palo Alto, California, and Queensland, Australia. The objectives of the project are to help children and adults from both countries to form a closer understanding, and to stimulate and share thoughts and ideas. Suggested activities include singing,…

Christine, Emma Ruth

282

Patterns of Availability and Use of Audiotape Cassettes in Special Libraries. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability and use of audiotape cassettes is studied in terms of user requirements. The following factors were examined: how special libraries utilize audiotape cassettes; who the users of the medium are; how the libraries acquire and maintain their collection; and opinions of librarians as to the value of the audiotape cassette as a medium for dissemination of information.

Hughes, J. M., II

1975-01-01

283

Diversity of Gene Cassette Promoters in Class 1 Integrons from Wastewater Environments  

PubMed Central

The diversity of gene cassette promoters in class 1 integrons was investigated in 47 strains isolated from wastewaters. The weak PcW and PcH1 variants predominated, suggesting that, similar to clinical environments, high rates of gene cassette recombination, rather than high expression of gene cassettes, have been preferentially selected in wastewaters.

Jove, Thomas; Ploy, Marie-Cecile; Henriques, Isabel; Correia, Antonio

2012-01-01

284

Antibiotic resistance gene cassettes derived from the ? interposon for use in E. coli and Streptomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three antibiotic resistance gene cassettes, derived from the ? interposon (Prentki and Krisch (1984) Gene 29, 303–313) were constructed. These cassettes carry different antibiotic resistance genes, conferring resistance to geneticin, hygromycin or viomycin, flanked by short inverted repeats containing transcription and translation termination signals and synthetic polylinkers. These cassettes were designated ?aac, ?hyg and ?vph. Resistance phenotypes conferred by these

Marie-Hélène Blondelet-Rouault; Jaroslav Weiser; Ahmed Lebrihi; Pavel Branny; Jean-Luc Pernodet

1997-01-01

285

THE REAL ISSUE WITH WALL DEPOSITS IN CLOSED FILTER CASSETTES - WHAT'S THE SAMPLE?  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of aerosol dusts has long been utilized to assess the exposure of workers to metals. Tools used to sample and measure aerosol dusts have gone through many transitions over the past century. In particular, there have been several different techniques used to sample for beryllium, not all of which might be expected to produce the same result. Today, beryllium samples are generally collected using filters housed in holders of several different designs, some of which are expected to produce a sample that mimics the human capacity for dust inhalation. The presence of dust on the interior walls of cassettes used to hold filters during metals sampling has been discussed in the literature for a number of metals, including beryllium, with widely varying data. It appears that even in the best designs, particulates can enter the sampling cassette and deposit on the interior walls rather than on the sampling medium. The causes are not well understood but are believed to include particle bounce, electrostatic forces, particle size, particle density, and airflow turbulence. Historically, the filter catch has been considered to be the sample, but the presence of wall deposits, and the potential that the filter catch is not representative of the exposure to the worker, puts that historical position into question. This leads to a fundamental question: What is the sample? This article reviews the background behind the issue, poses the above-mentioned question, and discusses options and a possible path forward for addressing that question.

Brisson, M.

2009-09-12

286

Large-Scale Gene Disruption Using the UAU1 Cassette  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is a major fungal systemic pathogen in humans. Genetic manipulation of C. albicans is unwieldy. We report here a strategy that is useful and successful for large-scale genetic manipulation of C. albicans genes of interest: use of the UAU1 cassette on a Tn7 transposon. Streamlined yet admittedly flawed disruption techniques, such as the one described here, may prove vital to uncovering the genetic basis of fungal virulence.

Nobile, Clarissa J.; Mitchell, Aaron P.

2009-01-01

287

Cassettes for solid-oxide fuel cell stacks and methods of making the same  

DOEpatents

Solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack assembly designs are consistently investigated to develop an assembly that provides optimal performance, and durability, within desired cost parameters. A new design includes a repeat unit having a SOFC cassette and being characterized by a three-component construct. The three components include an oxidation-resistant, metal window frame hermetically joined to an electrolyte layer of a multi-layer, anode-supported ceramic cell and a pre-cassette including a separator plate having a plurality of vias that provide electrical contact between an anode-side collector within the pre-cassette and a cathode-side current collector of an adjacent cell. The third component is a cathode-side seal, which includes a standoff that supports a cathode channel spacing between each of the cassettes in a stack. Cassettes are formed by joining the pre-cassette and the window frame.

Weil, K. Scott; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L

2012-10-23

288

The cost-effectiveness of carbon-fibre cassettes in mobile chest radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Employment of carbon fibre materials is an effective method of reducing radiation dose, yet the increased associated costs\\u000a have led to a reluctance in implementation. This study investigates the level of dose reduction achievable, while maintaining\\u000a image quality, in mobile chest radiography using carbon-fibre cassettes, compared with plastic cassettes, and balances this\\u000a against increased expense of the cassettes. Dose

P. C. Brennan; S. P. Hourihan

1998-01-01

289

Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high-speed, high-capacity digital data storage system has been developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates sophisticated, yet easy to use and economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts.

Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.

1985-01-01

290

Is this charred material from a VHS video cassette?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At his residence, a victim in a double homicide had installed a home-built video surveillance system. The suspects either knew of or discovered this system and removed it. In a backyard at a location associated with the suspects was a barrel used for burning trash. Could charred debris recovered from a metal bowl found among the contents of the barrel be the remains of a VHS video cassette? A positive answer to the question was obtained through a combination of optical microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS).

Fruchtenicht, Tara; Blackledge, Robert D.; Williams, Teresa R.

2010-06-01

291

Novel Type V Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec Driven by a Novel Cassette Chromosome Recombinase, ccrC  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element composed of the mec gene complex, which encodes methicillin resistance, and the ccr gene complex, which encodes the recombinases responsible for its mobility. The mec gene complex has been classified into four classes, and the ccr gene complex has been classified into three allotypes. Different combinations of mec gene complex classes and ccr gene complex types have so far defined four types of SCCmec elements. Now we introduce the fifth allotype of SCCmec, which was found on the chromosome of a community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain (strain WIS [WBG8318]) isolated in Australia. The element shared the same chromosomal integration site with the four extant types of SCCmec and the characteristic nucleotide sequences at the chromosome-SCCmec junction regions. The novel SCCmec carried mecA bracketed by IS431 (IS431-mecA-?mecR1-IS431), which is designated the class C2 mec gene complex; and instead of ccrA and ccrB genes, it carried a single copy of a gene homologue that encoded cassette chromosome recombinase. Since the open reading frame (ORF) was found to encode an enzyme which catalyzes the precise excision as well as site- and orientation-specific integration of the element, we designated the ORF cassette chromosome recombinase C (ccrC), and we designated the element type V SCCmec. Type V SCCmec is a small SCCmec element (28 kb) and does not carry any antibiotic resistance genes besides mecA. Unlike the extant SCCmec types, it carries a set of foreign genes encoding a restriction-modification system that might play a role in the stabilization of the element on the chromosome.

Ito, Teruyo; Ma, Xiao Xue; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Okuma, Keiko; Yuzawa, Harumi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

2004-01-01

292

Ablation of the cholesterol transporter adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter G1 reduces adipose cell size and protects against diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

The ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) catalyzes export of cellular cholesterol from macrophages and hepatocytes. Here we identify an additional function of ABCG1 in the regulation of adiposity in screens of the Drosophila melanogaster and the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse genomes. Insertion of modified transposable elements of the P-family upstream of CG17646, the Drosophila ortholog of Abcg1, generated lines of flies with increased triglyceride stores. In NZO mice, an Abcg1 variant was identified in a suggestive adiposity quantitative trait locus and was associated with higher expression of the gene in white adipose tissue. Targeted disruption of Abcg1 in mice resulted in reduced body weight gain (8.42+/-0.6 g in Abcg1-/- vs. 13.07+/-1.1 g in Abcg1+/+ mice) and adipose tissue mass gain (3.78+/-1.3 g in Abcg1-/- vs. 9.39+/-1.6 g in Abcg1+/+ mice) detected over a period of 12 wk. The reduction of adipose tissue mass in Abcg1-/- mice was associated with markedly decreased size of the adipocytes. In contrast to their wild-type littermates, male Abcg1-/- mice exhibited no high-fat diet-induced impairment of glucose tolerance and fatty liver. Furthermore, Abcg1-/- mice possess decreased food intake and elevated total energy expenditure (Abcg1-/- mice, 748.1+/-5.4 kJ/kg metabolic body mass; Abcg1+/+ mice, 684.3+/-5.0 kJ/kg metabolic body mass; P=0.011), body temperature (Abcg1-/- mice, 37.82+/-0.29 C; Abcg1+/+ mice, 36.83+/-0.24 C; P<0.05), and locomotor activity (Abcg1-/- mice, 3655+/-189 counts/12 h during dark phase; Abcg1+/+ mice, 2445+/-235 counts/12 h during dark phase; P<0.01). Our data indicate a previously unrecognized role of ABCG1 in the regulation of energy balance and triglyceride storage. PMID:17194745

Buchmann, Jana; Meyer, Christoph; Neschen, Susanne; Augustin, Robert; Schmolz, Katja; Kluge, Reinhart; Al-Hasani, Hadi; Jürgens, Hella; Eulenberg, Karsten; Wehr, Roland; Dohrmann, Cord; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette

2007-04-01

293

Energy transfer cassettes in silica nanoparticles target intracellular organelles.  

PubMed

Lipophilic energy transfer cassettes like 1 and 2 are more conveniently synthesized than the corresponding hydrophilic compounds, but they are not easily used in aqueous media. To overcome the latter issue, cassettes 1 and 2 were separately encapsulated in silica nanoparticles (ca. 22 nm) which freely disperse in aqueous media. Photophysical properties of the encapsulated dyes 1-SiO(2) and 2-SiO(2) were recorded. The nanoparticles 1-SiO(2) permeated into Clone 9 rat liver cells and targeted only the ER. A high degree of energy transfer was observed in this organelle such that most of the light fluoresced from the acceptor part, i.e. the particles appeared red. Silica nanoparticles 2-SiO(2) also permeated into Clone 9 rat liver cells and they targeted mitochondria but were also observed in endocytic vesicles (lysosomes or endosomes). In these organelles they fluoresced red and red/green respectively. Thus the cargo inside the nanoparticles influences where they localize in cells, and the environment of the nanoparticles in the cells changes the fluorescent properties of the encapsulated dyes. Neither of these findings were anticipated given that silica nanoparticles of this type are generally considered to be non-porous. PMID:21455504

Jose, Jiney; Loudet, Aurore; Ueno, Yuichiro; Wu, Liangxing; Chen, Hsiang-Yun; Son, Dong Hee; Barhoumi, Rola; Burghardt, Robert; Burgess, Kevin

2011-05-21

294

Tumor inhibition by genomically integrated inducible RNAi-cassettes  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) has emerged as a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes by post-transcriptional silencing of gene expression. In this study we wondered whether inducible RNAi-cassettes integrated into cellular DNA possess the power to trigger neoplastic growth. For this purpose inducible RNAi vectors containing tetracycline (Tet)-responsive derivatives of the H1 promoter for the conditional expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were used to target human polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), which is overexpressed in a broad spectrum of human tumors. In the absence of doxycycline (Dox) HeLa clones expressing TetR, that carry the RNAi-cassette stably integrated, exhibited no significant alteration in Plk1 expression levels. In contrast, exposure to Dox led to marked downregulation of Plk1 mRNA to 3% and Plk1 protein to 14% in cell culture compared to mismatch shRNA/Plk1-expressing cells. As a result of Plk1 depletion cell proliferation decreased to 17%. Furthermore, for harnessing RNAi for silencing disease-related genes in vivo we transplanted inducible RNAi-HeLa cells onto nude mice. After administration of Dox knockdown of Plk1 expression was observed correlating to a significant inhibition of tumor growth. Taken together, our data revealed that genomically integrated RNAi-elements are suitable to hamper tumor growth by conditional expression of shRNA.

Kappel, Sven; Matthess, Yves; Zimmer, Brigitte; Kaufmann, Manfred; Strebhardt, Klaus

2006-01-01

295

New Means of Audiovisual Message Transmission: Volume C: Video Cassettes Nouveaux Moyens de Diffusion de Messages Audio-Visuels Volume C Video-Cassettes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of existing systems and future technical developments for video-cassette recording devices is presented. Read only systems, such as helicoidal magnetoscopes and super 8 telecinemas, are described and compared. The market situation and property ri...

H. False S. Gregory-brive

1972-01-01

296

Autonomous Bioluminescent Expression of the Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (lux) in a Mammalian Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette consists of five genes (luxCDABE) whose protein products synergistically generate bioluminescent light signals exclusive of supplementary substrate additions or exogenous manipulations. Historically expressible only in prokaryotes, the lux operon was re-synthesized through a process of multi-bicistronic, codon-optimization to demonstrate for the first time self-directed bioluminescence emission in a mammalian HEK293 cell line in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Autonomous in vitro light production was shown to be 12-fold greater than the observable background associated with untransfected control cells. The availability of reduced riboflavin phosphate (FMNH2) was identified as the limiting bioluminescence substrate in the mammalian cell environment even after the addition of a constitutively expressed flavin reductase gene (frp) from Vibrio harveyi. FMNH2 supplementation led to a 151-fold increase in bioluminescence in cells expressing mammalian codon-optimized luxCDE and frp genes. When injected subcutaneously into nude mice, in vivo optical imaging permitted near instantaneous light detection that persisted independently for the 60 min length of the assay with negligible background. Conclusions/Significance The speed, longevity, and self-sufficiency of lux expression in the mammalian cellular environment provides a viable and powerful alternative for real-time target visualization not currently offered by existing bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging technologies.

Close, Dan M.; Patterson, Stacey S.; Ripp, Steven; Baek, Seung J.; Sanseverino, John; Sayler, Gary S.

2010-01-01

297

Cassette Sound Filmstrip Viewers -- Evaluations of Nine Machines. An In Depth Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In evaluating cassette sound filmstrip viewers, many criteria are the same as those applied to cassette recorders in Educational Product Report; v7 n5 Nov '73 and silent filmstrip viewers in Educational Product Report; v6 n5 Feb '73. These criteria cover output power; frequency response; tape speed accuracy including drift, wow, and flutter; and…

Educational Product Report, 1974

1974-01-01

298

Motion Pictures and Video Cassettes 1971. AV-USA Supplement 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The financial status of the motion picture and of the video cassette industry in 1970 are reviewed. Based on production rates and income of these industries, trends are discovered. Figures on local origination of television programing and commercials are also included. The section on video cassettes includes the following information: the current…

Hope, Thomas W.

299

Mobile gene cassettes and integrons: capture and spread of genes by site-specific recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An integron is a genetic unit that includes the deter- minants of the components of a site-specific recombi- nation system capable of capturing and mobilizing genes that are contained in mobile elements called gene cassettes. An integron also provides a promoter for expression of the cassette genes, and integrons thus act both as natural cloning systems and as expression

Ruth M. Hall; Christina M. Collis

1995-01-01

300

Diversity of gene cassette promoter variants of class 1 integrons in uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Class 1 integrons play important roles in the emergence and horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria. The gene cassette promoter variants Pc or Pc-P2 of class 1 integrons not only drive the transcription of downstream gene cassettes, they also correlate with the excision and integration efficiency of the capture exogenous gene cassettes. In this study, the diversity of Pc or Pc-P2 variants of class 1 integrons and their association with antibiotic resistance phenotypes were analyzed in 132 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Class 1 integrons were detected in 95 (72 %) strains. Sixteen different gene cassettes, 11 different gene cassette arrays and six different Pc or Pc-P2 variants were detected. The most prevalent gene cassettes were those that conferred resistance to trimethoprim, aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol. The most prevalent promoter was PcH1, a relatively weak promoter. Certain gene cassette arrays or gene cassettes were mainly associated with the same Pc or Pc-P2 in different strains. Strains harboring class 1 integrons with relatively strong promoters had higher resistance rates to, or higher MIC(50) for, amikacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin than those with relatively weak promoters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the diversity of class 1 integron Pc or Pc-P2 variants in uropathogenic E. coli strains. PMID:23743598

Wei, Quhao; Jiang, Xiaofei; Li, Min; Li, Gang; Hu, Qingfeng; Lu, Huoxiang; Chen, Guoqiang; Zhou, Yonglie; Lu, Yuan

2013-11-01

301

Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacteria: the role of gene cassettes and integrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of gram-negative organisms to antibiotics such as ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim and chloramphenicol is caused by many different acquired genes, and a substantial proportion of these are part of small mobile elements known as gene cassettes. A gene cassette consists of the gene and a downstream sequence, known as a 59-base element (59-be), that acts as a specific recombination site.

Ruth M. Hall; Christina M. Collis

1998-01-01

302

Significant Productivity Improvement of the Baculovirus Expression Vector System by Engineering a Novel Expression Cassette  

PubMed Central

Here we describe the development of a baculovirus vector expression cassette containing rearranged baculovirus-derived genetic regulatory elements. This newly designed expression cassette conferred significant production improvements to the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), including prolonged cell integrity after infection, improved protein integrity, and around 4-fold increase in recombinant protein production yields in insect cells with respect to a standard baculovirus vector. The expression cassette consisted of a cDNA encoding for the baculovirus transactivation factors IE1 and IE0, expressed under the control of the polyhedrin promoter, and a homologous repeated transcription enhancer sequence operatively cis-linked to the p10 promoter or to chimeric promoters containing p10. The prolonged cell integrity observed in cells infected by baculoviruses harbouring the novel expression cassette reduced the characteristic proteolysis and aberrant forms frequently found in baculovirus-derived recombinant proteins. The new expression cassette developed here has the potential to significantly improve the productivity of the BEVS.

Gomez-Sebastian, Silvia; Lopez-Vidal, Javier; Escribano, Jose M.

2014-01-01

303

Bacterial Synergism or Antagonism in a Gel Cassette System  

PubMed Central

The growth and the metabolic activity of Shewanella putrfaciens, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and Pseudomonas sp., when cultured individually or in all possible combinations in gel cassettes system supplemented with 0.1% glucose at 5°C, were investigated. The overall outcome was that the coexistence of the above-mentioned microorganisms affected not only each growth rate but also their type of metabolic end products compared to the control cultures. These effects were varied and depended on the selection of the combination of the tested bacteria. For example, the growth of Pseudomonas sp. strains cocultured with either B. thermosphacta or S. putrefaciens strains resulted in different effects: a promoting one for the first and an inhibitory one for the second. Moreover, the production of formic acid and two unidentified organic acids (peaks a and b) was characteristic in all cases in which S. putrefaciens was cultured.

Tsigarida, Eirini; Boziaris, Ioannis S.; Nychas, George-John E.

2003-01-01

304

Crystal Structure of an Integron Gene Cassette-Associated Protein from Vibrio cholerae Identifies a Cationic Drug-Binding Module  

PubMed Central

Background The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron gene cassettes. Methodology/Principal Findings We report the 1.8 Å crystal structure of Cass2, an integron-associated protein derived from an environmental V. cholerae. The structure defines a monomeric beta-barrel protein with a fold related to the effector-binding portion of AraC/XylS transcription activators. The closest homologs of Cass2 are multi-drug binding proteins, such as BmrR. Consistent with this, a binding pocket made up of hydrophobic residues and a single glutamate side chain is evident in Cass2, occupied in the crystal form by polyethylene glycol. Fluorescence assays demonstrate that Cass2 is capable of binding cationic drug compounds with submicromolar affinity. The Cass2 module possesses a protein interaction surface proximal to its drug-binding cavity with features homologous to those seen in multi-domain transcriptional regulators. Conclusions/Significance Genetic analysis identifies Cass2 to be representative of a larger family of independent effector-binding proteins associated with lateral gene transfer within Vibrio and closely-related species. We propose that the Cass2 family not only has capacity to form functional transcription regulator complexes, but represents possible evolutionary precursors to multi-domain regulators associated with cationic drug compounds.

Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Boucher, Yan; Hassan, Karl A.; Leo, Rosa Di; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Savchenko, Alexei; Chang, Changsoo; Labbate, Maurizio; Paulsen, Ian T.; Stokes, H. W.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

2011-01-01

305

Genetic analysis of the Staphylococcus epidermidis Macromolecular Synthesis Operon: Serp1129 is an ATP binding protein and sigA transcription is regulated by both ?A- and ?B-dependent promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The highly conserved macromolecular synthesis operon (MMSO) contains both dnaG (primase) and sigA (primary sigma factor). However, in previously evaluated gram-positive species, the MMSO is divergent upstream of dnaG. The MMSO of Bacillus subtilis contains three open reading frames (ORFs) that are differentially regulated by multiple promoters. In conjunction with studies to determine the expression profile of dnaG, the

Kendall A Bryant; Lauren C Kinkead; Marilynn A Larson; Steven H Hinrichs; Paul D Fey

2010-01-01

306

Structure and organization of transposable of transposable mating type cassettes in Saccharomyces yeasts.  

PubMed Central

Cell type in Saccharomyces yeasts is regulated by two transposable blocks of DNA, the a and alpha cassettes. There are three loci where either cassette can exist. At the HML and HMR loci the cassettes are not expressed. The cassette at the MAT locus is expressed and controls the cell type. Changes of cell type involve transposition-substitution of cassettes from HML or HMR into MAT. We recently reported the molecular cloning of the alpha cassette at the HML locus, HML alpha, and showed that it contained sequences homologous to HMR and MAT. Using HML alpha as a hybridization probe, we have isolated HMLa, HMR alpha, HMRa, MAT alpha, and MATa. Heteroduplex analysis and restriction endonuclease mapping studies indicate that the a and alpha cassettes differ by a substitution corresponding to about 750 base pairs in alpha and about 600 base pairs in a. The HML, HMR, and MAT loci have regions of homology flanking the position of the a versus alpha substitution. We have used specific chromosome rearrangements fusing MAT and HML and MAT with HMR to orient the cloned sequences on the genetic map and have found that all three genes have the same left-to-right polarity on the chromosome. Images

Strathern, J N; Spatola, E; McGill, C; Hicks, J B

1980-01-01

307

A novel dihydrofolate reductase cassette inserted in an integron borne on a Tn21-like element.  

PubMed Central

In this study, a 498-bp dhfrXII gene coding for trimethoprim resistance was found inserted in a cassette-like manner in the recombinationally active locus, the integron, borne on a transposon Tn21-like element. The dhfrXII cassette is distinct from those cassettes earlier observed in integrons and was found here upstream of two similarly inserted cassettes. The second one carried the new unidentified orfF, which is 85% identical to the orfD cassette in R46. The third cassette contained the aadA2 gene mediating spectinomycin resistance. The plasmid carrying this Tn21-like element was originally isolated from a trimethoprim-resistant urinary tract pathogen, Escherichia coli, from Turku City Hospital, Turku, Finland. By colony hybridization and polymerase chain reaction, this group of three cassettes, including dhfrXII, was detected in four additional E. coli strains of similar origin and in four Shigella strains isolated in Finland but originating from Asia. The dihydrofolate reductase produced from dhfrXII showed an unusual drug resistance in that 50% of the enzymatic activity remained at a trimethoprim concentration of 1 mM.

Heikkila, E; Skurnik, M; Sundstrom, L; Huovinen, P

1993-01-01

308

A clinical trial of a rare earth screen/film system in a periapical cassette  

SciTech Connect

In a clinical trial, a slow rare earth screen/film system (Siemens Titan 2D/Kodak XG) was used to obtain intraoral radiographs at conventional monitoring stages in endodontic treatment. The screen film image proved to be an effective substitute for the direct-exposure Ultraspeed periapical film. The intraoral cassettes, designed and fabricated for the study, were an adaptation of the flexible, vacuum-sealed cassettes used in mammography. It is believed that when a practicable periapical cassette is manufactured, many additional indications for the system are probable. Major reductions in patient exposure of at least 85% to 90% per periapical film would be effected.

Kogon, S.L.; Stephens, R.G.; Reid, J.A.; Lubus, N.J.

1984-04-01

309

A Modified Janus Cassette (Sweet Janus) to Improve Allelic Replacement Efficiency by High-Stringency Negative Selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The Janus cassette permits marker-free allelic replacement or knockout in streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) through sequential positive and negative selection. Spontaneous revertants of Janus can lead to high level of false-positives during negative selection, which necessitate a time-consuming post-selection screening process. We hypothesized that an additional counter-selectable marker in Janus would decrease the revertant frequency and reduce false-positives, since simultaneous reversion of both counter-selectable makers is much less likely. Here we report a modified cassette, Sweet Janus (SJ), in which the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis conferring sucrose sensitivity is added to Janus. By using streptomycin and sucrose simultaneously as selective agents, the frequency of SJ double revertants was about 105-fold lower than the frequency of Janus revertants. Accordingly, the frequency of false-positives in the SJ-mediated negative selection was about 100-fold lower than what was seen for Janus. Thus, SJ enhances negative selection stringency and can accelerate allelic replacement in pneumococcus, especially when transformation frequency is low due to strain background or suboptimal transformation conditions. Results also suggested the sacB gene alone can function as a counter-selectable marker in the Gram-positive pneumococcus, which will have the advantage of not requiring a streptomycin-resistant strain for allelic replacement.

Li, Yuan; Thompson, Claudette M.; Lipsitch, Marc

2014-01-01

310

Identification of tumor-associated cassette exons in human cancer through EST-based computational prediction and experimental validation  

PubMed Central

Background Many evidences report that alternative splicing, the mechanism which produces mRNAs and proteins with different structures and functions from the same gene, is altered in cancer cells. Thus, the identification and characterization of cancer-specific splice variants may give large impulse to the discovery of novel diagnostic and prognostic tumour biomarkers, as well as of new targets for more selective and effective therapies. Results We present here a genome-wide analysis of the alternative splicing pattern of human genes through a computational analysis of normal and cancer-specific ESTs from seventeen anatomical groups, using data available in AspicDB, a database resource for the analysis of alternative splicing in human. By using a statistical methodology, normal and cancer-specific genes, splice sites and cassette exons were predicted in silico. The condition association of some of the novel normal/tumoral cassette exons was experimentally verified by RT-qPCR assays in the same anatomical system where they were predicted. Remarkably, the presence in vivo of the predicted alternative transcripts, specific for the nervous system, was confirmed in patients affected by glioblastoma. Conclusion This study presents a novel computational methodology for the identification of tumor-associated transcript variants to be used as cancer molecular biomarkers, provides its experimental validation, and reports specific biomarkers for glioblastoma.

2010-01-01

311

Arginine deiminase pathway is far more important than urease for acid resistance and intracellular survival in Laribacter hongkongensis: a possible result of arc gene cassette duplication  

PubMed Central

Background Laribacter hongkongensis is a Gram-negative, urease-positive bacillus associated with invasive bacteremic infections in liver cirrhosis patients and fish-borne community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler’s diarrhea. Its mechanisms of adaptation to various environmental niches and host defense evasion are largely unknown. During the process of analyzing the L. hongkongensis genome, a complete urease cassette and two adjacent arc gene cassettes were found. We hypothesize that the urease cassette and/or the arc gene cassettes are important for L. hongkongensis to survive in acidic environment and macrophages. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by constructing single, double and triple non-polar deletion mutants of the urease and two arc gene cassettes of L. hongkongensis using the conjugation-mediated gene deletion system and examining their effects in acidic environment in vitro, in macrophages and in a mouse model. Results HLHK9?ureA, HLHK9?ureC, HLHK9?ureD and HLHK9?ureE all exhibited no urease activity. HLHK9?arcA1 and HLHK9?arcA2 both exhibited arginine deiminase (ADI) activities, but HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 double deletion mutant exhibited no ADI activity. At pH 2 and 3, survival of HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9?ureA/arcA1/arcA2 were markedly decreased (p < 0.001) but that of HLHK9?ureA was slightly decreased (p < 0.05), compared to wild type L. hongkongensis HLHK9. Survival of HLHK9?ureA/arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 in macrophages were also markedly decreased (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01 respectively) but that of HLHK9?ureA was slightly decreased (p < 0.05), compared to HLHK9, although expression of arcA1, arcA2 and ureA genes were all upregulated. Using a mouse model, HLHK9?ureA exhibited similar survival compared to HLHK9 after passing through the murine stomach, but survival of HLHK9?arcA1/arcA2 and HLHK9?ureA/arcA1/arcA2 were markedly reduced (p < 0.01). Conclusions In contrast to other important gastrointestinal tract pathogens, ADI pathway is far more important than urease for acid resistance and intracellular survival in L. hongkongensis. The gene duplication of the arc gene cassettes could be a result of their functional importance in L. hongkongensis.

2014-01-01

312

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a)...

2012-04-01

313

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2011-04-01

314

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2014-04-01

315

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a)...

2011-04-01

316

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2012-04-01

317

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2010-04-01

318

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a)...

2014-04-01

319

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a)...

2010-04-01

320

Recordings for Children. A Selected List of Records and Cassettes. Fourth Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This booklet, compiled by three experts in children's recordings, provides a selected list of records and cassettes which can accommodate a broad range of informational and recreational requirements of children. Some of the subjects covered are children's...

E. E. Thomas

1980-01-01

321

Evaluation of cassette performance: physical factors affecting patient exposure and image contrast.  

PubMed

Physical properties of four radiographic cassettes were investigated in combination with various screen/film systems. These properties included (a) transmittance of monoenergetic x rays over 14-96 keV and comparison with predictions based on attenuation coefficients; (b) relative patient exposure from 60 to 120 kV (from phantom measurements) and correlation with predictions based on measured transmittance as well as average energies and angles of incident radiation; and (c) amounts of scatter from various cassette materials and comparison with Monte Carlo calculations. The results provide a model of performance based on quantitation of cassette effects on system speed and image contrast. Carbon-fiber cassettes required the lowest patient exposure, produced the least scatter, and (in low-scatter situations) were capable of increased image contrast. PMID:6828696

Schmidt, R A; Chan, H P; Kodera, Y; Doi, K; Chen, C T

1983-03-01

322

Novel integrons and gene cassettes from a Cascadian submarine gas-hydrate-bearing core.  

PubMed

To determine whether integrons are present in a submarine gas hydrate community, metagenomic DNA was extracted from a gas-hydrate-bearing core, 150 m below the seafloor, from the Cascadian Margin. Integrons and gene cassettes were recovered by PCR from metagenomic DNA and sequenced. Thirty-seven integron integrase phylotypes were identified. The phylotypes were diverse and included members with homology to integrases from Methylomonas methanica, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans, Thermodesulfatator indicus, and marine uncultured bacteria. The gene cassette composition, 153 gene cassettes, was dominated by two types of encoded putative proteins. The first of these was predicted oxidoreductases, such as iron/sulfur cluster-binding proteins. A second type was alkyl transferases. Some cassette proteins showed homologies with those from methane-related archaea. These observations suggest that integrons may assist in the adaptation of microbial communities in this environment. PMID:24117886

Elsaied, Hosam; Stokes, Hatch W; Yoshioka, Hideyoshi; Mitani, Yasuo; Maruyama, Akihiko

2014-02-01

323

Optimization of AAV expression cassettes to improve packaging capacity and transgene expression in neurons  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors can deliver transgenes to diverse cell types and are therefore useful for basic research and gene therapy. Although AAV has many advantages over other viral vectors, its relatively small packaging capacity limits its use for delivering large genes. The available transgene size is further limited by the existence of additional elements in the expression cassette without which the gene expression level becomes much lower. By using alternative combinations of shorter elements, we generated a series of AAV expression cassettes and systematically evaluated their expression efficiency in neurons to maximize the transgene size available within the AAV packaging capacity while not compromising the transgene expression. We found that the newly developed smaller expression cassette shows comparable expression efficiency with an efficient vector generally used for strong gene expression. This new expression cassette will allow us to package larger transgenes without compromising expression efficiency.

2014-01-01

324

21 CFR 892.1880 - Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1880 Wall-mounted radiographic cassette holder. (a)...

2013-04-01

325

21 CFR 892.1870 - Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1870 Radiographic film/cassette changer programmer. (a)...

2013-04-01

326

Novel method for genomic promoter shuffling by using recyclable cassettes.  

PubMed

Genetic elements of interest can be introduced into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome via homologous recombination. The current method is to link such an element to a selectable marker gene to be integrated into the target locus. However, the marker gene in this method cannot be reused, which limits repeated manipulation of the yeast genome. An alternative method is to utilize a counterselectable gene, such as URA3, with flanking tandem repeats. After integration, URA3 along with one copy of the repeat can be popped out via internal recombination, leaving behind one copy of the unwanted repeat. Here we describe a novel concept of genetic element shuffling in which the tandem repeats are made of the desired genetic element, so that after integration and popping out, only one copy of the element remains at the desired locus to function. As a proof of principle, we constructed three recyclable cassettes (PPGK1-URA3-PPGK1, PGAL1-URA3-PGAL1, and PtetO7-URA3-PtetO7) and integrated them upstream of an engineered chromosomal PHIS3-mCherry-Myc locus. After promoter shuffling, the mCherry-Myc gene was regulated precisely as anticipated. PMID:24014535

Tian, Xuelei; Xu, Xin; Xiao, Wei

2013-11-01

327

Novel Method for Genomic Promoter Shuffling by Using Recyclable Cassettes  

PubMed Central

Genetic elements of interest can be introduced into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome via homologous recombination. The current method is to link such an element to a selectable marker gene to be integrated into the target locus. However, the marker gene in this method cannot be reused, which limits repeated manipulation of the yeast genome. An alternative method is to utilize a counterselectable gene, such as URA3, with flanking tandem repeats. After integration, URA3 along with one copy of the repeat can be popped out via internal recombination, leaving behind one copy of the unwanted repeat. Here we describe a novel concept of genetic element shuffling in which the tandem repeats are made of the desired genetic element, so that after integration and popping out, only one copy of the element remains at the desired locus to function. As a proof of principle, we constructed three recyclable cassettes (PPGK1-URA3-PPGK1, PGAL1-URA3-PGAL1, and PtetO7-URA3-PtetO7) and integrated them upstream of an engineered chromosomal PHIS3-mCherry-Myc locus. After promoter shuffling, the mCherry-Myc gene was regulated precisely as anticipated.

Tian, Xuelei; Xu, Xin

2013-01-01

328

The function of integron-associated gene cassettes in Vibrio species: the tip of the iceberg.  

PubMed

The integron is a genetic element that incorporates mobile genes termed gene cassettes into a reserved genetic site via site-specific recombination. It is best known for its role in antibiotic resistance with one type of integron, the class 1 integron, a major player in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes across Gram negative pathogens and commensals. However, integrons are ancient structures with over 100 classes (including class 1) present in bacteria from the broader environment. While, the class 1 integron is only one example of an integron being mobilized into the clinical environment, it is by far the most successful. Unlike clinical class 1 integrons which are largely found on plasmids, other integron classes are found on the chromosomes of bacteria and carry diverse gene cassettes indicating a non-antibiotic resistance role(s). However, there is very limited knowledge on what these alternative roles are. This is particularly relevant to Vibrio species where gene cassettes make up approximately 1-3% of their entire genome. In this review, we discuss how emphasis on class 1 integron research has resulted in a limited understanding by the wider research community on the role of integrons in the broader environment. This has the capacity to be counterproductive in solving or improving the antibiotic resistance problem into the future. Furthermore, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on how gene cassettes in Vibrio species drive adaptation and evolution. From research in Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722, new insight into how gene cassettes affect cellular physiology offers new alternative roles for the gene cassette resource. At least a subset of gene cassettes are involved in host surface polysaccharide modification suggesting that gene cassettes may be important in processes such as bacteriophage resistance, adhesion/biofilm formation, protection from grazers and bacterial aggregation. PMID:24367362

Rapa, Rita A; Labbate, Maurizio

2013-01-01

329

An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection\\u000a of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic\\u000a acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling,\\u000a and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry

Dafeng Chen; Michael Mauk; Xianbo Qiu; Changchun Liu; Jitae Kim; Sudhir Ramprasad; Serge Ongagna; William R. Abrams; Daniel Malamud; Paul L. A. M. Corstjens; Haim H. Bau

2010-01-01

330

Transformation of Plants with Multiple Cassettes Generates Simple Transgene Integration Patterns and High Expression Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transformed rice (Oryza sativa L.) simultaneously with five minimal cassettes, each containing a promoter, coding region and polyadenylation site but no\\u000a vector backbone. We found that multi-transgene cotransformation was achieved with high efficiency using multiple cassettes,\\u000a with all transgenic plants we generated containing at least two transgenes and 16% containing all five. About 75% of the plants\\u000a had simple

Pawan K. Agrawal; Ajay Kohli; Richard M. Twyman; Paul Christou

2005-01-01

331

The function of integron-associated gene cassettes in Vibrio species: the tip of the iceberg  

PubMed Central

The integron is a genetic element that incorporates mobile genes termed gene cassettes into a reserved genetic site via site-specific recombination. It is best known for its role in antibiotic resistance with one type of integron, the class 1 integron, a major player in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes across Gram negative pathogens and commensals. However, integrons are ancient structures with over 100 classes (including class 1) present in bacteria from the broader environment. While, the class 1 integron is only one example of an integron being mobilized into the clinical environment, it is by far the most successful. Unlike clinical class 1 integrons which are largely found on plasmids, other integron classes are found on the chromosomes of bacteria and carry diverse gene cassettes indicating a non-antibiotic resistance role(s). However, there is very limited knowledge on what these alternative roles are. This is particularly relevant to Vibrio species where gene cassettes make up approximately 1–3% of their entire genome. In this review, we discuss how emphasis on class 1 integron research has resulted in a limited understanding by the wider research community on the role of integrons in the broader environment. This has the capacity to be counterproductive in solving or improving the antibiotic resistance problem into the future. Furthermore, there is still a significant lack of knowledge on how gene cassettes in Vibrio species drive adaptation and evolution. From research in Vibrio rotiferianus DAT722, new insight into how gene cassettes affect cellular physiology offers new alternative roles for the gene cassette resource. At least a subset of gene cassettes are involved in host surface polysaccharide modification suggesting that gene cassettes may be important in processes such as bacteriophage resistance, adhesion/biofilm formation, protection from grazers and bacterial aggregation.

Rapa, Rita A.; Labbate, Maurizio

2013-01-01

332

Integron Gene Cassettes: A Repository of Novel Protein Folds with Distinct Interaction Sites  

PubMed Central

Mobile gene cassettes captured within integron arrays encompass a vast and diverse pool of genetic novelty. In most cases, functional annotation of gene cassettes directly recovered by cassette-PCR is obscured by their characteristically high sequence novelty. This inhibits identification of those specific functions or biological features that might constitute preferential factors for lateral gene transfer via the integron system. A structural genomics approach incorporating x-ray crystallography has been utilised on a selection of cassettes to investigate evolutionary relationships hidden at the sequence level. Gene cassettes were accessed from marine sediments (pristine and contaminated sites), as well as a range of Vibrio spp. We present six crystal structures, a remarkably high proportion of our survey of soluble proteins, which were found to possess novel folds. These entirely new structures are diverse, encompassing all-?, ?+? and ?/? fold classes, and many contain clear binding pocket features for small molecule substrates. The new structures emphasise the large repertoire of protein families encoded within the integron cassette metagenome and which remain to be characterised. Oligomeric association is a notable recurring property common to these new integron-derived proteins. In some cases, the protein–protein contact sites utilised in homomeric assembly could instead form suitable contact points for heterogeneous regulator/activator proteins or domains. Such functional features are ideal for a flexible molecular componentry needed to ensure responsive and adaptive bacterial functions.

Sureshan, Visaahini; Deshpande, Chandrika N.; Boucher, Yan; Koenig, Jeremy E.; Stokes, H. W.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Mabbutt, Bridget C.

2013-01-01

333

Insight into the Interaction of Metal Ions with TroA from Streptococcus suis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe scavenging ability of sufficient divalent metal ions is pivotal for pathogenic bacteria to survive in the host. ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type metal transporters provide a considerable amount of different transition metals for bacterial growth. TroA is a substrate binding protein for uptake of multiple metal ions. However, the function and structure of the TroA homologue from the epidemic Streptococcus suis

Beiwen Zheng; Qiangmin Zhang; Jia Gao; Huiming Han; Ming Li; Jingren Zhang; Jianxun Qi; Jinghua Yan; George F. Gao

2011-01-01

334

Role of nuclear bile acid receptor, FXR, in adaptive ABC transporter regulation by cholic and ursodeoxycholic acid in mouse liver, kidney and intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Adaptive changes in transporter expression in liver and kidney provide alternative excretory pathways for biliary constituents during cholestasis and may thus attenuate liver injury. Whether adaptive changes in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter expression are stimulated by bile acids and their nuclear receptor FXR is unknown.Methods: Hepatic, renal and intestinal ABC transporter expression was compared in cholic acid (CA)- and

Gernot Zollner; Peter Fickert; Andrea Fuchsbichler; Dagmar Silbert; Martin Wagner; Silvia Arbeiter; Frank J Gonzalez; Hanns-Ulrich Marschall; Kurt Zatloukal; Helmut Denk; Michael Trauner

2003-01-01

335

A Novel Two Mode-Acting Inhibitor of ABCG2-Mediated Multidrug Transport and Resistance in Cancer Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMultidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in successful treatment of cancers. Human ABCG2, a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, plays a key role in MDR and an important role in protecting cancer stem cells. Knockout of ABCG2 had no apparent adverse effect on the mice. Thus, ABCG2 is an ideal target for development of chemo-sensitizing agents for

Hui Peng; Zizheng Dong; Jing Qi; Youyun Yang; Yang Liu; Zhaomin Li; Junkang Xu; Jian-Ting Zhang; Paul Cobine

2009-01-01

336

Some ABCA3 mutations elevate ER stress and initiate apoptosis of lung epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: ABCA3 transporter (ATP-binding cassette transporter of the A subfamily) is localized to the limiting membrane of lamellar bodies, organelles for assembly and storage of pulmonary surfactant in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII). It transports surfactant phospholipids into lamellar bodies and absence of ABCA3 function disrupts lamellar body biogenesis. Mutations of the ABCA3 gene lead to fatal neonatal surfactant

Nina Weichert; Eva Kaltenborn; Andreas Hector; Markus Woischnik; Andrea Schams; Andreas Holzinger; Sun?ana Kern; Matthias Griese

2011-01-01

337

Indirect exclusion of four candidate genes for generalized progressive retinal atrophy in several breeds of dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Generalized progressive retinal atrophy (gPRA) is a hereditary ocular disorder with progressive photoreceptor degeneration in dogs. Four retina-specific genes, ATP binding cassette transporter retina (ABCA4), connexin 36 (CX36), c-mer tyrosin kinase receptor (MERTK) and photoreceptor cell retinol dehydrogenase (RDH12) were investigated in order to identify mutations leading to autosomal recessive (ar) gPRA in 29 breeds of dogs. RESULTS: Mutation

Tanja Lippmann; Sandra M Pasternack; Britta Kraczyk; Sabine E Dudek; Gabriele Dekomien

2006-01-01

338

Common Genetic Variation in ABCA1 Is Associated With Altered Lipoprotein Levels and a Modified Risk for Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Low plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We recently identified the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) as the major gene underlying the HDL deficiency associated with reduced cholesterol efflux. Mutations within the ABCA1 gene are associated with decreased HDL-C, increased triglycerides, and an increased risk of CAD. However, the extent to

Susanne M. Clee; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; James C. Engert; Karin Y. Zwarts; Henri O. F. Molhuizen; Kirsten Roomp; J. Wouter Jukema; Michel van Wijland; Marjel van Dam; Thomas J. Hudson; Angela Brooks-Wilson; John J. P. Kastelein; Michael R. Hayden

2010-01-01

339

Engineered Nanostructured ?-Sheet Peptides Protect Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

We have designed ?-strand peptides (BP) that stabilize integral membrane proteins (IMP). BPs self-assemble in solution as filaments and become restructured upon association with IMPs; the resulting IMP/BP complexes resist aggregation when diluted in detergent-free buffer and are examined as stable, single particles with low detergent background by electron microscopy. This enables clear visualization of a spectrum of flexible conformations in the highly dynamic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA.

Tao, Houchao; Lee, Sung Chang; Moeller, Arne; Roy, Rituparna Sinha; Siu, Fai Yiu; Zimmermann, Jorg; Stevens, Raymond C.; Potter, Clinton S.; Carragher, Bridget; Zhang, Qinghai

2013-01-01

340

Engineered nanostructured ?-sheet peptides protect membrane proteins.  

PubMed

We designed ?-strand peptides that stabilize integral membrane proteins (IMPs). ?-strand peptides self-assemble in solution as filaments and become restructured upon association with IMPs; resulting IMP-?-strand peptide complexes resisted aggregation when diluted in detergent-free buffer and were visible as stable, single particles with low detergent background in electron micrographs. ?-strand peptides enabled clear visualization of flexible conformations in the highly dynamic ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MsbA. PMID:23817067

Tao, Houchao; Lee, Sung Chang; Moeller, Arne; Roy, Rituparna Sinha; Siu, Fai Yiu; Zimmermann, Jörg; Stevens, Raymond C; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Zhang, Qinghai

2013-08-01

341

A mouse model of sitosterolemia: absence of Abcg8\\/sterolin-2 results in failure to secrete biliary cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Mutations in either of two genes comprising the STSL locus, ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporters ABCG5 (encoding sterolin-1) and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-2), result in sitosterolemia, a rare autosomal recessive disorder of sterol trafficking characterized by increased plasma plant sterol levels. Based upon the genetics of sitosterolemia, ABCG5\\/sterolin-1 and ABCG8\\/sterolin-2 are hypothesized to function as obligate heterodimers. No phenotypic difference has yet

Eric L Klett; Kangmo Lu; Astrid Kosters; Edwin Vink; Mi-Hye Lee; Michael Altenburg; Sarah Shefer; Ashok K Batta; Hongwei Yu; Jianliang Chen; Richard Klein; Norbert Looije; Ronald Oude-Elferink; Albert K Groen; Nobuyo Maeda; Gerald Salen; Shailendra B Patel

2004-01-01

342

Improving yeast strains using recyclable integration cassettes, for the production of plant terpenoids  

PubMed Central

Background Terpenoids constitute a large family of natural products, attracting commercial interest for a variety of uses as flavours, fragrances, drugs and alternative fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae offers a versatile cell factory, as the precursors of terpenoid biosynthesis are naturally synthesized by the sterol biosynthetic pathway. Results S. cerevisiae wild type yeast cells, selected for their capacity to produce high sterol levels were targeted for improvement aiming to increase production. Recyclable integration cassettes were developed which enable the unlimited sequential integration of desirable genetic elements (promoters, genes, termination sequence) at any desired locus in the yeast genome. The approach was applied on the yeast sterol biosynthetic pathway genes HMG2, ERG20 and IDI1 resulting in several-fold increase in plant monoterpene and sesquiterpene production. The improved strains were robust and could sustain high terpenoid production levels for an extended period. Simultaneous plasmid-driven co-expression of IDI1 and the HMG2 (K6R) variant, in the improved strain background, maximized monoterpene production levels. Expression of two terpene synthase enzymes from the sage species Salvia fruticosa and S. pomifera (SfCinS1, SpP330) in the modified yeast cells identified a range of terpenoids which are also present in the plant essential oils. Co-expression of the putative interacting protein HSP90 with cineole synthase 1 (SfCinS1) also improved production levels, pointing to an additional means to improve production. Conclusions Using the developed molecular tools, new yeast strains were generated with increased capacity to produce plant terpenoids. The approach taken and the durability of the strains allow successive rounds of improvement to maximize yields.

2011-01-01

343

Characterization of the phd-doc and ccd Toxin-Antitoxin Cassettes from Vibrio Superintegrons  

PubMed Central

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have been reported in the genomes of most bacterial species, and their role when located on the chromosome is still debated. TA systems are particularly abundant in the massive cassette arrays associated with chromosomal superintegrons (SI). Here, we describe the characterization of two superintegron cassettes encoding putative TA systems. The first is the phd-docSI system identified in Vibrio cholerae N16961. We determined its distribution in 36 V. cholerae strains and among five V. metschnikovii strains. We show that this cassette, which is in position 72 of the V. cholerae N16961 cassette array, is functional, carries its own promoter, and is expressed from this location. Interestingly, the phd-docSI system is unable to control its own expression, most likely due to the absence of any DNA-binding domain on the antitoxin. In addition, this SI system is able to cross talk with the canonical P1 phage system. The second cassette that we characterized is the ccdVfi cassette found in the V. fischeri superintegron. We demonstrate that CcdBVfi targets DNA-gyrase, as the canonical CcBF toxin, and that ccdVfi regulates its expression in a fashion similar to the ccdF operon of the conjugative plasmid F. We also establish that this cassette is functional and expressed in its chromosomal context in V. fischeri CIP 103206T. We tested its functional interactions with the ccdABF system and found that CcdAVfi is specific for its associated CcdBVfi and cannot prevent CcdBF toxicity. Based on these results, we discuss the possible biological functions of these TA systems in superintegrons.

Guerout, Anne-Marie; Iqbal, Naeem; Mine, Natacha; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Van Melderen, Laurence

2013-01-01

344

Storing self-contained gel capillary cassettes for POC medical diagnostics.  

PubMed

For effective clinical uptake of the lab on a chip/point of care technology (LOC-POC), in addition to cost advantages LOC-POC devices should offer multiple patient screening panels for related diseases as well as cold-chain transportation and storage abilities. We recently described a device that performs polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously screen raw clinical samples from up to 16 patients for multiple infectious agents (Manage et al., Lab Chip, 2013, 13, 2576-2584). This cassette contains glass capillaries with desiccated semi-solid acrylamide gels that include all the reagents except for the sample, with integrated quality control. Here we report the development of protocols to store assembled PCR cassettes at room temperature, 4 °C or -20 °C as well as at +40 °C. We show that our cassettes are stable, with no loss of activity for at least 3 months at RT and at least 7 months at 4 °C and -20 °C. However, the activity of desiccated cassettes degrades when stored for more than 2 weeks at 40 °C, insufficient time for post-manufacture delivery and use of cassette PCR. To address this, we have evaluated two stage storage protocols. PCR cassettes can initially be stored at 4 °C and -20 °C for prolonged periods of time and removed for shorter term storage at RT, retaining activity for at least a month, which would facilitate transport to remote areas for testing. Effective use of cassette PCR in high temperature regions of the world, for experimental purposes defined here as 40 °C, appears to be feasible only after a first stage storage in the cold, followed by no more than 1 week at 40 °C. This should allow sufficient time for delivery by the manufacturer to a central area well served by power and refrigeration, for later ambient temperature transport and use in under-resourced areas that lack refrigeration. PMID:23966212

Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Zahariadis, George; Pilarski, Linda M

2013-10-21

345

Discovery and characterization of gene cassettes-containing integrons in clinical strains of Riemerella anatipestifer.  

PubMed

Forty-eight prevalent strains of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) isolated in China were tested for susceptibility to eighteen antibiotics and investigated for the frequencies and characteristics of integrons and gene cassettes. All isolates were resistant to between three and ten antimicrobial drugs. Forty-seven isolates contained class 1 integron (97.92%), and 15 of the 47 isolates contained class 2 integron (31.25%). Class 3 integron was not detected in the strains analysed. Three different cassette arrays (aadA1, aadA5 and aacA4-aadA1) of class 1 integron and one gene cassette (sat2-aadA1) of class 2 integron were discovered. Three out of the four cassette arrays were novel, with the exception of aadA5. The location of integrons was confirmed by transforming extracted plasmids into an integron-negative strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21 (DE3). Class 1 integrons were always discovered in plasmids, while class 2 integrons could be located on plasmids or in the chromosome. This is the first description of class 2 integrons, three novel cassette arrays and the location of integrons in RA species. PMID:22112855

Zheng, Fuying; Lin, Guozhen; Zhou, Jizhang; Cao, Xiaoan; Gong, Xiaowei; Wang, Guanghua; Qiu, Changqing

2012-05-01

346

Filter and cassette mass instability in ascertaining the limit of detection of inhalable airborne particulates.  

PubMed

In the gravimetric assessment of workplace aerosols, there is an increasing need to confidently measure smaller and smaller collected masses. To do this, it is important to know both the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analysis performed, determined by the weighing imprecision of blank samples. Of particular current interest is the measurement of inhalable aerosols, as defined for many substances in the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit values list. One popular method is the use of a filter contained within a small cassette, in which both are weighed. Earlier investigations of plastic and stainless steel cassettes showed that plastic cassettes are highly sensitive to changes in humidity. But one study also demonstrated that the resulting changes in mass could be largely corrected using field blanks. An investigation, therefore, was undertaken to determine the weighing imprecision of various cassette and filter assemblies, assuming blank corrections are made. Three types of filter (Teflon, glass fiber, and polyvinyl chloride) were investigated in combination with three types of cassette (plastic, nickel-plated plastic, and stainless steel). Results show that regardless of the substrate being used, sample masses equal to or higher than 0.19 and 0.65 mg can be confidently detected and quantified, respectively. PMID:12570076

Paik, Samuel; Vincent, James H

2002-01-01

347

Capture and quality control mechanisms for ATP binding  

PubMed Central

The catalytic events in members of the nucleotidylyl transferase superfamily are initiated by a millisecond binding of ATP in the active site. Through metadynamics simulations on a class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (aaRSs), the largest group in the superfamily, we calculate the free energy landscape of ATP selection and binding. Mutagenesis studies and fluorescence spectroscopy validated the identification of the most populated intermediate states. The rapid first binding step involves formation of encounter complexes captured through a fly-casting mechanism that acts up on the triphosphate moiety of ATP. In the slower nucleoside binding step, a conserved histidine in the HxxH motif orients the incoming ATP through base-stacking interactions resulting in a deep minimum in the free energy surface. Mutation of this histidine significantly decreases the binding affinity measured experimentally and computationally. The metadynamics simulations further reveal an intermediate quality control state that the synthetases and most likely other members of the superfamily use to select ATP over other nucleoside triphosphates.

Li, Li; Martinis, Susan A.

2013-01-01

348

Kinetics of signaling-DNA-aptamer-ATP binding  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA aptamers are molecular biosensors consisting of single functionalized DNA molecules, which can bind to specific targets or complementary DNA sequences. The binding kinetics of DNA aptamers is studied by fluorescence quenching at 23°C . A kinetic model for the binding reaction of DNA aptamer, antisense DNA, and ATP target is developed to describe experimental observations. The approach leads to

Issei Nakamura; An-Chang Shi; Razvan Nutiu; Jasmine M. Y. Yu; Yingfu Li

2009-01-01

349

Assessing ATP binding and hydrolysis by NLR proteins  

PubMed Central

Summary Nucleotide-binding and leucine rich repeat domain-containing proteins (NLR) are central to the formation of many inflammasome complexes. Several inflammasome forming NLR proteins are known to be ATPases, but the nucleotide binding specificity of many remains to be characterized. The oligomerization of NLR proteins and assembly of inflammasomes require the ATP (or other nucleotide) binding activity of the NLR proteins. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the nucleotide binding properties of these proteins are useful tools in studying the regulation of inflammasome activity, and will be outlined in this Chapter.

Mo, Jinyao; Duncan, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

350

Diverse Gene Cassettes in Class 1 Integrons of Facultative Oligotrophic Bacteria of River Mahananda, West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Background In this study a large random collection (n?=?2188) of facultative oligotrophic bacteria, from 90 water samples gathered in three consecutive years (2007–2009) from three different sampling sites of River Mahananda in Siliguri, West Bengal, India, were investigated for the presence of class 1 integrons and sequences of the amplification products. Methodology/Principal Findings Replica plating method was employed for determining the antibiotic resistance profile of the randomly assorted facultative oligotrophic isolates. Genomic DNA from each isolate was analyzed by PCR for the presence of class 1 integron. Amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Numerical taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were done to ascertain putative genera of the class 1 integron bearing isolates. Out of 2188 isolates, 1667 (76.19%) were antibiotic-resistant comprising of both single-antibiotic resistance (SAR) and multiple-antibiotic resistant (MAR), and 521 (23.81%) were sensitive to all twelve different antibiotics used in this study. Ninety out of 2188 isolates produced amplicon(s) of varying sizes from 0.15 to 3.45 KB. Chi-square (?2) test revealed that the possession of class 1 integron in sensitive, SAR and MAR is not equally probable at the 1% level of significance. Diverse antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes, aadA1, aadA2, aadA4, aadA5, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, dfrA12, dfrA16, dfrA17, dfrA28, dfrA30, dfr-IIe, blaIMP-9, aacA4, Ac-6?-Ib, oxa1, oxa10 and arr2 were detected in 64 isolates. The novel cassettes encoding proteins unrelated to any known antibiotic resistance gene function were identified in 26 isolates. Antibiotic-sensitive isolates have a greater propensity to carry gene cassettes unrelated to known antibiotic-resistance genes. The integron-positive isolates under the class Betaproteobacteria comprised of only two genera, Comamonas and Acidovorax of family Comamonadaceae, while isolates under class Gammaproteobacteria fell under the families, Moraxellaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Aeromonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusions Oligotrophic bacteria are good sources of novel genes as well as potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance gene casettes.

Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Kumar, Arvind; Bhowal, Suparna Saha; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Mukherjee, Shriparna

2013-01-01

351

The Evolution of the Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (lux) as a Real-Time Bioreporter  

PubMed Central

The bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) is unique among bioluminescent bioreporter systems due to its ability to synthesize and/or scavenge all of the substrate compounds required for its production of light. As a result, the lux system has the unique ability to autonomously produce a luminescent signal, either continuously or in response to the presence of a specific trigger, across a wide array of organismal hosts. While originally employed extensively as a bacterial bioreporter system for the detection of specific chemical signals in environmental samples, the use of lux as a bioreporter technology has continuously expanded over the last 30 years to include expression in eukaryotic cells such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even human cell lines as well. Under these conditions, the lux system has been developed for use as a biomedical detection tool for toxicity screening and visualization of tumors in small animal models. As the technologies for lux signal detection continue to improve, it is poised to become one of the first fully implantable detection systems for intra-organismal optical detection through direct marriage to an implantable photon-detecting digital chip. This review presents the basic biochemical background that allows the lux system to continuously autobioluminesce and highlights the important milestones in the use of lux-based bioreporters as they have evolved from chemical detection platforms in prokaryotic bacteria to rodent-based tumorigenesis study targets. In addition, the future of lux imaging using integrated circuit microluminometry to image directly within a living host in real-time will be introduced and its role in the development of dose/response therapeutic systems will be highlighted.

Close, Dan; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby; Rogers, Alexandra; Crossley, Robert; Price, Sarah; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary

2012-01-01

352

CMOS cassette for digital upgrade of film-based mammography systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While full-field digital mammography (FFDM) technology is gaining clinical acceptance, the overwhelming majority (96%) of the installed base of mammography systems are conventional film-screen (FSM) systems. A high performance, and economical digital cassette based product to conveniently upgrade FSM systems to FFDM would accelerate the adoption of FFDM, and make the clinical and technical advantages of FFDM available to a larger population of women. The planned FFDM cassette is based on our commercial Digital Radiography (DR) cassette for 10 cm x 10 cm field-of-view spot imaging and specimen radiography, utilizing a 150 micron columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator and 48 micron active-pixel CMOS sensor modules. Unlike a Computer Radiography (CR) cassette, which requires an external digitizer, our DR cassette transfers acquired images to a display workstation within approximately 5 seconds of exposure, greatly enhancing patient flow. We will present the physical performance of our prototype system against other FFDM systems in clinical use today, using established objective criteria such as the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), and subjective criteria, such as a contrast-detail (CD-MAM) observer performance study. Driven by the strong demand from the computer industry, CMOS technology is one of the lowest cost, and the most readily accessible technologies available for FFDM today. Recent popular use of CMOS imagers in high-end consumer cameras have also resulted in significant advances in the imaging performance of CMOS sensors against rivaling CCD sensors. This study promises to take advantage of these unique features to develop the first CMOS based FFDM upgrade cassette.

Baysal, Mehmet A.; Toker, Emre

2006-03-01

353

An enclosed in-gel PCR amplification cassette with multi-target, multi-sample detection for platform molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

This work describes a self-contained, simple, disposable, and inexpensive gel capillary cassette for DNA amplification in near point of care settings. The cassette avoids the need for pumps or valves during raw sample delivery or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification steps. The cassette contains capillary reaction units that can be stored at room temperature for up to 3 months. The current cassette configuration format simultaneously tests up to 16 patients for two or more targets, accommodates different sample types on the same cassette, has integrated positive and negative controls and allows flexibility for multiple geometries. PCR reagents in the cassette are desiccated to allow storage at room temperature with rehydration by raw sample at the time of testing. The sample is introduced to the cassette via a transfer pipette simply by capillary force. DNA amplification was carried out in a portable prototype instrument for PCR thermal cycling with fluorescence detection of amplified products by melt curve analysis (MCA). To demonstrate performance, raw genital swabs and urine were introduced to the same cassette to simultaneously detect four sexually transmitted infections. Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) were detected from raw genital swabs. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma homonis (MH) were detected from raw urine. Results for multiple patients were obtained in as little as 50 min. This platform allows multiparameter clinical testing with a pre-assembled cassette that requires only the introduction of raw sample. Modification of the prototype device to accommodate larger cassettes will ultimately provide high throughput simultaneous testing of even larger numbers of samples for many different targets, as is required for some clinical applications. Combinations of wax and/or polymer cassettes holding capillary reaction units are feasible. The components of the cassette are suited to mass production and robotic assembly to produce a readily manufactured disposable reaction cassette that can be configured for disease-specific testing panels. Rapid testing with a disposable reaction cassette on an inexpensive instrument will enable on the spot evaluation of patients in the clinic for faster medical decision-making and more informed therapeutic choices. PMID:23471315

Manage, Dammika P; Lauzon, Jana; Atrazev, Alexey; Chavali, Ravi; Samuel, Roshini A; Chan, Brandon; Morrissey, Y C; Gordy, Walter; Edwards, Ann L; Larison, Kyle; Yanow, Stephanie K; Acker, Jason P; Zahariadis, George; Pilarski, Linda M

2013-07-01

354

Characterization of class 1 integron gene cassettes among clinical bacteria isolated from one large hospital in northern China.  

PubMed

The class 1 integron and complex gene cassettes among different species of clinical isolates in northern China were characterized in this study. 383 clinical isolates were obtained from northern China, and class 1 integrons containing gene cassettes widely distributed among gram negative clinical isolates was observed. We find that the class 1 integron showed positive correlation with multidrug resistance phenotype of gram negative bacteria. In addition, we find that isolates belonged to one species harbored different types of gene cassette arrays, while same types of gene cassette arrays were observed in different species of isolates. The diversity of gene cassette arrays among the isolates indicated the complexity of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates in northern China. PMID:24393512

Chen, Xia; Li, Gui Xi; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Min; Hou, Xiao Ping; Yu, Hui Lan; Li, Juan

2013-12-01

355

A Novel Thin NIPAM Gel Cassette Dosimeter for Photon-Beam Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

The response of thin polymer gel cassettes (called NIPAM gels) to ionizing radiation was investigated in this study. The NIPAM gels were prepared from gelatin, N-isopropyl acrylamide, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphoniumchloride, and N,N?-methylene-bis-acrylamide. Gel cassettes were irradiated in a phantom using a linear accelerator, and the polymerization morphology of irradiated NIPAM gel was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The dose-response sensitivity of the NIPAM gels was evaluated using the differences in optical densities. The optical densities were obtained using a computer-controlled CCD camera that was connected to a planar illumination source for acquisition of optical transmission images. The central axis depth dose profiles of the phantom were extracted, and a comparison with ionization chamber measurements demonstrated similarities in profiles. The sensitivity, linearity of the response, accuracy, and reproducibility of the polymer gel cassettes were acceptable. However, the profiles of the half-blocked field irradiation showed no significant dispersion in the visible region. This study also extensively investigated the spatial stability of the NIPAM gel. The results showed that the gel cassette response remains stable for up to three months after irradiation.

Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

2012-01-01

356

STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Cameron juggle cassettes on OV-104's middeck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-37 crewmembers watch Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron juggle cassette tapes on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Laughing at Cameron's stunt are Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin (foreground), Commander Steven R. Nagel (behind Cameron), and MS Jerry L. Ross (at floor level). Ross snacks on chocolate candy during the performance.

1991-01-01

357

Keys: Career Exploration. Cassettes and Films, Career Guidance and the Kuder Interest Inventories, and Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of 17 related items, intended for Grades 6-9, consists of 10 filmstrips, 5 cassettes, and a manual. The first filmstrip explains the Kuder E. interest profile and gives an overview of the filmstrip series, and the remaining filmstrips are divided along the 10 Kuder E. General Interest Survey categories. However, the filmstrips and…

Lombard, Jack; Grinager, Marilyn

358

Conceptual Design of Divertor Cassette Handling by Remote Handling System of JT-60SA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JT-60SA aims to contribute and supplement ITER toward demonstration fusion reactor based on tokamak concept. One of the features of JT-60SA is its high power long pulse heating, causing the large annual neutron fluence. Because the expected dose rate at the vacuum vessel (VV) may exceed 1 mSv/hr after 10 years operation and three month cooling, the human access inside the VV is restricted. Therefore a remote handling (RH) system is necessary for the maintenance and repair of in-vessel components. This paper described the RH system of JT-60SA, especially the expansion of the RH rail and exchange of the divertor cassettes. The RH rail is divided into nine and three-point mounting. The nine sections can cover 225 degrees in toroidal direction. A divertor cassette, which is 10 degrees wide in toroidal direction and weighs 500kg itself due to the limitations of port width and handling weight, can be exchanged by heavy weight manipulator (HWM). The HWM brings the divertor cassette to the front of the other RH port, which is used for supporting the rail and/or carrying in and out equipments. Then another RH device receives and brings out the cassette by a pallet installed from outside the VV.

Hayashi, Takao; Sakurai, Shinji; Masaki, Kei; Tamai, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Matsukawa, Makoto

359

Integrase-Mediated Recombination of the veb1 Gene Cassette Encoding an Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase  

PubMed Central

The veb1 gene cassette encodes the extended spectrum ?-lactamase, VEB-1 that is increasingly isolated from worldwide Gram-negative rods. Veb1 is commonly inserted into the variable region of different class 1 integrons in which it is always associated with a downstream-located aadB gene cassette encoding an aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the majority of veb1-containing integrons also carry an insertion sequence, IS1999 that is inserted upstream of the veb1 gene cassette and disrupts the integron specific recombination site, attI1. Investigation of the recombination properties of the sites surrounding veb1 revealed that insertion of IS1999 reduces significantly the recombination frequency of attI1 and that veb1 attC is not efficient for recombination in contrast to aadB attC. Subsequent sequence optimisation of veb1 attC by mutagenesis, into a more consensual attC site resembling aadB attC, successfully improved recombination efficiency. Overall, this work gives some insights into the organisation of veb1-containing integrons. We propose that IS1999 and the nature of veb1 attC stabilize the veb1 gene cassette environment likely by impairing recombination events upstream or downstream of veb1, respectively.

Aubert, Daniel; Naas, Thierry; Nordmann, Patrice

2012-01-01

360

Construction and characterization of versatile kanamycin-resistance cassettes derived from the Tn5 transposon.  

PubMed

We have developed plasmids with the Tn5 kanamycin-resistance gene (kan) flanked either symmetrically or asymmetrically by several restriction sites. These can be used to provide a selectable genetic marker or to mobilize restriction sites and sense or nonsense codons into genes. The 1.3-kb kan cassette exhibits polarity effects in both directions. PMID:2559874

Musso, R E; Hodam, T

1989-12-21

361

Stacking multiple transgenes at a selected genomic site via repeated recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchanges.  

PubMed

Recombinase-mediated DNA cassette exchange (RMCE) has been successfully used to insert transgenes at previously characterized genomic sites in plants. Following the same strategy, groups of transgenes can be stacked to the same site through multiple rounds of RMCE. A gene-silencing cassette, designed to simultaneously silence soybean (Glycine max) genes fatty acid ?-6 desaturase 2 (FAD2) and acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase 2 (FATB) to improve oleic acid content, was first inserted by RMCE at a precharacterized genomic site in soybean. Selected transgenic events were subsequently retransformed with the second DNA construct containing a Yarrowia lipolytica diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGAT1) to increase oil content by the enhancement of triacylglycerol biosynthesis and three other genes, a Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthetase gene (DHPS), a barley (Hordeum vulgare) high-lysine protein gene (BHL8), and a truncated soybean cysteine synthase gene (CGS), to improve the contents of the essential amino acids lysine and methionine. Molecular characterization confirmed that the second RMCE successfully stacked the four overexpression cassettes to the previously integrated FAD2-FATB gene-silencing cassette. Phenotypic analyses indicated that all the transgenes expressed expected phenotypes. PMID:20720171

Li, Zhongsen; Moon, Bryan P; Xing, Aiqiu; Liu, Zhan-Bin; McCardell, Richard P; Damude, Howard G; Falco, S Carl

2010-10-01

362

ATimer-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassette for Detecting Molecular Markers in Oral Fluids  

PubMed Central

An inexpensive, hand-held, point-of-care, disposable, self-contained, immunoassay cassette comprised of air pouches for pumping, a metering chamber, reagents storage chambers, a mixer, and a lateral flow strip was designed, constructed, and tested. The assay was carried out in a consecutive flow format. The detection was facilitated with up-converting, phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The automated, timely pumping of the various reagents was driven by a spring-loaded timer. The utility of the cassette was demonstrated by detecting antibodies to HIV in saliva samples and further evaluated with a non-contagious, haptenized DNA assay. The cassette has several advantages over dip sticks such as sample preprocessing, integrated storage of reagents, and automated operation that reduces operator errors and training. The cassette and actuator described herein can readily be extended to detect biomarkers of other diseases in body fluids and other fluids at the point of care. The system is particularly suitable for resource poor countries, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply.

Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Ongagna, Serge; Chen, Dafeng; Chen, Zongyuan; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L.A.M.; Bau, Haim H.

2009-01-01

363

A timer-actuated immunoassay cassette for detecting molecular markers in oral fluids.  

PubMed

An inexpensive, hand-held, point-of-care, disposable, self-contained immunoassay cassette comprised of air pouches for pumping, a metering chamber, reagents storage chambers, a mixer, and a lateral flow strip was designed, constructed, and tested. The assay was carried out in a consecutive flow format. The detection was facilitated with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The automated, timely pumping of the various reagents was driven by a spring-loaded timer. The utility of the cassette was demonstrated by detecting antibodies to HIV in saliva samples and further evaluated with a non-contagious, haptenized DNA assay. The cassette has several advantages over dip sticks such as sample preprocessing, integrated storage of reagents, and automated operation that reduces operator errors and training. The cassette and actuator described herein can readily be extended to detect biomarkers of other diseases in body fluids and other fluids at the point of care. The system is particularly suitable for resource-poor countries, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply. PMID:19255658

Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Ongagna, Serge; Chen, Dafeng; Chen, Zongyuan; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

2009-03-21

364

Simplified Insertion of Transgenes Onto Balancer Chromosomes via Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange.  

PubMed

Balancer chromosomes are critical tools for Drosophila genetics. Many useful transgenes are inserted onto balancers using a random and inefficient process. Here we describe balancer chromosomes that can be directly targeted with transgenes of interest via recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE). PMID:22670225

Sun, Florence F; Johnson, Justine E; Zeidler, Martin P; Bateman, Jack R

2012-05-01

365

A Novel Cassette Method for Probe Evaluation in the Designed Biochips  

PubMed Central

A critical step in biochip design is the selection of probes with identical hybridisation characteristics. In this article we describe a novel method for evaluating DNA hybridisation probes, allowing the fine-tuning of biochips, that uses cassettes with multiple probes. Each cassette contains probes in equimolar proportions so that their hybridisation performance can be assessed in a single reaction. The model used to demonstrate this method was a series of probes developed to detect TORCH pathogens. DNA probes were designed for Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes virus and these were used to construct the DNA cassettes. Five cassettes were constructed to detect TORCH pathogens using a variety of genes coding for membrane proteins, viral matrix protein, an early expressed viral protein, viral DNA polymerase and the repetitive gene B1 of Toxoplasma gondii. All of these probes, except that for the B1 gene, exhibited similar profiles under the same hybridisation conditions. The failure of the B1 gene probe to hybridise was not due to a position effect, and this indicated that the probe was unsuitable for inclusion in the biochip. The redesigned probe for the B1 gene exhibited identical hybridisation properties to the other probes, suitable for inclusion in a biochip.

Zinkevich, Vitaly; Sapojnikova, Nelly; Mitchell, Julian; Kartvelishvili, Tamar; Asatiani, Nino; Alkhalil, Samia; Bogdarina, Irina; Al-Humam, Abdulmohsen A.

2014-01-01

366

A novel thin NIPAM gel cassette dosimeter for photon-beam radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The response of thin polymer gel cassettes (called NIPAM gels) to ionizing radiation was investigated in this study. The NIPAM gels were prepared from gelatin, N-isopropyl acrylamide, tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphoniumchloride, and N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide. Gel cassettes were irradiated in a phantom using a linear accelerator, and the polymerization morphology of irradiated NIPAM gel was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The dose-response sensitivity of the NIPAM gels was evaluated using the differences in optical densities. The optical densities were obtained using a computer-controlled CCD camera that was connected to a planar illumination source for acquisition of optical transmission images. The central axis depth dose profiles of the phantom were extracted, and a comparison with ionization chamber measurements demonstrated similarities in profiles. The sensitivity, linearity of the response, accuracy, and reproducibility of the polymer gel cassettes were acceptable. However, the profiles of the half-blocked field irradiation showed no significant dispersion in the visible region. This study also extensively investigated the spatial stability of the NIPAM gel. The results showed that the gel cassette response remains stable for up to three months after irradiation. PMID:22427810

Hsieh, Ling-Ling; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Hsieh, Bor-Tsung

2012-01-01

367

Video Cassettes: The Systems, the Market, the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its survey of the videocassette field, this book details the background, current status, problems, and potentials of the various systems designed to record and reproduce films and other audiovisual material through a conventional television set. The systems used by CBS (a miniaturized film format), Avco, Sony, Ampex (all magnetic tape formats),…

Roberts, Martin

368

Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an importa...

1997-01-01

369

An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid-based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids. PMID:20401537

Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Bau, Haim H

2010-08-01

370

Ambient Influenza and Avian Influenza Virus during Dust Storm Days and Background Days  

PubMed Central

Background The spread of influenza and highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) presents a significant threat to human health. Avian influenza outbreaks in downwind areas of Asian dust storms (ADS) suggest that viruses might be transported by dust storms. Objectives We developed a technique to measure ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses. We then used this technique to measure concentrations of these viruses on ADS days and background days, and to assess the relationships between ambient influenza and avian influenza viruses, and air pollutants. Methods A high-volume air sampler was used in parallel with a filter cassette to evaluate spiked samples and unspiked samples. Then, air samples were monitored during ADS seasons using a filter cassette coupled with a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Air samples were monitored during ADS season (1 January to 31 May 2006). Results We successfully quantified ambient influenza virus using the filtration/real-time qPCR method during ADS days and background days. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the concentration of influenza virus in ambient air. In both the spiked and unspiked samples, the concentration of influenza virus sampled using the filter cassette was higher than that using the high-volume sampler. The concentration of ambient influenza A virus was significantly higher during the ADS days than during the background days. Conclusions Our data imply the possibility of long-range transport of influenza virus.

Chen, Pei-Shih; Tsai, Feng Ta; Lin, Chien Kun; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Young, Chea-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

2010-01-01

371

Insect cell line development using FLP-mediated cassette exchange technology.  

PubMed

Traditional cell line development is quite laborious and time-consuming as it is based on the random integration of the gene of interest which leads to unpredictable expression behavior. In opposition, recombinase-mediated cassette exchange systems represent a powerful genetic engineering approach, allowing site-specific insertion of recombinant genes into pre-tagged genomic loci with superior expression characteristics, thus bypassing the need for extensive clone screening and shortening the development timelines. Such systems have not been widely implemented in insect cell lines used for the production of recombinant proteins most commonly through the baculovirus expression vector system. Herein, it is provided the protocol for the implementation of a FLP-mediated cassette exchange system in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf 9 cells, in order to grant a flexible cell line for the stable production of recombinant proteins. PMID:24297406

Vidigal, João; Fernandes, Fabiana; Coroadinha, Ana S; Teixeira, Ana P; Alves, Paula M

2014-01-01

372

False positives observed on the Seratec® PSA SemiQuant Cassette Test with condom lubricants.  

PubMed

In the course of the validation of a new component of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) SemiQuant Cassette Test marketed by Seratec(®) , a false-positive reaction was observed when testing samples collected from the surface of unused, lubricated condoms. A variety of personal lubricants and condoms were tested to determine the frequency of the false positive, as well as its potential source. Samples were extracted in both water and the manufacturer-provided buffer, and the test was performed according to the manufacturer's suggested protocol. The false positive was observed intermittently, but occurred consistently with samples containing nonoxynol-9, a strong detergent utilized as a spermicide. The reaction may be attributable to the combination of latex and nonoxynol-9. Because of the unreliability of the test to confirm the presence of PSA in samples collected from condoms, the PSA cassette is an unsuitable method for confirming the presence of seminal fluid in condoms. PMID:22494324

Bitner, Sara E

2012-11-01

373

Light without substrate amendment: the bacterial luciferase gene cassette as a mammalian bioreporter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioluminescent production represents a facile method for bioreporter detection in mammalian tissues. The lack of endogenous bioluminescent reactions in these tissues allows for high signal to noise ratios even at low signal strength compared to fluorescent signal detection. While the luciferase enzymes commonly employed for bioluminescent detection are those from class Insecta (firefly and click beetle luciferases), these are handicapped in that they require concurrent administration of a luciferin compound to elicit a bioluminescent signal. The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette offers the advantages common to other bioluminescent proteins, but is simultaneously capable of synthesizing its own luciferin substrates using endogenously available cellular compounds. The longstanding shortcoming of the lux cassette has been its recalcitrance to function in the mammalian cellular environment. This paper will present an overview of the work completed to date to overcome this limitation and provide examples of mammalian lux-based bioreporter technologies that could provide the framework for advanced, biomedically relevant real-time sensor development.

Close, Dan M.; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby E.; Jegier, Pat; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

2011-05-01

374

Evaluation of the cassette dosing approach for assessing the pharmacokinetics of geldanamycin analogues in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose There is currently much interest in developing analogues of the benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin that may overcome the limitations of 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), which is the first known inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) to enter clinical trials. Studies were performed to assess whether cassette dosing, the coadministration of several compounds to a single animal, is a suitable approach to

N. F. Smith; A. Hayes; B. P. Nutley; F. I. Raynaud; P. Workman

2004-01-01

375

An rpsL Cassette, Janus, for Gene Replacement through Negative Selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural genetic transformation offers a direct route by which synthetic gene constructs can be placed into the single circular chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the lack of a general negative-selection marker has hampered the introduction of constructs that do not confer a selectable phenotype. A 1.3-kb cassette was constructed comprising a kanamycin (Kn) resistance marker (kan) and a counterselectable rpsL

C. K. Sung; H. Li; J. P. Claverys; D. A. Morrison

2001-01-01

376

Electricity generation from model organic wastewater in a cassette-electrode microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new highly scalable microbial fuel cell (MFC) design, consisting of a series of cassette electrodes (CE), was examined for\\u000a increasing power production from organic matter in wastewater. Each CE chamber was composed of a box-shaped flat cathode (two\\u000a air cathodes on both sides) sandwiched in between two proton-exchange membranes and two graphite-felt anodes. Due to the simple\\u000a design of

Takefumi Shimoyama; Shoko Komukai; Akira Yamazawa; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Bruce E. Logan; Kazuya Watanabe

2008-01-01

377

Discovery and characterization of gene cassettes-containing integrons in clinical strains of Riemerella anatipestifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight prevalent strains of Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) isolated in China were tested for susceptibility to eighteen antibiotics and investigated for the frequencies and characteristics of integrons and gene cassettes. All isolates were resistant to between three and ten antimicrobial drugs. Forty-seven isolates contained class 1 integron (97.92%), and 15 of the 47 isolates contained class 2 integron (31.25%). Class 3

Fuying Zheng; Guozhen Lin; Jizhang Zhou; Xiaoan Cao; Xiaowei Gong; Guanghua Wang; Changqing Qiu

378

Identification of a Novel Streptococcal Gene Cassette Mediating SOS Mutagenesis in Streptococcus uberis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococci have been considered to lack the classical SOS response, defined by increased mutation after UV exposure and regulation by LexA. Here we report the identification of a potential self-regulated SOS mutagenesis gene cassette in the Streptococcaceae family. Exposure to UV light was found to increase mutations to antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus uberis cultures. The mutational spectra revealed mainly G:C?A:T

Emilia Varhimo; Kirsi Savijoki; Jari Jalava; Oscar P. Kuipers; Pekka Varmanen

2007-01-01

379

Strong stimulation of recombinant protein production in Escherichia coli by combining stimulatory control elements in an expression cassette  

PubMed Central

Background The XylS/Pm expression system has been used to produce recombinant proteins at industrial levels in Escherichia coli. Activation of transcription from the Pm promoter takes place in the presence of benzoic acid or derivatives of it. Previous mutagenesis studies resulted in identification of several variants of the expression control elements xylS (X), Pm (P) and the 5'-untranslated region (U) that individually gave rise to strongly stimulated expression. The goal of this study was to test if combination of such stimulatory mutations in the same expression vectors would lead to further increase of expression levels. Results We combined X, P and U variants that were originally identified due to their ability to strongly stimulate expression of the reporter gene bla (resistance to penicillin). Combination of optimized elements stimulated bla expression up to 75-fold (X, P and U combined) relative to the wild-type system, while accumulated transcript levels increased about 50-fold. This is much more than for the elements individually. We also tested combination of the variant elements on two other and unrelated genes, celB (encoding phosphoglucomutase) and the human growth factor gene gm-csf. Protein production from these genes is much more efficient than from bla in the wild-type system, but expression was still significantly stimulated by the combination of X, P and U variants, although not to the same extent as for bla. We also integrated a single copy of the expression cassette with each gene into the E. coli chromosome and found that the expression level from this single copy was higher for bla than for the wild-type plasmid system, while it was lower for celB and gm-csf. Conclusion Our results show that combination of stimulatory expression control elements can be used to further increase production of different proteins in E. coli. For one reporter gene (bla) this allowed for more protein production from a single gene copy integrated on the chromosome, compared to the wild-type plasmid system. The approach described here should in principle be applicable for improvement of any expression cassette.

2012-01-01

380

Optimized invertase expression and secretion cassette for improving Yarrowia lipolytica growth on sucrose for industrial applications.  

PubMed

Yarrowia lipolytica requires the expression of a heterologous invertase to grow on a sucrose-based substrate. This work reports the construction of an optimized invertase expression cassette composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2p secretion signal sequence followed by the SUC2 sequence and under the control of the strong Y. lipolytica pTEF promoter. This new construction allows a fast and optimal cleavage of sucrose into glucose and fructose and allows cells to reach the maximum growth rate. Contrary to pre-existing constructions, the expression of SUC2 is not sensitive to medium composition in this context. The strain JMY2593, expressing this new cassette with an optimized secretion signal sequence and a strong promoter, produces 4,519 U/l of extracellular invertase in bioreactor experiments compared to 597 U/l in a strain expressing the former invertase construction. The expression of this cassette strongly improved production of invertase and is suitable for simultaneously high production level of citric acid from sucrose-based media. PMID:24061566

Lazar, Zbigniew; Rossignol, Tristan; Verbeke, Jonathan; Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Robak, Ma?gorzata

2013-11-01

381

Conservation of Gene Cassettes among Diverse Viruses of the Human Gut  

PubMed Central

Viruses are a crucial component of the human microbiome, but large population sizes, high sequence diversity, and high frequencies of novel genes have hindered genomic analysis by high-throughput sequencing. Here we investigate approaches to metagenomic assembly to probe genome structure in a sample of 5.6 Gb of gut viral DNA sequence from six individuals. Tests showed that a new pipeline based on DeBruijn graph assembly yielded longer contigs that were able to recruit more reads than the equivalent non-optimized, single-pass approach. To characterize gene content, the database of viral RefSeq proteins was compared to the assembled viral contigs, generating a bipartite graph with functional cassettes linking together viral contigs, which revealed a high degree of connectivity between diverse genomes involving multiple genes of the same functional class. In a second step, open reading frames were grouped by their co-occurrence on contigs in a database-independent manner, revealing conserved cassettes of co-oriented ORFs. These methods reveal that free-living bacteriophages, while usually dissimilar at the nucleotide level, often have significant similarity at the level of encoded amino acid motifs, gene order, and gene orientation. These findings thus connect contemporary metagenomic analysis with classical studies of bacteriophage genomic cassettes. Software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/optitdba/.

Minot, Samuel; Wu, Gary D.; Lewis, James D.; Bushman, Frederic D.

2012-01-01

382

Highly efficient integration and expression of piggyBac-derived cassettes in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).  

PubMed

Honeybees (Apis mellifera), which are important pollinators of plants, display remarkable individual behaviors that collectively contribute to the organization of a complex society. Advances in dissecting the complex processes of honeybee behavior have been limited in the recent past due to a lack of genetic manipulation tools. These tools are difficult to apply in honeybees because the unit of reproduction is the colony, and many interesting phenotypes are developmentally specified at later stages. Here, we report highly efficient integration and expression of piggyBac-derived cassettes in the honeybee. We demonstrate that 27 and 20% of queens stably transmitted two different expression cassettes to their offspring, which is a 6- to 30-fold increase in efficiency compared with those generally reported in other insect species. This high efficiency implies that an average beekeeping facility with a limited number of colonies can apply this tool. We demonstrated that the cassette stably and efficiently expressed marker genes in progeny under either an artificial or an endogenous promoter. This evidence of efficient expression encourages the use of this system to inhibit gene functions through RNAi in specific tissues and developmental stages by using various promoters. We also showed that the transgenic marker could be used to select transgenic offspring to be employed to facilitate the building of transgenic colonies via the haploid males. We present here the first to our knowledge genetic engineering tool that will efficiently allow for the systematic detection and better understanding of processes underlying the biology of honeybees. PMID:24821811

Schulte, Christina; Theilenberg, Eva; Müller-Borg, Marion; Gempe, Tanja; Beye, Martin

2014-06-17

383

Use of video cassette recorders for combined video and PCM data recording  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analog tape recorders are commonly used in aircraft flight testing to record PCM digital data. These recorders require considerable space and add significantly to the cost of test instrumentation. For limited test programs in densely packed aircraft, such as the modern fighter, the burden of a conventional reel to reel analog recorder is oppressive. With this condition in mind, the desirability of recording PCM data on a video cassette recorder surfaced. The video cassette recorder (VCR) offers greatly improved size and cost efficiency over conventional reel to reel recorders for many data acquisition requirements. Not only are cost and size improved, but several other benefits are realized. For instance, video cassettes are easily stored and transported. Automatic synchronization of the digital data and video images is inherent in the combined recording system. The system described in this paper makes use of a small electronic interface unit to combine and synchronize the video and PCM data signals. This composite signal is then recorded on a standard VHS video recorder. PCM data rates of up to thirty kilobits per second can be accomodated with only a minor reduction of picture area.

McQuillan, R. J.; Gallo, L.

384

Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics  

SciTech Connect

A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics.

Feder R., Ellis R., Johnson D., Park H., Lee H.G.

2005-09-26

385

Characterization of integrons and their cassettes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from poultry in Korea.  

PubMed

Ninety-nine Escherichia coli and 33 Salmonella isolates were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility (disc diffusion test). Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes were identified through PCR, and class 1 and class 2 integrons with resistance gene cassettes were identified with PCR followed by sequencing. Salmonella (63.6%) and E. coli (85.8%) isolates were multidrug resistant (resistance to 3 or more antimicrobials), and the highest incidences of resistance were observed for tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and sulfamethoxazole. The sul1, sul2, tetA, and tetB resistance determinant genes were predominant in E. coli, whereas only sul2 and tetA were identified in Salmonella isolates. In the E. coli isolates, 54 (54.5%) class 1 integrons, 6 (6.1%) class 2 integrons, and 5 (5.1%) class 1 and class 2 integrons together were detected, whereas only 3 (9.1%) integrons were found in the Salmonella serovars. Around 87% of the integrons in E. coli harbored resistance gene cassettes conferring resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA, aminoglycoside resistance gene), trimethoprim (dfrA, dihydrofolate reductase gene), streptothricin [sat1 and sat2 (streptothricin acetyltransferase), and estX (putative esterases)]. The most common gene cassettes were aadA1+dfrA1 and dfrA1+sat2+aadA1 in class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Other cassettes including aadA5+dfrA7, dfrA12+aadA2, aadA2+aadA1+dfrA12, and aadA5+aadA2/dfrA7 were also identified. Among the Salmonella serovars, Salmonella Malmoe harbored aadA1+dfrA1 and dfrA12+sat2+aadA1 genes. The aadA1, aadA2, sat2, and dfrA1 had wide variation in similarity among themselves and from previously reported genes worldwide. The diverse gene cassettes could be responsible for the prominent resistance profiles observed and a potential source for dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants to other bacteria. PMID:24135609

Dessie, Hirut Kidie; Bae, Dong Hwa; Lee, Young Ju

2013-11-01

386

A versatile mini-mazF-cassette for marker-free targeted genetic modification in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

There are some drawbacks for MazF-cassette constructed in previous reports for marker-free genetic manipulation in Bacillus subtilis, including cloning-dependent methodology and non-strictly controlled expression system. In our study, the modifications on mazF-cassette are carried out, such as using mini Zeocin resistance gene as positive-selectable marker and strictly controlled xyl promoter from the B. subtilis to replace non-strictly controlled IPTG-inducible Pspac or xyl promoter from Bacillus megaterium. Then the mini-mazF-cassette was successfully applied to knock-out the amyE gene, to delete a 90-kb gene cluster, and to knock-in a green fluorescent protein expression cassette employing a cloning-independent methodology, without introducing undesirable redundant sequences at the modified locus in the B. subtilis 1A751. Besides, the mini-mazF-cassette could be used repeatedly to delete multiple genes or gene clusters with only a 2- to 2.5-kb PCR-fused fragment, which largely reduced the frequency of nucleic acid mutations generated by PCR compared to previous reports. We further demonstrated that the frequency of spontaneous mazF-resistant mutants was lower, and the frequency of generating desired clones was nearly 100%. The entire procedure for marker-free genetic manipulation using the mini-mazF-cassette can be finished in about 3days. This modified cassette has remarkable improvement compared to existing approaches and is applicable for available manipulating Bacillus species chromosomes. PMID:23911571

Lin, Zhiwei; Deng, Bin; Jiao, Zhihua; Wu, Bingbing; Xu, Xin; Yu, Dongyou; Li, Weifen

2013-11-01

387

The Cosmological Background Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides an introduction to the physics, astrophysics and cosmology of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Adopting the Standard Big Bang model of the universe, the authors cover topics including the origin of the background, intrinsic fluctuations, and the universe and background radiation after recombination. Finally they present measurement of the radiation and its anisotropies, along with a review

Marc Lachièze-Rey; Edgard Gunzig

1999-01-01

388

Transport of Multidrug Resistance Substrates by the Streptococcus agalactiae Hemolysin Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) causes neonatal sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis, as well as infections of the bovine udder. The S. agalactiae hemolysin is regarded as an important virulence factor, and hemolysin expression is dependent on the cyl gene cluster. cylA and cylB encode the ATP binding and transmembrane domains of a typical ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. The

Birgit Gottschalk; Gerd Broker; Melanie Kuhn; Simone Aymanns; Ute Gleich-Theurer; Barbara Spellerberg

2006-01-01

389

Inter-domain Communication Mechanisms in an ABC Importer: A Molecular Dynamics Study of the MalFGK2E Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATP-Binding Cassette transporters are ubiquitous membrane proteins that convert the energy from ATP-binding and hydrolysis into conformational changes of the transmembrane region to allow the translocation of substrates against their concentration gradient. Despite the large amount of structural and biochemical data available for this family, it is still not clear how the energy obtained from ATP hydrolysis in the ATPase

A. Sofia F. Oliveira; António M. Baptista; Cláudio M. Soares

2011-01-01

390

Improved antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes and omega elements for Escherichia coli vector construction and in vitro deletion\\/insertion mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several antibiotic-resistance gene cassettes and ? elements for Escherichia coli vector construction include the aacC1, aadA+, bla, cat, nptII and tet gene cassettes, and also the ?-Gm, ?-Sm, ?-Ap, ?-Cm, ?-Km and ?-Tc elements. Both cassettes and elements are flanked by pBluescriptII plasmid multiple cloning sites (MCS) duplicated in inverted (symmetric MCS) or direct (tandem MCS) orientation. Genes that were

Mikhail F. Alexeyev; Inna N. Shokolenko; Timothy P. Croughan

1995-01-01

391

Hygromycin B and Apramycin Antibiotic Resistance Cassettes for Use in Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni genetic manipulation is restricted by the limited number of antibiotic resistance cassettes available for use in this diarrheal pathogen. In this study, two antibiotic resistance cassettes were developed, encoding for hygromycin B and apramycin resistance, for use in mutagenesis or for selection of gene expression and complementation constructs in C. jejuni. First, the marker genes were successfully modified to allow for insertional mutagenesis or deletion of a gene-of-interest, and were bracketed with restriction sites for the facilitation of site-specific cloning. These hygromycin B and apramycin markers are encoded by plasmids pAC1H and pAC1A, respectively. We also modified an insertional gene-delivery vector to create pRRH and pRRA, containing the hygromycin B and apramycin resistance genes, and 3 unique restriction sites for the directional introduction of genes into the conserved multi-copy rRNA gene clusters of the C. jejuni chromosome. We determined the effective antibiotic concentrations required for selection, and established that no harmful effects or fitness costs were associated with carrying hygromycin B or apramycin resistance under standard C. jejuni laboratory conditions. Using these markers, the arylsulfatase reporter gene astA was deleted, and the ability to genetically complement the astA deletion using pRRH and pRRA for astA gene insertion was demonstrated. Furthermore, the relative levels of expression from the endogenous astA promoter were compared to that of polycistronic mRNA expression from the constitutive promoter upstream of the resistance gene. The development of additional antibiotic resistance cassettes for use in Campylobacter will enable multiple gene deletion and expression combinations as well as more in-depth study of multi-gene systems important for the survival and pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

Cameron, Andrew; Gaynor, Erin C.

2014-01-01

392

Atypical Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 4b Strains Harboring a Lineage II-Specific Gene Cassette  

PubMed Central

Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of listeriosis, a severe food-borne illness. The population of L. monocytogenes is divided into four lineages (I to IV), and serotype 4b in lineage I has been involved in numerous outbreaks. Several serotype 4b epidemic-associated clonal groups (ECI, -II, and -Ia) have been identified. In this study, we characterized a panel of strains of serotype 4b that produced atypical results with a serotype-specific multiplex PCR and possessed the lmo0734 to lmo0739 gene cassette that had been thought to be specific to lineage II. The cassette was harbored in a genomically syntenic locus in these isolates and in